Locatelli, D; Pozzi, F; Agresta, G; Padovan, S; Karligkiotis, A; Castelnuovo, P
Objectives We illustrate a suprasellar craniopharyngiomas treated with an extended endoscopic endonasal approach (EEEA). Design Case report of a 43-year-old male affected by cerebral lesion located in suprasellar region involving the third ventricle and compressing the neurovascular structures, causing an anterosuperior dislocation of the chiasma. There is a complete disruption of the pituitary stalk that can explain the clinical finding of partial anterior hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinemia. The lesion is characterized by a solid and cystic component. Considering the absence of lateral extension and the suprasellar location of the lesion, an EEEA is preferred. Setting University Hospital "Ospedale di Circolo," Department of Neurosurgery, Varese, Italy. Participants Neurosurgical and ENT Skull Base Team. Main Outcome Measures A bilateral parasagittal approach is performed using a four-hand technique. The first step of the surgery is the preparation of the Hadad's flap. The approach is extended to the planum sphenoidalis to expose the suprasellar region. The lesion is completely removed employing also an ultrasound aspirator. Skull base reconstruction is performed with three-layer technique: graft of fat tissue, fascia lata, and nasoseptal flap. Results No postoperative complications occurred. In the post-op, the patient presents a panhypopituitarism and an improvement in neurological status. The visual deficit remains stable. Post-op magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year documents the complete absence of pathological contrast enhancement. Conclusions EEEA is a feasible approach in treating craniopharyngioma with suprasellar extension. The advantages include optimal visualization, good resection rate, and absence of brain retraction. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/IYm-8P1jbBo .
Messerer, Mahmoud; Maduri, Rodolfo; Daniel, Roy Thomas
Objective Endoscopic transsphenoidal extended endoscopic approach (EEA) represents a valid alternative to microsurgery for craniopharyngiomas removal, especially for retrochiasmatic lesions without large parasellar extension. The present video illustrates the salient surgical steps of the EEA for craniopahryngioma removal. Patient A 52-year-old man presented with a bitemporal hemianopia and a bilateral decreased visual acuity. MRI showed a Kassam type III cystic craniopharyngioma with a solid component ( Fig. 1 , panels A and B). Surgical Procedure The head is rotated 10 degrees toward the surgeons. The nasal step is started through the left nostril with a middle turbinectomy. A nasoseptal flap is harvested and positioned in the left choana. The binostril approach allows a large sphenoidotomy to expose the key anatomic landmarks. The craniotomy boundaries are the planum sphenoidale superiorly, the median opticocarotid recesses, the internal carotid artery laterally and the clival recess inferiorly. After dural opening and superior intercavernous sinus coagulation, the tumor is entirely removed ( Fig. 2 , panels A and B). Skull base reconstruction is ensured by fascia lata grafting and nasoseptal flap positioning. Results Postoperative MRI showed the complete tumor resection ( Fig. 1 , panels C and D). At 3 months postoperatively, the bitemporal hemianopia regressed and the visual acuity improved. A novel left homonymous hemianopia developed secondary to optic tract manipulation. Conclusions The extended EEA is a valid surgical approach for craniopharyngioma resection. A comprehensive knowledge of the sellar and parasellar anatomy is mandatory for safe tumor removal with decreased morbidity and satisfactory oncologic results. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/NrCPPnVK2qA .
Fomichev, Dmitry; Kalinin, Pavel; Kutin, Maxim; Sharipov, Oleg
The endoscopic extended transsphenoidal approach for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas may be a really alternative to the transcranial approach in many cases. The authors present their experience with this technique in 136 patients with craniopharyngiomas. From the past 7 years 204 patients with different purely supradiaphragmatic tumors underwent removal by extended endoscopic transsphenoidal transtuberculum transplanum approach. Most of the patients (136) had craniopharyngiomas (suprasellar, intra-extraventricular). The patients were analyzed according to age, sex, tumor size, growth and tumor structure, and clinical symptoms. Twenty-five patients had undergone a previous surgery. The mean follow-up was 42 months (range, 4-120 months). The operation is always performed with the bilateral endoscopic endonasal anterior extended transsphenoidal approach. A gross-total removal was completed in 72%. Improvement of vision or absence of visual deterioration after operation was observed in 89% of patients; 11% had worsening vision after surgery. Endocrine dysfunction did not improve after surgery, new hypotalamopituitary dysfunction (anterior pituitary dysfunction or diabetes insipidus) or worsening of it was observed in 42.6%. Other main complications included transient new mental disorder in 11%, temporary neurological postoperative deficits in 3.7%, bacterial meningitis in 16%, cerebrospinal fluid leaks in 8.8%. The recurrence rate was 20% and the lethality was 5.8%. Resection of suprasellar craniopharyngiomas using the extended endoscopic approach is a more effective and less traumatic technology, able to provide resection of the tumor along with high quality of life after surgery, and relatively rare postoperative complications and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fomichev, D V; Kalinin, P L; Kutin, M A; Sharipov, O I; Chernov, I V
Surgical treatment for epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region is a challenge because of the tendency to a massive spread of epidermoid masses through the cerebrospinal fluid pathways and a significant lesion deviation from the midline. To analyze capabilities of the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach in surgery for epidermoid cysts. The study included 6 patients with epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region who were operated on using the extended anterior endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in the past 5 years. Epidermoid masses were completely removed in 5 patients; in none of the cases, complete removal of the epidermoid cyst capsule was achieved. There were no cases of vision deterioration and the development of new focal neurological symptoms. One female patient developed hypopituitary disorders in the postoperative period. There was no recurrence of epidermoid cysts during follow-up. Removal of epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region using the extended anterior endoscopic transsphenoidal approach may be an alternative to transcranial microsurgery.
Alberto Di Somma
Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of the present contribution is to perform a detailed anatomic and virtual reality three-dimensional stereoscopic study in order to test the effectiveness of the extended endoscopic endonasal approaches for selected anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods. The study was divided in two main steps: (1 simulation step, using a dedicated Virtual Reality System (Dextroscope, Volume Interactions; (2 dissection step, in which the feasibility to reach specific vascular territory via the nose was verified in the anatomical laboratory. Results. Good visualization and proximal and distal vascular control of the main midline anterior and posterior circulation territory were achieved during the simulation step as well as in the dissection step (anterior communicating complex, internal carotid, ophthalmic, superior hypophyseal, posterior cerebral and posterior communicating, basilar, superior cerebellar, anterior inferior cerebellar, vertebral, and posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Conclusion. The present contribution is intended as strictly anatomic study in which we highlighted some specific anterior and posterior circulation aneurysms that can be reached via the nose. For clinical applications of these approaches, some relevant complications, mainly related to the endonasal route, such as proximal and distal vascular control, major arterial bleeding, postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak, and olfactory disturbances must be considered.
Zacharia, Brad E; Amine, Muhamad; Anand, Vijay; Schwartz, Theodore H
Craniopharyngioma is a rare clinical entity that poses a significant management challenge given their location and propensity to recur. As part of a minimally disruptive treatment paradigm, the expanded endonasal approach has the potential to improve rates of resection, improve postoperative visual recovery, and minimize surgical morbidity. This article updates the otolaryngologic community on the basic principles and techniques regarding the incorporation of the endoscopic, endonasal approach in the management paradigm of craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fuminari, Komatsu; Hideki, Atsumi; Manabu, Osakabe; Mitsunori, Matsumae
We describe a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma that was safely removed using the extended endoscopic endonasal approach, and discuss the value of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy and intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to this type of procedure. A 61-year-old-man with bitemporal hemianopsia was referred to our hospital, where MRI revealed an enhanced suprasellar tumor compressing the optic chiasma. The tumor extended on the planum sphenoidale and partially encased the right internal carotid artery. An endocrinological assessment indicated normal pituitary function. The extended endoscopic endonasal approach was taken using a 3D endoscope in the intraoperative MRI suite. The tumor was located above the diaphragma sellae and separated from the normal pituitary gland. The pathological findings indicated non-functioning pituitary adenoma and thus the tumor was diagnosed as a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma. Intra-operative MRI provided useful information to minimize dural opening and the supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was removed from the complex neurovascular structure via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach under 3D endoscopic guidance in the intra-operative suite. Safe and effective removal of a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was accomplished via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach with visual information provided by 3D endoscopy and intra-operative MRI.
Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner
Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282
Kenning, Tyler J; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos D
The extended endoscopic endonasal approach can be utilized to surgically treat pathology within the suprasellar space. This relies on a sufficient corridor and interval between the superior aspect of the pituitary gland and the optic chiasm. Tumors located in the retrochiasmatic space and within the third ventricle, however, may not have a widened interval through which to work. With mass effect on the superior and posterior aspect of the optic chiasm, the corridor between the chiasm and the pituitary gland might even be further narrowed. This may negate the possibility of utilizing the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of pathology in this location. We present a case of a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma with a narrow resection corridor that was treated with the extended endoscopic approach and we review techniques to potentially overcome this limitation. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/ogRZj-aBqeQ .
Davanzo, Justin R; Goyal, Neerav; Zacharia, Brad E
This video abstract demonstrates the use of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach for the resection of a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma. These tumors are notoriously difficult to treat, and many approaches have been tried to facilitate safe and effective resection. The endoscopic endonasal approach has been increasingly utilized for selected sellar/suprasellar pathology. We present the case of a 39-year-old man who was found to have a cystic, partially calcified suprasellar mass consistent with a craniopharyngioma. To facilitate robust skull base repair, a vascularized nasoseptal flap was harvested. A wide sphenoidotomy was performed and the sella and tuberculum were exposed. After the dural opening and arachnoid dissection, the stalk was identified, merging seamlessly with the tumor capsule. The lesion was then internally debulked with the use of an ultrasonic aspirator. The capsule was then dissected off of the optic chiasm, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The cavity was inspected with an angled endoscope to ensure complete resection. A multilayered reconstruction was performed using autologous fascia lata, the previously harvested nasoseptal flap, and dural sealant. Postoperatively, the patient did have expected panhypopituitarism but remained neurologically intact and had improvement in his vision. In conclusion, this video demonstrates how an expanded endonasal approach can be used to safely resect a craniopharyngioma, even when in close proximity to delicate structures such as the optic chiasm. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/tahjHmrXhc4 .
Zenonos, Georgios A; Snyderman, Carl H; Gardner, Paul A
Objectives The current video presents the nuances of an endoscopic endonasal approach to a suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Design The video analyzes the presentation, preoperative workup and imaging, surgical steps and technical nuances of the surgery, the clinical outcome, and follow-up imaging. Setting The patient was treated by a skull base team consisting of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon, at a teaching academic institution. Participants The case refers to a 67-year-old man who presented with vision loss and headaches, and was found to have a suprasellar mass, with imaging characteristics consistent with a craniopharyngioma. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures consistent of the reversal of the patient symptoms (vision loss and headaches), the recurrence-free survival based on imaging, as well as the absence of any complications. Results The patient's vision improved after the surgery; at his last follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence on imaging. Conclusions The endoscopic endonasal approach is safe and effective in treating suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/p1VXbwnAWCo .
Mohammad Etezad Razavi
Full Text Available To circumvent the disadvantages of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy such as small rhinostomy size, high failure rate and expensive equipment, we hereby introduce a modified technique of non-endoscopic mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (NE-MEDCR. Surgery is performed under general anesthesia with local decongestion of the nasal mucosa. A 20-gauge vitrectomy light probe is introduced through the upper canaliculus until it touches the bony medial wall of the lacrimal sac. While directly viewing the transilluminated target area, a nasal speculum with a fiber optic light carrier is inserted. An incision is made vertically or in a curvilinear fashion on the nasal mucosa in the lacrimal sac down to the bone using a Freer periosteum elevator. Approximately 1 to 1.5 cm of nasal mucosa is removed with Blakesley forceps. Using a lacrimal punch, the thick bone of the frontal process of the maxilla is removed and the inferior half of the sac is uncovered. The lacrimal sac is tented into the surgical site with the light probe and its medial wall is incised using a 3.2 mm keratome and then excised using the Blakesley forceps. The procedure is completed by silicone intubation. The NE-MEDCR technique does not require expensive instrumentation and is feasible in any standard ophthalmic surgical setting.
Yu, Huanxin; Liu, Gang
To evaluate the effectiveness of transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach for the surgery of pituitary abscess. Eighteen pathologically diagnosed pituitary abscess were resected through transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach at Tianjing Huanhu hospital between January 2000 and December 2011.Retrospective analysis was done upon clinical presentations and imaging features. There were 6 males and 12 females. The average age was 48.5 years old and the average disease course was 5.8 years. The typical clinical manifestations included headache (13 cases), pituitary dysfunction (10 cases), Diabetes Insipidus (4 cases) visual interference (8 cases) and fever (4 cases). All cases were resected by transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach with general anesthesia. The postoperative symptoms and follow-up results were recorded. All patients were followed up from 6 months to 6 years. Postoperatively, headache was recovered in 13 cases, visual was improved in 6 cases, hypopituitarism was relieved in 8 cases and polyuria was disappeared in 3 cases. One case was recurrent and cured by transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach. Transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach for the surgery of pituitary abscess is effective.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa.
Plzák, Jan; Kratochvil, Vít; Kešner, Adam; Šurda, Pavol; Vlasák, Aleš; Zvěřina, Eduard
OBJECTIVES: Access to the pterygopalatine fossa is very difficult due to its complex anatomy. Therefore, an open approach is traditionally used, but morbidity is unavoidable. To overcome this problem, an endoscopic endonasal approach was developed as a minimally invasive procedure. The surgical aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors of the pterygopalatine fossa. METHOD: We report our experience with the endoscopic endonasal approach for the management of both benign and malignant tumors and summarize recent recommendations. A total of 13 patients underwent surgery via the endoscopic endonasal approach for pterygopalatine fossa masses from 2014 to 2016. This case group consisted of 12 benign tumors (10 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas and two schwannomas) and one malignant tumor. RESULTS: No recurrent tumor developed during the follow-up period. One residual tumor (juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma) that remained in the cavernous sinus was stable. There were no significant complications. Typical sequelae included hypesthesia of the maxillary nerve, trismus, and dry eye syndrome. CONCLUSION: The low frequency of complications together with the high efficacy of resection support the use of the endoscopic endonasal approach as a feasible, safe, and beneficial technique for the management of masses in the pterygopalatine fossa. PMID:29069259
Sato, Taku; Kishida, Yugo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Tani, Akiko; Tada, Yasuhiro; Tamura, Takamitsu; Ichikawa, Masahiro; Sakuma, Jun; Omori, Koichi; Saito, Kiyoshi
We evaluated the effectiveness of intraoperative topical application of fluorescein to detect the leakage point of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)rhinorrhea. Three patients with CSF rhinorrhea were treated with an endoscopic endonasal technique. Ten percent fluorescein was topically used for intraoperative localization of the leak site. A change of the fluorescein color from brown to green due to dilation of CSF were recognized as evidence of CSF rhinorrhea. We repeated the procedure to detect any small defects. All CSF rhinorrheas were successfully repaired by this endoscopic endonasal approach. Topical application of fluorescein is simple and sensitive for identifying intraoperative CSF rhinorrhea.
Lindert, E.J. van; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.
BACKGROUND: The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) to the pituitary is performed by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons in collaboration with neurosurgeons but also by neurosurgeons alone even though neurosurgeons have not been trained in rhinological surgery. PURPOSE: To register
Dolci, Ricardo Landini Lutaif; Todeschini, Alexandre Bossi; Santos, Américo Rubens Leite Dos; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto
One of the main concerns in endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base has been the high incidence and morbidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The introduction and routine use of vascularized flaps allowed a marked decrease in this complication followed by a great expansion in the indications and techniques used in endoscopic endonasal approaches, extending to defects from huge tumours and previously inaccessible areas of the skull base. Describe the technique of performing endoscopic double flap multi-layered reconstruction of the anterior skull base without craniotomy. Step by step description of the endoscopic double flap technique (nasoseptal and pericranial vascularized flaps and fascia lata free graft) as used and illustrated in two patients with an olfactory groove meningioma who underwent an endoscopic approach. Both patients achieved a gross total resection: subsequent reconstruction of the anterior skull base was performed with the nasoseptal and pericranial flaps onlay and a fascia lata free graft inlay. Both patients showed an excellent recovery, no signs of cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, flap necrosis, chronic meningeal or sinonasal inflammation or cerebral herniation having developed. This endoscopic double flap technique we have described is a viable, versatile and safe option for anterior skull base reconstructions, decreasing the incidence of complications in endoscopic endonasal approaches. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Todeschini, Alexandre B; Montaser, Alaa S; Shahein, Mostafa; Revuelta, Juan Manuel; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L; Prevedello, Daniel M
We present the case of a 57-year-old male who presented with progressive right side vision loss whose workup revealed a large suprasellar lesion with invasion of the third ventricle. The pituitary stalk was not visible. Hormonal panel showed no hormonal deficits. The initial diagnosis was of a type II transinfundibular craniopharyngioma (as classified by Kassam et al). An endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach was done using a standard binostril four-hand technique, with the patient positioned supine with the head turned to the right side and tilted to the left, fixed in a three-pin head clamp, under imaging guidance. The tumor was carefully dissected away from the optic apparatus while preserving the vessels, mainly the superior hypophyseal artery. The stalk was identified around the tumor and preserved. The third ventricle was entered and inspected at the end of the procedure and a near-total resection (a small residual in the right hypothalamus) with decompression of the optic apparatus was achieved. Reconstruction was done in a multilayered fashion, using collagen matrix and a nasoseptal flap. Patient had an uneventful postoperative stay and was discharged on POD 4, neurologically stable with no hormonal deficits. Pathology confirmed an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. Due to a small growth of the residual, patient underwent fractionated stereotactic radiation (50.4Gy in 28 sessions). He presented with panhypopituitarism 2 years after radiation therapy. At 3-month follow-up, his vision was back to normal and 6-year postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed no signs of recurrence. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/chG7XIz7a_A .
Full Text Available Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs are quite uncommon sellar lesions that can extend or even arise in the suprasellar area. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of both standard and extended endoscopic endonasal approaches in the management of different located RCCs.We retrospectively analyzed a series of 29 patients (9 males, 20 females complaining of a RCC, who underwent a standard or an extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach at the Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, of the Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II". Data regarding patients' demographics, clinical evaluation, cyst characteristics, surgical treatments, complications and outcomes were extracted from our electronic database (Filemaker Pro 11, File Maker Inc., Santa Clara, California, USA.A standard transsphenoidal approach was used in 19 cases, while the extended variation of the approach in 10 cases (5 purely suprasellar and 5 intra-suprasellar RCC. Cysts contents was fully drained in all the 29 cases, whilst a gross total removal, that accounts on the complete cyst wall removal, was achieved in an overall 55,1% of patients (16/29, specifically 36,8% (7/19 that received standard approach and 90% (9/10 of those that underwent to extended approach. We reported a 56.2% of recovery from headache, 38.5% of complete recovery and 53.8% of improvement from visual field defect and an overall 46.7% of improvement of the endocrine functions. Postoperative permanent DI rate was 10.3%, overall post-operative CSF leak rate 6.9%; recurrence/regrowth occurred in 4 patients (4/29, 13.8%, but only one required a second surgery.The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for the removal of a symptomatic RCC offers several advantages in terms of visualization of the surgical field during both the exposure and removal of the lesion. The "extended" variation of the endoscopic approach provides a direct access
For the treatment of pituitary tumors, microscopic transsphenoidal surgery has been considered the “gold standard” since the late 1960s. Over the last two decades, however, a worldwide shift towards endoscopic endonasal surgery is in progress for many reasons. These include a wide panoramic view, improved illumination, an ability to look around anatomical corners using angled tip and, in addition, application to the extended approaches for parasellar tumors. Both endoscopic and microscopic approaches appear equally effective for nonfunctioning adenomas without significant suprasellar or lateral extensions, whereas the endoscopic approach may improve outcomes associated with the extent of resection and postoperative complications for larger tumors. Despite many theoretical benefits in the endoscopic surgery, remission rates of functioning adenomas do not substantially differ between the approaches in experienced hands. The endoscopic approach is a valid alternative to the microscopic approach for adenomas. The benefits will be more appreciated in the extended surgery for parasellar tumors. PMID:28239067
Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Blitz, Ari M; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L
Craniopharyngiomas are uncommon benign locally aggressive epithelial tumors mostly located in the sellar and suprasellar regions. An infrasellar origin of these tumors is rare. The authors report a 22-year-old male patient with a purely infrasellar adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma centered in the nasopharynx with extension into the posterior nasal septum, sphenoid sinus, and clivus. Gross total resection was achieved using an expanded endonasal endoscopic transethmoidal, transsphenoidal, transpterygoid, and transclival approach. Follow-up at one year demonstrated no evidence of disease recurrence. Infrasellar craniopharyngioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of sinonasal masses even in the absence of sellar extension. Expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches provide excellent access to and visualization of such lesions and may obviate the need for postoperative radiotherapy when gross total resection is achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The use of endoscope for the management of pituitary adenoma is not new. The better magnification and illumination provided by the endoscope gives better outcome than microscopic pituitary surgery. Objective: To find out the benefits of endoscope in relation to microscopic surgery. Materials and Methods: We performed 45 cases of pituitary adenoma surgery by endoscopic endonasal approach from July 2008 to July 2010. Results: Forty five cases underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal approach. Gross total removal was done in 35 cases and subtotal removal was done in 10 cases. Residual tumours were seen in 10 cases (22% in postoperative follow-up MRI scan. Visual improvement was satisfactory, and hormonal improvement of functional adenoma was nice. Postoperative visual acuity and visual field were improved in 75% cases. There were 37% cases of temporary diabetes insipidus and about 4.5% cases of permanent diabetes insipidus. The average duration of follow-up was 20 months. One patient required reexploration to correct visual deterioration in the immediate postoperative period. There were 4.5% cases of CSF leak and 6.6% mortality. Mortality was due to electrolyte imbalance and improper management of infection and hydrocephalus. Conclusion: Endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery now has become a gold standard surgery for most of the pituitary adenomas because of its better advantages in relation to microscopic surgery and less complications and less hospital stay.
Ali Erdem Yildirim
Full Text Available Spontaneous sphenoid sinus lateral wall meningoceles are rare lesions with an unknown etiology. Endoscopic endonasal technique is a considerable route in the treatment of this condition. The aim of this paper is to report the etiology, surgical technique, and outcome in a patient repaired via endoscopic endonasal approach. A 51-year-old male patient applied with rhinorrhea started three months ago after an upper respiratory infection. There were no history of trauma or sinus operation. Biochemical analysis of the fluid was positive for beta-2-transferrin. This asypthomatic patient had undergone for repairment of lateral sphenoid sinus meningocele with endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. After endoscopic endonasal meningocele closure procedure no complications occured and a quick recovery was observed. Endoscopic endonasal approach is an effective and safe treatment modality of spontaneous lateral sphenoid sinus meningoceles and efficient in anterior skull base reconstruction.
Maurer, Adrian J; Bonney, Phillip A; Iser, Courtney R; Ali, Rohaid; Sanclement, Jose A; Sughrue, Michael E
Chondrosarcomas of the skull base are rare tumors that present difficult management considerations due to the pathoanatomical relationships of the tumor to adjacent structures. We present the case of a 25-year-old female patient presenting with a chondrosarcoma of the right petrous apex extending inferiorly, medial to the cranial nerves. The tumor was resected via an endoscopic endonasal infrapetrous transpterygoid approach that achieved complete resection and an excellent long-term outcome with no complications. Technical nuances and potential pitfalls of the case are discussed in depth including measures to protect the carotid artery while performing the required drilling of the skull base to access the lesion.
Mangussi-Gomes, João; Vellutini, Eduardo A; Truong, Huy Q; Pahl, Felix H; Stamm, Aldo C
Objectives To demonstrate an endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach for the resection of a large suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Design Single-case-based operative video. Setting Tertiary center with dedicated skull base team. Participants A 72-year-old male patient diagnosed with a suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Main Outcomes Measured Surgical resection of the tumor and preservation of the normal surrounding neurovascular structures. Results A 72-year-old male patient presented with a 1-year history of progressive bitemporal visual loss. He also referred symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism. Neurological examination was unremarkable and endocrine workup demonstrated mildly elevated prolactin levels. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a large solid-cystic suprasellar lesion, consistent with the diagnosis of craniopharyngioma. The lesion was retrochiasmatic, compressed the optic chiasm, and extended into the interpeduncular cistern ( Fig. 1 ). Because of that, the patient underwent an endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach. 1 2 3 The nasal stage consisted of a transnasal transseptal approach, with complete preservation of the patient's left nasal cavity. 4 The cystic component of the tumor was decompressed and its solid part was resected. It was possible to preserve the surrounding normal neurovascular structures ( Fig. 2 ). Skull base reconstruction was performed with a dural substitute, a fascia lata graft, and a right nasoseptal flap ( Video 1 ). The patient did well after surgery and referred complete visual improvement. However, he also presented pan-hypopituitarism on long-term follow-up. Conclusions The endoscopic endonasal route is a good alternative for the resection of suprasellar lesions. It permits tumor resection and preservation of the surrounding neurovascular structures while avoiding external incisions and brain retraction. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/zmgxQe8w-JQ .
Van Rompaey, Jason; Suruliraj, Anand; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo
Recent advances in endonasal endoscopy have facilitated the surgical access to the lateral skull base including areas such as Meckel's cave. This approach has been well documented, however, few studies have outlined transantral specific access to Meckel's. A transantral approach provides a direct pathway to this region obviating the need for extensive endonasal and transsphenoidal resection. Our aim in this study is to compare the anatomical perspectives obtained in endonasal and transantral approaches. We prepared 14 cadaveric specimens with intravascular injections of colored latex. Eight cadavers underwent endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approaches to Meckel's cave. Six additional specimens underwent an endoscopic transantral approach to the same region. Photographic evidence was obtained for review. 30 CT scans were analyzed to measure comparative distances to Meckel's cave for both approaches. The endoscopic approaches provided a direct access to the anterior and inferior portions of Meckel's cave. However, the transantral approach required shorter instrumentation, and did not require clearing of the endonasal corridor. This approach gave an anterior view of Meckel's cave making posterior dissection more difficult. A transantral approach to Meckel's cave provides access similar to the endonasal approach with minimal invasiveness. Some of the morbidity associated with extensive endonasal resection could possibly be avoided. Better understanding of the complex skull base anatomy, from different perspectives, helps to improve current endoscopic skull base surgery and to develop new alternatives, consequently, leading to improvements in safety and efficacy.
Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H
Giant pituitary adenomas (> 4 cm in maximum diameter) represent a significant surgical challenge. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been introduced as a treatment option for these tumors. The authors present the results of EES for giant adenomas and analyze the advantages and limitations of this technique. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical files and imaging studies of 54 patients with giant pituitary adenomas who underwent EES and studied the factors affecting surgical outcome. Preoperative visual impairment was present in 45 patients (83%) and partial or complete pituitary deficiency in 28 cases (52%), and 7 patients (13%) presented with apoplexy. Near-total resection (> 90%) was achieved in 36 patients (66.7%). Vision was improved or normalized in 36 cases (80%) and worsened in 2 cases due to apoplexy of residual tumor. Significant factors that limited the degree of resection were a multilobular configuration of the adenoma (p = 0.002) and extension to the middle fossa (p = 0.045). Cavernous sinus invasion, tumor size, and intraventricular or posterior fossa extension did not influence the surgical outcome. Complications included apoplexy of residual adenoma (3.7%), permanent diabetes insipidus (9.6%), new pituitary insufficiency (16.7%), and CSF leak (16.7%, which was reduced to 7.4% in recent years). Fourteen patients underwent radiation therapy after EES for residual mass or, in a later stage, for recurrence, and 10 with functional pituitary adenomas received medical treatment. During a mean follow-up of 37.9 months (range 1-114 months), 7 patients were reoperated on for tumor recurrence. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Endoscopic endonasal surgery provides effective initial management of giant pituitary adenomas with favorable results compared with traditional microscopic transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches.
Topuz, Muhammet Fatih; Sarı, Murat; Binnetoglu, Adem; Dogrul, Ramazan; Bugdaycı, Onur; Şeker, Aşkın
The aim of the study was to analyze whether the measurement of changes in the anatomical position and volume of middle concha, the volume changes in the area between the middle concha and lamina papyracea, the evaluation of opacification in major paranasal sinuses, and osteomeatal complex occlusion in cases with middle concha by out-fracture technique during endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach is a minimally invasive surgery, and also to find out whether these changes lead to the development of tendency to rhinosinusitis. It was a retrospective clinical study. Forty-five cases, between 2013 and 2015, planned for endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery due to hypophyseal pathology at the Neurosurgery Departments of Marmara University Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. The patients were evaluated for the changes in the anatomy of the middle concha and the effects of these changes to paranasal sinuses by paranasal computed tomographies were studied at the preoperative second week and postoperative 12 month. The Lund-Mackay scoring system was used for the evaluation of opacification in the five major paranasal sinuses and occlusion of the osteomeatal complex in the pre- and postoperative period. The Lund-Mackay scoring system was used to analyze the paranasal computed tomography of the patients at the preoperative 2 weeks and postoperative first year. According to the Lund-Mackay scoring system, no significant difference was detected between the preoperative and postoperative opacification of paranasal sinuses (p > 0.05). Besides, there was also no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative osteomeatal complex occlusion (p > 0.05). Considering the distance between middle concha and lamina papyracea following the out-fracture of the middle concha, a significant lateralization of 0.5 mm between the preoperative and postoperative period was observed (p transsphenoidal surgery causes some variations in the structures of
Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Ben-Cnaan, Ran; Leibovitch, Igal; Horowitz, Gilad; Fishman, Gadi; Fliss, Dan M; Abergel, Avraham
Maxillectomy followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy can result in lacrimal blockage and the need for subsequent dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Endonasal endoscopic DCR, as opposed to external DCR, allows better accuracy and leaves no scar. To date no report was published regarding the results of endoscopic DCR in these patients. The current study presents a retrospective review of all patients with paranasal and skull base tumors who developed nasolacrimal duct blockage after ablative maxillectomy with or without radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy and underwent endonasal endoscopic DCR between January 2006 and October 2012 in a tertiary reference medical center. According to our results, ten patients underwent 11 subsequent endonasal endoscopic DCR. There were 6 men and 4 women with a median age of 55 years (range, 19-81 years); four suffered from benign tumors and six had malignant tumors. All underwent maxillectomy. Six received high-dose radiotherapy. Time interval between primary ablative surgery and endonasal endoscopic DCR was 18 months (range, 7-118 months). Silicone stents were removed after median period of 11 weeks (range, 1-57 weeks). Nine out of ten patients experienced symptomatic improvement following one endonasal endoscopic DCR. One patient had recurrent epiphora and underwent a successful endonasal endoscopic revision DCR. In conclusion, endonasal endoscopic DCR in patients with paranasal and skull base tumors, who previously underwent maxillectomy, is generally successful and not associated with a high rate of complications or failure. Moreover, our findings may suggest that silicone stents can be removed shortly after the operation with high success rate.
Y R Yadav
Full Text Available Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery (EETS is increasingly used for pituitary lesions. Pre-operative CT and MRI scans and peroperative endoscopic visualization can provide useful anatomical information. EETS is indicated in sellar, suprasellar, intraventricular, retro-infundibular, and invasive tumors. Recurrent and residual lesions, pituitary apoplexy and empty sella syndrome can be managed by EETS. Modern neuronavigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators, ultrasonic bone curette can add to the safety. The binostril approach provides a wider working area. High definition camera is much superior to three-chip camera. Most of the recent reports favor EETS in terms of safety, quality of life and tumor resection, hospital stay, better endocrinological, and visual outcome as compared to the microscopic technique. Nasal symptoms, blood loss, operating time are less in EETS. Various naso-septal flaps and other techniques of CSF leak repair could help reduce complications. Complications can be further reduced after achieving the learning curve, good understanding of limitations with proper patient selection. Use of neuronavigation, proper post-operative care of endocrine function, establishing pituitary center of excellence and more focused residency and endoscopic fellowship training could improve results. The faster and safe transition from microscopic to EETS can be done by the team concept of neurosurgeon/otolaryngologist, attending hands on cadaveric dissection, practice on models, and observation of live surgeries. Conversion to a microscopic or endoscopic-assisted approach may be required in selected patients. Multi-modality treatment could be required in giant and invasive tumors. EETS appears to be a better surgical option in most pituitary adenoma.
Full Text Available Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during endoscopic, endonasal approaches to the skull base is both feasible and safe. Numerous reports have recently emerged from the literature evaluating the efficacy of different neuromonitoring tests during endonasal procedures, making them relatively well-studied. The authors report on a comprehensive, multimodality approach to monitoring the functional integrity of at risk nervous system structures, including the cerebral cortex, brainstem, cranial nerves, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, and the thalamocortical somatosensory system during endonasal surgery of the skull base. The modalities employed include electroencephalography, somatosensory evoked potentials, free-running and electrically triggered electromyography, transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, and auditory evoked potentials. Methodological considerations as well as benefits and limitations are discussed. The authors argue that, while individual modalities have their limitations, multimodality neuromonitoring provides a real-time, comprehensive assessment of nervous system function and allows for safer, more aggressive management of skull base tumors via the endonasal route.
García-Garrigós, Elena; Arenas-Jiménez, Juan José; Monjas-Cánovas, Irene; Abarca-Olivas, Javier; Cortés-Vela, Jesús Julián; De La Hoz-Rosa, Javier; Guirau-Rubio, Maria Dolores
In the last 2 decades, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery has become the most popular choice of neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists to treat lesions of the skull base, with minimal invasiveness, lower incidence of complications, and lower morbidity and mortality rates compared with traditional approaches. The transsphenoidal route is the surgical approach of choice for most sellar tumors because of the relationship of the sphenoid bone to the nasal cavity below and the pituitary gland above. More recently, extended approaches have expanded the indications for transsphenoidal surgery by using different corridors leading to specific target areas, from the crista galli to the spinomedullary junction. Computer-assisted surgery is an evolving technology that allows real-time anatomic navigation during endoscopic surgery by linking preoperative triplanar radiologic images and intraoperative endoscopic views, thus helping the surgeon avoid damage to vital structures. Preoperative computed tomography is the preferred modality to show bone landmarks and vascular structures. Radiologists play an important role in surgical planning by reporting extension of sphenoid pneumatization, recesses and septations of the sinus, and other relevant anatomic variants. Radiologists should understand the relationships of the sphenoid bone and skull base structures, anatomic variants, and image-guided neuronavigation techniques to prevent surgical complications and allow effective treatment of skull base lesions with the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. ©RSNA, 2015.
Christian, Eisha; Harris, Brianna; Wrobel, Bozena; Zada, Gabriel
Endoscopic endonasal surgery relies heavily on specialized operative instrumentation and optimization of endocrinological and other critical adjunctive intraoperative factors. Several studies and worldwide initiatives have previously established that intraoperative and perioperative surgical checklists can minimize the incidence of and prevent adverse events. The aim of this article was to outline some of the most common considerations in the perioperative and intraoperative preparation for endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. The authors implemented and prospectively evaluated a customized checklist at their institution in 25 endoscopic endonasal operations for a variety of sellar and skull base pathological entities. Although no major errors were detected, near misses pertaining primarily to missing components of surgical equipment or instruments were identified in 9 cases (36%). The considerations in the checklist provided in this article can serve as a basic template for further customization by centers performing endoscopic endonasal surgery, where their application may reduce the incidence of adverse or preventable errors associated with surgical treatment of sellar and skull base lesions.
Ari, Seyhmus; Kürşat Cingü, Abdullah; Sahin, Alparslan; Gün, Ramazan; Kiniş, Vefa; Caça, Ihsan
To evaluate the long-term treatment outcomes in patients who underwent revision of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and nasal intubation by bicanalicular silicone tubing (BSTI) under endonasal endoscopic guidance. Data from 28 patients with recurrent dacryocystitis were retrospectively reviewed. Revision external DCR and bicanalicular nasal intubation by silicone tubing under endonasal endoscopic guidance was performed in 28 eyes of 28 patients. The patients were evaluated with respect to the reason of recurrence, time to recurrence, time to revision, duration of follow-up and surgical success. Endoscopic endonasal examination detected an osteotomy-side obstruction by the excessive granulation tissue in 24 patients (86%), nasal septal deviation in three patients (10%) and nasal polyp in one patient (4%). Recurrence occurred after a mean duration of 5.3±3.7 months following the first operation. The mean time between the first DCR operation and the revision DCR was 11.5 ± 9.3 months. After a mean follow-up of 14.9±7.8 months, the rate of anatomic success alone was 85% (24/28); the rate of subjective success was 78% (22/28). Revision external DCR and bicanalicular nasal intubation by silicone tubing under endonasal endoscopic guidance can be recommended in patients with recurrent dacryocystitis as a surgical approach that achieves satisfactory objective and subjective success rates.
Shah Shagun B
Full Text Available Endoscopic Endonasal Trans-sphenoid Surgery (EETS aided by avant-garde neuro-navigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators and bone curettes has come of age. Endoscopic surgery supersedes conventional microscopic approach due to better visualization, avoidance of craniotomy, brain retraction and undue neurovascular manipulation with less morbidity, blood loss and improved safety. Anaesthetic techniques must be tailored to cater for such advances in surgery.
Zoli, Matteo; Milanese, Laura; Bonfatti, Rocco; Faustini-Fustini, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Tallini, Giovanni; Zenesini, Corrado; Sturiale, Carmelo; Frank, Giorgio; Pasquini, Ernesto; Mazzatenta, Diego
OBJECTIVE In the past decade, the role of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has relevantly evolved for skull base tumors. In this study, the authors review their surgical experience with using an EEA in the treatment of clival chordomas, which are deep and infiltrative skull base lesions, and they highlight the advantages and limitations of this ventral approach. METHODS All consecutive cases of chordoma treated with an EEA between 1998 and 2015 at a single institution are included in this study. Preoperative assessment consisted of neuroimaging (MRI and CT with angiography sequences) and endocrinological, neurological, and ophthalmological evaluations, which were repeated 3 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Postoperative adjuvant therapies were considered. RESULTS Sixty-five patients (male/female ratio 1:0.9) were included in this study. The median age was 48 years (range 9-80 years). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 47 cases (58.7%). On univariate analysis, primary procedures (p = 0.001), location in the superior or middle third of the clivus (p = 0.043), extradural location (p = 0.035), and histology of conventional chordomas (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher rate of GTR. The complication rate was 15.1%, and there were no perioperative deaths. Most complications did not result in permanent sequelae and included 2 CSF leaks (2.5%), 5 transient cranial nerve VI palsies (6.2%), and 2 internal carotid artery injuries (2.5%), which were treated with coil occlusion of the internal carotid artery without neurological deficits. Three patients (3.8%) presented with complications resulting in permanent neurological deficits due to a postoperative hematoma (1.2%) causing a hemiparesis, and 2 permanent ophthalmoplegias (2.5%). Seventeen patients (26.2%) have died of tumor progression over the course of follow-up (median 52 months, range 7-159 months). Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, the survival rate was 77% at 5 years and 57% at 10
Beer-Furlan, André; Balsalobre, Leonardo; Vellutini, Eduardo A S; Stamm, Aldo C
Maffucci syndrome is a nonhereditary disorder in which patients develop multiple enchondromas and cutaneous, visceral, or soft tissue hemangiomas. The potential malignant progression of enchondroma into a secondary chondrosarcoma is a well-known fact. Nevertheless, chondrosarcoma located at the skull base in patients with Maffuci syndrome is a very rare condition, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. We report 2 other cases successfully treated through an expanded endoscopic endonasal approach and discuss the condition based on the literature review. Skull base chondrosarcoma associated with Maffucci syndrome is a rare condition. The disease cannot be cured, therefore surgical treatment should be performed in symptomatic patients aiming for maximal tumor resection with function preservation. The endoscopic endonasal approach is a safe and reliable alternative for the management of these tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jayarao, Mayur; Devaiah, Anand K; Chin, Lawrence S
This study sought to report on the utility and safety of the flexible-fiber CO2 laser in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. A retrospective chart review identified 16 patients who underwent laser-assisted transsphenoidal surgery. All tumor pathology types were considered. Results were assessed based on hormone status, tumor size, pathology, complications, and resection rates. Sixteen pituitary lesions (pituitary adenomas, 12; Rathke cleft cyst, 2; pituitary cyst and craniopharyngioma, 1 each) with an average size of 22.7 mm were identified by radiographic and pathologic criteria. All patients underwent flexible-fiber CO2 laser-assisted endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. Of the adenomas, 8 were nonsecreting and 4 were secreting (3 prolactinomas and 1 ACTH secreting). Gross total resection was achieved in 7 of 16 patients (43.75%) with hormone remission in all patients (100%) after a mean follow-up of 19.3 months. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients (18.75%): 2 patients developed transient diabetes insipidus (DI) and 1 developed a CSF leak requiring surgical repair. Five patients (31.25%) underwent postoperative radiation to the residual lesions. We found that CO2-laser-assisted endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for sellar tumors is a minimally invasive approach using a tool that is quick and effective at cutting and coagulation. The surgery has a low rate of complication, and no laser-related complications were encountered. The laser fiber allows the surgeon to safely cut and coagulate without the line-of-sight problems encountered with conventional CO2 lasers. Further studies are recommended to further define its role in endoscopic endonasal sellar surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shkarubo, A N; Ogurtsova, A A; Moshchev, D A; Lubnin, A Yu; Andreev, D N; Koval', K V; Chernov, I V
Intraoperative identification of the cranial nerves is a useful technique in removal of skull base tumors through the endoscopic endonasal approach. Searching through the scientific literature found one pilot study on the use of triggered electromyography (t-EMG) for identification of the VIth nerve in endonasal endoscopic surgery of skull base tumors (D. San-Juan, et al, 2014). The study objective was to prevent iatrogenic injuries to the cranial nerves without reducing the completeness of tumor tissue resection. In 2014, 5 patients were operated on using the endoscopic endonasal approach. Surgeries were performed for large skull base chordomas (2 cases) and trigeminal nerve neurinomas located in the cavernous sinus (3). Intraoperatively, identification of the cranial nerves was performed by triggered electromyography using a bipolar electrode (except 1 case of chordoma where a monopolar electrode was used). Evaluation of the functional activity of the cranial nerves was carried out both preoperatively and postoperatively. Tumor resection was total in 4 out of 5 cases and subtotal (chordoma) in 1 case. Intraoperatively, the IIIrd (2 patients), Vth (2), and VIth (4) cranial nerves were identified. No deterioration in the function of the intraoperatively identified nerves was observed in the postoperative period. In one case, no responses from the VIth nerve on the right (in the cavernous sinus region) were intraoperatively obtained, and deep paresis (up to plegia) of the nerve-innervated muscles developed in the postoperative period. The nerve function was not impaired before surgery. The t-EMG technique is promising and requires further research.
Omar Lopez Arbolay
Full Text Available Intranasal meningoencephaloceles have historically been managed by neurosurgeons, although their main clinical manifestations are rhinological. Recent advances in endoscopic skull base surgery has significantly improved the treatment of these lesions and consequently diminished appreciable surgical morbidity. We report an ethmoidal meningoencephalocele case operated on by endonasal endoscopic approach for removal of the lesion and reconstructing the associated skull base. From this experience, we conclude that removal of the lesion and watertight closure of the skull base irrespective of the size of the mass and anterior skull base defect are the operation’s most important aspects.
Edem, Idara J; Banton, Beverly; Bernstein, Mark; Lwu, Shelly; Vescan, Allan; Gentilli, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with pituitary tumours, but no study has explored patients' perceptions before and after this surgery. The authors in this study aim to explore patients' perceptions on endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Using qualitative research methodology, two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants who were adults aged > 18 undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for the resection of a pituitary tumour between December 2008 and June 2011. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The resulting data was analyzed using a modified thematic analysis. Seven overarching themes were identified: (1) Patients had a positive surgical experience; (2) patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure; (3) patients were initially surprised that neurosurgery could be performed endonasally; (4) patients expected a cure and to feel better after the surgery; (5) many patients feared that something might go wrong during the surgery; (6) patients were psychologically prepared for the surgery; (7) most patients reported receiving adequate pre-op and post-op information. This is the first qualitative study reporting on patients' perceptions before and after an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, which is increasingly used as a standard surgical approach for patients with pituitary tumours. Patients report a positive perception and general satisfaction with the endoscopic transsphenoidal surgical experience. However, there is still room for improvement in post-surgical care. Overall, patients' perceptions can help improve the delivery of comprehensive care to future patients undergoing pituitary tumour surgery.
Nishioka, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yamada, Shozo
Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is a safe and effective treatment for many suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, including those with third-ventricle involvement. Craniopharyngioma entirely within the third ventricle (purely intraventricular type), however, is generally regarded unsuitable for treatment with EETS. Three patients underwent total removal of a purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma with inferior extension via EETS by direct incision of the bulging, stretched ventricular floor and fine dissection from the ventricular wall. In 2 patients with an anteriorly displaced chiasm, the space between the chiasm and pituitary stalk created a wide corridor to the ventricle, whereas in the third case, in which the infrachiasmal space was somewhat narrowed, partial sacrifice of the pituitary gland was necessary to obtain sufficient space. Despite preservation of the stalk in 2 patients, hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus developed after surgery. There was no other complication including obesity. Selected patients with purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma can be treated effectively and safely with EETS. Those with inferior extension in the interpeduncular fossa and anterior displacement of the chiasm may be suitable candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Massimo Re,2 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Maurizio Gladi,1 Maurizio De Nicola,3 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, Italy; 2Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Section, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Giant cell tumors (GCTs are primary bone neoplasms that rarely involve the skull base. These lesions are usually locally aggressive and require complete removal, including the surrounding apparently healthy bone, to provide the best chance of cure. GCTs, as well as other lesions located in the clivus, can nowadays be treated by a minimally invasive fully endoscopic extended endonasal approach. This approach ensures a more direct route to the craniovertebral junction than other possible approaches (transfacial, extended lateral, and posterolateral approaches. The case reported is a clival GCT operated on by an extended endonasal approach that provides another contribution on how to address one of the most feared complications attributed to this approach: a massive bleed due to an internal carotid artery injury.Keywords: clival giant cell tumor, endoscopic endonasal approach, internal carotid artery injury, minimally invasive surgery
Piédrola Maroto, David; Franco Sánchez, Javier; Reyes Eldblom, Robin; Monje Vega, Elena; Conde Jiménez, Manuel; Ortiz Rueda, Manuel
To evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of the endoscopic endonasal versus transcanalicular approaches using diode laser, and to compare their clinical outcomes. A total of 127 patients were operated on, 80 of them with the endonasal approach (Group I) and 47 with the transcanalicular technique (Group II). Epiphora improved completely in 67 patients in Group I (83.7 %) while the other 13 (16.2 %) continued to present the same symptoms. In Group II, a successful result was achieved in 39 patients (82.9 %) and 8 (17 %) of them had to be re-operated because of the persistence of epiphora. The surgical outcomes are similar with both laser techniques. The main advantages of using diode laser are that it does not require general anaesthesia, the lower intra- and peri-operative morbidity, the lack of nasal packing and the greater ease of performing additional interventions if it fails. The only real disadvantage of laser procedures is the high cost.
Thawani, Jayesh P; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Abdullah, Kalil G; Hudgins, Eric; Vaughan, Kerry; Piazza, Matthew; Madsen, Peter J; Buch, Vivek; Sean Grady, M
Simulated practice may improve resident performance in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Using the NeuroTouch haptic simulation platform, we evaluated resident performance and assessed the effect of simulation training on performance in the operating room. First- (N=3) and second- (N=3) year residents were assessed using six measures of proficiency. Using a visual analog scale, the senior author scored subjects. After the first session, subjects with lower scores were provided with simulation training. A second simulation served as a task-learning control. Residents were evaluated in the operating room over six months by the senior author-who was blinded to the trained/untrained identities-using the same parameters. A nonparametric bootstrap testing method was used for the analysis (Matlab v. 2014a). Simulation training was associated with an increase in performance scores in the operating room averaged over all measures (p=0.0045). This is the first study to evaluate the training utility of an endoscopic endonasal surgical task using a virtual reality haptic simulator. The data suggest that haptic simulation training in endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to improvements in operative performance. Limitations include a small number of subjects and adjudication bias-although the trained/untrained identity of subjects was blinded. Further study using the proposed methods may better describe the relationship between simulated training and operative performance in endoscopic Neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marino, Michael J; Luong, Amber; Yao, William C; Citardi, Martin J
Odontogenic cysts and tumors of the maxilla may be amendable to management by endonasal endoscopic techniques, which may reduce the morbidity associated with open procedures and avoid difficult reconstruction. To perform a systematic review that evaluates the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic techniques in the management of different odontogenic cysts. A case series of our experience with these minimally invasive techniques was assembled for insight into the technical aspects of these procedures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was used to identify English-language studies that reported the use of endoscopic techniques in the management of odontogenic cysts. Several medical literature data bases were searched for all occurrences in the title or abstract of the terms "odontogenic" and "endoscopic" between January 1, 1950, and October 1, 2016. Publications were evaluated for the technique used, histopathology, complications, recurrences, and the follow-up period. A case series of patients who presented to a tertiary rhinology clinic and who underwent treatment of odontogenic cysts by an endoscopic technique was included. A systematic review identified 16 case reports or series that described the use of endoscopic techniques for the treatment of odontogenic cysts, including 45 total patients. Histopathologies encountered were radicular (n = 16) and dentigerous cysts (n = 10), and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (n = 12). There were no reported recurrences or major complications for a mean follow-up of 29 months. A case series of patients in our institution identified seven patients without recurrence for a mean follow-up of 10 months. Endonasal endoscopic treatment of various odontogenic cysts are described in the literature and are associated with effective treatment of these lesions for an average follow-up period of >2 years. These techniques have the potential to reduce morbidity associated with the resection of these
Ye, L; Zhou, X; Li, J; Jin, J
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma may be successfully resected using endoscopic techniques. However, the use of coblation technology for such resection has not been described. This study aimed to document cases of Fisch class I juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with limited nasopharyngeal and nasal cavity extension, which were completely resected using an endoscopic coblation technique. We retrospectively studied 23 patients with juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who underwent resection with either traditional endoscopic instruments (n = 12) or coblation (n = 11). Intra-operative blood loss and overall operative time were recorded. The mean tumour resection time for coblation and traditional endoscopic instruments was 87 and 136 minutes, respectively (t = 9.962, p angiofibroma (Fisch class I), with good surgical margins and minimal blood loss.
Full Text Available Nasopalatine duct cysts are the most common non-odontogenic cysts in the maxilla, and are conventionally treated through a sublabial or palatine approach. Recently, the endoscopic approach has been used, but experience is extremely limited. We treated a 29-year-old male with nasopalatine duct cyst by endoscopic marsupialization, but paresthesia of the incisor region occurred after surgery. This paresthesia gradually remitted within 6 months. The nasopalatine nerve, which innervates the upper incisor region, enters two lateral canals separately at the nasal floor and exits the central main canal at the palate. Damage to the bilateral nasopalatine nerves might lead to paresthesia, so we recommend careful examination for nerve fibers during endoscopic surgery, especially if fenestration is performed on both sides.
Barrett, Thomas F; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Padormo, Francesco; Pawha, Puneet S; Delman, Bradley N; Shrivastava, Raj K; Balchandani, Priti
Background Successful endoscopic endonasal surgery for the resection of skull base tumors is reliant on preoperative imaging to delineate pathology from the surrounding anatomy. The increased signal-to-noise ratio afforded by 7T MRI can be used to increase spatial and contrast resolution, which may lend itself to improved imaging of skull base. In this study, we apply a 7T imaging protocol to patients with skull base tumors and compare the images to clinical standard of care. Methods Images were acquired at 7T on 11 patients with skull base lesions. Two neuroradiologists evaluated clinical 1.5T, 3T, and 7T scans for detection of intracavernous cranial nerves and ICA branches. Detection rates were compared. Images were utilized for surgical planning and uploaded to a neuronavigation platform and used to guide surgery. Results Image analysis yielded improved detection rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7T. 7T images were successfully incorporated into preoperative planning and intraoperative neuronavigation. Conclusion Our study represents the first application of 7T MRI to the full neurosurgical workflow for endoscopic endonasal surgery. We detected higher rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7T MRI compared to 3T and 1.5 T, and found that integration of 7T into surgical planning and guidance was feasible. These results suggest a potential for 7T MRI to reduce surgical complications. Future studies comparing standardized 7T, 3T, and 1.5 T MRI protocols in a larger number of patients are warranted to determine the relative benefit of 7T MRI for endonasal endoscopic surgical efficacy. PMID:28359922
Barrett, Thomas F; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Padormo, Francesco; Pawha, Puneet S; Delman, Bradley N; Shrivastava, Raj K; Balchandani, Priti
Successful endoscopic endonasal surgery for the resection of skull base tumors is reliant on preoperative imaging to delineate pathology from the surrounding anatomy. The increased signal-to-noise ratio afforded by 7-T MRI can be used to increase spatial and contrast resolution, which may lend itself to improved imaging of the skull base. In this study, we apply a 7-T imaging protocol to patients with skull base tumors and compare the images with clinical standard of care. Images were acquired at 7 T on 11 patients with skull base lesions. Two neuroradiologists evaluated clinical 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T scans for detection of intracavernous cranial nerves and internal carotid artery (ICA) branches. Detection rates were compared. Images were used for surgical planning and uploaded to a neuronavigation platform and used to guide surgery. Image analysis yielded improved detection rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7 T. The 7-T images were successfully incorporated into preoperative planning and intraoperative neuronavigation. Our study represents the first application of 7-T MRI to the full neurosurgical workflow for endoscopic endonasal surgery. We detected higher rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7-T MRI compared with 3- and 1.5-T MRI, and found that integration of 7 T into surgical planning and guidance was feasible. These results suggest a potential for 7-T MRI to reduce surgical complications. Future studies comparing standardized 7-, 3-, and 1.5-T MRI protocols in a larger number of patients are warranted to determine the relative benefit of 7-T MRI for endonasal endoscopic surgical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Esquenazi, Yoshua; Essayed, Walid I; Singh, Harminder; Mauer, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Mudassir; Christos, Paul J; Schwartz, Theodore H
Surgery for recurrent/residual pituitary adenomas is increasingly being performed through endoscopic surgery. Whether this new technology has altered the indications and outcomes of surgery is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to compare the indications and outcomes between microscopic and endoscopic approaches. A PubMed search was conducted (1985-2015) to identify surgical series of endoscopic endonasal and microscopic transsphenoidal resection of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Data were extracted regarding tumor characteristics, surgical treatment, extent of resection, endocrine remission, visual outcome, and complications. Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. A total of 292 patients were in the endoscopic group, and 648 patients were in the microscopic group. Endoscopic cases were more likely nonfunctional (P < 0.001) macroadenomas (P < 0.001) with higher rates of cavernous sinus invasion (P = 0.012). The pooled rate of gross total tumor resection was 53.5% for the endoscopic group and 46.6% for the microscopic group. Endocrine remission was achieved in 53.0% and 46.7% of patients, and visual improvement occurred in 73.2% and 49.6% for the endoscopic and microscopic groups. Cerebrospinal fluid leak and pituitary insufficiency were higher in the endoscopic group. This meta-analysis indicates that the use of the endoscope to reoperate on residual or recurrent adenomas has only led to modest increases in resection rates. However, larger more complex cases are being tackled, so direct comparisons are misleading. The most dramatic change has been in visual improvement along with modest increases in risk. Reoperation for recurrent or residual adenomas is a safe and effective treatment option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
To the Editor:Meningitis caused by Enterococcus casseliflavus (E.casseliflavus) is extremely rare.Here we report an unusual case of meningitis caused by E.casseliflavus coexisting with refractory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage following endoscopic endonasal resection of skull base chondrosarcoma.
Gondim, Jackson A; Almeida, João Paulo; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne F; Gomes, Erika; Schops, Michele; Mota, Jose Italo
With the increase in the average life expectancy, medical care of elderly patients with symptomatic pituitary adenoma (PA) will continue to grow. Little information exists in the literature about the surgical treatment of these patients. The aim of this study was to present the results of a single pituitary center in the surgical treatment of PAs in patients > 70 years of age. In this retrospective study, 55 consecutive elderly patients (age ≥ 70 years) with nonfunctioning PAs underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at the General Hospital of Fortaleza, Brazil, between May 2000 and December 2012. The clinical and radiological results in this group were compared with 2 groups of younger patients: surgery for treatment of PAs. The mean follow-up period was 50 months (range 12-144 months). The most common symptoms were visual impairment in 38 (69%) patients, headache in 16 (29%) patients, and complete ophthalmoplegia in 6 (10.9%). Elderly patients presented a higher incidence of ophthalmoplegia (p = 0.032) and a lower frequency of pituitary apoplexy before surgery (p transsphenoidal surgery for elderly patients with PAs may be associated with higher complication rates, especially secondary to early transitory complications, when compared with surgery performed in younger patients. Although the worst preoperative clinical status might be observed in this group, age alone is not associated with a worst final prognosis after endoscopic removal of nonfunctioning PAs.
Gondim, Jackson A; Schops, Michele; de Almeida, João Paulo C; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne F; Gomes, Erika; Ferraz, Tânia; Barroso, Francisca Andréa C
Pituitary tumors are challenging tumors in the sellar region. Surgical approaches to the pituitary have undergone numerous refinements over the last 100 years. The introduction of the endoscope have revolutionized pituitary surgery. The aim of this study is to report the results of a consecutive series of patients undergoing pituitary surgery using a pure endoscopic endonasal approach and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this procedure. We reviewed the data of 228 consecutive patients who underwent endonasal transsphenoidal adenoma removal over an 10-year period. Pre- and post-operative hormonal status (at least 3 months after surgery) were analyzed and compared with clinical parameters presented by the patients. Tumor removal rate, endocrinological outcomes, and complications were retrospectively assessed in 228 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent 251 procedures between December 1998 and December 2007. There were 93 nonfunctioning adenomas, 58 growth hormone-secreting, 41 prolactin-secreting, 28 adrenocorticotropin hormone secreting, 7 FSH-LH secreting and 1 thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting adenomas. Gross total removal was achieved in 79.3% of the cases after a median follow-up of 61.5 months. The remission results for patients with nonfunctioning adenomas was 83% and for functioning adenomas were 76.3% (70.6% for GH hormone-secreting, 85.3% for prolactin hormone-secreting, 71.4% for ACTH hormone-secreting, 85.7% for FSH-LH hormone-secreting and 100% for TSH hormone-secreting), with no recurrence at the time of the last follow-up. Post-operative complications were present in 35 (13.9%) cases. The most frequent complications were temporary and permanent diabetes insipidus (six and two cases, respectively), syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (two cases) and CSF leaks (eight cases). There was no death related to the procedure in this series. The endoscopic endonasal approach for resection of pituitary adenomas, provides
Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Menezes, Arnold H
The craniovertebral junction (CVJ), or the craniocervical junction (CCJ) as it is otherwise known, houses the crossroads of the CNS and is composed of the occipital bone that surrounds the foramen magnum, the atlas vertebrae, the axis vertebrae, and their associated ligaments and musculature. The musculoskeletal organization of the CVJ is unique and complex, resulting in a wide range of congenital, developmental, and acquired pathology. The refinements of the transoral approach to the CVJ by the senior author (A.H.M.) in the late 1970s revolutionized the treatment of CVJ pathology. At the same time, a physiological approach to CVJ management was adopted at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in 1977 based on the stability and motion dynamics of the CVJ and the site of encroachment, incorporating the transoral approach for irreducible ventral CVJ pathology. Since then, approaches and techniques to treat ventral CVJ lesions have evolved. In the last 40 years at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, multiple approaches to the CVJ have evolved and a better understanding of CVJ pathology has been established. In addition, new reduction strategies that have diminished the need to perform ventral decompressive approaches have been developed and implemented. In this era of surgical subspecialization, to properly treat complex CVJ pathology, the CVJ specialist must be trained in skull base transoral and endoscopic endonasal approaches, pediatric and adult CVJ spine surgery, and must understand and be able to treat the complex CSF dynamics present in CVJ pathology to provide the appropriate, optimal, and tailored treatment strategy for each individual patient, both child and adult. This is a comprehensive review of the history and evolution of the transoral approaches, extended transoral approaches, endoscopie assisted transoral approaches, endoscopie endonasal approaches, and CVJ reduction strategies. Incorporating these advancements, the authors update the
Horacio Armando Marenco
Full Text Available Over the past three decades, surgical series of elderly patients treated for pituitary adenomas have been published, all of which used the microscopic transsphenoidal or transcranial approach. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the surgical results of our first 25 elderly patients with non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma (NFPM operated by the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA. Preoperative visual loss was found in 92.8% of the cases, and 70.8% experienced visual improvement following surgery. Preoperative pituitary dysfunction was found in 69.2% of the cases and postoperative pituitary recovery occurred in 22.2% of them. Mean hospital stay was 6.7 days. The results of this study suggest that surgery remains the first line of treatment for NFPM in the elderly. Because age alone is not a barrier for surgery, patients should be selected for surgical treatment based on their symptoms and clinical condition, as defined by comorbidities.
Shetty, Sathwik Raviraj; Ruiz-Treviño, Armando S; Omay, Sacit Bulent; Almeida, Joao Paulo; Liang, Buqing; Chen, Yu-Ning; Singh, Harminder; Schwartz, Theodore H
To review current management strategies for olfactory groove meningioma (OGM)s and the recent literature comparing endoscopic endonasal (EEA) with traditional transcranial (TCA) approaches. A PubMed search of the recent literature (2011-2016) was performed to examine outcomes following EEA and TCA for OGM. The extent of resection, visual outcome, postoperative complications and recurrence rates were analyzed using percentages and proportions, the Fischer exact test and the Student's t-test using Graphpad PRISM 7.0Aa (San Diego, CA) software. There were 444 patients in the TCA group with a mean diameter of 4.61 (±1.17) cm and 101 patients in the EEA group with a mean diameter of 3.55 (± 0.58) cm (p = 0.0589). GTR was achieved in 90.9% (404/444) in the TCA group and 70.2% (71/101) in the EEA group (p OGMs.
Hasegawa, Yuzo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Murai, Hisayuki; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Okamoto, Miyoshi; Yanagawa, Noriyuki
The endoscope is a new and highly useful instrument for transphenoidal surgery (TSS), and is generally used because of its minimally invasiveness. In addition, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgey (eTSS) has a potential for more radical tumor removal at the pituitary and the parasellar regions by wider visualization and more powerful illumination. To operate these regions safely, we need to know nasal and skull base anatomy under the endoscope which looks different from images under a microscope. In this paper, we demonstrated nasal and skull base anatomy with multi-detector computed tomography, which was performed in 23 recent patients with pituitary and parasellar legions. In the nasal legion, deviation of nasal septum and deviation of sphenoid ostium are important for endonasal approach of eTSS, and often determine the difficulty of surgery in the nasal cavity. Our study showed that deviation of nasal septum was seen in 26% of patients. Deviation of sphenoid ostium was 5.5±1.5 mm from the midline. The anatomy of sphenoid sinus plays a key role in our determination of the safety of a bony opening of the sella. In addition to sellar, presellar, and concha types, carotid prominence and optic prominence are important to determine the midline orientation. Development of carotid prominence was significantly related to the extent of lateral pneumatization of sphenoid sinus (P=0.0016). Reconstructed 3D-image of sphenoid sinus was very useful in visual understanding skull base anatomy. (author)
Full Text Available Pterygopalatine fossa (PPF is a difficult-to-access anatomic area located behind the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA often affects this area, and the management of feeding artery to the tumor is important in the surgery. Endoscopic endonasal approach to the PPF without endangering all other nasal structures is useful in the management of JNA. We describe a new approach to the PPF, endoscopic transturbinate approach, which is effective in the management of JNA. Submucous inferior turbinoplasty was performed, and sphenopalatine artery, the feeder to the tumor, was identified at the sphenopalatine foramen. The posterior wall of maxillary sinus was removed. Internal maxillary artery was identified in the PPF and was ligated with a hemoclip. The tumor in the PPF was pushed into the nasal cavity. These procedures were all performed via submucous turbinate tunnel. Then, the tumor was successfully removed in en bloc from the nasal cavity by transnasal approach without ethmoidectomy. This approach improves accessibility and visualization in the PPF and potential to reduce intraoperative bleeding due to ligation of the feeder safely without touching the tumor. Endoscopic transturbinate approach is effective in the management of early stage of JNA.
Eichhorn, Klaus Wolfgang; Westphal, Ralf; Rilk, Markus; Last, Carsten; Bootz, Friedrich; Wahl, Friedrich; Jakob, Mark; Send, Thorsten
Having one hand occupied with the endoscope is the major disadvantage for the surgeon when it comes to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Only the other hand is free to use the surgical instruments. Tiredness or frequent instrument changes can thus lead to shaky endoscopic images. We collected the pose data (position and orientation) of the rigid 0° endoscope and all the instruments used in 16 FESS procedures with manual endoscope guidance as well as robot-assisted endoscope guidance. In combination with the DICOM CT data, we tracked the endoscope poses and workspaces using self-developed tracking markers. All surgeries were performed once with the robot and once with the surgeon holding the endoscope. Looking at the durations required, we observed a decrease in the operating time because one surgeon doing all the procedures and so a learning curve occurred what we expected. The visual inspection of the specimens showed no damages to any of the structures outside the paranasal sinuses. Robot-assisted endoscope guidance in sinus surgery is possible. Further CT data, however, are desirable for the surgical analysis of a tracker-based navigation within the anatomic borders. Our marker-based tracking of the endoscope as well as the instruments makes an automated endoscope guidance feasible. On the subjective side, we see that RASS brings a relief for the surgeon.
Graffeo, Christopher S; Dietrich, August R; Grobelny, Bartosz; Zhang, Meng; Goldberg, Judith D; Golfinos, John G; Lebowitz, Richard; Kleinberg, David; Placantonakis, Dimitris G
Endoscopic endonasal surgery has been established as the safest approach to pituitary tumors, yet its role in other common skull base lesions has not been established. To answer this question, we carried out a systematic review of reported series of open and endoscopic endonasal approaches to four major skull base tumors: olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM), tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSM), craniopharyngiomas (CRA), and clival chordomas (CHO). Data from 162 studies containing 5,701 patients were combined and compared for differences in perioperative mortality, gross total resection (GTR), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, neurological morbidity, post-operative visual function, post-operative anosmia, post-operative diabetes insipidus (DI), and post-operative obesity/hyperphagia. Weighted average rates for each outcome were calculated using relative study size. Our findings indicate similar rates of GTR and perioperative mortality between open and endoscopic approaches for all tumor types. CSF leak was increased after endoscopic surgery. Visual function symptoms were more likely to improve after endoscopic surgery for TSM, CRA, and CHO. Post-operative DI and obesity/hyperphagia were significantly increased after open resection in CRA. Recurrence rates per 1,000 patient-years of follow-up were higher in endoscopy for OGM, TSM, and CHO. Trends for open and endoscopic surgery suggested modest improvement in all outcomes over time. Our observations suggest that endonasal endoscopy is a safe alternative to craniotomy and may be preferred for certain tumor types. However, endoscopic surgery is associated with higher rates of CSF leak, and possibly increased recurrence rates. Prospective study with long-term follow-up is required to verify these preliminary observations.
Eseonu, Chikezie I; ReFaey, Karim; Pamias-Portalatin, Eva; Asensio, Javier; Garcia, Oscar; Boahene, Kofi D; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo
Variations on the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach present unique surgical techniques that have unique effects on surgical outcomes, extent of resection (EOR), and anatomical complications. To analyze the learning curve and perioperative outcomes of the 3-hand endoscopic endonasal mononostril transsphenoidal technique. Prospective case series and retrospective data analysis of patients who were treated with the 3-hand transsphenoidal technique between January 2007 and May 2015 by a single neurosurgeon. Patient characteristics, preoperative presentation, tumor characteristics, operative times, learning curve, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Volumetric EOR was evaluated, and a logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of EOR. Two hundred seventy-five patients underwent an endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery using the 3-hand technique. One hundred eighteen patients in the early group had surgery between 2007 and 2010, while 157 patients in the late group had surgery between 2011 and 2015. Operative time was significantly shorter in the late group (161.6 min) compared to the early group (211.3 min, P = .001). Both cohorts had similar EOR (early group 84.6% vs late group 85.5%, P = .846) and postoperative outcomes. The learning curve showed that it took 54 cases to achieve operative proficiency with the 3-handed technique. Multivariate modeling suggested that prior resections and preoperative tumor size are important predictors for EOR. We describe a 3-hand, mononostril endoscopic transsphenoidal technique performed by a single neurosurgeon that has minimal anatomic distortion and postoperative complications. During the learning curve of this technique, operative time can significantly decrease, while EOR, postoperative outcomes, and complications are not jeopardized. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Kazuya; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Katori, Yukio; Tominaga, Teiji
Endoscopic endonasal surgery, an innovative surgical technique, is used to approach sinus lesions, lesions of the skull base, and intradural tumors. The cooperation of experienced otolaryngologists and neurosurgeons is important to achieve safe and reliable surgical results. The bath plug closure method is a treatment option for patients with cerebrospinal fluid(CSF)leakage. Although it includes dural and/or intradural procedures, surgery tends to be performed by otolaryngologists because its indications, detailed maneuvers, and pitfalls are not well recognized by neurosurgeons. We reviewed the cases of patients with CSF leakage treated by using the bath plug closure method with an endoscopic endonasal approach at our institution. Three patients were treated using the bath plug closure method. CSF leakage was caused by a meningocele in two cases and trauma in one case. No postoperative intracranial complications or recurrence of CSF leakage were observed. The bath plug closure method is an effective treatment strategy and allows neurosurgeons to gain in-depth knowledge of the treatment options for CSF leakage by using an endoscopic endonasal approach.
Guha, A; Hart, L; Polachova, H; Chovanec, M; Schalek, P
Ameloblastoma represents the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. Because of the proximity of the maxillary tumors to the orbit and skull base, it should be managed as radically as possible. Maxillectomy, mainly via the transfacial or transoral approach, represents the most common type of surgical procedure. Drawback of these approaches is limited control of the superiomedial extent of the tumour in the paranasal area. We report the use of a combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach to manage maxillary plexiform ameloblastoma in a 48-year-old male patient. A combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach enabled the radical removal of tumour with a 1.5cm margin of radiographically intact bone with good control from both intrasinusal and intraoral aspects. Adequate visualization of the extent of the lesion (e.g. orbit, infratemporal fossa, anterior cranial base) had been achieved. Non-complicated healing was achieved. This technique of partial maxillectomy led to very good aesthetic and functional results. No recurrence had been noted during review appointments. The combination of endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach for a partial maxillectomy allows sufficient reduction of the defect, thus eliminating the necessity for reconstruction and reducing the morbidity associated with it. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Shkarubo, Alexey Nikolaevich; Chernov, Ilia Valerievich; Ogurtsova, Anna Anatolievna; Moshchev, Dmitry Aleksandrovich; Lubnin, Andrew Jurievich; Andreev, Dmitry Nicolaevich; Koval, Konstantin Vladimirovich
Intraoperative identification of cranial nerves is crucial for safe surgery of skull base tumors. Currently, only a small number of published papers describe the technique of trigger electromyography (t-EMG) in endoscopic endonasal removal of such tumors. To assess the effectiveness of t-EMG in preventing intraoperative cranial nerve damage in endoscopic endonasal surgery of skull base tumors. Nine patients were operated on using the endoscopic endonasal approach within a 1-year period. The tumors included large skull base chordomas and trigeminal neurinomas localized in the cavernous sinus. During the surgical process, cranial nerve identification was carried out using monopolar and bipolar t-EMG methods. Assessment of cranial nerve functional activity was conducted both before and after tumor removal. We mapped 17 nerves in 9 patients. Third, fifth, and sixth cranial nerves were identified intraoperatively. There were no cases of postoperative functional impairment of the mapped cranial nerves. In one case we were unable to get an intraoperative response from the fourth cranial nerve and observed its postoperative transient plegia (the function was normal before surgery). t-EMG allows surgeons to control the safety of cranial nerves both during and after skull base tumor removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nallet, E; Decq, P; Bezzo, A; Le Lievre, G; Peynegre, R; Coste, A
The incidence and the risk of meningitidis justify treatment in all cases of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea with spontaneous etiology or after traumatic injury. Endonasal surgery with endoscopic instruments provides many advantages compared with transcranial or transfacial approach used by neurosurgeons. We report our experience and our surgical technique in the treatment of CSF leaks in 5 patients. Intrathecal injection of fluoresceine was very useful in all cases for detecting the CSF leak. Total or selected ethmoidectomy depended on the localization of the leakage. Wide sphenoidotomy enables detection and repair of CSF leaks from the sphenoid cavity. A free graft of inferior turbinal mucosal was used to repair the breache. This rapid low morbidity surgery offered secure closure of rhinorrhea in 4 cases after one procedure and in 1 case after two procedures with an average follow up of 22 months. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea can be managed in first line therapy with endoscopic intranasal surgical techniques when they are localized in the anterior ethmoid or in the sphenoid cavity.
Strickland, Ben A; Pham, Martin; Bakhsheshian, Joshua; Carmichael, John; Weiss, Martin; Zada, Gabriel
Noniatrogenic pituitary abscess remains a rare clinical entity, and is the indication for surgery in abscess caused by Candida species, and also provide an intraoperative video showing the endoscopic management of this pathology. A 33-year-old woman presented with headache, hypopituitarism, and vision loss in the setting of diabetic ketoacidosis, and was found to have multiple abscesses in the liver, lung, kidney, and uterus. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 15-mm cystic sellar mass with restricted diffusion. The patient underwent urgent evacuation of the abscess via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal route, with obvious purulent material filling the sella, later identified as Candida glabrata. Antimicrobial therapy was refined appropriately, and she exhibited significant improvement in neurologic function, although endocrinopathy has persisted. With timely management, including a combination of surgical drainage and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, neurologic outcomes are good in most cases of pituitary abscess; however, endocrinopathy often does not improve. Although most reported cases with identified causative organisms speciate bacteria, some cases are of fungal etiology and require different antimicrobial agents. This further underscores the importance of identifying the causative agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson
We present a pediatric case of a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma in the suprasellar region with third ventricular extension that was resected through a purely endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) via the transplanum transtuberculum corridor. The patient is a 12-year-old boy who presented with progressive visual loss and panhypopituitarism. The EEA allows direct visualization of the undersurface of the optic chiasm and hypothalamus so that safe and meticulous tumor dissection can be performed to preserve these critical neurovascular structures. This video atlas demonstrates the operative technique and surgical nuances of the endoscopic skull base approach, microdissection of the tumor from the critical neurovascular structures, and multilayered reconstruction of the skull base defect with a nasoseptal flap. A gross total resection was achieved, and the patient was neurologically intact with improved visual acuity and visual fields. In summary, the EEA via the transplanum transtuberculum corridor is an important strategy in the armamentarium for surgical management of pediatric craniopharyngiomas. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/bmgO_PMRHPk .
Lee, J K; Kim, T H
We attempted to compare the cytokine composition of tears between primary acquired nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction and normal controls. We investigated the changes in cytokines in tears after endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Eighteen patients underwent endonasal DCR, with seven patients undergoing bilateral DCR, resulting in twenty-five DCRs in total. Eleven contralateral un-operated eyes were used as normal controls. Silicone stents were removed 3 months after surgery. Tear samples were collected from all eyes before surgery, and at 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months after surgery. The level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tears was measured. The concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, VEGF, and FGF-2 were significantly higher in eyes with NLD obstruction than controls before surgery (P=0.006, 0.018, 0.002, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively). Most inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, VEGF, and FGF-2) were higher in the tears of the DCR group compared with the controls during the postoperative follow-up, but then rapidly decreased to the level of the controls after removal of the silicone stent. The recurred eyes showed a higher level of TGF-β2 and FGF-2 in tears compared with the eyes that showed good surgical results (Ptear levels of inflammatory cytokines were higher in eyes with NLD obstruction than controls. The changes in cytokine level during the postoperative period showed the importance of cytokine analysis in understanding wound healing after DCR.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Between September 2013 and October 2014, we conducted a retrospective analysis to assess the complications related to endoscopic pituitary surgery in a series of 50 patients. We analysed the complications in preoperative, postoperative and endocrinological categories. We had a follow up of 1-2 years. Endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS is an effective option for pituitary tumors. Complications do occur, but they can be reduced with experience & expertise and there is a steep learning curve. It demands a multidisciplinary approach.
Hirayama, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Umegaki, Masao; Kagawa, Naoki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki
Existing training methods for neuroendoscopic surgery have mainly emphasized the acquisition of anatomical knowledge and procedures for operating an endoscope and instruments. For laparoscopic surgery, various training systems have been developed to teach handling of an endoscope as well as the manipulation of instruments for speedy and precise endoscopic performance using both hands. In endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), especially using a binostril approach to the skull base and intradural lesions, the learning of more meticulous manipulation of instruments is mandatory, and it may be necessary to develop another type of training method for acquiring psychomotor skills for EES. Authors of the present study developed an inexpensive, portable personal trainer using a webcam and objectively evaluated its utility. Twenty-five neurosurgeons volunteered for this study and were divided into 2 groups, a novice group (19 neurosurgeons) and an experienced group (6 neurosurgeons). Before and after the exercises of set tasks with a webcam box trainer, the basic endoscopic skills of each participant were objectively assessed using the virtual reality simulator (LapSim) while executing 2 virtual tasks: grasping and instrument navigation. Scores for the following 11 performance variables were recorded: instrument time, instrument misses, instrument path length, and instrument angular path (all of which were measured in both hands), as well as tissue damage, max damage, and finally overall score. Instrument time was indicated as movement speed; instrument path length and instrument angular path as movement efficiency; and instrument misses, tissue damage, and max damage as movement precision. In the novice group, movement speed and efficiency were significantly improved after the training. In the experienced group, significant improvement was not shown in the majority of virtual tasks. Before the training, significantly greater movement speed and efficiency were demonstrated in
Shou, Xuefei; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Zhang, Yichao; He, Wenqiang; Ma, Zengyi; Zhao, Yao; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Yongfei
We aim to study surgical technique and analyze the related factors affecting tumor total removal and postoperative endocrinological remission for endoscopic endonasal pituitary adenomas surgery. We retrospectively analyzed 178 endoscopic endonasal pituitary adenomas surgery from March 2011 to May 2014. Endonasal approach included the routine transnasal-sphenoidal approach, transnasal- maxillary sinus approach in four cases and transnasal-clivus approach in one case. According to postoperative imaging data and endocrine examination results, total removal was achieved in 129 patients (72.5%), and endocrinological remission was achieved in 38 patients with functional adenomas (44.1%). Statistical analysis of the clinical data showed that total removal rate was much closely related to tumor volume (P = 0.006), and tumor invasiveness (P < 0.001). In this study, we found tumor sizes and invasion of cavernous sinus were related to total removal rate and endocrinological remission rate; the direction and degree of tumor invasion, and the surgeon's experience were the key influence factors of the endocrinological remission rate for invasive functional pituitary adenomas.
Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to propose a simple and efficient combination surgery for the management of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction. Methods. A retrospective noncomparative case series of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction has been studied. Twelve patients with dacryocystitis and canalicular obstruction underwent a conventional endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR combined with a modified canalicular repair. Postoperative observations included slit lamp, fluorescein dye disappearance test, lacrimal syringing, lacrimal endoscopy, and nasal endoscopy. Results. After 6–18 months of postoperative follow-up, the symptoms of epiphora and mucopurulent discharge disappeared completely in 10 patients, and occasional or intermittent epiphora remained in 2 patients. All of the twelve patients showed an opened intranasal ostium and normal fluorescein dye disappearance test. Patent bicanalicular irrigation was achieved in 9 patients. One patient had a partial and the other two had a complete reobstruction by lacrimal irrigation to their repaired lower canaliculus; however, all of them had a patent lacrimal irrigation to upper canaliculus. The functional success rate for the combination surgery is 83% (10/12, and anatomical success rate is 75% (9/12. Conclusion. EE-DCR combined with modified canalicular repair is a simple and efficient method for the management of dacryocystitis with canalicular obstruction.
Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the feasibility and clinical efficacy of endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy(EN-DCRcombined with stent implantation for treatment of acute dacryocystitis. METHODS: A total of 31 patients(32 eyespresenting with acute dacryocystitis were treated with EN-DCR combined with stent implantation under antibiotic cover from April 2014 to December 2015. These patients were followed up for 3 to 12mo. RESULTS: The medial canthal edema and erythema was gradually reducing within 48h in all patients. The hospitalization time took 2 to 8d(average 3.8±1.6d. Patients underwent removal of stent about 3mo after surgery. Thirty-one eyes showed no symptoms such as lacrimation or pus discharging, and irrigation of lacrimal duct was unobstructed. Irrigation of lacrimal duct was passable in 1 of 32 patients who has a relative narrow ostial. Results in this series, 31 cases were cured,1case improved, the total cure rate was 97%. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence shown that EN-DCR combined with stent implantation can increase the risk of spreading infection through tissue planes, causing septicemia, and exacerbating inflammation. Instead, it has advantages like gradual reduction in inflammatory symptoms, economic benefits of reduced patient stay, maintenance of the orbicularis muscle lacrimal pump and absence of external scar. It is indicated that EN-DCR combined with stent implantation is a safe and feasible surgical procedure for patients with acute dacryocystitis.
Zhan, Rucai; Li, Xueen; Li, Xingang
Objective To assess the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA) for apoplectic pituitary adenoma. Design A retrospective study. Setting Qilu Hospital of Shandong University; Brain Science Research Institute, Shandong University. Participants Patients admitted to Qilu Hospital of Shandong University who were diagnosed with an apoplectic pituitary tumor and underwent EETA for resection of the tumor. Main Outcome Measures In total 45 patients were included in a retrospective chart review. Data regarding patient age, sex, presentation, lesion size, surgical procedure, extent of resection, clinical outcome, and surgical complications were obtained from the chart review. Results In total, 38 (92.7%) of 41 patients with loss of vision obtained visual remission postoperatively. In addition, 16 patients reported a secreting adenoma, and postsurgical hormonal levels were normal or decreased in 14 patients. All other symptoms, such as headache and alteration of mental status, recovered rapidly after surgery. Two patients (4.4%) incurred cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Six patients (13.3%) experienced transient diabetes insipidus (DI) postoperatively, but none of these patients developed permanent DI. Five patients (11.1%) developed hypopituitarism and were treated with replacement of hormonal medicine. No cases of meningitis, carotid artery injury, or death related to surgery were reported. Conclusion EETA offers a safe and effective surgical option for apoplectic pituitary tumors and is associated with low morbidity and mortality.
Storr, Helen L; Drake, William M; Evanson, Jane; Matson, Matthew; Berney, Dan M; Grossman, Ashley B; Akker, Scott A; Monson, John P; Alusi, Ghassan; Savage, Martin O; Sabin, Ian
Selective adenomectomy remains the first-line treatment for Cushing's disease (CD), until recently by microscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery (ETES) is emerging as a novel, less invasive treatment for pituitary adenomas and has become the optimal surgical approach. There are no published series for the treatment of paediatric CD by ETES, and we report our centre's preliminary results. Retrospective analysis. Six paediatric patients (median age 15·8 years; range 11·7-17·0 years) fulfilled standard diagnostic criteria for CD. Preoperatively, no abnormality was identified on pituitary MR scanning in 3 (50%) patients, one had a macroadenoma. Bilateral petrosal sinus sampling demonstrated central ACTH secretion (IPS/P ACTH ratio ≥3·0, post-CRH) in 3/6 (50%) patients. The same neurosurgeon and endoscopic nasal surgeon undertook all the operations. Therapeutic outcome and rate of complications. Clinical recovery and biochemical 'cure' were achieved in 5 (83%) patients, and a corticotroph adenoma was confirmed histologically in all cured cases. One case developed post-operative CSF leak requiring lumbar drain insertion and patching. At a mean interval of 4·7 years (0·1-10·8 years) post-operatively, cured patients have shown no recurrence. One patient, with a large diffuse adenoma requiring more extensive surgery, has panhypopituitarism, and another patient has GH and gonadotrophin deficiencies. Our experience shows that ETES for removing corticotroph adenomas in children, in most cases not visualized on MRI, is minimally invasive and gave excellent post-operative recovery/results. In skilled hands, this technique provides an alternative to conventional transsphenoidal microscopic surgery in managing paediatric CD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wen, Guodao; Cong, ZiXiang; Liu, KaiDong; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Chunyu; Li, Liwen; Dai, XuJie; Ma, Chiyuan
We aimed to present a practical three-dimensional (3D) printed simulator to comprehensively and effectively accelerate the learning curve of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS). The 3D printed simulator consists of three parts: (1) skull frame, (2) the nasal passage and the nasal alar of the face, and (3) a modified sella turcica. We aimed to improve three basic operational skills of surgeons: drilling, curetting, and aspirating. Eighteen neurosurgeons and five post-graduates were recruited and consented for the training. For trainees, (1) as the training progressed, the scores increased gradually, (2) a significant increase in the average scores was observed in the tenth training compared to the first training, and (3) there is a significant decrease in trainee variability in the shortening of the gap. The 18 neurosurgeons were divided into three groups: experts, assistants, and observers. For all three basic operations, (1) the average score of experts was obviously higher than that of the assistants, observers, and trainees' tenth training and (2) the average scores of assistants and observers were obviously higher than that of trainees' first training. A significant high in the average score between the assistants and the observers was seen for aspirating, but not for drilling or curetting. For curetting and aspirating, the tenth training average score of trainees was obviously higher than that of assistants and observers. This 3D printed simulator allows different endoscopic basic operations to be simulated and improves the EETS techniques of surgeons. We believed it to be a practical, simple, and low-cost simulator.
Ye, Yuanliang; Wang, Fuyu; Zhou, Tao; Luo, Yi
To evaluate effect of sellar reconstruction during pituitary adenoma resection surgery by the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach using artificial cerebral dura mater patch.This was a retrospective study of 1281 patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection for the treatment of pituitary adenomas between December 2006 and May 2014 at the Neurosurgery Department of the People's Liberation Army General Hospital. The patients were classified into 4 grades according to intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage site. All patients were followed up for 3 months by telephone and outpatient visits.One thousand seventy three (83.7%) patients underwent sellar reconstruction using artificial dura matter patched outside the sellar region (method A), 106 (8.3%) using artificial dura matter patched inside the sellar region (method B), and 102 (8.0%) using artificial dura matter and a mucosal flap (method C). Method A was used for grade 0-1 leakage, method B for grade 1 to 2 leakage, and method C for grade 2 to 3 leakage. During the 3-month follow-up, postoperative CSF leakage was observed in 7 patients (0.6%): 2 among patients who underwent method B (1.9%) and 5 among those who underwent method C (4.9%). Meningitis was diagnosed in 13 patients (1.0%): 2 among patients who underwent method A (0.2%), 4 among those who underwent method B (3.8%), and 7 among those who underwent method C (6.7%).Compared with other reconstruction methods, sellar reconstruction surgery that only use artificial dura mater as repair material had a low rate of complications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Khan, Osaama H; Krischek, Boris; Holliman, Damian; Klironomos, George; Kucharczyk, Walter; Vescan, Allan; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh
The expanded endoscopic endonasal (EEE) approach for the removal of olfactory groove (OGM) and tuberculum sellae (TSM) meningiomas is currently becoming an acceptable surgical approach in neurosurgical practice, although it is still controversial with respect to its outcomes, indications and limitations. Here we provide a review of the available literature reporting results with use of the EEE approach for these lesions together with our experience with the use of the endoscope as the sole means of visualization in a series of patients with no prior surgical biopsy or resection. Surgical cases between May 2006 and January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-three patients (OGM n=6; TSM n=17) were identified. In our series gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 4/6 OGM (66.7%) and 11/17 (64.7%) TSM patients. Vision improved in the OGM group (2/2) and 8/11 improved in the TSM group with no change in visual status in the remaining three patients. Post-operative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak occurred in 2/6 (33%) OGM and 2/17 (11.8%) TSM patients. The literature review revealed a total of 19 OGM and 174 TSM cases which were reviewed. GTR rate was 73% for OGM and 56.3% for TSM. Post-operative CSF leak was 30% for OGM and 14% for TSM. With careful patient selection and a clear understanding of its limitations, the EEE technique is both feasible and safe. However, longer follow-ups are necessary to better define the appropriate indications and ideal patient population that will benefit from the use of these newer techniques. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, James K; Silva, Nicole A; Sevak, Ilesha A; Eloy, Jean Anderson
OBJECTIVE There has been much debate regarding the optimal surgical approach for resecting olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs). In this paper, the authors analyzed the factors involved in approach selection and reviewed the surgical outcomes in a series of OGMs. METHODS A retrospective review of 28 consecutive OGMs from a prospective database was conducted. Each tumor was treated via one of 3 approaches: transbasal approach (n = 15), pure endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA; n = 5), and combined (endoscope-assisted) transbasal-EEA (n = 8). RESULTS The mean tumor volume was greatest in the transbasal (92.02 cm 3 ) and combined (101.15 cm 3 ) groups. Both groups had significant lateral dural extension over the orbits (transbasal 73.3%, p 95%) was achieved in 20% of transbasal and 37.5% of combined cases, all due to tumor adherence to the critical neurovascular structures. The rate of CSF leakage was 0% in the transbasal and combined groups, and there was 1 leak in the EEA group (20%), resulting in an overall CSF leakage rate of 3.6%. Olfaction was preserved in 66.7% in the transbasal group. There was no significant difference in length of stay or 30-day readmission rate between the 3 groups. The mean modified Rankin Scale score was 0.79 after the transbasal approach, 2.0 after EEA, and 2.4 after the combined approach (p = 0.0604). The mean follow-up was 14.5 months (range 1-76 months). CONCLUSIONS The transbasal approach provided the best clinical outcomes with the lowest rate of complications for large tumors (> 40 mm) and for smaller tumors (OGMs invading the sinonasal cavity. Careful patient selection using an individualized, tailored strategy is important to optimize surgical outcomes.
Younus, Iyan; Forbes, Jonathan A; Ordóñez-Rubiano, Edgar G; Avendano-Pradel, Rafael; La Corte, Emanuele; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H
Radiation therapy is often advocated for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma following surgical resection to prevent local recurrence. However, radiation therapy is not always effective and may render tumors more difficult to remove. If this is the case, patients may benefit more from reoperation if gross total resection can be achieved. Nevertheless, there is little data on the impact of radiation on reoperations for craniopharyngioma. In this study, we sought to analyze whether a history of previous radiation therapy (RT) affected extent of resection in patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas subsequently treated with reoperation via endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of EEA reoperations of craniopharyngiomas over 13 years at Weill Cornell, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. All procedures were performed by the senior author. The operations were separated into two groups based on whether the patient had surgery alone (group A) or surgery and RT (group B) prior to recurrence. A total of 24 patients (16 male, 8 female) who underwent surgery for recurrent craniopharyngioma were identified. The average time to recurrence was 7.64 ± 4.34 months (range 3-16 months) for group A and 16.62 ± 12.1 months (range 6-45 months) for group B (p < 0.05). The average tumor size at recurrence was smaller in group A (1.85 ± 0.72 cm; range 0.5-3.2) than group B (2.59 ± 0.91 cm; range 1.5-4.6; p = 0.00017). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 91% (10/11) of patients in group A and 54% (7/13) of patients in group B (p = 0.047). There was a near significant trend for higher average Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score at last follow-up for group A (83 ± 10.6) compared with group B (70 ± 16.3, p = 0.056). While RT for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma may delay time to recurrence, ability to achieve GTR with additional surgery is reduced. In the case of
Labib, Mohamed A; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo; Kerr, Edward E; Naudy, Cristian; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Corsten, Martin; Kassam, Amin
Injuring the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal approaches. To introduce a comprehensive ICA classification scheme pertinent to safe endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery. Anatomic dissections were performed in 33 cadaveric specimens (bilateral). Anatomic correlations were analyzed. Based on anatomic correlations, the ICA may be described as 6 distinct segments: (1) parapharyngeal (common carotid bifurcation to ICA foramen); (2) petrous (carotid canal to posterolateral aspect of foramen lacerum); (3) paraclival (posterolateral foramen lacerum to the superomedial aspect of the petrous apex); (4) parasellar (superomedial petrous apex to the proximal dural ring); (5) paraclinoid (from the proximal to the distal dural rings); and (6) intradural (distal ring to ICA bifurcation). Corresponding surgical landmarks included the Eustachian tube, the fossa of Rosenmüller, and levator veli palatini for the parapharyngeal segment; the vidian canal and V3 for the petrous segment; the fibrocartilage of foramen lacerum, foramen rotundum, maxillary strut, lingular process of the sphenoid bone, and paraclival protuberance for the paraclival segment; the sellar floor and petrous apex for the parasellar segment; and the medial and lateral opticocarotid and lateral tubercular recesses, as well as the distal osseous arch of the carotid sulcus for the paraclinoid segment. The proposed endoscopic classification outlines key anatomic reference points independent of the vessel's geometry or the sinonasal pneumatization, thus serving as (1) a practical guide to navigate the ventral cranial base while avoiding injury to the ICA and (2) further foundation for a modular access system.
Bal, Ercan; Öge, Kamil; Berker, Mustafa
Craniopharyngioma resection is one of the most challenging surgical procedures. Herein, we describe our extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) technique, and the results of 9 years of use on primary and recurrent/residual craniopharyngiomas. This study reviewed 28 EETSs in 25 patients with craniopharyngiomas between January 2006 and September 2015. The patients were divided into 2 groups, newly diagnosed patients (group A, n = 15), and patients having residual or recurrent tumors (group B, n = 10). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the largest tumor diameter (P = 0.495), and all patients underwent EETS. The clinical and ophthalmologic examinations, imaging studies, endocrinologic studies, and operative findings for these cases were reviewed retrospectively. The number of gross total resections in group A was 13/15, and 7/10 in group B. Three of the patients developed postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (all in group A). There were no neurovascular or ophthalmologic complications, and no meningitis or mortality was observed. There has been a notable increase in the use of EETS in the treatment of craniopharyngiomas during the last decade. Despite its increased use in the treatment of primary craniopharyngiomas, its implementation for recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas has been viewed with suspicion. In this study, the results have been presented separately for primary and recurrent/residual craniopharyngiomas, so that the results can be compared. Overall, EETS is a reliable and successful surgical treatment method for primary and recurrent/residual craniopharyngiomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Jai Ho; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Sung Won
Objective Complete sellar floor reconstruction is critical to avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during transsphenoidal surgery. Recently, the pedicled nasoseptal flap has undergone many modifications and eventually proved to be valuable and efficient. However, using these nasoseptal flaps in all patients who undergo transsphenoidal surgery, including those who had none or only minor CSF leakage, appears to be overly invasive and time-consuming. Methods Patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal tumor surgery within a 5 year-period were reviewed. Since 2009, we classified the intraoperative CSF leakage into grades from 0 to 3. Sellar floor reconstruction was tailored to each leak grade. We did not use any tissue grafts such as abdominal fat and did not include any procedures of CSF diversions such as lumbar drainage. Results Among 200 cases in 188 patients (147 pituitary adenoma and 41 other pathologies), intraoperative CSF leakage was observed in 27.4% of 197 cases : 14.7% Grade 1, 4.6% Grade 2a, 3.0% Grade 2b, and 5.1% Grade 3. Postoperative CSF leakage was observed in none of the cases. Septal bone buttress was used for Grade 1 to 3 leakages instead of any other foreign materials. Pedicled nasoseptal flap was used for Grades 2b and 3 leakages. Unused septal bones and nasoseptal flaps were repositioned. Conclusion Modified classification of intraoperative CSF leaks and tailored repair technique in a multilayered fashion using an en-bloc harvested septal bone and vascularized nasoseptal flaps is an effective and reliable method for the prevention of postoperative CSF leaks. PMID:26279811
Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Pease, Matthew; Smith, Kenneth J; Sekula, Raymond F
To perform a cost-minimization study comparing the supraorbital and endoscopic endonasal (EEA) approach with or without craniotomy for the resection of olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs). We built a decision tree using probabilities of gross total resection (GTR) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak rates with the supraorbital approach versus EEA with and without additional craniotomy. The cost (not charge or reimbursement) at each "stem" of this decision tree for both surgical options was obtained from our hospital's finance department. After a base case calculation, we applied plausible ranges to all parameters and carried out multiple 1-way sensitivity analyses. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses confirmed our results. The probabilities of GTR (0.8) and CSF leak (0.2) for the supraorbital craniotomy were obtained from our series of 5 patients who underwent a supraorbital approach for the resection of an OGM. The mean tumor volume was 54.6 cm 3 (range, 17-94.2 cm 3 ). Literature-reported rates of GTR (0.6) and CSF leak (0.3) with EEA were applied to our economic analysis. Supraorbital craniotomy was the preferred strategy, with an expected value of $29,423, compared with an EEA cost of $83,838. On multiple 1-way sensitivity analyses, supraorbital craniotomy remained the preferred strategy, with a minimum cost savings of $46,000 and a maximum savings of $64,000. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found the lowest cost difference between the 2 surgical options to be $37,431. Compared with EEA, supraorbital craniotomy provides substantial cost savings in the treatment of OGMs. Given the potential differences in effectiveness between approaches, a cost-effectiveness analysis should be undertaken. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kshettry, Varun R; Nyquist, Gurston; Evans, James J
Surgery for craniopharyngiomas can be challenging due to the involvement of multiple critical neurovascular structures. The expanded endoscopic endonasal approach can provide superior access to suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, particularly with retrochiasmatic extension and significant hypothalamic involvement. We describe the surgical technique used to treat a 30-year-old patient who presented with 4 weeks of worsening vision, fatigue, and memory loss. His vision was counting fingers at 1 feet on the right and 20/800 on the left with a temporal hemianopsia. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated central hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism, and hypogonadism. Imaging showed a large solid and cystic suprasellar mass. The transtubercular approach with removal of the lateral tubercular strut can provide wide bilateral access to the opticocarotid region. The superior intercavernous sinus must be coagulated and ligated. Initial arachnoid dissection is centered at the midline, mobilizing the superior hypophyseal branches to the optic apparatus laterally. The cyst capsule is opened and care is taken to minimize spillage of cyst fluid into the subarachnoid space. Central debulking and then extracapsular dissection is performed under direct visualization using sharp dissection. Reconstruction of the dura is performed with an inlay/onlay fascia lata button that is held together with four sutures that hold the graft edges against the native dural edges. This is followed by vascularized nasoseptal flap reconstruction. No lumbar drain or nonabsorbable packing is required. The patient's vision had dramatic improvement and by 1 week postoperatively was 20/20 with full visual fields. Postoperative diabetes insipidus was managed with nasal desmopressin. Postoperative MRI demonstrated complete removal. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/QQxCNUcq1qg .
Xie, Tao; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Lingli; Luo, Rongkui; Sun, Wei; Hu, Fan; Yu, Yong; Gu, Ye; Lu, Zhiqiang
To investigate the role of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery and the pseudocapsule in the treatment of growth hormone adenomas. The study included 43 patients (age range, 21-64 years) with growth hormone adenomas treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach. We compared the tumor characteristics and surgical outcomes of cases with (group A, 21 cases, from November 2013 to January 2015) and without (group B, 22 cases, from October 2011 to October 2013) extra-pseudocapsule resection. The preoperative demographics, tumor characteristics, and surgical complications were not significantly different between groups A and B. Postoperative remission without adjuvant therapy was achieved in 18 of 21 cases (85.7%) in group A, which was significantly greater than that observed in group B (12 of 22 cases [54.4%]). In group A, the pseudocapsules were verified by endoscopy and histopathology. The pseudocapsule was removed en bloc with the whole adenoma in only 5 cases (23.8%). For the remaining 16 patients (76.2%), following extra-pseudocapsule dissection, incomplete pseudocapsule removals with intracapsule procedures were achieved. The combination of extra-pseudocapsule resection and endoscopy led to a high rate of gross total tumor resection and endocrinologicl remission in acromegalic patients compared with the group with intracapsular resection. Extra-pseudocapsule resection resulted in no additional postoperative complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Jutley, G; Karim, R; Joharatnam, N; Latif, S; Lynch, T; Olver, J M
To assess the subjective success and quality of life of adult patients post endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR) for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Retrospective, questionnaire study performed at least 6 months post EE-DCR. Hundred and ten of the 282 consecutive patients who underwent EE-DCR. A standardised questionnaire (Glasgow Benefit Inventory, GBI) was used to analyse the quality of life. The questionnaire examines four parameters, providing total, subscale, social, and physical scores. We aimed to assess patient experience following EE-DCR surgery. Total GBI scores range from -100 to +100, the former reflecting maximal negative benefit and corresponding to subjective worsening of tearing and impact on quality of life. Any positive score reflects a satisfactory surgical outcome and +100 represents maximal positive benefit. A score of zero is no perceived benefit. The average age was 62 years, 63% were female. In three of the parameters measured, there was a subjective improvement post surgery: subscale score 22.16 (95% CI: 15.23-29.09), total score 15.04 (95% CI: 9.74-20.35), and social support score 4.67 (95% CI: 0.93-8.42). Physical health scored -4.47 (95% CI: -10.25 to 1.32). Secondary analyses demonstrate no statistical significance with respect to outcome whether a trainee or consultant performed the procedure. Younger patients (under split median of 63.5) had a better total score 19.04 (95% CI: 11.35-27.74) than those older than 63.5 years (11.04, 95% CI: 3.61-18.47). This study shows that EE-DCR gave patients improvement in quality of life, proven by a validated questionnaire. The mean total score of 15.04 found in our study compares with the 18.7 recorded by Feretis et al in 2009. Results were irrespective of the grade of surgeon, similar to the findings of Fayers et al for functional successes. This study supports the use of EE-DCR for the improvement of quality of life in adult patients.
Koutourousiou, Maria; Filho, Francisco Vaz Guimaraes; Costacou, Tina; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H; Rothfus, William E; Gardner, Paul A
Transclival endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been used for the treatment of posterior fossa tumors. The optimal method of reconstruction of large clival defects following EES has not been established. A morphometric analysis of the posterior fossa was performed in patients who underwent transclival EES to compare those with observed postoperative anatomical changes (study group) to 50 normal individuals (anatomical control group) and 41 matched transclival cases with preserved posterior fossa anatomy (case-control group) using the same parameters. Given the absence of clival bone following transclival EES, the authors used the line between the anterior commissure and the basion as an equivalent to the clival plane to evaluate the location of the pons. Four parameters were studied and compared in the two populations: the pontine location/displacement, the maximum anteroposterior (AP) diameter of the pons, the maximum AP diameter of the fourth ventricle, and the cervicomedullary angle (CMA). All measurements were performed on midsagittal 3-month postoperative MR images in the study group. Among 103 posterior fossa tumors treated with transclival EES, 14 cases (13.6%) with postoperative posterior fossa anatomy changes were identified. The most significant change was anterior displacement of the pons (transclival pontine encephalocele) compared with the normal location in the anatomical control group (p 50% of the clivus) and dura. Nine (64.3%) of the 14 patients were overweight (body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg/m(2)). An association between BMI and the degree of pontine encephalocele was observed, but did not reach statistical significance. The use of a fat graft as part of the reconstruction technique following transclival EES with dural opening was the single significant factor that prevented pontine displacement (p = 0.02), associated with 91% lower odds of pontine encephalocele (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.77). The effect of fat graft reconstruction was
Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Nagm, Alhusain; Hongo, Kazuhiro
Objective The intelligent arm-support system, iArmS, which follows the surgeon's arm and automatically fixes it at an adequate position, was developed as an operation support robot. iArmS was designed to support the surgeon's forearm to prevent hand trembling and to alleviate fatigue during surgery with a microscope. In this study, the authors report on application of this robotic device to endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) and evaluate their initial experiences. Methods The study population consisted of 43 patients: 29 with pituitary adenoma, 3 with meningioma, 3 with Rathke's cleft cyst, 2 with craniopharyngioma, 2 with chordoma, and 4 with other conditions. All patients underwent surgery via the endonasal transsphenoidal approach using a rigid endoscope. During the nasal and sphenoid phases, iArmS was used to support the surgeon's nondominant arm, which held the endoscope. The details of the iArmS and clinical results were collected. Results iArmS followed the surgeon's arm movement automatically. It reduced the surgeon's fatigue and stabilized the surgeon's hand during ETSS. Shaking of the video image decreased due to the steadying of the surgeon's scope-holding hand with iArmS. There were no complications related to use of the device. Conclusions The intelligent armrest, iArmS, seems to be safe and effective during ETSS. iArmS is helpful for improving the precision and safety not only for microscopic neurosurgery, but also for ETSS. Ongoing advances in robotics ensure the continued evolution of neurosurgery.
Zhao, Wensheng; Zhao Xian; Li, Jinjin; Fang, Jianqiao
To study whether the dose of controlling antihypertensive drug is reduced by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) and the anesthetics, as well as the control of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in endoscopic endonasal surgery with general anesthesia. Sixty patients for selective endoscopic endonasal surgery with general anesthetics and controlling antihypertension involved were selected and randomized into a TEAS group, a sham-TEAS group, 30 cases in each one. The electric pads were attached to bilateral Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Quchi (LI 11), stimulated with Hans-200 apparatus, 3 to 5 mA, 2 Hz/100 Hz in the TEAS group based on the patients' response to comfort. No electric stimulation was applied to the sham-TEAS group. The general anesthesia started after 30 min intervention and lasted till the end of surgery. The BP and HR were observed and recorded at the end of monitoring in operation room, 10 min after tranquilization (T0), 30 min after intervention (Tj, after induction~of general anestiesa (T2), 30 min after surgery start (T3), 60 min after surgery start (T4) and 30 min after extubation (T5). The doses of vecuronium bromide, propofol and nitroglycerin were recorded statistically in surgery, as well as the operative bleeding volume, the operative time, the resuscitation time and the visual analogue scale (VAS) score after resuscitation. Compared with that at T0, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at T2, T3, T4 and T5 in the TEAS group and at T3 and T4 in the sham-TEAS group was all reduced, indicating the significant difference (all P 0.05). HR was different at T2 to Ts in the sham-TEAS group statistically (all P 0.05). The general anesthesia with TEAS and anesthetics involved for controlling antihypertension contributes to the control of BP and HR in the patients in endoscopic endonasal surgery. The impacts are not obvious on the doses of antihypertensive drug, the general anesthetics, the operative bleeding
Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas: technical aspects and report of casuistic Abordagem endoscópica endonasal para adenomas de hipófise: aspectos técnicos e relato de casuística
Américo Rubens Leite dos Santos
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyse technical aspects, effectiveness and morbidity of the endoscopic endonasal transphenoidal approach for pituitary adenomas. METHOD: From January 2005 to September 2008, 30 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of pituitary adenomas with a follow up from 3 to 36 months. Their medical charts were retrospectively analysed. RESULTS: There were 18 women and 12 men, mean age 44 years (range 17-65 yr. Among the 30 patients, 23 had macroadenomas and 7 microadenomas. Twelve patients had non-functioning tumors, 9 had ACTH-secreting tumors, 8 had GH-secreting tumors and 1 prolactinoma. Complete resection and hormonal control was achieved in all microadenomas. Macroadenomas were completely removed in 6 patients, subtotal resection in 6 and partial resection in 11. Three patients had diabetes insipidus and 5 had CSF leaks treated with lumbar drainage. CONCLUSION: The endonasal endoscopic approach for pituitary tumors is effective and has low morbidity.OBJETIVO: Analisar aspectos técnicos, eficácia e morbidade do acesso transesfenoidal endonasal endoscópico para adenomas hipofisários. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de trinta pacientes consecutivos submetidos à ressecção endoscópica endonasal de adenomas hipofisários, entre janeiro de 2005 e setembro de 2008, com seguimento pós-operatório entre três e 36 meses. RESULTADOS: Foram operados 18 mulheres e 12 homens com idades variando entre 17 e 65 anos (média 44 anos. Entre os 30 casos operados, 23 eram macroadenomas e sete microadenomas. Doze pacientes apresentavam adenomas não-funcionantes, nove tumores secretores de ACTH, oito tumores secretores de GH e um prolactinoma. Ressecção macroscópica completa e controle endócrino foram conseguidos em todos microadenomas. Ressecção dos macroadenomas foi completa em seis pacientes, subtotal em seis e parcial em seis casos. Três pacientes desenvolveram diabetes insipidus e cinco tiveram fístula liqüórica p
Dho, Yun-Sik; Kim, Yong Hwy; Se, Young-Bem; Han, Doo Hee; Kim, Jung Hee; Park, Chul-Kee; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Dong Gyu
OBJECTIVE The endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) is commonly used for the treatment of craniopharyngioma; therefore, it is essential to analyze outcomes in order to understand the benefits and drawbacks. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes associated with this treatment approach. METHODS From July 2010 to March 2016, 82 adult craniopharyngioma patients underwent an EEA at the authors' institution. Of these cases, intraoperative records and immediate postoperative MR images were available for 68 patients. The patients underwent systemized endocrinological evaluation. Eighteen of 68 patients who underwent EEA for recurrence or regrowth of residual lesions after previous surgical management were excluded in the analysis of the anatomical tumor classification. The authors retrospectively analyzed preoperative clinical features and previous anatomical classifications, focusing on the relationship of the pituitary stalk and tumor, to determine predictive factors for the clinical outcome, such as the extent of resection, visual function, endocrinological function, recurrence rate, and complications. RESULTS The mean tumor size was 2.5 cm (3.1 cm for primary tumors and 1.9 cm for recurrent lesions). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 62 (91.1%) patients (48 [96.0%] patients with primary tumors and 14 [77.8%] patients with recurrent tumors). The rate of GTR was higher in the primary group than in the group with recurrence (p = 0.038). The overall pre- and postoperative visual impairment scale (VIS) scores were 40.8 and 22.1, respectively (50.9 and 14.3 in the primary group and 30.7 and 29.9 in patients with recurrence, respectively). The improvement rate in VIS score was higher in the primary group than in the recurrent group (p = 0.001). Endocrinological function was improved in 4 patients (5.9%) and deteriorated in 32 of 68 patients (47.1%). Tumor invasion into the center of the pituitary stalk affected the postoperative
Oka, Tetsuo; Sugiu, Kenji; Ishida, Joji; Hishikawa, Tomohito; Ono, Shigeki; Tokunaga, Koji; Date, Isao
We report here a case of massive nasal bleeding from the sphenopalatine artery three weeks after endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. This 66-year-old male suffered from massive nasal bleeding with the status of hypovolemic shock. Under general anesthesia, an emergent angiography revealed an extravasation from the sphenopalatine artery. Trans-arterial embolization using coil and n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) was performed following the diagnostic angiography. Complete occlusion of the injured artery was achieved. The patient showed good recovery from general anesthesia. Delayed nasal bleeding after endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is a rare but important complication. The sphenopalatine artery and its branch are located in the hidden inferior lateral corner of the sphenoid sinus and may be injured during enlargement of the sphenoid opening. When massive delayed nasal bleeding follows transsphenoidal surgery and damage of the internal carotid artery has been ruled out, endovascular treatment of the external carotid artery should be considered.
Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery occurring in 0.4–1.1% of cases. Pseudoaneurysms can subsequently result in other complications, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, epistaxis, and caroticocavernous fistula with resultant death or permanent neurologic deficit. In this case, we illustrate endovascular treatment with a flow-diverting stent for an ICA pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic endonasal surgery for a pituitary adenoma in a 56-year-old male. Surgery was complicated by excessive intraoperative bleeding and emergent CT angiography confirmed an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm on the anteromedial surface of the ICA. The pseudoaneurysm was treated endovascularly with flow-diverting stent implantation only. Follow-up CT angiography after three months demonstrated occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm.
Cohen, Salomon; Jones, Samuel H; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Negm, Hazem M; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H
Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a persistent, albeit much less prominent, complication following endonasal endoscopic surgery. The pathology with highest risk is suprasellar meningiomas. A postoperative lumbar drain (LD) is used to decrease the risk of CSF leak but is not universally accepted. To compare the rates of postoperative CSF leak between patients with and without LD who underwent endonasal endoscopic surgical resection of suprasellar meningiomas. A consecutive series of newly diagnosed suprasellar meningiomas was drawn from a prospectively acquired database of endonasal endoscopic surgeries at our institution. An intraoperative, preresection LD was placed and left open at 5 cc/h for ∼48 h. In a subset of patients, the LD could not be placed. Rates of postoperative CSF leak were compared between patients with and without an LD. Twenty-five patients underwent endonasal endoscopic surgical resection of suprasellar meningiomas. An LD could not be placed in 2 patients. There were 2 postoperative CSF leaks (8%), both of which occurred in the patients who did not have an LD (P = .0033). The average body mass index (BMI) of the patients in whom the LD could not be placed was 39.1 kg/m2, compared with 27.6 kg/m2 for those in whom the LD could be placed (P = .009). In the subgroup of obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m2), LD placement was protective against postoperative CSF leak (P = .022). The inability to place an LD in patients with obesity is a risk factor for postoperative CSF leak. An LD may be useful to prevent postoperative CSF leak, particularly in patients with elevated BMI. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Shibata, Teishiki; Tanikawa, Motoki; Sakata, Tomohiro; Mase, Mitsuhito
Craniopharyngiomas are benign tumors and account for approximately 5.6-13% of all intracranial tumors in children. Diagnosis of pediatric craniopharyngioma is often delayed until the tumor becomes relatively large and manifests severe visual and/or endocrine disturbance. Endoscopic endonasal approaches have recently been introduced to surgery for craniopharyngioma. These techniques, however, have rarely been utilized in patients affected with craniopharyngioma as young as 1 year old. This report documents a 12-month-old male infant with sellar craniopharyngioma who presented with acute total vision loss. To increase the chances of visual recovery, an endoscopic endonasal optic nerve decompression was performed as an urgent procedure. After decompression, which resulted in improvement of his visual disturbance, gross total resection of the tumor was undertaken through an anterior interhemispheric approach at a later date. Tumor mass reduction through an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach followed by secondary radical total resection under craniotomy was considered to be useful in cases such as this when urgent optic nerve decompression is required. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
de Notaris, Matteo; Solari, Domenico; Cavallo, Luigi M; D'Enza, Alfonso Iodice; Enseñat, Joaquim; Berenguer, Joan; Ferrer, Enrique; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Cappabianca, Paolo
The tuberculum sellae is a bony elevation ridge that lines up the anterior aspect of the sella, dividing it from the chiasmatic groove. The recent use of the endoscopic endonasal transtuberculum approach has provided surgeons with a method to reach the suprasellar area, offering a new surgical point of view somehow "opposite" of this area. The authors of this study aimed to define the tuberculum sellae as seen from the endoscopic endonasal view while also providing CT-based systematic measurements to objectively detail the anatomical features of such a structure, which was renamed the "suprasellar notch." The authors analyzed routine skull CT scans from 24 patients with no brain pathology or fractures and measured the interoptic distance at the level of the limbus sphenoidale, the chiasmatic groove sulcal length and width, and the angle of the suprasellar notch. Indeed, the suprasellar notch was defined as the angle between 2 lines, the first passing through the tuberculum sellae midpoint and perpendicular to the cribriform plate, and a second line passing between 2 points, the midpoints of the limbus sphenoidale and the tuberculum sellae. Moreover, the authors performed on 15 cadaveric heads an endoscopic endonasal transplanum transtuberculum approach with the aid of a neuronavigator to achieve a step-by-step comparison with the radiological data. The whole CT scanning set was statistically analyzed to determine the statistical interdependency of the suprasellar notch angle with the other 3 measurements, that is, the sulcal length at the midline, the interoptic distance at the optic canal entrance, and the interoptic distance at the limbus. Based on the endoscopic endonasal view and CT imaging analysis, the authors identified a certain anatomical variability and thus introduced a new classification of the suprasellar notch: Type I, angle 138°. They then analyzed the surgical implications of the endoscopic endonasal approach to the suprasellar area, which could be
Dallan, Iacopo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; de Notaris, Matteo; Sellari-Franceschini, Stefano; Lenzi, Riccardo; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Prats-Galino, Alberto
The superior orbital fissure is a critical three-dimensional space connecting the middle cranial fossa and the orbit. From an endoscopic viewpoint, only the medial aspect has a clinical significance. It presents a critical relationship with the lateral sellar compartment, the pterygopalatine fossa and the middle cranial fossa. The connective tissue layers and neural and vascular structures of this region are described. The role of Muller's muscle is confirmed, and the utility of the maxillary and optic strut is outlined. Muller's muscle extends for the whole length of the inferior orbital fissure, passes over the maxillary strut and enters the superior orbital fissure, representing a critical surgical landmark. Dividing the tendon between the medial and inferior rectus muscle allows the identification of the main trunk of the oculomotor nerve, and a little laterally, it is usually possible to visualize the first part of the ophthalmic artery. Based on a better knowledge of anatomy, we trust that this area could be readily addressed in clinical situations requiring an extended approach in proximity of the orbital apex.
Edson Rocha Constantino
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective In this study, we investigate our institutional experience of patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for treatment of large and giant pituitary adenomas emphasizing the surgical results and approach-related complications. Method The authors reviewed 28 consecutive patients who underwent surgery between March, 2010 and March, 2014. Results The mean preoperative tumor diameter was 4.6 cm. Gross-total resection was achieved in 14.3%, near-total in 10.7%, subtotal in 39.3%, and partial in 35.7%. Nine patients experienced improvement in visual acuity, while one patient worsened. The most common complications were transient diabetes insipidus (53%, new pituitary deficit (35.7%, endonasal adhesions (21.4%, and cerebrospinal fluid leak (17.8%. Surgical mortality was 7.1%. Conclusions Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is a valuable treatment option for large or giant pituitary adenomas, which results in high rates of surgical decompression of cerebrovascular structures.
Ishii, Yudo; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio
In recent years, resections of midline skull base tumors have been conducted using endoscopic endonasal skull base (EESB) approaches. Nevertheless, many surgeons reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is still a major complication of these approaches. Here, we report the results of our 42 EESB surgeries and discuss the advantages and limits of this approach for resecting various types of tumors, and also report our technique to overcome CSF leakage. All 42 cases involved midline skull base tumors resected using the EESB technique. Dural incisions were closed using nasoseptal flaps and fascia patch inlay sutures. Total removal of the tumor was accomplished in seven pituitary adenomas (33.3%), five craniopharyngiomas (62.5%), five tuberculum sellae meningiomas (83.3%), three clival chordomas (100%), and one suprasellar ependymoma. Residual regions included the cavernous sinus, the outside of the intracranial part of the internal carotid artery, the lower lateral part of the posterior clivus, and the posterior pituitary stalk. Overall incidence of CSF leakage was 7.1%. Even though the versatility of the approach is limited, EESB surgery has many advantages compared to the transcranial approach for managing mid-line skull base lesions. To avoid CSF leakage, surgeons should have skills and techniques for complete closure, including use of the nasoseptal flap and fascia patch inlay techniques.
Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey
Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of cranial nerves (CNs) VII, IX, X, XI, and XII in skull base surgeries performed using endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to reduce iatrogenic CN deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 73 patients out of 990 patients who had EEA in our institution who had at least one CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as group I and those who did not as group II. Results We monitored a total of 342 CNs. A total of 62 nerves had SG f-EMG activity including CN VII = 18, CN IX = 16, CN X = 13, CN XI = 5, and CN XII = 10. No nerve deficit was found in the nerves that had significant activity during procedure. A total of five nerve deficits including (CN IX = 1, CN X = 2, CN XII = 2) were observed in the group that did not display SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG seems highly sensitive to surgical manipulations and in locating CNs. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of lower CNs during EEA procedures need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.
Reyes, Camilo; Mason, Eric; Solares, C. Arturo
Introduction A substantial body of literature has been devoted to the distinct characteristics and surgical options to repair the skull base. However, the skull base is an anatomically challenging location that requires a three-dimensional reconstruction approach. Furthermore, advances in endoscopic skull base surgery encompass a wide range of surgical pathology, from benign tumors to sinonasal cancer. This has resulted in the creation of wide defects that yield a new challenge in skull base reconstruction. Progress in technology and imaging has made this approach an internationally accepted method to repair these defects. Objectives Discuss historical developments and flaps available for skull base reconstruction. Data Synthesis Free grafts in skull base reconstruction are a viable option in small defects and low-flow leaks. Vascularized flaps pose a distinct advantage in large defects and high-flow leaks. When open techniques are used, free flap reconstruction techniques are often necessary to repair large entry wound defects. Conclusions Reconstruction of skull base defects requires a thorough knowledge of surgical anatomy, disease, and patient risk factors associated with high-flow cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Various reconstruction techniques are available, from free tissue grafting to vascularized flaps. Possible complications that can befall after these procedures need to be considered. Although endonasal techniques are being used with increasing frequency, open techniques are still necessary in selected cases. PMID:25992142
Singh, Ramandeep; Baby, Britty; Damodaran, Natesan; Srivastav, Vinkle; Suri, Ashish; Banerjee, Subhashis; Kumar, Subodh; Kalra, Prem; Prasad, Sanjiva; Paul, Kolin; Anand, Sneh; Kumar, Sanjeev; Dhiman, Varun; Ben-Israel, David; Kapoor, Kulwant Singh
Box trainers are ideal simulators, given they are inexpensive, accessible, and use appropriate fidelity. The development and validation of an open-source, partial task simulator that teaches the fundamental skills necessary for endonasal skull-base neuro-endoscopic surgery. We defined the Neuro-Endo-Trainer (NET) SkullBase-Task-GraspPickPlace with an activity area by analyzing the computed tomography scans of 15 adult patients with sellar suprasellar parasellar tumors. Four groups of participants (Group E, n = 4: expert neuroendoscopists; Group N, n =19: novice neurosurgeons; Group R, n = 11: neurosurgery residents with multiple iterations; and Group T, n = 27: neurosurgery residents with single iteration) performed grasp, pick, and place tasks using NET and were graded on task completion time and skills assessment scale score. Group E had lower task completion times and greater skills assessment scale scores than both Group N and R (P ≤ 0.03, 0.001). The performance of Groups N and R was found to be equivalent; in self-assessing neuro-endoscopic skill, the participants in these groups were found to have equally low pretraining scores (4/10) with significant improvement shown after NET simulation (6, 7 respectively). Angled scopes resulted in decreased scores with tilted plates compared with straight plates (30° P ≤ 0.04, 45° P ≤ 0.001). With tilted plates, decreased scores were observed when we compared the 0° with 45° endoscope (right, P ≤ 0.008; left, P ≤ 0.002). The NET, a face and construct valid open-source partial task neuroendoscopic trainer, was designed. Presimulation novice neurosurgeons and neurosurgical residents were described as having insufficient skills and preparation to practice neuro-endoscopy. Plate tilt and endoscope angle were shown to be important factors in participant performance. The NET was found to be a useful partial-task trainer for skill building in neuro-endoscopy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mamelak, Adam N; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien H; Cooper, Odelia; Melmed, Shlomo
The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery using a single-surgeon technique as an alternative to the more commonly employed two-surgeon, three-hand method. Three hundred consecutive endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures performed over a 5 year period from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed. All procedures were performed via a binasal approach utilizing a single surgeon two handed technique with a pneumatic endoscope holder. Expanded enodnansal cases were excluded. Surgical technique, biochemical and surgical outcomes, and complications were analyzed. 276 patients underwent 300 consecutive surgeries with a mean follow-up period of 37 ± 22 months. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) was the most common pathology (n = 152), followed by growth hormone secreting tumors (n = 41) and Rathke's cleft cysts (n = 30). Initial gross total cyst drainage based on radiologic criteria was obtained in 28 cases of Rathke's cleft cyst, with 5 recurrences. For NFPA and other pathologies (n = 173) gross total resection was obtained in 137 cases, with a 92% concordance rate between observed and expected extent of resection. For functional adenoma, remission rates were 30/41 (73%) for GH-secreting, 12/12 (100%) for ACTH-secreting, and 8/17 (47%) for prolactin-secreting tumors. Post-operative complications included transient (11%) and permanent (1.4%) diabetes insipidus, hyponatremia (13%), and new anterior pituitary hormonal deficits (1.4%). CSF leak occurred in 42 cases (15%), and four patients required surgical repair. Two carotid artery injuries occurred, both early in the series. Epistaxis and other rhinological complications were noted in 10% of patients, most of which were minor and diminished as surgical experience increased. Fully endoscopic single surgeon transsphenoidal surgery utilizing a binasal approach and a pneumatic endoscope holder yields outcomes comparable to those reported with a two-surgeon method. Endoscopic outcomes
Conclusions: Endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach is considered one of the most useful surgical solutions to manage selected tumors that involve the infratemporal fossa. A good understanding of the endoscopic anatomy of infratemporal fossa allows safe and complete resection of lesions arising or extending to infratemporal fossa.
Fujimoto, Kenji; Yano, Shigetoshi; Shinojima, Naoki; Hide, Takuichiro; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi
With the rapid aging of the general population, the number of pituitary adenoma (PA) diagnosed in elderly patients is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for PA in patients aged ≥80 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients aged ≥80 years who underwent ETSS for PA at our hospital from January 2001 through December 2014. Treatment results were assessed by the extent of surgical removal, symptom improvement, postoperative complications, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS). The results were also compared with the surgical result of PA patients aged <80 years. Twelve patients aged ≥80 years underwent ETSS for PA. Recovery of visual function was observed in 11 patients (91.7%). Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage was observed in 3 patients. New hormonal replacement therapy was required in 2 patients. These complications had not affected patient prognosis. During the follow-up periods, deterioration of KPS was observed in 2 patients due to pneumonia or cerebral infarction. In total, 150 PA patients aged <80 years were compared with the patients aged ≥80 years. The percentage of total removal was significantly higher in the younger patient group than that in the older one (54.0% vs 16.6%, respectively; P = 0.016). Visual improvement was observed in 93.2% of the younger patient group, which was almost equal to that in the older one. ETSS is a safe and effective surgical technique in PA patients aged ≥80 years.
Koutourousiou, Maria; Winstead, Welby I
Complete surgical resection of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is the gold standard of treatment of Cushing disease. Ectopic location of these adenomas is an extremely rare condition that may compromise the diagnosis and surgical success. We present the first case of an ectopic intracavernous ACTH-secreting macroadenoma totally resected with endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES). A 36-year-old woman presented with Cushing syndrome. Increased ACTH, serum cortisol, and free urine cortisol levels were identified; however, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging failed to show a pituitary tumor; instead, a parasellar lesion in the left cavernous sinus (CS) was noticed. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed a significant central to peripheral and lateralized left-sided ACTH gradient. The patient underwent EES. No tumor was found in the sella; however, the left CS was widely explored and a tumor was found lateral to the paraclival segment of the carotid artery. There were no complications after EES. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of an ACTH-secreting adenoma. During the immediate postoperative course, serum cortisol levels decreased lower than 5 μg/dL. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed complete tumor resection. At 20 months follow-up, the patient remained in clinical and biochemical remission of Cushing disease. Only 12 cases of ectopic intracavernous ACTH-secreting adenomas have been reported and all were microadenomas. The presence of an ectopic ACTH-secreting macroadenoma in the CS represents a surgical challenge. EES is the ideal approach for complete resection of ectopic intracavernous adenomas, allowing for a wide exploration of the CS with no surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Babu, Harish; Ortega, Alicia; Nuno, Miriam; Dehghan, Aaron; Schweitzer, Aaron; Bonert, H Vivien; Carmichael, John D; Cooper, Odelia; Melmed, Shlomo; Mamelak, Adam N
Long-term remission rates from endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly and their relationship to prognostic indicators of disease aggressiveness are not well documented. To investigate long-term remission rates in patients with acromegaly after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, and correlate this with molecular and radiographic markers of disease aggressiveness. We identified all patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly from 2005 to 2013 at Cedars-Sinai Pituitary Center. Hormonal remission was established by normal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, basal serum growth hormone <2.5 ng/mL, and growth hormone suppression to <1 ng/mL following oral glucose tolerance test. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 3 months after surgery, and then as indicated. IGF-1 was measured at 3 months and then at least annually. We evaluated tumor granularity, nuclear expression of p21, Ki67 index, and extent of cavernous sinus invasion, and correlated these with remission status. Fifty-eight patients that underwent surgery had follow-up from 38 to 98 months (mean 64 ± 32.2 months). There were 21 microadenomas and 37 macroadenomas. Three months after surgery 40 of 58 patients (69%) were in biochemical remission. Four additional patients were in remission at 6 months after surgery, and 1 patient had recurrence within the first year after surgery. At last follow-up, 43 of 44 (74.1%) of patients remained in remission. Cavernous sinus invasion by tumor predicted failure to achieve remission. Prognostic markers of disease aggressiveness other than cavernous sinus invasion did not correlate with surgical outcome. Long-term remission after surgery alone was achieved in 74% of patients, indicating long-term efficacy of endoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Borg, Anouk; Kirkman, Matthew A; Choi, David
Endoscopic skull base surgery is becoming more popular as an approach to the anterior skull base for tumors and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae. It offers the advantages of better cosmesis and improved quality of life after surgery. We reviewed the complication rates reported in the literature. A literature search was performed in the electronic database Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to August 25, 2015) with the search item "([Anterior] AND Skull base surgery) AND endoscopic." We identified 82 relevant studies that included 7460 cases. An average overall complication rate of 17.1% (range 0%-68.0%) and a mortality rate of 0.4% (0%-10.0%) were demonstrated in a total of 82 studies that included 7460 cases. The average CSF leak rate for all studies was 8.9% (0%-40.0%) with meningiomas and clival lesions having the greatest CSF leak rates. The most frequent benign pathology encountered was pituitary adenomas (n = 3720, 49.8% of all cases) and the most frequent malignant tumor was esthesioneuroblastoma (n = 120, 1.6% of all cases). Studies that included only CSF fistula repairs had a lower average total complication rate (12.9%) but a greater rate of meningitis compared with studies that reported mixed pathology (2.4% vs. 1.3%). A trend towards a lower total complication rate with increasing study size was observed. The endoscopic approach is an increasingly accepted technique for anterior skull base tumor surgery and is associated with acceptable complication rates. Increasing experience with this technique can decrease rates of complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kikuchi, Ryogo; Toda, Masahiro; Tomita, Toshiki; Ogawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Kazunari
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of endoscopic endonasal surgery, conducted by a team of neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. We studied 40 patients who were undergoing surgery for primary non-functional pituitary adenomas with Knosp grades 1 to 3, at Keio University Hospital between 2005 and 2012. We compared the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (team-eTSS; T-eTSS), with a microscopic transsphenoidal approach (mTSS). Analyses were conducted for differences between the two groups in tumor resection rates, operating durations, and complications from the non-functional pituitary adenomas. We also compared the heminostril and binostril approaches for T-eTSS. Tumor resection rates were higher when the surgeries were conducted by T-eTSS than mTSS. In particular, when the maximum tumor diameter was more than 25 mm, resection rates were significantly higher for T-eTSS than for mTSS. There were no unexpected complications in either group. There was no significant difference in resection rates between the heminostril and binostril approaches when T-eTSS was performed. T-eTSS is an efficacious surgical option for non-functional pituitary adenomas, particularly when the adenoma is of large size. Benefits of the heminostril approach are evident.
Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Mendez, Gustavo; Cua, David; Akins, Paul; Gillham, Haley; Ciporen, Jeremy
High flow orbital apex or middle fossa cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks can be life threatening and complex to repair. These leaks associated with large dural defects are most commonly repaired with an open temporalis muscle patch or free flaps, but these flaps do not always stop the leak. A 65-year-old patient presented two years after orbital exenteration and radiation for squamous cell carcinoma. He developed multi-organism meningitis and pneumocephalus secondary to a large high-flow orbital apex/middle fossa CSF leak. To repair the leak, a combined endoscopic transorbital/endonasal approach with pedicled nasospetal flap and dermis fat graft was used. We describe the unique endoscopic technique that was used to treat the life threatening high flow orbital apex/middle fossa CSF leak. The technique allowed the use of the transposed pedicled flap, which is an alternative to the free flap in controlling CSF leak. Cisternogram post-operatively and clinical exam confirmed resolution of CSF leak. Although a critically ill patient at admission with a modified Rankin scale (MRS) of 5, he was discharged home on continued IV antibiotic therapy with a MRS of 3. Endoscopic evaluation at three months after treatment showed the effectiveness of the flap and he continued to improve clinically. This is the first case to describe a combined endoscopic transorbital and endonasal repair of high flow orbital apex/middle fossa CSF leak with a pedicled nasoseptal flap. These techniques can be utilized during initial reconstruction after orbital exenteration or as a salvage flap.
Sharifi, Guive; Jalessi, Maryam; Sarvghadi, Farzaneh; Farhadi, Mohammad
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is an uncommon polyostotic manifestation of fibrous dysplasia in association with at least one endocrinopathy that is mostly associated with precocious puberty and hyperpigmented skin macules named café-au-lait spots. We present an atypical manifestation of McCune-Albright syndrome in a 19-year-old man with the uncommon association of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and gigantism in the absence of café-au-lait spots and precocious puberty. He presented with a height increase to 202 cm in the previous 3 years, which had become more progressive in the few months prior. Physical examination revealed only a mild facial asymmetry; however, a computed tomography (CT) scan discovered vast areas of voluminous bones with ground-glass density and thickening involving the craniofacial bones and skull base. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) found a right stalk shift of the pituitary with a 20 mm pituitary adenoma. We describe the diagnostic and endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for excision of the tumor. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Pledger, Carrie L; Elzoghby, Mohamed A; Oldfield, Edward H; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A
OBJECT Both endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal approaches are accepted techniques for the resection of pituitary adenomas. Although studies have explored patient outcomes for each technique individually, none have prospectively compared sinonasal and quality of life outcomes in a concurrent series of patients at the same institution, as has been done in the present study. METHODS Patients with nonfunctioning adenomas undergoing transsphenoidal surgery were assessed for sinonasal function, quality of life, and pain using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20), the short form of the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) instrument, the SF-36, and a headache scale. Eighty-two patients undergoing either endoscopic (47 patients) or microscopic (35 patients) surgery were surveyed preoperatively and at 24-48 hours, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. RESULTS Patients who underwent endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery experienced a similar recovery pattern, showing an initial increase in symptoms during the first 2 weeks, followed by a return to baseline by 4 weeks and improvement beyond baseline functioning by 8 weeks. Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery experienced better sinonasal outcomes at 24-48 hours (SNOT total p = 0.015, SNOT rhinologic subscale [ssRhino] p surgery, no significant differences in sinonasal outcomes were observed between the 2 groups. Headache scales at 1 year improved in all dimensions except duration for both groups (total result 73%, p = 0.004; severity 46%, p surgery, both groups experienced significant improvements in mental health (13%, p = 0.005) and vitality (15%, p = 0.037). By 1 year after surgery, patients improved significantly in mental health (14%, p = 0.03), role physical (14%, p = 0.036), social functioning (16%, p = 0.009), vitality (22%, p = 0.002), and SF-36 total (10%, p = 0.024) as compared with preoperative measures. There were no significant differences at any time point
de Almeida, John R; Carvalho, Felipe; Vaz Guimaraes Filho, Francisco; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Koutourousiou, Maria; Su, Shirley; Vescan, Allan D; Witterick, Ian J; Zadeh, Gelareh; Wang, Eric W; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Gardner, Paul A; Gentili, Fred; Snyderman, Carl H
We compare the outcomes and postoperative MRI changes of endoscopic endonasal (EEA) and bifrontal craniotomy (BFC) approaches for olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). All patients who underwent either BFC or EEA for OGM were eligible. Matched pairs were created by matching tumor volumes of an EEA patient with a BFC patient, and matching the timing of the postoperative scans. The tumor dimensions, peritumoral edema, resectability issues, and frontal lobe changes were recorded based on preoperative and postoperative MRI. Postoperative fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity and residual cystic cavity (porencephalic cave) volume were compared using univariable and multivariable analyses. From a total of 70 patients (46 EEA, 24 BFC), 10 matched pairs (20 patients) were created. Three patients (30%) in the EEA group and two (20%) in the BFC had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks (p=0.61). Gross total resections were achieved in seven (70%) of the EEA group and nine (90%) of the BFC group (p=0.26), and one patient from each group developed a recurrence. On postoperative MRI, there was no significant difference in FLAIR signal volumes between EEA and BFC approaches (6.9 versus 13.3 cm(3); p=0.17) or in porencephalic cave volumes (1.7 versus 5.0 cm(3); p=0.11) in univariable analysis. However, in a multivariable analysis, EEA was associated with less postoperative FLAIR change (p=0.02) after adjusting for the volume of preoperative edema. This study provides preliminary evidence that EEA is associated with quantifiable improvements in postoperative frontal lobe imaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Muskens, Ivo S; Briceno, Vanessa; Ouwehand, Tom L; Castlen, Joseph P; Gormley, William B; Aglio, Linda S; Zamanipoor Najafabadi, Amir H; van Furth, Wouter R; Smith, Timothy R; Mekary, Rania A; Broekman, Marike L D
In the past decade, the endonasal transsphenoidal approach (eTSA) has become an alternative to the microsurgical transcranial approach (mTCA) for tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSMs) and olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs). The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate which approach offered the best surgical outcomes. A systematic review of the literature from 2004 and meta-analysis were conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Pooled incidence was calculated for gross total resection (GTR), visual improvement, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, intraoperative arterial injury, and mortality, comparing eTSA and mTCA, with p-interaction values. Of 1684 studies, 64 case series were included in the meta-analysis. Using the fixed-effects model, the GTR rate was significantly higher among mTCA patients for OGM (eTSA: 70.9% vs. mTCA: 88.5%, p-interaction OGM (p-interaction = 0.33). CSF leak was significantly higher among eTSA patients for both OGM (eTSA: 25.1% vs. mTCA: 10.5%, p-interaction OGM resection (p-interaction = 0.10). Mortality was not significantly different between eTSA and mTCA patients for both TSM (p-interaction = 0.14) and OGM resection (p-interaction = 0.88). Random-effect models yielded similar results. In this meta-analysis, eTSA was not shown to be superior to mTCA for resection of both OGMs and TSMs.
Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is
Golbin, Denis A.; Lasunin, Nikolay V.; Cherekaev, Vasily A.; Polev, Georgiy A.
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a buccal fat pad for endoscopic skull base defect reconstruction. Design Descriptive anatomical study with an illustrative case presentation. Setting Anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadaver specimens with injected arteries (24 sides). Internal carotid artery was exposed in the coronal plane via the endoscopic transpterygoid approach. The pedicled buccal fat pad was used for reconstruction. Participants: 12 human cadaver head specimens; one patient operated using the proposed technique. Main outcome measures: Proximity of the buccal fat pad flap to the defect, compliance of the flap, comfort and safety of harvesting procedure, and compatibility with the Hadad–Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. Results: Harvesting procedure was performed using anterior transmaxillary corridor. The pedicled buccal fat pad flap can be used to pack the sphenoid sinus or cover the internal carotid artery from cavernous to upper parapharyngeal segment. Conclusion The buccal fat pad can be safely harvested through the same approach without external incisions and is compliant enough to conform to the skull base defect. The proposed pedicled flap can replace free abdominal fat in central skull base reconstruction. The volume of the buccal fat pad allows obliteration of the sphenoid sinus or upper parapharyngeal space. PMID:28180047
Craig, John R; Lee, John Y K; Petrov, Dmitriy; Mehta, Sonul; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D
Open versus endonasal resection of orbital apex (OA) tumors is generally based on tumor size, location, and pathology. For endonasal resection, two- and four-handed techniques have been reported, but whether one technique is more optimal based on these tumor features has not been evaluated. To determine whether two- versus four-handed techniques result in better outcomes after endoscopic resection of OA tumors, and whether either technique is better suited for intra- versus extraconal location and for benign versus malignant pathology. A retrospective review of all expanded endonasal approaches for OA tumors was performed at a single institution from 2009 to 2013. A PubMed database search was also performed to review series published on endonasal OA tumor resection. Across all the cases reviewed, the following data were recorded: two- versus four-handed techniques, intra- versus extraconal tumor location, and benign versus malignant pathology. The relationship between these variables and resection extent was analyzed by the Fisher exact test. Postoperative visual status and complications were also reviewed. Ten cases from the institution and 94 cases from 17 publications were reviewed. Both two- and four-handed techniques were used to resect extra- and intraconal OA tumors, for both benign and malignant pathology. Four-handed techniques included a purely endonasal approach and a combined endonasal-orbital approach. On univariate analysis, the strongest predictor of complete resection was benign pathology (p = 0.005). No significant difference was found between the extent of resection and a two- versus a four-handed technique. Visual status was improved or unchanged in 94% of cases, and other complications were rare. Benign tumors that involve the medial extraconal and posterior inferomedial intraconal OA can be treated by either two- or four-handed endonasal techniques. Selecting two- versus four-handed techniques and endonasal versus endonasal-orbital four
Cheng, You; Xue, Fei; Wang, Tian-You; Ji, Jun-Feng; Chen, Wei; Wang, Zhi-Yi; Xu, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua; Liu, Xin-Feng
Abstract In this study, we analyze and discuss the treatments of postoperative nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary neoplasms (PNs). We performed 129 endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs and analyzed and treated cases with nasal complications. After endonasal transsphenoidal resection of PNs, there were 26 cases of postoperative nasal complications (20.1%), including nasal hemorrhage (4.8%), cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea (6.9%), sphenoid sinusitis (2.3%), atrophic rhinitis (1.6%), olfactory disorder (1.6%), perforation of nasal septum (0.8%), and nasal adhesion (2.3%). All patients clinically recovered after therapy, which included treatment of the cavity through nasal endoscopy, intranasal corticosteroids, and nasal irrigation. We propose that regular nasal endoscopic review, specific nasal medications, and regular nasal irrigation can effectively clear nasal mucosal hyperemia-induced edema and nasal/nasoantral secretions, as well as promote regeneration of nasal mucosa, prevent nasal adhesion, maintain the sinus cavity drainage, and accelerate the recovery of the physiological function of the paranasal sinus. Timely treatment of patients with nasal complications after endonasal transsphenoidal resections of PNs could greatly relieve the clinical symptoms. Nasal cleaning is very beneficial to patients after surgery recovery. PMID:28403108
Oyama, Kenichi; Prevedello, Daniel M; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Muto, Jun; Gun, Ramazan; Kerr, Edward E; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L
The interpeduncular cistern, including the retrochiasmatic area, is one of the most challenging regions to approach surgically. Various conventional approaches to this region have been described; however, only the endoscopic endonasal approach via the dorsum sellae and the transpetrosal approach provide ideal exposure with a caudal-cranial view. The authors compared these 2 approaches to clarify their limitations and intrinsic advantages for access to the interpeduncular cistern. Four fresh cadaver heads were studied. An endoscopic endonasal approach via the dorsum sellae with pituitary transposition was performed to expose the interpeduncular cistern. A transpetrosal approach was performed bilaterally, combining a retrolabyrinthine presigmoid and a subtemporal transtentorium approach. Water balloons were used to simulate space-occupying lesions. "Water balloon tumors" (WBTs), inflated to 2 different volumes (0.5 and 1.0 ml), were placed in the interpeduncular cistern to compare visualization using the 2 approaches. The distances between cranial nerve (CN) III and the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) and between CN III and the edge of the tentorium were measured through a transpetrosal approach to determine the width of surgical corridors using 0- to 6-ml WBTs in the interpeduncular cistern (n = 8). Both approaches provided adequate exposure of the interpeduncular cistern. The endoscopic endonasal approach yielded a good visualization of both CN III and the PCoA when a WBT was in the interpeduncular cistern. Visualization of the contralateral anatomical structures was impaired in the transpetrosal approach. The surgical corridor to the interpeduncular cistern via the transpetrosal approach was narrow when the WBT volume was small, but its width increased as the WBT volume increased. There was a statistically significant increase in the maximum distance between CN III and the PCoA (p = 0.047) and between CN III and the tentorium (p = 0.029) when the WBT volume
Mason, Eric; Van Rompaey, Jason; Carrau, Ricardo; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo
Advances in the field of skull base surgery aim to maximize anatomical exposure while minimizing patient morbidity. The petroclival region of the skull base presents numerous challenges for surgical access due to the complex anatomy. The transcochlear approach to the region provides adequate access; however, the resection involved sacrifices hearing and results in at least a grade 3 facial palsy. An endoscopic endonasal approach could potentially avoid negative patient outcomes while providing a desirable surgical window in a select patient population. Cadaveric study. Endoscopic access to the petroclival region was achieved through an endonasal approach. For comparison, a transcochlear approach to the clivus was performed. Different facets of the dissections, such as bone removal volume and exposed surface area, were computed using computed tomography analysis. The endoscopic endonasal approach provided a sufficient corridor to the petroclival region with significantly less bone removal and nearly equivalent exposure of the surgical target, thus facilitating the identification of the relevant anatomy. The lateral approach allowed for better exposure from a posterolateral direction until the inferior petrosal sinus; however, the endonasal approach avoided labyrinthine/cochlear destruction and facial nerve manipulation while providing an anteromedial viewpoint. The endonasal approach also avoided external incisions and cosmetic deficits. The endonasal approach required significant sinonasal resection. Endoscopic access to the petroclival region is a feasible approach. It potentially avoids hearing loss, facial nerve manipulation, and cosmetic damage. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Laws, Edward R; Wong, Judith M; Smith, Timothy R; de Los Reyes, Kenneth; Aglio, Linda S; Thorne, Alison J; Cote, David J; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Gawande, Atul
OBJECT Approximately 250 million surgical procedures are performed annually worldwide, and data suggest that major complications occur in 3%-17% of them. Many of these complications can be classified as avoidable, and previous studies have demonstrated that preoperative checklists improve operating room teamwork and decrease complication rates. Although the authors' institution has instituted a general preoperative "time-out" designed to streamline communication, flatten vertical authority gradients, and decrease procedural errors, there is no specific checklist for transnasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery, with or without endoscopy. Such minimally invasive cranial surgery uses a completely different conceptual approach, set-up, instrumentation, and operative procedure. Therefore, it can be associated with different types of complications as compared with open cranial surgery. The authors hypothesized that a detailed, procedure-specific, preoperative checklist would be useful to reduce errors, improve outcomes, decrease delays, and maximize both teambuilding and operational efficiency. Thus, the object of this study was to develop such a checklist for endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery. METHODS An expert panel was convened that consisted of all members of the typical surgical team for transsphenoidal endoscopic cases: neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, circulating nurses, scrub technicians, surgical operations managers, and technical assistants. Beginning with a general checklist, procedure-specific items were added and categorized into 4 pauses: Anesthesia Pause, Surgical Pause, Equipment Pause, and Closure Pause. RESULTS The final endonasal transsphenoidal anterior skull base surgery checklist is composed of the following 4 pauses. The Anesthesia Pause consists of patient identification, diagnosis, pertinent laboratory studies, medications, surgical preparation, patient positioning, intravenous/arterial access, fluid management
Maryam Jalessi, M.D.
Full Text Available We present an extremely rare case of transsellar transsphenoidal meningoencephalocele in a 36-year-old woman with pituitary dwarfism complaining of nasal obstruction. Imaging studies showed a bony defect in the sellar floor and sphenoid sinus with huge nasopharyngeal mass and 3rd ventricle involvement. Using endoscopic endonasal approach the sac was partially removed and the defect was reconstructed with fat and fascial graft, and buttressed with titanium mesh and septal flap. Visual field improvement was noticed post-operatively and no complication was encountered during follow-up. So, endoscopic endonasal approach with partial resection of the sac is a safe and effective treatment for this disease
Full Text Available P Eloy, E Leruth, B Bertrand, Ph RombauxENT and HNS department, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Université Catholique de Louvain, 5530, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Wegener’s granulomatosis (WG is one form of idiopathic autoimmune vasculitis. The disease has a predilection for the upper and lower respiratory tracts (lungs, nose, sinus, and kidneys. WG may be systemic, severe, and potentially lethal, but it may also be limited to the otolaryngological area or to the eyes and the orbits. Obstruction of the lacrimal pathway is a possible complication of the disease that affects approximately 7% of patients with WG. It usually occurs as a direct extension of sinonasal disease and typically is a late manifestation. Management of such a condition is generally viewed as difficult. We report the case of a patient with a quiescent WG limited to the otolaryngological area. This patient presented a bilateral obstruction of the nasolacrimal ducts caused by bilateral extensive adhesions in the nasal cavity. Because she had several episodes of left-side acute dacryocystitis which necessitated several courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics, she successfully underwent an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy using a diode laser and powered instrumentation. The authors describe the clinical case, the surgical technique, and review the literature.Keywords: Wegener’s granulomatosis, recurrent dacryocystitis, endonasal DCR, diode, laser, powered instrumentation
Jørgensen, S.B.; Bojer, Martin Saxtorph; Boll, E.J.
disinfection in a decontaminator designated for such use. The genetic marker clpK, which increases microbial heat resistance, has previously been described in K. pneumoniae outbreak strains. Aim To investigate the role of clpK in biofilm formation and heat-shock stability in the outbreak strain. Methods...... construction and heat-shock assays. Findings Five patients and one intubation endoscope contained K. pneumoniae with the same amplified fragment length polymorphism pattern. The outbreak strain contained the clpK genetic marker, which rendered the strain its increased heat resistance. The survival rate....... Heat resistance of certain K. pneumoniae strains may facilitate survival in biofilms on medical equipment and hence increase the potential of those strains to persist and disperse in the hospital environment....
Sharma, Shilpee Bhatia; Janakiram, Trichy Narayanan; Baxi, Hina; Chinnasamy, Balamurugan
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign tumour which has propensity to erode the skull base. The tumour spreads along the pathways of least resistance and is in close proximity to the extracranial part of trigeminal nerve. Advancements in expanded approaches for endoscopic excision of tumours in infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa increase the vulnerability for the trigeminocardiac reflex. The manipulation of nerve and its branches during tumour dissection can lead to sensory stimulation and thus inciting the reflex. The aim of our study is to report the occurrence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endoscopic excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. To describe the occurence of trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic endonasal excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. We studied the occurrence of TCR in 15 patients (out of 242 primary cases and 52 revision cases) operated for endoscopic endonasal excision of JNA. The drop in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were observed and measured. To the best of our knowledge of English literature, this is the first case series reporting TCR as complication in endoscopic excision of JNA. occurence of this reflex has been mentioned in various occular, maxillofacial surgeries but its occurence during endoscopic excision of JNA has never been reported before. Manifestation of trigeminocardiac reflex during surgery can alter the course of the surgery and is a potential threat to life. It is essential for the anesthetist and surgeons to be familiar with the presentations, preventive measures and management protocols.
Sharipov, O I; Kutin, M A; Kalinin, P L; Fomichev, D V; Lukshin, V A; Kurnosov, A B
Doppler ultrasound (DUS) has been widely used in neurosurgical practice to diagnose various cerebrovascular diseases. This technique is used in transsphenoidal surgery to identify the localization of intracranial arteries when making an approach or during tumor resection. To identify the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and/or basilar artery during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, we used a combined device on the basis of a click line curette («Karl Storz») and a 16 MHz Doppler probe (Lassamed). The technique was used in 51 patients during both standard transsphenoidal surgery (23 cases) and transsphenoidal tumor resection through an extended approach (28 cases). Doppler ultrasound was used in different situations: to determine a trajectory of the endonasal transsphenoidal approach in the absence of the normal anatomical landmarks (16 cases), to define the limits of safe resection of a tumor located in the laterosellar region (7), and to implement an extended transsphenoidal endoscopic approach (28). Intraoperative Doppler ultrasound enabled identification of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery in 45 cases and the basilar artery in 2 cases; a blood vessel was not found in 4 cases. Injury to the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery was observed only in 1 case. The use of the described combined device in transsphenoidal surgery turned Doppler ultrasound into an important and useful technique for visualization of the ICA within the tumor stroma as well as in the case of the changed skull base anatomy. Its use facilitates manipulations in a deep and narrow wound and enables inspection of the entire surface of the operative field in various planes, thereby surgery becomes safer due to the possibility of maximum investigation of the operative field.
Schreiber, Alberto; Mattavelli, Davide; Ferrari, Marco; Rampinelli, Vittorio; Lancini, Davide; Ravanelli, Marco; Bertazzoni, Giacomo; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Buffoli, Barbara; Doglietto, Francesco; Nicolai, Piero
Endoscopic medial maxillectomies (EMMs) are used to optimize exposure of the maxillary sinus and retromaxillary areas. Although in type D EMM (Sturmann-Canfield procedure) the anterior superior alveolar nerve (ASAN) is always at risk of injury, only 29% of patients complained of alveolar process and dental anesthesia. The purpose of this anatomical study is to assess the neural anastomotic network of the ASAN (ASAN-NAN) and describe different extensions of type D EMMs in a preclinical setting. The ASAN and its medial anastomotic branches (MABs) and lateral anastomotic branches (LABs) were evaluated by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Five different extensions of type D (D1 to D5) EMMs were identified and nerves at risk of injury in each type were assessed by CBCT. Moreover, quantification of surgical corridors was performed on cadaver heads with a neuronavigation system. Fifty-seven CBCT scans were analyzed. The ASAN would be spared in 16.3% of cases with a type D1 EMM, while it would be injured in the majority of type D2 to D5 resections. At least 1 nerve of the ASAN-NAN was spared in 96.6%, 93%, 74.6%, 0%, and 65.8% of type D1 to D5 EMMs, respectively. Two cadaver heads were dissected and the incremental volume and number of maxillary subsites exposed was assessed in type D1 to D5 EMMs. ASAN function impairment is probably compensated by LABs and MABs. If this hypothesis will be validated in a prospective study on patients, preoperative CBCT evaluation could predict neurological morbidity after type D EMM, and allow tailoring the procedure to minimize impairment of the ASAN-NAN. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Mudhol, Rekha R; Zingade, N D; Mudhol, R S; Harugop, Anil S; Das, Amal T
The aim of the study is to compare the subjective (relief of symptoms) and objective (endoscopic visualization of ostium patency at the time of syringing) outcomes at the end of two procedures-Endonasal DCR versus External DCR with Mitomycin C and to assess the role of Mitomycin C in maintaining patency of nasolacrimal drainage system. Prospective randomized comparative study was performed. Thirty-five patients were enrolled in each endoscopic and external dacryocystorhinostomy groups with Mitomycin C (MMC) application. The 37 eyes underwent endonasal DCR (28 unilateral primary eyes + 1 bilateral primary eyes + 5 unilateral revision eyes + 1 bilateral revision eye) while 35 eyes underwent external DCR (34 unilateral primary eyes + 1 unilateral revision eye). Mitomycin C 0.2 mg/ml was applied intra-operatively for 5 min to the ostium site at the end of endonasal or external DCR procedure. Objective assessment by syringing at the end of 1 year in the endonasal group showed 35 eyes (94%) were patent, 1 (3%) was partially blocked and 1(3%) was completely blocked; while in external group all 35 eyes (100%) were patent. Endoscopic visualization of the ostium at the time of syringing showed only one eye (3%) in the endonasal group was blocked while all the other eyes in both groups were patent. Both groups had a mean follow-up of 6-36 months. No complications were associated with use of Mitomycin C. In conclusion, intra-operative use of Mitomycin C in both endoscopic DCR and external DCR is safe and effective in increasing the success rate.
Tiruchy Narayanan Janakiram
Full Text Available Background. Surgical approaches to the parapharyngeal space (PPS are challenging by virtue of deep location and neurovascular content. Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA is a formidable hypervascular tumor that involves multiple compartments with increase in size. In tumors with extension to parapharyngeal space, the endonasal approach was observed to be inadequate. Combined Endoscopic Endonasal Approaches and Endoscopic Transoral Surgery (EEA-ETOS approach has provided a customized alternative of multicorridor approach to access JNA for its safe and efficient resection. Methods. The study demonstrates a case series of patients of JNA with prestyloid parapharyngeal space extension operated by endoscopic endonasal and endoscopic transoral approach for tumor excision. Results. The multiport EEA-ETOS approach was used to provide wide exposure to access JNA in parapharyngeal space. No major complications were observed. No conversion to external approach was required. Postoperative morbidity was low and postoperative scans showed no residual tumor. A one-year follow-up was maintained and there was no evidence of disease recurrence. Conclusion. Although preliminary, our experience demonstrates safety and efficacy of multiport approach in providing access to multiple compartments, facilitating total excision of JNA in selected cases.
Full Text Available Endoscopic ampullectomy offers a minimally invasive method of effectively treating non-invasive neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater and surrounding peri-ampullary region with high success and relative safety. These lesions would otherwise require surgical intervention, including pancreatico-duodenectomy. However, major complications may occur and a careful assessment of the patients comorbidities and their ability to tolerate adverse events needs to be factored into the treatment decision. Careful staging, often multi-modality is required, particularly for extensive lesions. Complete en-bloc excision of the entire neoplasm should be the goal with conventional papillary adenomas. Large lesions with extra-papillary extension currently require extended piecemeal excision, however with meticulous technique, recurrence is uncommon in longterm follow up.
Goel, Ruchi; Nagpal, Smriti; Kumar, Sushil; Meher, Ravi; Kamal, Saurabh; Garg, Sonam
To evaluate and compare the success rate of transcanalicular laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy with endonasal augmentation, with and without intubation, in patients suffering from primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction, at 1 year of follow up. A prospective, randomized interventional pilot study was conducted at a tertiary care center, in accordance with the guidelines of Declaration of Helsinki. Sixty eyes of 60 adult patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were included. The participants were divided randomly into 2 equal groups (A and B-without and with bicanalicular intubation, respectively). An osteotomy was first created using 980 nm diode laser (set at 8W continuous mode) transcanalicularly and then enlarged intranasally using Blakesley's nasal forceps, followed by bicanalicular silicon intubation in group B patients. The tubes were removed at the end of 8 weeks. The ostium size was assessed endoscopically at 8 weeks and again at the end of follow up, at 1 year. A successful outcome was defined in terms of ostium patency at the end of 1 year. The results were analyzed at the end of a follow up of 1 year, using various statistical tests (p < 0.05). The mean age of the patients was 35.3 ± 15.89 years, with 23 male and 37 female patients, the 2 groups having a similar male:female ratio. An overall success rate of 90% was achieved at the end of 1 year with no statistically significant difference between the groups. Postoperative complications like tube displacement and punctal, canalicular injury were more in the intubated group. The average osteotomy size was 8.06 ± 5.4 mm at the end of 1 year. Transcanalicular laser-assisted dacryocysto rhinostomy, with endonasal augmentation, is a scarless, effective, daycare procedure, for treatment of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction with no additional advantage offered by silicone intubation.
Rampinelli, Vittorio; Doglietto, Francesco; Mattavelli, Davide; Qiu, Jimmy; Raffetti, Elena; Schreiber, Alberto; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Kucharczyk, Walter; Donato, Francesco; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Nicolai, Piero
Three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy has been recently introduced in endonasal skull base surgery. Only a relatively limited number of studies have compared it to 2-dimensional, high definition technology. The objective was to compare, in a preclinical setting for endonasal endoscopic surgery, the surgical maneuverability of 2-dimensional, high definition and 3D endoscopy. A group of 68 volunteers, novice and experienced surgeons, were asked to perform 2 tasks, namely simulating grasping and dissection surgical maneuvers, in a model of the nasal cavities. Time to complete the tasks was recorded. A questionnaire to investigate subjective feelings during tasks was filled by each participant. In 25 subjects, the surgeons' movements were continuously tracked by a magnetic-based neuronavigator coupled with dedicated software (ApproachViewer, part of GTx-UHN) and the recorded trajectories were analyzed by comparing jitter, sum of square differences, and funnel index. Total execution time was significantly lower with 3D technology (P < 0.05) in beginners and experts. Questionnaires showed that beginners preferred 3D endoscopy more frequently than experts. A minority (14%) of beginners experienced discomfort with 3D endoscopy. Analysis of jitter showed a trend toward increased effectiveness of surgical maneuvers with 3D endoscopy. Sum of square differences and funnel index analyses documented better values with 3D endoscopy in experts. In a preclinical setting for endonasal skull base surgery, 3D technology appears to confer an advantage in terms of time of execution and precision of surgical maneuvers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Jingying; Huang, Qian; Li, Xiaokui; Huang, Dongsheng; Xian, Junfang; Cui, Shunjiu; Li, Yunchuan; Zhou, Bing
The diagnosis and management of pediatric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and encephalocele are challenging. The current study aimed to identify patient characteristics, review operative techniques, and evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic endonasal repair in a pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of pediatric patients who underwent transnasal endoscopic repair of CSF leak with or without a meningocele or an encephalocele at Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, between July 2003 and May 2014. All patients had preoperative radiological evaluations and underwent endoscopic endonasal repair of their skull base defects. Altogether, 23 children (mean age 7.0 years) underwent the procedures. Sixteen cases were congenital, and 7 patients had trauma history. The herniations or defects included meningoencephaloceles in 15 cases, meningoceles in 4 cases, and CSF leak in 4 cases (2 patients had bilateral leaks). The leak or herniation sites were ethmoid roof in 10 patients (one was bilateral), cribriform plate in 5, lateral to the foramen cecum in 3, posterior wall of the frontal sinus in 1, sphenoid sinus in 2, lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus in 1, and sella turcica base in 2. All subjects had favorable clinical outcomes without recurrence during a follow-up of 6-123 months (mean 61.1 months). The endoscopic endonasal approach was the preferred method for repairing CSF leaks with or without an encephalocele in pediatric patients. Compared to traditional operations, this endoscopic procedure is minimally invasive, efficient, and safe.
Lepera, Davide; Volpi, Luca; Facco, Carla; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Bernasconi, Barbara; Piski, Zalán; Freguia, Stefania; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Bignami, Maurizio
The extra-skeletal form is an unusual type of Ewing sarcoma (ES) arising from soft tissue and in the literature there are reports of less than 50 patients describing the tumor in the paranasal sinuses and skull base. The histological diagnosis is crucial to plan the correct treatment and the molecular confirmation is mandatory in equivocal patients. A multimodality treatment with chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy improved the outcomes of these diseases during the last decades and a free-margin resection with the endoscopic transnasal technique is one of the most recent ways to manage these pathologies in selected patients, reducing the morbidities of the external approaches and preserving the quality of life of the patient.Here, the authors present the first patient of primary sinonasal ES free from disease after 5 years of follow-up and treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach and a second patient of sinonasal metastases of ES treated with and endoscopic transnasal approach.
Conclusion: Seller cavernous hemangioma (SCH is an extremely rare lesion that can be misdiagnosed. It is characterized by clinico-radiological features similar to those of other lesions such as pituitary macroadenoma and should be included in the differential diagnosis. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal (EET approach with subtotal/total resection appears to be a feasible option for debulking, with less surgical complications. Nonetheless, combining stereotactic radiosurgery will reduce postsurgical morbidities.
Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Karmarkar, Vikram S; Shah, Nishit; Vashu, Ravindran; Patil, Rahul; Mohanty, Chandan; Shaikh, Salman
Craniopharyngiomas are dysontogenic tumors with benign histology but aggressive behavior. The surgical challenges posed by the tumor are well recognized. Neuroendoscopy has recently contributed to its surgical management. This study focuses on our experience in managing craniopharyngiomas in recent years, highlighting the role of combined endoscopic trans-ventricular and endonasal approach. Ninety-two patients have been treated for craniopharyngioma from 2000 to 2016 by the senior author. A total of 125 procedures, microsurgical (58) and endoscopic (67), were undertaken. Combined endoscopic approach was carried out in 18 of these patients, 16 children and 2 young adults. All of these patients presented with a large cystic suprasellar mass associated with hydrocephalus. In the first instance, they were treated with a transventricular endoscopic procedure to decompress the cystic component. This was followed by an endonasal transsphenoidal procedure for excision within the next 2 to 6 days. All these patients improved after the initial cyst decompression with relief of hydrocephalus while awaiting remaining tumor removal in a more elective setting. Gross total resection could be done in 84% of these patients. Diabetes insipidus was the most common postsurgical complication seen in 61% patients in the immediate period but was persistent in only two patients at 1-year follow-up. None of the children in this group developed morbid obesity. There was one case of CSF leak requiring repair after initial surgery. Peri-operative mortality was seen in one patient secondary to ventriculitis. The patients who benefit most from the combined approach are those who present with raised intracranial pressure secondary to a large tumor with cyst causing hydrocephalus. Intraventricular endoscopic cyst drainage allows resolution of hydrocephalus with restoration of normal intracranial pressure, gives time for proper preoperative work up, and has reduced incidence of CSF leak after
Van Rompaey, Jason; Bowers, Greg; Radhakrishnan, Jay; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo
Injury to the internal carotid artery is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery of the skull base. Such an event, although rare, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Even if bleeding is controlled, permanent neurological defects frequently persist. Many techniques have been developed to manage internal carotid artery rupture with varying degrees of success. The purpose of this study was to explore endoscopic management of arterial damage with endovascular closure devices used for a femoral arteriotomy. The ability to remotely suture a damaged artery permits the possible adaptation of this technology in managing endoscopic arterial complications. Technical note. After the creation of an endoscopic endonasal corridor in a cadaveric specimen, an arteriotomy was created at the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery. The Angio-Seal, StarClose, and MynxGrip vascular closure devices were utilized under endoscopic guidance to repair the arteriotomy. Angiography was then done on a cadaver sutured with the StarClose. Both the Angio-Seal and StarClose were deployed quickly and appeared to provide sufficient closure of the arteriotomy. The Angio-Seal required the use of a guidewire and was longer to deploy when compared with the StarClose. The StarClose deployment was quick and facile. The MynxGrip also deployed without difficulty. The Angio-Seal and StarClose systems were both successfully deployed utilizing an endoscopic endonasal approach. The MynxGrip was the easiest to deploy and has the greatest potential to be of benefit in this application. Further studies with hemodynamic models are required to properly assess the appropriateness in this setting. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Yoshimura, Masaki; Terada, Aiko; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Koshimo, Naomi
We reviewed results of the surgical outcome of pituitary tumors treated via the transsphenoidal approach between January, 1994 and January, 2010 at our institution. This data included 100 patients (124 procedures) treated through the sublabial transsphenoidal approach and 45 patients (54 procedures) treated through the endoscopic endonasal (bilateral nostrils) transsphenoidal approach performed by a single surgeon. The extent of tumor removal was significantly improved with endoscopic surgery; adjuvant gamma knife radiosurgery was needed for 65% of patients undergoing microsurgery vs. 30% for patients who had endoscopic surgery (p<0.0001). Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery had less intraoperative blood loss (mean volume: 100 mL for microsurgery patients vs. 30 mL for endoscopic surgery patients, p<0.0001), less pain, and less need for postoperative hormone replacement therapy (19% for microsurgery patients vs. 6% for endoscopic surgery patients; p<0.05). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and meningitis were experienced in one microsurgery patient (1%) and one endoscopic surgery patient (2.2%). Endoscopic surgery is a reasonable alternative to microsurgery and our experience supports the concept that an otolaryngologist/neurosurgeon team skilled in endoscopic techniques and pituitary surgery can safely make the transition from microsurgery to endoscopic surgery. (author)
An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Septal deviation is a common disease seen in daily otorhinolaryngology practice and septoplasty is a commonly performed surgical procedure. Caudal septum deviation is also a challenging pathology for ear, nose, and throat specialists. Many techniques are defined for caudal septal deviation. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal septal extension graft (CSEG application in patients who underwent endonasal septoplasty for a short and deviated nasal septum. Methods Forty patients with nasal septal deviation, short nasal septum, and weak nasal tip support who underwent endonasal septoplasty with or without CSEG placement between August 2012 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. Twenty patients underwent endonasal septoplasty with CSEG placement. The rest of the group, who rejected auricular or costal cartilage harvest for CSEG placement, underwent only endonasal septoplasty without any additional intervention. Using the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE and Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE questionnaires, pre- and post-operative acoustic rhinometer measurements were evaluated to assess the effect of CESG placement on nasal obstruction. Results In the control group, preoperative and postoperative minimal cross-sectional areas (MCA1 were 0.44 ± 0.10 cm2 and 0.60 ± 0.11 cm2, respectively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative MCA1 values were 0.45 ± 0.16 cm2 and 0.67 ± 0.16 cm2, respectively (p < 0.01. In the control group, the nasal cavity volume (VOL1 value was 1.71 ± 0.21 mL preoperatively and 1.94 ± 0.17 mL postoperatively (p < 0.001. In the study group, pre- and postoperative VOL1s were 1.72 ± 0.15 mL and 1.97 ± 0.12 mL, respectively (p < 0.001. Statistical analysis of postoperative MCA1 and VOL1 values in the study and the control groups could not detect any significant intergroup difference (p = 0.093 and 0.432, respectively. In the study group, mean nasolabial angles were
He, Shuangba; Bakst, Richard L; Guo, Tao; Sun, Jingwu
An external approach for resection of sinonasal tumors is associated with increased morbidity. Therefore, we employed a modified transnasal endoscopic maxillectomy combined with pre and/or postoperative radiotherapy for early stage maxillary carcinomas. It aims to evaluate our early experience with endoscopic resection of selected malignant sinonasal tumors. The medical and radiology records of patients who underwent endonasal endoscopic resection of malignant sinonasal tumors between 2008 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Ten cases of selected malignant tumor were performed to resect by modified transnasal endoscopic maxillectomy. All the patients were without evidence of disease at a mean follow-up of 26.8 months. No major complications were recorded. The mean hospitalization stay was 6.6 days. In very carefully selected cases of malignant tumors, modified transnasal endoscopic maxillectomy is acceptable. The postoperative complication rate is low, cosmetic outcome is excellent and patients do not require a long hospitalization.
Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M.
Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management ...
Liu, James K; Husain, Qasim; Kanumuri, Vivek; Khan, Mohemmed N; Mendelson, Zachary S; Eloy, Jean Anderson
OBJECT Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas (JNAs) are formidable tumors because of their hypervascularity and difficult location in the skull base. Traditional transfacial procedures do not always afford optimal visualization and illumination, resulting in significant morbidity and poor cosmesis. The advent of endoscopic procedures has allowed for resection of JNAs with greater surgical freedom and decreased incidence of facial deformity and scarring. METHODS This report describes a graduated multiangle, multicorridor, endoscopic approach to JNAs that is illustrated in 4 patients, each with a different tumor location and extent. Four different surgical corridors in varying combinations were used to resect JNAs, based on tumor size and location, including an ipsilateral endonasal approach (uninostril); a contralateral, transseptal approach (binostril); a sublabial, transmaxillary Caldwell-Luc approach; and an orbitozygomatic, extradural, transcavernous, infratemporal fossa approach (transcranial). One patient underwent resection via an ipsilateral endonasal uninostril approach (Corridor 1) only. One patient underwent a binostril approach that included an additional contralateral transseptal approach (Corridors 1 and 2). One patient underwent a binostril approach with an additional sublabial Caldwell-Luc approach for lateral extension in the infratemporal fossa (Corridors 1-3). One patient underwent a combined transcranial and endoscopic endonasal/sublabial Caldwell-Luc approach (Corridors 1-4) for an extensive JNA involving both the lateral infratemporal fossa and cavernous sinus. RESULTS A graduated multiangle, multicorridor approach was used in a stepwise fashion to allow for maximal surgical exposure and maneuverability for resection of JNAs. Gross-total resection was achieved in all 4 patients. One patient had a postoperative CSF leak that was successfully repaired endoscopically. One patient had a delayed local recurrence that was successfully resected
Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M
Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.
Hefner, J; Klask, J; Gerding, H
Endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) has been established as a standard procedure of lacrimal surgery, since it causes much less tissue damage than ab externo procedures. Diffiulties in visualization of the target area has been a limitation to the transnasal approach. An improvement of the classical endonasal DCR was achieved by the introduction of a transcanalicular endoillumination (TCE) of the lacrimal sac using a 23-Gauge vitreoretinal light probe, which can easily be intubated into the cannaliculi and advanced into the the lacrimal sac. Illumination of the lacrimal sac guides the endonasal approach and facilitates the creation of a lacrimal bypass. In our standard procedure a bicanalicular silicone intubation through the osteotomy is finally placed. Due to the introduction of TCE of the lacrimal sac, the surgical procedure of endonasal DCR became less traumatic and needed a significantly reduced operating time. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mohindra, Satyawati; Mohindra, Sandeep; Patro, Sourabha Kumar
Introduction: Indications of surgical intervention in congenital nasal meningoencephaloceles includes presence of cerebro spinal fluid rhinorrhea having a risk of causing meningitis, episodes of prior meningitis and bilateral nasal obstruction causing respiratory difficulty in these obligate nasal breathers. Many authors would like to wait till the patient attains the age of 2 to 3 years for repair of the defect due to surgical feasibility. However, early intervention prevents further episode...
Ludvigsen Gede, Lisbeth; Aanaes, Kasper; Collatz, Helle
We consider sphenopalatine artery ligation to be a safe and effective treatment of posterior epistaxis as the long-term need for revision surgery and the complication rates are low. Surgery should be considered earlier in the treatment of posterior epistaxis....
Matsuda, Yasunori; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko
Although surgical treatment of orbital floor fractures can be performed by many different approaches, the application of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for this condition has rarely been described in the literature. We report on a case of a 7-year-old boy with a trapdoor orbital floor fracture successfully treated with the application of EMMM. The patient suffered trauma to the right orbit floor and the inferior rectus was entrapped at the orbital floor. Initially, surgical repair via endoscopic endonasal approach was attempted. However, we were unable to adequately access the orbital floor through the maxillary ostium. Therefore, an alternative route of access to the orbital floor was established by EMMM. With sufficient visualization and operating space, the involved orbital content was completely released from the entrapment site and reduced into the orbit. To facilitate wound healing, the orbital floor was supported with a water-inflated urethral balloon catheter for 8 days. At follow-up 8 months later, there was no gaze restriction or complications associated with the EMMM. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of EMMM in endoscopic endonasal repair of orbital floor fracture, particularly for cases with a narrow nasal cavity such as in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akin, Safak; Isikay, Ilkay; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Yucel, Taskin; Gurlek, Alper; Berker, Mustafa
We report herein a retrospective analysis of the results of 142 consecutive prolactinoma cases operated upon using an endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach over a period of 6 years. Medical records of 142 cases were analysed with respect to indications for surgery, duration of hospital stay, early remission rates, failures and recurrence rates during a median follow-up of 36 months. On the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, 19 patients (13.4 %) had microadenoma, 113 (79.6 %) had macroadenoma, and the remaining 10 (7.0 %) had giant adenomas. Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 25 patients by MRI and confirmed during surgery. Atypical adenoma was diagnosed in 16 patients. Sparsely granulated prolactin adenoma was identified in 99 patients (69.7 %). Our results demonstrate that male sex and higher preoperative prolactin levels are independent factors predicting persistent disease. The post-surgical complications are as follows: 2.8 % patients had meningitis, 2.1 % patients had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and 2.1 % patients had panhypopituitarism. At the end of follow-up, 74.6 % patients went into remission. During follow-up period, five patients who had initial remission developed recurrence. Our series together with literature data suggest that an endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach in the treatment of proloctinomas has a favourable rate of remission. According to the findings of this study, endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal surgery might be an appropriate therapy choice for patients with prolactinoma who could not have been managed with recommended therapeutic modalities.
F.J.C. van den Broek (Frank); E.J.R. de Graaf (Eelco); M.G.W. Dijkgraaf (Marcel); J.B. Reitsma (Johannes); J. Haringsma (Jelle); R. Timmer (Robin); B.L. Weusten (Bas); M.F. Gerhards (Michael); E.C. Consten (Esther); M.P. Schwartz (Matthijs); M.J. Boom (Maarten); E.J. Derksen (Erik); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); P.H.P. Davids (Paul); C. Hoff (Christiaan); H.M. van Dullemen (Hendrik); G.D.N. Heine (Dimitri); K. van der Linde (Klaas); J.M. Jansen (Jeroen); R.C.H. Mallant-Hent (Rosalie); R. Breumelhof (Ronald); H. Geldof (Han); J.C. Hardwick (James); P. Doornebosch (Pascal); A.C.T.M. Depla (Annekatrien); M.F. Ernst (Miranda); I.P. van Munster (Ivo); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); E.J. Schoon (Erik); W.A. Bemelman (Willem); P. Fockens (Paul); E. Dekker (Evelien)
textabstractBackground: Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does
van den Broek, Frank J. C.; de Graaf, Eelco J. R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Haringsma, Jelle; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Gerhards, Michael F.; Consten, Esther C. J.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Boom, Maarten J.; Derksen, Erik J.; Bijnen, A. Bart; Davids, Paul H. P.; Hoff, Christiaan; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; Heine, G. Dimitri N.; van der Linde, Klaas; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie C. H.; Breumelhof, Ronald; Geldof, Han; Hardwick, James C. H.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; Depla, Annekatrien C. T. M.; Ernst, Miranda F.; van Munster, Ivo P.; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Schoon, Erik J.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien; Reitsma, J.
Background: Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The endoscopic endonasal approach for the sellar region lesions is a novel technique and an effective surgical option. The evidence thus far has been conflicting with reports in favour and against a learning curve. We attempt to determine the learning curve associated with this approach. METHODS Retrospective and prospective data of the patients who were surgically treated for sellar region lesions between the year 2013 and 2016 was collected, 32 patients were operated by the endoscopic endonasal approach at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. Age, sex, presenting symptoms, length of hospital stay, surgical approach, type of dissection, duration of surgery, sellar floor repair, intraoperative and postoperative complications were noted. All the procedures were performed by a single neurosurgeon. RESULTS A total of 32 patients were operated amongst which 21 patients were non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 2 were growth hormone secreting functional adenomas, 1 was an invasive pituitary adenoma, 4 were craniopharyngiomas, 2 were meningiomas, 1 was Rathke’s cleft cyst and 1 was a clival chordoma. Headache was the mode of presentation in 12 patients, 12 patients had visual deficits, 6 patients presented with hormonal disturbances amongst which 4 patients presented with features of panhypopituitarism and 2 with acromegaly. Amongst the 4 patients with panhypopituitarism, 2 also had DI, two patients presented with CSF rhinorrhoea. There was a 100% improvement in the patients who presented with visual symptoms. Gross total resection was achieved in all 4 cases of craniopharyngiomas and 13 cases of pituitary adenomas. Postoperative CSF leak was seen in 4 patients who underwent re-exploration and sellar floor repair, 9 patients had postoperative Diabetes Insipidus (DI which was transient, the incidence of DI reduced towards the end of the study. There was a 25% decrease in the operating time towards the end of
Wang, Fang; Li, Wei; Li, Rong; Tan, Guolin; Luo, Dan
To investigate the situation regarding the cleaning and sterilization of endonasal endoscopes in department of otolaryngology in Hunan Province, and to provide strategy for improving the level of sterilization and management of endonasal endoscopes. A total of 100 medical institutions were investigated by spot assessment, check and sampling. Data was analyzed by multivariate analysis. The qualified rate of rules and regulations for endoscopy was 28.8% in the second-class hospitals and 45% in the top-class hospitals. The qualified rate of environment for endoscopy cleaning and sterilization was 36.3% in the second-class hospitals and 85% in the top-class hospitals. The main problems include lack of independent disinfection room, the space not large enough, and/or lack of ventilation system. The qualified rate of bacterial detection for post-sterilized endoscopes and biopsy forceps was 93.8% in the second-class hospitals and 95.0% in the top-class hospitals, and the main pathogenic bacteria was gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli. The multivariate analysis showed that the influencial factors for endoscope cleaning and disinfection are as follows: staffs responsible for the cleaning and sterilization of otolaryngology endoscopes, the standard for cleaning and disinfection process, and the frequency of endoscope use. The present situation of cleaning and sterilization for otolaryngology endoscopes is better in the top-class hospitals than that in the second-class hospitals. The sterilization and management of otolaryngology endoscopy are needed to be improved, and the staff training is needed, especially in the primary hospitals.
Full Text Available We present the case of a ten-year-old female patient referred to Gastroenterolgy consultation for abdominal pain and cramping, usually worse after eating, recurring diarrhoea, hypochromic and microcytic anaemia with low serum iron and ferritin levels. Moderate to severe Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum e right colon (L3 was diagnosed, based on endoscopic image and biopsy. The patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine, but after one year of treatment she was steroids dependent and treatment was switched to infliximab. One year after beginning this treatment, the patient achieved remission (clinical and laboratorial parameters. A control colonoscopy showed mucosal healing with scars and deformation with stenosis of ileocecal valve (Figures 1-2. Surgical intervention will be probably necessary in near future.
Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded
To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.
Andersen, Pia Juul; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Pedersen, Arne Toft
INTRODUCTION: Inverted papilloma is a benign sinonasal tumour and has a marked tendency to recur after surgical excision. The tumour may be associated with malignancy and during growth it may destroy surrounding tissue. The treatment is either lateral rhinotomy or endoscopic sinus surgery. The aim...... of the study was to describe the course of all patients treated with endoscopic sinus surgery at the ENT Department at Vejle County Hospital during the period 1 January to 31 December 1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-eight journals of patients diagnosed with inverted nasal papillomas were reviewed...... with carcinoma. We did not see any serious side effects to the treatment. DISCUSSION: Endoscopic sinus surgery in combination with Caldwell-Luc can be recommended as an alternative treatment to lateral rhinotomy in patients with inverted papillomas. Preoperative staging with CT or MR-scanning, experienced...
Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the clinical outcome of primary endonasal laser assisted dacryocystorhinostomy (ENL-DCR using the potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all primary ENL-DCRs performed within a period of twelve months by the same combined Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaringology team in Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. The main outcome measure for success was resolution or significant improvement of epiphora. Details of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative complications, as well as pathology associated with failure were also studied. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months. Results A total of 41 consecutive ENL-DCRs on 29 patients (22 females, 7 males, mean age 75 years were analysed. All patients had bicanalicular silicone intubation for at least 4 months. The success rate at 12 months postoperatively was 78.1%. Pathology associated with failure included: intranasal pathology (12.2%, mucocele (7.3%, and systemic sarcoidosis (2.4%. No significant intra-operative complications were recorded. Conclusion The ENL-DCR with potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser can be considered as a safe and efficient primary procedure for the treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
Yao, Christopher M; Kahane, Alyssa; Monteiro, Eric; Gentili, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh; de Almeida, John R
Objectives The purpose of this study is to report health utility scores for patients with olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM) treated with either the standard transcranial approach, or the expanded endonasal endoscopic approach. Design The time trade-off technique was used to derive health utility scores. Setting Healthy individuals without skull base tumors were surveyed. Main Outcome Measures Participants reviewed and rated scenarios describing treatment (endoscopic, open, stereotactic radiation, watchful waiting), remission, recurrence, and complications associated with the management of OGMs. Results There were 51 participants. The endoscopic approach was associated with higher utility scores compared with an open craniotomy approach (0.88 vs. 0.74; p < 0.001) and watchful waiting (0.88 vs.0.74; p = 0.002). If recurrence occurred, revision endoscopic resection continued to have a higher utility score compared with revision open craniotomy (0.68; p = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, older individuals were more likely to opt for watchful waiting ( p = 0.001), whereas participants from higher income brackets were more likely to rate stereotactic radiosurgery with higher utility scores ( p = 0.017). Conclusion The endoscopic approach was associated with higher utility scores than craniotomy for primary and revision cases. The present utilities can be used for future cost-utility analyses.
Brand, Y; Lim, E; Waran, V; Prepageran, N
Endoscopic endonasal techniques have recently become the method of choice in dealing with cerebrospinal fluid leak involving the anterior cranial fossa. However, most surgeons prefer an intracranial approach when leaks involve the middle cranial fossa. This case report illustrates the possibilities of using endoscopic techniques for cerebrospinal fluid leaks involving the middle fossa. A 37-year-old male patient presented with multiple areas of cranial defect with cerebrospinal fluid leak due to osteoradionecrosis following radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma 4 years earlier. Clinical examination showed involvement of all cranial nerves except the IInd and XIth nerves on the left side. A prior attempt to repair the cerebrospinal fluid leak with craniotomy was not successful. This case demonstrates the successful endoscopic repair of a large cranial defect with cerebrospinal fluid leak.
Gellner, Verena; Tomazic, Peter V
The endoscopic transnasal trans-sphenoidal transtubercular approach has become a standard alternative approach to neurosurgical transcranial routes for lesions of the anterior skull base in particular pathologies of the anterior tubercle, sphenoid plane, and midline lesions up to the interpeduncular cistern. For both the endoscopic and the transcranial approach indications must strictly be evaluated and tailored to the patients' morphology and condition. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the evidence in literature of the limitations of the endoscopic transtubercular approach. A PubMed/Medline search was conducted in January 2018 entering following keywords. Upon initial screening 7 papers were included in this review. There are several other papers describing the endoscopic transtubercular approach (ETTA). We tried to list the limitation factors according to the actual existing literature as cited. The main limiting factors are laterally extending lesions in relation to the optic canal and vascular encasement and/or unfavorable tumor tissue consistency. The ETTA is considered as a high level transnasal endoscopic extended skull base approach and requires excellent training, skills and experience.
Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Ponchon, Thierry
evidence). 2 ESGE recommends endoscopic resection with a curative intent for visible lesions in Barrett's esophagus (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). ESD has not been shown to be superior to EMR for excision of mucosal cancer, and for that reason EMR should be preferred. ESD may...... RECOMMENDATIONS: 1 ESGE recommends endoscopic en bloc resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell cancers (SCCs), excluding those with obvious submucosal involvement (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) may be considered in such lesions when...
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros N
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to laparoscopy Heller myotomy (LHM). POEM is arguably the most successful clinical application of NOTES. The growth of POEM from a single center in 2008 to approximately 60 centers worldwide in 2014 with several thousand procedures having been performed attests to the success of POEM. Initial efficacy, safety and acid reflux data suggest at least equivalence of POEM to LHM, the previous gold standard for achalasia therapy. Adjunctive techniques used in the West include impedance planimetry for real-time intraprocedural luminal assessment and endoscopic suturing for challenging mucosal defect closures during POEM. The impact of POEM extends beyond the realm of esophageal motility disorders as it is rapidly popularizing endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West and spawning offshoots that use the submucosal tunnel technique for a host of new indications ranging from resection of tumors to pyloromyotomy for gastroparesis. PMID:25548473
Sasani, M; Ozer, A F; Aydin, A L
Basal encephaloceles are rare, accounting for about 1.5% of all encephaloceles. The trans-sellar trans-sphenoidal encephalocele variety is the rarest. Morning glory syndrome is often associated with basal encephalocele. Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrheas are the least common of these, accounting for only 3% to 5% of all CSF rhinorrheas. The authors describe the outcome of a 10-year follow-up study of a 26-year-old male patient with a spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea occurring trans-sphenoidal encephalocele associated with bilateral morning glory syndrome that was treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach. Endoscopic exploration of the sella floor was performed and closed with abdomen fat packing and muscle fascia. The postoperative course was uneventful. A follow-up magnetic resonance (MR) image at 6 months postoperatively showed extension of encephalocele in the sphenoidal sinus, which was repaired. The patient had no further CSF rhinorrhea and showed no ophthalmologic changes over a follow-up period of over 10 years. Ophthalmologic findings such as strabismus, in association with anomalies of the optic nerve, should alert the physician to the possible presence of an unrecognized skull base midline defect and encephalocele before CSF leakage is seen. The authors believe that a surgeon who has equal confidence in performing the endoscopic endonasal and conventional microscopic trans-sphenoidal approaches should choose the less invasive surgery.
Full Text Available Prolonged and continuous lacrimation (symptom of epiphora causes discomfort, inclination to conjunctiva infect, reduces visual acuity and ultimately the quality of life of the patient. Despite the fact that there is a large number of various surgical interventions to restore tearing in patients with chronic dacryocystitis, the problem of lacrimation remains relevant. We have studied the operation of endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy and its long-term consequences. Surgical intervention in endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy is aimed at eliminating lacrimation by eliminating stenosis and forming a new combination of the cavity of the laryngeal canal with the nasal cavity, as well as the sanation of purulent foci of infection in the throat. There were 8 surgical interventions. Period of observation of patients in the postoperative period by ophthalmologist and ENT-doctor is from 1.5 to 2 years. The evaluation of the result was carried out in 6 months or more after the operation. A complete recovery with the recovery of the tear excretion in the nasal cavity has been achieved in all patients. The formed rhinostoma was wide, well functioning. Thus, endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy is a highly effective and should be a method of choice for inflammation of the lacrimal sac at any stage of development.
Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I
The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.
Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai
Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.
Sarkar, Sauradeep; Rajaratnam, Simon; Chacko, Geeta; Chacko, Ari George
To describe outcomes and complications in patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly using the 2010 consensus criteria for biochemical remission. Retrospective review of 113 treatment naïve patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery with the endoscopic (n=66) and the endonasal microscopic technique (n=47). Cure was defined if the age and sex-adjusted IGF-1 level was normal and either the basal GH was transsphenoidal surgery did not differ significantly overall (28.8% versus 36.2%). On univariate analysis, a preoperative GH level Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first line of treatment for patients with acromegaly, but invasive adenomas will frequently require adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Codd, Patrick J; Venteicher, Andrew S; Agarwalla, Pankaj K; Kahle, Kristopher T; Jho, David H
Acute subdural hematoma evacuations frequently necessitate large craniotomies with extended operative times and high relative blood loss, which can lead to additional morbidity for the patient. While endoscopic minimally invasive approaches to chronic subdural collections have been successfully demonstrated, this technique has not previously been applied to acute subdural hematomas. The authors report their experience with an 87-year-old patient presenting with a large acute right-sided subdural hematoma successfully evacuated via an endoscopic minimally invasive technique. The operative approach is outlined, and the literature on endoscopic subdural collection evacuation reviewed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Yi Ni Koh,1,2 Shu Fen Ho,2 Letchumanan Pathma,3 Harvinder Singh,3 Embong Zunaina1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia Abstract: There are various causes that can lead to compressive optic neuropathy. We present here orbital apex cyst as an unusual cause of compressive optic neuropathy in a 49-year-old male. He presented with 2 weeks painless loss of vision in the left eye with left-sided headache. He had had left functional endoscopic sinus surgery for left nasal polyps 4 years earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and orbit revealed a left discrete orbital nodule, possibly orbital cyst or mucocele, which was compressing on the left optic nerve. Left eye vision improved markedly from hand movement to 6/36 pinhole 6/18 after initiation of intravenous dexamethasone. A subsequent endoscopic endonasal left optic nerve decompression found the orbital nodule lesion to be an orbital cyst. Marsupialization was performed instead of excision, as the cyst ruptured intraoperatively. Postoperative vision improved to 6/7.5 with normal optic nerve function postoperatively. Possible cause of orbital apex cyst is discussed. Keywords: orbital cyst, compressive optic neuropathy, functional endoscopic sinus surgery
van Vilsteren, Frederike G. I.; Pouw, Roos E.; Herrero, Lorenza Alvarez; Bisschops, Raf; Houben, Martin; Peters, Frans T. M.; Schenk, B. E.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Schoon, Erik J.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.
Background: Endoscopic resection is the cornerstone of endoscopic management of esophageal early neoplasia. However, endoscopic resection is a complex technique requiring knowledge and expertise. Our aims were to identify the most important learning points in performing endoscopic resection in a
José Alberto Landeiro
Full Text Available The surgical management of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea has changed after the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.The following three cases illustrate the repair of CSF leaks with the use of rigid endoscope. Two patients had the diagnosis and the site confirmed after intrathecal fluoresceine saline injection. The obliteration of the CSF was achieved with fat free, mucoperichondrial or mucoperiostal free grafts taken from middle or inferior turbinate and kept in place by fibrin glue. Primary closure was achieved in all patients. The repair of the CSF rhinorrhea by endonasal endoscopic surgery is safe, effective and is a valid alternative to the cranial approach.Descrevemos a técnica de oclusão endoscópica por via endonasal de fístula liquórica proveniente do andar anterior em três pacientes. Dois pacientes tiveram o diagnóstico e os orifícios da fístula localizados após injeção intratecal de fluoresceína sódica. A oclusão foi obtida com enxerto de gordura livre, fragmentos de mucopericôndrio septal ou mucoperiósteal retirado do corneto médio ou inferior e selados com o auxílio de cola de fibrina. A cirurgia endoscópica endonasal é técnica segura e eficaz no tratamento da fístula esfeno-etmoidal, constituindo alternativa à abordagem craniana.
Santos Rodrigo P.
Full Text Available Introdução: A epistaxe severa, geralmente associada a fatores predisponentes como hipertensão arterial sistêmica e coagulopatia, é uma doença desafiadora, e pode necessitar de uma abordagem cirúrgica nos casos que não respondem ao tratamento conservador, como cauterização e tamponamento nasal. Objetivo: avaliar os resultados da ligadura endoscópica endonasal da artéria esfenopalatina no tratamento da epistaxe severa refratária à abordagem terapêutica conservadora. Forma de estudo: Clínico prospectivo. Material e Método: foram avaliados doze casos de pacientes submetidos à ligadura endoscópica endonasal da artéria esfenopalatina no tratamento da epistaxe severa não responsiva ao tratamento conservador, observando-se a história clínica, os fatores predisponentes, a evolução e as complicações deste procedimento. Resultados: a idade média foi de 50,9 anos, e a distribuição por sexo foi de 33% do sexo feminino e 67% do sexo masculino; 33% apresentaram HAS e 16,6% coagulopatia (hepatopatia como fatores predisponentes. Um paciente (8,3% apresentou ressangramento após o procedimento cirúrgico. Discussão: a ligadura endoscópica endonasal da artéria esfenopalatina representa uma abordagem segura e garante um controle satisfatório do sangramento, com índice de ressangramento de 8,3% entre os nossos casos. Conclusão: a ligadura endoscópica endonasal da artéria esfenopalatina representa uma opção cirúrgica adequada, pois não apresenta as complicações das técnicas anteriores, atinge um controle satisfatório do sangramento e pode ser realizada por otorrinolaringologistas habituados à cirurgia endoscópica nasal.
Lindert, E.J. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.
OBJECTIVE: To describe a new endoscope shaft developed for suction-aspiration during endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: A custom-made shaft for a Wolf endoscope (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) was developed with a height of 10 mm and a width of 5 mm, allowing an
Graillon, T; Fuentes, S; Metellus, P; Adetchessi, T; Gras, R; Dufour, H
Advances in transsphenoidal surgery and endoscopic techniques have opened new perspectives for cavernous sinus (CS) approaches. The aim of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of limited endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, as performed in pituitary adenoma surgery, for CS tumor biopsy illustrated with three clinical cases. The first case was a 46-year-old woman with a prior medical history of parotid adenocarcinoma successfully treated 10 years previously. The cavernous sinus tumor was revealed by right third and sixth nerve palsy and increased over the past three years. A tumor biopsy using a limited endoscopic transsphenoidal approach revealed an adenocarcinoma metastasis. Complementary radiosurgery was performed. The second case was a 36-year-old woman who consulted for diplopia with right sixth nerve palsy and amenorrhea with hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonist treatment was used to restore the patient's menstrual cycle. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a right sided CS tumor. CS biopsy, via a limited endoscopic transsphenoidal approach, confirmed a meningothelial grade 1 meningioma. Complementary radiosurgery was performed. The third case was a 63-year-old woman with progressive installation of left third nerve palsy and visual acuity loss, revealing a left cavernous sinus tumor invading the optic canal. Surgical biopsy was performed using an enlarged endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to the decompress optic nerve. Biopsy results revealed a meningothelial grade 1 meningioma. Complementary radiotherapy was performed. In these three cases, no complications were observed. Mean hospitalization duration was 4 days. Reported anatomical studies and clinical series have shown the feasibility of reaching the cavernous sinus using an endoscopic endonasal approach. Trans-foramen ovale CS percutaneous biopsy is an interesting procedure but only provides cell analysis results, and not tissue analysis. However, radiotherapy and
Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R
Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.
Wang, Shousen; Chen, Yehuang; Li, Jianzhong; Wei, Liangfeng; Wang, Rumi
Olfactory outcomes as well as oronasal postoperative complications of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to investigate nasal symptoms including olfactory function as well as quality of life following transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. The study is designed as a prospective cohort study set in a single tertiary hospital. A total of 53 patients with pituitary adenomas were included. All patients underwent pituitary surgery with the right-sided endonasal transsphenoidal approach. Outcomes were assessed with the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) to survey patient health, the Chinese version of the 22-item Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22), and a Toyota and Takagi (T&T) olfactometer. Assessments were carried out before surgery and at 1 week, and 1 and 4 months after surgery. The overall SF-36 scores were significantly lower, but the SNOT-22 scores were higher at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively compared with baseline (all P surgery were independent risk factors for a higher SNOT-22 score at 1 week after surgery. The findings show that microscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery impairs olfactory function in most patients for at least 4 months after surgery.
Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Fischer, Andreas; Schmidt, Arthur
Colorectal adenomas are well known precursors of invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for adenoma detection. Colonoscopy is far more than a diagnostic tool, as it allows effective treatment of colorectal adenomas. Endoscopic resection of colorectal adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Difficult resection techniques are available, such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic full-thickness resection. This review aims to provide an overview of the different endoscopic resection techniques and their indications, and summarizes the current recommendations in the recently published guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.
Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Cheon, Jung Eun; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Guk Myung
Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required
Ghasemi, Hassan; Asghari Asl, Sajedeh; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Jafari, Farhad; Izadi, Pupak
External dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the method of choice to treat nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction and the other approaches are compared with it, with a failure rate of 4% to 13%. The current study aimed to assess the causes of failure in external DCR by postoperative endoscopic and pathological evaluation. The current retrospective cross sectional study followed-up113 patients with external DCR and silicone intubation for three months. Silicone tubes were removed after the third months. Failure was confirmed based on the clinical findings and irrigation test. Paranasal sinus computed tomography (CT) scanning, and endoscopic and pathological evaluations were performed in the failed cases. Totally, 113 patients underwent external DCR. The patients included 71 females and 42 males. The mean age of the patients was 55.91 years; ranged from 18 to 86. Epiphora was the most common complaint before surgery (90.3%). Clinically, epiphora continued in 17 cases (15%), of which 94.11% had at least one sinus CT abnormality and 82.35% had at least one endoscopic abnormality. The most common endoscopic findings were deviated septum (70.6%), scar tissue (52.94%), concha bullosa (46.9%), septal adhesion (47.05%), enlarged middle turbinate (41.2%), and sump syndrome (11.7%). The failure was significantly associated with the chronicity of the initial symptoms (P-value=0.00). Pathologically, there were significant relationship amongst the failure rate, scar formation, and allergic rhinitis (P-values =0.00 and <0.05, respectively). Preoperative endonasal evaluation and consultation with an otolaryngologist can improve surgical outcomes and help to have a better conscious to intranasal abnormalities before external DCR surgery.
Friedrich, D T; Sommer, F; Scheithauer, M O; Greve, J; Hoffmann, T K; Schuler, P J
Objective Advanced transnasal sinus and skull base surgery remains a challenging discipline for head and neck surgeons. Restricted access and space for instrumentation can impede advanced interventions. Thus, we present the combination of an innovative robotic endoscope guidance system and a specific endoscope with adjustable viewing angle to facilitate transnasal surgery in a human cadaver model. Materials and Methods The applicability of the robotic endoscope guidance system with custom foot pedal controller was tested for advanced transnasal surgery on a fresh frozen human cadaver head. Visualization was enabled using a commercially available endoscope with adjustable viewing angle (15-90 degrees). Results Visualization and instrumentation of all paranasal sinuses, including the anterior and middle skull base, were feasible with the presented setup. Controlling the robotic endoscope guidance system was effectively precise, and the adjustable endoscope lens extended the view in the surgical field without the common change of fixed viewing angle endoscopes. Conclusion The combination of a robotic endoscope guidance system and an advanced endoscope with adjustable viewing angle enables bimanual surgery in transnasal interventions of the paranasal sinuses and the anterior skull base in a human cadaver model. The adjustable lens allows for the abandonment of fixed-angle endoscopes, saving time and resources, without reducing the quality of imaging.
Hazarika, Produl; Zachariah, Plavilayl Koruthu Joyse; Victor, John; Punnoose, Seema E; Sharma, Santosh; Devi, Chitra
A slow-growing frontal sinus osteoma has been followed up since the year 2001 by clinical, endoscopic, and radiological examination in the Department of Otolaryngology, New Medical Centre Specialty Hospital, Abu Dhabi, for 10 years until the year 2010. The last computed tomography scan of paranasal sinuses was done on April 5, 2010, which revealed increasing size of the osteoma by 38.1 mm; and it has become symptomatic. No specific cause of the sudden change of growth of the osteoma could be evaluated from the history and clinical examination. There was an increase in the frequency of headache and feeling of pressure in the forehead. Choice of surgical approach was difficult in this popular era of endonasal endoscopic sinus approach. A great deal of effort was made after reviewing the literature and consultation with the radiologist and neurosurgeon to accept the bicoronal osteoplastic flap approach. A broad-based posterior frontal sinus is found to be ideal for external approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varshney, Rickul; Frenkiel, Saul; Nguyen, Lily H P; Young, Meredith; Del Maestro, Rolando; Zeitouni, Anthony; Tewfik, Marc A
The technical challenges of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and the high risk of complications support the development of alternative modalities to train residents in these procedures. Virtual reality simulation is becoming a useful tool for training the skills necessary for minimally invasive surgery; however, there are currently no ESS virtual reality simulators available with valid evidence supporting their use in resident education. Our aim was to develop a new rhinology simulator, as well as to define potential performance metrics for trainee assessment. The McGill simulator for endoscopic sinus surgery (MSESS), a new sinus surgery virtual reality simulator with haptic feedback, was developed (a collaboration between the McGill University Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the Montreal Neurologic Institute Simulation Lab, and the National Research Council of Canada). A panel of experts in education, performance assessment, rhinology, and skull base surgery convened to identify core technical abilities that would need to be taught by the simulator, as well as performance metrics to be developed and captured. The MSESS allows the user to perform basic sinus surgery skills, such as an ethmoidectomy and sphenoidotomy, through the use of endoscopic tools in a virtual nasal model. The performance metrics were developed by an expert panel and include measurements of safety, quality, and efficiency of the procedure. The MSESS incorporates novel technological advancements to create a realistic platform for trainees. To our knowledge, this is the first simulator to combine novel tools such as the endonasal wash and elaborate anatomic deformity with advanced performance metrics for ESS.
Travaglini, T A; Swaney, P J; Weaver, Kyle D; Webster, R J
The Leap Motion controller is a low-cost, optically-based hand tracking system that has recently been introduced on the consumer market. Prior studies have investigated its precision and accuracy, toward evaluating its usefulness as a surgical robot master interface. Yet due to the diversity of potential slave robots and surgical procedures, as well as the dynamic nature of surgery, it is challenging to make general conclusions from published accuracy and precision data. Thus, our goal in this paper is to explore the use of the Leap in the specific scenario of endonasal pituitary surgery. We use it to control a concentric tube continuum robot in a phantom study, and compare user performance using the Leap to previously published results using the Phantom Omni. We find that the users were able to achieve nearly identical average resection percentage and overall surgical duration with the Leap.
Travaglini, T. A.; Swaney, P. J.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, R. J.
The Leap Motion controller is a low-cost, optically-based hand tracking system that has recently been introduced on the consumer market. Prior studies have investigated its precision and accuracy, toward evaluating its usefulness as a surgical robot master interface. Yet due to the diversity of potential slave robots and surgical procedures, as well as the dynamic nature of surgery, it is challenging to make general conclusions from published accuracy and precision data. Thus, our goal in this paper is to explore the use of the Leap in the specific scenario of endonasal pituitary surgery. We use it to control a concentric tube continuum robot in a phantom study, and compare user performance using the Leap to previously published results using the Phantom Omni. We find that the users were able to achieve nearly identical average resection percentage and overall surgical duration with the Leap. PMID:26752501
Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.
Smart, Christopher J; Cunningham, Chris; Bach, Simon P
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a well established method of accurate resection of specimens from the rectum under binocular vision. This review examines its role in the treatment of benign conditions of the rectum and the evidence to support its use and compliment existing endoscopic treatments. The evolution of TEMS in early rectal cancer and the concepts and outcomes of how it has been utilised to treat patients so far are presented. The bespoke nature of early rectal cancer treatment is changing the standard algorithms of rectal cancer care. The future of TEMS in the organ preserving treatment of early rectal cancer is discussed and how as clinicians we are able to select the correct patients for neoadjuvant or radical treatments accurately. The role of radiotherapy and outcomes from combination treatment using TEMS are presented with suggestions for areas of future research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A couple of minimally-invasive, endoscopic antireflux procedures have been developed during the last years. Beside endoscopic suturing these included injection/implantation technique of biopolymers and application of radiofrequency. Radiofrequency (Stretta) has proved only a very modest effect, while implantation techniques have been abandoned due to lack of long-term efficacy (Gatekeeper) or serious side effects (Enteryx). While first generation endoluminal suturing techniques (EndoCinch, ESD) demonstrated a proof of principle their lack of durability, due to suture loss, led to the development of a potentially durable transmural plication technique (Plicator). In a prospective-randomized, sham-controlled trial the Plicator procedure proved superiority concerning reflux symptoms, medication use and esophageal acid exposure (24-h-pH-metry). While long-term data have to be awaited to draw final conclusions, technical improvements will drive innovation in this field.
Tschopp, Kurt P; Thomaser, Esther G
Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) has found widespread use in functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS) over the past few years. The present study investigates if CAS leads to a better outcome in FESS. All patients who underwent endonasal sphenoethmoidectomy were enrolled in a prospective, non-randomized case-control study. The procedures were done without CAS (group A) in 2003 and with CAS (group B) in 2004, using a Stryker navigation unit. Sixty-two patients (113 sphenoidectomies) were included in group A and 61 patients (109 sphenoidectomies) in group B. The underlying disease was recurrent chronic sinusitis or polyposis nasi in all patients except for inverted papilloma in one patient from group A and in two patients from group B. The follow-up period was 12 months. Symptom scores were assessed preoperatively and at 12 months postoperatively, using a questionnaire. A CT-scan was obtained in all patients preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. No significant difference was found between group A and B, neither with respect to symptom scores at 12 months postoperatively, nor in postoperative CT-scans. The operation strategy did not change by the introduction of CAS. The frontal sinuses were entered in group A and B in 59% and 64% of the patients, respectively. All parameters improved significantly postoperatively, compared to the preoperative values. As far as complications are concerned, two anterior orbital injuries and one retrobulbar haematoma occurred in group A and one postoperative lacrimal stenosis in group B. CAS does not lead to a better clinical outcome in FESS. Our data suggest that the rate of complications may be reduced using CAS. However, studies with a much larger number of patients would be necessary in order to definitely answer the question of whether CAS reduce complications in FESS.
Thomaser, E G; Tschopp, K
Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) has found widespread use in functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS) over the past few years. The present study investigates if CAS leads to a better outcome in FESS. All patients who underwent endonasal sphenoethmoidectomy were enrolled in a prospective, non-randomized study. The procedures were done without CAS (group A) in 2003 and in 2004 with CAS (group B), using a Stryker navigation unit. 62 patients (113 sphenoidectomies) were included in group A and 61 patients (109 sphenoidectomies) in group B. The underlying disease was recurrent chronic sinusitis or polyposis nasi in all patients except for inverted papilloma in one patient of group A and in two patients of group B. The follow-up period was 6 months. Preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively, a CT-scan was obtained and symptom scores were assessed using a questionnaire. No significant difference was found between group A and B with respect to symptom scores, and CT-scans preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. The operation strategy did not change by the introduction of CAS. The frontal sinus was entered in group A and B in 59% and 64%, respectively. All parameters significantly improved postoperatively, compared to the preoperative values. As far as complications are concerned, two anterior orbital injuries and one retrobulbar haematoma occurred in group A and one postoperative lacrimal stenosis in group B. CAS does not lead to a better clinical outcome in FESS. Our data suggest that the rate of complications may be reduced using CAS. However, studies with a much larger number of patients would be necessary for a definite answer to this issue.
Hyo Seong Kim
Full Text Available BackgroundAmong all facial fractures, nasal bone fractures are the most common, and they have been reduced by closed reduction (CR for a long time. But several authors have reported suboptimal results when using CR, and the best method of nasal bone reduction is still being debated. We have found that indirect open reduction (IOR through an endonasal incisional approach is a useful method for more accurate reduction of the nasal bone.MethodsA retrospective chart review was performed of 356 patients who underwent reduction of a nasal bone fracture in our department from January, 2006, to July, 2011. We treated 263 patients with IOR. We assessed patients' and doctors' satisfaction with surgical outcomes after IOR or CR. We evaluated the frequency of nasal bleeding owing to mucosal injury, and followed the surgical outcomes of patients who had simultaneous dorsal augmentation rhinoplasty.ResultsAccording to the analysis of the satisfaction scores, both patients and doctors were significantly more satisfied in the IOR group than the CR group (P<0.05. Mucosal injury with nasal bleeding occurred much less in the IOR group (5.3% than the CR group (12.9%. Dorsal augmentation rhinoplasty with IOR was performed simultaneously in 34 cases. Most of them (31/34 showed satisfaction with the outcomes.ConclusionsIOR enables surgeons to manipulate the bony fragment directly through the endonasal incisional approach. However, we propose that CR is the proper technique for patients under 16 and for those with comminuted nasal bone fractures because submucosal dissection in IOR can damage the growth or circulation of nasal bone.
Harewood, Gavin C
The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.
Gessner, C E; Jowell, P S; Baillie, J
The development of past, present, and future endoscopic training methods is described. A historical perspective of endoscopy training guidelines and devices is used to demonstrate support for the use of novel endoscopic training techniques. Computer simulation of endoscopy, interactive learning, and virtual reality applications in endoscopy and surgery are reviewed. The goals of endoscopic simulation and challenges facing investigators in this field are discussed, with an emphasis on current and future research.
Rabinovitz, R.; Hai, N.; Abraham, Martin D.; Adler, Doron; Nissani, M.; Fridental, Ron; Vitsnudel, Ilia
We have introduced a computer-based endoscopic camera which includes (a) unique real-time digital image processing to optimize image visualization by reducing over exposed glared areas and brightening dark areas, and by accentuating sharpness and fine structures, and (b) patient data documentation and management. The image processing is based on i Sight's iSP1000TM digital video processor chip and Adaptive SensitivityTM patented scheme for capturing and displaying images with wide dynamic range of light, taking into account local neighborhood image conditions and global image statistics. It provides the medical user with the ability to view images under difficult lighting conditions, without losing details `in the dark' or in completely saturated areas. The patient data documentation and management allows storage of images (approximately 1 MB per image for a full 24 bit color image) to any storage device installed into the camera, or to an external host media via network. The patient data which is included with every image described essential information on the patient and procedure. The operator can assign custom data descriptors, and can search for the stored image/data by typing any image descriptor. The camera optics has extended zoom range of f equals 20 - 45 mm allowing control of the diameter of the field which is displayed on the monitor such that the complete field of view of the endoscope can be displayed on all the area of the screen. All these features provide versatile endoscopic camera with excellent image quality and documentation capabilities.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a incidência de dificuldades operatórias em dacriocistorrinostomias endoscópicas, assim como propor soluções. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo que verificou nossos registros de 268 dacriocistorrinostomias endoscópicas endonasais, em 241 pacientes, realizadas de outubro de 1999 a agosto de 2005. A idade dos pacientes variou de 2 a 92 anos (média: 49,1 anos. A uncinectomia (remoção de parte do processo uncinado foi utilizada como acesso à fossa lacrimal, não havendo necessidade de brocas. RESULTADOS: Houve dificuldades operatórias em 37 (13,8% procedimentos. As dificuldades mais comuns foram: hemorragia (n=12 e anormalidades da anatomia nasal (n=14. Houve ainda dificuldade em alguns casos de mucocele, células etmoidais anteriores e processo uncinado resistente. Das alterações nasais que dificultaram a cirurgia, a mais comum foi desvio de septo, seguida de pólipos, hipertrofia da concha média e fratura da parede lateral. Complicações ocorreram em apenas 5 (1,9% casos, incluindo epistaxe pós-operatória (n=3, enfisema subcutâneo na face e deslocamento do tubo de silicone. CONCLUSÃO: A dacriocistorrinostomia endoscópica endonasal com uncinectomia mostrou-se segura, com um mínimo de complicações no pós-operatório. Embora a maioria das cirurgias tenha transcorrido sem dificuldades, este procedimento pode ser tecnicamente difícil, principalmente na presença de hemorragia ou espaço nasal reduzido.PURPOSE: To assess the incidence of operative difficulties in endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomies, as well as to suggest solutions. METHODS: This retrospective study searched for reports of complications and intraoperative difficulties in our records of 268 endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomies, in 241 patients, performed from October 1999 to August 2005. The patients' age ranged from 2 to 92 years (mean: 49.1 years. Uncinectomy (partial excision of the uncinate process was employed as the entry to
A. M. Razumovskaya
Full Text Available Research objective: comparative assessment of efficiency of use of Emoxypin® by an endonasal electrophoresis and parabulbar injections at a chorioretinal dystrophy. Methods: 71 patients (average age of 55±3 years suffering from a chorioretinal dystrophy of various genesis were in the study. The ophthalmologic examination included: evaluation of visual acuity, a field of vision, a visual fatigue, a condition of bulbar microcirculation (the general conjunctiva index. Besides, electrophysiological examination was conducted, including critical frequency of merge of flickers and electric sensitivity of an eye. The patients were divided into 2 groups. The main group (28 patients received Emoxypin® with endonasal electrophoresis and group B (43 patients received Emoxypin® by parabulbar injections. Results: Results of the statistical analysis in both groups showed visual acuity increasment, expansion of borders of a field of vision, depression of visual fatigability, indicators of electrophysiological examination and bulbar microcirculation improved. Conclusion: The comparative assessment of efficiency of use of Emoxypin® by an endonasal electrophoresis and parabulbar injections at a chorioretinal dystrophic various a genesis showed appreciable medical effect in the course of restoration of visual functions which in some cases (18% even better effect observed at parabulbar injections.
Ismail, Mostafa; Fares, Abd Alla; Abdelhak, Balegh; D'Haens, Jean; Michel, Olaf
Sellar reconstruction with intrasellar packing following endoscopic resection of pituitary macroadenomas remains a subject of clinical and radiological discussion particularly, when an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is absent. This study was conducted to contribute our experience with sellar reconstruction after a standard endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas without intraoperative CSF leakage to the ongoing discussion between techniques with and without intrasellar packing. A consecutive series of 47 pituitary macroadenomas undergoing excision via a standard endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) without evident intraoperative CSF leakage were retrospectively evaluated over a 10-months mean follow-up period. According to the sellar reconstruction technique, three groups could be identified: Group A - with no intrasellar packing, Group B - with haemostatic materials packing, and Group C - with abdominal fat packing. Postoperative clinical and radiological assessments of the three groups were documented and analyzed for differences in outcome. Postoperative clinical assessment did not differ significantly between the three groups. In group A, postoperative CSF leakage, sphenoid sinusitis and empty sella syndrome were not observed. However, a significant difference in radiological assessment could be identified; the interpretation of sellar contents in postoperative MRI of group A succeeded earlier and more reliably than in other groups with intrasellar packing. There is no difference in the incidence of postoperative CSF leakage and empty sella syndrome among the various reconstructive techniques with and without intrasellar packing, irrespective of size and extension of the pituitary adenoma. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing following a standard EETS is not inferior to other techniques with packing and even shows more radiological advantages, which made it our preferred technique, at least if no
Full Text Available Objectives: Sellar reconstruction with intrasellar packing following endoscopic resection of pituitary macroadenomas remains a subject of clinical and radiological discussion particularly, when an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage is absent. This study was conducted to contribute our experience with sellar reconstruction after a standard endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas without intraoperative CSF leakage to the ongoing discussion between techniques with and without intrasellar packing.Methods: A consecutive series of 47 pituitary macroadenomas undergoing excision via a standard endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS without evident intraoperative CSF leakage were retrospectively evaluated over a 10-months mean follow-up period. According to the sellar reconstruction technique, three groups could be identified: Group A – with no intrasellar packing, Group B – with haemostatic materials packing, and Group C – with abdominal fat packing. Postoperative clinical and radiological assessments of the three groups were documented and analyzed for differences in outcome.Results: Postoperative clinical assessment did not differ significantly between the three groups. In group A, postoperative CSF leakage, sphenoid sinusitis and empty sella syndrome were not observed. However, a significant difference in radiological assessment could be identified; the interpretation of sellar contents in postoperative MRI of group A succeeded earlier and more reliably than in other groups with intrasellar packing. Conclusions: There is no difference in the incidence of postoperative CSF leakage and empty sella syndrome among the various reconstructive techniques with and without intrasellar packing, irrespective of size and extension of the pituitary adenoma. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing following a standard EETS is not inferior to other techniques with packing and even shows more radiological advantages
Tytgat, G. N.
The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000
The objective was to prove the advantage of endoscopic laser-urethroplasty over internal urethrotomy in acquired urethral strictures. Patients and Method: From January, 1996 to June, 2005, 35 patients with a mean age of 66 years were submitted to endoscopic laser-urethroplasty for strictures of either the bulbar (30) or membranous (5) urethra. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. First of all, the strictures were incised at the 4, 8 and 12 o'clock position by means of a Sachse-urethrotom. Then the scar flap between the 4 and 8 o'clock position was vaporized using a Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1060 nm and a 600 pm bare fiber, the latter always being in contact with the tissue. The laser worked at 40W power in continuous mode. The total energy averaged 2574 J. An indwelling catheter was kept in place overnight and the patients were discharged the following day. Urinalysis, uroflowmetry and clinical examination were performed at two months after surgery and from then on every six months. Results: No serious complications were encountered. Considering a mean follow-up of 18 months, the average peak flow improved from 7.3 ml/s preoperatively to 18.7 mVs postoperatively. The treatment faded in 5 patients ( 14.3% ) who finally underwent open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty yields better short-term results than internal visual urethrotomy. Long-term follow-up has yet to confirm its superiority in the treatment of acquired urethral strictures.
Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Paes, Walter Siqueira; Fausto, Agnes M.F.; Nucci, Jose Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Okuno, Emico; Maruta, Luis Massuo
Equivalent and effective doses in occupational exposures are evaluated considering that some specific endoscopic examinations, radiographic and fluoroscopic images of patients are taken with the medical staff near to the radiation field. Examinations are simulated using an anthropomorphic phantom as a member of the medical staff. Thermoluminescent dosemeters are attached in several positions of the phantom in order to determine some organ doses. From the comparison between the doses experimentally determined and the International and the Brazilian recommended occupational dose limits, the maximum number of examination that any member of the staff can perform was calculated
Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumours arising from remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and occupy the sellar region. The patients may remain asymptomatic for long duration or present with headache or visual disturbances. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Traditionally these tumours have been removed by neurosurgeons through the cranial approach but the advent of nasal endoscopes has opened new avenues for ENT surgeons to treat such patients. We hereby present a case of craniopharyngioma who was successfully treated by Trans-nasal Hypophysectomy.
Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel
Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods.
Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Wehrmann, Till
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ≥ 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia. PMID:23951393
Peroral endoscopic myotomy （POEM） incorporatesconcepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopicsurgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizinga submucosal tunnel as an operating space.Although intended for the palliation of symptoms ofachalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is alsoefficacious in the management of spastic esophagealdisorders. The technique requires an understanding ofthe pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders aswell as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut.POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% ofpatients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition,it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremesof age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken.Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist tomanage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical asfailure to do so could result in significant morbidity. Themajor late adverse event is gastroesophageal refluxwhich appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients.Research is being conducted to clarify the optimaltechnique for POEM and a personalized approach bymeasuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junctiondistensibility appears promising. In addition toesophageal disorders,POEM is being studied in themanagement of gastroparesis （gastric pyloromyotomy）with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility.Although POEM represents a paradigm shift themanagement of esophageal motility disorders, theresults of prospective randomized controlled trials withlong-term follow up are eagerly awaited.
Decristoforo, P; Kaltseis, J; Fritz, A; Edlinger, M; Posch, W; Wilflingseder, D; Lass-Flörl, C; Orth-Höller, D
Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes, have been described. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination varies dramatically in literature. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture-based and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3%-4.6% according to the national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene-relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples failing in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly Pseudomonas oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n = 9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n = 6, 11.5%) only on account of microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared with results from other European countries, possibly due to the high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baradaranfar M. H
Full Text Available Inverted papilloma is an uncommon benign neoplasm originating from lateral nasal wall. It commonly invades paranasal sinuses and sometimes invasion to orbit and intracranial structures are seen. There are many surgical methods for its treatment, one of them is endoscopic transnasal approach."nMaterials and Methods: Between 1997 and 2001, 11 patients with this tumor were operated in Amiralam hospital in Tehran and Shahid Rahnemun in Yazd. Nine patients were operated by endoscopic transnasal route and two patients by combined Caldwell-luc and endoscopic transnasal routes."nResults: Tumors were on the right side in 3 patients, on the left side in 7 patients, and bilateral in one patient. There were no intracranial or orbital extensions. No pathologic report of malignancy was made. Surgical technique included complete tumor resection, anterior and posterior ethomidectomies, sphenoidectomy, frontal recess tumor resection and wide maxillary antrostomy, in cases in whom tumor was attached to lamina papyracea, the lamina was removed without any manipulation to orbital periosteum. Mean follow-up time was 29.8 months. There was no recurrence in 82% of cases. Tumor recurred in 18% of cases. No complications were seen."nConclusion: Although the standard treatment for this tumor is medial maxillectomy but endoscopic resection is an effective method in surgery of this tumor. It seems that if tumor does not extend to areas unreachable by endoscopic surgery, due to lower morbidity and excellent visualization of tumor, this method is preferable.
Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer.
XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng
Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.
Jukes, Alistair K; Mascarenhas, Annika; Murphy, Jae; Stepan, Lia; Muñoz, Tamara N; Callejas, Claudio A; Valentine, Rowan; Wormald, P J; Psaltis, Alkis J
Major vessel hemorrhage in endoscopic, endonasal skull-base surgery is a rare but potentially fatal event. Surgical simulation models have been developed to train surgeons in the techniques required to manage this complication. This mixed-methods study aims to quantify the stress responses the model induces, determine how realistic the experience is, and how it changes the confidence levels of surgeons in their ability to deal with major vascular injury in an endoscopic setting. Forty consultant surgeons and surgeons in training underwent training on an endoscopic sheep model of jugular vein and carotid artery injury. Pre-course and post-course questionnaires providing demographics, experience level, confidence, and realism scores were taken, based on a 5-point Likert scale. Objective markers of stress response including blood pressure, heart rate, and salivary alpha-amylase levels were measured. Mean "realism" score assessed posttraining showed the model to be perceived as highly realistic by the participants (score 4.02). Difference in participant self-rated pre-course and post-course confidence levels was significant (p confidence level 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43 to 1.90); mean post-course confidence level 3.42 (95% CI, 3.19 to 3.65). Differences in subjects' heart rates (HRs) and mean arterial blood pressures (MAPs) were significant between injury models (p = 0.0008, p = 0.0387, respectively). No statistically significant difference in salivary alpha-amylase levels pretraining and posttraining was observed. Results from this study indicate that this highly realistic simulation model provides surgeons with an increased level of confidence in their ability to deal with the rare but potentially catastrophic event of major vessel injury in endoscopic skull-base surgery. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Little, Andrew S; Kelly, Daniel; Milligan, John; Griffiths, Chester; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L; Rosseau, Gail; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Otto, Bradley A; Jahnke, Heidi; Chaloner, Charlene; Jelinek, Kathryn L; Chapple, Kristina; White, William L
Despite the increasing application of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions, the prognostic factors that are associated with sinonasal quality of life (QOL) and nasal morbidity are not well understood. The authors examine the predictors of sinonasal QOL and nasal morbidity in patients undergoing fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. An exploratory post hoc analysis was conducted of patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary surgery and were enrolled in a prospective multicenter QOL study. End points of the study included patient-reported sinonasal QOL and objective nasal endoscopy findings. Multivariate models were developed to determine the patient and surgical factors that correlated with QOL at 2 weeks through 6 months after surgery. This study is a retrospective review of a subgroup of patients studied in the clinical trial "Rhinological Outcomes in Endonasal Pituitary Surgery" (clinical trial no. NCT01504399, clinicaltrials.gov ). Data from 100 patients who underwent fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery were included. Predictors of a lower postoperative sinonasal QOL at 2 weeks were use of nasal splints (p = 0.039) and female sex at the trend level (p = 0.061); at 3 months, predictors of lower QOL were the presence of sinusitis (p = 0.025), advancing age (p = 0.044), and use of absorbable nasal packing (p = 0.014). Health status (multidimensional QOL) was also predictive at 2 weeks (p = 0.001) and 3 months (p surgery. The mean time (± SEM) to absence of nasal crusting was 16.3 ± 2.1 weeks, mucopurulence was 6.2 ± 1.1 weeks, and synechia was 4.4 ± 0.5 weeks. Use of absorbable nasal packing was associated with more severe mucopurulence. Sinonasal QOL following endoscopic pituitary surgery reaches a nadir at 2 weeks and recovers by 3 months postoperatively. Use of absorbable packing and nasal splints, while used in a minority of patients, negatively correlates with early sinonasal QOL. Sinonasal QOL and overall health status are
Harith M. Alkhateeb
Conclusions: (1 Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2 A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3 Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective.
After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation
Horii, S.C.; Garra, B.S.; Zeman, R.K.; Krasner, B.H.; Lo, S.C.B.; Davros, W.J.; Silverman, P.M.; Cattau, E.L.; Fleischer, D.E.; Benjamin, S.B.S.B.
As part of the clinical evaluation of image management and communications system (IMACS), the authors undertook a prospective study to compare conventional film versus digitized film viewed on a workstation. Twenty-five each of normal and abnormal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic (ERCP) studies were digitized with a 1,684 x 2,048-pixel matrix and evaluated in a single-blind fashion on the workstation. The resulting interpretations were then compared with those resulting from interpretation of film (spot film and 100-mm photospot) images. They report that no significant differences were found in ability to see anatomic detail or pathology. A second study involved performing 10 ERCP studies in a lithotripsy suite equipped with biplane digital fluoroscopy. The digital video displays were comparable in quality to that of film. Progress is being made in using the IMACS for archiving and retrieval of all current ERCP images
Gay, F; el Nawar, A; Van Gossum, A
From March 87 to March 92, fifty eight patients were referred to our department for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The modality of the feeding tube insertion is described. The most common indications for placement were neurologic disorders in 62% of the cases (n = 36) and malignant diseases in 32% (n = 19). The success rate of the technique was 98.3% (n = 57). No procedure-related mortality was observed. A low rate of major complication (1.7%) and minor complication (10.5%) was noted. Feeding tubes were removed in 21% of patients (n = 12); none of them with malignant disease. Survival curve analysis demonstrated that 50% of patients died within 3 months of PEG placement. Such results raise questions about the selection of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience suggests that PEG is easy and safe, even in debilitated patients, having an acceptable life expectancy.
Yad Ram Yadav
Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of
Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Karligkiotis, Apostolos; Lepera, Davide; Zocchi, Jacopo; Dallan, Iacopo; Bignami, Maurizio; Castelnuovo, Paolo
Despite the development of functional endoscopic endonasal surgery, there are still areas of the maxillary sinus that remain technically difficult to access using a standard middle meatal antrostomy as well as deep-seated skull base lesions requiring expanded transmaxillary approaches. All patients who underwent transnasal endoscopic partial maxillectomy (TEPM) in a single institution from 2000 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The TEPM was classified into 5 types according to the anatomic structures progressively removed and to the access provided. The TEPM was performed in 1378 patients for the management of: inflammatory diseases in 513 cases (37%), benign sinonasal tumors in 425 cases (31%), skull base malignancies in 285 cases (21%), and as a corridor to address deep-seated skull base lesions in 155 cases (11%). The TEPM is a stepwise approach offering increasing access that can be tailored to different maxillary, sinonasal, and skull base pathologies with minimal morbidity for patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 754-766, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian
Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...
Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas
beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...
Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Dagle, Alicia B.; Kazanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad M.
Endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is an effective approach for pituitary adenoma resection, yet it poses the serious risk of internal carotid artery injury. We propose to visualize these carotid arteries, which are hidden by bone, with an optical fiber attached to a surgical tool and a transcranial ultrasound probe placed on the patient's temple (i.e. intraoperative photoacoustic imaging). To investigate energy requirements for vessel visualization, experiments were conducted with a phantom containing ex vivo sheep brain, ex vivo bovine blood, and 0.5-2.5 mm thick human cadaveric skull specimens. Photoacoustic images were acquired with 1.2-9.3 mJ laser energy, and the resulting vessel contrast was measured at each energy level. The distal vessel boundary was difficult to distinguish at the chosen contrast threshold for visibility (4.5 dB), which was used to determine the minimum energies for vessel visualization. The blood vessel was successfully visualized in the presence of the 0-2.0 mm thick sphenoid and temporal bones with up to 19.2 dB contrast. The minimum energy required ranged from 1.2-5.0 mJ, 4.2-5.9 mJ, and 4.6-5.2 mJ for the 1.0 temporal and 0-1.5 mm sphenoid bones, 1.5 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, and 2.0 mm temporal and 0-0.5 mm sphenoid bones, respectively, which corresponds to a fluence range of 4-21 mJ/cm2. These results hold promise for vessel visualization within safety limits. In a separate experiment, a mock tool tip was placed, providing satisfactory preliminary evidence that surgical tool tips can be visualized simultaneously with blood vessels.
Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K
Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.
Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. M Brand, D Bisoz. Abstract. Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among ...
Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ... endoscopic management at a median of 12 days (range 2 - 104 days) after surgery. Presenting features included intra-abdominal collections with pain in 58 cases ...
Reilink, Rob; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak
Background Advanced flexible endoscopes and instruments with multiple degrees of freedom enable physicians to perform challenging procedures such as the removal of large sections of mucosal tissue. However, these advanced endoscopes are difficult to control and require several physicians to
Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Samimi, Seyyed Hadi; Bakhshaee, Mehdi
Introduction: In recent years, the surgical management of angiofibroma has been greatly influenced by the use of endoscopic techniques. However, large tumors that extend into difficult anatomic sites present major challenges for management by either endoscopy or an open-surgery approach which needs new technique for the complete en block resection. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational study we developed an endoscopic transnasal technique for the resection of angiofibroma via pushing and pulling the mass with 1/100000 soaked adrenalin tampons. Thirty two patients were treated using this endoscopic technique over 7 years. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. The main outcomes measured were tumor staging, average blood loss, complications, length of hospitalization, and residual and/or recurrence rate of the tumor. Results: According to the Radkowski staging, 23,5, and 4 patients were at stage IIC, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. Twenty five patients were operated on exclusively via transnasal endoscopy while 7 patients were managed using endoscopy-assisted open-surgery techniques. Mean blood loss in patients was 1261± 893 cc. The recurrence rate was 21.88% (7 cases) at two years following surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 3.56 ± 0.6 days. Conclusion: Using this effective technique, endoscopic removal of more highly advanced angiofibroma is possible. Better visualization, less intraoperative blood loss, lower rates of complication and recurrence, and shorter hospitalization time are some of the advantages. PMID:24505571
Mojtaba Mohammadi Ardehali
Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, the surgical management of angiofibroma has been greatly influenced by the use of endoscopic techniques. However, large tumors that extend into difficult anatomic sites present major challenges for management by either endoscopy or an open-surgery approach which needs new technique for the complete en block resection. Materials and Methods: In a prospective observational study we developed an endoscopic transnasal technique for the resection of angiofibroma via pushing and pulling the mass with 1/100000 soaked adrenalin tampons. Thirty two patients were treated using this endoscopic technique over 7 years. The mean follow-up period was 36 months. The main outcomes measured were tumor staging, average blood loss, complications, length of hospitalization, and residual and/or recurrence rate of the tumor. Results: According to the Radkowski staging, 23,5, and 4 patients were at stage IIC, IIIA, and IIIB, respectively. Twenty five patients were operated on exclusively via transnasal endoscopy while 7 patients were managed using endoscopy-assisted open-surgery techniques. Mean blood loss in patients was 1261± 893 cc. The recurrence rate was 21.88% (7 cases at two years following surgery. Mean hospitalization time was 3.56 ± 0.6 days. Conclusion: Using this effective technique, endoscopic removal of more highly advanced angiofibroma is possible. Better visualization, less intraoperative blood loss, lower rates of complication and recurrence, and shorter hospitalization time are some of the advantages.
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is devastating due to its poor prognosis. Patients require a multidisciplinary approach to guide available options, mostly palliative because of advanced disease at presentation. Palliation including relief of biliary obstruction, gastric outlet obstruction, and cancer-related pain has become the focus in patients whose cancer is determined to be unresectable. Endoscopic stenting for biliary obstruction is an option for drainage to avoid the complications including jaundice, pruritus, infection, liver dysfunction and eventually failure. Enteral stents can relieve gastric obstruction and allow patients to resume oral intake. Pain is difficult to treat in cancer patients and endoscopic procedures such as pancreatic stenting and celiac plexus neurolysis can provide relief. The objective of endoscopic palliation is to primarily address symptoms as well improve quality of life.
Maliniemi, H.; Muukka, E.
For over ten years, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed, complementary inspection methods for steam turbine condition monitoring, which can be applied both during operation and shutdown. One important method used periodically during outages is endoscopic inspection. The inspection is based on the method where the internal parts of the turbine is inspected through access borings with endoscope and where the magnified figures of the internal parts is seen on video screen. To improve inspection assurance, an image-processing based pattern recognition method for cracks has been developed for the endoscopic inspection of turbine blades. It is based on the deduction conditions derived from the crack shape. The computer gives an alarm of a crack detection and prints a simulated image of the crack, which is then checked manually
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Endoscopic DCR is routinely performed by otolaryngologists for the treatment of chronic dacryocystitis. However, postoperative stenosis and failure rates are common. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study is to evaluate the role of preserving the mucosal flap in maintaining the patency of neo ostium. The surgical technique involved the creation of nasal mucosal and large posterior lacrimal flaps at the medial lacrimal sac wall and the two flaps were placed in close apposition. Success was defined as complete resolution of epiphora and a patent lacrimal system, evaluated by lacrimal irrigation and endoscopy followed upto 1 year postoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prosective study was conducted in 60 patients and followed for a duration of 1 year in ENT department,KMC,Guntur RESULTS In our study, Symptomatic and anatomic success was seen in 59 out of 60 operations that is 98% success in syringing patency was seen with this technique, which is comparable to external DCR and better than other endoscopic techniques. CONCLUSION Mucosal flap preservation appears to be the single most important innovation in endoscopic DCR surgery, which makes it comfortable for both the surgeon and patient, apart from providing a 98% success rate in our study.
Patel, Bhupendra C K
Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the success rates of external dacryocystorhinostomy (EXT-DCR with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU augmented endonasal laser dacryocystorhinostomy (ENL-DCR and to record the complications associated with 5-FU augmented ENL-DCR Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective non-randomised study. Forty-one patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction underwent an EXT-DCR (19 patients or an ENL-DCR (22 patients over a 3-year period. A Holmium YAG laser (Ho:YAG was used in the latter group of patients. Silicone tubes intubated in all patients were removed at three months. 5-FU was applied intraoperatively at the site of the ostium in the ENL-DCR patients. The median follow-up was 12 months (range 3-24 months for the ENL-DCR group and 22 months (range 6-28 months for the EXT-DCR group. The patency of the lacrimal system and the severity of epiphora were assessed at a final-review. Results: The median age of the EXT-DCR group was 77 years (range 53-87 and that of the ENL-DCR group was 71 years (range 23 to 84. There were 12 female patients in the former group and 19 in the latter. The percentage of success in the EXT-DCR group was 94.7% (95% confidence interval (CI = 75.4-99.1 = , and 63.6% in the ENL-DCR group (95% CI= 43.0-80.3. The confidence interval for the difference of 31.1% was 5.6-52.2. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups, p=0.024 (Fisher exact test. Conclusions: These data suggest that EXT-DCR provides better results than 5-FU augmented ENL-DCR. However, ENL-DCR is the procedure of choice in certain circumstances such as in elderly, frail or medically unfit patients. Our results of 5-FU augmented ENL-DCR compare favourably with other published series.
Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...
Bredenoord, A. J.; Rösch, T.; Fockens, P.
Treatment of achalasia is complicated by symptom recurrence and a significant risk for severe complications. Endoscopic myotomy was developed in the search for a highly efficacious treatment with lower risks. Since its introduction in 2010, several centers have adopted the technique and published
We highlight a potentially lethal complication of acute severe pancreatitis that may not be suspected in severely ill patients. A 41-year-old woman developed acute severe pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis. When her condition deteriorated ...
Székely, G; Bajka, M; Brechbühler, C; Dual, J; Enzler, R; Haller, U; Hug, J; Hutter, R; Ironmonger, N; Kauer, M; Meier, V; Niederer, P; Rhomberg, A; Schmid, P; Schweitzer, G; Thaler, M; Vuskovic, V; Tröster, G
Virtual reality (VR) based surgical simulator systems offer very elegant possibilities to both enrich and enhance traditional education in endoscopic surgery. However, while a wide range of VR simulator systems have been proposed and realized in the past few years, most of these systems are far from able to provide a reasonably realistic surgical environment. We explore the basic approaches to the current limits of realism and ultimately seek to extend these based on our description and analysis of the most important components of a VR-based endoscopic simulator. The feasibility of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on a first modular prototype system implementing the basic algorithms for VR-training in gynaecologic laparoscopy.
Bellaire, Gunter; Steines, Daniel; Graschew, Georgi; Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Schlag, Peter M.
The system presented here enhances documentation and data- secured, second-opinion facilities by integrating video into DICOM3.0. Digital stereoscopic video sequences (DSVS) are especially in demand for surgery (laparoscopy, microsurgery, surgical microscopy, second opinion, virtual reality). Therefore DSVS are also integrated into the DICOM video concept. We present an implementation for a medical video server extended by a DICOM interface. Security mechanisms conforming with DICOM are integrated to enable secure internet access. Digital (stereoscopic) video sequences relevant for surgery should be examined regarding the clip length necessary for diagnosis and documentation and the clip size manageable with today's hardware. Methods for DSVS compression are described, implemented, and tested. Image sources relevant for this paper include, among others, a stereoscopic laparoscope and a monoscopic endoscope. Additionally, an approach is presented to analyze the motion of the endoscopic camera for future automatic video- cutting.
This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.
Barakat, Monique T; Girotra, Mohit; Huang, Robert J; Banerjee, Subhas
Outbreaks of transmission of infection related to endoscopy despite reported adherence to reprocessing guidelines warrant scrutiny of all potential contributing factors. Recent reports from ambulatory surgery centers indicated widespread significant occult damage within endoscope working channels, raising concerns regarding the potential detrimental impact of this damage on the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. We inspected working channels of all 68 endoscopes at our academic institution using a novel flexible inspection endoscope. Inspections were recorded and videos reviewed by 3 investigators to evaluate and rate channel damage and/or debris. Working channel rinsates were obtained from all endoscopes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence was measured. Overall endoscope working channel damage was rated as minimal and/or mild and was consistent with expected wear and tear (median 1.59 on our 5-point scale). Our predominant findings included superficial scratches (98.5%) and scratches with adherent peel (76.5%). No channel perforations, stains, or burns were detected. The extent of damage was not predicted by endoscope age. Minor punctate debris was common, and a few small drops of fluid were noted in 42.6% of endoscopes after reprocessing and drying. The presence of residual fluid predicted higher ATP bioluminescence values. The presence of visualized working channel damage or debris was not associated with elevated ATP bioluminescence values. The flexible inspection endoscope enables high-resolution imaging of endoscope working channels and offers endoscopy units an additional modality for endoscope surveillance, potentially complementing bacterial cultures and ATP values. Our study, conducted in a busy academic endoscopy unit, indicated predominately mild damage to endoscope working channels, which did not correlate with elevated ATP values. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian
Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...
Full Text Available Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a well-established advanced endoscopic technique for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatobiliary diseases. New advances have been made in the treatment concept and techniques of ERCP in recent years. This article elaborates on the recent advances in ERCP, including the application of pancreatic duct stent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aggressive hydration to prevent postoperative pancreatitis, covered metal stent for the treatment of benign bile duct stenosis, intraluminal radiofrequency ablation for malignant bile duct stenosis, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and covered metal stent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, peroral choledochoscopy for qualitative diagnosis of bile duct stenosis and huge refractory stones, definition of difficult intubation, timing of pre-cut technique, and ERCP after gastrointestinal reconstruction.
Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter
Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiop......Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde...... of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need...
Irion, K M; Novak, P
With the advent of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) a decade ago, the requirements for operating rooms (OR) and their equipment have been increased. Compared with conventional open surgery, the new endoscopic techniques require additional tools. Television systems, for video-assisted image acquisition and visualisation, including cameras, monitors and light systems, as well as insufflators, pumps, high-frequency units, lasers and motorised therapy units, are nowadays usually made available on carts during endoscopic surgery. In conjunction with a set of endoscopic instruments, these high-tech units allow new operating techniques to be performed. The benefit for patients has become clear in recent years; however, the technical complexity of OR has also increased considerably. To minimise this problem for the OR personnel, the MIS concept 'OR1' (Operating Room 1) was developed and implemented. OR1 is a fully functional and integrated multi-speciality surgical suite for MIS. The centrepieces of the OR1 are the Storz Communication Bus (SCB) and the advanced image and data archiving system (Aida) from Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany. Both components allow monitoring, access and networking of the MIS equipment and other OR facilities, as well as the acquisition, storage and display of image, patient and equipment data during the endoscopic procedure. A central user interface allows efficient, simplified operation and online clinical images. Due to the system integration, the handling of complex equipment is considerably simplified, logistical procedures in the OR are improved, procedure times are shorter and, particularly noteworthy, operative risk can be reduced through simplified device operation.
Paul, J.; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika
The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26–50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of ...
Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D
Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies.
The number of medical accidents in endoscopic surgery has recently increased. Surgical complications caused by inadequate preparation or immature technique or those resulting in serious adverse outcomes may be referred to as medical accidents. The Nationwide Survey of Endoscopic Surgery showed that bile duct injury and uncontrollable bleeding were seen in 0.68% and in 0.58%, respectively, of cholecystectomy patients; interoperative and postoperative complications in 0.84% and in 3.8%, respectively, of gastric cancer surgery patients; and operative complications in 6.74% of bowel surgery patients. Some required open repair, and 49 patients died. The characteristic causes of complications in endoscopic surgery are a misunderstanding of anatomy, handling of organs outside the visual field, burn by electrocautery, and injuries caused by forceps. Bleeding that requires a laparotomy for hemostasis is also a complication. Furthermore, since the surgery is usually videorecorded, immature techniques resulting in complications are easily discovered. To decrease the frequency of accidents, education through textbooks and seminars, training using training boxes, simulators, or animals, proper selection of the surgeon depending on the difficulty of the procedure, a low threshold for conversion to laparotomy, and use of the best optical equipment and surgical instruments are important. To avoid malpractice lawsuits, informed consent obtained before surgery and proper communication after accidents are necessary.
Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D
Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies. PMID:26839644
Paul, J; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika
The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26-50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of the bleeding vessel. Of these, in four cases unsuspected diagnosis was made. Of the remaining 19, in three patients, the bleeding point could not be localized accurately and these patients were managed by anteroposterior packing. The rest of the 16 patients were managed by endoscopic cauterization. In four patients, there was recurrence of bleeding within 24 h. In one of these, cauterization controlled the bleeding while in the rest nasal packing had to be resorted to. Thus, of the 23 patients of posterior epistaxis subjected to nasal endoscopy, we could avoid nasal packing in 17 (74%). To conclude, endoscopic nasal cauterization is recommended as the first line to treatment in all cases of posterior epistaxis. This will not only prevent the uncomfortable and potentially dangerous nasal packing but also help in finding the underlying pathology.
Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.
Knudsen, Marie Høxbro; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem; Karstensen, John Gésdal
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is currently standard treatment for biliary drainage. Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) is a novel method to overcome an unsuccessful biliary drainage procedure. Under endoscopic ultrasound guidance a guidewire is passed via a needle from the stomach or duodenum to the common bile duct and from there on to the duodenum enabling ERCP. With a relatively high rate of success EUS-RV should be considered as an alternative to biliary drainage and surgical intervention.
Rafael Antonio Luengas Tello
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal endoscopic surgery has been making great progress since the seventies in the management paradigms of conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, polyp resection and diagnostic and therapeutic management of the biliary tract. The current challenge is the development of techniques that allow endoscopic treatment of emerging diseases such as cancer, morbid obesity, gastro-esophageal reflux and achalasia. This article reports on new techniques and expectations for the future in the endoscopic management of these diseases.
Alexey B. Kurnosov
Full Text Available Nowadays, in the age of rapid introduction of digital and fiber-optic technologies in neurosurgery, a technique for removal of tumors in the chiasmatic-sellar area via an endoscopic transsphenoidal endonasal approach is actively developed; this technique is considered less invasive and is well tolerated by patients, thus permitting to operate patients with somatic complications, as well as the elderly. Taking into account these facts, as well as world statistic data indicating a continuous trend of population aging in developed countries, including Russia, optimization of the perioperative care of elderly patients with a tumor of the chiasmatic-sellar area becomes the problem of highest priority. In order to solve it, this review discusses the basic peculiarities of the perioperative management of elderly patients (characteristics of their somatic status and possible variants of the pre-operational state with a pathology in the chiasmatic-sellar region; it also presents the modern and most acceptable alternative solutions of this difficult problem (introduction of modern methods of anesthesia, management of the postoperative cognitive dysfunction, postoperative pain syndrome, and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Justin A. Edward
Full Text Available Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS is associated with numerous craniofacial abnormalities but rarely with skull base tumor formation. We report an unusual and dramatic case of a symptomatic, mature skull base teratoma in an adult patient with KFS, with extension through the basisphenoid to obstruct the nasopharynx. This benign lesion was associated with midline palatal and cerebral defects, most notably pituitary and vertebrobasilar arteriolar duplications. A multidisciplinary workup and a complete endoscopic, transnasal surgical approach between otolaryngology and neurosurgery were undertaken. Out of concern for vascular control of the fibrofatty dense tumor stalk at the skull base and need for complete teratoma resection, we successfully employed a tissue resection tool with combined ultrasonic and bipolar diathermy to the tumor pedicle at the sphenoid/clivus junction. No CSF leak or major hemorrhage was noted using this endonasal approach, and no concerning postoperative sequelae were encountered. The patient continues to do well now 3 years after tumor extirpation, with resolution of all preoperative symptoms and absence of teratoma recurrence. KFS, teratoma biology, endocrine gland duplication, and the complex considerations required for successfully addressing this type of advanced skull base pathology are all reviewed herein.
Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment has generally been accepted in the management of bleeding esophageal varices. Both the control of acute variceal bleeding and elective variceal eradication to prevent recurrent bleeding can be achieved via endoscopic methods. In contrast to acute and elective treatment, the role of endoscopic therapy in asymptomatic patients who have never had variceal bleeding remains controversial because of the rather disappointing results obtained from prophylactic sclerotherapy. Most published randomized controlled trials showed that prophylactic sclerotherapy had no effect on survival. In some studies, neither survival rate nor bleeding risk was improved. In this article, the author champions the view that asymptomatic esophageal varices should be endoscopically treated.
Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel
Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices.
Yang, Joon Mo; Favazza, Christopher; Yao, Junjie; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk; Wang, Lihong V
We report photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic images of two intact rabbit esophagi. To investigate the esophageal lumen structure and microvasculature, we performed in vivo and ex vivo imaging studies using a 3.8-mm diameter photoacoustic endoscope and correlated the images with histology. Several interesting anatomic structures were newly found in both the in vivo and ex vivo images, which demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this endoscopic imaging modality. In the ex vivo imaging experiment, we acquired high-resolution motion-artifact-free three-dimensional photoacoustic images of the vasculatures distributed in the walls of the esophagi and extending to the neighboring mediastinal regions. Blood vessels with apparent diameters as small as 190 μm were resolved. Moreover, by taking advantage of the dual-mode high-resolution photoacoustic and ultrasound endoscopy, we could better identify and characterize the anatomic structures of the esophageal lumen, such as the mucosal and submucosal layers in the esophageal wall, and an esophageal branch of the thoracic aorta. In this paper, we present the first photoacoustic images showing the vasculature of a vertebrate esophagus and discuss the potential clinical applications and future development of photoacoustic endoscopy.
Joon Mo Yang
Full Text Available We report photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic images of two intact rabbit esophagi. To investigate the esophageal lumen structure and microvasculature, we performed in vivo and ex vivo imaging studies using a 3.8-mm diameter photoacoustic endoscope and correlated the images with histology. Several interesting anatomic structures were newly found in both the in vivo and ex vivo images, which demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this endoscopic imaging modality. In the ex vivo imaging experiment, we acquired high-resolution motion-artifact-free three-dimensional photoacoustic images of the vasculatures distributed in the walls of the esophagi and extending to the neighboring mediastinal regions. Blood vessels with apparent diameters as small as 190 μm were resolved. Moreover, by taking advantage of the dual-mode high-resolution photoacoustic and ultrasound endoscopy, we could better identify and characterize the anatomic structures of the esophageal lumen, such as the mucosal and submucosal layers in the esophageal wall, and an esophageal branch of the thoracic aorta. In this paper, we present the first photoacoustic images showing the vasculature of a vertebrate esophagus and discuss the potential clinical applications and future development of photoacoustic endoscopy.
There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...
Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei; Wakamatsu, Shingo.
Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)
Satake, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Takamitsu; Kurihara, Kazunao; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kim, Shiei [Kawaguchi Municipal Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Wakamatsu, Shingo
Breast conserving therapy (BCT) now is widely accepted in Japan. Quadrantectomy has been chosen from among the several available breast conserving operations for its minimal recurrence rate. Quadrantectomy, or excision of one-quarter volume of the breast, leaves a moderate degree of deformity which diminishes the quality of life. The authors have introduced immediate post-ectomy breast reconstruction utilizing an endoscopically harvested latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle flap which results in a minimal donor site scar. Five cases of endoscope-assisted LD muscle reconstruction of a quadrantectomized breast have been followed by irradiation therapy. Prior to reconstruction, with the patient in the supine position, quadrantectomy and dissection of axillary lymphnodes are performed through an incision extending from the anterior axillary to the inflamammary line. The patient then is placed in the lateral supine position. LD muscle flap dissection by electrocautery begins through the initial incision. Dissections of posterior portions of the muscle continue, under endoscopic visualization, through one or two ports along the anterior margin of the muscle. Moderate amount of adipose tissue is left attached to the muscle to obtain full augmentation. The raised flap then is transferred and secured to the post-quandrantectomy defect. Some post-irradiation shrinkage of the inserted LD muscle has been a common occurrence of breast reconstruction. An ample amount of adipose tissue left attached to the muscle margin will solve this matter since fatty tissue is more resistant to post-irradiation atrophy. (J.P.N.)
Eloy, Jean Anderson; Patel, Amit A; Shukla, Pratik A; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K
The vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF) represents a successful option for reconstruction of large skull base defects after expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA). This vascularized flap can be harvested early or late in the operation depending on the anticipation of high-flow CSF leaks. Each harvesting technique (early vs. late) is associated with different advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we evaluate our experience with early harvesting of the PNSF for repair of large skull base defects after EEA. A retrospective review was performed at a tertiary care medical center on patients who underwent early PNSF harvesting during reconstruction of intraoperative high-flow CSF leaks after EEA between December 2008 and March 2012. Demographic data, repair materials, surgical approach, and incidence of PNSF usage were collected. Eighty-seven patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. In 86 procedures (98.9%), the PNSF harvested at the beginning of the operation was used. In 1 case (1.1%), the PNSF was not used because a high-flow intraoperative CSF leak was not encountered. This patient had recurrence of intradural disease 8months later, and the previously elevated PNSF was subsequent used after tumor resection. Based on our data, a high-flow CSF leak and need for a PNSF can be accurately anticipated in patients undergoing EEA for skull base lesions. Because of the advantages of early harvesting of the PNSF and the high preoperative predictive value of CSF leak anticipations, this technique represents a feasible harvesting practice for EEA surgeries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
García, Sergio; Reyes, Luis; Roldán, Pedro; Torales, Jorge; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia; Langdon, Cristobal; Alobid, Isam; Enseñat, Joaquim
To assess the contribution of low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMRI) to endoscopic pituitary surgery. We analyzed a prospective series of patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas assisted with a low-field iMRI (PoleStarN30, 0.15 T [Medtronic]). Clinical, radiologic, and surgical variables were analyzed and compared with our fully endoscopic historic cohort operated on without iMRI assistance. A bibliographic review of pituitary surgery assisted with iMRI was conducted. Thirty patients (57% female; mean age, 55 years) were prospectively analyzed. The most frequent tumor subtype was nonfunctioning macroadenoma (50%). The average Knosp grade was 2.3 and mean tumor size was 18 mm. Surgical and positioning time were 102 and 47 minutes, respectively. Hospital stay and complication rates were similar to our historical cohort for pituitary surgery. Mean follow-up was 10 months. Complete resection (CR) was achieved in 83% of patients. Seven patients (23%) benefited from iMRI assistance and achieved a CR in their surgeries. All patients except 1 experienced hormonal activity remission. iMRI sensitivity and specificity was 0.8 and 1, respectively. Although not statistically significant, CR rates were globally 11.5% superior in iMRI series compared with our historical cohort. This difference was independent of cavernous sinus invasiveness grade (CR rate increased 12.5% for Knosp grade 0-2 and 8.1% for Knosp grade 3-4). Low-field iMRI is a useful and safe assistance even in advanced surgical techniques such as endoscopy. Its contribution is limited by the intrinsic features of the tumor. Further randomized studies are required to confirm the cost-effectiveness of iMRI in pituitary surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.
The integral search for improved living conditions for those patients with gastric cancer who have not received curative surgical treatment continues to challenge the knowledge, dexterity and ethical foundations of medical teams. The justification for palliative treatment must be based on a thorough consideration of the available options and the particular situation in each case. This article reviews endoscopic therapy with auto expandable prosthetics for palliative treatment of gastric cancer, as well as the scientific evidence that supports its use and the factors that determine its indication.
Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of
Singh, Rajiv Ranjan; Singh, Virendra
Hilar biliary strictures are caused by various benign and malignant conditions. It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignant strictures. Postcholecystectomy benign biliary strictures are frequently encountered. Endoscopic management of these strictures is challenging. An endoscopic method has been advocated that involves placement of increasing number of stents at regular intervals to resolve the stricture. Malignant hilar strictures are mostly unresectable at the time of diagnosis and only palliation is possible.Endoscopic palliation is preferred over surgery or radiological intervention. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography is quite important in the management of these strictures. Metal stents are superior to plastic stents. The opinion is divided over the issue of unilateral or bilateral stenting.Minimal contrast or no contrast technique has been advocated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography of these patients. The role of intraluminal brachytherapy, intraductal ablation devices, photodynamic therapy, and endoscopic ultrasound still remains to be defined. PMID:26191345
Endoscopic imaging systems that perform as the "eye" of the operator during endoscopic surgical procedures have developed rapidly due to various technological developments. In addition, since the most recent turn of the century robotic surgery has increased its scope through the utilization of systems such as Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci System. To optimize the imaging required for precise robotic surgery, a unique endoscope has been developed, consisting of both a two dimensional (2D) image optical system for wider observation of the entire surgical field, and a three dimensional (3D) image optical system for observation of the more precise details at the operative site. Additionally, a "near infrared radiation" endoscopic system is under development to detect the sentinel lymph node more readily. Such progress in the area of endoscopic imaging is expected to enhance the surgical procedure from both the patient's and the surgeon's point of view.
Pinchuk, Alexey V; Dmitriev, Ilya V; Shmarina, Nonna V; Teterin, Yury S; Balkarov, Aslan G; Storozhev, Roman V; Anisimov, Yuri A; Gasanov, Ali M
An evaluation of the efficacy of endoscopic methods for the diagnosis and correction of surgical and immunological complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. From October 2011 to March 2015, 27 patients underwent simultaneous retroperitoneal pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). Diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with protocol biopsy of the donor and recipient duodenal mucosa and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) were performed to detect possible complications. Endoscopic stenting of the main pancreatic duct with plastic stents and three-stage endoscopic hemostasis were conducted to correct the identified complications. Endoscopic methods showed high efficiency in the timely diagnosis and adequate correction of complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van den Broek, Frank J C; de Graaf, Eelco J R; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Reitsma, Johannes B; Haringsma, Jelle; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas L A M; Gerhards, Michael F; Consten, Esther C J; Schwartz, Matthijs P; Boom, Maarten J; Derksen, Erik J; Bijnen, A Bart; Davids, Paul H P; Hoff, Christiaan; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Heine, G Dimitri N; van der Linde, Klaas; Jansen, Jeroen M; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie C H; Breumelhof, Ronald; Geldof, Han; Hardwick, James C H; Doornebosch, Pascal G; Depla, Annekatrien C T M; Ernst, Miranda F; van Munster, Ivo P; de Hingh, Ignace H J T; Schoon, Erik J; Bemelman, Willem A; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien
Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications.The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas. Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma > or = 3 cm, located between 1-15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2) number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3) major and minor morbidity; 4) disease specific and general quality of life; 5) anorectal function; 6) health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures. Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR of 3.3% and considering an upper-limit of 10
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM. If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require expensive equipment, general anesthesia and hospital admission. Furthermore, EMR appears to be associated with fewer complications. The aim of this study is to compare the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of TEM and EMR for the resection of large rectal adenomas. Methods/design Multicenter randomized trial among 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients with a rectal adenoma ≥ 3 cm, located between 1–15 cm ab ano, will be randomized to a TEM- or EMR-treatment strategy. For TEM, patients will be treated under general anesthesia, adenomas will be dissected en-bloc by a full-thickness excision, and patients will be admitted to the hospital. For EMR, no or conscious sedation is used, lesions will be resected through the submucosal plane in a piecemeal fashion, and patients will be discharged from the hospital. Residual adenoma that is visible during the first surveillance endoscopy at 3 months will be removed endoscopically in both treatment strategies and is considered as part of the primary treatment. Primary outcome measure is the proportion of patients with recurrence after 3 months. Secondary outcome measures are: 2 number of days not spent in hospital from initial treatment until 2 years afterwards; 3 major and minor morbidity; 4 disease specific and general quality of life; 5 anorectal function; 6 health care utilization and costs. A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis of EMR against TEM for large rectal adenomas will be performed from a societal perspective with respectively the costs per recurrence free patient and the cost per quality adjusted life year as outcome measures. Based on comparable recurrence rates for TEM and EMR
Bauder, Markus; Schmidt, Arthur; Caca, Karel
Recent developments have expanded the frontier of interventional endoscopy toward more extended resections following surgical principles. This article presents two new device-assisted techniques for endoscopic full-thickness resection in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. Both methods are nonexposure techniques avoiding exposure of gastrointestinal contents to the peritoneal cavity by a "close first-cut later" principle. The full-thickness resection device is a novel over-the-scope device designed for clip-assisted full-thickness resection of colorectal lesions. Endoscopic full-thickness resection of gastric subepithelial tumors can be performed after placing transmural sutures underneath the tumor with a suturing device originally designed for endoscopic antireflux therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Woodward, Timothy A.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a technology that had been used primarily as a passive imaging modality. Recent advances have enabled us to move beyond the use of EUS solely as a staging tool to an interventional device. Current studies suggest that interventional applications of EUS will allow for minimally invasive assessment and therapies in a cost-effective manner. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been demonstrated to be a technically feasible, relatively safe method of obtaining cytologic specimens. The clinical utility of EUS- FNA appears to be greatest in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer and in the nodal staging of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. In addition, EUS-FNA has demonstrated utility in the sampling pleural and ascitic fluid not generally appreciated or assessable to standard interventions. Interventional applications of EUS include EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage, EUS-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia, and EUS- guided celiac plexus neurolysis in the treatment of pancreatic cancer pain. Finally, EUS-guided fine-needle installation is being evaluated, in conjunction with recent bimolecular treatment modalities, as a delivery system in the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tumors.
Liew, Kong Yew; Narayanan, Prepageran; Waran, Vicknes
Objectives To demonstrate, step-by-step, the technique and efficacy of endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Design The video shows a step-by-step approach to the resection, covering the exposure, access, resection, and confirmation of resection and reconstruction. Setting The surgery was performed in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, a tertiary referral center in the capital of Malaysia. Participants Surgery was performed jointly by Professor Prepageran from the department of otorhinolaryngology and Professor Vicknes Waran from the division of neurosurgery. Both surgeons are from the University of Malaya. Video compilation, editing, and voice narration was done by Dr. Kong Yew Liew. Main Outcome Measures Completeness of resection and avoidance of intra- and postoperative complications. Results Based on intraoperative views and MRI findings, the tumor was completely resected with the patient suffering only transient diabetes insipidus. Conclusion Central suprasellar tumors can be removed completely via an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach with minimal morbidity to the patient. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/ZNIHfk12cYg .
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. 884... Surgical Devices § 884.4100 Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrocautery is a device used to perform female sterilization under endoscopic observation. It is designed to...
Wang, L; Yin, H L; Meng, Q
In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out . Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter
Wang, L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Yin, H L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Meng, Q [Shanghai University of Electric Power (China)
In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out . Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter.
Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey
Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H.
Endoscopic therapy for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The two most commonly utilized endoscopic interventions are large balloon pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin injection (BTI). These interventions have been extensively scrutinized and compared with each other as well as with surgical disruption (myotomy) of the LES. PD is generally more effective in improving dysphagia in achalasia than BTI, with the latter reserved for infirm older people, and PD may approach treatment results attained with myotomy. However, PD may need to be repeated. Small balloon dilation and endoscopic stent placement for achalasia have only been used in select centers. Per oral endoscopic myotomy is a newer endoscopic modality that will likely change the treatment paradigm for achalasia. It arose from the field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and represents a scarless endoscopic approach to Heller myotomy. This is a technique that requires extensive training and preparation and thus there should be rigorous accreditation and monitoring of outcomes to ensure safety and efficacy. PMID:23503707
Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R.J.
Peptic ulcers account for more than half of the cases of non variceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and therefore, are the focus of most of the methods of endoscopic hemostasis. Surgical intervention is now largely reserved for patients in whom endoscopic hemostasis has failed. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been employed to stop bleeding and reduce the risk of rebleeding, with no major differences in outcome between these methods. These include injection therapy, fibrin injection, heater probe, mono polar electrocautery, bipolar electrocautery, lasers and mechanical hemo clipping. The most important factor in determining outcome after gastrointestinal bleeding is rebleeding or persistent bleeding. The endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, however, provides the most useful prognostic information for bleeding. Recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis occurs in 15-20% of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The best approach to these patients remains controversial; the current options are repeat endoscopic therapy with the same or a different technique, emergency surgery or semi elective surgery after repeat endoscopic hemostasis. The combination of epinephrine injection with thermal coagulation may be more effective than epinephrine injection alone. Newer modalities such as fibrin injection or the application of hemo clips appear promising and comparative studies are awaited. (author)
Liu, J B; Zhuang, T G
A practical PACS-based Endoscope Image Acquisition Workstation is here introduced. By a Multimedia Video Card, the endoscope video is digitized and captured dynamically or statically into computer. This workstation realizes a variety of functions such as the endoscope video's acquisition and display, as well as the editing, processing, managing, storage, printing, communication of related information. Together with other medical image workstation, it can make up the image sources of PACS for hospitals. In addition, it can also act as an independent endoscopy diagnostic system.
Full Text Available Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy, and the incidence varies from 1% to 48%. It can be challenging to localize the bleeder or to administer various interventions through a side-viewing endoscope. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and the outcome of endoscopic intervention therapies. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 513 patients who underwent biliary sphincterotomy in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 2011 and 2016. The blood biochemistry, comorbidities, indication for sphincterotomy, severity of bleeding, endoscopic features of bleeder, and type of endoscopic therapy were analyzed. Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding occurred in 65 (12.6% patients. Forty-five patients had immediate bleeding and 20 patients had delayed bleeding. The multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding were liver cirrhosis (P = 0.029, end-stage renal disease (P = 0.038, previous antiplatelet drug use (P<0.001, and duodenal ulcer (P = 0.023. The complications of pancreatitis and cholangitis were higher in the bleeding group, with statistical significance. Delayed bleeding occurred within 1 to 7 days (mean, 2.5 days, and 60% (12/20 of the patients received endoscopic evaluation. In the delayed bleeding group, the successful hemostasis rate was 71.4% (5/7, and 65% (13/20 of the patients had ceased bleeding without endoscopic hemostasis therapy. Comparison of different therapeutic modalities showed that cholangitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine spray (P = 0.042 and pancreatitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine injection and electrocoagulation (P = 0.041 and P = 0.039 respectively. Clinically, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and further endoscopic hemostasis therapy increase the complication rate of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Realizing the effectiveness of each
Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of severe acute gallstone pancreatitis discovered at diag~osticlaparotomy. ... in these cases Included cholecystectomy and Ttube drainage (2 patients) cholecystostomy drainage (3 patients), and closure of the abdomen without drainage (2 patients).
De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H
Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.
Patients' medical records, operative notes, and neural tube database records were used to complete a structured questionnaire. The difference in ... likely after 6 months. Keywords: obstructive hydrocephalus; endoscopic third ventriculostomy; ventriculoperitoneal shunt; children; paediatric surgery; neurosurgery; Ethiopia ...
Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis. Rinki Saha, Anuradha Sinha, Jyoti Prakash Phukan. Abstract. Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed ...
Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc
This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that ea...
A. M. Gasanov
Full Text Available In the article, we report the incidence and etiology of pulmonary hemorrhage, and modern classifications according to the literature data. Methods of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage are analyzed.
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic ...
Full Text Available The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is known for its varied diagnostic and therapeutic utility for a variety of disorders. However it has greater likelihood of procedure related complications among the endoscopic procedures of gastrointestinal tract. The extraluminal hemorrhagic complications following ERCP are potentially life threatening though relatively rare. We present a 50 year patient with choledocholithiasis and cholelithiasis developing rare complication of subcapsular hepatic hematoma, following ERCP due to guide wire injury.
Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Shapiro, H.A.
The radiographic features of endoscopic sphincterotomies performed in 44 patients were evaluated. Radiographic landmarks aided in proper sphincterotome placement and also disclosed conditions and anatomic variations that made catheter placement difficult. Fluoroscopic and radiographic monitoring not only assisted the performance of endoscopic sphincterotomy, but also confirmed successful results and revealed reasons for failure. Radiographic changes in the biliary tract after sphincterotomy, as well as potential complications of sphincterotomy, are discussed and illustrated
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders. PMID:29397656
Young Kwan Cho
Full Text Available Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.
Wang, Shousen; Qin, Yong; Xiao, Deyong; Wu, Zhifeng; Wei, Liangfeng
To evaluate the clinical value of three-dimensional (3D) CT reconstruction of the sphenoidal sinus separation in localizing sellar floor during endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, and determine the size and location of sellar floor fenestration. After exclusion,51 patients were eligible for study inclusion. A pre-operative CT scan of the paranasal sinus and CT scan and MRI of the pituitary gland were obtained. Sphenoidal sinus separation was reconstructed using Mimics 15.0 software and the quantity, shape, and orientation were observed and compared with intra-operative data, the purpose of which was to guide the localization of sellar floor. Anatomic variation of the sphenoidal sinus and adjacent structures, tumor and sella turcica morphology, minimal distance between the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery（CSICA） bilaterally, and the shortest distance from the midline were measured. Based upon the shape of the sphenoidal sinus separation, sellar floor was accurately localized in all cases. Intra-operative sphenoidal sinus separation was consistent with pre-operative 3D CT reconstruction images. The sellar floor was extremely small in two patients, and insufficient fenestration of the sellar floor negatively affected tumor resection. Pre-operative 3D CT reconstruction is helpful for accurate and rapid localization of the saddle floor. The anatomic variation of sphenoidal sinus and adjacent structures, the characteristics of tumor and Sella, the minimum distance between bilateral CSICA and the shortest distance from the midline are helpful for the establishment of individualized Sellar bottom fenestration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chan, Jason Y K; Leung, Iris; Navarro-Alarcon, David; Lin, Weiyang; Li, Peng; Lee, Dennis L Y; Liu, Yun-hui; Tong, Michael C F
To evaluate the feasibility of a unique prototype foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder (FREE) in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cadaveric study. Using human cadavers, we investigated the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of the robotic endoscope holder in performing endoscopic sinus surgery with two hands in five cadaver heads, mimicking a single nostril three-handed technique. The FREE robot is relatively easy to use. Setup was quick, taking less than 3 minutes from docking the robot at the head of the bed to visualizing the middle meatus. The unit is also relatively small, takes up little space, and currently has four degrees of freedom. The learning curve for using the foot control was short. The use of both hands was not hindered by the presence of the endoscope in the nasal cavity. The tremor filtration also aided in the smooth movement of the endoscope, with minimal collisions. The FREE endoscope holder in an ex-vivo cadaver test corroborated the feasibility of the robotic prototype, which allows for a two-handed approach to surgery equal to a single nostril three-handed technique without the holder that may reduce operating time. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its safety profile and use in other areas of endoscopic surgery. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:566-569, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Pneumatic dilatation and Heller myotomy have been thoroughly studied as the most viable treatment options for achalasia. The pendulum, however, is shifting to the minimally invasive approach. Since Inoue et al. published the experience of the first 17 cases of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in 2010, there have been at least 5,000 cases performed worldwide and the number is increasing exponentially. Experts across the globe have been extending the indications to various esophageal motility disorders, to patients of extremes of age, sigmoidal esophagus and re-operated patients. There are a few variations in technique across different centers in defining the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and adequacy of myotomy, the optimal length, site of myotomy and whether the full thickness of the muscle wall should be cut. Large case series demonstrated its promising efficacy & reasonable complication profile. Randomized controlled trial in comparison with the gold standard, Heller myotomy, is ongoing. The future application of submucosal tunnelling technique is thrilling with its extension in tumour resection, antropyloromyotomy and other natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). PMID:28616407
van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J
The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.
Chang Min Cho
Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS has been recently established as an indispensable modality for the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal (GI disorders. EUS proficiency requires both cognitive and technical abilities, including an understanding of the appropriate indications, the performance of appropriate evaluations before and after the procedure, and the management of procedure-related complications. An increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures and a continual shortage of EUS training programs are two major obstacles for EUS training. Acquiring the skills necessary to comprehend and conduct EUS often requires training beyond the scope of a standard GI fellowship program. In addition to traditional formal EUS training and preceptorships, regular short-term intensive EUS training programs that provide training at various levels may help EUS practitioners improve and maintain EUS-related knowledges and skills. Theoretical knowledge can be acquired from lectures, textbooks, atlases, slides, videotapes, digital video discs, interactive compact discs, and websites. Informal EUS training is generally based on 1- or 2-day intensive seminars, including didactic lectures, skills demonstrated by expert practitioners through live video-streaming of procedures, and hands-on learning using animal or phantom models.
Huang, Yu-Chih; Yeh, Wen-Lin
Operative treatment of prepatellar bursitis is indicated in intractable bursitis. The most common complication of surgical treatment for prepatellar bursitis is skin problems. For traumatic prepatellar bursitis, we propose a protocol of outpatient endoscopic surgery under local anaesthesia. From September 1996 to February 2001, 60 cases of failed nonoperative treatment for prepatellar bursitis were included. The average age was 33.5 ± 11.1 years (range 21-55). The average operation duration was 18 minutes. Two to three mini-arthroscopic portals were used in our series. No sutures or a simple suture was needed for the portals after operation. After follow-up for an average of 36.3 months, all patients are were symptom-free and had regained knee function. None of the population had local tenderness or hypo-aesthesia around their wound. Their radiographic and sonographic examinations showed no recurrence of bursitis. Outpatient arthroscopic bursectomy under local anaesthesia is an effective procedure for the treatment of post-traumatic prepatellar bursitis after failed conservative treatments. Both the cosmetic results and functional results were satisfactory.
Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NAJ is a tumor with vascular component, slow growing, benign but very aggressive because of its local invasiveness. The NAJ is rare, accounting for 0.05% of all head and neck cancers. The classic triad of epistaxis, unilateral nasal obstruction and a mass in the nasopharynx suggests the diagnosis of NAJ and is then supplemented by imaging. Over the past 10 years the treatment of this disease has been discussed with the aim of designing a management protocol. Currently, surgery appears to be the best treatment of the NAJ. Other methods such as hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment modalities are now used occasionally as complementary treatments. Objective: To present the cases of this disease in the Hospital Infantil between October 2007 and August 2008. Methods: A retrospective case study of five cases of NAJ underwent surgery solely with endoscopic technique of two surgeons. Classifieds between IIA and IIIA. All patients underwent angiography with embolization of the tumor 3-4 days before surgery. Follow-up after surgery to detect recurrence. Results: There were two relapses in the following two years after surgery. Conclusion: Given the short period of patient follow-up, there were only two relapses in one year. So there is need for further action to claim that this technique has a low recurrence rate, since the recurrence is probably related to incomplete resection the initial tumor.
Rossini, Zefferino; Milani, Davide; Nicolosi, Federico; Costa, Francesco; Lasio, Giovanni Battista; D'Angelo, Vincenzo Antonio; Fornari, Maurizio; Colombo, Giovanni
The transnasal approach to lesions involving the craniovertebral junction represents a technical challenge because of limited inferior exposure. The endoscopic transseptal approach (EtsA) with posterior nasal spine (PNS) removal is described. This technique can create a wide exposure of the craniovertebral junction, thereby increasing the caudal exposure. On patients undergoing anterior craniovertebral junction decompression, we calculated the degree of exposure on the sagittal plan through a paraseptal route, an EtsA without and with PNS removal. The horizontal exposure and working area with the latter approach were also evaluated. Five patients underwent the transnasal procedure. The age of patients ranged from 34-71 years. All patients harbored basilar impression. The mean postoperative Nurick grade (1, 8) was improved versus the average preoperative grade (3). The average follow-up duration was 16 months. All patients underwent occipitocervical fixation. The mean vertical distances, from the clinoid recess to the inferior most limit with the paraseptal approach, EtsA without and with PNS removal were 38.52, 44.12, and 51.16 mm, respectively. The difference between our approach and a standard paraseptal route was statistically significant (P = 0.041; P< 0.05). The mean horizontal distances were 31.68 mm (mononostril entry) and 35.37 mm (binostril entry). The mean working area was 1795.53 mm 2 . Endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction are increasing, but the downward extension on the anterior cervical spine represents a limit. Therefore, many surgeons prefer transoral or transcervical approaches. The EtsA with PNS removal allows for a more caudal exposure than the standard paraseptal approach, with reduced nasal trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nikolaos V Chrysanthos
Full Text Available Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastric tube are less common than adenocarcinomas. Topography includes stomach, small intestine, Vater ampulla, and gross intestine. They are graded as neuroendocrine tumors grade I and II (NETs GI and GII and neuroendocrine carcinomas GIII based on Ki-67 index and mitotic count.  Endoscopic treatment for GI NETs ≤1 cm that does not extend beyond the submucosal layer and does not demonstrate lymph node metastasis is recommended. Tumors ≥2 cm, with lymph node metastasis, are indicated for surgical treatment. The treatment strategy for tumors between 10 and 20 mm in size remains controversial.  We present a rare case of a 60-year-old male patient with end-stage renal failure who underwent a screening pretransplantation endoscopic control. Colonoscopy had no pathological findings. Gastroscopy reveals an abnormal mucosa in the anterior upper part of the duodenal bulb that was described as a micronodular mucosa and a central nodule of 6 mm with erythematous mucosa. Histology of the micronodular mucosa reveals a heterotopic gastric mucosa and a small hyperplastic polyp. Biopsies from the nodule reveal a carcinoid tumor (NET GI. Immunohistochemistry: Positive chromogranin levels, low mitotic index (1/10 HPF, and Ki-67 index 2 cm and those of the duodenal bulb with histological extensions and the lack of assessing depth invasion.
Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha
Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watson, David I; Immanuel, Arul
Gastroesophageal reflux is extremely common in Western countries. For selected patients, there is an established role for the surgical treatment of reflux, and possibly an emerging role for endoscopic antireflux procedures. Randomized trials have compared medical versus surgical management, laparoscopic versus open surgery and partial versus total fundoplications. However, the evidence base for endoscopic procedures is limited to some small sham-controlled studies, and cohort studies with short-term follow-up. Laparoscopic fundoplication has been shown to be an effective antireflux operation. It facilitates quicker convalescence and is associated with fewer complications, but has a similar longer term outcome compared with open antireflux surgery. In most randomized trials, antireflux surgery achieves at least as good control of reflux as medical therapy, and these studies support a wider application of surgery for the treatment of moderate-to-severe reflux. Laparoscopic partial fundoplication is an effective surgical procedure with fewer side effects, and it may achieve high rates of patient satisfaction at late follow-up. Many of the early endoscopic antireflux procedures have failed to achieve effective reflux control, and they have been withdrawn from the market. Newer procedures have the potential to fashion a surgical fundoplication. However, at present there is insufficient evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of endoscopic procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and no endoscopic procedure has achieved equivalent reflux control to that achieved by surgical fundoplication.
Bloomfield, Ian; Van Dalen, Roelof; Lolohea, Simione; Wu, Linus
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques. A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand. A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%. Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
... Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrosurgical unit and... device includes the electrosurgical generator, patient plate, electric biopsy forceps, electrode, flexible snare, electrosurgical alarm system, electrosurgical power supply unit, electrical clamp, self...
Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.
The endoscopic preperitoneal technique (TEP) is an appealing inguinal hernia repair technique, theoretically superior to other approaches. In practice some problems remain unsolved. Real incidences of chronic postoperative inguinal pain (CPIP) and other important sequelae of endoscopic hernia repair
Mekky, Mohamed A; Abbas, Wael A
Since its advent in 1980, the scope of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has grown to include a wide range of indications, and it is now being incorporated as an integral part of everyday practice in the field of gastroenterology. Its use is extending from an adjuvant imaging aid to utilization as a therapeutic tool for various gastrointestinal disorders. EUS was first used to visualize remote organs, such as the pancreas and abdominal lymph nodes. When fine needle aspiration was introduced, the indications for EUS expanded to include tissue sampling for diagnostic purposes. At the same time, the needle can be used to convey a potential therapy to the internal organs, allowing access to remote sites. In this review, we aim to highlight the expanding spectrum of EUS indications and uses in the field of gastroenterology.
Xu, Yingshun; Singh, Janak; Siang, Teo Hui; Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Premchandran, C. S.; Sheng, Chen Wei; Kuan, Chuah Tong; Chen, Nanguang; Olivo, Malini C.; Sheppard, Colin J. R.
In this paper, we present a non-rotatory circumferential scanning optical probe integrated with a MEMS scanner for in vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is an emerging optical imaging technique that allows high resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure. To extend its usage to endoscopic applications, a miniaturized optical probe based on Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques is currently desired. A 3D electrothermally actuated micromirror realized using micromachining single crystal silicon (SCS) process highlights its very large angular deflection, about 45 degree, with low driving voltage for safety consideration. The micromirror is integrated with a GRIN lens into a waterproof package which is compatible with requirements for minimally invasive endoscopic procedures. To implement circumferential scanning substantially for diagnosis on certain pathological conditions, such as Barret's esophagus, the micromirror is mounted on 90 degree to optical axis of GRIN lens. 4 Bimorph actuators that are connected to the mirror on one end via supporting beams and springs are selected in this micromirror design. When actuators of the micromirror are driven by 4 channels of sinusoidal waveforms with 90 degree phase differences, beam focused by a GRIN is redirected out of the endoscope by 45 degree tilting mirror plate and achieve circumferential scanning pattern. This novel driving method making full use of very large angular deflection capability of our micromirror is totally different from previously developed or developing micromotor-like rotatory MEMS device for circumferential scanning.
Jye Hae Park
Full Text Available Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6 months. Results: Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5 years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87% had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment. Conclusion: PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.
Ainsworth, A P; Rafaelsen, S R; Wamberg, P A
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether initial endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is more cost effective than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis of EUS, MRCP and ERCP was performed on 163...
Goyal, Jatinder; Ramesh, Jayapal
Peripancreatic fluid collections are a well-known complication of pancreatitis and can vary from fluid-filled collections to entirely necrotic collections. Although most of the fluid-filled pseudocysts tend to resolve spontaneously with conservative management, intervention is necessary in symptomatic patients. Open surgery has been the traditional treatment modality of choice though endoscopic, laparoscopic and transcutaneous techniques offer alternative drainage approaches. During the last decade, improvement in endoscopic ultrasound technology has enabled real-time access and drainage of fluid collections that were previously not amenable to blind transmural drainage. This has initiated a trend towards use of this modality for treatment of pseudocysts. In this review, we have summarised the existing evidence for endoscopic drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections from published studies.
Soendenaa, K.; Horn, A.; Viste, A.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was carried out for the first time in 1968. Five years later endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed. Since then both modalities have become established as necessary adjuncts in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pathology in the bile duct or pancreas. The main indication is common bile duct stone, and as a consequence of this treatment fewer patients are now treated surgically. Patients with malignant bile duct obstruction can be given reasonable palliation of both jaundice and pruritus and therefore improved quality of life. Some reports indicate that endoscopic drainage may be useful for pancreatic stenosis. Complications are few, but vigilance and prompt treatment is necessary to keep morbidity at a minimum. Follow-up after several years shows that sphincterotomy is successful also in the long term. The authors discuss the present diagnostic and therapeutic situation. 31 refs., 2 tabs
Sakai, Y; Kobayashi, S; Watanabe, E; Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K
In the reconstruction of asymmetrical deformities of the facial skeleton, both an endoscope and a neuronavigator have been used. The endoscope allows the surgeon a wide view of the object on a television monitor, reduces the scarring, minimizes the undermined field, and reduces the need to work blind. The neuronavigator is a frameless computed tomographic stereotactic device that has been mainly used in neurosurgery. The device is easy to use and can offer the surgeon three-dimensional coordinates of the status during the operation. We have used this new technique in three clinical cases, two involving augmentation of the zygomatic bone on one side and one involving reduction of the frontal bone on one side. The surgical techniques we used and the versatility of both the endoscope and the neuronavigator are discussed herein based on our own experience.
Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel
Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA.
Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an integral component of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage is a recognized complication. First line treatment involves a variety of endoscopic techniques performed at the time of sphincterotomy. If these are not successful, transcatheter arterial embolization or open surgical vessel ligation are therapeutic considerations.
Lee, Kye-Sung; Hurley, William; Deegan, John; Dean, Scott; Rolland, Jannick P.
Endoscopic imaging in tubular structures, such as the tracheobronchial tree, could benefit from imaging optics with an extended depth of focus (DOF). This optics could accommodate for varying sizes of tubular structures across patients and along the tree within a single patient. In the paper, we demonstrate an extended DOF without sacrificing resolution showing rotational images in biological tubular samples with 2.5 μm axial resolution, 10 ìm lateral resolution, and > 4 mm depth range using a custom designed probe.
D. V. Samsonov
Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.
Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan
This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yuichiro Yoneoka, M.D., Ph.D.
Conclusion: To our best knowledge, this is the first case with long-term preoperative follow-up images, which can bridge the knowledge gap in operations of third ventricle ectPA as following: (1 Truly third ventricle ectPA can exist, (2 the third ventricle ectPA extended into the sella turcica along the pituitary stalk, (3 this ectPA can arise from the suprasellar peri-infundibular ectopic pituitary cells or the pars tuberalis of the adenohypophysis, and therefore adhere to the optic chiasm, (4 thus neurosurgeons should take great care in resection of ectPA arising from the infundibulum, and (5 it can be resected through an endoscopic extended transsphenoidal approach.
Full Text Available Over the past several decades, the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA has gradually become a preferred option of pituitary adenomas surgery because of its minimal invasiveness and high efficiency. However, some EETA operations were performed through one nostril (mononostril, while other EETA operations were performed through both nostrils (binostril. Therefore, we conducted this study to compare the pros and cons of these two methods in an attempted to confirm which method is more effective.We executed a systematic literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science and Medline (1992-2015. The language is limited to English and all studies should meet the inclusion criteria. Comparisons were made for postoperative outcomes, complications, and other relevant parameters between the mononostril and the binostril group. Statistical analyses of categorical variables were undertaken by the use of Stata 12.0 and SPASS 19.0.Thirty studies, involving 4805 patients, were included. The two groups had similar results in GTR rate (included GTR rate of macroadenomas, hormonal remission rate, improvement in visual function, postoperative CSF leak, permanent diabetes insipidus, meningitis, and sinusitis. The binostril group had less temporary diabetes insipidus (2.9% vs. 5.3%, p = 0.022, less anterior pituitary insufficiency (2.3% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.000 and few hospitalization days (3.2 days vs. 4.4 days, p<0.05 than the mononostril group. However, the mononostril group had less rate of epistaxis (0.4% vs. 1.5%, p = 0.008 than the binostril group. For invasive macroadenomas, the binostril group seem to demonstrate a tendency towards better outcomes though there was no subgroup analysis between the two groups.The binostril approach had less temporary diabetes insipidus, anterior pituitary insufficiency, and a shorter length of hospital stay, although they demonstrated a higher rate of epistaxis than the mononstril group
Hwang, Na-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hwan; You, Hi-Jin; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Kim, Deok-Woo
In recent years, endoscope-assisted transoral approach for condylar fracture treatment has attracted much attention. However, the surgical approach is technically challenging: the procedure requires specialized instruments and the surgeons experience a steep learning curve. During the transoral endoscopic (TE) approach several instruments are positioned through a narrow oral incision making endoscope maneuvering very difficult. For this reason, the authors changed the entry port of the endoscope from transoral to submandibular area through a small stab incision. The aim of this study is to assess the advantage of using the submandibular endoscopic intraoral approach (SEI).The SEI approach requires intraoral incision for fracture reduction and fixation, and 4 mm size submandibular stab incision for endoscope and traction wires. Fifteen patients with condyle neck and subcondyle fractures were operated under the submandibular approach and 15 patients with the same diagnosis were operated under the standard TE approach.The SEI approach allowed clear visualization of the posterior margin of the ramus and condyle, and the visual axis was parallel to the condyle ramus unit. The TE approach clearly shows the anterior margin of the condyle and the sigmoid notch. The surgical time of the SEI group was 128 minutes and the TE group was 120 minutes (P >0.05). All patients in the TE endoscope group were fixated with the trocar system, but only 2 lower neck fracture patients in the SEI group required a trocar. The other 13 subcondyle fractures were fixated with an angulated screw driver (P <0.05). There were no differences in complication and surgical outcomes.The submandibular endoscopic approach has an advantage of having more space with good visualization, and facilitated the use of an angulated screw driver.
Zhou, Pinghong; Yao, Liqing; Qin, Xinyu; Xu, Meidong; Zhong, Yunshi; Chen, Weifeng
The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for locally recurrent colorectal cancer after previous endoscopic mucosal resection. A total of 16 patients with locally recurrent colorectal lesions were enrolled. A needle knife, an insulated-tip knife and a hook knife were used to resect the lesion along the submucosa. The rate of the curative resection, procedure time, and incidence of complications were evaluated. Of 16 lesions, 15 were completely resected with endoscopic submucosal dissection, yielding an en bloc resection rate of 93.8 percent. Histologic examination confirmed that lateral and basal margins were cancer-free in 14 patients (87.5 percent). The average procedure time was 87.2 +/- 60.7 minutes. None of the patients had immediate or delayed bleeding during or after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Perforation in one patient (6.3 percent) was the only complication and was managed conservatively. The mean follow-up period was 15.5 +/- 6.8 months; none of the patients experienced lesion residue or recurrence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection appears to be effective for locally recurrent colorectal cancer after previous endoscopic mucosal resection, making it possible to resect whole lesions and provide precise histologic information.
Vignesh, Shivakumar; Hoffe, Sarah E; Meredith, Kenneth L; Shridhar, Ravi; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Gupta, Akshay K
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most important identifiable risk factor for the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. This article reviews the current endoscopic therapies for BE with high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancer and briefly discusses the endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer. The diagnosis of low-grade or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) is based on several cytologic criteria that suggest neoplastic transformation of the columnar epithelium. HGD and carcinoma in situ are regarded as equivalent. The presence of dysplasia, particularly HGD, is also a risk factor for synchronous and metachronous adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia is a marker of adenocarcinoma and also has been shown to be the preinvasive lesion. Esophagectomy has been the conventional treatment for T1 esophageal cancer and, although debated, is an appropriate option in some patients with HGD due to the presence of occult cancer in over one-third of patients. Endoscopic ablative modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation) and endoscopic resection techniques (eg, endoscopic mucosal resection) have demonstrated promising results. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy makes endoscopic treatment an attractive potential option.
Fusco, Stefano; Kratt, Thomas; Gani, Cihan; Stueker, Dietmar; Zips, Daniel; Malek, Nisar P; Goetz, Martin
Complete esophageal obstruction after (chemo)radiation for head and neck cancers is rare. However, inability to swallow one's own saliva strongly inflicts upon quality of life. Techniques for endoscopic recanalization in complete obstruction are not well established. We assessed the efficacy and safety of rendezvous recanalization. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent endoscopic recanalization of complete proximal esophageal obstruction after radiotherapy between January 2009 and June 2016. Technical success was defined as an ability to pass an endoscope across the recanalized lumen, clinical success by changes in the dysphagia score. Adverse events were recorded prospectively. 19 patients with complete obstruction (dysphagia IV°), all of whom had failed at least one trial of conventional dilatation, underwent recanalization by endoscopic rendezvous, a combined approach through a gastrostomy and perorally under fluoroscopic control. Conscious sedation was used in all patients. In 18/19 patients (94.7%), recanalization was technically successful. In 14/18 patients (77.8%), the post-intervention dysphagia score changed to ≤ II. Three patients had their PEG removed. Factors negatively associated with success were obstruction length of 50 mm; and tumor recurrence for long-term success. No severe complications were recorded. Rendezvous recanalization for complete esophageal obstruction is a reliable and safe method to re-establish luminal patency. Differences between technical and clinical success rates highlight the importance of additional functional factors associated with dysphagia. Given the lack of therapeutic alternatives, rendezvous recanalization is a valid option to improve dysphagia.
Kim, Jung Hee; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Se, Young-Bem; Kim, Hey In; Lee, Seung Hoon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Yong Hwy
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has recently been introduced in pituitary surgery. We investigated outcomes and complications of endoscopic surgery in 2 referral centers in Korea. We enrolled 134 patients with acromegaly (microadenomas, n = 15; macroadenomas, n = 119) who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at Seoul National University Hospital (n = 74) and Samsung Medical Center (n = 60) between January 2009 and March 2016. Remission was defined as having a normal insulin-like growth factor-1 and a suppressed growth hormone (GH) surgery, normal pituitary function was maintained in 34 patients (25.4%). Sixty-four patients (47.7%) presented complete (n = 59, 44.0%) or incomplete (n = 5, 3.7%) recovery of pituitary function. Hypopituitarism persisted in 20 patients (14.9%) and worsened in 16 patients (11.9%). Postoperatively, transient diabetes insipidus was reported in 52 patients (38.8%) but only persisted in 2 patients (1.5%). Other postoperative complications were epistaxis (n = 2), cerebral fluid leakage (n = 4), infection (n = 1), and intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 1). Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly presented high remission rates and a low incidence of endocrine deficits and complications. Regardless of surgical techniques, invasive pituitary tumors were associated with poor outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH is generally addressed by craniotomy under general anesthesia. We report a patient whose traumatic ASDH was treated under local anesthesia by one-burr-hole endoscopic surgery. This 87-year-old woman had undergone coil embolization for a ruptured right middle-cerebral artery aneurysm and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus 5 years earlier. Upon admission, she manifested consciousness disturbance after suffering head trauma and right hemiplegia. Her Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 (E2V2M4. Computed tomography (CT demonstrated a thick, left-frontotemporal ASDH. Due to her advanced age and poor condition, we performed endoscopic surgery rather than craniotomy to evacuate the ASDH. Under local anesthesia, we made a burr hole in her left forehead and increased its size to 15 mm in diameter. After introducing a transparent sheath into the hematoma cavity with a rigid endoscope, the clot was evacuated with a suction tube. The arterial bleeding point was electrically coagulated. A postoperative CT scan confirmed the reduction of the hematoma. There was neither brain compression nor brain swelling. Her consciousness disturbance and right hemiplegia improved immediately. Endoscopic surgery may represent a viable method to address traumatic intracranial hematomas in some patients.
Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.
Uppal, Dushant S; Wang, Andrew Y
Achalasia is the most common primary motility disorder of the esophagus and presents as dysphagia to solids and liquids. It is characterized by impaired deglutitive relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. High-resolution manometry allows for definitive diagnosis and classification of achalasia, with type II being the most responsive to therapy. Since no cure for achalasia exists, early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is critical to prevent end-stage disease. The central tenant of diagnosis is to first rule out mechanical obstruction due to stricture or malignancy, which is often accomplished by endoscopic and fluoroscopic examination. Therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD), surgical myotomy, and endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin injection. Heller myotomy and PD are more efficacious than pharmacologic therapies and should be considered first-line treatment options. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a minimally-invasive endoscopic therapy that might be as effective as surgical myotomy when performed by a trained and experienced endoscopist, although long-term data are lacking. Overall, therapy should be individualized to each patient’s clinical situation and based upon his or her risk tolerance, operative candidacy, and life expectancy. In instances of therapeutic failure or symptom recurrence re-treatment is possible and can include PD or POEM of the wall opposite the site of prior myotomy. Patients undergoing therapy for achalasia require counseling, as the goal of therapy is to improve swallowing and prevent late manifestations of the disease rather than to restore normal swallowing, which is unfortunately impossible. PMID:27818585
Matthew P. Spinn
Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.
An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic injection sclerotherapy in patients with portal hypertension seen at the Centre for Clinical Research, ... The report concludes that variceal injection sclerotherapy is a useful method of treating oesophageal varices and can be performed on an out patient basis.
WOUTERS, B; VANOVERBEEK, JJM
Over the years the techniques for endoscopic treatment of Zenker's diverticulum have been improved. Initially, in 1964, we used the electrocoagulation technique as described by Dohlman, but currently we prefer to sever the tissue bridge between the diverticulum and esophagus with the CO2 laser under
Revert, A.; Arana, E.; Pertejo, V.; Berenguer, M.; Masip, M.J.
Focal liver opacification during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is an uncommon complication caused by excessive pressure during contrast injection. In this situation, ERCP must be interrupted and the position of the cannula checked. We recommend that these images be excluded from the diagnosis of tumor or cystic cavities. 4 refs
miniport for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. Akinari Hinoki*, Ikeda ... method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the ... the open technique and an additional 2 mm miniport). A ... (unilateral, n = 9) or 42 ± 8 min (bilateral, n = 5). The mean .... Methods of laparoscopic repair have recently ...
Shrestha, B; Baidya, J L
Posterior urethral injury requires meticulous tertiary care and optimum expertise to manage successfully. The aim of our study is to describe our experiences with pelvic injuries involving posterior urethra and their outcome after early endoscopic realignment. A prospective study was carried out in 20 patients with complete posterior urethral rupture, from November 2007 till October 2010. They presented with blunt traumatic pelvic fracture and underwent primary realignment of posterior urethra in our institute. The definitive diagnosis of urethral rupture was made after retrograde urethrography and antegrade urethrography where applicable. The initial management was suprapubic catheter insertion after primary trauma management in casualty. After a week of conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and pain management, patients were subjected to the endoscopic realignment. The follow up period was at least six months. The results were analyzed with SPSS software. After endoscopic realignment, all patients were advised CISC for the initial 3 months. All patients voided well after three months of CISC. However, 12 patients were lost to follow up by the end of 6 postoperative months. Out of eight remaining patients, two had features of restricture and were managed with DVU followed by CISC again. One patient with restricture had some degree of erectile dysfunction who improved significantly after phospodiesterase inhibitors. None of the patients had features of incontinence. Early endoscopic realignment of posterior urethra is a minimally invasive modality in the management of complete posterior urethral injury with low rates of incontinence and impotency.
Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Karmarkar, Vikram S; Shaikh, Salman T
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has now become an accepted mode of hydrocephalus treatment in children. Varying degrees of success for the procedure have been reported depending on the type and etiology of hydrocephalus, age of the patient and certain technical parameters. Review of these factors for predictability of success, complications and validation of success score is presented.
P Khanna, BR Ray, R Sinha, R Kumar, K Sikka, AC Singh ... We present the anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of 14 JNAs, together with a review. ... Mean duration of surgery was 197.14 ± 77 minutes, and median blood loss ...
The present disclosure relates to an illumination system for endoscopic applications comprising at least one substantially monochromatic light source having a predefined central wavelength between 400 and 500 nm or between 500 and 550 nm, an optical transmission path adapted to guide light emanat...... for photodynamic diagnosis and/or therapy of bladder cancer is further disclosed herein....
Background This report describes the first miniport method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. To validate its safety and efficacy, the authors evaluated their early experiences. Methods Between April 2014 and December 2014, 19 SEALs using miniport ...
Nov 4, 2013 ... operative treatment is necessary, repair by a surgeon with expertise in biliary ... vascular injuries or other endoscopic findings requiring surgical or radiological intervention. Of 84 patients ..... necrosis and unrecognised distal CD injury. ... placement of multiple simultaneous stents, an alternative option.
van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; Groot, Minke; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Spennacchio, Pietro A.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek
The purpose of our study was to determine an anatomic landmark to help locate portals in endoscopic calcaneoplasty. The device for optimal portal placement (DOPP) was developed to measure the distance from the distal fibula tip to the calcaneus (DFC) in 28 volunteers to determine the location of the
T S Chandrasekar
Full Text Available Bile duct injuries and subsequent leaks can occur following laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies and also during other hepatobiliary surgeries. Various patient related and technical factors are implicated in the causation of biliary injuries. Over a period of twenty five years managing such patients of biliary injuries our team has found a practical approach to assess the cause of biliary injuries based on the symptoms, clinical examination and imaging. Bismuth classification is helpful in most of the cases. Immediate referral to a centre experienced in the management of bile duct injury and timely intervention is associated with improved outcomes. Resuscitation, correcting dyselectrolytemia, aspiration of undrained biloma and antibiotics take the priority in the management. The goal is to restore the bile conduit, and to prevent short and longterm complications such as biliary fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, biliary stricture, recurrent cholangitis and secondary biliary cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapy by reducing the transpapillary pressure gradient helps in reducing the leak. Endoscopic therapy with biliary sphincterotomy alone or with additional placement of a biliary stent/ nasobiliary drainage is advocated. In our tertiary care referral unit, we found endoscopic interventions are useful in situations where there is leak with associated CBD calculus or a foreign body, peripheral bile duct injury, cystic duct stump leak and partial bile duct injury with leak/ narrowing of the lumen. Endotherapy is not useful in case of complete transection (total cut off and complete stricture involving common hepatic or common bile ducts. In conclusion, endoscopic treatment can be considered a highly effective therapy and should be the first-line therapy in such patients. Though less successful, an endoscopic attempt is warranted in patients suffering from central bile duct leakages failing which surgical management is recommended.
Hill, Christine; El Zein, Mohamad; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dunlap, Margo; Chang, Angela; Agrawal, Alison; Barola, Sindhu; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Chen, Yen-I; Kalloo, Anthony N; Khashab, Mouen A; Kumbhari, Vivek
Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is gaining traction as a minimally invasive bariatric treatment. Concern that the learning curve may be slow, even among those proficient in endoscopic suturing, is a barrier to widespread implementation of the procedure. Therefore, we aimed to define the learning curve for ESG in a single endoscopist experienced in endoscopic suturing who participated in a 1-day ESG training program. Consecutive patients who underwent ESG between February 2016 and November 2016 were included. The performing endoscopist, who is proficient in endoscopic suturing for non-ESG procedures, participated in a 1-day ESG training session before offering ESG to patients. The outcome measurements were length of procedure (LOP) and number of plications per procedure. Nonlinear regression was used to determine the learning plateau and calculate the learning rate. Twenty-one consecutive patients (8 males), with mean age 47.7 ± 11.2 years and mean body mass index 41.8 ± 8.5 kg/m 2 underwent ESG. LOP decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a learning plateau at 101.5 minutes and a learning rate of 7 cases ( P = 0.04). The number of plications per procedure also decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a plateau at 8 sutures and a learning rate of 9 cases ( P < 0.001). Further, the average time per plication decreased significantly with consecutive procedures, reaching a plateau at 9 procedures ( P < 0.001). Endoscopists experienced in endoscopic suturing are expected to achieve a reduction in LOP and number of plications per procedure in successive cases, with progress plateauing at 7 and 9 cases, respectively.
Tyler Stevens; Mansour A Parsi
Hormone-stimulated pancreatic function tests (PFTs) are considered the gold standard for measuring pancreatic exocrine function. PFTs involve the administration of intravenous secretin or cholecystokinin, followed by collection and analysis of pancreatic secretions. Because exocrine function may decline in the earliest phase of pancreatic fibrosis, PFTs are considered accurate for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Unfortunately, these potentially valuable tests are infrequently performed except at specialized centers, because they are time consuming and complicated. To overcome these limitations, endoscopic PFT methods have been developed which include aspiration of pancreatic secretions through the suction channel of the endoscope. The secretin endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) involves collection of duodenal aspirates at 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after secretin stimulation. A bicarbonate concentration greater than 80 mmol/L in any of the samples is considered a normal result. The secretin ePFT has demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared with various reference standards, including the "Dreiling tube" secretin PFT, endoscopic ultrasound, and surgical histology. Furthermore, a standard autoanalyzer can be used for bicarbonate analysis, which allows the secretin ePFT to be performed at any hospital. The secretin ePFT may complement imaging tests like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis.This paper will review the literature validating the use of ePFT in the diagnosis of exocrine insufficiency and chronic pancreatitis. Newer developments will also be discussed, including the feasibility of combined EUS/ePFT, the use of cholecystokinin alone or in combination with secretin, and the discovery of new protein and lipid pancreatic juice biomarkers which may complement traditionalfluid analysis.
Wray, K. Brad
by an artifact, like a notebook or telescope. The chapter illustrates this by applying Pritchard’s account of extended knowledge to collaborating scientists. The beliefs acquired through collaborative research cannot satisfy both of Pritchard’s conditions of creditability. Further, there is evidence......Duncan Pritchard (2010) has developed a theory of extended knowledge based on the notion of extended cognition initially developed by Clark and Chalmers (1998). Pritchard’s account gives a central role to the notion of creditability, which requires the following two conditions to be met: (i...... that scientists are not prepared to take responsibility for the actions of the scientists with whom they collaborate....
Grindle, Christopher R; Curry, Joseph M; Kang, Melissa D; Evans, James J; Rosen, Marc R
Despite the increasing utilization of image-guided surgery, no radiology protocols for obtaining magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of adequate quality are available in the current literature. At our institution, more than 300 endonasal cranial base procedures including pituitary, extended pituitary, and other anterior skullbase procedures have been performed in the past 3 years. To facilitate and optimize preoperative evaluation and assessment, there was a need to develop a magnetic resonance protocol. Retrospective Technical Assessment was performed. Through a collaborative effort between the otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and neuroradiology departments at our institution, a skull base MR image-guided (IGS) protocol was developed with several ends in mind. First, it was necessary to generate diagnostic images useful for the more frequently seen pathologies to improve work flow and limit the expense and inefficiency of case specific MR studies. Second, it was necessary to generate sequences useful for IGS, preferably using sequences that best highlight that lesion. Currently, at our institution, all MR images used for IGS are obtained using this protocol as part of preoperative planning. The protocol that has been developed allows for thin cut precontrast and postcontrast axial cuts that can be used to plan intraoperative image guidance. It also obtains a thin cut T2 axial series that can be compiled separately for intraoperative imaging, or may be fused with computed tomographic images for combined modality. The outlined protocol obtains image sequences effective for diagnostic and operative purposes for image-guided surgery using both T1 and T2 sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Terra, A.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N.; Brezinsek, S.; Egner, S.; Hartl, M.; Kampf, D.; Klammer, J.; Lambertz, H.T.; Morlock, C.; Murari, A.; Reindl, M.; Sanders, S.; Sergienko, G.; Spencer, G.
Highlights: ► Replacement of JET diagnostics to match the new ITER-like Wall. ► The endoscope test ITER-like design with only mirror based optics. ► Withstanding and diagnostic capability during Plasma operation and disruptions. ► Engineering process from design to installation and procurement. -- Abstract: The development of optical diagnostics, like endoscopes, compatible with the ITER environment (metallic plasma facing components, neutron proof optics, etc.) is a challenge, but current tokamaks such as JET provide opportunities to test fully working concepts. This paper describes the engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope that has recently been designed, procured and installed on JET. The system must operate in a very strict environment with high temperature, high magnetic fields up to B = 4 T and rapid field variations (∂B/∂t ∼ 100 T/s) that induce high stresses due to eddy currents in the front mirror assembly. It must be designed to withstand high mechanical loads especially during disruptions, which lead to acceleration of about 7 g at 14 Hz. For the JET endoscope, when the plasma thermal loading, direct and indirect, was added to the assumed disruption loads, the reserve factor, defined as a ratio of yield strength over summed up von Mises stresses, was close to 1 for the mirror components. To ensure reliable operation, several analyses were performed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical performance of the endoscope and a final validation was obtained from mechanical and thermal tests, before the system's final installation in May 2011. During the tests, stability of the field of view angle variation was kept below 1° despite the high thermal gradient on endoscope head (∂T/∂x ∼ 500 K/m). In parallel, to ensure long time operation and to prevent undesirable performance degradation, a shutter system was also implemented in order to reduce impurity deposition on in-vessel mirrors but also to allow in situ transmission calibration
Bobbink, Maria Lammerdina; Hartmann, Andreas
The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an
Tertrais, Bruno; Yost, David S.; Bunn, Elaine; Lee, Seok-soo; Levite, Ariel e.; Russell, James A.; Hokayem, Emile; Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Schulte, Paul; Thraenert, Oliver; Kulesa, Lukasz
In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)
Mistry, N; Coulson, C; George, A
Digital and mobile device technology in healthcare is a growing market. The introduction of the endoscope-i, the world's first endoscopic mobile imaging system, allows the acquisition of high definition images of the ear, nose and throat (ENT). The system combines the e-i Pro camera app with a bespoke engineered endoscope-i adaptor which fits securely onto the iPhone or iPod touch. Endoscopic examination forms a salient aspect of the ENT work-up. The endoscope-i therefore provides a mobile and compact alternative to the existing bulky endoscopic systems currently in use which often restrict the clinician to the clinic setting. Areas covered: This article gives a detailed overview of the endoscope-i system together with its applications. A review and comparison of alternative devices on the market offering smartphone adapted endoscopic viewing systems is also presented. Expert commentary: The endoscope-i fulfils unmet needs by providing a compact, highly portable, simple to use endoscopic viewing system which is cost-effective and which makes use of smartphone technology most clinicians have in their pocket. The system allows real-time feedback to the patient and has the potential to transform the way that healthcare is delivered in ENT as well as having applications further afield.
Campo, Rudi; Wattiez, Arnaud; Tanos, Vasilis; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Grimbizis, Grigoris; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Puga, Marco; Molinas, Roger; O'Donovan, Peter; Deprest, Jan; Van Belle, Yves; Lissens, Ann; Herrmann, Anja; Tahir, Mahmood; Benedetto, Chiara; Siebert, Igno; Rabischong, Benoit; De Wilde, Rudy Leon
In recent years, training and education in endoscopic surgery has been critically reviewed. Clinicians, both surgeons as gynaecologist who perform endoscopic surgery without proper training of the specific psychomotor skills are at higher risk to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the apprentice-tutor model has long been a successful approach for training of surgeons, recently, clinicians have recognised that endoscopic surgery requires an important training phase outside the operating theatre. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA), recognises the necessity of this structured approach and implements two separated stages in its learning strategy. In the first stage, a skill certificate on theoretical knowledge and specific practical psychomotor skills is acquired through a high stake exam; in the second stage, a clinical programme is completed to achieve surgical competence and receive the corresponding diploma. Three diplomas can be awarded: (a) the Bachelor in Endoscopy; (b) the Minimally Invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS); and (c) the Master level. The Master level is sub-divided into two separate diplomas: the Master in Laparoscopic Pelvic Surgery and the Master in Hysteroscopy. The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and the quality control. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence and it counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice tutor model. It is seen as a major step toward standardization of endoscopic surgical training in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saunders, Katherine H; Igel, Leon I; Saumoy, Monica; Sharaiha, Reem Z; Aronne, Louis J
In this review, we describe the FDA-approved and investigational devices and endoscopic bariatric therapies for the treatment of obesity. We focus on literature published in the past few years and present mechanisms of action as well as efficacy and safety data. Devices and endoscopic procedures are emerging options to fill the significant treatment gap in the management of obesity. Not only are these devices and procedures minimally invasive and reversible, but they are potentially more effective than antiobesity medications, often safer for poor surgical candidates and possibly less expensive than bariatric surgery. As many patients require a variety of management strategies (medications, devices, procedures, and/or surgery) in addition to lifestyle modifications to achieve clinically significant weight loss, the future of obesity treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach. Combinations of advanced treatment strategies can lead to additive or synergistic weight loss. This is an area that requires further investigation.
P Mahesh Shanmugam
Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.
Becq, Aymeric; Camus, Marine; Rahmi, Gabriel; de Parades, Vincent; Marteau, Philippe
Introduction Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-validated treatment of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Other indications of endoscopic RFA are under evaluation. Results Four prospective studies (total 69 patients) have shown that RFA achieved complete remission of early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia at a rate of 80%, but with a substantial risk of stricture. In the setting of gastric antral vascular ectasia, two prospective monocenter studies, and a retrospective multicenter study, (total 51 patients), suggest that RFA is efficacious in terms of reducing transfusion dependency. In the setting of chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy, a prospective monocenter study and a retrospective multicenter study (total 56 patients) suggest that RFA is an efficient treatment. A retrospective comparative study (64 patients) suggests that RFA improves stents patency in malignant biliary strictures. Conclusions Endoscopic RFA is an upcoming treatment modality in early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia, as well as in gastric, rectal, and biliary diseases. PMID:26279839
Rauf, A.; Ahmed, I.; Rauf, M.H.; Rauf, M.
Objective: To determine the efficiency and safety of endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi with the available modern endoscopic instruments. Methology: In case series, patients were collected randomly from 2007 to 2014. Patients were diagnosed with ultrasound and Nephroscope with Swiss pneumatic lithoclast, lithotrite and stone punch were used for treatment. Results: Majority of the patient could be managed with the method adopted. Stone size, hardness or softness, gender were the factors affecting treatment. Associated prostate pathology was seen in four patients. Postoperative complications included hemorrhage, perforation, residual stone and transurethral resection of prostate syndrome. Conclusion: Overall, it is a safe procedure except in patients with large enlarged prostate and large vesical calculi. Very hard vesical calculus may need vesicolithotomy. (author)
Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.
Nicholas J Shaheen
Full Text Available Barrett′s esophagus (BE is the precursor lesion to esophageal adenocarcinoma. This cancer has undergone a rapid increase in incidence in Western societies in the last 30 years. Current practices seek to lower the risk of death from this cancer by performing screening upper endoscopy on those with chronic reflux symptoms, and then surveillance upper endoscopy on those found to have BE at periodic intervals. While this approach is intuitively appealing, no data substantiate a decreased cancer risk with these practices, and substantial issues limit the effectiveness of this approach. This article outlines the current approaches to BE, their shortcomings, and presents data supporting the use of endoscopic therapy for subjects with BE and dysplasia. A significant and growing literature supports the use of endoscopic therapy in BE, and this approach, combined with improved risk stratification, may improve our care of subjects with BE.
Full Text Available Intrasheath subluxation of the peroneal tendons within the peroneal groove is an uncommon problem. Open exploration combined with a peroneal groove-deepening procedure and retinacular reefing is the recommended treatment. This extensive lateral approach needs incision of the intact superior peroneal retinaculum and repair afterwards. We treated three patients with a painful intrasheath subluxation using an endoscopic approach. During this tendoscopy both tendons were inspected. The distal muscle fibers of the peroneus brevis tendon were resected in two patients. A partial tear was debrided in the third patient. All patients had a good result. No wound-healing problems or other complications occurred. Early return to work and sports was possible. An endoscopic approach was successful in treatment of an intrasheath subluxation of the peroneal tendons.
Jong Wook Kim
Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment is a minimally invasive treatment for managing patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Although several bulking agents have been used for endoscopic treatment, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is the only bulking agent currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR has gained great popularity owing to several obvious benefits, including short operative time, short hospital stay, minimal invasiveness, high efficacy, low complication rate, and reduced cost. Initially, the success rates of endoscopic treatment have been lower than that of open antireflux surgery. However, because injection techniques have been developed, a recent study showed higher success rates of endoscopic treatment than open surgery in the treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-grade VUR. Despite the controversy surrounding its effectiveness, endoscopic treatment is considered a valuable treatment option and viable alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis.
Eun Jeong Gong
Full Text Available Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions.
Choi, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Kyung Tai; Lee, Young Koo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ryoul; Chung, Woo Chull; Cha, Seung Do
Compare the result of endoscopic versus open bursectomy in lateral malleolar bursitis. Prospective evaluation of 21 patients (22 ankles) undergoing either open or endoscopic excision of lateral malleolar bursitis. The median age was 64 (38-79) years old. The median postoperative follow-up was 15 (12-18) months. Those patients undergoing endoscopic excision showed a higher satisfaction rate (excellent 9, good 2) than open excision (excellent 4, good 3, fair 1). The wounds also healed earlier in the endoscopic group although the operation time was slightly longer. One patient in the endoscopic group had recurrence of symptoms but complications in the open group included one patient with skin necrosis, one patient with wound dehiscence, and two patients of with superficial peroneal nerve injury. Endoscopic resection of the lateral malleolar bursitis is a promising technique and shows favorable results compared to the open resection. Therapeutic studies-Investigating the result of treatment, Level II.
Tumor bleeding is not a rare complication in patients with inoperable gastric cancer. Endoscopy has important roles in the diagnosis and primary treatment of tumor bleeding, similar to its roles in other non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases. Although limited studies have been performed, endoscopic therapy has been highly successful in achieving initial hemostasis. One or a combination of endoscopic therapy modalities, such as injection therapy, mechanical therapy, or ablative therapy, can be used for hemostasis in patients with endoscopic stigmata of recent hemorrhage. However, rebleeding after successful hemostasis with endoscopic therapy frequently occurs. Endoscopic therapy may be a treatment option for successfully controlling this rebleeding. Transarterial embolization or palliative surgery should be considered when endoscopic therapy fails. For primary and secondary prevention of tumor bleeding, proton pump inhibitors can be prescribed, although their effectiveness to prevent bleeding remains to be investigated. PMID:25844339
Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...
Christensen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Schulze, S
BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are at risk of developing cardiorespiratory complications, but the mechanism is still unknown. Treatment with metoprolol 2 h before the endoscopy has been shown to decrease the incidence of myocardial ischaemia......: The existence of a defence-like reaction ('vagal withdrawal') during ERCP has been shown. Metoprolol given 2 h before the procedure did not affect the occurrence of this phenomenon. The interaction of other periendoscopic factors is still unclear and should be studied further....
Roth, K; Sieber, J P; Schrimm, H; Heeg, P; Buess, G
This paper deals with the requirements for automated processing of endoscopic surgical instruments. After a brief analysis of the current problems, solutions are discussed. Test-procedures have been developed to validate the automated processing, so that the cleaning results are guaranteed and reproducable. Also a device for testing and cleaning was designed together with Netzsch Newamatic and PCI, called TC-MIC, to automate processing and reduce manual work.
Full Text Available We describe a 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 Mirizzi syndrome diagnosed on endoscopic ultrasound. He presented with acute onset of jaundice, malaise, dark urine over 3-4 days, and was found to have obstructive jaundice on lab testing. CT scan of the abdomen showed intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation, a 1.5 cm common bile duct (CBD above the pancreas, and possible stones in the CBD, but no masses. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP by a community gastroenterologist failed to cannulate the CBD. At the University Center, type 1 Mirizzi syndrome was noted on endoscopic ultrasound with narrowing of the CBD with extrinsic compression from cystic duct stone. During repeat ERCP, the CBD could be cannulated over the pancreatic duct wire. A mid CBD narrowing, distal CBD stones, proximal CBD and extrahepatic duct dilation were noted, and biliary sphincterotomy was performed. A small stone in the distal CBD was removed with an extraction balloon. The cystic duct stone was moved with the biliary balloon into the CBD, mechanical basket lithotripsy was performed and stone fragments were delivered out with an extraction balloon. The patient was seen 7 weeks later in the clinic. Skin and scleral icterus had cleared up and he is scheduled for an elective cholecystectomy. Mirizzi syndrome refers to biliary obstruction resulting from impacted stone in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder and commonly presents with obstructive jaundice. Type 1 does not have cholecystocholedochal fistulas, but they present in types 2, 3 and 4. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can also be used as a temporizing measure or definitive treatment in poor surgical risk candidates.
Atreja, Ashish; Rizk, Maged; Gurland, Brooke
Endoscopic electronic medical record systems (EEMRs) are now increasingly utilized in many endoscopy centers. Modern EEMRs not only support endoscopy report generation, but often include features such as practice management tools, image and video clip management, inventory management, e-faxes to referring physicians, and database support to measure quality and patient outcomes. There are many existing software vendors offering EEMRs, and choosing a software vendor can be time consuming and co...
Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua
In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.
Mirian Cabral Moreira de Castro
Full Text Available To describe a series of 129 consecutive patients submitted to the resection of pituitary tumors using the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in a public medical center. Method: Retrospective analysis based on the records of patients submitted to the resection of a pituitary tumor through the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach between 2004 and 2009. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine records were analyzed. The tumor was non-secreting in 96 (74.42% and secreting in 33 patients (22.58%. Out of the secretory tumors, the most prevalent was the growth hormone producer (7.65%, followed by the prolactinoma, (6.98%. Eleven patients developed cerebral spinal fluid (CSF fistulas, and four of them developed meningitis. One patient died due to intracerebral hemorrhage in the postoperative period. Conclusion: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to sellar tumors proved to be safe when the majority of the tumors were non-secreting. The most frequent complication was CSF. This technique can be done even in a public hospital with financial limits, since the health professionals are integrated.
Luciana Lopes de Oliveira
Full Text Available A 76-year-old woman, presenting with a 4-year history of progressive dysphagia, was submitted to endoscopic examination. The upper endoscopy revealed a proximal esophageal stricture and inflammatory mucosa associated with multiples small orifices in the esophageal wall, some of them fulfilled with white spots suggestive of fungal infection. This was a typical endoscopic finding of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, a benign and rare condition, related to chronic esophagitis and others comorbid states, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or infectious esophagitis, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, and achalasia. Dysphagia is the predominant symptom and can be accompanied by esophageal stricture in 80% to 90% of patients. The pathogenesis is unknown, and as the pseudodiverticulosis is an intramural finding, endoscopy biopsies are inconclusive. The main histological finding is dilation of the submucosal glands excretory ducts, probably obstructed by inflammatory cells. The treatment consists in management of the underlying diseases and symptoms relief. In this particular case, the patient was submitted to antifungal drugs followed by endoscopic dilation with thermoplastic bougies, with satisfactory improvement of dysphagia.
Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoon
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy. For solo-surgery, we used an Endoeye Flex Laparo-Thoraco Videoscope (Olympus America, Inc.). A Vitom Karl Storz holding system (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.) composed of several bars connected by a ball-joint system was used for fixation of endoscope. A snake retractor and a brain-spoon retractor were used on the sternocleidomastoid. Endoscopic thyroidectomy using the solo-surgeon technique was performed in 10 patients having papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean patient age was 36.0 ± 11.1 years, and all patients were female. There were no postoperative complications such as vocal cord paralysis and hematoma. When compared with the operating times and volume of drainage of a control group of 100 patients who underwent surgery through the conventional retroauricular approach between May 2013 and December 2015, the operating times and volume of drainage were not significantly different (P = .781 and .541, respectively). Solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy is safe and feasible when performed by a surgeon competent in endoscopic thyroidectomy.
Full Text Available Advances in diagnostic modalities and improvement in surveillance programs for Barrett esophagus has resulted in an increase in the incidence of superficial esophageal cancers (SECs. SEC, due to their limited metastatic potential, are amenable to non-invasive treatment modalities. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD are some of the new modalities that gastroenterologists have used over the last decade to diagnose and treat SEC. However, esophageal stricture (ES is a very common complication and a major cause of morbidity post-ESD. In the past few years, there has been a tremendous effort to reduce the incidence of ES among patients undergoing ESD. Steroids have shown the most consistent results over time with minimal complications although the preferred mode of delivery is debatable, with both systemic and local therapy having pros and cons for specific subgroups of patients. Newer modalities such as esophageal stents, autologous cell sheet transplantation, polyglycolic acid, and tranilast have shown promising results but the depth of experience with these methods is still limited. We have summarized case reports, prospective single center studies, and randomized controlled trials describing the various methods intended to reduce the incidence of ES after ESD. Indications, techniques, outcomes, limitations, and reported complications are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to show that endoscopic surgery is a simple and acceptable method for various problems associated with wounds, range of motion and that such surgery ensures an early return to work after treatment of nonresponding nonseptic bursitis. Methods: Thirty-two patients with nonseptic bursitis caused by repeated minor trauma that did not respond to medical treatment from 2008 to 2012 were included in this study. Radiographic [anteroposterior and lateral], ultrasound, macro and microscopic analyses of drainage liquid and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from the patients for the diagnosis. Results: The mean age was 40.8 years. Fifteen patients had prepatellar bursitis, 13 had olecranon bursitis and 4 had ankle bursitis. Two patients had a history of falling on their knee. The other patients had a history of repetitive stimulation .The mean follow up period was 2.6 years [range. 2-5 years] and no medical complications occurred after the endoscopic surgery; such as scarring, loss of sensation and infection. One recurrence in response to medical treatment was observed. Conclusion: Endoscopic bursectomy is a short and acceptable procedure with excellent results in terms of returning to work early and minimal wound related problems. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 220-223
Marchan, Mark L.
Endoscopy has become an important procedure in many medical specialties. For the Otologist, however, space limitations within the ear have restricted development of endoscopic procedures. The desire for minimally invasive techniques in Otology has demonstrated itself through the work of numerous physicians who have performed procedures ranging from diagnostic inspection of the middle ear to viewing the interior of the cochlea. To assist in performing such endoscopic procedures, Xomed-Treace has developed a line of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for use by the Otologist. These scopes combine illumination and imaging fiber bundles within a small diameter unit ranging in size from 0.8 mm to 1.2 mm. The 1.2 mm scope is produced with an angled, rigid stainless steel sheath. The 0.8 mm scope is flexible with the ability to articulate 120 degree(s) in one direction. The fiberscopes have been designed for the Otologist to produce a good resolution image while allowing ease of operation through ergonomics and consideration of the surgical anatomy.
Park, Hong Jun
Colorectal polypectomy is an effective method for prevention of colorectal cancer. Many endoscopic instruments have been used for colorectal polypectomy, such as snares, forceps, endoscopic clips, a Coagrasper, retrieval net, injector, and electrosurgery generator unit (ESU). Understanding the characteristics of endoscopic instruments and their proper use according to morphology and size of the colorectal polyp will enable endoscopists to perform effective polypectomy. I reviewed the characte...
Rueckauer, K.; Dinkel, E.
Endoscopic pertubation of oesophagogustric neoplasms is an established method of palliative treatment. The dislocated plastic prosthesis may be removed with difficulties from the stomach endoscopically. A simple technique for endoscopic removal of the prosthesis is described. The tube can be precisely centred within the oesophageal lumen by use of an intestinal decompression tube and additional guidance by the endoscopic retraction forceps. Thus gross damge of the exophytic tumor tissue with bleeding or perforation sequelae can be avoided. Injury to the patient does not exceed that caused by an ordinary gastroscopy. (orig.) [de
Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Maselli, Roberta; Santi, Grace
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an innovative, minimally invasive, endoscopic treatment for esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders, emerged from the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures, and since the first human case performed by Inoue in 2008, showed exciting results in international level, with more than 4000 cases globally up to now. POEM showed superior characteristics than the standard 100-year-old surgical or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), not only for all types of esophageal achalasia [classical (I), vigorous (II), spastic (III), Chicago Classification], but also for advanced sigmoid type achalasia (S1 and S2), failed LHM, or other esophageal motility disorders (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or Jackhammer esophagus). POEM starts with a mucosal incision, followed by submucosal tunnel creation crossing the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and myotomy. Finally the mucosal entry is closed with endoscopic clip placement. POEM permitted relatively free choice of myotomy length and localization. Although it is technically demanding procedure, POEM can be performed safely and achieves very good control of dysphagia and chest pain. Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common troublesome side effect, and is well controllable with proton pump inhibitors. Furthermore, POEM opened the era of submucosal tunnel endoscopy, with many other applications. Based on the same principles with POEM, in combination with new technological developments, such as endoscopic suturing, peroral endoscopic tumor resection (POET), is safely and effectively applied for challenging submucosal esophageal, EGJ and gastric cardia tumors (submucosal tumors), emerged from muscularis propria. POET showed up to know promising results, however, it is restricted to specialized centers. The present article reviews the recent data of POEM and POET and discussed controversial issues that need further study and future perspectives. PMID
Upadhyay, Smita; Dolci, Ricardo L L; Buohliqah, Lamia; Fiore, Mariano E; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Prevedello, Daniel M; Otto, Bradley A; Carrau, Ricardo L
Objective Access to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae presents a significant surgical challenge, owing to their deep-seated location and complex neurovascular anatomy. This study elucidates the benefits of incremental medial maxillectomies to access this region. We compared access to the medial aspect of the infratemporal fossa provided by medial maxillectomy, anteriorly extended medial maxillectomy, endoscopic Denker approach (i.e., Sturmann-Canfield approach), contralateral transseptal approach, and the sublabial anterior maxillotomy (SAM). Methods We studied 10 cadaveric specimens (20 sides) dissecting the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossae bilaterally. Radius of access was calculated using a navigation probe aligned with the endoscopic line of sight. Area of exposure was calculated as the area removed from the posterior wall of maxillary sinus. Surgical freedom was calculated by computing the working area at the proximal end of the instrument with the distal end fixed at a target. Results The endoscopic Denker approach offered a superior area of exposure (8.46 ± 1.56 cm(2)) and superior surgical freedom. Degree of lateral access with the SAM approach was similar to that of the Denker. Conclusion Our study suggests that an anterior extension of the medial maxillectomy or a cross-court approach increases both the area of exposure and surgical freedom. Further increases can be seen upon progression to a Denker approach.
Riveron Quevedo, Kelly; Irsula Ballaga, Vladimir; Gonzalez Ulloa, Lianne; Deborah LLorca, Armando
The case report of a 30 year-old presumably healthy patient, who attended the Gastroenterology Department from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, and suffering from biliary cholic, ictero, choluria, nausea, vomit and loss of appetite is presented. The complementary examinations confirmed the choledocolitiasis and cholelitiasis diagnosis, reason why it was necessary to carry out a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic esphinterotomy and ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in a single anesthetic injection. The postoperative clinical course was favorable and she was discharged without complications 24 hours before the intervention
Al Taii, Haider; Confer, Bradley; Gabbard, Scott; Kroh, Matthew; Jang, Sunguk; Rodriguez, John; Parsi, Mansour A.; Vargo, John J.; Ponsky, Jeffrey
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed less than a decade ago for the treatment of achalasia. Its minimally invasive approach and the favorable short-term outcome have led to rapid adoption of the technique throughout the world. As with any new technique, there will be adverse events, and it is important that effective treatments for these adverse events be discussed. We present a case of successful endoscopic management of an intramural sinus leak after a POEM procedure using tandem fully covered esophageal stents. PMID:27921057
Jaric, Marko V
Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra
Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...
Conclusion: Endoscopic-ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy is safe and can be a good palliative option for advanced malignant biliary obstruction because it drains internally and is remote from the tumor site, promoting a long patency period of prosthesis and better quality of life.
McLaughlin, Eamon J; Cunningham, Michael J; Kazahaya, Ken; Hsing, Julianna; Kawai, Kosuke; Adil, Eelam A
To evaluate the feasibility of radiofrequency surgical instrumentation for endoscopic resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and to test the hypothesis that endoscopic radiofrequency ablation-assisted (RFA) resection will have superior intraoperative and/or postoperative outcomes as compared with traditional endoscopic (TE) resection techniques. Case series with chart review. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Twenty-nine pediatric patients who underwent endoscopic transnasal resection of JNA from January 2000 to December 2014. Twenty-nine patients underwent RFA (n = 13) or TE (n = 16) JNA resection over the 15-year study period. Mean patient age was not statistically different between the 2 groups (P = .41); neither was their University of Pittsburgh Medical Center classification stage (P = .79). All patients underwent preoperative embolization. Mean operative times were not statistically different (P = .29). Mean intraoperative blood loss and the need for a transfusion were also not statistically different (P = .27 and .47, respectively). Length of hospital stay was not statistically different (P = .46). Recurrence rates did not differ between groups (P = .99) over a mean follow-up period of 2.3 years. There were no significant differences between RFA and TE resection in intraoperative or postoperative outcome parameters. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.
Morimoto, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Kinji; Nakamura, Satoaki
The efficacy of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer remains controversial and its impact on prognosis has not been adequately discussed. We studied the use of endoscopic screening to detect esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients by analyzing the incidence, stage and prognosis. We included 64 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer who received radical radiotherapy at our institute. Chromoendoscopic esophageal examinations with Lugol dye solution were routinely performed at and after treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-eight esophageal cancers were detected in 28 (41%) patients (18 synchronous and 10 metachronous cancers). Of the 28 cancers, 23 were stage 0 or I cancer and 15 of these were treated with endoscopic resection. Local control was achieved in all of these 23 stage 0 or I cancers. The 5-year overall survival rates with esophageal cancer were 83% in stage 0, 47% in stage I and 0% in stage IIA-IVB. This study showed a strikingly high incidence of esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients. We suppose that the combination of early detection by chromoendoscopic examination and endoscopic resection for associated esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients improve prognosis and maintain quality of life. (author)
Herth, Felix J. F.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Criner, Gerard J.; Shah, Pallav L.
Interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) technologies for emphysema is consistently growing. In the last couple of months, several endoscopic options (e.g., endo-or intrabronchial valves, coil implants, and thermal vapor ablation) that have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials
D'Haens, G.; Geboes, K.; Rutgeerts, P.
The correlation between disease activity and endoscopic findings in Crohn's disease is poor. Corticosteroids induce symptom relief without consistent improvement of endoscopic lesions. Our aim was to examine the effect of azathioprine therapy on healing of inflammatory lesions in patients with
Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L
Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.
Jiang, Li; Ning, Deng; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Xiao-Ping
Endoscopic therapy and surgery are both conventional treatments to remove pancreatic duct stones that developed during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis. However, few studies comparing the effect and safety between surgery drainage and endoscopic drainage (plus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy, ESWL).The aim of this study was to compare the benefits between endoscopic and surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct for patients with calcified chronic pancreatitis. A total of 86 patients were classified into endoscopic/ESWL (n = 40) or surgical (n = 46) treatment groups. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Pain recurrence and hospital stays were similar between the endoscopic/ESWL treatment and surgery group. However, endoscopic/ESWL treatment yielded significantly lower medical expense and less complications compared with the surgical treatment. In selective patients, endoscopic/ESWL treatment could achieve comparable efficacy to the surgical treatment. With lower medical expense and less complications, endoscopic/ESWL treatment would be much preferred to be the initial treatment of choice for patients with calcified chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tytgat, G. N.; Mulder, C. J.; Brummelkamp, W. H.
Fifty patients with Crohn's disease were studied endoscopically 6 weeks to 6 months (median 9 weeks) after ileocecal or ileocolonic resection for evidence of non-resected abnormality. Only 8 of the 50 patients were endoscopically free of abnormalities. Microscopic examination of the surgical
Gostout, C. J.; Viggiano, T. R.; Ahlquist, D. A.; Wang, K. K.; Larson, M. V.; Balm, R.
The watermelon stomach is an uncommon but treatable cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. We report our experience with the clinical and endoscopic features of 45 consecutive patients treated by endoscopic Nd:YAG laser coagulation. The prototypic patient was a woman (71%) with an average age
Khanna, Reena; Zou, Guangyong; Stitt, Larry; Feagan, Brian G.; Sandborn, William J.; Rutgeerts, Paul; McDonald, John W. D.; Dubcenco, Elena; Fogel, Ronald; Panaccione, Remo; Jairath, Vipul; Nelson, Sigrid; Shackelton, Lisa M.; Huang, Bidan; Zhou, Qian; Robinson, Anne M.; Levesque, Barrett G.; D'Haens, Geert
The Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) and the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) are commonly used to assess Crohn's disease (CD) activity; however neither instrument is fully validated. We evaluated the responsiveness to change of the SES-CD and CDEIS using data
Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M L; Misra, Sarthak
Background: Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician's dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods: A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated based
Reilink, Rob; de Bruin, Gart; Franken, M.C.J.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Misra, Sarthak; Stramigioli, Stefano
In current video-assisted thoracic surgery, the endoscopic camera is operated by an assistant of the surgeon, which has several disadvantages. This paper describes a system which enables the surgeon to control the endoscopic camera without the help of an assistant. The system is controlled using
Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Misra, Sarthak
Background - Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician’s dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods - A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated
Hinojosa, J; Esparza, J; Muñoz, M J
The development of multidisciplinar units for Craniofacial Surgery has led to better postoperative results and a considerable decrease in morbidity in the treatment of complex craniofacial patients. Standard correction of craniosynostosis involves calvarial remodeling, often considerable blood losses that need to be replaced and lengthy hospital stay. The use of minimally invasive techniques for the correction of some of these malformations are widespread and allows the surgeon to minimize the incidence of complications by means of a decreased surgical time, blood salvage, and shortening of postoperative hospitalization in comparison to conventional craniofacial techniques. Simple and milder craniosynostosis are best approached by endoscopy-assisted osteotomies and render the best results. Extended procedures other than simple suturectomies have been described for more severe patients. Different osteotomies resembling standard fronto-orbital have been developed for the correction, and the use of postoperative cranial orthesis may improve the final cosmetic appearance. Thus, endoscopic-assisted procedures differ from the simple strategy of single suture resection that rendered insufficient results in the past, and different approaches can be tailored to solve these cases in patients in the setting of a case-to-case bases.
Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Choi, Min-Kook; Lee, Sang-Chul
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been intensively researched recently due to its convenience for diagnosis and extended detection coverage of some diseases. Typically, a full recording covering entire human digestive system requires about 8 to 12 hours for a patient carrying a capsule endoscope and a portable image receiver/recorder unit, which produces 120,000 image frames on average. In spite of the benefits of close examination, WCE based test has a barrier for quick diagnosis such that a trained diagnostician must examine a huge amount of images for close investigation, normally over 2 hours. The main purpose of our work is to present a novel machine vision approach to reduce diagnosis time by automatically detecting duplicated recordings caused by backward camera movement, typically containing redundant information, in small intestine. The developed technique could be integrated with a visualization tool which supports intelligent inspection method, such as automatic play speed control. Our experimental result shows high accuracy of the technique by detecting 989 duplicate image frames out of 10,000, equivalently to 9.9% data reduction, in a WCE video from a real human subject. With some selected parameters, we achieved the correct detection ratio of 92.85% and the false detection ratio of 13.57%.
Geraci, G; Sciumè, C; Pisello, F; Li Volsi, F; Facella, T; Tinaglia, D; Modica, G
To review the indications, complications, and outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), that are placed routinely in patients unable to obtain adequate nutrition from oral feeding for swallowing disorders (neurological diseases, head and neck cancer, oesophageal cancer, psychological disorders). Retrospective review of patients referred for PEG placement from 2003 to 2005. Endoscopic Surgery in Section of General and Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Palermo, Italy. A total of 50 patients, 11 women and 39 men, referred our Section for PEG placement. Indications for PEG placement included various neurologic impairment (82%), oesophageal non-operable cancer (6%), cardia non-operable cancer (4%), cerebrovascular accident (2%), anorexia (2%), pharyngeal esophageal obstruction (2%), head and neck cancer (2%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics as short-term profilaxis. 51 PEGs were positioned in 50 patients. No major complications were registered; 45 patients (90%) were alive at 1 year follow-up and no mortality procedure-related was registered. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy removal had been performed on 2 patients as end-point of treatment, and 43 patients continued to have PEGs in use at 2006. Outpatients PEG placement using conscious sedation is a safe and effective method for providing enteral nutrition. This technique constitutes the gold standard treatment for enteral nutrition in patients with neurologic impairment or as prophylactic in patients affected by head and neck cancer who needs demolitive surgery. Patients should be carefully assessed, and discussion with the patient and their families should be held to determine that the patient is an appropriate candidate. The Authors feel prophylactic antibiotics lessened the incidence of cutaneous perigastrostomy infection.
Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.
Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of
Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed degloving soft tissue injury in which subcutaneous tissue is torn from the underlying muscular fascia. The tear leads to venolymphatic leak, and concomitant adipose tissue necrosis from the force of the trauma causes swelling and possible infection at the site of injury. The traditional treatment for the lesion is surgical drainage and debridement. In this report, an endoscopic method is described, which achieves the goal of an open surgical debridement but minimizes surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Studer's neobladder lithiasis is a rare but important long term complication of this orthotopic bladder substitute technique. We report a case of a 45 year-old male patient, submitted to a radical cystoprostatectomy with a Studer's orthotopic neobladder 4 years before, presenting bad compliance to recommended urinary habits, increased production of mucus and high post voiding residue. CT scan and urethrocystography showed a distended pouch with 2 major sacculations with narrow communication and a stone in each sacculation. A minimally invasive endoscopic technique was successfully used in the treatment of the 2 small calculus.
Atreja, Ashish; Rizk, Maged; Gurland, Brooke
Endoscopic electronic medical record systems (EEMRs) are now increasingly utilized in many endoscopy centers. Modern EEMRs not only support endoscopy report generation, but often include features such as practice management tools, image and video clip management, inventory management, e-faxes to referring physicians, and database support to measure quality and patient outcomes. There are many existing software vendors offering EEMRs, and choosing a software vendor can be time consuming and confusing. The goal of this article is inform the readers about current functionalities available in modern EEMR and provide them with a framework necessary to find an EEMR that is best fit for their practice.
Gill, Brijesh S.; Georgeson, Keith E.; Hardin, William D., Jr.
Laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery rely uniquely on high quality display of acquired images, but a multitude of problems plague the researcher who attempts to reproduce such images for educational purposes. Some of these are intrinsic limitations of current laparoscopic/endoscopic visualization systems, while others are artifacts solely of the process used to acquire and reproduce such images. Whatever the genesis of these problems, a glance at current literature will reveal the extent to which endoscopy suffers from an inability to reproduce what the surgeon sees during a procedure. The major intrinsic limitation to the acquisition of high-quality still images from laparoscopic procedures lies in the inability to couple directly a camera to the laparoscope. While many systems have this capability, this is useful mostly for otolaryngologists, who do not maintain a sterile field around their scopes. For procedures in which a sterile field must be maintained, one trial method has been to use a beam splitter to send light both to the still camera and the digital video camera. This is no solution, however, since this results in low quality still images as well as a degradation of the image that the surgeon must use to operate, something no surgeon tolerates lightly. Researchers thus must currently rely on other methods for producing images from a laparoscopic procedure. Most manufacturers provide an optional slide or print maker that provides a hardcopy output from the processed composite video signal. The results achieved from such devices are marginal, to say the least. This leaves only one avenue for possible image production, the videotape record of an endoscopic or laparoscopic operation. Video frame grabbing is at least a problem to which industry has applied considerable time and effort to solving. Our own experience with computerized enhancement of videotape frames has been very promising. Computer enhancement allows the researcher to correct several of the
Geenen, J E; Hogan, W J; Shaffer, R D; Stewart, E T; Dodds, W J; Arndorfer, R C
Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in 13 patients after cholecystectomy for retained or recurrent common bile duct calculi (11 patients) and a clinical picture suggesting papillary stenosis (two patients). Following endoscopic papillotomy, ten of the 11 patients spontaneously passed common bile duct (CBD) stones verified on repeated endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) study. One patient failed to pass a large CBD calculus; one patient experienced cholangitis three months after in inadequate papillotomy and required operative intervention. Endoscopic papillotomy substantially decreased the pressure gradient existing between the CBD and the duodenum in all five patients studied with ERCP manometry. Endoscopic papillotomy is a relatively safe and effective procedure for postcholecystectomy patients with retained or recurrent CBD stones. The majority of CBD stones will pass spontaneously if the papillotomy is adequate.
Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Ken; Shinga, Kotaro; Hattori, Soichi; Yamada, Shin; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Various surgical treatment procedures for plantar fasciitis, such as open surgery, percutaneous release, and endoscopic surgery, exist. Skin trouble, nerve disturbance, infection, and persistent pain associated with prolonged recovery time are complications of open surgery. Endoscopic partial plantar fascia release offers the surgeon clear visualization of the anatomy at the surgical site. However, the primary medial portal and portal tract used for this technique have been shown to be in close proximity to the posterior tibial nerves and their branches, and there is always the risk of nerve damage by introducing the endoscope deep to the plantar fascia. By performing endoscopic partial plantar fascia release under ultrasound assistance, we could dynamically visualize the direction of the endoscope and instrument introduction, thus preventing nerve damage from inadvertent insertion deep to the fascia. Full-thickness release of the plantar fascia at the ideal position could also be confirmed under ultrasound imaging. We discuss the technique for this new procedure.
Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N
Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.
Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence
Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara
This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....
Fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo recidivante postraumática asociada a meningocele esfenoidal: Técnica abierta-endoscópica Cerebrospinal fluid fistula associated with posttraumatic recurrent sphenoidal meningocele: Open-endoscopic technique
Ignacio Zubillaga Rodríguez
Full Text Available Introducción: Las fístulas de líquido cefalorraquídeo surgen tras la ruptura de las barreras que separan la cavidad nasal y senos paranasales de los espacios subaracnoideos: base craneal, duramadre y membrana aracnoidea. Aproximadamente el 80% surgen en el contexto de traumatismos craneofaciales con fracturas de la base craneal. La elección del abordaje y técnica quirúrgica más adecuada en cada caso es esencial para la obtención de resultados quirúrgicos globales satisfactorios. El desarrollo de la cirugía endoscópica endonasal ha supuesto un arma terapéutica menos invasiva y eficaz, siendo las fístulas de líquido cefalorraquídeo una indicación bien establecida para su tratamiento definitivo. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente con fístula de líquido cefalorraquídeo recurrente con meningoencefalocele asociado tratada vía endoscópica. Discusión: Se discute el tratamiento conservador versus quirúrgico de las fístulas de líquido cefalorraquídeo. Ventajas y desventajas de los distintos tipos de abordajes relacionados con el manejo definitivo.Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid fistulas arise after the breakdown of the barriers that separate the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the subarachnoid space, skull base, dura and arachnoid membrane. Approximately 80% arise in the context of craniofacial trauma with fractures of the skull base. The choice of approach, appropriate surgical technique in each case is essential to achieve a good overall surgical outcome. Development of endoscopic endonasal surgery has become a less invasive and effective therapeutic tool, with cerebrospinal fluid fistulas being a well-established indication for definitive treatment. Case report: A case of a patient with cerebrospinal fluid fistula associated with recurrent meningoencephalocele, treated endoscopically. Discussion: We discuss the surgical versus conservative treatment of spinal fluid fistulas, and the advantages and
A. L. Goncharov
Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.
Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M
Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (pcalculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (pcalculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (pcalculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Go, P M
The introduction of endoscopical surgery has among other things influenced technical developments in surgery. Owing to digitalisation, major progress will be made in imaging and in the sophisticated technology sometimes called robotics. Digital storage makes the results of imaging diagnostics (e.g. the results of radiological examination) suitable for transmission via video conference systems for telediagnostic purposes. The availability of digital video technique renders possible the processing, storage and retrieval of moving images as well. During endoscopical operations use may be made of a robot arm which replaces the camera man. The arm does not grow tired and provides a stable image. The surgeon himself can operate or address the arm and it can remember fixed image positions to which it can return if ordered to do so. The next step is to carry out surgical manipulations via a robot arm. This may make operations more patient-friendly. A robot arm can also have remote control: telerobotics. At the Internet site of this journal a number of supplements to this article can be found, for instance three-dimensional (3D) illustrations (which is the purpose of the 3D spectacles enclosed with this issue) and a quiz (http:@appendix.niwi. knaw.nl).
Zorron, R; Bothe, C; Junghans, T; Pratschke, J; Benzing, C; Krenzien, F
The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the therapy of choice in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding are showing higher rates of treatment failure, reducing obesity-associated morbidity and body weight insufficiently. Moreover, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can occur refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to RYGB can be reasonable as long as specific conditions are fulfilled.Endoscopic procedures are currently being applied to revise bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20 % of cases. Transoral outlet reduction is the minimally invasive method of choice to reduce gastrojejunal anastomosis of the alimentary limb. The diameter of a gastric sleeve can be unwantedly enlarged as well; that can be reduced by placement of a longitudinal full-thickness suture.Severe hypoglycemic episodes can be present in patients following RYGB. Hypoglycemic episodes have to be diagnosed first and can be treated conventionally. Alternatively, a laparoscopic approach according to Branco-Zorron can be used for non-responders. Hypoglycemic episodes can thus be prevented and body weight reduction can be assured.Conversional and endoscopic procedures can be used in patients with treatment failure following bariatric surgery. Note that non-invasive approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional procedure is performed.
Storbeck, B.; Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.
Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.
Ali, M.; Usman, M.; Khan, Z.; Khan, K.M.; Hussain, R.; Khanzada, K.
To determine the success rate of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for treating obstructive hydrocephalus. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Neurosurgery Department of PGMI, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from May 2010 to November 2011. Methodology: Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, tectal and non-tectal tumour and already shunted patients for obstructive hydrocephalus presented with blocked shunt were included in the study. Patients with congenital hydrocephalus and secondary to meningitis were excluded. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed. Success, complications and mortality was noted. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17. Results: There were 155 patients including 72 males and 83 females with ratio of 1: 1.33. Success rate was 71%. Indication of surgery was obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, posterior fossa tumour, brain stem and CP angle tumour. Complications were seen in 18 patients including mortality in 3 patients. Conclusion: ETV is effective, safe and successful procedure in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. It may be used as replacement procedure of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt as initial line of management in selected patients. (author)
Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for colorectal cancer. However, due to technical difficulties and an increased rate of complications, ESD is not widely used in the colorectum. In some cases, endoscopic treatment alone is insufficient for disease control, and laparoscopic surgery is required. The combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection represents a new frontier in cancer treatment. Recent developments in advanced polypectomy and minimally invasive surgical techniques will enable surgeons and endoscopists to challenge current practice in colorectal cancer treatment. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR of the colon offers the potential to decrease the postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with segmental colectomy while enhancing the diagnostic yield compared to current endoscopic techniques. However, closure is necessary after EFTR and natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES. Innovative methods and new devices for EFTR and suturing are being developed and may potentially change traditional paradigms to achieve minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. The present paper aims to discuss the complementary role of ESD and the future development of EFTR. We focus on the possibility of achieving EFTR using the ESD method and closing devices.
Appelquist, T.; Terning, J.
An extended technicolor model is constructed. Quark and lepton masses, spontaneous CP violation, and precision electroweak measurements are discussed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is analyzed using the concept of the big MAC (most attractive channel)
Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining
Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian
A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....
a kernel semaphore is locked or unlocked. In addition, we extended the system call interface to receive notifications about user-land locking...operations (such as calls to the mutex and semaphore code provided by the C library). By patching the dynamically loadable GLibC5, we are able to test... semaphores , and spinlocks. RTO-MP-IST-091 10- 9 Extending Mondrian Memory Protection to loading extension plugins. This prevents any untrusted code
number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED ... Corrosion Testing of Traditional and Extended Life Coolants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hansen, Gregory A. T...providing vehicle specific coolants. Several laboratory corrosion tests were performed according to ASTM D1384 and D2570, but with a 2.5x extended time
Evans, Kimberly A; Clark, Colby W; Vogel, Stephen B; Behrns, Kevin E
Endoscopic therapy of acute and chronic pancreatitis has decreased the need for operative intervention. However, a significant proportion of patients treated endoscopically require definitive surgical management for persistent symptoms. Our aim was to determine which patients are likely to fail with endoscopic therapy, and to assess the clinical outcome of surgical management. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes for pancreatic disease as well as CPT codes for endoscopic therapy followed by surgery. Patients with documented acute or chronic pancreatitis treated endoscopically prior to surgical therapy were included (N = 88). The majority of patients (65%) exhibited chronic pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse. Common indicators for surgery were: persistent symptoms, anatomy not amenable to endoscopic treatment and unresolved common bile duct or pancreatic duct strictures. Surgical salvage procedures included internal drainage of a pseudocyst or an obstructed pancreatic duct (46%), debridement of peripancreatic fluid collections (25%), and pancreatic resection (31%). Death occurred in 3% of patients. The most common complications were hemorrhage (16%), wound infection (13%), and pulmonary complications (11%). Chronic pancreatitis with persistent symptoms is the most common reason for pancreatic surgery following endoscopic therapy. Surgical salvage therapy can largely be accomplished by drainage procedures, but pancreatic resection is common. These complex procedures can be performed with acceptable mortality but also with significant risk for morbidity.
Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.
Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis. 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation. 31 refs.
Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk
To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.
Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Arena, Monica; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Consolo, Pierluigi; Opocher, Enrico; Luigiano, Carmelo
Stents are tubular devices made of plastic or metal. Endoscopic stenting is the most common treatment for obstruction of the common bile duct or of the main pancreatic duct, but also employed for the treatment of bilio-pancreatic leakages, for preventing post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and to drain the gallbladder and pancreatic fluid collections. Recent progresses in techniques of stent insertion and metal stent design are represented by new, fully-covered lumen apposing metal stents. These stents are specifically designed for transmural drainage, with a saddle-shape design and bilateral flanges, to provide lumen-to-lumen anchoring, reducing the risk of migration and leakage. This review is an update of the technique of stent insertion and metal stent deployment, of the most recent data available on stent types and characteristics and the new applications for biliopancreatic stents. PMID:26862364
Barret, Maximilien; Cao, Dalhia Thao; Beuvon, Frédéric; Leblanc, Sarah; Terris, Benoit; Camus, Marine; Coriat, Romain; Chaussade, Stanislas; Prat, Frédéric
The possible benefit of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early neoplasia arising in Barrett's esophagus remains controversial. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of ESD for the treatment of early Barrett's neoplasia. All consecutive patients undergoing ESD for the resection of a visible lesion in a Barrett's esophagus, either suspicious of submucosal infiltration or exceeding 10 mm in size, between February 2012 and January 2015 were prospectively included. The primary endpoint was the rate of curative resection of carcinoma, defined as histologically complete resection of adenocarcinomas without poor histoprognostic factors. Thirty-five patients (36 lesions) with a mean age of 66.2 ± 12 years, a mean ASA score of 2.1 ± 0.7, and a mean C4M6 Barrett's segment were included. The mean procedure time was 191 ± 79 mn, and the mean size of the resected specimen was 51.3 ± 23 mm. En bloc resection rate was 89%. Lesions were 12 ± 15 mm in size, and 81% (29/36) were invasive adenocarcinomas, six of which with submucosal invasion. Although R0 resection of carcinoma was 72.4%, the curative resection rate was 66% (19/29). After a mean follow-up of 12.9 ± 9 months, 16 (45.7%) patients had required additional treatment, among whom nine underwent surgical resection, and seven further endoscopic treatments. Metachronous lesions or recurrence of cancer developed during the follow-up period in 17.2% of the patients. The overall complication rate was 16.7%, including 8.3% perforations, all conservatively managed, and no bleeding. The 30-day mortality was 0%. In this early experience, ESD yielded a moderate curative resection rate in Barrett's neoplasia. At present, improvements are needed if ESD is to replace piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection in the management of Barrett's neoplasia.
Full Text Available Duodenal intramural hematoma (DIH usually occurs in childhood and young adults following blunt abdominal trauma. It may also develop in the presence of coagulation disorders and may rarely be an iatrogenic outcome of endoscopic procedures. Management of DIH is usually a conservative approach. A case of intramural duodenal hematoma that developed following endoscopic epinephrine sclerotherapy and/or argon plasma coagulation and that was nonresponsive to conservative therapy in a patient with chronic renal failure who died from sepsis is being discussed in this report. Clinicians should be aware of such possible complications after endoscopic hemostasis in patients with coagulation disorders.
Palmer, Orville; Moche, Jason A; Matthews, Stanley
Mucosal preservation is of paramount importance in the diagnosis and surgical management of the sinonasal tract. The endoscope revolutionized the practice of endoscopic nasal surgery. As a result, external sinus surgery is performed less frequently today, and more emphasis is placed on functional endoscopy and preservation of normal anatomy. Endoscopic surgery of the nose and paranasal sinus has provided improved surgical outcomes and has shortened the length of stay in hospital. It has also become a valuable teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vladimirov, B; Petkov, R; Viiachki, I; Damianov, D; Iarŭmov, N
Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with extraction of calculi is a basic method of treating choledocholithiasis in post-cholecystectomy patients (8, 9). Endoscopic treatment contributes to a considerable reduction of the indications for reoperation. The existing views concerning ES done in patients with preserved gallbladder, especially in the era of laparoscopic surgery, are still conflicting (3, 6). There are several options: cholecystectomy with removal of calculi in the common bile duct by ES in a subsequent stage, or vice versa-primary ES with ensuring cholecystectomy. The undertaking of independent surgical or endoscopic treatment is likewise practicable (2, 6).
of postoperative pulmonary function and less hypoxemia with endoscopic operation. The slight modification of surgical stress responses by endoscopic surgery is in contrast to the common, though not universal, demonstration of less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less morbidity after endoscopic surgery...... operations where differences are more likely to be found. The clinical consequences of these findings in relation to all over surgical outcome remain to be defined, but effective pain treatment, stress reduction by other techniques, and provision of an active rehabilitation program with early mobilization...
Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N
There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.
Singh, Rohit; Hazarika, Produl; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Balakrishnan, R; Gangwar, Navneeta; Hazarika, Manali
Nasal polyposis is often encountered in rhinology practice. Those who fail conservative management, a definitive surgery is essential to achieve sufficient ventilation and drainage of the affected sinuses by using either microdebrider or conventional instruments for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). A prospective study was conducted on 40 cases of nasal polypi in a tertiary care hospital. 20 cases were operated by conventional endoscopic instruments and 20 using the microdebrider. The study aimed at comparing the intra operative (blood loss, duration of surgery) and post operative results (crusting, scarring, discharge, symptoms, recurrence) between the two groups using Lund-Mackay scoring system and the data was statistically analysed. There was no statistically significant difference in surgical outcome for patients when either conventional endoscopic instruments or microdebrider was used. However, there was a significant symptomatic improvement in cases undergoing microdebrider FESS. Microdebrider assisted polypectomy is precise, relatively bloodless surgery though the precision depends on the surgeon's anatomical knowledge and operative skills. Study substantiates that these instruments are helpful but not a prerequisite for successful outcomes in FESS. The study re-emphasises the utility of the microdebrider to young learning FESS surgeons.
Zhang, Wen-Gang; Linghu, En-Qiang; Chai, Ning-Li; Li, Hui-Kai
To verify the hypothesis that the Ling classification describes the endoscopic progressive process of achalasia and determine the ability of successful peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) to prevent endoscopic progression of achalasia. We retrospectively reviewed the endoscopic findings, symptom duration, and manometric data in patients with achalasia. A total of 359 patients (197 women, 162 men) with a mean age of 42.1 years (range, 12-75 years) were evaluated. Symptom duration ranged from 2 to 360 mo, with a median of 36 mo. Patients were classified with Ling type I ( n = 119), IIa ( n = 106), IIb ( n = 60), IIc ( n = 60), or III ( n = 14), according to the Ling classification. Of the 359 patients, 349 underwent POEM, among whom 21 had an endoscopic follow-up for more than 2 years. Pre-treatment and post-treatment Ling classifications of these 21 patients were compared. Symptom duration increased significantly with increasing Ling classification (from I to III) ( P achalasia and may be able to serve as an endoscopic assessment criterion for achalasia. Successful POEM (Eckardt score ≤ 3) seems to have the ability to prevent endoscopic evolvement of achalasia. However, studies with larger populations are warranted to confirm our findings.
Fyock, Christopher J; Forsmark, Chris E; Wagh, Mihir S
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently gained great enthusiasm, but there is concern regarding the ability to endoscopically manage complications purely via natural orifices. To assess the feasibility of endoscopically managing enteral perforation during NOTES using currently available endoscopic accessories. Twelve pigs underwent transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic exploration. Full-thickness enterotomies were intentionally created to mimic accidental small bowel lacerations during NOTES. These lacerations were then closed with endoclips. In the blinded arm of the study, small bowel repair was performed by a second blinded endoscopist. Adequate closure of the laceration was confirmed with a leak test. Primary access sites were closed with endoclips or T-anchors. At necropsy, the peritoneal cavity was inspected for abscesses, bleeding, or damage to surrounding structures. The enterotomy site was examined for adequacy of closure, adhesions, or evidence of infection. Fifteen small bowel lacerations were performed in 12 animals. Successful closure was achieved in all 10 cases in the nonblinded arm. Survival animals had an uncomplicated postoperative course and all enterotomy sites were well healed without evidence of necrosis, adhesions, abscess, or bleeding at necropsy. Leak test was negative in all animals. In the blinded arm, both small intestinal lacerations could not be identified by the blinded endoscopist. Necropsy revealed open small bowel lacerations. Small intestinal injuries are difficult to localize with currently available flexible endoscopes and accessories. Endoscopic clips, however, may be adequate for closure of small bowel lacerations if the site of injury is known.
Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R
The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure. (paper)
Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla'vio C.; Sakai, Paulo
To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.
Rombolá, Carlos A; León Atance, Pablo; Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Rueda Martínez, Juan Luis; Núñez Ares, Ana; Vizcaya Sánchez, Manuel
Postpneumonectomy syndrome is characterized by postoperative bronchial obstruction caused by mediastinal shift. The syndrome is well documented in the medical literature as a late complication of right pneumonectomy; however, it rarely occurs following resection of the left lung, and only 10 cases have been published. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, prognosis, and treatment are similar for both sides of the lung. We present the case of an adult patient who underwent left pneumonectomy and developed postpneumonectomy syndrome 15 months later. Stenosis of the intermediate bronchus occurred between the vertebral body and the right pulmonary artery. Endoscopic treatment with a self-expanding metal stent was successful, and complete remission was observed over the 6 months of follow-up.
Artifon, Everson L.A.; Ferreira, Fla& #x27; vio C.; Sakai, Paulo [University of Saeo Paulo, Saeo Paulo (Brazil)
To demonstrate a comprehensive review of published articles regarding endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage. Review of studies regarding EUS-guided biliary drainage including case reports, case series and previous reviews. EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy, coledochoduodenostomy and choledoantrostomy are advanced biliary and pancreatic endoscopy procedures, and together make up the echo-guided biliary drainage. Hepaticogastrostomy is indicated in cases of hilar obstruction, while the procedure of choice is the coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy in distal lesions. Both procedures must be performed only after unsuccessful ERCPs. The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. Hepaticogastrostomy and coledochoduodenostomy or choledochoantrostomy are feasible when performed by endoscopists with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy. Advanced echo-endoscopy should currently be performed under a rigorous protocol in educational institutions.
Rana, Surinder Singh; Vilmann, Peter
As endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the most sensitive imaging modality for diagnosing pancreatic disorders, it can demonstrate subtle alterations in the pancreatic parenchymal and ductal structure even before traditional imaging and functional testing demonstrate any abnormality. In spite...... of this fact and abundant literature, the exact role of EUS in the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) is still not established. The EUS features to diagnose CP have evolved over a period from a pure qualitative approach to more advanced and complicated scoring systems incorporating multiple parenchymal...... to define the exact role of these criteria. The measurement of strain ratio using quantitative EUS elastography and thus allowing quantification of pancreatic fibrosis seems to be a promising new technique....
Tan, Ke; Wang, Bin; Gao, Yuan
Endoscopy imaging is utilized to provide a realistic view about the surfaces of organs inside the human body. Owing to the damp internal environment, these surfaces usually have a glossy appearance showing specular reflections. For many computer vision algorithms, the highlights created by specular reflections may become a significant source of error. In this paper, we present a novel method for restoration of the specular reflection regions from a single image. Specular restoration process starts with generating a substitute specular-free image with RPCA method. Then the specular removed image was obtained by taking the binary weighting template of highlight regions as the weighting for merging the original specular image and the substitute image. The modified template was furthermore discussed for the concealment of artificial effects in the edge of specular regions. Experimental results on the removal of the endoscopic image with specular reflections demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method comparing to the existing methods.
Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
Choudhury, D; Tanner, M G; McAughtrie, S; Yu, F; Mills, B; Choudhary, T R; Seth, S; Craven, T H; Stone, J M; Mati, I K; Campbell, C J; Bradley, M; Williams, C K I; Dhaliwal, K; Birks, T A; Thomson, R R
Previously unobtainable measurements of alveolar pH were obtained using an endoscope-deployable optrode. The pH sensing was achieved using functionalized gold nanoshell sensors and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The optrode consisted of an asymmetric dual-core optical fiber designed for spatially separating the optical pump delivery and signal collection, in order to circumvent the unwanted Raman signal generated within the fiber. Using this approach, we demonstrate a ~100-fold increase in SERS signal-to-fiber background ratio, and demonstrate multiple site pH sensing with a measurement accuracy of ± 0.07 pH units in the respiratory acini of an ex vivo ovine lung model. We also demonstrate that alveolar pH changes in response to ventilation.
Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P
Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... initially used as Doppler signal enhancers, second-generation microbubble contrast agents are now used with specific contrast harmonic imaging techniques, which benefit from the highly nonlinear behavior of the microbubbles. Contrast-specific modes based on multi-pulse technology are used to perform...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...
Sergey A. Karpishchenko
Full Text Available Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS is an effective and safe surgical technique, which revolutionized the surgical management of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus diseases. The intimate connection between paranasal sinuses and the orbit places the orbital content at a risk of injury during sinus surgery, especially that of ethmoid sinuses. The orbit, the optic nerve, extraocular muscles and the lacrimal drainage system could be damaged during FESS. The risk of injury correlates to anatomical variations, degree and severity of disease, previous procedure results, and surgical experience. Ophthalmic complications can vary in severity from minor ones, such as localized hematomas, to extremely dangerous, such as optic nerve injury, that could lead to complete blindness. In order to minimize the risk of such complications, it is necessary to consider probable anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses and orbit, which are to be detected by CT scan before surgery.
Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Ryosuke; Mukai, Shuntaro
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) requires deep biliary cannulation. When deep biliary cannulation is failed, the endoscopic ultrasonography rendezvous technique (EUS-RV) is a useful salvage method. From the previous 15 articles that included 382 EUS-RV cases, the overall success rate of EUS-RV is 81 % with a complication rate of 10 %. In EUS-RV, the bile duct is punctured under EUS guidance and a guidewire is advanced into the duodenum via the papilla. The EUS scope is then switched to a duodenoscope and inserted into the bile duct over the guidewire exiting the papilla, or the guidewire is grasped with forceps and passed through the working channel; the catheter can then be inserted through the papilla over the wire. There are three puncture routes for EUS-RV: transgastric puncture of the intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD), transduodenal puncture of the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) via the proximal duodenum (D1), and transduodenal puncture of the EHBD via the second portion of the duodenum (D2). The puncture route for each patient should be selected based on the patient condition. GW selection for EUS-RV is critical, a hydrophilic GW is useful for this procedure. Although EUS-RV is now performed relatively routinely in a few high-volume centers, procedure standardization and the development of exclusive devices for EUS-RV are still underway. The development of exclusive devices for EUS-RV and prospective comparative studies with other salvage methods are needed to truly evaluate the procedure's usefulness and safety.
Conclusion: The endoscope technique offers simple, rapid access to the nasal septum, and excellent visualization; it is a safe, minimally invasive, efficient procedure for removing benign nasal septum tumors that leaves no scar on the face.
Hamed Mohamed El Darawany
Conclusions: Endoscopic primary realignment of posterior urethral rupture is less invasive and a safer procedure, without pelvic hemorrhage or additional injuries. It has low incidence of severe urethral stricture and avoids the need for delayed open urethral reconstruction.
measures before an endoscopic intervention are essential to decrease the morbidity and .... or tabs bisacodyl and castor oil or colostomy washout with 2 days dietary restriction .... sparing patients the trauma of open surgery. Hemorrhoids were.
Schwartz, Joseph S; Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N
Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant.
Yip, Hon Chi; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun
In the past decade, there has been a progressive paradigm shift in the management of peri-pancreatic fluid collections after acute pancreatitis. Refinements in the definitions of fluid collections from the updated Atlanta classification have enabled better communication amongst physicians in an effort to formulate optimal treatments. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts has emerged as the procedure of choice over surgical cystogastrostomy. The approach provides similar success rates with low complications and better quality of life compared with surgery. However, an endoscopic "step up" approach in the management of pancreatic walled-off necrosis has also been advocated. Both endoscopic and percutaneous drainage routes may be used depending on the anatomical location of the collections. New-generation large diameter EUS-specific stent systems have also recently been described. The device allows precise and effective drainage of the collections and permits endoscopic necrosectomy through the stents.
Malawi Medical Journal ... for alternative treatment options for hydrocephalus such as endoscopic third ... This paper explores the alternative views in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus and how they explain the effectiveness of ETV in ...
Apr 6, 2013 ... by introducing a colonoscopy quality assurance program. Ahmed Gado a, ... a Department of Medicine, Bolak Eldakror Hospital, Giza, Egypt .... An Initial assessment of our endoscopic polypectomy prac- tice in 2003 showed ...
V. N. Klimenko
Full Text Available Aim. To assess combined endoscopic approaches to the cardiac sphincter achalasia treatment. Results. There are preliminary results of treatment and methods of carrying out of combined endoscopic pneumocardiodilatation and injections of botulotoxin type A ‘Disport’ at achalasia cardia are described in the article. Aethio-pathogenetic aspects in the development of achalasia cardia, action of botulotoxin type A and balloon pneumocardiodilatation of the esophagus, were described. And modern roentgen-endoscopic classification of achalasia cardia was given. Prognostic estimation scale of possibility to implement further combined endoscopic or surgical treatment is defined and is being in subsequent working out. Conclusion. Described clinical cases most brightly demonstrate variety of clinical achalasia cardia manifestations and also determine of the earlier display of surgical treatment.
Pescarus, Radu; Shlomovitz, Eran; Swanstrom, Lee L
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for achalasia. Since the first modern human cases were published in 2008, around 2,000 cases have been performed worldwide. This technique requires advanced endoscopic skills and a learning curve of at least 20 cases. POEM is highly successful with over 90 % improvement in dysphagia while offering patients the advantage of a low impact endoscopic access. The main long-term complication is gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with an estimated incidence of 35 %, similar to the incidence of GER post-laparoscopic Heller with fundoplication. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of achalasia, more long-term data are clearly needed to further define its role in the treatment algorithm of this rare disease.
Conclusion: Unilateral PANDO has a higher incidence of ipsilaterally deviated nasal septum. This association is significant. Routine nasal endoscopic examination should be performed in cases undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy to better plan a concomitant septoplasty if needed.
Witteman, Bart P. L.; Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Snijders, Gitte; Koek, Ger H.; Conchillo, José M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.
Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF), a novel endoscopic procedure for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), currently is under evaluation. In case of treatment failure, subsequent revisional laparoscopic antireflux surgery (rLARS) may be required. This study aimed to evaluate the
had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.
Kovaleva, J.; Degener, J. E.; van der Mei, H. C.
The effects of peracetic acid-based (PAA) disinfectant with, and without, additional drying on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, isolated from contaminated flexible endoscopes, in single-and dual-species biofilms were studied. Biofilms
Eckalbar, John C.
Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…
Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)
Wilson, Robert A
I propose that in at least some cases, objects of artistic appreciation are best thought of not simply as causes of artistic appreciation, but as parts of the cognitive machinery that drives aesthetic appreciation. In effect, this is to say that aesthetic appreciation operates via extended cognitive systems.
The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…
Sanyal, Arun J.
Gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic therapy is the mainstay of management of bleeding varices. It requires attention to technique and the appropriate choice of therapy for a given patient at a given point in time. Subjects must be monitored continuously after initiation of therapy for control of bleeding and second line definitive therapies introduced quickly if endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment fails. PMID:26142034
Hanson, P J; Gor, D; Jeffries, D J; Collins, J V
Concern about contamination of fibreoptic endoscopes with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has generated a variety of disruptive and possibly unnecessary infection control practices in endoscopy units. Current recommendations on the cleaning and disinfection of endoscopes have been formulated without applied experimental evidence of the effective removal of HIV from endoscopes. To study the kinetics of elimination of HIV from endoscope surfaces, we artificially contaminated the suction-biopsy channels of five Olympus GIF XQ20 endoscopes with high titre HIV in serum. The air and water channels of two instruments were similarly contaminated. Contamination was measured by irrigating channels with viral culture medium and collecting 3 ml at the distal end for antigen immunoassay. Endoscopes were then cleaned manually in neutral detergent according to the manufacturer's recommendations and disinfected in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde (Cidex, Surgikos) for two, four, and ten minutes. Contamination with HIV antigens was measured before and after cleaning and after each period of disinfection. Initial contamination comprised 4.8 x 10(4) to 3.5 x 10(6) pg HIV antigen/ml. Cleaning in detergent achieved a reduction to 165 pg/ml (99.93%) on one endoscope and to undetectable levels (100%) on four. After two minutes in alkaline glutaraldehyde all samples were negative and remained negative after the longer disinfection times. Air and water channels, where contaminated, were tested after 10 minutes' disinfection and were negative. These findings underline the importance of cleaning in removing HIV from endoscope and indicate that the use of dedicated equipment and long disinfection times are unnecessary.
Juan J. Vila
Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD allows endoscopic, curative, en-bloc resection of superficial malignant or premalignant lesions. This procedure was conceived over 10 years ago in Japan, but has not experienced great expansion in Western countries for different reasons. This article reviews ESD indications and outcomes, and reflects on the reasons that prevent ESD from becoming common clinical practice in Western hospitals. Finally, recommendations on ESD training in our setting are made.
Full Text Available Vani JA Konda1, Kunal Dalal21Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Chicago Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus, are rapidly rising in incidence. This review serves to highlight the role of pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical intervention in the management of Barrett's esophagus, which requires acid suppression and endoscopic assessment. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may decrease acid exposure and delay the progression to dysplasia. Patients who require aspirin for cardioprotection or other indications may also benefit in terms of a protective effect against the development of esophageal cancer. However, without other indications, aspirin is not indicated solely to prevent cancer. A careful endoscopic examination should include assessment of any visible lesions in a Barrett's segment. An expert gastrointestinal pathologist should confirm neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. For those patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma, careful consideration of endoscopic therapy or surgical therapy must be given. All visible lesions in the setting of dysplasia should be targeted with focal endoscopic mucosal resection for both accurate histopathologic diagnosis and treatment. The remainder of the Barrett's epithelium should be eradicated to address all synchronous and metachronous lesions. This may be done by tissue acquiring or nontissue acquiring means. Radiofrequency ablation has a positive benefit-risk profile for flat Barrett's esophagus. At this time, endoscopic therapy is not indicated for nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Esophagectomy is still reserved for selected cases with evidence of lymph node metastasis, unsuccessful endoscopic therapy, or with high-risk features of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma.Keywords: Barrett's esophagus, high
Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J
10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....
While surgical tracheotomies are currently performed using state-of-the-art operative techniques, percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is in a rapidly evolving state with regard to its technology and the number of techniques available. This has resulted in a range of new complications that are difficult to quantify on a scientific basis, given the fact that more than half of the patients who are tracheotomized in intensive care units die from their underlying disease. The new Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) is designed to help prevent serious complications in dilatational tracheotomies and facilitate their management. The endoscope has been specifically adapted to meet the require-ments of percutaneous dilatational tracheotomies. It is fully compatible with all current techniques of PDT. The method is easy to learn. The percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy with the Tracheotomy Endoscope is a seven-step procedure: Advantages of the Tracheotomy Endoscope: Injuries to the posterior tracheal wall ar impossible (tracheoesophageal fistulas, pneumothorax). Minor bleeding sites on the tracheal mucosa can be controlled with a specially curved suction-coagulation tube introudeced through the Tracheotomy Endoscope. In cases with heavy bleeding and a risk of aspiration, the rigid indwelling Tracheotomy Endoscope provides a secure route for reintubating the patient with a cuffed endotracheal tube. It also allows for rapid conversion to an open surgical procedure if necessary. All the parts are easy to clean and are autoclavable. This type of endoscopically guided PDT creates an optimal link between the specialties of intensive care medicine and otorhinolaryngology. The Tracheotomy Endoscope (TED) increases the standard of safety in PDT.
Huang, Liu-Ye; Cui, Jun; Lin, Shu-Juan; Zhang, Bo; Wu, Cheng-Rong
To evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFR) for the treatment of gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) arising from the muscularis propria. A total of 35 gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer were resected by EFR between January 2010 and September 2013. EFR consists of five major steps: injecting normal saline into the submucosa; pre-cutting the mucosal and submucosal layers around the lesion; making a circumferential incision as deep as the muscularis propria around the lesion using endoscopic submucosal dissection and an incision into the serosal layer around the lesion with a Hook knife; a full-thickness resection of the tumor, including the serosal layer with a Hook or IT knife; and closing the gastric wall with metallic clips. Of the 35 gastric SMTs, 14 were located at the fundus, and 21 at the corpus. EFR removed all of the SMTs successfully, and the complete resection rate was 100%. The mean operation time was 90 min (60-155 min), the mean hospitalization time was 6.0 d (4-10 d), and the mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (2.0-4.5 cm). Pathological examination confirmed the presence of gastric stromal tumors in 25 patients, leiomyomas in 7 and gastric autonomous nerve tumors in 2. No gastric bleeding, peritonitis or abdominal abscess occurred after EFR. Postoperative contrast roentgenography on the third day detected no contrast extravasation into the abdominal cavity. The mean follow-up period was 6 mo, with no lesion residue or recurrence noted. EFR is efficacious, safe and minimally invasive for patients with gastric SMTs arising from the muscularis propria layer. This technique is able to resect deep gastric lesions while providing precise pathological information about the lesion. With the development of EFR, the indications of endoscopic resection might be extended.
Tokunaga, Masakazu; Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Yoshimitsu, Masanori; Sumitani, Daisuke; Kawahara, Tomohiro; Okajima, Masazumi; Ohdan, Hideki
This study aimed to verify whether the approaching time (the time taken to reach the target point from another point, a short distance apart, during point-to-point movement in endoscopic surgery), assessed using the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD), could distinguish the skill level of surgeons. Expert surgeons (who had performed more than 50 endoscopic surgeries) and novice surgeons (who had no experience in performing endoscopic surgery) were tested using the HUESAD. The approaching time, total time, and intermediate time (total time--approaching time) were measured and analyzed using the trajectory of the tip of the instrument. The approaching time and total time were significantly shorter in the expert group than in the novice group (p time did not significantly differ between the groups (p > 0.05). The approaching time, which is a component of the total time, is very mportant in the measurement of the total time to assess endoscopic surgical skills. Further, the approaching time was useful for skill assessment by the HUESAD for evaluating the skill of surgeons performing endoscopic surgery.
Kamel, Reda H; Abdel Fattah, Ahmed F; Awad, Ayman G
Maxillary sinus inverted papilloma entails medial maxillectomy and is associated with high incidence of recurrence. To study the impact of prior surgery on recurrence rate after transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Eighteen patients with primary and 33 with recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma underwent transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Caldwell-Luc operation was the primary surgery in 12 patients, transnasal endoscopic resection in 20, and midfacial degloving technique in one. The follow-up period ranged between 2 to 19.5 years with an average of 8.8 years. Recurrence was detected in 8/51 maxillary sinus inverted papilloma patients (15.7 %), 1/18 of primary cases (5.5 %), 7/33 of recurrent cases (21.2 %); 3/20 of the transnasal endoscopic resection group (15%) and 4/12 of the Caldwell-Luc group (33.3%). Redo transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy was followed by a single recurrence in the Caldwell-Luc group (25%), and no recurrence in the other groups. Recurrence is more common in recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma than primary lesions. Recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma after Caldwell-Luc operation has higher incidence of recurrence than after transnasal endoscopic resection.
Desgranges, C.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Reichle, R.; Firdaouss, M.; Lipa, M.; Chantant, M.; Gardarein, J. L.; Saille, A.; Loarer, T.
Five endoscopes equipped with infrared cameras working in the medium infrared range (3-5 μm) are installed on the controlled thermonuclear fusion research device Tore-Supra. These endoscopes aim at monitoring the plasma facing components surface temperature to prevent their overheating. Signals delivered by infrared cameras through endoscopes are analysed and used on the one hand through a real time feedback control loop acting on the heating systems of the plasma to decrease plasma facing components surface temperatures when necessary, on the other hand for physics studies such as determination of the incoming heat flux . To ensure these two roles a very accurate knowledge of the absolute surface temperatures is mandatory. Consequently the infrared endoscopes must be calibrated through a very careful procedure. This means determining their transmission coefficients which is a delicate operation. Methods to calibrate infrared endoscopes during the shutdown period of the Tore-Supra machine will be presented. As they do not allow determining the possible transmittances evolution during operation an in-situ method is presented. It permits the validation of the calibration performed in laboratory as well as the monitoring of their evolution during machine operation. This is possible by the use of the endoscope shutter and a dedicated plasma scenario developed to heat it. Possible improvements of this method are briefly evoked.
Moore, Corey C; Bromwich, Matthew; Roth, Kathy; Matic, Damir B
Endoscopic repair of orbital blow-out fractures could become a predictable and efficient treatment alternative to traditional methods. However, maxillary sinus endoscopy provides a complex and disorienting view of the orbital floor. To be a useful and consistent technique for providing access to the orbital floor, specific knowledge of maxillary endoscopic anatomy is required. The purpose of the study was to provide an anatomic description of the orbital floor via the endoscopic approach. Objectives include defining consistent landmarks for use in endoscopic repair of orbital floor fractures. Using 0- and 30-degree rigid endoscopes, 6 fresh cadavers (12 maxillary sinuses) were examined via a standard Caldwell-Luc approach. Computed tomographic scans, plastic molds, and digital images were used to compare observable averages within bony anatomy. Potential bony landmarks were correlated with soft-tissue anatomy in fresh specimens. The maxillary ostium, orbital floor, and lateral ethmoid air cells were visualized, and their structures were described. Observations were made in relation to the anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus, including fracture pattern and force transmission pathways. An "orbitomaxillary" sinus bony thickening was identified and described for the first time. This study provides the basis for further refinement of surgical technique and opens the door for future clinical trials using endoscopic repair.
Full Text Available Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID have been associated with a sudden and sustained rise in the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcer complications. The aim of the study was to reveal the endoscopical abnormalities found in the duodenum & proximal jejunum due to NSAID. Thirty eight patients taking NSAID for their arthritis or rheumatism were included in this study. Gastro-duodeno-jejunoscopy was done with Olympus PCF-10. The endoscopical appearances of NSAID entero gastropathy were evaluated with a scoring system. The NSAID-entero-gastropathy appearances were endoscopically seen as hyperemia, erosion and ulcer. From all patient recruited, 7.9% complaint of diarrhea and 71.1% complaint of dyspepsia. Endoscopically, in the duodenal bulb we found 79% cases of hyperemia, 39.5% cases of erosion and 7.9% cases of ulcer. In the second part (descending part of the duodenum we found 28.9% cases of hyperemia, 15.8% cases of erosion and 2.6% case of ulcer. In the jejunum, we found 7.9% cases of hyperemia, 2.6% case of erosion and no ulcer. It is concluded that the most frequent abnormal endoscopical appearances in NSAID- enteropathy was hyperemia. The most frequent site of NSAID-enteropathy abnormal findings was in the duodenal bulb. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 225-9Keywords: NSAID-enteropathy, endoscopical appearances.
Sung Noh Hong
Full Text Available Long-standing intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD induces dysplastic change in the intestinal mucosa and increases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer. The evolving endoscopic techniques and technologies, including dye spraying methods and high-definition images, have been replacing random biopsies and have been revealed as more practical and efficient for detection of dysplasia in IBD patients. In addition, they have potential usefulness in detailed characterization of lesions and in the assessment of endoscopic resectability. Most dysplastic lesions without an unclear margin, definite ulceration, non-lifting sign, and high index of malignant change with suspicion for lymph node or distant metastases can be removed endoscopically. However, endoscopic resection of dysplasia in chronic IBD patients is usually difficult because it is often complicated by submucosal fibrosis. In patients with dysplasias that demonstrate submucosa fibrosis or a large size (≥20 mm, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD or ESD with snaring (simplified or hybrid ESD is an alternative option and may avoid a colectomy. However, a standardized endoscopic therapeutic approach for dysplasia in IBD has not been established yet, and dedicated specialized endoscopists with interest in IBD are needed to fully investigate recent emerging techniques and technologies.
Willingham, Field F; Brugge, William R
To review the current state of natural orifice surgery and examine the concerns, challenges, and opportunities presented by translumenal research. Translumenal endoscopic procedures have been the focus of extensive research. Researchers have reported natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery in a swine model in several areas involving the abdominal cavity. Diagnostic procedures have included endoscopic peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, lymphadenectomy, and abdominal exploration. Several gynecologic procedures including tubal ligation, oophorectomy, and partial hysterectomy have been demonstrated using current commercial endoscopes. Gastrointestinal surgical procedures, including gastrojejunostomy, cholecystectomy, splenectomy, and distal pancreatectomy have been performed successfully via transgastric and/or transcolonic approaches. There have been no studies of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery procedures published in humans. While fundamental questions about the emerging technology have not been scrutinized, limitations of the large animal model will pose a challenge to the development of large randomized trials. While natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery may represent a paradigm shift and may offer significant benefits to patients, rigorous testing of the techniques is lacking and current data have been drawn from case series.
Lee, J H; Kim, B K; Seol, D C; Byun, S J; Park, K H; Sung, I K; Park, H S; Shim, C S
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding recurs after appropriate endoscopic therapy in 10 % - 15 % of cases. The mortality rate can be as high as 25 % when bleeding recurs, but there is no consensus about the best modality for endoscopic re-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate clipping and detachable snaring (CDS) for rescue endoscopic control of nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage. We report a case series of seven patients from a Korean tertiary center who underwent endoscopic hemostasis using the combined method of detachable snares with hemoclips. The success rate of endoscopic hemostasis with CDS was 86 %: six of the seven patients who had experienced primary endoscopic treatment failure or recurrent bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis were treated successfully. In conclusion, rescue endoscopic bleeding control by means of CDS is an option for controlling nonvariceal UGI bleeding when no other method of endoscopic treatment for recurrent bleeding and primary hemostatic failure is possible. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...
The work can be considered as an essay on mathematical and conceptual structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is related here to some other (more general, but also to more special and 'approximative') theories. Quantum mechanics is here primarily reformulated in an equivalent form of a Poisson system on the phase space consisting of density matrices, where the 'observables', as well as 'symmetry generators' are represented by a specific type of real valued (densely defined) functions, namely the usual quantum expectations of corresponding selfjoint operators. It is shown in this paper that inclusion of additional ('nonlinear') symmetry generators (i. e. 'Hamiltonians') into this reformulation of (linear) quantum mechanics leads to a considerable extension of the theory: two kinds of quantum 'mixed states' should be distinguished, and operator - valued functions of density matrices should be used in the role of 'nonlinear observables'. A general framework for physical theories is obtained in this way: By different choices of the sets of 'nonlinear observables' we obtain, as special cases, e.g. classical mechanics on homogeneous spaces of kinematical symmetry groups, standard (linear) quantum mechanics, or nonlinear extensions of quantum mechanics; also various 'quasiclassical approximations' to quantum mechanics are all sub theories of the presented extension of quantum mechanics - a version of the extended quantum mechanics. A general interpretation scheme of extended quantum mechanics extending the usual statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is also proposed. Eventually, extended quantum mechanics is shown to be (included into) a C * -algebraic (hence linear) quantum theory. Mathematical formulation of these theories is presented. The presentation includes an analysis of problems connected with differentiation on infinite-dimensional manifolds, as well as a solution of some problems connected with the work with only densely defined unbounded
A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…
Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... of public importance; engaging with non-academic groups using dialectical reasoning; scaling up insights through movement building; and propagating deliberation...
Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.
de Divitiis, Enrico; Esposito, Felice; Cappabianca, Paolo; Cavallo, Luigi M; de Divitiis, Oreste; Esposito, Isabella
The extended transnasal approach, a recent surgical advancements for the ventral skull base, allows excellent midline access to and visibility of the anterior cranial fossa, which was previously thought to be approachable only via a transcranial route. The extended transnasal approach allows early decompression of the optic canals, obviates the need for brain retraction, and reduces neurovascular manipulation. Between 2004 and 2007, 11 consecutive patients underwent transnasal resection of anterior cranial fossa meningiomas--4 olfactory groove (OGM) and 7 tuberculum sellae (TSM) meningiomas. Age at surgery, sex, symptoms, and imaging studies were reviewed. Tumor size and tumor extension were estimated, and the anteroposterior, vertical, and horizontal diameters were measred on MR images. Medical records, surgical complications, and outcomes of the patients were collected. A gross-total removal of the lesion was achieved in 10 patients (91%), and in 1 patient with a TSM only a near-total (> 90%) resection was possible. Four patients with preoperative visual function defect had a complete recovery, whereas 3 patients experienced a transient worsening of vision, fully recovered within few days. In 3 patients (2 with TSMs and 1 with an OGM), a postoperative CSF leak occurred, requiring a endoscopic surgery for skull base defect repair. Another patient (a case involving a TSM) developed transient diabetes insipidus. The operative time ranged from 6 to 10 hours in the OGM group and from 4.5 to 9 hours in the TSM group. The mean duration of the hospital stay was 13.5 and 10 days in the OGM and TSM groups, respectively. Six patients (3 with OGMs and 3 with TSMs) required a blood transfusion. Surgery-related death occurred in 1 patient with TSM, in whom the tumor was successfully removed. The technique offers a minimally invasive route to the midline anterior skull base, allowing the surgeon to avoid using brain retraction and reducing manipulation of the large vessels and
Schijven, M. P.; Schout, B. M. A.; Dolmans, V. E. M. G.; Hendrikx, A. J. M.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.
BACKGROUND: Specific training in endoscopic skills and procedures has become a necessity for profession with embedded endoscopic techniques in their surgical palette. Previous research indicates endoscopic skills training to be inadequate, both from subjective (resident interviews) and objective
Matsuda, Dean K; Matsuda, Nicole A; Head, Rachel; Tivorsak, Tanya
Review of the English orthopaedic literature reveals no prior report of endoscopic repair of rectus abdominis tears and/or prepubic aponeurosis detachment. This technical report describes endoscopic reattachment of an avulsed prepubic aponeurosis and endoscopic repair of a vertical rectus abdominis tear immediately after endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for coexistent recalcitrant osteitis pubis as a single-stage outpatient surgery. Endoscopic rectus abdominis repair and prepubic aponeurosis repair are feasible surgeries that complement endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for patients with concurrent osteitis pubis and expand the less invasive options for patients with athletic pubalgia.
Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Gkasdaris, Grigorios; Angoules, Antonios G; Givissis, Panagiotis
Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy (TPED) is a minimally invasive technique mainly used for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation from a lateral approach. Performed under local anesthesia, TPED has been proven to be a safe and effective technique which has been also associated with shorter rehabilitation period, reduced blood loss, trauma, and scar tissue compared to conventional procedures. However, the procedure should be performed by a spine surgeon experienced in the specific technique and capable of recognizing or avoiding various challenging conditions. In this review, pitfalls that a novice surgeon has to be mindful of, are reported and analyzed.
Minami, Hitomi; Isomoto, Hajime; Yamaguchi, Naoyuki; Matsushima, Kayoko; Akazawa, Yuko; Ohnita, Ken; Takeshima, Fuminao; Inoue, Haruhiro; Nakao, Kazuhiko
The aim of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia. Twenty-eight esophageal achalasia patients who underwent POEM in our institution between August 2010 and October 2012 were enrolled. Under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation, initial incision was made on the anterior wall of the esophagus after submucosal injection. Submucosal tunnel was created and extended below the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) onto the gastric cardia. Subsequently, myotomy was done using triangle tip knife. After confirmation of smooth passage of scope through the esophagogastric junction, the entry was closed. Esophagogram and manometry study was done before and after the procedure. Also, subjective symptom score and Eckardt score were assessed before and 3 months after POEM. POEM was successfully done in all cases without any severe complications such as perforation and mediastinitis.Mean procedure time was 99.1 min (range 61-160) and mean myotomy length was 14.4 cm (range 10-18). Significant improvement was achieved in both esophagogram and endoscopic findings. Mean LES pressure was 71.2 mmHg (35.8-119.0) and 21.0 mmHg (6.7-41.0) before and after the procedure (P treatment of choice for esophageal achalasia. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Dillon, John P; Freedman, Ilan; Tan, James S M; Mitchell, David; English, Shaun
Operative treatment for septic pre-patellar bursitis generally involves open debridement in addition to an extended course of intravenous antibiotics. Skin necrosis and wound breakdown are potential complications of this procedure in addition to scar sensitivity and a prolonged recovery. We report endoscopic bursectomy for the treatment of septic pre-patellar bursitis in eight patients over a 3-year period. All patients had microbiological confirmation of an infective process. The average age was 36 years (23-68 years). The average hospital stay was 6 days (4-9 days). No patient had a recurrence or complained of tenderness or hypoaesthesia around their wound. No patient experienced wound complications or skin necrosis. The average return to work time was 18 days (7-22 days). We conclude that endoscopic bursectomy is a safe and effective treatment for septic pre-patellar bursitis with a shortened hospital stay and a quicker return to work than conventional open debridement.
Khayatzadeh, Ramin; Çivitci, Fehmi; Ferhanoğlu, Onur
A piezo-scanning fiber endoscopic device architecture is proposed for 3D imaging or ablation. The endoscopic device consists of a piezoelectric membrane that is placed perpendicular to the optical axis, a fiber optic cable that extends out from and actuated by the piezoelectric membrane, and one or multiple lenses for beam delivery and collection. Unlike its counterparts that utilize piezoelectric cylinders for fiber actuation, the proposed architecture offers quasi-static actuation in the axial direction along with resonant actuation in the lateral directions forming a 3D scanning pattern, allowing adjustment of the focus plane. The actuation of the four-quadrant piezoelectric membrane involves driving of two orthogonal electrodes with AC signals for lateral scanning, while simultaneously driving all electrodes for axial scanning and focus adjustment. We have characterized piezoelectric membranes (5 -15mm diameter) with varying sizes to monitor axial displacement behavior with respect to applied DC voltage. We also demonstrate simultaneous lateral and axial actuation on a resolution target, and observe the change of lateral resolution on a selected plane through performing 1D cross-sectional images, as an indicator of focal shift through axial actuation. Based on experimental results, we identify the optical and geometrical parameters for optimal 3D imaging of tissue samples. Our findings reveal that a simple piezoelectric membrane, having comparable dimensions and drive voltage requirement with off-the-shelf MEMS scanner chips, offers tissue epithelial imaging with sub-cellular resolution.
Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a case of rectal cancer with endoscopically observable white nodules caused by distal intramural lymphatic spread. A 57-year-old female presented to our hospital with frequent diarrhea and hemorrhoids. Computed tomography showed bilateral ovarian masses and three hepatic tumors diagnosed as rectal cancer metastases, and also showed multiple lymph node involvement. The patient was preoperatively diagnosed with stage IV rectal cancer. Colonoscopy demonstrated that primary rectal cancer existed 15 cm from the anal verge and that there were multiple white small nodules on the anal side of the primary tumor extending to the dentate line. Biopsies of the white spots were performed, and they were identified as adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent Hartmann’s procedure because of the locally advanced primary tumor. The white nodules were ultimately diagnosed as being caused by intramural lymphatic spreading because lymphatic permeation was strongly positive at the surrounding area. Small white nodules near a primary rectal cancer should be suspected of being intramural spreading. Endoscopic detection of white nodules may be useful for the diagnosis of distal intramural spread.
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the results and experiences of the patients who received percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG. Methods: A total of 113 patients who admitted to the Dicle University Medical Faculty , Department of Gastroenterology between January 2012 and December 2014 and in whom received PEG was performed. The patients were assessed in terms of indications, complications and results. Results: Among these patients, 70 (61.9% were male and 40 (38.1% were female. Though 8 (7% patients had head, neck and esophageal cancer; 105 (93% patients had primer or seconder neurological disorders. After the PEG, any serious complication was seen in patients. Wound infections were encountered in five patients (4.4% and the rate of minor complications was found to be 9.7%. The risk of complications was higher in patients over sixty years and men (p values of 0.049 and 0.022. Conclusion: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, a simple and safe method of enteral nutrition with a low complication rate, should be the first choice when extended period enteral nutrition is required. There is increased risk of complications in elderly males.
Qureshi, M. O.; Shafqat, F.; Ahmed, S.; Niazi, T. K.; Khokhar, N. K.
Objective: To assess the quality and patient satisfaction in Endoscopy Unit of Shifa International Hospital. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Division of Gastroenterology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan, from July 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Quality and patient satisfaction after the endoscopic procedure was assessed using a modified GHAA-9 questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 1028 patients were included with a mean age of 45 A+- 14.21 years. Out of all the procedures, 670 (65.17%) were gastroscopies, 181 (17.60%) were flexible sigmoidoscopies and 177 (17.21%) were colonoscopies. The maximum unsatisfactory responses were on the waiting time before the procedure (13.13 %), followed by unsatisfactory explanation of the procedure and answers to questions (7.58%). Overall, unsatisfied impression was 4.86%. The problem rate was 6.22%. Conclusion: The quality of procedures and level of satisfaction of patients undergoing a gastroscopy or colonoscopy was generally good. The factors that influence the satisfaction of these patients are related to communication between doctor and patient, doctor's manner and waiting time for the procedure. Feedback information in an endoscopy unit may be useful in improving standards, including the performance of endoscopists. (author)
Tchaka, Kevin; Pawar, Vijay M.; Stoyanov, Danail
In minimally invasive surgery, image quality is a critical pre-requisite to ensure a surgeons ability to perform a procedure. In endoscopic procedures, image quality can deteriorate for a number of reasons such as fogging due to the temperature gradient after intra-corporeal insertion, lack of focus and due to smoke generated when using electro-cautery to dissect tissues without bleeding. In this paper we investigate the use of vision processing techniques to remove surgical smoke and improve the clarity of the image. We model the image formation process by introducing a haze medium to account for the degradation of visibility. For simplicity and computational efficiency we use an adapted dark-channel prior method combined with histogram equalization to remove smoke artifacts to recover the radiance image and enhance the contrast and brightness of the final result. Our initial results on images from robotic assisted procedures are promising and show that the proposed approach may be used to enhance image quality during surgery without additional suction devices. In addition, the processing pipeline may be used as an important part of a robust surgical vision pipeline that can continue working in the presence of smoke.
Kamata, Ken; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Miyata, Takeshi; Minaga, Kosuke; Yamao, Kentaro; Imai, Hajime; Kudo, Masatoshii [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka (Japan)
Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is widely used to evaluate pancreaticobiliary diseases, especially pancreatic masses. EUS has a good ability to detect pancreatic masses, but it is not sufficient for the differential diagnosis of various types of lesions. In order to address the limitations of EUS, new techniques have been developed to improve the characterization of the lesions detected by EUS. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been used for diagnosing pancreatic tumors. In order to improve the histological diagnostic yield, a EUS-FNA needle with a core trap has recently been developed. Contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS is a new imaging modality that uses an ultrasonographic contrast agent to visualize blood flow in fine vessels. This technique is useful in the diagnosis of pancreatic solid lesions and in confirming the presence of vascularity in mural nodules for cystic lesions. EUS elastography analyzes several different variables to measure tissue elasticity, color patterns, and strain ratio, using analytical techniques such as hue-histogram analysis, and artificial neural networks, which are useful for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.
Peretti, G.; Cappiello, J.; Renaldini, G.; Antonelli, A.R.; Villanacci, V.; Marocolo, D.
Histological diagnosis of laryngeal epithelial abnormalities may range from mucosal aberration, without risk of progressing into invasive neoplasm, to in situ or invasive carcinoma. Precise identification of epithelial abnormalities of laryngeal mucosa requires biopsy and microscopic evaluation. Random biopsies are frequently inadequate, since they are not representative for the entire lesion. Excisional Biopsy, allowing removal of lesion together with a rim of healthy tissue is ideal for both diagnosis and treatment. If completely removed, the cancer should not require further treatment; if the margins are not free of disease, re-excision or radiotherapy is considered as alternative options. Laser excision represents an extension of the clinical application of endoscopy, allowing the laryngologist to perform an accurate and bloodless surgery. Endoscopic laser treatment for selected glottic SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) has been shown to provide an excellent alternative to radiotherapy or open neck surgery in terms of cure rate and functional results. Preliminary results are presented with the purpose of stressing the role of EB with CO2 laser in diagnosis and treatment of selected glottic carcinoma. (author). 16 refs
Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher
The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.