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Sample records for extended driving impairs

  1. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  2. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  3. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  5. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...

  6. State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Data DOT HS 812 017 May 2014 State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates This fact sheet contains ... alcohol involvement in fatal crashes for the United States and individually for the 50 States, the District ...

  7. The relationship between impaired driving crashes and beliefs about impaired driving: do residents in high crash rate counties have greater concerns about impaired driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Alice F; Wang, Min Qi; Kerns, Timothy J; Burch, Cynthia A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than residents of counties that have lower rates of impaired driving. Data for alcohol impaired driving crashes were obtained for the years 2004-2006. These data were compared to public opinion data that was obtained annually by random-digit-dial telephone surveys from 2004 to 2007. Concerns about drunk driving as well as perceptions of the likelihood of being stopped by the police if one were to drive after having too much to drink were related to counties with higher serious impaired driving crash rates, as were perceptions that the police and the legal system were too lenient. Perceptions about the likelihood of being stopped by the police were higher in those counties with more impaired driving enforcement activity. Perceptions of concern appear to be shaped more by crash exposure than enforcement activity. Campaigns that address impaired driving prevention should substantially increase enforcement, strengthen the adjudication process of impaired drivers, and emphasize the potential seriousness of drinking-driving crashes in their promotional activities.

  8. Detection of phenazepam in impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Sarah; Mellon, Monica Brady; Hinners, Paige

    2013-10-01

    Phenazepam is a potent 1,4-benzodiazepine that has gained notoriety among recreational drug users. First synthesized in Ukraine in the 1970s, it is one of the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines in Russia and other commonwealth of independent state nations, where it is used therapeutically as a prescription drug. Reports of abuse are widespread and several European countries have taken steps to control its use. However, in the USA, phenazepam is not approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration, nor scheduled under the Federal Controlled Substances Act. Phenazepam is widely available on the Internet, and recreational drug users report a potency 10-fold greater than that of nordiazepam. We report a case of a 24-year-old male driver who was apprehended for impaired driving following a two-vehicle crash. The subject exhibited slurred speech and profound psychomotor impairment. Toxicology testing revealed phenazepam at a concentration of 76 ng/mL in blood, with no other drugs detected. This case report not only demonstrates the potential for adverse traffic safety consequences following the misuse of phenazepam, but also highlights the importance of analytical factors such as immunoassay cutoff concentration, cross-reactivity and comprehensive screening using chromatographic-based techniques for impaired driving investigations.

  9. Perception of the Risks Associated with Impaired Driving and Effects on Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Dionne; Claude Fluet; Denise Desjardins

    2006-01-01

    This research studies the perception of the risks associated with impaired driving-probability of being apprehended or of having an accident-and the relation between the perception of risks and driving behavior. The most important determinants of perceptual biases are age, an accumulation of violations in the year preceding the survey, being a non-drinker, knowledge of the legal alcohol limit for driving, opinion about zero tolerance for impaired driving, and family income. Perceptual biases ...

  10. Older drivers with cognitive impairment: Perceived changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self......-regulation of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....

  11. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047

  12. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  13. Alcohol and distraction interact to impair driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Emily L R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2011-08-01

    Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol+divided attention; placebo; and placebo+divided attention. As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Extended cage adjustable speed electric motors and drive packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S.

    1999-01-01

    The rotor cage of a motor is extended, a second stator is coupled to this extended rotor cage, and the windings have the same number of poles. The motor torque and speed can be controlled by either injecting energy into or extracting energy out from the rotor cage. The motor produces less harmonics than existing doubly-fed motors. Consequently, a new type of low cost, high efficiency drive is produced.

  15. Mobility scooter driving ability in visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M

    2018-06-01

    To investigate how well visually impaired individuals can learn to use mobility scooters and which parts of the driving task deserve special attention. A mobility scooter driving skill test was developed to compare driving skills (e.g. reverse driving, turning) between 48 visually impaired (very low visual acuity = 14, low visual acuity = 10, peripheral field defects = 11, multiple visual impairments = 13) and 37 normal-sighted controls without any prior experience with mobility scooters. Performance on this test was rated on a three-point scale. Furthermore, the number of extra repetitions on the different elements were noted. Results showed that visually impaired participants were able to gain sufficient driving skills to be able to use mobility scooters. Participants with visual field defects combined with low visual acuity showed most problems learning different skills and needed more training. Reverse driving and stopping seemed to be most difficult. The present findings suggest that visually impaired individuals are able to learn to drive mobility scooters. Mobility scooter allocators should be aware that these individuals might need more training on certain elements of the driving task. Implications for rehabilitation Visual impairments do not necessarily lead to an inability to acquire mobility scooter driving skills. Individuals with peripheral field defects (especially in combination with reduced visual acuity) need more driving ability training compared to normal-sighted people - especially to accomplish reversing. Individual assessment of visually impaired people is recommended, since participants in this study showed a wide variation in ability to learn driving a mobility scooter.

  16. Digest of impaired driving and selected beverage control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with impaired driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 2006.

  17. Do Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment Understand Driving Terminology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfe, Jessica M.; Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined if adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) understand driving vocabulary as well as their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: A total of 16 adolescents with SLI and 16 TD comparison adolescents completed a receptive vocabulary task focused on driving terminology derived from statewide driver's manuals.…

  18. Marijuana-Impaired Driving - A Report to Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report was prepared in accordance with Section 4008 (Marijuana-Impaired Driving) of the Fixing Americas Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act), Pub. L. 114-94. The report summarizes what is known about marijuana use and driving. The report des...

  19. 77 FR 72677 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... all of us can work to prevent it, visit www.WhiteHouse.gov/ONDCP and www.NHTSA.gov/Impaired . NOW... Driving Prevention Month reminds us of the importance of celebrating safely. Every year, accidents... or drunk driving, and we rededicate ourselves to preventing it this December and throughout the year...

  20. Medications and Impaired Driving: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. Data sources The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on specific classes of medications known to be associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Study selection and data extraction Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs were included. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Studies of ≥ 10 subjects were included in this review. Data synthesis Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Unfortunately, some specific classes of commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment as measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, certain non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, various antidepressants, opioid and non-steroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies identifying medication impacts on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function – as well as the role of alcohol – are also discussed. Conclusions Psychotropic agents and those with CNS side effects were associated with various measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or perhaps the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific populations and classes of medications when prescribing these agents, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives

  1. Extending Driving Vision Based on Image Mosaic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Car cameras have been used extensively to assist driving by make driving visible. However, due to the limitation of the Angle of View (AoV, the dead zone still exists, which is a primary origin of car accidents. In this paper, we introduce a system to extend the vision of drivers to 360 degrees. Our system consists of four wide-angle cameras, which are mounted at different sides of a car. Although the AoV of each camera is within 180 degrees, relying on the image mosaic technique, our system can seamlessly integrate 4-channel videos into a panorama video. The panorama video enable drivers to observe everywhere around a car as far as three meters from a top view. We performed experiments in a laboratory environment. Preliminary results show that our system can eliminate vision dead zone completely. Additionally, the real-time performance of our system can satisfy requirements for practical use.

  2. A guide for statewide impaired-driving task forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the guide is to assist State officials and other stakeholders who are interested in establishing an : Impaired-Driving Statewide Task Force or who are exploring ways to improve their current Task Force. The guide : addresses issues suc...

  3. Gender differences in alcohol impairment of simulated driving performance and driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2009-01-01

    Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  4. Should visually impaired people drive slow motorised vehicles? : Evaluation of driving safety in mobility scooters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, Christina; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel; Brouwer, Wiebo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mobility scooters may help people with motor impairments maintain independent mobility. However, many users have comorbid disorders that can influence their ability to drive safely. Over the past few years, the media have drawn much attention to mobility scooter safety. Visual disorders

  5. Driving Privileges Facilitate Impaired Driving in Those Youths Who Use Alcohol or Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…

  6. Caffeine antagonism of alcohol-induced driving impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A; Robinson, J H

    2001-07-01

    The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.

  7. [Pain patients in street traffic. Do analgesics impair driving safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, W

    2003-06-05

    Analgesics--in particular when self-prescribed or taken over the long term--may have a negative effect on safety on the road. This applies not only to vehicle drivers, but also to cyclists and pedestrians. Psychotropic effects of analgesics of all three WHO categories play a major causal role. Impairments may take the form of sleepiness, impaired vision, giddiness, loss of muscular tone or cardiovascular reactions. On the other hand, untreated severe pain has a high risk potential, since it may reduce both cognitive and psychomotoric performance. During the stabilization phase or dose adjustment of opioids, the patient must cautioned not to drive, and particular care must be taken in patients on concomitant or long-term medication or drinking excessive alcohol. In the last resort, the prescription of an analgesic is an individual decision involving both physician and patient.

  8. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway.

  9. Impaired-driving prevalence among US high school students: associations with substance use and risky driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Hingson, Ralph

    2013-11-01

    We examined the prevalence of impaired driving among US high school students and associations with substance use and risky driving behavior. We assessed driving while alcohol or drug impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol- or drug-impaired drivers (RWI) in a nationally representative sample of 11th-grade US high school students (n = 2431). We examined associations with drinking and binge drinking, illicit drug use, risky driving, and demographic factors using multivariate sequential logistic regression analysis. Thirteen percent of 11th-grade students reported DWI at least 1 of the past 30 days, and 24% reported RWI at least once in the past year. Risky driving was positively associated with DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25; P phone calls (OR = 3.2) while driving. Our findings suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to the prevention of DWI, RWI, and other risky driving behavior.

  10. Relationship of impaired-driving enforcement intensity to drinking and driving on the roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Waehrer, Geetha; Voas, Robert B; Auld-Owens, Amy; Carr, Katherine; Pell, Karen

    2015-01-01

    It is principally the area of enforcement that offers the greatest opportunity for reducing alcohol-impaired driving in the near future. How much of a reduction in drinking and driving would be achieved by how much improvement in enforcement intensity? We developed logistic regression models to explore how enforcement intensity (6 different measures) related to the prevalence of weekend nighttime drivers in the 2007 National Roadside Survey who had been drinking (blood alcohol concentration [BAC] ≥ 0.00 g/dl), who had BACs ≥ 0.05 g/dl, and who were driving with an illegal BAC ≥ 0.08 g/dl. Drivers on the roads in our sample of 30 communities who were exposed to fewer than 228 traffic stops per 10,000 population aged 18 and older had 2.4 times the odds of being BAC positive, 3.6 times the odds of driving with a BAC ≥ 0.05, and 3.8 times the odds of driving with a BAC ≥ 0.08 compared to those drivers on the roads in communities with more than 1,275 traffic stops per 10,000 population. Drivers on the roads in communities with fewer than 3.7 driving under the influence (DUI) arrests per 10,000 population had 2.7 times the odds of BAC-positive drivers on the roads compared to communities with the highest intensity of DUI arrest activity (>38 DUI arrests per 10,000 population). The number of traffic stops and DUI arrests per capita were significantly associated with the odds of drinking and driving on the roads in these communities. This might reflect traffic enforcement visibility. The findings in this study may help law enforcement agencies around the country adjust their traffic enforcement intensity to reduce impaired driving in their community. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. The influence of cognitive impairment with no dementia on driving restriction and cessation in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kristina; Love, Janet; Tuokko, Holly; MacDonald, Stuart; Hultsch, David; Strauss, Esther

    2012-11-01

    Cognitively impaired older adults may be at increased risk of unsafe driving. Individuals with insight into their own impairments may minimize their risk by restricting or stopping driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cognitive impairment on driving status and driving habits and intentions. Participants were classified as cognitively impaired, no dementia single (CIND-single), CIND-multiple, or not cognitively impaired (NCI) and compared on their self-reported driving status, habits, and intentions to restrict or quit driving in the future. The groups differed significantly in driving status, but not in whether they restricted their driving or reduced their driving frequency. CIND-multiple group also had significantly higher intention to restrict/stop driving than the NCI group. Reasons for restricting and quitting driving were varied and many individuals reported multiple reasons, both external and internal, for their driving habits and intentions. Regardless of cognitive status, none of the current drivers were seriously thinking of restricting or quitting driving in the next 6 months. It will be important to determine, in future research, how driving practices change over time and what factors influence decisions to restrict or stop driving for people with cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Older people with mild cognitive impairment -- their views about assessing driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David A; Frank, Oliver; Pond, Dimity; Stocks, Nigel

    2013-05-01

    Driving is important for older people to maintain agency, independence and social connectedness. Little research has been conducted into the views of older people with mild cognitive impairment about who decides if they are safe to drive. This qualitative study investigates the views of older people with mild cognitive impairment about decision making on driving cessation. Participants value their agency; they wanted to decide when they should stop driving themselves. However, they were also prepared to accept their general practitioner's advice when they became unfit to drive. In the interim, they self regulated the timing and distance of their driving to reduce accident risk.

  13. 77 FR 26049 - Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Forum to address Substance-Impaired Driving which will begin at 8:30 a.m., Tuesday, May 15, 2012. NTSB Chairman Deborah A.P...

  14. Simulated Driving Changes in Young Adults with ADHD Receiving Mixed Amphetamine Salts Extended Release and Atomoxetine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gary G.; Michaels, M. Alex; Pakull, Barton

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychostimulant treatment may improve simulated driving performance in young adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of simulated driving performance with mixed amphetamine salts--extended release (MAS XR) 50 mg/day (Cohort 1) and…

  15. 3 CFR 8461 - Proclamation 8461 of December 2, 2009. National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Traffic Safety Administration is again sponsoring the campaign known as “Drunk Driving. Over the Limit..., we are reminded of the importance of driving free from the influence of alcohol and drugs, and we... Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2009 8461 Proclamation 8461 Presidential Documents Proclamations...

  16. 75 FR 75845 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... property in a moment. This reckless behavior not only includes drunk driving, but also the growing problem... dedicated to strengthening efforts against drunk, drugged, and distracted driving. To lead by example, we... Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is also sponsoring the campaign, ``Drunk Driving...

  17. Evaluation of responsible beverage service to reduce impaired driving by 21- to 34-year-old drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Despite progress in reducing impaired driving, young adult drivers 21 to 34 remain a particularly high-risk group for : involvement in impaired-driving-related crashes. A number of studies have revealed that approximately half of : intoxicated driver...

  18. New Mexico’s comprehensive impaired-driving program : crash data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In late 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provided funds through a Cooperative Agreement to the New Mexico Department of Transportation to demonstrate a process for implementing a comprehensive State impaired-driving system. NH...

  19. Occupant and Alcohol-Impaired Driving Deaths in States, 2003-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2003-2012; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2003-2012; All occupants...

  20. EARLY ONSET OF DELINQUENCY AND THE TRAJECTORY OF ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING AMONG YOUNG MALES*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Building upon the literature in developmental and life-course criminology, the present study assesses the possible association of age onset of delinquency with the trajectory of alcohol-impaired driving using data collected from the three waves of the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). It is argued that as a unique form of delinquency, alcohol-impaired driving among adolescents may be better understood in a broad context of adolescent delinquency involvement. The study adopts the general approach for the analysis of early onset of delinquency and criminal careers in developmental and life-course criminology and hypothesizes that early onset of delinquency is associated with a higher growth of alcohol-impaired driving over time among adolescents when age onsets of alcohol-impaired driving, drinking, and drug use are controlled. Our analysis with the HLM growth modeling method provides support for the hypothesis. Respondents who had an early start in delinquency were likely to have a faster growth of alcohol-impaired driving over the three waves of BLSYM, which implies that these respondents were likely to have a longer path of alcohol-impaired driving in their transition to adulthood. The implication of this finding is discussed. PMID:21831528

  1. Impaired driving from medical conditions: a 70-year-old man trying to decide if he should continue driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-03-09

    Some medical disorders can impair performance, increasing the risk of driving safety errors that can lead to vehicle crashes. The causal pathway often involves a concatenation of factors or events, some of which can be prevented or controlled. Effective interventions can operate before, during, or after a crash occurs at the levels of driver capacity, vehicle and road design, and public policy. A variety of systemic, neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders put drivers at potential increased risk of a car crash in the short or long term. Medical diagnosis and age alone are usually insufficient criteria for determining fitness to drive. Strategies are needed for determining what types and levels of reduced function provide a threshold for disqualification in drivers with medical disorders. Evidence of decreased mileage, self-restriction to driving in certain situations, collisions, moving violations, aggressive driving, sleepiness, alcohol abuse, metabolic disorders, and multiple medications may trigger considerations of driver safety. A general framework for evaluating driver fitness relies on a functional evaluation of multiple domains (cognitive, motor, perceptual, and psychiatric) that are important for safe driving and can be applied across many disorders, including conditions that have rarely been studied with respect to driving, and in patients with multiple conditions and medications. Neurocognitive tests, driving simulation, and road tests provide complementary sources of evidence to evaluate driver safety. No single test is sufficient to determine who should drive and who should not.

  2. Impaired driving from medical conditions: A 70-year-old man trying to decide if he should continue driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Some medical disorders can impair performance, increasing the risk of driving safety errors that can lead to vehicle crashes. The causal pathway often involves a concatenation of factors or events, some of which can be prevented or controlled. Effective interventions can operate before, during, or after a crash occurs at the levels of driver capacity, vehicle and road design, and public policy. A variety of systemic, neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders put drivers at potential increased risk of a car crash in the short or long term. Medical diagnosis and age alone are usually insufficient criteria for determining fitness to drive. Strategies are needed for determining what types and levels of reduced function provide a threshold for disqualification in drivers with medical disorders. Evidence of decreased mileage, self-restriction to driving in certain situations, collisions, moving violations, aggressive driving, sleepiness, alcohol abuse, metabolic disorders, and multiple medications may trigger considerations of driver safety. A general framework for evaluating driver fitness relies on a functional evaluation of multiple domains (cognitive, motor, perceptual, and psychiatric) that are important for safe driving and can be applied across many disorders, including conditions that have rarely been studied with respect to driving, and in patients with multiple conditions and medications. Neurocognitive tests, driving simulation, and road tests provide complementary sources of evidence to evaluate driver safety. No single test is sufficient to determine who should drive and who should not. PMID:21364126

  3. Alcohol effects on simulated driving performance and self-perceptions of impairment in DUI offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-12-01

    Drivers with a history of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol self-report heightened impulsivity and display reckless driving behaviors as indicated by increased rates of vehicle crashes, moving violations, and traffic tickets. Such poor behavioral self-regulation could also increase sensitivity to the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance and overestimate their driving fitness following alcohol consumption. Adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically matched group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol impaired several measures of driving performance, and there was no difference between DUI offenders and controls in these impairments. However, following alcohol, DUI drivers self-reported a greater ability and willingness to drive compared with controls. These findings indicate that drivers with a history of DUI might perceive themselves as more fit to drive after drinking, which could play an important role in their decisions to drink and drive. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Navigation skill impairment: Another dimension of the driving difficulties in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Hafeezullah, Muhammad; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Varma, Rajiv R; Franco, Jose; Binion, David G; Hammeke, Thomas A; Saeian, Kia

    2008-02-01

    Patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) have attention, response inhibition, and working memory difficulties that are associated with driving impairment and high motor vehicle accident risk. Navigation is a complex system needed for safe driving that requires functioning working memory and other domains adversely affected by MHE. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of MHE on navigation skills and correlate them with psychometric impairment. Forty-nine nonalcoholic patients with cirrhosis (34 MHE+, 15 MHE-; divided on the basis of a battery of block design, digit symbol, and number connection test A) and 48 age/education-matched controls were included. All patients underwent the psychometric battery and inhibitory control test (ICT) (a test of response inhibition) and driving simulation. Driving simulation consisted of 4 parts: (1) training; (2) driving (outcome being accidents); (3) divided attention (outcome being missed tasks); and (4) navigation, driving along a marked path on a map in a "virtual city" (outcome being illegal turns). Illegal turns were significantly higher in MHE+ (median 1; P = 0.007) compared with MHE-/controls (median 0). Patients who were MHE+ missed more divided attention tasks compared with others (median MHE+ 1, MHE-/controls 0; P = 0.001). Similarly, accidents were higher in patients who were MHE+ (median 2.5; P = 0.004) compared with MHE- (median 1) or controls (median 2). Accidents and illegal turns were significantly correlated (P = 0.001, r = 0.51). ICT impairment was the test most correlated with illegal turns (r = 0.6) and accidents (r = 0.44), although impairment on the other tests were also correlated with illegal turns. Patients positive for MHE have impaired navigation skills on a driving simulator, which is correlated with impairment in response inhibition (ICT) and attention. This navigation difficulty may pose additional driving problems, compounding the pre-existing deleterious effect of attention

  5. Investigating Simulated Driving Errors in Amnestic Single- and Multiple-Domain Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Megan A; Vesely, Kristin A; Fischer, Corinne E; Graham, Simon J; Naglie, Gary; Schweizer, Tom A

    2017-01-01

    The areas of driving impairment characteristic of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remain unclear. This study compared the simulated driving performance of 24 individuals with MCI, including amnestic single-domain (sd-MCI, n = 11) and amnestic multiple-domain MCI (md-MCI, n = 13), and 20 age-matched controls. Individuals with MCI committed over twice as many driving errors (20.0 versus 9.9), demonstrated difficulty with lane maintenance, and committed more errors during left turns with traffic compared to healthy controls. Specifically, individuals with md-MCI demonstrated greater driving difficulty compared to healthy controls, relative to those with sd-MCI. Differentiating between different subtypes of MCI may be important when evaluating driving safety.

  6. Age and visual impairment decrease driving performance as measured on a closed-road circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M

    2002-01-01

    In this study the effects of visual impairment and age on driving were investigated and related to visual function. Participants were 139 licensed drivers (young, middle-aged, and older participants with normal vision, and older participants with ocular disease). Driving performance was assessed during the daytime on a closed-road driving circuit. Visual performance was assessed using a vision testing battery. Age and visual impairment had a significant detrimental effect on recognition tasks (detection and recognition of signs and hazards), time to complete driving tasks (overall course time, reversing, and maneuvering), maneuvering ability, divided attention, and an overall driving performance index. All vision measures were significantly affected by group membership. A combination of motion sensitivity, useful field of view (UFOV), Pelli-Robson letter contrast sensitivity, and dynamic acuity could predict 50% of the variance in overall driving scores. These results indicate that older drivers with either normal vision or visual impairment had poorer driving performance compared with younger or middle-aged drivers with normal vision. The inclusion of tests such as motion sensitivity and the UFOV significantly improve the predictive power of vision tests for driving performance. Although such measures may not be practical for widespread screening, their application in selected cases should be considered.

  7. Predictors of Cell Phone Use in Distracted Driving: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the predictors of six distracted driving behaviors, and the survey data partially support Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The data suggest that the attitude variable predicted intention to engage in all six distracted driving behaviors (reading and sending text messages, making and answering cell phone calls, reading/viewing social media, and posting on social media while driving). Extending the model to include past experience and the variable perceived safety of technology yielded an improvement in the prediction of the distraction variables. Specifically, past experience predicted all six distracted driving behaviors, and the variable perceived safety of technology predicted intentions to read/view social media and intention to post on social media while driving. The study provides evidence for the importance of incorporating expanded variables into the original TPB model to predict cell phone use behaviors while driving, and it suggests that it is essential to tailor campaign materials for each specific cell phone use behavior to reduce distracted driving.

  8. An extended heterogeneous car-following model accounting for anticipation driving behavior and mixed maximum speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengxin; Wang, Jufeng; Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia

    2018-02-01

    The optimal driving speeds of the different vehicles may be different for the same headway. In the optimal velocity function of the optimal velocity (OV) model, the maximum speed vmax is an important parameter determining the optimal driving speed. A vehicle with higher maximum speed is more willing to drive faster than that with lower maximum speed in similar situation. By incorporating the anticipation driving behavior of relative velocity and mixed maximum speeds of different percentages into optimal velocity function, an extended heterogeneous car-following model is presented in this paper. The analytical linear stable condition for this extended heterogeneous traffic model is obtained by using linear stability theory. Numerical simulations are carried out to explore the complex phenomenon resulted from the cooperation between anticipation driving behavior and heterogeneous maximum speeds in the optimal velocity function. The analytical and numerical results all demonstrate that strengthening driver's anticipation effect can improve the stability of heterogeneous traffic flow, and increasing the lowest value in the mixed maximum speeds will result in more instability, but increasing the value or proportion of the part already having higher maximum speed will cause different stabilities at high or low traffic densities.

  9. The 2006 National Labor Day impaired driving enforcement crackdown : Drunk driving. Over the limit. Under arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations 2006 Drunk Driving. Over the Limit. Under Arrest. Labor Day holiday campaign had three main components: (1) DWI enforcement, (2) public awareness efforts, and (3) evaluation. The 2006 program use...

  10. Alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences in the United States: the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2006-01-01

    Progress in dealing with the alcohol-impaired driving problem in the United States during the past 25 years is addressed. Trends in various measures of the problem were tracked and a thorough review of the relevant literature conducted. In the 1980s and continuing into the early 1990s, major decreases occurred in alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences. The contribution of alcohol to fatal crashes dropped by 35-40% during this period. Two primary reasons for the decline appear to be the emergence of citizen activist groups that mobilized public support and attention to the problem, and the proliferation of effective laws. Since about 1995 the alcohol-impaired driving problem has stabilized at a reduced but still quite high level. Highway safety organizations and citizen activist groups have continued to highlight the problem, but its status as a social issue has diminished. We basically know what the primary target groups are, and we know measures that would work to reduce the problem if implemented more fully. We know that political leadership, state task forces, and media advocacy are important ingredients in addressing the problem. It is likely that a resurgence in citizen activism will be necessary to foster these elements and refocus the nation on the unfinished battle against alcohol-impaired driving. Alcohol-impaired driving is still a major problem that needs continuing attention.

  11. A review of national television PSA campaigns for preventing alcohol-impaired driving, 1987-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, W; Atkin, C K

    1995-01-01

    We present a content analysis of 137 public service announcements (PSAs) focused on alcohol-impaired driving that aired nationally on U.S. television between 1987 and 1992. Our findings include the following: 1) Most PSAs were intended to reach an undifferentiated general audience, not necessarily those who are at greatest risk for driving after drinking. 2) Most PSAs were designed to create awareness of the problem of alcohol-impaired driving or to promote individual behavior change. 3) More PSAs were developed on the use of designated drivers than on any other subject. 4) About two-thirds of the PSAs included one or more celebrities who speak directly to the audience. Past media campaigns have tended to ignore the fact that people's behavior is profoundly shaped by their environment, which in turn is shaped by public policy. We recommend that future mass media campaigns against alcohol-impaired driving focus on building support for changes in institutional structures, public policy or law that will motivate, support, and sustain the efforts of individuals to alter their behavior. Television PSAs can play an important but somewhat limited role in support of this effort. Greater emphasis will need to be given instead to media advocacy strategies, including paid radio advertising. We further recommend that the principal organizations concerned about alcohol-impaired driving share their plans and develop a common communications strategy that will advance the public policy agenda proposed by the Surgeon General's Workshop on Drunk Driving.

  12. Evaluation of curriculum to improve health professionals' ability to manage age-related driving impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Linda L; Rybar, Jill; Styer, Tara

    2013-12-01

    As our elderly population increases in proportion with respect to the rest of society, age-related driving impairments are increasing in importance as a public health concern. In this context, health professionals play an important role in identifying impaired drivers. This situation is complicated for two reasons: discussion of driving cessation is a sensitive topic for both health professionals and the elderly, and physicians have limited familiarity with the current American Medical Association (AMA) screening guidelines or mandated reporting laws. To assess curriculum that trains health professionals to increase their awareness, screening, management, and reporting of age-related driving impairments. Between 2009 and September 2011, 47 trainings were delivered to 1202 health professionals. The majority of trainings were seminars or lectures lasting 1h; all were conducted in southern California. The training curriculum was divided into four sections: introduction and background; screening and interpretation; managing outcomes and reporting; and referrals and resources. Videos addressed broaching the topic with patients and counseling on driving cessation. The curriculum was delivered by physicians with the support of public health-trained program staff. Pre- and post-testing was done with 641 of the participants; the majority were physicians. Post-training, participants' confidence in ability to screen increased to 72% and intent to screen increased to 55%. Fully 92% stated they had developed a better understanding of California's mandated reporting laws. Similarly, 92% said they had developed a better understanding of the medical conditions and medications that may impair older adults' ability to drive safely. Furthermore, 91% said mandated-reporting laws helped protect the safety of patients and others, and 59% said it was easier to discuss and justify driving cessation with patients. In-person training of health professionals on age-related driving

  13. Drug and alcohol-impaired driving among electronic music dance event attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, Debra; Voas, Robert B; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Miller, Brenda

    2006-10-15

    Drug-impaired driving has received increased attention resulting from development of rapid drug-screening procedures used by police and state laws establishing per se limits for drug levels in drivers. Venues that host electronic music dance events (EMDEs) provide a unique opportunity to assess drug-impaired driving among a high proportion of young adult drug users. EMDEs are late-night dance parties marked by a substantial number of young adult attendees and elevated drug involvement. No studies to date have examined drug-impaired driving in a natural environment with active drug and alcohol users. Six EMDEs were sampled in San Diego, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. A random sample of approximately 40 attendees per event were administered surveys about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and driving status, given breath tests for alcohol, and asked to provide oral fluid samples to test for illicit drug use upon entering and exiting the events. Driving status reduced the level of alcohol use (including abstaining) but the impact on drug-taking was not significant. However, 62% of individuals who reported their intention to drive away from the events were positive for drugs or alcohol upon leaving. This suggests that these events and settings are appropriate ones for developing interventions for reducing risks for young adults.

  14. Understanding the knowledge and attitudes of commercial drivers in Ghana regarding alcohol impaired driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiamah, G; Mock, C; Blantari, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The knowledge and attitudes of commercial drivers in Ghana as regards alcohol impaired driving were investigated. This was done in order to provide information that could subsequently be used to develop antidrunk driving social marketing messages built upon the intrinsic values and motivation of these drivers. Methods: Focus group discussions were held with 43 bus and minibus drivers in the capital city, Accra. A structured discussion guide was used to capture information related to values, risk perceptions, leisure time activities, and attitudes on alcohol impaired driving. Results: The majority of drivers expressed an understanding that drunk driving was a significant risk factor for crashes. There was a significant under-appreciation of the extent of the problem, however. Most believed that it was only rare, extremely intoxicated drivers who were the problem. The drivers also had a minimal understanding of the concept of blood alcohol concentration and related legal limits. Despite these factors, there was widespread support for increased enforcement of existing antidrunk driving laws. Conclusions: In Ghana, commercial drivers understand the basic danger of drunk driving and are motivated to assist in antidrunk driving measures. There are misconceptions and deficits in knowledge that need to be addressed in subsequent educational campaigns. PMID:11928975

  15. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-06-19

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs.

  16. Medication impairing safe driving: knowledge, attitude and behaviour of consumers and patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervloet, M.; Dijk, L. van

    2007-01-01

    Background: Promoting road safety is one of the aims of the Dutch road safety policy. The role of medication impairing safe driving (tranquilizers, sleep medication, tricyclic antidepressants and first generation antihistamines) in traffic accidents is underexposed and not well known. Previous

  17. On-road driving impairments and associated cognitive deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the critical on-road driving skills that get affected after a stroke. The purpose of this study was to investigate the key on-road driving impairments and their associated cognitive deficits after a stroke. A second aim was to investigate if lateralization of stroke impacts results of the cognitive and on-road driving tests. In this cross-sectional study, 99 participants with a first-ever stroke who were actively driving prior to stroke underwent a cognitive battery and a standardized road test that evaluated 13 specific on-road driving skills. These on-road driving skills were mapped onto an existing, theoretical framework that categorized the on-road items into hierarchic clusters of operational, tactical, visuo-integrative, and mixed driving skills. The total score on the road test and the on-road decision, made by a certified fitness-to-drive expert, decided the main outcome. The critical on-road driving skills predicting the on-road decision were identified using logistic regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was employed to determine the cognitive impairments leading to poor total on-road scores. Analyses were repeated for right- and left-sided strokes. In all, 37 persons scored poorly on the road test. These participants performed worse in all hierarchic clusters of on-road driving. Performances on the operational cluster and the visuo-integrative cluster best predicted on-road decisions (R(2) = 0.60). 'Lane changing' and 'understanding, insight, and quality of traffic participation' were the critical skill deficits leading to poor performance on the road test (R(2) = 0.65). Divided attention was the main determinant of on-road scores in the total group (R(2) = 0.06). Participants with right-sided stroke performed worse on visual field, visual neglect, visual scanning, visuo-constructive skills, and divided attention compared with those with left-sided stroke. Divided attention was the main determinant of total on-road scores

  18. Sensitivity and validity of psychometric tests for assessing driving impairment: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Stefan; Perrier, Joy; Vuurman, Eric F; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Vermeeren, Annemiek

    2015-01-01

    To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation. Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am) and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am). On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT), the Attention Network Test (ANT), and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV) at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV. From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.

  19. Sensitivity and validity of psychometric tests for assessing driving impairment: effects of sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Jongen

    Full Text Available To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation.Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am.On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT. Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT, the Attention Network Test (ANT, and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV.From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.

  20. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  1. Levomilnacipran Extended-Release Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Improvements in Functional Impairment Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gommoll, Carl P.; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Ruth, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this post hoc analysis, improvement in functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with levomilnacipran extended release (ER) was evaluated by assessing shifts from more severe to less severe functional impairment categories on individual Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) subscales. Method: SDS data were pooled from 5 phase II/III studies conducted between December 2006 and March 2012 of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in adult patients with MDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria). Proportions of patients shifting from moderate-extreme baseline impairment (score ≥ 4) to mild-no impairment (score ≤ 3) at end of treatment were assessed for each SDS subscale. Proportions of patients shifting from marked-extreme (score ≥ 7) baseline impairment to moderate-no (score ≤ 6) or mild-no impairment (score ≤ 3) at end of treatment, and shifts in which patients worsened from moderate-no to marked-extreme impairment, were also evaluated. Results: A significantly higher proportion of patients treated with levomilnacipran ER than placebo-treated patients improved from more severe categories of functional impairment at baseline to less severe impairment categories across all SDS subscales: work/school, social life, and family life/home responsibilities (P impairment at baseline improved to mild or no impairment, compared with no more than 40% of placebo patients on any subscale. Almost half (42%–47%) of levomilnacipran ER–treated patients versus only about one-third (29%–34%) of placebo patients improved from marked-extreme to mild or no impairment across functional domains. Conclusions: These results suggest that functional improvement was observed across the SDS functional domains. To our knowledge, this is the first such categorical analysis of functional improvement, as measured by the SDS, for an antidepressant. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00969709, NCT01377194, NCT00969150, and NCT01034462 and Eudra

  2. The effect of nabilone on neuropsychological functions related to driving ability: an extended case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Ilsemarie; Bodner, Thomas; Kemmler, Georg; Entner, Tanja; Wissel, Joerg; Berger, Thomas; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The primary goal of this prospective extended case series was to obtain the first data about the potential influence of nabilone intake on driving ability related neuropsychological functions. Six patients were investigated within a placebo controlled, double-blind crossover study of this synthetic cannabinoid (2 mg/day) in patients with multiple sclerosis and spasticity associated pain. Five neuropsychological functions (reaction time, working memory, divided attention, psychomotor speed and mental flexibility) were assessed. No indication was found of a deterioration of any of the five investigated neuropsychological functions during the 4-week treatment period with nabilone. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Impaired Driving Performance as Evidence of a Magnocellular Deficit in Dyslexia and Visual Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carri; Chekaluk, Eugene; Irwin, Julia

    2015-11-01

    High comorbidity and an overlap in symptomology have been demonstrated between dyslexia and visual stress. Several researchers have hypothesized an underlying or causal influence that may account for this relationship. The magnocellular theory of dyslexia proposes that a deficit in visuo-temporal processing can explain symptomology for both disorders. If the magnocellular theory holds true, individuals who experience symptomology for these disorders should show impairment on a visuo-temporal task, such as driving. Eighteen male participants formed the sample for this study. Self-report measures assessed dyslexia and visual stress symptomology as well as participant IQ. Participants completed a drive simulation in which errors in response to road signs were measured. Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations between scores on measures of dyslexia and visual stress. Results also demonstrated that self-reported symptomology predicts magnocellular impairment as measured by performance on a driving task. Results from this study suggest that a magnocellular deficit offers a likely explanation for individuals who report high symptomology across both conditions. While conclusions about the impact of these disorders on driving performance should not be derived from this research alone, this study provides a platform for the development of future research, utilizing a clinical population and on-road driving assessment techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The role of visual attention in predicting driving impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lesa; McDowd, Joan M; Atchley, Paul; Dubinsky, Richard

    2005-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of visual attention (as measured by the DriverScan change detection task and the Useful Field of View Test [UFOV]) in the prediction of driving impairment in 155 adults between the ages of 63 and 87. In contrast to previous research, participants were not oversampled for visual impairment or history of automobile accidents. Although a history of automobile accidents within the past 3 years could not be predicted using any variable, driving performance in a low-fidelity simulator could be significantly predicted by performance in the change detection task and by the divided and selection attention subtests of the UFOV in structural equation models. The sensitivity and specificity of each measure in identifying at-risk drivers were also evaluated with receiver operating characteristic curves.

  5. Driving impairments in teens and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A

    2004-06-01

    Available research provides compelling evidence that ADHD is associated with significantly increased risks for various adverse outcomes while driving, including increased traffic citations (particularly speeding), motor vehicle crashes for which the driver is at fault, repeated crash occurrences,and more severe crashes as determined from dollar damage and likelihood of bodily injuries from the crash. Not surprisingly, teens and adults with ADHD are more likely to have their licenses suspended and even fully revoked. Research further suggests that these driving risks cannot be accounted for by the comorbid disorders likely to be associated with ADHD, such as ODD, conduct disorder (CD), depression, or anxiety, or by lower than normal levels of intelligence. Recent attempts to study the processes or mechanisms involved in driving in adults with ADHD offer some explanation of how the disorder conveys such increased risks. Driving can be conceptualized usefully as involving at least three or more dimensions or levels, including basic cognitive abilities necessary for driving (operational), actual skills for maneuvering the vehicle in traffic (tactical), and the more executive, goal-directed aspects of driving(strategic). The findings of studies indicate that ADHD interferes with the basic operational components of driving by means of the impairments it produces in attention, resistance to distraction, response inhibition, slower and more variable reaction time, and the capacity to follow rules that may compete with ongoing sensory information. Accumulating evidence also points to a problem in the tactical level of driving, such that those with ADHDrate themselves and are rated by others as employing less safe driving habits during their normal operation of a vehicle than are adults in community control groups. Although this has been more elusive to demonstrate through the use of simple laboratory-based driving simulators. more modern virtual reality driving platforms

  6. [Application of extended exergy method in driving mechanism and efficiency of regional eco-economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin Gang; Mi, Wen Bao; Hou, Jing Wei

    2017-01-01

    To analyze social-economic causes of the regional ecological degradation, and avoid such problems as the complex circulation network and difficulty to identify laws caused by extended exergy analysis (EEA) previously applied at the national scale, this paper reduced spatial scale to the county scale and took Pengyang County in Ningxia as an example. Eco-economic system in Peng-yang County was divided into seven interrelated sectors. The exergy value of circulations in the eco-economic system including materials, labor and capital were calculated respectively to analyze the extended exergy characteristics of the driving sectors, factors and paths and evaluate their ecological efficiency. The results showed that agriculture and households were the main driving sectors of the eco-economic system in Pengyang County. The average exergy value of 31 flow paths among the sectors was 0.80 PJ. There were only 8 flow paths whose exergy values were higher than the average value. Eco-economic system in Pengyang County development was driven by two continuous flow paths, labor output of the households sector and demands of the households sector supported by other sectors. The mineral resources were massively exploited, and then directly exported to the outside, which could not promote the local development from the inside, but, on the contrary, increase the ecological environment pressure because of the over-exploitation. The eco-efficiency of Pengyang County in 2014 was 68.1%, almost equivalent to the by-level of the national scale at home and abroad ten years ago, mainly because of the lower eco-efficiencies of the service sector and households sector. EEA had the advantage of networking and structuring, could specify the sectors, factors and driven paths, and break through the bottleneck of driving mechanism research of the eco-economic system. EEA had certain adaptability to explore the operational principle and optimal pattern of the regional eco-economic system. Compared

  7. Diagnosis of cognitive impairment and the assessment of driving safety: a survey of Canterbury GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggarth, Petra A

    2013-12-13

    To assess how GPs in Canterbury determine the driving ability of their older patients with cognitive impairment. A 10-item questionnaire was sent to 514 Canterbury GPs via the mail system of three Primary Health Organisations. GPs could either post or fax back responses anonymously and were also able to add their own comments. 185 GPs returned completed questionnaires (36% response rate). Six of 10 items were rated in the middle of the response range, indicating a middling level of agreement. All but three GPs reported using a cognitive screening test and most talked to their patients about the need to plan for driving cessation. GPs did not frequently report referring for on-road driving assessments and many commented they would appreciate a more structured guideline with specific recommendations. There is room for improvement in the amount of information provided to GPs about how to best assess older patients with cognitive impairment for fitness to drive. Recommendations of specific cognitive screens and a flowchart format would be a valuable addition.

  8. Assessment of Driving Safety in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstey, Kaarin J; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Chopra, Sidhant; Price, Jasmine; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    With population aging, drivers with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are increasing; however, there is little evidence available regarding their safety. We aimed to evaluate risk of unsafe on-road driving performance among older adults with MCI. The study was a cross-sectional observational study, set in Canberra, Australia. Participants were non-demented, current drivers (n = 302) aged 65 to 96 years (M = 75.7, SD = 6.18, 40% female) recruited through the community and primary and tertiary care clinics. Measures included a standardized on-road driving test (ORT), a battery of screening measures designed to evaluate older driver safety (UFOV®, DriveSafe, Multi-D), a neurocognitive test battery, and questionnaires on driving history and behavior. Using Winblad criteria, 57 participants were classified as having MCI and 245 as cognitively normal (CN). While the MCI group had a significantly lower overall safety rating on the ORT (5.61 versus 6.05, p = 0.03), there was a wide range of driving safety scores in the CN and MCI groups. The MCI group performed worse than the CN group on the off-road screening tests. The best fitting model of predictors of ORT performance across the combined sample included age, the Multi-D, and DriveSafe, classifying 90.4% of the sample correctly. Adults with MCI exhibit a similar range of driving ability to CN adults, although on average they scored lower on off-road and on-road assessments. Driving specific tests were more strongly associated with safety ratings than traditional neuropsychological tests.

  9. Degraded Impairment of Emotion Recognition in Parkinson's Disease Extends from Negative to Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yao; Tien, Yi-Min; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Hsu, Li-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Because of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impairment in the recognition of negative facial expressions. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether PD patients with more advanced motor problems would show a much greater deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions than a control group and whether impairment of emotion recognition would extend to positive emotions. Twenty-nine PD patients and 29 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Participants were asked to discriminate emotions in Experiment  1 and identify gender in Experiment  2. In Experiment  1, PD patients demonstrated a recognition deficit for negative (sadness and anger) and positive faces. Further analysis showed that only PD patients with high motor dysfunction performed poorly in recognition of happy faces. In Experiment  2, PD patients showed an intact ability for gender identification, and the results eliminated possible abilities in the functions measured in Experiment  2 as alternative explanations for the results of Experiment  1. We concluded that patients' ability to recognize emotions deteriorated as the disease progressed. Recognition of negative emotions was impaired first, and then the impairment extended to positive emotions.

  10. Degraded Impairment of Emotion Recognition in Parkinson’s Disease Extends from Negative to Positive Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD show impairment in the recognition of negative facial expressions. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether PD patients with more advanced motor problems would show a much greater deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions than a control group and whether impairment of emotion recognition would extend to positive emotions. Twenty-nine PD patients and 29 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Participants were asked to discriminate emotions in Experiment  1 and identify gender in Experiment  2. In Experiment  1, PD patients demonstrated a recognition deficit for negative (sadness and anger and positive faces. Further analysis showed that only PD patients with high motor dysfunction performed poorly in recognition of happy faces. In Experiment  2, PD patients showed an intact ability for gender identification, and the results eliminated possible abilities in the functions measured in Experiment  2 as alternative explanations for the results of Experiment  1. We concluded that patients’ ability to recognize emotions deteriorated as the disease progressed. Recognition of negative emotions was impaired first, and then the impairment extended to positive emotions.

  11. Clinical evaluation of semiautonomous smart wheelchair architecture (Drive-Safe System) with visually impaired individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Schmeler, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.

  12. Impaired driving simulation in patients with Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, Esther W.; Bakker, Marije S.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Maurits, Natasha M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.

    Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is considered to be responsible for increased collision rate and impaired driving simulator performance in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) patients. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) patients also frequently report EDS and may also have

  13. Evaluation of responsible beverage service to reduce impaired driving by 21- to 34-year-old drivers : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Young adult drivers 21 to 34 years old are a particularly highrisk : group for impaired-driving-related crashes. Numerous : studies have found that approximately half of intoxicated drivers : had their last drink at a licensed bar or restaurant, and ...

  14. Retraining moderately impaired stroke survivors in driving-related visual attention skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; Devos, Hannes; Verheyden, Geert; Baten, Guido; Kiekens, Carlotte; Feys, Hilde; De Weerdt, Willy

    2010-01-01

    Visual inattention is a major cause of road accidents and is a problem commonly experienced after stroke. This study investigated the effects of 2 training programs on performance in the Useful Field of View (UFOV), a validated test of driving-related visual attention skills. Data from 69 first-ever, moderately impaired stroke survivors who participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to determine the effects of simulator training on driving after stroke were analyzed. In addition to regular interventions at a rehabilitation center, participants received 15 hours of either simulator-based driving-related training or non-computer-based cognitive training over 5 weeks. Total percentage reduction in UFOV and performance in divided and selective attention and speed of processing subtests were documented at 6 to 9 weeks (pretraining), 11 to 15 weeks (posttraining), and 6 months post stroke (follow-up). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) model revealed neither group effects nor significant interaction effects of group with time in the UFOV total score and the 3 subtests. However, there were significant within-group improvements from pre- through posttraining to follow-up for all the UFOV parameters. Post-hoc GEE analysis revealed that most improvement in both groups occurred from pre- to posttraining. Both training programs significantly improved visual attention skills of moderately impaired stroke survivors after 15 hours of training and retention of benefit lasted up to 6 months after stroke. Neither of the training programs was better than the other.

  15. Persistence of addictive disorders in a first-offender driving while impaired population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Sandra C; Stout, Robert; Laxton, Georgia; Skipper, Betty J

    2011-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of alcohol use and other psychiatric disorders in offenders 15 years after a first conviction for driving while impaired with a general population sample. To determine whether high rates of addictive and other psychiatric disorders previously demonstrated in this sample remain disproportionately higher compared with a matched general population sample. Point-in-time cohort study. Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Albuquerque, New Mexico. We interviewed convicted first offenders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. We calculated rates of diagnoses for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women (n = 362) and men (n = 220) adjusting for missing data using multiple imputation and compared psychiatric diagnoses with findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication by sex and Hispanic ethnicity. Eleven percent of non-Hispanic white women and 12.8% of Hispanic women in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with 1.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (comparison) sample. Almost 12% of non-Hispanic white men and 17.5% of Hispanic men in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with to 2.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the comparison sample. These differences were statistically significant. Rates of drug use disorders and nicotine dependence were also elevated compared with the general population sample, while rates of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder were similar. In this sample, high rates of addictive disorders persisted over 10 years among first offenders and greatly exceeded those found in a general population sample.

  16. Effects of different blood alcohol concentrations and post-alcohol impairment on driving behavior and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng

    2010-08-01

    A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.

  17. Clock drawing as a screen for impaired driving in aging and dementia: is it worth the time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Kevin J; Davis, Jennifer D; Papandonatos, George D; Ott, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Clock drawing is recommended by medical and transportation authorities as a screening test for unsafe drivers. The objective of the present study was to assess the usefulness of different clock drawing systems as screening measures of driving performance in 122 healthy and cognitively impaired older drivers. Clock drawing was measured using four different scoring systems. Driving outcomes included global ratings of safety and the error rate on a standardized on-road test. Findings revealed that clock drawing was significantly correlated with the driving score on the road test for each of the scoring systems. However, receiver operator curve analyses showed limited clinical utility for clock drawing as a screening instrument for impaired on-road driving performance with the area under the curve ranging from 0.53 to 0.61. Results from this study indicate that clock drawing has limited utility as a solitary screening measure of on-road driving, even when considering a variety of scoring approaches.

  18. Reducing alcohol-impaired driving crashes through the use of social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Michael L; Mastin, Beth; Miller, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Over the past decade there has been little decrease in the number of alcohol-related driving fatalities. During this time most interventions have been educational or legal. This paper presents the results of a field experiment that used social marketing to introduce a new ride program into three rural communities. Almost all people in the 21-34-year-old target know that they should not drive while impaired, and most agree it is not a good thing to do, but for many the opportunity to behave properly does not exist. The Road Crew program was developed using new product development techniques and implemented by developing broad coalitions within the communities. A key feature of the program included rides to, between, and home from bars in older luxury vehicles. Results showed a significant shift in riding/driving behavior, especially among 21-34-year olds, a projected 17% decline in alcohol-related crashes in the first year, no increase in drinking behavior, and large savings between the reactive cost of cleaning up after a crash and the proactive cost of avoiding a crash. Programs have become self-sustaining based on fares and tavern contributions, and have become part of the life style in the treatment communities.

  19. Visually impaired drivers who use bioptic telescopes: self-assessed driving skills and agreement with on-road driving evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Elgin, Jennifer; Wood, Joanne M

    2014-01-15

    To compare self-assessed driving habits and skills of licensed drivers with central visual loss who use bioptic telescopes to those of age-matched normally sighted drivers, and to examine the association between bioptic drivers' impressions of the quality of their driving and ratings by a "backseat" evaluator. Participants were licensed bioptic drivers (n = 23) and age-matched normally sighted drivers (n = 23). A questionnaire was administered addressing driving difficulty, space, quality, exposure, and, for bioptic drivers, whether the telescope was helpful in on-road situations. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were assessed. Information on ocular diagnosis, telescope characteristics, and bioptic driving experience was collected from the medical record or in interview. On-road driving performance in regular traffic conditions was rated independently by two evaluators. Like normally sighted drivers, bioptic drivers reported no or little difficulty in many driving situations (e.g., left turns, rush hour), but reported more difficulty under poor visibility conditions and in unfamiliar areas (P Driving exposure was reduced in bioptic drivers (driving 250 miles per week on average vs. 410 miles per week for normally sighted drivers, P = 0.02), but driving space was similar to that of normally sighted drivers (P = 0.29). All but one bioptic driver used the telescope in at least one driving task, and 56% used the telescope in three or more tasks. Bioptic drivers' judgments about the quality of their driving were very similar to backseat evaluators' ratings. Bioptic drivers show insight into the overall quality of their driving and areas in which they experience driving difficulty. They report using the bioptic telescope while driving, contrary to previous claims that it is primarily used to pass the vision screening test at licensure.

  20. The sensitivity of laboratory tests assessing driving related skills to dose-related impairment of alcohol: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender differences and demographic influences in perceived concern for driver safety and support for impaired driving countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Jennifer; Mann, Robert E; Wickens, Christine M; Boase, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Driving safety, impaired driving, and legislation to address these concerns remain important issues. It is imperative countermeasures be targeted toward the most appropriate groups. This paper explores the potential relationship between gender and driving attitudes toward safety issues and impaired-driving countermeasures. The data are from the 2007 Impaired Driving Survey commissioned by Transport Canada and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Canada. The survey is a, stratified by region, telephone survey of 1,514 Canadian drivers 18years of age and older with a valid driver's license who had driven within the past 30days. The findings illustrate a consistent impact of gender on these issues. Other variables were also identified as relevant factors although less consistently. Current findings suggest that strategies for building support for interventions, or for changing risk perception/concern for risky driving behaviors should be tailored by gender to maximize the potential for behavior change. This information may assist program and policy developers through the identification of more or less receptive target groups. Future research directions are also presented. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contributions of physical and cognitive impairments to self-reported driving difficulty in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-08-15

    Cross-sectional. To conduct a preliminary analysis of the physical, cognitive, and psychological domains contributing to self-reported driving difficulty after adjusting for neck pain, dizziness, and relevant demographics in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) using hierarchical regression modeling. Pain is a risk factor for car crashes, and dizziness may affect fitness to drive. Both symptoms are common in chronic WAD and difficulty driving is a common complaint in this group. Chronic WAD is often accompanied by physical, cognitive, and psychological impairments. These impairments may contribute to self-reported driving difficulty beyond neck pain, dizziness, and relevant demographics. Forty individuals with chronic WAD participated. Dependent variables were the magnitude of self-reported driving difficulty assessed in the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of the Neck Pain Driving Index. Three models were developed to assess the contributions of independent variables (physical, cognitive, and psychological domains) to each of the 3 dependent variables after adjusting for neck pain intensity, dizziness, and driving demographics. The measures included were: physical domain-range and maximum speed of head rotation, performances during gaze stability, eye-head coordination, and visual dependency tests; cognitive domain-self-reported cognitive symptoms including fatigue and the trail making tests; and psychological domain-general stress, traumatic stress, depression, and fear of neck movements and driving. Symptom duration was relevant to driving difficulty in the strategic and tactical levels. The cognitive domain increased statistical power to estimate the strategic and operational levels (P < 0.1) beyond other contributors. The physical domain increased statistical power to estimate the tactical level (P < 0.1) beyond other contributors. Physical and cognitive impairments independently contributed to self-reported driving difficulty in chronic WAD

  3. Optimal control strategy design for extending all-electric driving capability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, S.S [Concordia Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, P.D Ziogas Power Electronics Laboratory

    2007-07-01

    The high voltage energy storage system in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is usually a rechargeable type that service a dual purpose, notably to supplement the power delivered by the internal combustion engine, and to provide partial propulsion energy from an off-board source of electricity. The energy storage devices in electric vehicles typically improve vehicle efficiency through engine downsizing and by recapturing braking energy. However, since PHEVs have the ability to recharge their energy storage systems directly from the power grid, the periods of all-electric operation can be extended, thereby reducing the dependence on the internal combustion engine. This is particularly useful in city driving conditions. Developers of PHEV technology are faced with the challenge of choosing the appropriate energy storage battery in order to improve the all-electric drive range. In this study, control strategies were modeled for specific driving load conditions using the Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR) software. This paper presented specific control algorithms for PHEV operation for various city driving loads. The optimal design strategy considered the improvement of critical energy storage parameters, overall drive train efficiency, and vehicle performance characteristics. Future trends in the design and development of PHEV drive trains were also presented. 13 figs.

  4. Drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse: quantification of cocaine and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Amparo; Sánchez, Marta; Barberia, Eneko; Barbal, Maria; Marrón, M Teresa; Mora, Agustí

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in oral fluid as a biological matrix has significantly increased, particularly for detecting driving under the influence of drugs. In this study, the concentration of cocaine and its relationship with clinical symptoms in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs was evaluated. A total of 154 samples of oral fluid, which tested positive for cocaine in previous immunoassay screening, Cozart Drug Detector System, were confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In Catalonia, during 2007-2010, there were 1791 samples positive for cocaine among a total of 3468 samples taken from drivers who tested positive for any drug of abuse. The evaluation of clinical symptoms was through a questionnaire that was filled in by the police officers who collected the samples. The mean concentration of cocaine was 4.11 mg/l and median concentration was 0.38 mg/l (range 0.01-345.64 mg/l). Clinical impairment symptoms such as motor coordination, walking, speech, mood and state of pupils were not significant. The testing of oral fluids presents fewer ethical problems than blood or urine.

  5. The Alabama VIP older driver study rationale and design: examining the relationship between vision impairment and driving using naturalistic driving techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Antin, Jonathan F; Wood, Joanne M; Elgin, Jennifer

    2018-02-07

    Older drivers aged ≥70 years old have among the highest rates of motor vehicle collisions (MVC) compared to other age groups. Driving is a highly visual task, and older adults have a high prevalence of vision impairment compared to other ages. Most studies addressing visual risk factors for MVCs by older drivers utilize vehicle accident reports as the primary outcome, an approach with several methodological limitations. Naturalistic driving research methods overcome these challenges and involve installing a high-tech, unobtrusive data acquisition system (DAS) in an older driver's own vehicle. The DAS continuously records multi-channel video of driver and roadway, sensor-based kinematics, GPS location, and presence of nearby objects in front of the vehicle, providing an objective measure of driving exposure. In this naturalistic driving study, the purpose is to examine the relationship between vision and crashes and near-crashes, lane-keeping, turning at intersections, driving performance during secondary tasks demands, and the role of front-seat passengers. An additional aim is to compare results of the on-road driving evaluation by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist to objective indicators of driving performance derived from the naturalistic data. Drivers ≥70 years old are recruited from ophthalmology clinics and a previous population-based study of older drivers, with the goal of recruiting persons with wide ranging visual function. Target samples size is 195 drivers. At a baseline visit, the DAS is installed in the participant's vehicle and a battery of health and functional assessments are administered to the driver including visual-sensory and visual-cognitive tests. The DAS remains installed in the vehicle for six months while the participant goes about his/her normal driving with no imposed study restrictions. After six months, the driver returns for DAS de-installation, repeat vision testing, and an on-road driving evaluation by a certified

  6. Youth Driving without Impairment. Report on the Youth Impaired Driving Public Hearings (Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Fort Worth, Texas; Seattle, Washington). A Community Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission against Drunk Driving, Washington, DC.

    The testimony heard by the National Commission against Drunk Driving on how to prevent alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes, which constitute the leading cause of death for youth of driving age, resulted in some of the recommendations in this report. The document consists of an executive summary, a preface, an explanation of the Youth Impaired…

  7. How much can you drink before driving? The influence of riding with impaired adults and peers on the driving behaviors of urban and rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Foran, Kathleen; Grove-White, Aidan

    2008-04-01

    Following an ecological model to specify risks for impaired driving, we assessed the effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults and peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on the youths' own driving after drinking or using cannabis. Participants were 2594 students in grades 10 and 12 (mean age = 16 years and 2 months; 50% girls) from public high schools in urban (994) and rural communities (1600) on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada; 1192 of these were new drivers with restricted licenses. Self-report data were collected in anonymous questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults or peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on youth driving. Youth driving risk behaviors were associated independently with their own high-risk attitudes and experiences riding with peers who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. However, risks were highest for the youth who also report more frequent experiences of riding with adults who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. Prevention efforts should be expanded to include the adults and peers who are role models for new drivers and to increase youths' awareness of their own responsibilities for their personal safety as passengers.

  8. Driving While Impaired (DWI) Intervention Service Provider Orientations: The Scales of the DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common…

  9. An Attempt to Extend Taylor-Spence Drive Theory to Vocational Choice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    Predictions were made from Taylor-Spence drive theory about vocational choice behavior. Although the results did not specifically support the predictions made from Taylor-Spence theory, they indicated the potential usefulness of certain concepts in this theory and suggested several lines of inquiry for further research. (Author)

  10. . Effects of extended shutdown on the control rod drive mechanism of nigeria research reactor-1(NIRR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I; Mati, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The control rod drive mechanism of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 is being driven by a servo motor, type SDE-45 through a mechanical gear system. The servo motor ensures the position control of the control rod, and hence the stability of the neutron-flux of the nuclear research reactor. The control rod drive mechanism assembly is mounted on top of the reactor vessel, about 0.6m above 30m 3 volume of reactor pool water. The top of the pool is covered with a Perspex material to protect the water in the pool from environmental contamination and to reduce evaporation. Although most of the materials in the control rod drive mechanism assembly are made of stainless steel, the servo motor however contains corrodible materials. The paper reveals a practical experience of failure of the control rod drive mechanism as a result of corrosion growth between the rotor of the servo motor and its stator windings, due to an extended shutdown of the facility.

  11. Cell-phone use diminishes self-awareness of impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Biondi, Francesco; Behrends, Arwen A; Moore, Shannon M

    2016-04-01

    Multitasking diminishes the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation and self-knowledge. Participants drove in a simulator while either talking or not talking on a hands-free cell phone. Following previous research, participants who talked on a cell phone made more serious driving errors than control participants who did not use a phone while driving. Control participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and general ability to drive safely while distracted were negatively correlated with the actual number of errors made when they were driving. By contrast, cell-phone participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and confidence in their driving abilities were uncorrelated with their actual errors. Thus, talking on a cell phone not only diminished the safeness of participants' driving, it diminished their awareness of the safeness of their driving.

  12. Analysis of Driving Factors for Extended Producer Responsibility by Using Interpretative Structure Modelling (ISM and Analytic Network Process (ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Zheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of an efficient reverse supply chain is important, especially in the electronics industry, considering the environmental and resource pressures worldwide. Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR, an important environmental policy approach, has been adopted extensively in various countries, and the effectiveness of its implementation has been proven through practical application. However, the establishment and development of EPR are lacking in most developing countries where collection and recycling systems are underdeveloped. This study addresses this problem by exploring the hierarchical relationship among the driving factors of EPR in the electronics industry in China and by identifying and ranking the factors that are critical in EPR implementation. As important managerial conclusions, research results show that EPR-related laws and regulations, the consciousness of senior executives, and corporate image are the three most important driving factors of EPR implementation.

  13. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  14. Prerequisites and driving forces behind an extended working life among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovbrandt, Pia; Håkansson, Carita; Albin, Maria; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2017-11-28

    Reforms are changing pension systems in many European countries, in order to both restrict early retirement and force people to extend their working life. From occupational therapy and occupational science perspectives, studies focusing on aspects of working life that motivate the older worker is urgent. The aim was to describe incentives behind an extended working life among people over age 65. Focus group methodology was used, with participants ages 66-71, from varying work fields: construction and technical companies and the municipal elderly care sector. Work was considered important and valuable to the degree of how challenging work was, the possibilities for inclusion in a team of colleagues and the chances for better personal finances. Amongst all, the participants expressed a feeling of a strengthened identity by being challenged and having the opportunity to manage working tasks. The finding showed the actual reasons behind an extended working life among older workers. However, a risk of rising social inequity may appear with increased working life if older people are forced to extend their working life due to a difficult financial situation as a pensioner. A variety of retirement options and initiatives in order to support older workers are justified.

  15. Compensatory viewing training improves practical fitness to drive of subjects with impaired vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, Aart C.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Coeckelbergh, Tanja R.M.; Tant, Mark L.M.; Cornelissen, Frans W.; Bredewoud, Ruud A.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In many countries strict legal requirements for obtaining a driver’s license are in effect for visual acuity and visual field.We studied the relationship between these characteristics and driving safety and driving proficiency in an on-the-road test of practical fitness to drive in subjects with

  16. Canadian drivers' attitudes regarding preventative responses to driving while impaired by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlaar, Ward; Nadeau, Louise; McKiernan, Anna; Hing, Marisela M; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    In many jurisdictions, a risk assessment following a first driving while impaired (DWI) offence is used to guide administrative decision making regarding driver relicensing. Decision error in this process has important consequences for public security on one hand, and the social and economic well being of drivers on the other. Decision theory posits that consideration of the costs and benefits of decision error is needed, and in the public health context, this should include community attitudes. The objective of the present study was to clarify whether Canadians prefer decision error that: i) better protects the public (i.e., false positives); or ii) better protects the offender (i.e., false negatives). A random sample of male and female adult drivers (N=1213) from the five most populated regions of Canada was surveyed on drivers' preference for a protection of the public approach versus a protection of DWI drivers approach in resolving assessment decision error, and the relative value (i.e., value ratio) they imparted to both approaches. The role of region, sex and age on drivers' value ratio were also appraised. Seventy percent of Canadian drivers preferred a protection of the public from DWI approach, with the overall relative ratio given to this preference, compared to the alternative protection of the driver approach, being 3:1. Females expressed a significantly higher value ratio (M=3.4, SD=3.5) than males (M=3.0, SD=3.4), pvalue ratios, R 2 (adj.)=0.014, pAccounting for community attitudes concerning DWI prevention and the individual differences that influence them could contribute to more informed, coherent and effective regional policies and prevention program development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnic variation in the prevalence of visual impairment in people attending diabetic retinopathy screening in the United Kingdom (DRIVE UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gulliford, Martin C; Dodhia, Hiten; Mann, Samantha; Nagi, Dinesh; Evans, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom). The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK) Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London) or August 2009 (West Yorkshire) were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks ("Black/African/Caribbean/Black British") and South Asians ("Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent"). We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a) loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population. Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331 individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 3.5%) and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%). Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively) compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%). Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire. Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in the minority ethnic groups in the UK.

  18. Extended Kalman Filter Based Sliding Mode Control of Parallel-Connected Two Five-Phase PMSM Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tounsi Kamel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents sliding mode control of sensor-less parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs fed by a single five-leg inverter. For both machines, the rotor speeds and rotor positions as well as load torques are estimated by using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF scheme. Fully decoupled control of both machines is possible via an appropriate phase transposition while connecting the stator windings parallel and employing proposed speed sensor-less method. In the resulting parallel-connected two-machine drive, the independent control of each machine in the group is achieved by controlling the stator currents and speed of each machine under vector control consideration. The effectiveness of the proposed Extended Kalman Filter in conjunction with the sliding mode control is confirmed through application of different load torques for wide speed range operation. Comparison between sliding mode control and PI control of the proposed two-motor drive is provided. The speed response shows a short rise time, an overshoot during reverse operation and settling times is 0.075 s when PI control is used. The speed response obtained by SMC is without overshoot and follows its reference and settling time is 0.028 s. Simulation results confirm that, in transient periods, sliding mode controller remarkably outperforms its counterpart PI controller.

  19. Driving with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Cognitive Test Performance and Proxy Report of Daily Life Function in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Ethnic variation in the prevalence of visual impairment in people attending diabetic retinopathy screening in the United Kingdom (DRIVE UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Sivaprasad

    Full Text Available To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom.The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London or August 2009 (West Yorkshire were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks ("Black/African/Caribbean/Black British" and South Asians ("Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent". We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately <6/9 (b visual impairment (<6/12 and (c severe visual impairment (<6/60, standardising the prevalence of visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population.Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331 individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI 3.2% to 3.5% and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%. Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%. Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire.Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in the minority ethnic groups in the UK.

  1. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Results from a national survey of Crown prosecutors and defense counsel on impaired driving in Canada: a "System Improvements" perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robyn; Vanlaar, Ward; Simpson, Herb; Boase, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings from a study designed to examine the legal process in Canada as it applies to alcohol-impaired driving from the point of view of Crown prosecutors and defense counsel, and to identify evidentiary or procedural factors that may impact the legal process, the rights of the accused, and interactions of all parts in the legal process. The data in this study were collected by means of a survey that was mailed out to the population of Crown prosecutors and defense counsel in Canada. In total, 765 prosecutors and 270 defense lawyers or an estimated 33% of all Canadian prosecutors and 15% of defense lawyers completed and returned the questionnaire. The "systems improvement" paradigm was used to interpret the findings and draw conclusions. Such an approach acknowledges the importance of the context in which countermeasures are implemented and delivered and the structures or entities used to deliver countermeasures to a designated target group. Results on type of charges and breath alcohol concentration, caseload, case outcomes, case preparation time, conviction rate at trial and overall conviction rate, reasons for acquittals and time to resolve cases are described. The findings from this national survey suggest that there are important challenges within the criminal justice system that impede the effective and efficient processing of impaired driving cases. Some of these challenges occur as a function of practices and policies, while others occur as a function of legislation. This study illustrates that a "system improvements" approach that acknowledges the importance of all elements of the criminal justice system and the interaction between those elements, can be beneficial in overcoming the alcohol-impaired driving problem.

  3. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.

  4. Consequences of cognitive impairments following traumatic brain injury: Pilot study on visual exploration while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleville-Pennel, Isabelle; Pothier, Johanna; Hoc, Jean-Michel; Mathé, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to assess the visual exploration of a person suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that visual exploration could be modified as a result of attentional or executive function deficits that are often observed following brain injury. This study compared an analysis of eyes movements while driving with data from neuropsychological tests. Five participants suffering from TBI and six control participants took part in this study. All had good driving experience. They were invited to drive on a fixed-base driving simulator. Eye fixations were recorded using an eye tracker. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess attention, working memory, rapidity of information processing and executive functions. Participants with TBI showed a reduction in the variety of the visual zones explored and a reduction of the distance of exploration. Moreover, neuropsychological evaluation indicates that there were difficulties in terms of divided attention, anticipation and planning. There is a complementarity of the information obtained. Tests give information about cognitive deficiencies but not about their translation into a dynamic situation. Conversely, visual exploration provides information about the dynamic with which information is picked up in the environment but not about the cognitive processes involved.

  5. An assessment of driving fitness in patients with visual impairment to understand the elevated risk of motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu-Sanuki, Shiho; Iwase, Aiko; Araie, Makoto; Aoki, Yuki; Hara, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Toru; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi; Sanuki, Tomoyuki; Itoh, Makoto

    2015-02-27

    To assess the driving fitness of patients with glaucoma by identifying specific areas and degrees of visual field impairment that threaten safe driving. Case-control study. This prospective study included 36 patients with advanced glaucoma, defined as Humphrey field analyzer (HFA; 24-2 SITA standard program) measurements of mean deviation in both eyes of worse than -12 dB, and 36 age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects. All participants underwent testing in a novel driving simulator (DS) system. Participants were recruited between September 2010 and January 2012. The number of collisions with simulated hazards and braking response time in 14 DS scenarios was recorded. Monocular HFA 24-2 test results from both eyes were merged to calculate the binocular integrated visual field (IVF). The position of the IVF subfields in which the collision-involved patients had lower sensitivity than the collision-uninvolved patients was compared with the track of the hazard. The cut-off value to predict an elevated risk of collisions was determined, as were its sensitivity and specificity, with the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve. Patients with advanced glaucoma were involved in a significantly higher number of collisions in the DS than the age-matched and driving exposure time-matched normal subjects (119 vs 40, respectively, p<0.0001), especially in four specific DS scenarios. In these four scenarios, IVF sensitivity was significantly lower in the collision-involved patients than in the collision-uninvolved patients in subfields on or near the track of the simulated hazard (p<0.05). The subfields with the largest AUROC curve had values ranging from 0.72 to 0.91 and were located in the paracentral visual field just below the horizontal. Our novel DS system effectively assessed visual impairment, showing that simulators may have future potential in educating patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  6. Predicting intentions not to "drink and drive" using an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Inger Synnøve; Rise, Jostein

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) extended with moral norm and descriptive norm is able to predict intentions not to drink and drive. We also wanted to examine whether different processes guide intentions among young drivers (35 years and below) versus drivers aged above 35 years, and women's versus men's intentions. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 4000 people in Norway aged between 18 and 70 years, and were completed by 1025 respondents. Analyses were conducted among those who had a driver's licence and who reported drinking at least 1-2 times per year, resulting in a sample of 879 individuals (46.6% were men, 30.3% were 35 years and younger, M=43.9 years). The results showed that the TPB variables explained 10% of the variance in intentions in the sample as a whole, and that the extension variables added 2% to the explained variance after controlling for the impact of the TPB components. Perceived behavioural control was the strongest predictor of intentions (β=0.24, pdrive will be outlined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Extending Use of the NRT to Preschool-Aged Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B.; Goffman, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) in a sample of four- and five-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI), and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. Method The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development (TD). Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Results Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. Conclusions The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of four- and five-year-olds. PMID:20421612

  8. Extending use of the NRT to preschool-age children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevy, Patricia; Weil, Lisa Wisman; Leonard, Laurence B; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998) using a sample of 4- and 5-year-olds with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and to evaluate its feasibility for use in universal screening. The NRT was administered to 29 children with SLI and 47 age-matched children with typical development. Diagnostic accuracy was computed using alternative scoring methods, which treated out-of-inventory phonemes either as errors or as unscorable. To estimate accuracy in a universal screening context, the probability of identifying a child at risk for language impairment was computed using the prevalence of SLI (7%) as the base rate. Diagnostic accuracy was acceptable using both scoring methods. The resulting likelihood ratios (LR+ = 22.66, 19.43; LR- = .05, .05) were similar to those reported for older children. The probability of accurate detection of children with SLI in the general population increased from 7% to 61%. However, this value suggests that many false positives could be expected. The NRT yielded results similar to those reported for older children. However, despite its strengths, the NRT is not sufficient for screening the general population of 4- and 5-year-olds.

  9. Cognitive function and unsafe driving acts during an on-road test among community-dwelling older adults with cognitive impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Ryo; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Nakakubo, Sho; Makino, Keitaro; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-19

    To examine the relationship between cognitive function and unsafe driving acts among community-dwelling older adults with cognitive impairments. Participants (n = 160) were older residents of Obu, Japan, aged ≥65 years with cognitive impairments. They regularly drove and were assessed for the number of unsafe driving acts without adequate verification during an on-road test. We also evaluated cognitive function (attention, executive function and processing speed). Other examined variables included demographics, driving characteristics and visual condition. Participants were classified into two groups according to the number of unsafe driving acts as follows: high group (≥4 unsafe driving acts) and low group (≤3 unsafe driving acts). The high group participants were older in age (P age (r = 0.396, P age group. Processing speed was associated with unsafe driving acts that became worse with increasing age. Future study will be required to longitudinally examine the influence of processing speed on traffic accidents for those with cognitive impairments. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Self-rated driving habits among older adults with clinically-defined mild cognitive impairment, clinically-defined dementia, and normal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Melissa L; Edwards, Jerri D; Bannon, Yvonne

    2013-12-01

    Older adults with clinically-defined dementia may report reducing their driving more than cognitively normal controls. However, it is unclear how these groups compare to individuals with clinically-defined mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in terms of driving behaviors. The current study investigated self-reported driving habits among adults age 60 and older with clinical MCI (n=41), clinical mild dementia (n=40), and normal cognition (n=43). Participants reported their driving status, driving frequency (days per week), and how often they avoided accessing the community, making left turns, driving at night, driving in unfamiliar areas, driving on high-traffic roads, and driving in bad weather. After adjusting for education, a MANCOVA revealed that participants with MCI and dementia avoided unfamiliar areas and high-traffic roads significantly more than normal participants. Participants with dementia also avoided left turns and accessing the community more than those with normal cognition and MCI (pdriving variables did not significantly differ between groups. Thus, older adults with clinically-defined MCI, as well as those with dementia, avoided some complex driving situations more than cognitively intact adults. However, all diagnostic groups had similar rates of driving cessation and frequency. Future research should examine the safety implications of such findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intentions and willingness to drive while drowsy among university students: An application of an extended theory of planned behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clark J; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Beck, Kenneth H

    2016-08-01

    A web-based questionnaire was used to assess the utility of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to predict intentions and willingness to engage in drowsy driving in a sample of 450 university students. Those students who reported more favorable attitudes and subjective norm and greater perceived control and willingness in relation to drowsy driving behavior were more likely to report stronger intentions to engage in drowsy driving behavior. Augmenting the TPB constructs with the PWM construct of willingness significantly explained up to an additional 8 percent of the variance in drowsy driving intention. Perceived behavioral control and willingness were consistently the strongest predictors of drowsy driving intention in the augmented model, which together with the control (personal) variables explained up to 70 percent of the variance in intention. Thus, the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Prototype Willingness Model may be useful for understanding motivational influences on drowsy driving behavior in young people and present promising theoretical frameworks for designing more effective interventions against drowsy driving in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, Wendy M; Kuypers, Kim P C; Theunissen, Eef L; Surinx, Anke; Blankespoor, Roos J; Skopp, Gisela; Jeffery, Wayne K; Walls, H Chip; van Leeuwen, Cees J; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2012-10-01

    The acute and chronic effects of dronabinol [medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] on actual driving performance and the Standard Field Sobriety Test (SFST) were assessed. It was hypothesized that occasional users would be impaired on these tests and that heavy users would show less impairment due to tolerance. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, three-way cross-over study. Twelve occasional and 12 heavy cannabis users (14 males/10 females) received single doses of placebo, 10 and 20 mg dronabinol. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP; i.e. weaving) is the primary measure of road-tracking control. Time to speed adaptation (TSA) is the primary reaction-time measure in the car-following test. Percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and subjective high on a visual analogue scale were secondary measures. Superiority tests showed that SDLP (P = 0.008) and TSA (P = 0.011) increased after dronabinol in occasional users. Equivalence tests demonstrated that dronabinol-induced increments in SDLP were bigger than impairment associated with BAC of 0.5 mg/ml in occasional and heavy users, although the magnitude of driving impairment was generally less in heavy users. The SFST did not discriminate between conditions. Levels of subjective high were comparable in occasional and heavy users. Dronabinol (medicinal tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs driving performance in occasional and heavy users in a dose-dependent way, but to a lesser degree in heavy users due possibly to tolerance. The Standard Field Sobriety Test is not sensitive to clinically relevant driving impairment caused by oral tetrahydrocannabinol. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairments Show Less Driving Errors after a Multiple Sessions Simulator Training Program but Do Not Exhibit Long Term Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Normand; Simoneau, Martin; Hudon, Lisa; Germain Robitaille, Mathieu; Moszkowicz, Thierry; Laurendeau, Denis; Bherer, Louis; Duchesne, Simon; Hudon, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The driving performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is suboptimal when compared to healthy older adults. It is expected that the driving will worsen with the progression of the cognitive decline and thus, whether or not these individuals should continue to drive is a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to provide support to the claim that individuals with MCI can benefit from a training program and improve their overall driving performance in a driving simulator. Fifteen older drivers with MCI participated in five training sessions in a simulator (over a 21-day period) and in a 6-month recall session. During training, they received automated auditory feedback on their performance when an error was noted about various maneuvers known to be suboptimal in MCI individuals (for instance, weaving, omitting to indicate a lane change, to verify a blind spot, or to engage in a visual search before crossing an intersection). The number of errors was compiled for eight different maneuvers for all sessions. For the initial five sessions, a gradual and significant decrease in the number of errors was observed, indicating learning and safer driving. The level of performance, however, was not maintained at the 6-month recall session. Nevertheless, the initial learning observed opens up possibilities to undertake more regular interventions to maintain driving skills and safe driving in MCI individuals.

  15. mTOR drives cerebral blood flow and memory deficits in LDLR-/- mice modeling atherosclerosis and vascular cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahrling, Jordan B; Lin, Ai-Ling; DeRosa, Nicholas; Hussong, Stacy A; Van Skike, Candice E; Girotti, Milena; Javors, Martin; Zhao, Qingwei; Maslin, Leigh Ann; Asmis, Reto; Galvan, Veronica

    2018-01-01

    We recently showed that mTOR attenuation blocks progression and abrogates established cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse models. These outcomes were associated with the restoration of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and brain vascular density (BVD) resulting from relief of mTOR inhibition of NO release. Recent reports suggested a role of mTOR in atherosclerosis. Because mTOR drives aging and vascular dysfunction is a universal feature of aging, we hypothesized that mTOR may contribute to brain vascular and cognitive dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis. We measured CBF, BVD, cognitive function, markers of inflammation, and parameters of cardiovascular disease in LDLR -/- mice fed maintenance or high-fat diet ± rapamycin. Cardiovascular pathologies were proportional to severity of brain vascular dysfunction. Aortic atheromas were reduced, CBF and BVD were restored, and cognitive dysfunction was attenuated potentially through reduction in systemic and brain inflammation following chronic mTOR attenuation. Our studies suggest that mTOR regulates vascular integrity and function and that mTOR attenuation may restore neurovascular function and cardiovascular health. Together with our previous studies in AD models, our data suggest mTOR-driven vascular damage may be a mechanism shared by age-associated neurological diseases. Therefore, mTOR attenuation may have promise for treatment of cognitive impairment in atherosclerosis.

  16. A systematic review: effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako

    2015-09-04

    Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.

  17. Sex differences in DNA methylation and expression in zebrafish brain: a test of an extended 'male sex drive' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Lagisz, Malgorzata; Rodger, Euan J; Zhen, Li; Stockwell, Peter A; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Horsfield, Julia A; Jeyakani, Justin; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ozaki, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2016-09-30

    The sex drive hypothesis predicts that stronger selection on male traits has resulted in masculinization of the genome. Here we test whether such masculinizing effects can be detected at the level of the transcriptome and methylome in the adult zebrafish brain. Although methylation is globally similar, we identified 914 specific differentially methylated CpGs (DMCs) between males and females (435 were hypermethylated and 479 were hypomethylated in males compared to females). These DMCs were prevalent in gene body, intergenic regions and CpG island shores. We also discovered 15 distinct CpG clusters with striking sex-specific DNA methylation differences. In contrast, at transcriptome level, more female-biased genes than male-biased genes were expressed, giving little support for the male sex drive hypothesis. Our study provides genome-wide methylome and transcriptome assessment and sheds light on sex-specific epigenetic patterns and in zebrafish for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. What drives the carbon mitigation in Chinese commercial building sector? Evidence from decomposing an extended Kaya identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minda; Cai, Weiguang

    2018-09-01

    Energy efficiency in the building sector is expected to contribute >50% to the nationwide carbon mitigation efforts for achieving China's carbon emission peak in 2030, and carbon mitigation in Chinese commercial buildings (CMCCB) is an indicator of this effort. However, the CMCCB assessment has faced the challenge of ineffective and inadequate approaches; therefore, we have followed a different approach. Using the China Database of Building Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions as our data source, our study is the first to employ the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) to decompose five driving forces from the Kaya identity of Chinese commercial building carbon emissions (CCBCE) to assess the CMCCB values in 2001-2015. The results of our study indicated that: (1) Only two driving forces (i.e., the reciprocal of GDP per capita of Tertiary Industry in China and the CCBCE intensity) contributed negatively re m i to CCBCE during 2001-2015, and the quantified negative contributions denoted the CMCCB values. Specifically, the CMCCB values in 2001-2005, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015 were 123.96, 252.83, and 249.07 MtCO 2 , respectively. (2) The data quality control involving the CMCCB values proved the reliability of our CMCCB assessment model, and the universal applicability of this model was also confirmed. (3) The substantial achievements of the energy efficiency project in the Chinese commercial building sector were the root cause of the rapidly growing CMCCB. Overall, we believe that our model successfully bridges the research gap of the nationwide CMCCB assessment and that the proposed model is also suitable either at the provincial level or in different building climate zones in China. Meanwhile, a global-level assessment of the carbon mitigation in the commercial building sector is feasible through applying our model. Furthermore, we consider our contribution as constituting significant guidance for developing the building energy efficiency strategy in China in the

  19. What are the causes and consequences of impaired sleep quality during and following extended hospitalisation amongst older adults?

    OpenAIRE

    AISLINN FELICITY LALOR

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is essential to everyone's health and wellbeing. Between 30-40% of people experience impaired sleep and is most common in older adults. Older adults also experience a higher number of hospitalisations in comparison to any other age group. This thesis aimed to investigate the causes and consequences of impaired sleep quality for older adults during and following hospital admission. Over 80% of older adults with self-reported poor sleep do not discuss it with any health professionals. Thi...

  20. Driving under the influence of drugs -- evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Moeller, Manfred R

    2005-09-10

    A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling/testing device (Dräger DrugTest System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms. Analysis for cannabinoids, amphetamine and its derivatives, opiates and cocaine was performed in urine using the Mahsan Kombi/DOA4-test, in serum using immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation and in oral fluid by GC-MS. Police and medical officer observations of impairment symptoms were rated and evaluated using a threshold value for the classification of driving inability. Accuracy in correlating drug detection in oral fluid and serum were >90% for all substances and also >90% in urine and serum except for THC (71.0%). Of the cases with oral fluid positive for any drug 97.1% of corresponding serum samples were also positive for at least one drug; of drug-positive urine samples this were only 82.4%. In 119 of 146 cases, impairment symptoms above threshold were observed (81.5%). Of the cases with drugs detected in serum, 19.1% appeared not impaired which were the same with drug-positive oral fluid while more persons with drug-positive urine samples appeared uninfluenced (32.7%). The data demonstrate that oral fluid is superior to urine in correlating with serum analytical data and impairment symptoms of drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse.

  1. Driving difficulties of brain-injured drivers in reaction to high-crash-risk simulated road events: a question of impaired divided attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Andrée-Ann; Stinchcombe, Arne; Gagnon, Sylvain; Marshall, Shawn; Hing, Malcolm Man-Son; Finestone, Hillel

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the role of impaired divided attention and speed of processing in traumatic brain injury (TBI) drivers in high-crash-risk simulated road events. A total of 17 TBI drivers and 16 healthy participants were exposed to four challenging simulated roadway events to which behavioral reactions were recorded. Participants were also asked to perform a dual task during portions of the driving task, and TBI individuals were administered standard measures of divided attention and reaction time. Results indicated that the TBI group crashed significantly more than controls (p < .05) and that dual-task performance correlated significantly with crash rate (r = .58, p = .05).

  2. Working memory impairment in probands with schizoaffective disorder and first degree relatives of schizophrenia probands extend beyond deficits predicted by generalized neuropsychological impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristian Hill, S; Buchholz, Alison; Amsbaugh, Hayley; Reilly, James L; Rubin, Leah H; Gold, James M; Keefe, Richard S E; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A

    2015-08-01

    Working memory impairment is well established in psychotic disorders. However, the relative magnitude, diagnostic specificity, familiality pattern, and degree of independence from generalized cognitive deficits across psychotic disorders remain unclear. Participants from the Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) study included probands with schizophrenia (N=289), psychotic bipolar disorder (N=227), schizoaffective disorder (N=165), their first-degree relatives (N=315, N=259, N=193, respectively), and healthy controls (N=289). All were administered the WMS-III Spatial Span working memory test and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) battery. All proband groups displayed significant deficits for both forward and backward span compared to controls. However, after covarying for generalized cognitive impairments (BACS composite), all proband groups showed a 74% or greater effect size reduction with only schizoaffective probands showing residual backward span deficits compared to controls. Significant familiality was seen in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees. In relatives, both forward and backward span deficits were again attenuated after covarying BACS scores and residual backward span deficits were seen in relatives of schizophrenia patients. Overall, both probands and relatives showed a similar pattern of robust working memory deficits that were largely attenuated when controlling for generalized cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of motivational impairment: 12-month follow-up of the randomized-controlled trial on extended early intervention for first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W C; Kwong, V W Y; Chan, G H K; Jim, O T T; Lau, E S K; Hui, C L M; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Chen, E Y H

    2017-03-01

    Amotivation is prevalent in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and is a major determinant of functional outcome. Prediction of amotivation in the early stage of psychosis, however, is under-studied. We aimed to prospectively examine predictors of amotivation in FEP patients in a randomized-controlled trial comparing a 1-year extension of early intervention (Extended EI, 3-year EI) with step-down psychiatric care (SC, 2-year EI). One hundred sixty Chinese patents were recruited from a specialized EI program for FEP in Hong Kong after they have completed this 2-year EI service, randomly allocated to Extended EI or SC, and followed up for 12 months. Assessments on premorbid adjustment, onset profiles, baseline symptom severity and treatment characteristics were conducted. Data analysis was based on 156 subjects who completed follow-up assessments. Amotivation at 12-month follow-up was associated with premorbid adjustment, allocated treatment condition, and levels of positive symptoms, disorganization, amotivation, diminished expression (DE) and depression at study intake. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that Extended EI and lower levels of DE independently predicted better outcome on 12-month amotivation. Our findings indicate a potentially critical therapeutic role of an extended specialized EI on alleviating motivational impairment in FEP patients. The longer-term effect of Extended EI on amotivation merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of extending high-frequency bandwidth on the acceptable noise level (ANL) of hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl; Ricketts, Todd; Hornsby, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of extending high-frequency bandwidth, for both a speech signal and a background noise, on the acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of listeners with mild sensorineural hearing loss through utilization of the Acceptable Noise Level (ANL) procedure. In addition to extending high-frequency bandwidth, the effects of reverberation time and background noise type and shape were also examined. The study results showed a significant increase in the mean ANL (i.e. participants requested a better SNR for an acceptable listening situation) when high-frequency bandwidth was extended from 3 to 9 kHz and from 6 to 9 kHz. No change in the ANL of study participants was observed as a result of isolated modification to reverberation time or background noise stimulus. An interaction effect, however, of reverberation time and background noise stimulus was demonstrated. These findings may have implications for future design of hearing aid memory programs for listening to speech in the presence of broadband background noise.

  5. Evaluation of a responsible beverage service and enforcement program: Effects on bar patron intoxication and potential impaired driving by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Fisher, Deborah A; Yao, Jie; McKnight, A Scott

    2017-08-18

    Studies of alcohol-related harm (violence, injury, illness) suggest that the most significant risk factors are the amount of alcohol consumed and whether obviously intoxicated patrons continue to be served. This study's objective was to investigate the effects of a responsible beverage service (RBS)/enhanced alcohol enforcement intervention on bars, bar patrons, and impaired driving. Two communities-Monroe County, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio-participated in a demonstration program and evaluation. The intervention applied RBS training, targeted enforcement, and corrective actions by law enforcement to a random sample of 10 identified problem bars in each community compared to 10 matched nonintervention problem bars. Data were collected over 3 waves on bar serving practices, bar patron intoxication, drinking and driving, and other alcohol-related harm from intervention and control bars and treatment and comparison communities. In Monroe County, New York, of the 14 outcome measures analyzed, 7 measures showed statistically significant differences from pre- to postintervention. Six of those measures indicated changes in the desired or positive direction and 2 measures were in the undesired or negative direction. Of note in the positive direction, the percentage of intervention bar patrons who were intoxicated decreased from 44 to 27% and the average blood alcohol concentration of patrons decreased from 0.097 to 0.059 g/dL pre- to postintervention. In Cleveland, Ohio, 6 of the 14 measures showed statistically significant changes pre- to postintervention with 6 in the positive direction and 4 in the negative direction. Of note, the percentage of pseudo-intoxicated patrons denied service in intervention bars increased from 6 to 29%. Of the 14 outcome measures that were analyzed in each community, most indicated positive changes associated with the intervention, but others showed negative associations. About half of the measures showed no significance, the sample sizes

  6. A randomized controlled trial of brief motivational interviewing in impaired driving recidivists: a 5-year follow-up of traffic offenses and crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dongier, Maurice; Di Leo, Ivana; Legault, Lucie; Tremblay, Jacques; Chanut, Florence; Brown, Thomas G

    2013-11-01

    In a previously published randomized controlled trial (Brown et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34, 292-301), our research team showed that a 30-minute brief motivational interviewing (BMI) session was more effective in reducing percentages of risky drinking days in drunk driving recidivists than a control information-advice intervention at 12-month follow-up. In this sequel to the initial study, 2 main hypotheses were tested: (i) exposure to BMI increases the time to further arrests and crashes compared with exposure to the control intervention (CTL) and (ii) characteristics, such as age, moderate the benefit of BMI. A sample of 180 community-recruited recidivists who had drinking problems participated in the study. Participants gave access to their provincial driving records at baseline and were followed up for a mean of 1,684.5 days (SD = 155.7) after randomization to a 30-minute BMI or CTL session. Measured outcomes were driving arrests followed by convictions including driving while impaired (DWI), speeding, or other moving violations as well as crashes. Age, readiness to change alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse severity, and number of previous DWI convictions were included as potential moderators of the effect of the interventions. For arrests, Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed no significant differences between the BMI and the CTL group. When analyses were adjusted to age tertile categories, a significant effect of BMI in the youngest age tertile (<43 years old) emerged. For crashes, no between-group differences were detected. BMI was better at delaying DWI and other dangerous traffic violations in at-risk younger drivers compared with a CTL similar to that provided in many remedial programs. BMI may be useful as an opportunistic intervention for DWI recidivism prevention in settings such as DWI courts. Treatment effectiveness studies are needed to ascertain how the present findings generalize to the real-world conditions of mandated

  7. Periodontitis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis drives periodontal microbiota dysbiosis and insulin resistance via an impaired adaptive immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Garidou, Lucile; Pomié, Céline; Escoula, Quentin; Loubieres, Pascale; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Lemaitre, Mathieu; Nicolas, Simon; Klopp, Pascale; Waget, Aurélie; Azalbert, Vincent; Colom, André; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Kemoun, Philippe; Serino, Matteo; Burcelin, Rémy

    2017-05-01

    To identify a causal mechanism responsible for the enhancement of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia following periodontitis in mice fed a fat-enriched diet. We set-up a unique animal model of periodontitis in C57Bl/6 female mice by infecting the periodontal tissue with specific and alive pathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ), Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia . The mice were then fed with a diabetogenic/non-obesogenic fat-enriched diet for up to 3 months. Alveolar bone loss, periodontal microbiota dysbiosis and features of glucose metabolism were quantified. Eventually, adoptive transfer of cervical (regional) and systemic immune cells was performed to demonstrate the causal role of the cervical immune system. Periodontitis induced a periodontal microbiota dysbiosis without mainly affecting gut microbiota. The disease concomitantly impacted on the regional and systemic immune response impairing glucose metabolism. The transfer of cervical lymph-node cells from infected mice to naive recipients guarded against periodontitis-aggravated metabolic disease. A treatment with inactivated Pg prior to the periodontal infection induced specific antibodies against Pg and protected the mouse from periodontitis-induced dysmetabolism. Finally, a 1-month subcutaneous chronic infusion of low rates of lipopolysaccharides from Pg mimicked the impact of periodontitis on immune and metabolic parameters. We identified that insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse is enhanced by pathogen-induced periodontitis. This is caused by an adaptive immune response specifically directed against pathogens and associated with a periodontal dysbiosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Motivational impairment predicts functional remission in first-episode psychosis: 3-Year follow-up of the randomized controlled trial on extended early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Chung; Kwong, Vivian Wing Yan; Or Chi Fai, Philip; Lau, Emily Sin Kei; Chan, Gloria Hoi Kei; Jim, Olivia Tsz Ting; Hui, Christy Lai Ming; Chan, Sherry Kit Wa; Lee, Edwin Ho Ming; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2018-02-01

    Functional remission represents an intermediate functional milestone toward recovery. Differential relationships of negative symptom sub-domains with functional remission in first-episode psychosis are understudied. We aimed to examine rate and predictors of functional remission in people with first-episode psychosis in the context of a 3-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial comparing 1-year extension of early intervention (i.e. 3-year early intervention) with step-down psychiatric care (i.e. 2-year early intervention). A total of 160 participants were recruited upon completion of a 2-year specialized early intervention program for first-episode psychosis in Hong Kong and underwent a 1-year randomized controlled trial comparing 1-year extended early intervention with step-down care. Participants were followed up and reassessed 3 years after inclusion to the trial (i.e. 3-year follow-up). Functional remission was operationalized as simultaneous fulfillment of attaining adequate functioning (measured by Social and Occupational Functioning Scale and Role Functioning Scale) at 3-year follow-up and sustained employment in the last 6 months of 3-year study period. Negative symptom measure was delineated into amotivation (i.e. motivational impairment) and diminished expression (i.e. reduced affect and speech output). Data analysis was based on 143 participants who completed follow-up functional assessments. A total of 31 (21.7%) participants achieved functional remission status at 3-year follow-up. Multivariate regression analysis showed that lower levels of amotivation ( p = 0.010) and better functioning at study intake ( p = 0.004) independently predicted functional remission (Final model: Nagelkerke R 2  = 0.40, χ 2  = 42.9, p amotivation may represent a critical therapeutic target for functional remission attainment in early psychosis.

  9. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  10. Control device for a nuclear reactor with a multitude of control rods, extending into the reactor core from above, with linear drive mechanisms and additional gripper devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    The components of the additional gripper devices with magnetically operated finger-shaped latches are separated from the also magnetically operated latches of the linear drive mechanisms in order to avoid common-mode failures when fast shutdown is required. Only part of the safety rods are held by the additional gripping devices in the withdrawn position. There is provided for recording elements indicating positively which one of the safety locks is gearing with the control rods. At the upper end of each control rod there is a coupling head held by electromagnetically operated locking devices in the withdrawn position, if control power is available. (DG) [de

  11. Extending the Linear Modulation Range to the Full Base Speed Using a Single DC-Link Multilevel Inverter With Capacitor-Fed H-Bridges for IM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahul, Arun; Pramanick, Sumit; Kaarthik, R. Sudharshan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new space vector pulse width modulation method to extend the linear modulation range of a cascaded five level inverter topology with a single dc supply is presented. Using this method, the inverter can be controlled linearly and the peak phase fundamental output voltage of the in......In this paper, a new space vector pulse width modulation method to extend the linear modulation range of a cascaded five level inverter topology with a single dc supply is presented. Using this method, the inverter can be controlled linearly and the peak phase fundamental output voltage...... of the inverter can be increased from 0.577 to 0.637Vdc without increasing the dc bus voltage and without exceeding the induction motor voltage rating. This new technique makes use of cascaded inverter pole voltage redundancy and property of the space vector structure for its operation. Using this, the induction...

  12. The Wechsler Digit Symbol Substitution Test as the best indicator of the risk of impaired driving in Alzheimer disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Sylviane; Marin-Lamellet, Claude; Paire-Ficout, Laurence; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine; Laurent, Bernard; Fabrigoule, Colette

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify cognitive tools associated with unsafe driving among elderly drivers of varying cognitive levels. Twenty drivers with early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type and 56 nondemented drivers aged 65-85 were recruited. Various cognitive processes were measured and unsafe driving was evaluated during an in-traffic road test with 3 different indicators and a composite indicator. The Wechsler Digit Symbol Substitution Test score was the best cognitive measure to detect unsafe drivers using the composite driving indicator. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test may be used by physicians for the evaluation and follow-up of older patients, with or without Alzheimer-type dementia, as a screening tool of unsafe driving.

  13. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? : an explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veisten, K. Houwing, S. Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Akhtar, J.

    2013-01-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for

  14. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? : an explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veisten, K. Houwing, S. Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Akhtar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for

  15. Suppression of Glut1 and Glucose Metabolism by Decreased Akt/mTORC1 Signaling Drives T Cell Impairment in B Cell Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siska, Peter J.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Kishton, Rigel J.; Cohen, Sivan; Eisner, William; MacIver, Nancie J.; Kater, Arnon P.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia can promote T cell dysfunction and exhaustion that contributes to increased susceptibility to infection and mortality. The treatment-independent mechanisms that mediate leukemia-associated T cell impairments are poorly understood, but metabolism tightly regulates T cell function and may

  16. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  17. Impact of distraction on the driving performance of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Brassell, Anne A; Saxby, Dyani; Antonini, Tanya N; O'Brien, Kathleen M; Tamm, Leanne; Matthews, Gerald; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2013-10-01

    This study extends the literature regarding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related driving impairments to a newly licensed, adolescent population. To investigate the combined risks of adolescence, ADHD, and distracted driving (cell phone conversation and text messaging) on driving performance. Adolescents aged 16 to 17 years with (n = 28) and without (n = 33) ADHD engaged in a simulated drive under 3 conditions (no distraction, cell phone conversation, and texting). During each condition, one unexpected event (eg, another car suddenly merging into driver's lane) was introduced. Cell phone conversation, texting, and no distraction while driving. Self-report of driving history, average speed, standard deviation of speed, standard deviation of lateral position, and braking reaction time during driving simulation. Adolescents with ADHD reported fewer months of driving experience and a higher proportion of driving violations than control subjects. After controlling for months of driving history, adolescents with ADHD demonstrated more variability in speed and lane position than control subjects. There were no group differences for braking reaction time. Furthermore, texting negatively impacted the driving performance of all participants as evidenced by increased variability in speed and lane position. To our knowledge, this study is one of the first to investigate distracted driving in adolescents with ADHD and adds to a growing body of literature documenting that individuals with ADHD are at increased risk for negative driving outcomes. Furthermore, texting significantly impairs the driving performance of all adolescents and increases existing driving-related impairment in adolescents with ADHD, highlighting the need for education and enforcement of regulations against texting for this age group.

  18. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  19. Tuning Hsf1 levels drives distinct fungal morphogenetic programs with depletion impairing Hsp90 function and overexpression expanding the target space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhengqiang; Tan, Kaeling; Vyas, Valmik K.; Whiteway, Malcolm; Robbins, Nicole; Wong, Koon Ho; Cowen, Leah E.

    2018-01-01

    The capacity to respond to temperature fluctuations is critical for microorganisms to survive within mammalian hosts, and temperature modulates virulence traits of diverse pathogens. One key temperature-dependent virulence trait of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is its ability to transition from yeast to filamentous growth, which is induced by environmental cues at host physiological temperature. A key regulator of temperature-dependent morphogenesis is the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which has complex functional relationships with the transcription factor Hsf1. Although Hsf1 controls global transcriptional remodeling in response to heat shock, its impact on morphogenesis remains unknown. Here, we establish an intriguing paradigm whereby overexpression or depletion of C. albicans HSF1 induces morphogenesis in the absence of external cues. HSF1 depletion compromises Hsp90 function, thereby driving filamentation. HSF1 overexpression does not impact Hsp90 function, but rather induces a dose-dependent expansion of Hsf1 direct targets that drives overexpression of positive regulators of filamentation, including Brg1 and Ume6, thereby bypassing the requirement for elevated temperature during morphogenesis. This work provides new insight into Hsf1-mediated environmentally contingent transcriptional control, implicates Hsf1 in regulation of a key virulence trait, and highlights fascinating biology whereby either overexpression or depletion of a single cellular regulator induces a profound developmental transition. PMID:29590106

  20. Tuning Hsf1 levels drives distinct fungal morphogenetic programs with depletion impairing Hsp90 function and overexpression expanding the target space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda O Veri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to respond to temperature fluctuations is critical for microorganisms to survive within mammalian hosts, and temperature modulates virulence traits of diverse pathogens. One key temperature-dependent virulence trait of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is its ability to transition from yeast to filamentous growth, which is induced by environmental cues at host physiological temperature. A key regulator of temperature-dependent morphogenesis is the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which has complex functional relationships with the transcription factor Hsf1. Although Hsf1 controls global transcriptional remodeling in response to heat shock, its impact on morphogenesis remains unknown. Here, we establish an intriguing paradigm whereby overexpression or depletion of C. albicans HSF1 induces morphogenesis in the absence of external cues. HSF1 depletion compromises Hsp90 function, thereby driving filamentation. HSF1 overexpression does not impact Hsp90 function, but rather induces a dose-dependent expansion of Hsf1 direct targets that drives overexpression of positive regulators of filamentation, including Brg1 and Ume6, thereby bypassing the requirement for elevated temperature during morphogenesis. This work provides new insight into Hsf1-mediated environmentally contingent transcriptional control, implicates Hsf1 in regulation of a key virulence trait, and highlights fascinating biology whereby either overexpression or depletion of a single cellular regulator induces a profound developmental transition.

  1. Tuning Hsf1 levels drives distinct fungal morphogenetic programs with depletion impairing Hsp90 function and overexpression expanding the target space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veri, Amanda O; Miao, Zhengqiang; Shapiro, Rebecca S; Tebbji, Faiza; O'Meara, Teresa R; Kim, Sang Hu; Colazo, Juan; Tan, Kaeling; Vyas, Valmik K; Whiteway, Malcolm; Robbins, Nicole; Wong, Koon Ho; Cowen, Leah E

    2018-03-01

    The capacity to respond to temperature fluctuations is critical for microorganisms to survive within mammalian hosts, and temperature modulates virulence traits of diverse pathogens. One key temperature-dependent virulence trait of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is its ability to transition from yeast to filamentous growth, which is induced by environmental cues at host physiological temperature. A key regulator of temperature-dependent morphogenesis is the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which has complex functional relationships with the transcription factor Hsf1. Although Hsf1 controls global transcriptional remodeling in response to heat shock, its impact on morphogenesis remains unknown. Here, we establish an intriguing paradigm whereby overexpression or depletion of C. albicans HSF1 induces morphogenesis in the absence of external cues. HSF1 depletion compromises Hsp90 function, thereby driving filamentation. HSF1 overexpression does not impact Hsp90 function, but rather induces a dose-dependent expansion of Hsf1 direct targets that drives overexpression of positive regulators of filamentation, including Brg1 and Ume6, thereby bypassing the requirement for elevated temperature during morphogenesis. This work provides new insight into Hsf1-mediated environmentally contingent transcriptional control, implicates Hsf1 in regulation of a key virulence trait, and highlights fascinating biology whereby either overexpression or depletion of a single cellular regulator induces a profound developmental transition.

  2. Impairment of the nerve growth factor pathway driving amyloid accumulation in cholinergic neurons: the incipit of the Alzheimer′s disease story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Triaca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF alterations in sporadic Alzheimer′s disease (AD, an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN, is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD. NGF signaling dysfunctions have been thought for decades to occur in AD late stages, as a mere consequence of amyloid-driven disruption of the retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophins to BFCN. Nowadays, a wealth of knowledge is potentially opening a new scenario: NGF signaling impairment occurs at the onset of AD and correlates better than amyloid load with cognitive decline. The recent acceleration in the characterization of anatomical, functional and molecular profiles of early AD is aimed at maximizing the efficacy of existing treatments and setting novel therapies. Accordingly, the elucidation of the molecular events underlying APP metabolism regulation by the NGF pathway in the septo-hippocampal system is crucial for the identification of new target molecules to slow and eventually halt mild cognitive impairment (MCI and its progression toward AD.

  3. Is law enforcement of drug-impaired driving cost-efficient? An explorative study of a methodology for cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned

    2013-03-01

    Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Extended artistic appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    I propose that in at least some cases, objects of artistic appreciation are best thought of not simply as causes of artistic appreciation, but as parts of the cognitive machinery that drives aesthetic appreciation. In effect, this is to say that aesthetic appreciation operates via extended cognitive systems.

  5. Judgments of omitted BE and DO in questions as extended finiteness clinical markers of specific language impairment (SLI) to 15 years: a study of growth and asymptote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Hoffman, Lesa; Wexler, Ken

    2009-12-01

    Clinical grammar markers are needed for children with SLI older than 8 years. This study followed children who were previously studied on sentences with omitted finiteness to determine if affected children continue to perform at low levels and to examine possible predictors of low performance. This is the first longitudinal report of grammaticality judgments of questions. Three groups of children participated: 20 SLI, 20 age controls, and 18 language-matched controls, followed from ages 6-15 years. An experimental grammaticality judgment task was administered with BE copula/auxiliary and DO auxiliary in wh- and yes/no questions for 9 times of measurement. Predictors were indices of vocabulary, nonverbal intelligence, and maternal education. Growth curve analyses show that the affected group performed below the younger controls at each time of measurement, for each variable. Growth analyses show linear and quadratic effects for both groups across variables, with the exception of BE acquisition, which was flat for both groups. The control children reached ceiling levels; the affected children reached a lower asymptote. The results suggest an ongoing maturational lag in finiteness marking for affected children with promise as a clinical marker for language impairment in school-aged and adolescent children and probably adults as well.

  6. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  7. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  8. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... distracted driving grants on August 24, 2012. In this notice, DOT is extending the application submission...

  9. Transgenic Adipose-specific Expression of the Nuclear Receptor RORα Drives a Striking Shift in Fat Distribution and Impairs Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewen Kelvin Tuong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available RORα is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR superfamily and analysis of the (global RORα-deficient mouse model revealed this NR has a role in glycemic control and fat deposition. Therefore, we generated an adipose-specific RORα ‘gain of function’ mouse model under the control of the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 promoter to elucidate the function of RORα in adipose tissue. The Tg-FABP4-RORα4 mice demonstrated a shift in fat distribution to non-adipose tissues when challenged with a high fat diet (HFD. Specifically, we observed a subcutaneous lipodystrophy, accompanied by hepatomegaly (fatty liver/mild portal fibrosis and splenomegaly; in a background of decreased weight gain and total body fat after HFD. Moreover, we observed significantly higher fasting blood glucose and impaired clearance of glucose in Tg-FABP4-RORα4 mice. Genome wide expression and qPCR profiling analysis identified: (i subcutaneous adipose specific decreases in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, lipid droplet expansion and glycemic control, and (ii the fibrosis pathway as the most significant pathway [including dysregulation of the collagen/extracellular matrix (ECM pathways] in subcutaneous adipose and liver. The pathology presented in the Tg-FABP4-RORα4 mice is reminiscent of human metabolic disease (associated with aberrant ECM expression highlighting the therapeutic potential of this NR.

  10. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  11. An LC-MS-MS Method for the Analysis of Carfentanil, 3-Methylfentanyl, 2-Furanyl Fentanyl, Acetyl Fentanyl, Fentanyl and Norfentanyl in Postmortem and Impaired-Driving Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofalvi, Szabolcs; Schueler, Harold E; Lavins, Eric S; Kaspar, Claire K; Brooker, Ian T; Mazzola, Carrie D; Dolinak, David; Gilson, Thomas P; Perch, Steve

    2017-07-01

    In July of 2016, carfentanil (CF) emerged in Northeast Ohio resulting in over 25 deaths within a 30-day period. A total of 125 deaths have occurred in Summit County and Cuyahoga County has reported 40 deaths, relating to the presence of CF either alone, or in combinations with heroin and fentanyl. Prior to this surge in CF cases, positive fentanyl enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening results were increasing in number. Many were negative for fentanyl confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fentanyl analogs such as CF, acetyl fentanyl (AF), 2-furanyl fentanyl (2-Fu-F) and 3-methylfentanyl (3-MF) may be present in these cases. Some fentanyl analogs like CF and 3-MF do not cross-react with the Immunalysis ELISA fentanyl assay. With the emergence of potent synthetic fentanyl analogs, questions arose as to how to interpret their very low concentrations or absence in the blood in relation to cause of death. Driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) blood specimens had also tested positive for CF by reference laboratories. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to identify and quantify fentanyl, norfentanyl (NF) and four analogs: AF, 2-Fu-F, 3-MF and CF. The method has been utilized to quantify these fentanyl analogs in blood and vitreous humor in authentic antemortem and postmortem cases. Calibration curves were established between 0.10-4.0 ng/mL (NF, AF, 3-MF, 2-Fu-F and CF) and 1.0-40 ng/mL for fentanyl. In total, 98 postmortem cases analyzed produced the following blood concentration ranges: CF (0.11-0.88 ng/mL), 3-MF (0.15-1.7 ng/mL), 2-Fu-F (0.15-0.30 ng/mL), AF (0.14-0.16 ng/mL), fentanyl (1.1-15 ng/mL) and NF (0.10-3.7 ng/mL). Only CF, fentanyl and NF were detected in a statistically significant subset DUID population of 26 cases producing concentration ranges between 0.11 and 0.47 ng/mL, 1.0 and 9.8 ng/mL, and 0.11 and 3.5 ng/mL, respectively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  12. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  13. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  14. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  15. Cannabis effects on driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-03-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis' effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2-5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention, and include occasional and

  16. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  17. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...

  18. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  19. Driving-impairing medicines and traffic safety

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Susana Patricio

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologische studies tonen aan dat er een associatie bestaat tussen de blootstelling aan rijgevaarlijke geneesmiddelen en het risico om bij een verkeersongeval betrokken te geraken. Ondanks het feit dat het gebruik van dergelijke geneesmiddelen in Europa toeneemt, zijn er weinig studies bekend naar de kennis over en bewustwording van de risico’s, die patiënten hebben wanneer zij rijgevaarlijke geneesmiddelen gebruiken. Dit geldt eveneens voor de zorgverleners die dergelijke geneesmiddelen...

  20. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  1. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Wood

    Full Text Available To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment.Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years. On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire.Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability.Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  2. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  3. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30% Severe Impairment – 0.16 - 0.30% Speech, memory, coordination, attention, reaction time, balance significantly impaired All driving-related skills dangerously impaired Judgement and decision making dangerously impaired Blackouts (amnesia) Vomiting and other signs ...

  4. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  5. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  6. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  7. Glare disability and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, M A

    2003-01-01

    Increasing investigation of the visual elements of safe driving environments may be of great benefit to society. Visual disability appears to be only one of many visual factors related to traffic accidents. The purpose of this article was to examine the type of visual impairment mediated by the increased glare sensitivity in adult drivers using the original halometer glare test. In this article, the visual sensory, cognitive and motor functions relevant to driving, their measurement, the epidemiology and prevention of age-associated functional impairments and the relationship of functional impairments to both self-reported driving and the imposition of legal restrictions are reviewed. The problem of night and tunnel driving is the most urgent in relation to the effects of glare from vehicle headlights on motion perception of drivers. The reduced mesopic vision and increased sensitivity to glare are accompanied by an increased risk of nighttime accidents. Elderly drivers and patients with beginning cataract cannot sufficiently fulfill the criteria for night driving ability because of contrast and glare sensitivity. It is indispensable for the parameters mentioned to be carefully measured and for drivers to be informed that night driving ability may be impaired, even if visual acuity is sufficient. It would be advisable for traffic safety if simple tests for contrast and glare sensitivity were implemented for vehicles and/or were regularly added to the requirements for a driver's licence, at least for older drivers. The age, functional status and test result limits should be defined to avoid a risk factor in traffic. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Fitness to drive after traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, WH; Withaar, FK

    This paper deals with the issue of fitness to drive in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for assessment are proposed and three types of studies are reviewed: studies about impairments of attention and information processing, studies of driving competence, and driver

  9. Morning anaerobic performance is not altered by vigilance impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Lericollais

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role played by vigilance on the anaerobic performance recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase (nadir of the circadian rhythmicity. Twenty active male participants performed a 60-s Wingate test at 6 a.m. during 3 test sessions in counter-balanced order the day after either (i a normal reference night, (ii a total sleep deprivation night, or (iii a total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended simulated driving task from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. During this task, the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILCs was used to control and quantify the effective decrease in the level of vigilance. The main findings show that (i vigilance of each participant was significantly altered (i.e., a drastic and progressive increase in ILCs is shown during the 7.5 hours of driving by the sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; (ii the subjective evaluation of vigilance performed by self-rated scale revealed an increased impairment of the vigilance level between the normal reference night, the total sleep deprivation night and the total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; and (iii the morning following this last condition, during the Wingate test, the recorded cycling biomechanical parameters (peak power, mean power and fatigue index values, power decrease, and cycling kinetic and kinematic patterns were not significantly different from the two other conditions. Consequently, these results show that anaerobic performances recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase of the circadian rhythmicity are not altered by a drastic impairment in vigilance. These findings seem to indicate that vigilance is probably not a factor that contributes to circadian variations in anaerobic performance.

  10. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  11. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  12. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  13. A study on the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    are found to impair drivers' physical characteristics. However, their impacts on the parameters SBP, HR, eyesight, and TDSA are different. A driver's physical characteristics will be impaired more seriously when he continues driving while drowsy, compared to driving under normal situation. These findings contribute to the current research on identifying drivers' driving state and quantifying the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on driving ability and driving behavior.

  14. Oculomotor impairment during chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M; Thomas, M; Thorne, D; Sing, H; Redmond, D; Rowland, L; Johnson, D; Hall, S; Krichmar, J; Balkin, T

    2003-04-01

    The effects of chronic partial sleep (sleep deprivation) and extended sleep (sleep augmentation) followed by recovery sleep on oculomotor function were evaluated in normal subjects to explore the usefulness of oculomotor assessment for alertness monitoring in fitness-for-duty testing. Sixty-six commercial drivers (24-62 years, 50m/16f) participated in a 15 day study composed of 3 training days with 8h time in bed per night, 7 experimental days with subjects randomly assigned to either 3, 5, 7, or 9h time in bed, and 3 recovery nights with 8h time in bed. Data from 57 subjects were used. Saccadic velocity (SV), initial pupil diameter (IPD), latency to pupil constriction (CL), and amplitude of pupil constriction (CA) were assessed and correlated with the sleep latency test (SLT), the Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and simulated driving performance. Regression analyses showed that SV slowed significantly in the 3 and 5h groups, IPD decreased significantly in the 9h group, and CL increased significantly in the 3h group. SLT and SSS significantly correlated with SV, IPD, CL, and driving accidents for the 3h group, and with CL for the 5h group. Analyses also showed a significant negative correlation between decreasing SV and increasing driving accidents in the 3h group and a significant negative correlation between IPD and driving accidents for the 7h group. The results demonstrate a sensitivity primarily of SV to sleepiness, and a correlation of SV and IPD to impaired simulated driving performance, providing evidence for the potential utility of oculomotor indicators in the detection of excessive sleepiness and deterioration of complex motor performance with chronic partial sleep restriction. This paper shows a relationship between sleep deprivation and oculomotor measures, and suggests a potential utility for oculometrics in assessing operational performance readiness under sleep restricted conditions.

  15. Sleep driving: sleepwalking variant or misuse of z-drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Mark R

    2011-10-01

    Sleep driving is most often classified as a variant of sleepwalking, but should be distinguished from impaired driving due to misuse or abuse of sedative/hypnotic drugs. Z-drugs; zolpidem and zopiclone in particular, have been associated with the majority of reported cases of impaired driving. Numerous studies have found z-drugs in driving under influence (DUI) related police stops, arrests and accidents. Impaired drivers are reported to have 1) blood levels of z-drugs that exceed therapeutic ranges 2) failed to take the medication at the correct time or remain in bed for sufficient time and/or 3) combined z-drugs with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants and/or alcohol. Consistent with CNS depression, z-drug-impaired drivers may demonstrate cognitive function at low levels with drivers still able to understand and respond to questions while sleepwalkers are completely unable to understand or interact with police. Z-drug-impaired drivers are often severely physically impaired, unable to stand up or maintain balance while sleepwalkers are able to stand and walk unaided. Sleep driving and impaired driving due to z-drugs may overlap. Sleep driving and drug-impaired driving are statistically rare events, but due to the billions of doses prescribed each year may still result in numerous DUI related arrests and accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  17. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  18. Adolescents with Low Vision: Perceptions of Driving and Nondriving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Sharon Zell; Rosenblum, L. Penny

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined how adolescents with low vision perceive their ability to drive. The results of both studies indicated similarities in the participants' responses with respect to knowledge of visual impairment, information about options for driving with low vision, frustrations and obstacles imposed by not being able to drive, and independent…

  19. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  20. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  1. The need for drugged driving per se laws: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Voas, Robert B; Walsh, J Michael; Shea, Corinne; Talpins, Stephen K; Neil, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    Triggered by the new federal commitment announced by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONCDP) to encourage states to enact drugged driving per se laws, this article reviews the reasons to establish such laws and the issues that may arise when trying to enforce them. A review of the state of drunk driving per se laws and their implications for drugged driving is presented, with a review of impaired driving enforcement procedures and drug testing technology. Currently, enforcement of drugged driving laws is an adjunct to the enforcement of laws regarding alcohol impairment. Drivers are apprehended when showing signs of alcohol intoxication and only in the relatively few cases where the blood alcohol concentration of the arrested driver does not account for the observed behavior is the possibility of drug impairment pursued. In most states, the term impaired driving covers both alcohol and drug impairment; thus, driver conviction records may not distinguish between the two different sources of impairment. As a result, enforcement statistics do not reflect the prevalence of drugged driving. Based on the analysis presented, this article recommends a number of steps that can be taken to evaluate current drugged driving enforcement procedures and to move toward the enactment of drug per se laws.

  2. Driving, brain injury and assistive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Amy K; Benoit, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury often present with cognitive, physical and emotional impairments which impact their ability to resume independence in activities of daily living. Of those activities, the resumption of driving privileges is cited as one of the greatest concerns by survivors of brain injury. The integration of driving fundamentals within the hierarchical model proposed by Keskinen represents the complexity of skills and behaviors necessary for driving. This paper provides a brief review of specific considerations concerning the driver with TBI and highlights current vehicle technology which has been developed by the automotive industry and by manufacturers of adaptive driving equipment that may facilitate the driving task. Adaptive equipment technology allows for compensation of a variety of operational deficits, whereas technological advances within the automotive industry provide drivers with improved safety and information systems. However, research has not yet supported the use of such intelligent transportation systems or advanced driving systems for drivers with brain injury. Although technologies are intended to improve the safety of drivers within the general population, the potential of negative consequences for drivers with brain injury must be considered. Ultimately, a comprehensive driving evaluation and training by a driving rehabilitation specialist is recommended for individuals with brain injury. An understanding of the potential impact of TBI on driving-related skills and knowledge of current adaptive equipment and technology is imperative to determine whether return-to-driving is a realistic and achievable goal for the individual with TBI.

  3. Visual impairments and their influence on road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is an important source of information when driving a car. Visual impairments of drivers will therefore have an effect on performing the driving task. However, the effects on the crash rate are limited. The reason is, among other things, that people with visual impairments often

  4. Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ...

  5. The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

  6. A multimodal assessment of driving performance in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, T D; Wolfson, T; Rosenthal, T J; Heaton, R K; Gonzalez, R; Ellis, R J; Grant, I

    2004-10-26

    To examine if HIV-seropositive (HIV+) individuals are at risk for impaired driving. Sixty licensed drivers (40 HIV+, 20 HIV-) completed a neuropsychological (NP) test battery and driving assessments. Eleven HIV+ subjects were NP-impaired. Driving-related skills were assessed using 1) two driving simulations (examining accident avoidance and navigational abilities), 2) the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test, and 3) an on-road evaluation. HIV+ NP-impaired subjects had greater difficulty than cognitively intact subjects on all driving measures, whereas the HIV- and HIV+ NP-normal groups performed similarly. On the UFOV, the HIV+ NP-impaired group had worse performance on Visual Processing and Divided Attention tasks but not in overall risk classification. They also had a higher number of simulator accidents (1.3 vs 2.0; p = 0.03), were less efficient at completing the navigation task (3.2 vs 9.2 blocks; p = 0.001), and were more likely to fail the on-road evaluation (6 vs 36%; p = 0.02). Impairment in Executive Functioning was the strongest NP predictor of failing the on-road drive test. NP performance and both simulations independently contributed to a model predicting 48% of the variance in on-road performance. HIV+ NP-impaired individuals are at increased risk for on-road driving impairments, whereas HIV+ individuals with normal cognition are not at a significantly higher risk than HIV- subjects. Executive Functioning is most strongly associated with impaired on-road performance. Cognitive and simulator testing may each provide data in identifying driving-impaired individuals.

  7. Small Screen Use and Driving Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchley, Paul; Strayer, David L

    2017-11-01

    The increased availability of "small screens," wireless devices with Internet-enabled connections, and their associated applications has almost overnight changed the way that we interact with our phones. The current work outlines some of the aspects of this problem as it relates to the influence of small screens on driving safety. Small screens are highly compelling to drivers, both for the information they convey and because the ability to ignore them while driving is impaired by cognitive resources used by the driving task itself. However, much is unknown about why people make choices to multitask while driving. Given the safety risks, it is recommended that parents, the public, and regulators take a stand against the use of Internet-enabled small screens unrelated to driving when the vehicle is in motion. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Older drivers with cognitive impairments : issues of detection and assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Catarina

    2003-01-01

    Older drivers are often presented as a traffic safety problem . Age-related medical conditions such as dementias and stroke impair cognitive functions that are crucial for safe driving Uncertainty remains regarding the most appropriate clinical methods to assess driving fitness in these patient groups. Furthermore, preclinical dementia and cognitive impairment may affect driving performance and lead to an increased crash risk. The first general aim of the thesis was to inve...

  9. Establishing legal limits for driving under the influence of marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Kristin; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana has become the most commonly detected non-alcohol substance among drivers in the United States and Europe. Use of marijuana has been shown to impair driving performance and increase crash risk. Due to the lack of standardization in assessing marijuana-induced impairment and limitations of zero tolerance legislation, more jurisdictions are adopting per se laws by specifying a legal limit of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at or above which drivers are prosecuted for driving under the i...

  10. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-11-01

    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; Pdriving. There were no differences in the reaction time and missed response ratio in divided

  11. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  12. Driving performance at lateral system limits during partially automated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naujoks, Frederik; Purucker, Christian; Wiedemann, Katharina; Neukum, Alexandra; Wolter, Stefan; Steiger, Reid

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated driver performance during system limits of partially automated driving. Using a motion-based driving simulator, drivers encountered different situations in which a partially automated vehicle could no longer safely keep the lateral guidance. Drivers were distracted by a non-driving related task on a touch display or driving without an additional secondary task. While driving in partially automated mode drivers could either take their hands off the steering wheel for only a short period of time (10s, so-called 'Hands-on' variant) or for an extended period of time (120s, so-called 'Hands-off' variant). When the system limit was reached (e.g., when entering a work zone with temporary lines), the lateral vehicle control by the automation was suddenly discontinued and a take-over request was issued to the drivers. Regardless of the hands-off interval and the availability of a secondary task, all drivers managed the transition to manual driving safely. No lane exceedances were observed and the situations were rated as 'harmless' by the drivers. The lack of difference between the hands-off intervals can be partly attributed to the fact that most of the drivers kept contact to the steering wheel, even in the hands-off condition. Although all drivers were able to control the system limits, most of them could not explain why exactly the take-over request was issued. The average helpfulness of the take-over request was rated on an intermediate level. Consequently, providing drivers with information about the reason for a system limit can be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary report of the Hepatic Encephalopathy Assessment Driving Simulator (HEADS) score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Bey, Edwina S; Stewart, Charmaine A; Mitchell, Mary M; Bida, John P; Rosenthal, Theodore J; Nyberg, Scott L

    2008-01-01

    Audiovisual simulations of real-life driving (ie, driving simulators) have been used to assess neurologic dysfunction in a variety of medical applications. However, the use of simulated driving to assess neurologic impairment in the setting of liver disease (ie, hepatic encephalopathy) is limited. The aim of this analysis was to develop a scoring system based on simulated driving performance to assess mild cognitive impairment in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. This preliminary analysis was conducted as part of the Hepatic Encephalopathy Assessment Driving Simulator (HEADS) pilot study. Cirrhotic volunteers initially underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests to identify those cirrhotic patients with mild cognitive impairment. Performance during an audiovisually simulated course of on-road driving was then compared between mildly impaired cirrhotic patients and healthy volunteers. A scoring system was developed to quantify the likelihood of cognitive impairment on the basis of data from the simulated on-road driving. Mildly impaired cirrhotic patients performed below the level of healthy volunteers on the driving simulator. Univariate logistic regression and correlation models indicated that several driving simulator variables were significant predictors of cognitive impairment. Five variables (run time, total map performance, number of collisions, visual divided attention response, and average lane position) were incorporated into a quantitative model, the HEADS scoring system. The HEADS score (0-9 points) showed a strong correlation with cognitive impairment as measured by area under the receiver-operator curve (.89). The HEADS system appears to be a promising new tool for the assessment of mild hepatic encephalopathy.

  14. Drunk driving warning system (DDWS). Volume 2, Field test evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test (the Critical Tracking Task or CTT) in order to drive the car in a normal manner....

  15. The cell phone : a dangerous driving distraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutlay, J. [Alberta Motor Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Ure, D. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Shell Canada demands that workers do not operate telecommunication systems while operating a motor vehicle for company business, with the exception of short acknowledgment conversations. This power point presentation advised of the dangers of using cell phones while driving. Cell phone use while driving is considered to be mentally demanding as well as contributing to slower reaction times to hazards and reducing driving field of view. Research has indicated that drivers visualize an image of the person being spoken to, in addition to thinking about issues being discussed. Statistics from the United Kingdom reveal that drivers engaged in cell phone conversations are 4 times more likely to crash than other drivers, and take risks comparable to alcohol impaired driving, as well as showing significantly poorer driving performance. Various types of driver distractions were presented. A comparison between radio and cell phones was presented. It was suggested that drivers should not take a phone call while driving alone, and in an emergency, should pull off the road to receive or send phone calls. It was also suggested that callers should ask if a person is driving, and end a conversation if they suspect the person is driving. tabs, figs.

  16. Driving competences and neuropsychological factors associated to driving counseling in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Dolors; Garolera, Maite; Casas, Laura; Cejudo-Bolivar, Juan Carlos; de Francisco, Jorge; Zaragoza, Silvia; Calzado, Noemi; Aguilar, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) significantly impacts daily living activities, including car driving. To investigate driving difficulties experienced with MS, we compared 50 MS patients with minor or moderate disability and 50 healthy controls (HC) using computerized driving tests (the ASDE driver test and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test) and neuropsychological tests. Inclusion criteria included being active drivers. We evaluated whether cognitive deterioration in MS is associated with the results of driving tests by comparing MS patients without cognitive deterioration with HC. The results indicated that the MS patients performed worse than the HCs in attention, information processing, working memory and visuomotor coordination tasks. Furthermore, MS patients with cognitive impairments experienced more difficulties in the driving tests than did the non-impaired MS patients. Motor dysfunction associated with MS also played an important role in this activity. The results of this study suggest that MS should be assessed carefully and that special emphasis should be placed on visuomotor coordination and executive functions because patients with minor motor disability and subtle cognitive impairments can pass measures predictive of driving safety.

  17. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  19. 17. IAEA fusion energy conference. Extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Book of extended synopses of the papers, accepted by a international programme committee for presentation at the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, Japan. The subjects covered are magnetic confinement experiments, plasma heating and current drive, ITER EDA, inertial fusion energy, innovative concepts, fusion technology and theory

  20. 17. IAEA fusion energy conference. Extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    Book of extended synopses of the papers, accepted by a international programme committee for presentation at the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Yokohama, Japan. The subjects covered are magnetic confinement experiments, plasma heating and current drive, ITER EDA, inertial fusion energy, innovative concepts, fusion technology and theory Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Driving with the wandering mind: the effect that mind-wandering has on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    The principal objective of the present work was to examine the effects of mind state (mind-wandering vs. on-task) on driving performance in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Mind-wandering is thought to interfere with goal-directed thought. It is likely, then, that when driving, mind-wandering might lead to impairments in critical aspects of driving performance. In two experiments, we assess the extent to which mind-wandering interferes with responsiveness to sudden events, mean velocity, and headway distance. Using a car-following procedure in a high-fidelity driving simulator, participants were probed at random times to indicate whether they were on-task at that moment or mind-wandering. The dependent measures were analyzed based on the participant's response to the probe. Compared to when on-task, when mind-wandering participants showed longer response times to sudden events, drove at a higher velocity, and maintained a shorter headway distance. Collectively, these findings indicate that mind-wandering affects a broad range of driving responses and may therefore lead to higher crash risk. The results suggest that situations that are likely associated with mind-wandering (e.g., route familiarity) can impair driving performance.

  2. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikakura, Hiroaki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to direct disconnection of control rods upon abnormal temperature rise in the reactor thereby improve the reliability for the disconnecting operation in control rod drives for FBR type reactors upon emergency. Constitution: A diaphragm is disposed to the upper opening of a sealing vessel inserted to the hollow portion of an electromagnet and a rod is secured to the central position of the upper surface. A spring contacts are attached by way of an insulator to the inner surface at the lower portion of an extension pipe and connected with cables for supplying electric power sources respectively to a magnet. If the temperature in the reactor abnormally rises, liquid metals in the sealing vessel are expanded tending to extend the bellows downwardly. However, since they are attracted by the electromagnet, the thermal expansion of the liquid metals exert on the diaphragm prior to the bellows. Thus, the switch between the spring contacts is made open to attain the deenergized state to thereby disconnect the control rod and shutdown the neclear reactor. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Akira.

    1989-01-01

    In the control rod drive for a BWR type reactor, etc., according to this invention, the lower limit flow rate is set so as to keep the restriction for stability upon spectral shift operation. The setting condition for keeping the restriction is the lowest pump speed and the lower limit for the automatic control of the flow rate, which are considered to be important in view of the stablility from the actual power state. In view of the above, it is possible to keep the reactor core stably even in a case where such a transient phenomenon occurs that the recycling flow rate has to be run back to the lowest pump speed during spectral shift opeeration or in a case where the load demand is reduced and the flow rate is decreased by an automatic mode as in night operation. Accordingly, in the case of conducting the spectral shift operation according to this invention, the operation region capable of keeping the reactor core state stably during operation can be extended. (I.S.)

  4. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  5. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  6. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  7. A State-by-State Analysis of Laws Dealing With Driving Under the Influence of Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study reviewed each State statute regarding drug-impaired driving as of December 2008. There : is a high degree of variability across the States in the ways they approach drug-impaired driving. : Current laws in many States contain provisions ma...

  8. Don’t Drink and Drive (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    Nearly one-third of fatalities in car crashes are caused by alcohol-impaired driving. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses the dangers of alcohol-impaired driving.  Created: 8/6/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  9. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  10. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  11. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  12. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  13. Efficiency trends in electric machines and drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecrow, B.C.; Jack, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Almost all electricity in the UK is generated by rotating electrical generators, and approximately half of it is used to drive electrical motors. This means that efficiency improvements to electrical machines can have a very large impact on energy consumption. The key challenges to increased efficiency in systems driven by electrical machines lie in three areas: to extend the application of variable-speed electric drives into new areas through reduction of power electronic and control costs; to integrate the drive and the driven load to maximise system efficiency; and to increase the efficiency of the electrical drive itself. In the short to medium term, efficiency gains within electrical machines will result from the development of new materials and construction techniques. Approximately a quarter of new electrical machines are driven by variable-speed drives. These are a less mature product than electrical machines and should see larger efficiency gains over the next 50 years. Advances will occur, with new types of power electronic devices that reduce switching and conduction loss. With variable-speed drives, there is complete freedom to vary the speed of the driven load. Replacing fixed-speed machines with variable-speed drives for a high proportion of industrial loads could mean a 15-30% energy saving. This could save the UK 15 billion kWh of electricity per year which, when combined with motor and drive efficiency gains, would amount to a total annual saving of 24 billion kWh

  14. Comparison of electric drives for road vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, C; Stephan, W [Deutsche Automobilgesellschaft m.b.H., Esslingen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-01-01

    The low energy-storage capacity of the electrolytic energy-storage apparatus available at the moment limits the practical use of electric vehicles to meeting the requirements for restricted areas. But in this field of application, conversion from drive with internal combustion engine to electric drive can be considered only if a reduction of costs is achieved with electric drive. From the wide range of possible drive units the most suitable is found to be the dc squirrelcage motor the speed of which is controlled by field weakening. In the case of a motor with conventional design, the controllable drive range is limited to about 1 : 3, so that generally additional measures are required for extending the drive range. But if the motor is fitted with a compensation winding, field weakening to give a controlled speed range of 1 : 8 can be obtained. To evaluate the different drive units under consideration use is made of the acceleration when, according to the drive system, advantages are obtained from the point of view of energy consumption with disadvantages in acceleration time, and vice versa. By using vehicles proven in practice with different drive systems, either with hydrodynamic transducer and battery switchover, or else with changeover gear and mechanical clutch, the overall construction of the different control and protective arrangements are demonstrated. It is then found that the extra cost of regulation in the case of automatic drive operation is partly compensated by the additional protective devices which are required to limit the effects of any incorrect operations with a manually-operated drive.

  15. Extending Double Optical Gating to the Midinfrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Timothy; Camper, Antoine; Agostini, Pierre; Dimauro, Louis

    2015-05-01

    In the past decade there has been great interest in creating broadband isolated attosecond pulses (IAPs). Primarily these IAPs have been generated using Ti:Sapphire 800nm short pulses, namely through spatiotemporal gating with the attosecond lighthouse technique, amplitude gating, polarization gating, and double optical gating (DOG). Here we present theoretical calculations and experimental investigations into extending DOG to using a 2 μm driving wavelength, the benefits of which include extended harmonic cutoff and longer input driving pulse durations. It is proposed that broadband IAPs with cutoffs extending up to 250 eV can be generated in Argon by using >30 fs pulses from the passively-CEP stabilized 2 μm idler out of an optical parametric amplifier combined with a collinear DOG experimental setup.

  16. A laboratory driving simulation for assessment of driving behavior in adults with ADHD: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleardi Megan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now estimated that attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD afflicts at least 4% of adults in the United States and is associated with high levels of morbidity and functional impairment. One key area of dysfunction associated with ADHD is impaired motor vehicle operation. Our goal was to examine the association between ADHD and specific driving outcomes in a sample of adults using a driving simulator. Methods Subjects were 20 adults with full DSM-IV ADHD and 21 controls without ADHD of equal gender distribution. However, the mean age of subjects with ADHD was somewhat older. All analyses were adjusted for age and gender. All subjects participated in a driving simulation that lasted for one hour and consisted of a short training period, a high stimulus segment and a low stimulus segment with two distinct monotonous periods. Results In the second monotonous period within the low stimulus environment, ADHD subjects were significantly more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle suddenly appearing from the periphery, adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion Adults with ADHD were more likely than controls to collide with an obstacle during a driving simulation suggesting that deficits in directed attention may underlie driving impairments in this population.

  17. How Far Can Extended Knowledge Be Extended?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, K. Brad

    2018-01-01

    by an artifact, like a notebook or telescope. The chapter illustrates this by applying Pritchard’s account of extended knowledge to collaborating scientists. The beliefs acquired through collaborative research cannot satisfy both of Pritchard’s conditions of creditability. Further, there is evidence......Duncan Pritchard (2010) has developed a theory of extended knowledge based on the notion of extended cognition initially developed by Clark and Chalmers (1998). Pritchard’s account gives a central role to the notion of creditability, which requires the following two conditions to be met: (i...... that scientists are not prepared to take responsibility for the actions of the scientists with whom they collaborate....

  18. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Qu

    Full Text Available Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  20. Expressing Anger Is More Dangerous than Feeling Angry when Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Weina; Dai, Mengnuo; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Anger is an emotion that drivers often feel and express while driving, and it is believed by researchers to be an important cause of dangerous driving behavior. In this study, the relationships between driving trait anger, driving anger expression, and dangerous driving behaviors were analyzed. The Driving Anger Scale (DAS) was used to measure driving trait anger, whereas the Driving Anger Expression (DAX) Inventory was used to measure expressions of driving anger. A sample of 38 drivers completed the DAS, DAX, and a driving simulation session on a simulator where their driving behaviors were recorded. Correlation analysis showed that the higher scores on the DAS were associated with longer durations of speeding in the simulator. The more participants expressed their anger in verbal and physical ways, the more likely they were to crash the virtual vehicle during the simulation. Regression analyses illustrated the same pattern. The findings suggest that, although trait anger is related to speeding, the passive expression of anger is the real factor underling traffic accidents. This study extends findings about the predictive effects of self-report scales of driving behaviors to behaviors recorded on a simulator. Thus, if in traffic safety propaganda, guiding drivers to use positive ways to cope with driving anger is recommended by our findings.

  1. Drowsiness in conditional automation : Proneness, diagnosis and driving performance effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncalves, J.; Happee, R.; Bengler, KJ; Rosetti, R.; Wolf, D.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue and drowsiness can play an important role in Conditional Automation (CA), as drowsy drivers may fail to properly recover control. In order to provide better insight in the effects of drowsy driving in Take Over Request (TOR), we designed a driving experiment that extends related

  2. Extended Enterprise performance Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, Maria Lammerdina; Hartmann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an

  3. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno; Yost, David S.; Bunn, Elaine; Lee, Seok-soo; Levite, Ariel e.; Russell, James A.; Hokayem, Emile; Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Schulte, Paul; Thraenert, Oliver; Kulesa, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  5. Fifty years of driving safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D

    2008-06-01

    This brief review covers the 50 years of driving-related research published in Human Factors, its contribution to driving safety, and emerging challenges. Many factors affect driving safety, making it difficult to assess the impact of specific factors such as driver age, cell phone distractions, or collision warnings. The author considers the research themes associated with the approximately 270 articles on driving published in Human Factors in the past 50 years. To a large extent, current and past research has explored similar themes and concepts. Many articles published in the first 25 years focused on issues such as driver impairment, individual differences, and perceptual limits. Articles published in the past 25 years address similar issues but also point toward vehicle technology that can exacerbate or mitigate the negative effect of these issues. Conceptual and computational models have played an important role in this research. Improved crash-worthiness has contributed to substantial improvements in driving safety over the past 50 years, but future improvements will depend on enhancing driver performance and perhaps, more important, improving driver behavior. Developing models to guide this research will become more challenging as new technology enters the vehicle and shifts the focus from driver performance to driver behavior. Over the past 50 years, Human Factors has accumulated a large base of driving-related research that remains relevant for many of today's design and policy concerns.

  6. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  7. The development, factor structure and psychometric properties of driving self-regulation scales for older adults: Has self-regulation evolved in the last 15 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ides Y; Smith, Simon S; Sullivan, Karen A

    2015-07-01

    The term driving self-regulation is typically used to describe the practice of drivers who avoid driving in situations that they regard as unsafe because of perceived physical impairment. Older adults report using this strategy to improve safety while retaining mobility. Self-regulation is typically assessed using the driving avoidance items from the driving habits questionnaire (DHQ) and the driver mobility questionnaire (DMQ-A). However, the psychometric properties of these measures are not well understood. Using data from 277 older drivers, exploratory factor analysis was used to test the homogeneity of three driving self-regulation scales: the DHQ, DMQ-A, and an extended DMQ-A. Good internal consistency for each of the scales was identified (all αs≥.9). A one factor solution was identified for two of the measures (DHQ, DMQ-A) and a two factor solution accounting for over 70% of the score variance was identified for the third measure. The two factors assessed situations that may be avoided while driving because of the "external" (e.g., weather-related) or "internal" (e.g., passenger-related) driving environments, respectively. The findings suggest that the interpretation of an overall summated scale score, or single-item interpretations, may not be appropriate. Instead, driving self-regulation may be a multifaceted construct comprised of distinct dimensions that have not been identified previously but can be reliably measured. These data have implications for our understanding of driving self-regulation by older adults and the way in which this behavior is measured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  9. A pilot study of the effects of atomoxetine on driving performance in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A; Anderson, Deborah L; Kruesi, Markus

    2007-02-01

    There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with ADHD (M age = 37 years) using ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairment, and safe driving behavior; a virtual reality driving simulator; and ratings of simulator performance. Atomoxetine improves self-ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairments, safe driving behavior, and simulator driving performance. No effects of atomoxetine are evident on others' ratings of driving behavior or on the simulator. Practice effects on the simulator may have obscured those drug effects. The authors find a mixed pattern of results such that atomoxetine warrants further study for its effects on driving in this high-risk population.

  10. Effect of chronic nonmalignant pain on highway driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuijzen, D S; van Wijck, A J M; Wille, F; Verster, J C; Kenemans, J L; Kalkman, C J; Olivier, B; Volkerts, E R

    2006-05-01

    Most pain patients are treated in an outpatient setting and are engaged in daily activities including driving. Since several studies showed that cognitive functioning may be impaired in chronic nonmalignant pain, the question arises whether or not chronic nonmalignant pain affects driving performance. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of chronic nonmalignant pain on actual highway driving performance during normal traffic. Fourteen patients with chronic nonmalignant pain and 14 healthy controls, matched on age, educational level, and driving experience, participated in the study. Participants performed a standardized on-the-road driving test during normal traffic, on a primary highway. The primary parameter of the driving test is the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP). In addition, driving-related skills (tracking, divided attention, and memory) were examined in the laboratory. Subjective assessments, such as pain intensity, and subjective driving quality, were rated on visual analogue scales. The results demonstrated that a subset of chronic nonmalignant pain patients had SDLPs that were higher than the matched healthy controls, indicating worse highway driving performance. Overall, there was a statistically significant difference in highway driving performance between the groups. Further, chronic nonmalignant pain patients rated their subjective driving quality to be normal, although their ratings were significantly lower than those of the healthy controls. No significant effects were found on the laboratory tests.

  11. Development of an efficient and compact range extender engine; Entwicklung eines effizienten und kompakten Range-Extender-Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahr, Bernd; Bassett, Mike; Hall, Jonathan; Warth, Marco [Mahle Powertrain Ltd., Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Mahle Powertrain has developed a compact, two-cylinder, spark-ignition engine that is specifically designed to be used as a range extender. Drive-cycle simulations and engine tests indicate that a range-extended vehicle using this engine would achieve a significant reduction in fuel consumption and tail-pipe CO{sub 2} levels. (orig.)

  12. Range extender module. Enabler for electric mobility; Range-Extender-Modul. Wegbereiter fuer elektrische Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Robert; Fraidl, Guenter Karl; Hubmann, Christian; Kapus, Paul Ernst; Kunzemann, Ralf; Sifferlinger, Bernhard; Beste, Frank [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2009-10-15

    The Range Extender as an auxiliary power supply for extended driving ranges is of significant importance in achieving a high level of customer acceptance for electric vehicles. The AVL concept is optimized for electric power generation in single-point operation and allows a compactly integrated, cost-efficient and weight-efficient module design. The internal combustion engine requirements of the Pure Range Extender from AVL permit not only the use of simplified four-stroke concepts but also the application of emission-optimized and fuel consumption-optimized two-stroke and rotary piston engines. (orig.)

  13. The impact of therapeutic opioid agonists on driving-related psychomotor skills assessed by a driving simulator or an on-road driving task: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diana H; Boland, Jason W; Phillips, Jane L; Lam, Lawrence; Currow, David C

    2018-04-01

    Driving cessation is associated with poor health-related outcomes. People with chronic diseases are often prescribed long-term opioid agonists that have the potential to impair driving. Studies evaluating the impact of opioids on driving-related psychomotor skills report contradictory results likely due to heterogeneous designs, assessment tools and study populations. A better understanding of the effects of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving can help to inform the balance between individual's independence and community safety. To identify the literature assessing the impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving-related psychomotor skills for people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness. Systematic review reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis statement; PROSPERO Registration CRD42017055909. Six electronic databases and grey literature were systematically searched up to January, 2017. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) empirical studies reporting data on driving simulation, on-the-road driving tasks or driving outcomes; (2) people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness; and (3) taking regular therapeutic opioid agonists. Critical appraisal used the National Institutes of Health's quality assessment tools. From 3809 records screened, three studies matched the inclusion criteria. All reported data on people with chronic non-malignant pain. No significant impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on people's driving-related psychomotor skills was reported. One study reported more intense pain significantly worsened driving performance. This systematic review does not identify impaired simulated driving performance when people take regular therapeutic opioid agonists for symptom control, although more prospective studies are needed.

  14. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  15. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  16. Recognizing driving in haste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendón-Vélez, E.

    2014-01-01

    One can often hear people discussing the reasons why a road accident has happened: “She had to pick up her kids in the school before four o’clock and she was driving in haste and careless”, “He was stressed, he wanted to reach the beginning of the football match, tried to drive faster and didn't

  17. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  18. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  19. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  20. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  1. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  2. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  3. Reconstruction of driving forces through recurrence plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Masaaki; Hirata, Yoshito; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing one-dimensional driving forces only from the observations of driven systems. We extend the approach presented in a seminal paper [M.C. Casdagli, Physica D 108 (1997) 12] and propose a method that is robust and has wider applicability. By reinterpreting the work of Thiel et al. [M. Thiel, M.C. Romano, J. Kurths, Phys. Lett. A 330 (2004) 343], we formulate the reconstruction problem as a combinatorial optimization problem and relax conditions by assuming that a driving force is continuous. The method is demonstrated by using a tent map driven by an external force.

  4. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. A prospective study of loss of consciousness in epilepsy using virtual reality driving simulation and other video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Morland, Thomas B; Schmits, Kristen; Rawson, Elizabeth; Narasimhan, Poojitha; Motelow, Joshua E; Purcaro, Michael J; Peng, Kathy; Raouf, Saned; Desalvo, Matthew N; Oh, Taemin; Wilkerson, Jerome; Bod, Jessica; Srinivasan, Aditya; Kurashvili, Pimen; Anaya, Joseph; Manza, Peter; Danielson, Nathan; Ransom, Christopher B; Huh, Linda; Elrich, Susan; Padin-Rosado, Jose; Naidu, Yamini; Detyniecki, Kamil; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Astur, Robert; Xiao, Bo; Duckrow, Robert B; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-07-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at risk of traffic accidents when they have seizures while driving. However, driving is an essential part of normal daily life in many communities, and depriving patients of driving privileges can have profound consequences for their economic and social well-being. In the current study, we collected ictal performance data from a driving simulator and two other video games in patients undergoing continuous video/EEG monitoring. We captured 22 seizures in 13 patients and found that driving impairment during seizures differed in terms of both magnitude and character, depending on the seizure type. Our study documents the feasibility of a prospective study of driving and other behaviors during seizures through the use of computer-based tasks. This methodology may be applied to further describe differential driving impairment in specific types of seizures and to gain data on anatomical networks disrupted in seizures that impair consciousness and driving safety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between frequency of driving under the influence of cannabis, self-reported reckless driving and risk-taking behavior observed in a driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Jacques; Paquette, Martin

    2014-06-01

    The role of cannabis consumption in traffic crashes is unclear and the causal link between cannabis and collisions is still to be demonstrated. While cannabis use is very likely to impair driving ability, there is as yet no overwhelming evidence that cannabis use in isolation contributes more to collisions than other characteristics inherent to cannabis users. As noted in a growing body of literature, individuals driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) seem to exhibit a general reckless driving style putting them at higher risk to be involved in traffic crashes. This study aims at investigating the relationship between self-reported DUIC and reckless driving by means of self-reported measures and direct observations made in a driving simulator. Participants (n=72) were required to be between 18 and 25 years of age, to hold a valid driver's license, and to drive at least twice a week. They completed standard driving simulation tasks recreating everyday on-road trivial conditions. Results show that people admitting that they commit more real-life dangerous driving behaviors reached higher maximum speed and demonstrated more reckless driving behaviors on the driving simulation tasks. Self-reported DUIC is associated with a risky driving style including a broad range of reckless on-road behaviors and support the problem driving behavior theory. Moreover, beyond confounding factors, both self-report DUIC and observed dangerous behaviors are associated with real-life traffic violations. Since DUIC appears to be related to an overall reckless style of driving, it is proposed that public safety policies should be more holistic, simultaneously targeting multiple on-road dangerous behaviors for intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  8. 78 FR 73373 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ..., Americans join with family, friends, and neighbors to take part in longstanding traditions. For some, those.... Everyone has a role to play in keeping our roads safe-- from parents, schools, and businesses to faith...-drinking driver, plan ahead for alternative transportation, or make arrangements to stay with family and...

  9. 76 FR 76023 - National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... an unacceptable loss of life from traffic accidents that involve drugs, alcohol, and distracted... Prevention Month, we recommit to preventing tragedy before it strikes by ensuring our family members and... parents, educators, and community leaders who work with young people every day are our Nation's best...

  10. Extending Database Integration Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buneman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...

  11. Views of US drivers about driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2003-01-01

    To assess how drivers view dangers on the highway, what motivates them to drive safely, how they say they reduce their crash and injury risk, and how they rate their own driving skills. Most drivers rated their skills as better than average. The biggest motivating factor for safe driving was concern for safety of others in their vehicle, followed by negative outcomes such as being in a crash, increased insurance costs, and fines. The greatest threats to their safety were thought to be other drivers' actions that increase crash risk such as alcohol impairment or running red lights. In terms of reducing crashes and injuries, drivers tended to focus on actions they could take such as driving defensively or using seat belts. There was less recognition of the role of vehicles and vehicle features in crash or injury prevention. Knowing how drivers view themselves and others, their concerns, and their motivations and techniques for staying out of trouble on the roads provides insight into the difficulty of changing driving practices.

  12. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  13. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  14. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  15. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  16. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  17. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  18. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  19. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  20. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooshima, Yoshio.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To perform reliable scram operation, even if abnormality should occur in a system instructing scram operation in FBR type reactors. Constitution: An aluminum alloy member to be melt at a predetermined temperature (about 600sup(o)C) is disposed to a connection part between a control rod and a driving mechanism, whereby the control rod is detached from the driving mechanism and gravitationally fallen to the reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  2. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  3. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  5. The Effects of Dextromethorphan on Driving Performance and the Standardized Field Sobriety Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Fredriksen, Kristian; Chew, Stephanie; Ip, Eric J; Lopes, Ingrid; Doroudgar, Shadi; Thomas, Kelan

    2015-09-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) is abused most commonly among adolescents as a recreational drug to generate a dissociative experience. The objective of the study was to assess driving with and without DXM ingestion. The effects of one-time maximum daily doses of DXM 120 mg versus a guaifenesin 400 mg dose were compared among 40 healthy subjects using a crossover design. Subjects' ability to drive was assessed by their performance in a driving simulator (STISIM® Drive driving simulator software) and by conducting a standardized field sobriety test (SFST) administered 1-h postdrug administration. The one-time dose of DXM 120 mg did not demonstrate driving impairment on the STISIM® Drive driving simulator or increase SFST failures compared to guaifenesin 400 mg. Doses greater than the currently recommended maximum daily dose of 120 mg are necessary to perturb driving behavior. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Alcohol calibration of tests measuring skills related to car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Stefan; Vuurman, Eric; Ramaekers, Jan; Vermeeren, Annemiek

    2014-06-01

    Medication and illicit drugs can have detrimental side effects which impair driving performance. A drug's impairing potential should be determined by well-validated, reliable, and sensitive tests and ideally be calibrated by benchmark drugs and doses. To date, no consensus has been reached on the issue of which psychometric tests are best suited for initial screening of a drug's driving impairment potential. The aim of this alcohol calibration study is to determine which performance tests are useful to measure drug-induced impairment. The effects of alcohol are used to compare the psychometric quality between tests and as benchmark to quantify performance changes in each test associated with potentially impairing drug effects. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, four-way crossover study. Treatments were placebo and three different doses of alcohol leading to blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 g/L. Main effects of alcohol were found in most tests. Compared with placebo, performance in the Divided Attention Test (DAT) was significantly impaired after all alcohol doses and performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Balance Test was impaired with a BAC of 0.5 and 0.8 g/L. The largest effect sizes were found on postural balance with eyes open and mean reaction time in the divided attention and the psychomotor vigilance test. The preferable tests for initial screening are the DAT and the PVT, as these tests were most sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol and being considerably valid in assessing potential driving impairment.

  7. Hypnotics and driving safety: meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials applying the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Patat, Alain; Olivier, Berend; Volkerts, Edmund R

    2006-01-01

    Many people who use hypnotics are outpatients and are likely to drive a car the day after drug intake. The purpose of these meta-analyses was to determine whether or not this is safe. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trials were selected if using the on-the-road driving test to determine driving ability the day following one or two nights of treatment administration. Primary outcome measure of the driving test was the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP); i.e., the weaving of the car. Fixed effects model meta-analyses were performed. Effect size (ES) was computed using mean standardized (weighted) difference scores between treatment and corresponding placebo SDLP values. Ten studies, published from 1984 to 2002 (207 subjects), were included in the meta-analyses. The morning following bedtime administration, i.e. 10-11 hours after dosing, significant driving impairment was found for the recommended dose of various benzodiazepine hypnotics (ES=0.42; 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.14 to 0.71). Twice the recommended dose impaired driving both in the morning (ES=0.68; CI=0.39 to 0.97) and afternoon, i.e. 16-17 hours after dosing (ES=0.57; CI=0.26 to 0.88). Zopiclone 7.5 mg also impaired driving in the morning (ES=0.89; CI=0.54 to 1.23). Zaleplon (10 and 20 mg) and zolpidem (10 mg) did not affect driving performance the morning after dosing. Following middle-of-the-night administration, significantly impaired driving performance was found for zopiclone 7.5 mg (ES=1.51, CI=0.85 to 2.17), zolpidem 10 mg (ES=0.66, CI=0.13 to 1.19) and zolpidem 20 mg (ES=1.16, CI=0.60 to 1.72). Zaleplon (10 and 20 mg) did not affect driving performance. The analyses show that driving a car the morning following nocturnal treatment with benzodiazepines and zopiclone is unsafe, whereas the recommended dose of zolpidem (10 mg) and zaleplon (10 mg) do not affect driving ability.

  8. An extended technicolor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Terning, J.

    1994-01-01

    An extended technicolor model is constructed. Quark and lepton masses, spontaneous CP violation, and precision electroweak measurements are discussed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is analyzed using the concept of the big MAC (most attractive channel)

  9. Extending mine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining

  10. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  11. Age and inconsistency in driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, David; Young, Mark S; Blane, Alison; Khugputh, Priya

    2012-11-01

    Research in cognitive neuropsychology suggests that investigation of the within-person variability, or inconsistency, of cognitive performance may provide valuable insights into ageing mental processes. It is rare though, for this interest in intraindividual variability to extend to everyday activities. As this may provide important information about driving behaviour, we therefore assessed age differences in driving inconsistency in younger (n=24, M age=21.29 years) and older (n=21, M age=71.24 years) persons who drove in residential, urban and motorway conditions in a fully immersive driving simulator. In measures of headway (maintaining a safe distance to a preceding vehicle) and lateral lane position, older drivers exhibited significantly greater performance inconsistency, and this was particularly marked in the faster motorway condition. Older drivers also recorded greater perceived mental demands associated with driving, and greater within-person variability across a range of cognitive measures. The findings suggest that age-related deficits in attentional and executive control may affect the consistency of driving performance in older persons. Discussion considers interventions to introduce in-vehicle systems to help maintain attention in older drivers, and to intervene when safety-critical boundaries are exceeded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  13. Extending Mondrian Memory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    a kernel semaphore is locked or unlocked. In addition, we extended the system call interface to receive notifications about user-land locking...operations (such as calls to the mutex and semaphore code provided by the C library). By patching the dynamically loadable GLibC5, we are able to test... semaphores , and spinlocks. RTO-MP-IST-091 10- 9 Extending Mondrian Memory Protection to loading extension plugins. This prevents any untrusted code

  14. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED ... Corrosion Testing of Traditional and Extended Life Coolants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hansen, Gregory A. T...providing vehicle specific coolants. Several laboratory corrosion tests were performed according to ASTM D1384 and D2570, but with a 2.5x extended time

  15. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  17. Psychometrics of the AAN Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire and contributors to caregiver concern about driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Springate, Beth; Bernier, Rachel A; Davis, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) updated their practice parameters in the evaluation of driving risk in dementia and developed a Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire, detailed in their original manuscript (Iverson Gronseth, Reger, Classen, Dubinsky, & Rizzo, 2010). They described four factors associated with decreased driving ability in dementia patients: history of crashes or citations, informant-reported concerns, reduced mileage, and aggressive driving. An informant-reported AAN Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire was designed with these elements, and the current study was the first to explore the factor structure of this questionnaire. Additionally, we examined associations between these factors and cognitive and behavioral measures in patients with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer's disease and their informants. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-component structure, consistent with the theory behind the AAN scale composition. These four factor scores also were significantly associated with performance on cognitive screening instruments and informant reported behavioral dysfunction. Regressions revealed that behavioral dysfunction predicted caregiver concerns about driving safety beyond objective patient cognitive dysfunction. In this first known quantitative exploration of the scale, our results support continued use of this scale in office driving safety assessments. Additionally, patient behavioral changes predicted caregiver concerns about driving safety over and above cognitive status, which suggests that caregivers may benefit from psychoeducation about cognitive factors that may negatively impact driving safety.

  18. Drinking and driving behavior at stop signs and red lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingyan; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Yiqi; Houston, Rebecca J; Chen, Chang Wen; Chanawangsa, Panya

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol is one of the principal risk factors for motor vehicle crashes. One factor that contributes to vehicle crashes is noncompliance with stop signs and red lights. The present experiment investigated the effects of alcohol and drinking patterns on driving behavior at stop signs and red lights. 28 participants participated in drinking and simulated driving sessions during which they received a moderate dose of alcohol (0.08% BAC) or a placebo. Simulated driving tasks measured participants' driving performance at stop signs and red lights in response to each dose. Results suggested that alcohol impaired the driver control of speed and direction and prolonged their simple and complex reaction time, which were exhibited by impaired speed and lateral control, longer reaction time when the lights turned yellow, and lower deceleration towards stop signs and red lights. Visual degradation may also occur under alcohol intake. It was also suggested that alcohol impaired non-binge drinkers more severely. To be specific, higher acceleration was observed in impaired non-binge drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Manual control analysis of drug effects on driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, A.; Ziedman, K.; Moskowitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of secobarbital, diazepam, alcohol, and marihuana on car-driver transfer functions obtained using a driving simulator were studied. The first three substances, all CNS depressants, reduced gain, crossover frequency, and coherence which resulted in poorer tracking performance. Marihuana also impaired tracking performance but the only effect on the transfer function parameters was to reduce coherence.

  20. Influence of bicarbonate on ventilatory drive in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, J.G.; Veltink, Peter; Heunks, Leo M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute hypoventilation results in CO2 retention and respiratory acidosis. Bicarbonate retention aims to restore pH level. However, after institution of mechanical ventilation metabolic alkalosis may develop, which could impair respiratory drive. Aim To investigate whether increased plasma

  1. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  2. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  3. A roadmap for interpreting the literature on vision and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne M; McGwin, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades there has been a sharp increase in the number of studies focused on the relationship between vision and driving. The intensified attention to this topic has most likely been stimulated by the lack of an evidence basis for determining vision standards for driving licensure and a poor understanding about how vision impairment impacts driver safety and performance. Clinicians depend on the literature on vision and driving to advise visually impaired patients appropriately about driving fitness. Policy makers also depend on the scientific literature in order to develop guidelines that are evidence-based and are thus fair to persons who are visually impaired. Thus it is important for clinicians and policy makers alike to understand how various study designs and measurement methods should be interpreted so that the conclusions and recommendations they make are not overly broad, too narrowly constrained, or even misguided. We offer a methodological framework to guide interpretations of studies on vision and driving that can also serve as a heuristic for researchers in the area. Here, we discuss research designs and general measurement methods for the study of vision as they relate to driver safety, driver performance, and driver-centered (self-reported) outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  5. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV or Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV? —Deciding Between Different Alternative Drives Based on Measured Individual Operational Profiles Véhicule électrique à batteries (BEV ou véhicule électrique à prolongateur d’autonomie (REEV ? — Choisir entre différents entraînements alternatifs sur la base de profils opérationnels individuels mesurés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marker S.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a large number of concepts for drive train electrification and a corresponding broad variety of available drive train configurations were presented to the public. They all have their pros and cons for the customer. This paper discusses a tool enabling the customer to select the drive train which is best suited to his individual purposes. The presented approach focuses on BEV and REEV and is characterized by a three-step procedure: the customer’s individual driving behaviour is measured: individualized driving cycles and operational habits including the daily kilometrage are derived; numerical models of the alternative drive train concepts are run to simulate the energy consumption by applying these individualized cycles. The study reveals that battery sizing is the most important component. It would be more efficient to use a REEV with a smaller battery instead of a BEV: at a given range of 50 km the BEV covers 50% of the kilometers (corresponding to 90% of all daily distances while the REEV covers 100% of all daily distances, out of it 70% on electric driving. This leads to less CO2 emission compared to the combined use of BEV and conventional cars. The REEV with the smallest battery is amortized first referred to conventional cars. The influence of the individual usage pattern can be translated to operational costs. The REEV urban driver covers 85% by electric driving and has thus lower operational costs than the REEV inter-urban driver with 64% electric driving. Récemment, un grand nombre de concepts d’électrification des groupes motopropulseurs et une large variété correspondante de configurations disponibles ont été présentés au public. Tous possèdent des avantages et des inconvénients pour le client. Cet article traite d’un outil permettant au client de sélectionner le groupe motopropulseur le plus adapté à ses besoins individuels. L’approche présentée se focalise sur les véhicules BEV (Battery

  6. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure. (paper)

  7. Toking and Driving: Characteristics of Canadian University Students Who Drive after Cannabis Use--An Exploratory Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rodopoulos, Jenny; Rehm, Jurgen; Ivsins, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis use is increasingly prevalent among young adults in Canada. Due to cannabis' impairment effects, driving under the influence of cannabis has recently developed into a traffic-safety concern, yet little is known about the specific circumstances and factors characterizing this behavior among young people. In this study, we interviewed a…

  8. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  9. ‘Zero Tolerance’ Drug Driving Laws in Australia: A Gap Between Rationale and Form?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ann Quilter

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Legislation in all Australian states and territories creates offences and provides for police roadside testing in relation to ‘drug driving’. Ostensibly motivated by the same road safety objectives and impairment paradigm as drink driving laws, drug driving laws adopt a significantly different approach. Whereas random breath testing tests for all forms of alcohol and is designed to determine whether there is a sufficient concentration of alcohol in the driver’s body that s/he should be deemed to be impaired, random drug testing typically tests for the presence of any quantity of only the three most widely used illicit drugs—cannabis, methamphetamine and ecstasy—in the driver’s oral fluids, without reference to what is known about the different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic qualities of different drugs. This article examines this idiosyncratic approach to the criminalisation of drug driving, highlighting its weak correlation with the important road safety objective of deterring substance-impaired driving, and the risks of both over- and under-criminalisation that it creates. It argues that public policy on the prohibition of certain drugs and the criminalisation of their use should be disentangled from public policy on impaired driving. It recommends that drug driving laws in all Australian jurisdictions should be brought back into line with drink driving laws, via legislation and testing practices that turn on substance-specific prescribed concentrations for all drugs (illicit and licit that have the potential to impair drivers.

  10. Driving skills after whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimse, R; Bjørgen, I A; Straume, A

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that some persons with longlasting problems after whiplash have changed eye movements. These changes have been related to disturbance of the posture control system. The question raised in the present study is whether such disturbances can influence daily life functions connected with balance, position and external movements, such as car driving. A group of 23 persons with disturbed eye movements due to whiplash injury, was tested in a driving simulator, together with a closely matched control group. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups with respect to response times to the traffic signs presented, identification of type of sign, as well as steering precision while the subjects' attention was directed to the process of identifying the signs. Alternative explanations such as driving experience, pain, medication or malingering are at least partly controlled for, but cannot completely be ruled out. A distorted posture control system leading to disturbance of eye movements seems to be the most likely primary causative factor, but these disturbances are most certainly complexly determined. Reduced attention capacity is considered to be a mediating secondary factor. Registration of eye movements may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate driving skill after whiplash.

  11. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  12. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  13. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  14. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    compound promises to reduce weight of future permanent magnet motors by 20 to 30 percent; a similar reduction is expected in size (approximately 20...drive systems. The AC permanent magnet (brushless DC motor) is rapidly evolving and will replace most electrically excited machines. Permanent magnet motors using

  15. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  16. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  17. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  18. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry.

  19. The prevalence and relative risk of drink and drug driving in the Netherlands: a case-control study in the Tilburg police district : research in the framework of the European research programme IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Houwing, S.

    2005-01-01

    Drink and drug driving can have an impact on the driving performance and accident risk. This epidemiological study, which forms part of the European project IMMORTAL, investigates the prevalence of eight defined drug groups, including alcohol, among drivers in the Tilburg police district. To examine

  20. Does Simulator Sickness Impair Learning Decision Making While Driving a Police Vehicle? (Le mal du simulateur: un frein à l'apprentissage de la prise de décision en conduite d'un véhicule de police?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Eve; Bélanger, Danielle-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The use of driving simulators is an innovation for police training in Quebec. There are some issues related to their impact on training objectives. This article presents the results of a study involving 71 police cadets who participated in six training sessions with a driving simulator. The training sessions were designed for developing the…

  1. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  2. Wrong-way driving crashes on French divided roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemel, Emmanuel

    2015-02-01

    The objective of divided roads is to increase users' safety by posting unidirectional traffic flows. It happens however that drivers proceed in the wrong direction, endangering themselves as well as other users. The crashes caused by wrong-way drivers are generally spotlighted by the media and call for public intervention. This paper proposes a characterization of wrong-way driving crashes occurring on French divided road on the 2008-2012 period. The objective is to identify the factors that delineate between wrong-way driving crashes and other crashes. Building on the national injury road crash database, 266 crashes involving a wrong-way driver were identified. Their characteristics (related to timing, location, vehicle and driver) are compared to those of the 22,120 other crashes that occurred on the same roads over the same period. The comparison relies on descriptive statistics, completed by a logistic regression. Wrong-way driving crashes are rare but severe. They are more likely to occur during night hours and on non-freeway roads than other crashes. Wrong-way drivers are older, more likely to be intoxicated, to be locals, to drive older vehicles, mainly passenger cars without passengers, than other drivers. The differences observed across networks can help prioritizing public intervention. Most of the identified WW-driving factors deal with cognitive impairment. Therefore, the specific countermeasures such as alternative road signs should be designed for and tested on cognitively impaired drivers. Nevertheless, WW-driving factors are also risk factors for other types of crashes (e.g. elderly driving, drunk driving and age of the vehicle). This suggests that, instead of (or in addition to) developing WW-driving specific countermeasures, managing these risk factors would help reducing a larger number of crashes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  4. Texting while driving using Google Glass™: Promising but not distraction-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jibo; Choi, William; McCarley, Jason S; Chaparro, Barbara S; Wang, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Texting while driving is risky but common. This study evaluated how texting using a Head-Mounted Display, Google Glass, impacts driving performance. Experienced drivers performed a classic car-following task while using three different interfaces to text: fully manual interaction with a head-down smartphone, vocal interaction with a smartphone, and vocal interaction with Google Glass. Fully manual interaction produced worse driving performance than either of the other interaction methods, leading to more lane excursions and variable vehicle control, and higher workload. Compared to texting vocally with a smartphone, texting using Google Glass produced fewer lane excursions, more braking responses, and lower workload. All forms of texting impaired driving performance compared to undistracted driving. These results imply that the use of Google Glass for texting impairs driving, but its Head-Mounted Display configuration and speech recognition technology may be safer than texting using a smartphone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Excursions out-of-lane versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The traditional outcome measure of the Dutch on-the-road driving test is the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), the weaving of the car. This paper explores whether excursions out-of-lane are a suitable additional outcome measure to index driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to search for driving tests that used both SDLP and excursions out-of-lane as outcome measures. The analyses were limited to studies examining hypnotic drugs because several of these drugs have been shown to produce next-morning sedation. Standard deviation of lateral position was more sensitive in demonstrating driving impairment. In fact, solely relying on excursions out-of-lane as outcome measure incorrectly classifies approximately half of impaired drives as unimpaired. The frequency of excursions out-of-lane is determined by the mean lateral position within the right traffic lane. Defining driving impairment as having a ΔSDLP > 2.4 cm, half of the impaired driving tests (51.2%, 43/84) failed to produce excursions out-of-lane. Alternatively, 20.9% of driving tests with ΔSDLP < 2.4 cm (27/129) had at least one excursion out-of-lane. Excursions out-of-lane are neither a suitable measure to demonstrate driving impairment nor is this measure sufficiently sensitive to differentiate adequately between differences in magnitude of driving impairment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Drug driving in Europe : policy measures for national and EU action.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atchison, L.

    2017-01-01

    Driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs leads to deaths and serious injuries on Europe’s roads. Both illicit and licit drugs can disrupt the psychological state of the driver and impair their driving performance. Using multiple drugs simultaneously, or in conjunction with alcohol,

  7. Exploring the Drinking/Driving Behaviors and Attitudes of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E. Scott

    While there is little research specifically dealing with college students and drunk driving, there is ample evidence of frequent, heavy drinking by students. A series of projects was undertaken to explore college students' drinking behavior and attitudes related to alcohol-impaired driving. These projects included: (1) analysis of behavioral…

  8. Individual Interventions To Prevent Drunk Driving: Types, Efficacy, and a Theorectical Persepctive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Elsie R.; Compton, Kristi L.

    2000-01-01

    College students (N=100) who had tried to stop someone from driving while drunk, or who someone had tried to stop, provided information about their interactions. Results suggest that the manner in which people intervene can affect the likelihood that the impaired person will not drive. Threat of competence is discussed, as are implications for…

  9. Drunk driving warning system (DDWS). Volume 1, System concept and description

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test in order to drive the car in a normal manner. The emergency flasher system operat...

  10. Intervention improves physician counseling on teen driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

    2009-07-01

    As part of a statewide campaign, we surveyed physician attitudes and practice regarding teen driving safety before and after a brief intervention designed to facilitate in office counseling. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to Connecticut physicians, and this was followed by a mailing of teen driving safety materials to physician practices in the state. A postintervention survey was mailed 8 months after the presurvey. A total of 102 physicians completed both the pre and postsurveys. Thirty-nine percent (39%) reported having had a teen in their practice die in a motor vehicle crash in the presurvey, compared with 49% in the postsurvey. Physician counseling increased significantly for a number of issues: driving while impaired from 86% to 94%; restrictions on teen driving from 53% to 64%; teen driving laws from 53% to 63%; safe vehicle from 32% to 42%; parents model safe driving from 29% to 44%; and teen-parent written contract from 15% to 37%. At baseline, the majority of physicians who provide care to teenagers in Connecticut report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduate driver licensing laws or related issues. After a brief intervention, there was a significant increase in physician counseling of teens on teen driving laws and on the use of teen-parent contracts. Additional interventions targeting physician practices can improve physician counseling to teens and their parents on issues of teen driving safety.

  11. Positioning drive for absorber rods of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acher, H.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a positioning drive for absorber rods of a nuclear reactor, of a threaded spindle and traveling nut type. In this positioning drive, rollers are provided the nut, which engage with the threads of the spindle and have an axis extending essentially at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the spindle. Three of the rollers are preferably combined in a traveling-nut housing, by means of anti-friction bearing elements. The positioning speed of such mechanical spindle drives can be increased thereby substantially. The invention is of interest particularly for boiling-water reactors. 9 claims, 8 figures

  12. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  13. Transversally extended string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi

    1988-01-01

    Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)

  14. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  15. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  16. Opportunity's View After Drive on Sol 1806

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings just after driving 60.86 meters (200 feet) on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (Feb. 21, 2009). North is at the center; south at both ends. Tracks from the drive extend northward across dark-toned sand ripples and light-toned patches of exposed bedrock in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Engineers designed the Sol 1806 drive to be driven backwards as a strategy to redistribute lubricant in the rovers wheels. The right-front wheel had been showing signs of increased friction. The rover's position after the Sol 1806 drive was about 2 kilometer (1.2 miles) south southwest of Victoria Crater. Cumulative odometry was 14.74 kilometers (9.16 miles) since landing in January 2004, including 2.96 kilometers (1.84 miles) since climbing out of Victoria Crater on the west side of the crater on Sol 1634 (August 28, 2008). This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  18. Correlates of Marijuana Drugged Driving and Openness to Driving While High: Evidence from Colorado and Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Davis

    Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated

  19. Driving towards ecotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Devora A; Normandin, Avery M; Strait, Elizabeth A; Esvelt, Kevin M

    2017-12-01

    The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives. Hence, open and community-guided development of thoughtfully chosen applications is not only the most ethical approach, but also the most likely to overcome the economic, social, and diplomatic barriers. Here we review current and past attempts to alter ecosystems using biological methods, identify key determinants of social acceptance, and chart a stepwise path for developers towards safe and widely supported use.

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hiromitsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To drive control rods at an optimum safety speed corresponding to the reactor core output. Constitution: The reactor power is detected by a neutron detector and the output signal is applied to a process computer. The process computer issues a signal representing the reactor core output, which is converted through a function generator into a signal representing the safety speed of control rods. The converted signal is further supplied to a V/F converter and converted into a pulse signal. The pulse signal is inputted to a step motor driving circuit, which actuates a step motor to operate the control rods always at a safety speed corresponding to the reactor core power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  1. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  2. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  3. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao; Goto, Mikihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a control rod drive mechanism using water as an operating source, which prevents a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the neighbourhood of a return nozzle in a reactor to limit formation of excessive thermal stress to improve a safety. Constitution: In the control rod drive mechanism of the present invention, a heating device is installed in the neighbourhood of a pressure container for a reactor. This heating device is provided to heat return water in the reactor to a level equal to the temperature of reactor water thereby preventing a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the reactor. This limits formation of thermal stress in the return nozzle in the reactor. Accordingly, it is possible to minimize damages in the return nozzle portion and yet a possibility of failure in reactor water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  5. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  7. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To restrict the reduction in performance due to stress corrosion cracks by making use of condensate produced in a turbine steam condenser. Structure: Water produced in a turbine steam condenser is forced into a condensed water desalting unit by low pressure condensate pump. The condensate is purified and then forced by a high pressure condensate pump into a feedwater heater for heating before it is returned to the reactor by a feedwater pump. Part of the condensate issuing from the condensate desalting unit is branched from the remaining portion at a point upstream the pump and is withdrawn into a control rod drive water pump after passing through a motordriven bypass valve, an orifice and a condenser water level control valve, is pressurized in the control rod drive water desalting unit and supplied to a control rod drive water pressure system. The control rod is vertically moved by the valve operation of the water pressure system. Since water of high oxygen concentration does not enter during normal operation, it is possible to prevent the stress cracking of the stainless steel apparatus. (Nakamura, S.)

  8. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  9. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. [Motor vehicle driving and diabetes mellitus - medical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brož, Jan; Kriváňová, Lenka Syčová; Fedáková, Zuzana; Petrosyan, Lilit; Kvapil, Milan; Polák, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease which may affect the eligibility to hold a driving license and increase the risk of a road accident. Hypoglycemia while driving is considered to be the most risky situation, with diabetes increasing the mentioned risk for instance due to impaired vision in the case of possible retinopathy. The group of drivers with diabetes being at the greatest risk as to accidents are those with a case history of severe hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia occurred while driving, or possibly of a road accident. Measuring glycaemia before driving and their knowledge how to prevent and treat hypoglycemia - those are the two crucial preventive elements indispensable for insulin treated diabetes patients in order to secure safe road traffic.

  11. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  12. Repeated-dose effects of mequitazine, cetirizine and dexchlorpheniramine on driving and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Eef L; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the antihistamines mequitazine, cetirizine and dexchlorpheniramine produce mild sedation after single doses. It is unknown, however, whether acute sedation persists after repeated dosing. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of repeated dosing of these antihistamines on driving and psychomotor performance. Sixteen healthy volunteers were treated with mequitazine 10 mg q.a.m., cetirizine 10 mg q.a.m., dexchlorpheniramine Repetab 6 mg b.i.d. and placebo for four separate 8-day periods. Drug effects were assessed on days 1 and 8 using on-the-road driving tests (highway driving and car following), psychomotor tests (tracking and divided attention) and subjective questionnaires. Dexchlorpheniramine and mequitazine significantly impaired driving performance on the highway driving test on the first day; dexchlorpheniramine increased Standard Deviation of Lateral Position by 2 cm [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5, 3.8] and mequitazine by 2.5 cm (CI 1.0, 4.3). These effects on driving performance disappeared after 8 days of treatment. No effect of treatment was found on car following, tracking and divided attention. Although subjective ratings confirmed that subjects knew their driving had been impaired in the mequitazine and dexchlorpheniramine condition after completion of the highway driving test on day 1, they did not expect their driving to be affected before the start of the test. Cetirizine did not impair performance on any of the tests. Single doses of mequitazine 10 mg and dexchlorpheniramine Repetab 6 mg cause mild driving impairment. However, when taken over several days, the impairing effect wears off, possibly as a result of tolerance.

  13. Extended quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Bona

    2000-01-01

    The work can be considered as an essay on mathematical and conceptual structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is related here to some other (more general, but also to more special and 'approximative') theories. Quantum mechanics is here primarily reformulated in an equivalent form of a Poisson system on the phase space consisting of density matrices, where the 'observables', as well as 'symmetry generators' are represented by a specific type of real valued (densely defined) functions, namely the usual quantum expectations of corresponding selfjoint operators. It is shown in this paper that inclusion of additional ('nonlinear') symmetry generators (i. e. 'Hamiltonians') into this reformulation of (linear) quantum mechanics leads to a considerable extension of the theory: two kinds of quantum 'mixed states' should be distinguished, and operator - valued functions of density matrices should be used in the role of 'nonlinear observables'. A general framework for physical theories is obtained in this way: By different choices of the sets of 'nonlinear observables' we obtain, as special cases, e.g. classical mechanics on homogeneous spaces of kinematical symmetry groups, standard (linear) quantum mechanics, or nonlinear extensions of quantum mechanics; also various 'quasiclassical approximations' to quantum mechanics are all sub theories of the presented extension of quantum mechanics - a version of the extended quantum mechanics. A general interpretation scheme of extended quantum mechanics extending the usual statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is also proposed. Eventually, extended quantum mechanics is shown to be (included into) a C * -algebraic (hence linear) quantum theory. Mathematical formulation of these theories is presented. The presentation includes an analysis of problems connected with differentiation on infinite-dimensional manifolds, as well as a solution of some problems connected with the work with only densely defined unbounded

  14. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  15. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... of public importance; engaging with non-academic groups using dialectical reasoning; scaling up insights through movement building; and propagating deliberation...

  16. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  17. Extended Theories of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2011-01-01

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

  18. Recording and automated analysis of naturalistic bioptic driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2011-05-01

    People with moderate central vision loss are legally permitted to drive with a bioptic telescope in 39 US states and the Netherlands, but the safety of bioptic driving remains highly controversial. There is no scientific evidence about bioptic use and its impact on safety. We propose searching for evidence by recording naturalistic driving activities in patients' cars. In a pilot study we used an analogue video system to record two bioptic drivers' daily driving activities for 10 and 5 days, respectively. In this technical report, we also describe our novel digital system that collects vehicle manoeuvre information and enables recording over more extended periods, and discuss our approach to analyzing the vast amount of data. Our observations of telescope use by the pilot subjects were quite different from their reports in a previous survey. One subject used the telescope only seven times in nearly 6 h of driving. For the other subject, the average interval between telescope use was about 2 min, and Mobile (cell) phone use in one trip extended the interval to almost 5 min. We demonstrate that computerized analysis of lengthy recordings based on video, GPS, acceleration, and black box data can be used to select informative segments for efficient off-line review of naturalistic driving behaviours. The inconsistency between self reports and objective data as well as infrequent telescope use underscores the importance of recording bioptic driving behaviours in naturalistic conditions over extended periods. We argue that the new recording system is important for understanding bioptic use behaviours and bioptic driving safety. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  19. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  20. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  1. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  2. Dual-task effects of simulated lane navigation and story recall in older adults with and without memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah E; Sisco, Shannon M; Marsiske, Michael

    2013-01-01

    While driving is a complex task, it becomes relatively automatic over time although unfamiliar situations require increased cognitive effort. Much research has examined driving risk in cognitively impaired elders and found little effect. This study assessed whether mildly memory impaired elders made disproportionate errors in driving or story recall, under simultaneous simulated driving and story recall. Forty-six healthy (61% women; mean age = 76.4) and 15 memory impaired (66% women, mean age = 79.4) elders participated. Cognitive status was determined by neuropsychological performance. Results showed that during dual-task conditions, participants stayed in lane more, and recalled stories more poorly, than when they did the tasks separately. Follow-up analysis revealed that verbatim recall, in particular, was reduced while driving for healthy participants. While memory impaired participants performed more poorly than healthy controls on both tasks, cognitive status was not associated with greater dual-task costs when driving and story recall were combined.

  3. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...

  4. Drink driving - Why risk the consequences?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In the second of the series of articles about alcohol, CERN is highlighting the dangers of drinking and driving. Have you ever driven after drinking alcohol? If you did, then you were more likely to be involved in an accident that could kill or injure yourself or other people. Why risk it? Any alcohol can impair driving ability. The risk of being in an accident rises significantly after alcohol is consumed: at the French legal limit of 0.5 grams of alcohol per litre of blood, a driver is twice as likely to have an accident as someone who has had no alcohol. At the Swiss legal limit of 0.8 g/l, a driver is five times more likely to be involved in an accident. Many EU countries share the French limit. Penalties for breaking the law vary depending on the severity of the offence, but they include disqualification, fines and imprisonment. Drink Drive Limits and Penalties in the European Union Country Limit g/l Prison Sentence (maximum) Austria 0,5 up to 3 months / 3 years (if fatal) Belgiu...

  5. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  6. Ego, drives, and the dynamics of internal objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eBoag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the relationship between the ego, id, and internal objects. While ego psychology views the ego as autonomous of the drives, a less well-known alternative position views the ego as constituted by the drives. Based on Freud’s ego-instinct account, this position has developed into a school of thought which postulates that the drives act as knowers. Given that there are multiple drives, this position proposes that personality is constituted by multiple knowers. Following on from Freud, the ego is viewed as a composite sub-set of the instinctual drives (ego-drives, whereas those drives cut off from expression form the id. The nature of the ‘self’ is developed in terms of identification and the possibility of multiple personalities is also established. This account is then extended to object-relations and the explanatory value of the ego-drive account is discussed in terms of the addressing the nature of ego-structures and the dynamic nature of internal objects. Finally, the impact of psychological conflict and the significance of repression for understanding the nature of splits within the psyche are also discussed.

  7. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  8. E-drive with electrically controlled differential; E-Antrieb mit elektrisch geregeltem Differenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetana, Tomas; Biermann, Thorsten [Schaeffler Technologies GmbH und Co. KG, Herzogenaurach (Germany); Rohe, Marco [AFT Atlas Fahrzeugtechnik GmbH, Werdohl (Germany); Heinrich, Wolfgang [IDAM, Suhl (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Schaeffler is presenting an all-wheel drive electric vehicle named 'Active eDrive'. The name is intended principally to convey innovation and the USP of the drive system: an electric differential with a torque vectoring function. The system combines the final drive with intelligent transverse torque distribution which, when used on axles, enables the distribution of torque over the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. The final drive can be integrated in both electric and hybrid vehicles with or without a range extender capability. The authors first explain the mechanical requirements and then describe the electrical systems that are intended to fulfill these. (orig.)

  9. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  10. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L

    2015-01-01

    texters (N=23) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions. The present studies confirm past reports that texting impairs driving simulator performance. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that for highly skilled texters, the effects of texting on driving are actually worse for older drivers. Given the increasing frequency of texting while driving within virtually all age groups, these data suggest that 'no texting while driving' education and public service messages need to be continued, and they should be expanded to target older drivers as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  12. Extended Wordsearches in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon

    1998-04-01

    Students can be encouraged to develop their factual knowledge by use of puzzles. One strategy described here is the extended wordsearch, where the wordsearch element generates a number of words or phrases from which the answers to a series of questions are selected. The wordsearch can be generated with the aid of computer programs, though in order to make them suitable for students with dyslexia or other learning difficulties, a simpler form is more appropriate. These problems can be employed in a variety of contexts, for example, as topic tests and classroom end-of-lesson fillers. An example is provided in the area of calcium chemistry. Sources of suitable software are listed.

  13. Classical extended superconformal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.R.

    1990-10-01

    Super-covariant differential operators are defined in two dimensions which map supersymmetry doublets to other doublets. The possibility of constructing a closed algebra among the fields appearing in such operators is explored. Such an algebra exists for Grassmann-odd differential operators. A representation for these operators in terms of free-field doublets is constructed. An explicit closed algebra involving fields of spin 2 and 5/2, in addition to the stress tensor and the supersymmetry generator, is constructed from such a free-field representation as an example of a non-linear extended superconformal algebra. (author). 9 refs

  14. Hospital outpatients' responses to taking medications with driving warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, T; Sheehan, M; Siskind, V

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the knowledge, intentions, and driving behavior of persons prescribed medications that display a warning about driving. It also examines their confidence that they can self-assess possible impairment, as is required by the Australian labeling system. We surveyed 358 outpatients in an Australian public hospital pharmacy, representing a well-advised group taking a range of medications including those displaying a warning label about driving. A brief telephone follow-up survey was conducted with a subgroup of the participants. The sample had a median age of 53.2 years and was 53 percent male. Nearly three quarters (73.2%) had taken a potentially impairing class of medication and more than half (56.1%) had taken more than one such medication in the past 12 months. Knowledge of the potentially impairing effects of medication was relatively high for most items; however, participants underestimated the possibility of increased impairment from exceeding the prescribed dose and at commencing treatment. Participants' responses to the safety implications of taking drugs with the highest level of warning varied. Around two thirds (62.8%) indicated that they would consult a health practitioner for advice and around half would modify their driving in some way. However, one fifth (20.9%) would drive when the traffic was thought to be less heavy and over a third (37.7%) would modify their medication regime so that they could drive. The findings from the follow-up survey of a subsample taking target drugs at the time of the first interview were also of concern. Only just over half (51%) recalled seeing the warning label on their medications and, of this group, three quarters (78%) reported following the warning label advice. These findings indicated that there remains a large proportion of people who either did not notice or did not consider the warning when deciding whether to drive. There was a very high level of confidence in this group that they could

  15. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  16. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  17. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  18. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  19. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  20. Naturalistic validation of an on-road driving test of older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian R; Papandonatos, George D; Davis, Jennifer D; Barco, Peggy P

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to compare a standardized road test to naturalistic driving by older people who may have cognitive impairment to define improvements that could potentially enhance the validity of road testing in this population. Road testing has been widely adapted as a tool to assess driving competence of older people who may be at risk for unsafe driving because of dementia; however, the validity of this approach has not been rigorously evaluated. For 2 weeks, 80 older drivers (38 healthy elders and 42 with cognitive impairment) who passed a standardized road test were video recorded in their own vehicles. Using a standardized rating scale, 4 hr of video was rated by a driving instructor. The authors examine weighting of individual road test items to form global impressions and to compare road test and naturalistic driving using factor analyses of these two assessments. The road test score was unidimensional, reflecting a major factor related to awareness of signage and traffic behavior. Naturalistic driving reflected two factors related to lane keeping as well as traffic behavior. Maintenance of proper lane is an important dimension of driving safety that appears to be relatively underemphasized during the highly supervised procedures of the standardized road test. Road testing in this population could be improved by standardized designs that emphasize lane keeping and that include self-directed driving. Additional information should be sought from observers in the community as well as crash evidence when advising older drivers who may be cognitively impaired.

  1. Naturalistic Validation of an On-Road Driving Test of Older Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brian R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Davis, Jennifer D.; Barco, Peggy P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to compare a standardized road test to naturalistic driving by older people who may have cognitive impairment to define improvements that could potentially enhance the validity of road testing in this population. Background Road testing has been widely adapted as a tool to assess driving competence of older people who may be at risk for unsafe driving because of dementia; however, the validity of this approach has not been rigorously evaluated. Method For 2 weeks, 80 older drivers (38 healthy elders and 42 with cognitive impairment) who passed a standardized road test were video recorded in their own vehicles. Using a standardized rating scale, 4 hr of video was rated by a driving instructor. The authors examine weighting of individual road test items to form global impressions and to compare road test and naturalistic driving using factor analyses of these two assessments. Results The road test score was unidimensional, reflecting a major factor related to awareness of signage and traffic behavior. Naturalistic driving reflected two factors related to lane keeping as well as traffic behavior. Conclusion Maintenance of proper lane is an important dimension of driving safety that appears to be relatively underemphasized during the highly supervised procedures of the standardized road test. Application Road testing in this population could be improved by standardized designs that emphasize lane keeping and that include self-directed driving. Additional information should be sought from observers in the community as well as crash evidence when advising older drivers who may be cognitively impaired. PMID:22908688

  2. A qualitative exploration of driving stress and driving discourtesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Jones, C M; Rune, K; Tucker, J

    2018-05-31

    Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual's health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1-1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce pellet-clad mechanical interactions, as well as improve the fuel safety. Constitution: In the rod drive of a bwr type reactor, an electric motor operated upon intermittent input such as of pulse signals is connected to a control rod. A resolver for converting the rotational angle of the motor to electric signals is connected to the rotational shaft of the motor and the phase difference between the output signal from the resolver and a reference signal is adapted to detect by a comparator. Based on the detection result, the controller is actuated to control a motor for control rod drive so that fine control for the movement of the control rod is made possible. This can reduce the moving distance of the control rod, decrease the thermal stress applied to the control rod and decrease the pellet clad mechanical interaction failures due to thermal expansion between the cladding tube and the pellets caused by abrupt changes in the generated power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. On the Drive Specificity of Freudian Drives for the Generation of SEEKING Activities: The Importance of the Underestimated Imperative Motor Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kirsch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Doubters of Freud’s theory of drives frequently mentioned that his approach is outdated and therefore cannot be useful for solving current problems in patients with mental disorders. At present, many scientists believe that affects rather than drives are of utmost importance for the emotional life and the theoretical framework of affective neuroscience, developed by Panksepp, strongly underpinned this view. Panksepp evaluated seven so-called command systems and the SEEKING system is therein of central importance. Panksepp used Pankseppian drives as inputs for the SEEKING system but noted the missing explanation of drive-specific generation of SEEKING activities in his description. Drive specificity requires dual action of the drive: the activation of a drive-specific brain area and the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Noticeably, as Freud claimed drive specificity too, it was here analyzed whether a Freudian drive can evoke the generation of drive-specific SEEKING activities. Special importance was addressed to the imperative motor factor in Freud’s drive theory because Panksepp’s formulations focused on neural pathways without specifying underlying neurotransmitter/endocrine factors impelling motor activity. As Panksepp claimed sleep as a Pankseppian drive, we firstly had to classified sleep as a Freudian drive by using three evaluated criteria for a Freudian drive. After that it was possible to identify the imperative motor factors of hunger, thirst, sex, and sleep. Most importantly, all of these imperative motor factors can both activate a drive-specific brain area and release dopamine from dopaminergic neurons, i.e., they can achieve the so-called drive specificity. Surprisingly, an impaired Freudian drive can alter via endocrinological pathways the concentration of the imperative motor factor of a second Freudian drive, obviously in some independence to the level of the metabolic deficit, thereby offering the possibility to

  6. Executive Order 13513---federal leadership on reducing text messaging while driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Presidential Executive Order establishing a Federal Government-wide prohibition on the use of text messaging while driving on official business or while using Government-supplied equipment. This policy also extends to cover Federal contractors and co...

  7. On-the-road driving performance and driving-related skills in older untreated insomnia patients and chronic users of hypnotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leufkens, T R M; Ramaekers, J G; de Weerd, A W; Riedel, W J; Vermeeren, A

    2014-07-01

    Many older adults report sleep problems and use of hypnotics. Several studies have shown that hypnotics can have acute adverse effects on driving the next morning. It is unclear however whether driving of chronic hypnotic users is impaired. Therapeutic effects on insomnia and development of tolerance may reduce the residual effects on driving. The present study aimed to compare actual driving performance and driving-related skills of chronic hypnotic users to good sleepers. To determine whether insomnia itself affects driving performance, driving and driving-related skills were compared between insomnia patients who do not or infrequently use hypnotics and good sleepers. Twenty-two frequent users of hypnotics (using hypnotics ≥ 4 nights per week for more than 3 months), 20 infrequent users (using hypnotics ≤ 3 nights per week), and 21 healthy, age-matched controls participated in this study. On the night before testing, all subjects were hospitalized for an 8-h sleep recorded by polysomnography. Frequent hypnotic users used their regular medication at bedtime (2330 hours), while infrequent users and controls received no medication. Cognitive performance (word learning, digit span, tracking, divided attention, vigilance, and inhibitory control) was assessed 8.5 h and driving performance between 10 and 11 h after bedtime and dosing. Polysomnographic recordings did not significantly differ between the groups, but the insomnia patients, treated or untreated, still reported subjective sleep complaints. Results show no differences in driving performance and driving-related skills between both groups of insomnia patients and controls. Driving performance in chronic users of hypnotics and untreated insomnia patients is not impaired. For chronic users, this may be due to prescription of relatively safe drugs and low doses. For untreated insomniacs, this corroborates previous findings showing an absence of neuropsychological deficits in this group of patients.

  8. Neurocognitive Correlates in Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Pellegrini, Manuela; Klein, Julia; di Luca, Natale M

    2017-01-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and is frequently identified in blood samples from apprehended drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs. Changing social norms towards cannabis and higher acceptability towards the drug emphasize the need for in-depth understanding of the acute neurocognitive and psychomotor effects caused by cannabis and how these effects are correlated to driving skills and performance. In this review, PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were used to identify and select publications up to January 2017 dealing with acute and chronic neurocognitive effects induced by cannabis and ability to drive. Thirty-six publications were selected for this review. The studies conducted were experimental, using simulators or on-road studies and brain imaging (structural and functional) to better understand the acute and chronic effects on cognitive functions comprised in the short and long-term fitness to drive after cannabis consumption. In a case-crossover self-report study a significant odds ratio increase was found for driving- related injury after combined exposure to cannabis and alcohol compared to cannabis alone (OR of 10.9 and 5.8 respectively). Both, experimental and epidemiological studies have revealed that THC affects negatively both, psychomotor skills and cognitive functions. Studies of the acute effects of cannabis on driving have shown that drivers under the influence of this substance are impaired. Indeed, driving under the influence of cannabis doubles or triples the risk of a crash. Specifically, cannabis use impairs critical-tracking tasks, increases lane weaving, decreases reaction time, and divided attention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  10. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  11. Extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)

  12. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  13. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  14. Economic/operational advantages of top drive installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouse, M. [Tesco Drilling Technology, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This article addresses specific types of drilling operations, procedures and techniques associated with top drive drilling that create selected and/or specific economic opportunities and justifications for using a rental top drive. Types of drilling operations and/or wells that commonly justify top drive drilling described here include: drilling through sloughing or swelling formations; drilling extended reach, high angle and/or horizontal wells; drilling underbalanced through normal and subnormal formations; and wells with high daily operating costs, time constraints, i.e., days vs. depth, and/or safety and environmental concerns. Top drives, of course, are not justified for every drilling operation. Here, the discussion indicates some situations where portable systems may be applicable.

  15. Driving in Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca L; Ohman, Jennifer M

    2017-03-01

    One of the most difficult decisions for individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is when to stop driving. Because driving is a fundamental activity linked to socialization, independent functioning, and well-being, making the decision to stop driving is not easy. Cognitive decline in older adults can lead to getting lost while driving, difficulty detecting and avoiding hazards, as well as increased errors while driving due to compromised judgment and difficulty in making decisions. The purpose of the current literature review was to synthesize evidence regarding how individuals with early-stage AD, their families, and providers make determinations about driving safety, interventions to increase driving safety, and methods to assist cessation and coping for individuals with early-stage AD. The evidence shows that changes in driving ability start early and progress throughout the trajectory of AD. Some individuals with mild cognitive impairment or early-stage AD may be safe to drive for a period of time. Support groups aimed at helping with the transition have been shown to be helpful for individuals who stop driving. Research and practice must support interventions to help individuals maintain safety while driving, as well as cope with driving cessation. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(2):86-100.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Synchronous Switching of Non-Line-Start Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines between Inverter to Grid Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Ronggang; Xu, Dianguo; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    tracking. Furthermore, the method of switching the NLSPMSMs from grid to inverter drives, which is named as backward switching is also proposed. No position sensors are used, and the extended ElectroMotive Force (EMF) based position sensorless control algorithm is adopted during inverter drive. Experiments...

  17. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of later trading hours for hotels on levels of impaired driver road crashes and driver breath alcohol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim

    2006-09-01

    To examine the impact of later trading hours for licensed hotels in Perth, Western Australia on levels of associated impaired driver road crashes and driver breath alcohol levels (BALs). Police data on the "last place of drinking" for impaired drivers involved in road crashes and their corresponding BALs were examined to identify those associated with Perth hotels between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 1997. During this period, 43 (23%) of the 186 hotels meeting study criteria were granted an Extended Trading Permit for 1 a.m. closing (ETP hotels), while the rest continued to close at midnight (non-ETP hotels). Time-series analyses employing multiple linear regressions were applied to determine whether an association existed between the introduction of extended trading and (i) monthly levels of impaired driver road crashes associated with ETP hotels and (ii) driver BALs associated with ETP hotels. Trends associated with non-ETP hotels were included as controls and possible confounders were considered. After controlling for the trend in crash rates associated with non-ETP hotels and the introduction of mobile police breath testing stations to Perth freeways, a significant increase in monthly crash rates for ETP hotels was found. This relationship was largely accounted for by higher volumes of high-alcohol content beer, wine and spirits purchased by ETP hotels. No relation was found between driver BALs and the introduction of ETPs. Late trading was associated with increased levels of impaired driver road crashes and alcohol consumption, particularly high-risk alcoholic beverages. Greater numbers of patrons and characteristics specific to clientele of hotels which applied for late trading hours (i.e. younger age, greater propensity to drunk-drive, preference for high-risk beverages) were suggested as having contributed to this increase.

  19. Development and interval testing of a naturalistic driving methodology to evaluate driving behavior in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babulal, Ganesh M; Addison, Aaron; Ghoshal, Nupur; Stout, Sarah H; Vernon, Elizabeth K; Sellan, Mark; Roe, Catherine M

    2016-01-01

    Background : The number of older adults in the United States will double by 2056. Additionally, the number of licensed drivers will increase along with extended driving-life expectancy. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death in older adults. Alzheimer's disease (AD) also negatively impacts driving ability and increases crash risk. Conventional methods to evaluate driving ability are limited in predicting decline among older adults. Innovations in GPS hardware and software can monitor driving behavior in the actual environments people drive in. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices are affordable, easy to install and capture large volumes of data in real-time. However, adapting these methodologies for research can be challenging. This study sought to adapt a COTS device and determine an interval that produced accurate data on the actual route driven for use in future studies involving older adults with and without AD.  Methods : Three subjects drove a single course in different vehicles at different intervals (30, 60 and 120 seconds), at different times of day, morning (9:00-11:59AM), afternoon (2:00-5:00PM) and night (7:00-10pm). The nine datasets were examined to determine the optimal collection interval. Results : Compared to the 120-second and 60-second intervals, the 30-second interval was optimal in capturing the actual route driven along with the lowest number of incorrect paths and affordability weighing considerations for data storage and curation. Discussion : Use of COTS devices offers minimal installation efforts, unobtrusive monitoring and discreet data extraction.  However, these devices require strict protocols and controlled testing for adoption into research paradigms.  After reliability and validity testing, these devices may provide valuable insight into daily driving behaviors and intraindividual change over time for populations of older adults with and without AD.  Data can be aggregated over time to look at changes

  20. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To ensure the scram operation of a control rod by the reliable detection for the position of control rods. Constitution: A permanent magnet is provided to the lower portion of a connecting rod in engagement with a control rod and a tube having a plurality of lead switches arranged axially therein in a predetermined pitch is disposed outside of the control rod drives. When the control rod moves upwardly in the scram operation, the lead switches are closed successively upon passage of the permanent magnet to operate the electrical circuit provided by way of each of the lead switches. Thus, the position for the control rod during the scram can reliably be determined and the scram characteristic of the control rod can be recognized. (Furukawa, Y.)

  1. [Epilepsy and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Masato

    2014-05-01

    In Japan, the Road Traffic Act was amended in June 2013, including new penalty to false statement in a disease condition declaration form, and new voluntary notification system for a doctor who is aware that a person is at high risk for traffic accident and in possession of a driver license. Moreover, New Criminal Law Act was established in November 2013, including a prison sentence of up to 15 years for persons, who under the influence of specific drugs or diseases, causing death or injury to other persons by driving a motor vehicle. Both laws are supposed to be enforced during 2014, after additional resolutions including the review of the laws after five years, considerations so as not to create discrimination due to diseases, etc are examined.

  2. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumitsu, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Toshikatsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To protect bellows against failures due to negative pressure to prevent the loss of pressure balance caused by the expansion of the bellows upon scram. Constitution: An expansion pipe connected to the control rod drive is driven along a guide pipe to insert a control rod into the reactor core. Expansible bellows are provided at the step between the expansion pipe and the guide pipe. Further, a plurality of bore holes or slits are formed on the side wall of the guide pipe corresponding to the expansion portion of the bellows. In such an arrangement, when the expansion pipe falls rapidly and the bellows are expanded upon scram, the volume between each of the pipes of the bellows and the guide pipe is increased to produce a negative pressure, but the effect of the negative pressure on the bellows can be eliminated by the flowing-in of coolants corresponding to that pressure through the bore holes or the slits. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  5. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  6. H1 antihistamines and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Florin Dan

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion. Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and visual evoked potentials), experimental simulated driving (driving simulators) and real driving studies (the Highway Driving Test, with the evaluation of the Standard Deviation Lateral Position, and the Car Following Test, with the measurement of the Brake Reaction Time) must be discussed in order to classify a H1 antihistamine as a true non-sedating one.

  7. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    OpenAIRE

    Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

  8. Evolution of resistance against CRISPR/Cas9 gene drive

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Andrew; Unckless, Robert; Messer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 gene drive (CGD) promises to be a highly adaptable approach for spreading genetically engineered alleles throughout a species, even if those alleles impair reproductive success. CGD has been shown to be effective in laboratory crosses of insects, yet it remains unclear to what extent potential resistance mechanisms will affect the dynamics of this process in large natural populations. Here we develop a comprehensive population genetic framework for modeling CGD dynamics, which inc...

  9. How can repeat drunk drivers be influenced to change? Analysis of the association between drunk driving and DUI recidivists' attitudes and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael D; Morral, Andrew R; Jain, Arvind K

    2004-07-01

    Public policy interventions designed to deter or prevent drunk driving depend, in part, on modifying beliefs concerning the riskiness, social acceptability and immorality of driving under the influence of alcohol. The current study examines the association of these beliefs with the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Interviews were conducted with 273 people with multiple driving under the influence (DUI) offenses. Data included self-reported frequency of driving after drinking in the past year, as well as measures of moral and prescriptive beliefs concerning alcohol-impaired driving (internal behavioral controls), perceived risks of criminal punishment and accidents associated with alcohol-impaired driving (external behavioral controls) and perceived peer group attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving (social controls). Logit regression modeling showed significant, unique protective associations with behavioral control items in each category. Behavioral controls may protect against alcohol-impaired driving behavior even in a high-risk sample of repeat DUI offenders. Policy interventions designed to curtail drunk driving might seek to enhance these sorts of behavioral controls among DUI offenders.

  10. Effects of alcohol on automated and controlled driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Catherine; Gineyt, Guy

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently detected substance in fatal automobile crashes, but its precise mode of action is not always clear. The present study was designed to establish the influence of blood alcohol concentration as a function of the complexity of the scenarios. Road scenarios implying automatic or controlled driving performances were manipulated in order to identify which behavioral parameters were deteriorated. A single blind counterbalanced experiment was conducted on a driving simulator. Sixteen experienced drivers (25.3 ± 2.9 years old, 8 men and 8 women) were tested with 0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 g/l of alcohol. Driving scenarios varied: road tracking, car following, and an urban scenario including events inspired by real accidents. Statistical analyses were performed on driving parameters as a function of alcohol level. Automated driving parameters such as standard deviation of lateral position measured with the road tracking and car following scenarios were impaired by alcohol, notably with the highest dose. More controlled parameters such as response time to braking and number of crashes when confronted with specific events (urban scenario) were less affected by the alcohol level. Performance decrement was greater with driving scenarios involving automated processes than with scenarios involving controlled processes.

  11. Failure Prediction for Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Hecker, Simon; Dai, Dengxin; Van Gool, Luc

    2018-01-01

    The primary focus of autonomous driving research is to improve driving accuracy. While great progress has been made, state-of-the-art algorithms still fail at times. Such failures may have catastrophic consequences. It therefore is important that automated cars foresee problems ahead as early as possible. This is also of paramount importance if the driver will be asked to take over. We conjecture that failures do not occur randomly. For instance, driving models may fail more likely at places ...

  12. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio eCasutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  13. Effects of dexamphetamine with and without alcohol on simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ries; Martens, Marieke; Ramaekers, Jan; Krul, Arno; Klöpping-Ketelaars, Ineke; Skopp, Gisela

    2012-08-01

    In party circuits dexamphetamine is frequently used in combination with alcohol. It is hypothesized that co-administration of dexamphetamine to alcohol might reduce the sedative effects of alcohol, but may potentiate risk-taking behaviour. The study was aimed at assessing the effects of alcohol, dexamphetamine and the combination of both on simulated driving and cognitive performance. Eighteen subjects participated in a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study employing four conditions: 10 mg dexamphetamine, 0.8 g/kg alcohol, 10 mg dexamphetamine + 0.8 g/kg alcohol, and placebo. Fundamental driving skills and risk-taking behaviour were assessed in a driving simulator. Subjects also completed vigilance and divided attention tasks, and subjective ratings. Mean BAC levels during simulated driving were between 0.91‰ and 0.64‰. Subjects using alcohol showed a significantly larger mean standard deviation of lateral position and shorter accepted gap time and distance. Use of alcohol or dexamphetamine + alcohol was associated with a higher frequency of red light running and collisions than the dexamphetamine or placebo conditions. Performance of vigilance and divided attention tasks was significantly impaired in the alcohol condition and, to a lesser degree, in the dexamphetamine + alcohol condition. Single doses of 0.8 g/kg alcohol increased risk-taking behaviours and impaired tracking, attention and reaction time during a 3-h period after drinking when BACs declined from 0.9 to 0.2 mg/ml. The stimulatory effects of co-administration of dexamphetamine 10 mg were not sufficient to overcome the impairing effects of alcohol on skills related to driving.

  14. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  15. Harm to patients and others caused by impaired junior doctors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Harm to patients and ... enjoining doctors to 'self-report' impairment, the HPCSA Handbook on Internship .... e.g. where doctors have car accidents while driving home because they are not provided ...

  16. Mental flexibility impairment in drivers with early Alzheimer's disease: A simulator-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Etienne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After memory impairment, one of the most common troubles of early Alzheimer's disease (AD is the impairment of executive functioning. However, it can have major consequences on daily life, notably on the driving activity. The present study focused on one important executive function involved in driving: mental flexibility; and considered how this impairment can affect driving. Ten patients with early AD were matched with 29 healthy older drivers. All participants were given an evaluation of mental flexibility through neuropsychological tests and an experimental test developed on a static driving simulator. The experiment was divided in two conditions; one without mental flexibility and another condition with a mental flexibility demand. AD patients showed impairments in the neuropsychological tests evaluating mental flexibility. These deficits are linked to the deficits they showed in the driving simulator flexibility tests. This study contributes to the understanding of mental flexibility mechanisms and on their role in driving activity. It also confirms that the driving simulator is a suitable tool to explore cognitive disorders and driving ability.

  17. A Dynamic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Parameter Optimization for Multiple Driving Cycles and Driving Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen Lei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The driving pattern has an important influence on the parameter optimization of the energy management strategy (EMS for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. A new algorithm using simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO is proposed for parameter optimization of both the power system and control strategy of HEVs based on multiple driving cycles in order to realize the minimum fuel consumption without impairing the dynamic performance. Furthermore, taking the unknown of the actual driving cycle into consideration, an optimization method of the dynamic EMS based on driving pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The simulation verifications for the optimized EMS based on multiple driving cycles and driving pattern recognition are carried out using Matlab/Simulink platform. The results show that compared with the original EMS, the former strategy reduces the fuel consumption by 4.36% and the latter one reduces the fuel consumption by 11.68%. A road test on the prototype vehicle is conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is validated by the test data.

  18. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  19. Self-monitoring of driving speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzioni, Shelly; Erev, Ido; Ishaq, Robert; Elias, Wafa; Shiftan, Yoram

    2017-09-01

    In-vehicle data recorders (IVDR) have been found to facilitate safe driving and are highly valuable in accident analysis. Nevertheless, it is not easy to convince drivers to use them. Part of the difficulty is related to the "Big Brother" concern: installing IVDR impairs the drivers' privacy. The "Big Brother" concern can be mitigated by adding a turn-off switch to the IVDR. However, this addition comes at the expense of increasing speed variability between drivers, which is known to impair safety. The current experimental study examines the significance of this negative effect of a turn-off switch under two experimental settings representing different incentive structures: small and large fines for speeding. 199 students were asked to participate in a computerized speeding dilemma task, where they could control the speed of their "car" using "brake" and "speed" buttons, corresponding to automatic car foot pedals. The participants in two experimental conditions had IVDR installed in their "cars", and were told that they could turn it off at any time. Driving with active IVDR implied some probability of "fines" for speeding, and the two experimental groups differed with respect to the fine's magnitude, small or large. The results indicate that the option to use IVDR reduced speeding and speed variance. In addition, the results indicate that the reduction of speed variability was maximal in the small fine group. These results suggest that using IVDR with gentle fines and with a turn-off option maintains the positive effect of IVDR, addresses the "Big Brother" concern, and does not increase speed variance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute disinhibiting effects of alcohol as a factor in risky driving behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Blackburn, Jaime S.; Harrison, Emily L. R.

    2008-01-01

    Automobile crash reports show that up to 40% of fatal crashes in the United States involve alcohol and that younger drivers are over-represented. Alcohol use among young drivers is associated with impulsive and risky driving behaviors, such as speeding, which could contribute to their over-representation in alcohol-related crash statistics. Recent laboratory studies show that alcohol increases impulsive behaviors by impairing the drinker’s ability to inhibit inappropriate actions and that this effect can be exacerbated in conflict situations where the expression and inhibition of behavior are equally motivating. The present study tested the hypothesis that this response conflict might also intensify the disruptive effects of alcohol on driving performance. Fourteen subjects performed a simulated driving and a cued go/no-go task that measured their inhibitory control. Conflict was motivated in these tasks by providing equal monetary incentives for slow, careful behavior (e.g., slow driving, inhibiting impulses) and for quick, abrupt behavior (fast driving, disinhibition). Subjects were tested under two alcohol doses (0.65 g/kg and a placebo) that were administered twice: when conflict was present and when conflict was absent. Alcohol interacted with conflict to impair inhibitory control and to increase risky and impaired driving behavior on the drive task. Also, individuals whose inhibitory control was most impaired by alcohol displayed the poorest driving performance under the drug. The study demonstrates potentially serious disruptions to driving performance as a function of alcohol intoxication and response conflict, and points to inhibitory control as an important underlying mechanism. PMID:18325693

  1. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  2. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…

  3. Safe mobility and older driver rehabilitation : new developments in the assessment and rehabilitation of fitness to drive.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, W.H. Johnson, A. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Official regulations with regard to medical fitness to drive ignore important scientific research findings. In particular, although it has been shown that there is a gray zone where fitness to drive is less dependent on the severity of specific impairments than on compensatory functions, skills and

  4. Simulated driving in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea : effects of oral appliances and continuous positive airway pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Bakker, Marije; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.

    Impaired simulated driving performance has been demonstrated in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generally improves simulated driving performance, the effects of oral-appliance (OA) therapy are unknown. The aims of this

  5. Visual and cognitive predictors of driving safety in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amick, M M; Grace, J; Ott, B R

    2007-11-01

    This study assessed the clinical utility of contrast sensitivity (CS) relative to attention, executive function, and visuospatial abilities for predicting driving safety in participants with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-five, non-demented PD patients completed measures of contrast sensitivity, visuospatial skills, executive functions, and attention. All PD participants also underwent a formal on-road driving evaluation. Of the 25 participants, 11 received a marginal or unsafe rating on the road test. Poorer driving performance was associated with worse performance on measures of CS, visuospatial constructions, set shifting, and attention. While impaired driving was associated with a range of cognitive and visual abilities, only a composite measure of executive functioning and visuospatial abilities, and not CS or attentional skills, predicted driving performance. These findings suggest that neuropsychological tests, which are multifactorial in nature and require visual perception and visual spatial judgments are the most useful screening measures for hazardous driving in PD patients.

  6. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  7. Control rod drive shaft latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, A.G. II.

    1976-01-01

    A latch mechanism is operated by differential pressure on a piston to engage the drive shaft for a control rod in a nuclear reactor, thereby preventing the control rod from being ejected from the reactor in case of failure of the control rod drive mechanism housing which is subjected to the internal pressure in the reactor vessel. 6 claims, 4 drawing figures

  8. ECO-DRIVING MODELING ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This research project aims to examine the eco-driving modeling capabilities of different traffic modeling tools available and to develop a driver-simulator-based eco-driving modeling tool to evaluate driver behavior and to reliably estimate or measur...

  9. Real-world driving behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, R.C.; Hendriksen, P.; Gense, N.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing complexity of engine management system there is a tendency for traditional driving cyles to become further and further removed from reality. So for a sensible evaluation of emissions and fuel consumption of road vehicles in the field there is an urgent need for 'real-world' driving

  10. H1 antihistamines and driving

    OpenAIRE

    Florin-Dan, Popescu

    2008-01-01

    Driving performances depend on cognitive, psychomotor and perception functions. The CNS adverse effects of some H1 antihistamines can alter the patient ability to drive. Data from studies using standardized objective cognitive and psychomotor tests (Choice Reaction Time, Critical Flicker Fusion, Digital Symbol Substitution Test), functional brain imaging (Positron Emission Tomography, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), neurophysiological studies (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, auditory and...

  11. Assessing drivers' response during automated driver support system failures with non-driving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  12. [Driving and health at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician is to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. Therefore, he is the one to decide if a worker is fit to drive in the context of his professional activity, including in cases where no specific driving license is required (e.g. forklift truck, mobile crane). This decision is an important one, as two thirds of fatal occupational accidents occur on the road. The decision is made on the basis of both a medical examination and the regulation, which indicates all contraindications to driving. The physician's responsibility is involved, as is the employer's, as he must ensure that his employee is fit to drive and possesses a valid driving license at all times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Elaine; French, David P

    2016-07-01

    People driving the day after drinking are at risk of impaired performance and accidents due to continued intoxication or the effects of alcohol hangover. Drivers are poor at estimating their own blood alcohol concentration, and some drive despite believing they are over the legal limit. It is therefore important to identify other factors influencing perceived ability to drive 'the morning after'. This study tested how accurately participants estimated their legal driving status, and the contribution of beliefs and hangover symptoms to the prediction of perceived driving safety. This cross-sectional study involved 193 students completing a questionnaire and alcohol breath test the morning after heavy alcohol consumption. Indicators of subjective intoxication, severity of hangover symptoms, estimated legal status and perceived safety to drive were measured. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted. No participants thought they were under the English legal limit when they were not, and 47% thought they were over the limit when they were in fact legally permissible to drive. However, 20% of those believing they were over the limit nevertheless rated themselves as safe to drive. Hangover symptoms added 17% variance to the prediction of perceived safety to drive, over and above objective and subjective measures of intoxication. Perceived severity of hangover symptoms influence beliefs about driving ability: When judging safety to drive, people experiencing less severe symptoms believe they are less impaired. If this finding is robust, health promotion campaigns should aim to correct this misapprehension. [Cameron E, French D. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:442-446]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  14. TeenDrivingPlan effectiveness: the effect of quantity and diversity of supervised practice on teens' driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirman, Jessica H; Albert, W Dustin; Curry, Allison E; Winston, Flaura K; Fisher Thiel, Megan C; Durbin, Dennis R

    2014-11-01

    The large contribution of inexperience to the high crash rate of newly licensed teens suggests that they enter licensure with insufficient skills. In a prior analysis, we found moderate support for a direct effect of a web-based intervention, the TeenDrivingPlan (TDP), on teens' driving performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mechanisms by which TDP may be effective and to extend our understanding of how teens learn to drive. A randomized controlled trial conducted with teen permit holders and parent supervisors (N = 151 dyads) was used to determine if the effect of TDP on driver performance operated through five hypothesized mediators: (1) parent-perceived social support; (2) teen-perceived social support; (3) parent engagement; (4) practice quantity; and (5) practice diversity. Certified driving evaluators, blinded to teens' treatment allocation, assessed teens' driving performance 24 weeks after enrollment. Mediator variables were assessed on self-report surveys administered periodically over the study period. Exposure to TDP increased teen-perceived social support, parent engagement, and practice diversity. Both greater practice quantity and diversity were associated with better driving performance, but only practice diversity mediated the relationship between TDP and driver performance. Practice diversity is feasible to change and increases teens' likelihood of completing a rigorous on-road driving assessment just before licensure. Future research should continue to identify mechanisms that diversify practice driving, explore complementary ways to help families optimize the time they spend on practice driving, and evaluate the long-term effectiveness of TDP. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  16. Driving behaviour in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris

    2015-07-28

    Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the

  17. Cognitive Impairment in Infratentorial Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Kandemir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Beginning in the mid-1980s, with anatomical, behavioral, and neuropsychological evidence, it was suggested that the role of the cerebellum extends beyond a purely motor domain. A series of articles were published reviewing the potential role of the cerebellum in cognition. Both of these functions are supported by connections of dentate nucleus and frontal cortex through the thalamus. The cognitive profile of isolated subtentorial and cerebellar infarcts is related to the involved frontal circuit (especially executive functions. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the cognitive profile of cerebellar and subtentorial infarcts. METHODS: Nineteen patients with infratentorial infarcts and 19 neurologically healthy individuals as a control group were included in this study. Neuropsychometric test battery was employed in both of the groups. RESULTS: Age, sex, education, clinical syndrome, and localization had no effect on the cognitive test performances. Performance on the California Verbal Learning Test, a verbal memory test, was worse in the patient group. Patients had difficulties in recognizing the items of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and spent significantly more time to complete the trail making test part B. The patient group also demonstrated lower performance level in the verbal fluency test when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: The cognitive impairment pattern of the verbal and visual memory tests and impairment determined on the verbal fluency test and the trail making tests may imply frontal impairment. Our results support the knowledge that cerebellar or brainstem strokes cause mild frontal type cognitive syndrome by damaging cerebello-ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways

  18. Differential residual effects of zaleplon and zopiclone on actual driving: a comparison with a low dose of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeeren, Annemiek; Riedel, Wim J; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Darwish, Mona; Paty, Isabelle; Patat, Alain

    2002-03-15

    To compare residual effects of zaleplon 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg, and placebo, and a social dose of alcohol on car driving, memory, and psychomotor performance. Two-part placebo controlled, crossover study. Part 1 was single blind, Part 2 double blind. University research institute. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men and 15 women, mean age 32 +/- 7 years) In Part 1 alcohol and alcohol-placebo drinks were administered around noon. In Part 2 single oral doses of zaleplon 10 mg, zopiclone 7.5 mg and placebo were administered at bedtime. A highway driving test, laboratory tests of word learning, critical tracking and divided attention, and subjective assessments of sleep, mood, and effects of treatments on driving. Driving started 40 minutes after a second alcohol dose in Part 1, and 10 hours after drug intake in Part 2. The results demonstrated that alcohol, at average plasma concentrations of approximately 0.030 g/dl, significantly impaired performance in all tests. Zaleplon's residual effects did not differ significantly from those of placebo in any test. In contrast, zopiclone had significant residual effects on driving, divided attention, and memory. The magnitude of impairment in the driving test observed the morning after zopiclone 7.5 mg was twice that observed with alcohol. Zaleplon 10 mg has no residual effects on driving when taken at bedtime, 10 hours before driving. In contrast, zopiclone 7.5 mg can cause marked residual impairment. Patients should be advised to avoid driving the morning after zopiclone administration.

  19. Characterizing on-road driving performance in individuals with traumatic brain injury who pass or fail an on-road driving assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwyk, Renerus J; Charlton, Judith L; Ross, Pamela E; Bédard, Michel; Marshall, Shawn; Gagnon, Sylvain; Gooden, James R; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2018-01-15

    To characterise on-road driving performance in individuals with traumatic brain injury who fail on-road driving assessment, compared with both those who pass assessment and healthy controls, and the injury and cognitive factors associated with driving performance. Cross-sectional. Forty eight participants with traumatic brain injury (Age M = 40.50 SD = 14.62, 77% male, post-traumatic amnesia days M = 28.74 SD =27.68) and 48 healthy matched controls completed a standardised on-road driving assessment in addition to cognitive measures. Individuals with traumatic brain injury who passed on-road driving assessment performed no differently from controls while individuals with traumatic brain injury who failed the assessment demonstrated significantly worse driving performance relative to controls across a range of driving manoeuvres and error types including observation of on-road environment, speed control, gap selection, lane position, following distance and basic car control. Longer time post-injury and reduced visual perception were both significantly correlated with reduced driving skills. This exploratory study indicated that drivers with traumatic brain injury who failed on-road assessment demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of impaired driving manoeuvres, characterised by skill deficits across both operational (e.g., basic car control and lane position) and tactical domains (e.g., following distance, gap selection, and observation) of driving. These preliminary findings can be used for implementation of future driving assessments and rehabilitation programs. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians should be aware that the majority of individuals with traumatic brain injury were deemed fit to resume driving following formal on-road assessment, despite having moderate to very severe traumatic brain injuries. Drivers with traumatic brain injury who failed an on-road assessment demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of impaired skills including errors

  20. The development of a visual system for the detection of obstructions for visually impaired people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a new visual system that can aid visually impaired people in walking. The system provides object information (that is, shape and location) through the sense of touch. This visual system depends on three different components: (i) an infrared camera sensor that detects the obstruction, (ii) a control system that measures the distance between the obstruction and the sensor, and (iii) a tooling apparatus with small pins (φ1 mm) used in forming a three-dimensional shape of the obstruction. The pins, arranged on a 6x6 matrix, move longitudinally between the retracted and extended positions based on the distance data. The pin extends individually, while the pin tip reflects the object's outer surface. The length of the pin from the base surface is proportional to the distance of the sensor from the obstruction. An ultrasonic actuator, controlled at a 15Hz frame rate, is the driving force for the pin movement. The tactile image of the 3D shape can provide information about the obstruction

  1. Automated driving safer and more efficient future driving

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The main topics of this book include advanced control, cognitive data processing, high performance computing, functional safety, and comprehensive validation. These topics are seen as technological bricks to drive forward automated driving. The current state of the art of automated vehicle research, development and innovation is given. The book also addresses industry-driven roadmaps for major new technology advances as well as collaborative European initiatives supporting the evolvement of automated driving. Various examples highlight the state of development of automated driving as well as the way forward. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers within engineering, graduate students, automotive engineers at OEMs and suppliers, ICT and software engineers, managers, and other decision-makers.

  2. Irreducibility conditions for extended superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokatchev, E.

    1981-05-01

    The irreducible supermultiplets contained in an extended superfield are presented as sets of covariant derivatives of the superfield. Differential irreducibility constraints are easily obtained from this decomposition. (author)

  3. Congenital hearing impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, Caroline D. [Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Establishing the etiology of congenital hearing impairment can significantly improve treatment for certain causes of hearing loss and facilitates genetic counseling. High-resolution CT and MRI have contributed to the evaluation and management of hearing impairment. In addition, with the identification of innumerable genetic loci and genetic defects involved in hearing loss, genetic testing has emerged as an invaluable tool in the assessment of hearing impairment. Some of the common forms of congenital hearing loss are reviewed and their imaging features illustrated. (orig.)

  4. Congenital hearing impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Caroline D.

    2006-01-01

    Establishing the etiology of congenital hearing impairment can significantly improve treatment for certain causes of hearing loss and facilitates genetic counseling. High-resolution CT and MRI have contributed to the evaluation and management of hearing impairment. In addition, with the identification of innumerable genetic loci and genetic defects involved in hearing loss, genetic testing has emerged as an invaluable tool in the assessment of hearing impairment. Some of the common forms of congenital hearing loss are reviewed and their imaging features illustrated. (orig.)

  5. THE IMPACT OF TEXT DRIVING ON DRIVING SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Motamedi; Jyh-Hone Wang

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly mobile era, the wide availability of technology for texting and the prevalence of hands-free form have introduced a new safety concern for drivers. To assess this concern, a questionnaire was first deployed online to gain an understanding of drivers’ text driving experiences as well as their demographic information. The results from 232 people revealed that the majority of drivers are aware of the associated risks with texting while driving. However, more than one-fourth of...

  6. Assessment of driving after stroke--a pluridisciplinary task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsford, A-S; Viitanen, M; Lundberg, C; Johansson, K

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the assessment procedure and identify predictors for the team decision when assessing fitness to drive a car after stroke. The material used was a retrospective data set with 200 stroke clients from Queen Elisabeth's Foundation Mobility Centre at Banstead UK. Fifty-four percent of clients were considered fit to continue driving where 9% could resume driving after car adaptation and training. Important factors for the outcome were vision (acuity and field), neuropsychological functions (divided attention), and track and/or on road test (reaction time, anticipation, speed, and positioning). Cognitive impairment was the main problem in those who failed the driving test and judged not fit for continued driving. Car adaptation, mainly comprising infrared transmitted secondary controls together with automatic transmission was recommended in 35% of the cases. The contribution of different specialist groups appears to be necessary for an effective evaluation, but the assessment procedure can be done more cost-effectively by dividing it into two separate parts and removing certain subtests. The in-car track test is an important part of the assessment procedure with a high face validity and could in many cases make it unnecessary to perform in-traffic tests with unsafe drivers. Car adaptation is often necessary for a client with pronounced hemi-paresis and a full road test can for those only be performed after training the use of car controls.

  7. Semiclassical instability of warp drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelo, C [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, IAA-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain); Finazzi, S; Liberati, S, E-mail: carlos@iaa.e, E-mail: finazzi@sissa.i, E-mail: liberati@sissa.i

    2010-05-01

    Warp drives, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to construct them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. In this contribution we will report on the behaviour of the Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor (RSET) in the spacetimes associated with superluminal warp drives. We find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to the front wall of the superluminal bubble, hence strongly supporting the conclusion that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical back-reaction.

  8. Brief Report: Examining Driving Behavior in Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders--A Pilot Study Using a Driving Simulation Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Fried, Ronna; Mehler, Bruce; Joshi, Gagan; Bolfek, Anela; Godfrey, Kathryn M.; Zhao, Nan; Goldin, Rachel; Biederman, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Although it is speculated that impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) will adversely affect driving performance, little is known about the actual extent and nature of the presumed deficits. Ten males (18-24 years of age) with a diagnosis of high functioning autism and 10 age matched community controls were recruited for a…

  9. Fitness to drive measures for chronic user of ICADTS category III drugs; ‘do not drive’. Advise them do drive if they are fit for it.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Veldstra, Janet; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel

    2014-01-01

    The International Council on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety (ICADTS) classifies the impairing properties of medicinal drugs on driving performance into one of three categories; presumed safe (I), moderate adverse effects (II), and potentially dangerous (III). In the Netherlands for example, the

  10. Driving Safety and Fitness to Drive in Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippin, Jon; Dyken, Mark Eric

    2017-08-01

    Driving an automobile while sleepy increases the risk of crash-related injury and death. Neurologists see patients with sleepiness due to obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, and a wide variety of neurologic disorders. When addressing fitness to drive, the physician must weigh patient and societal health risks and regional legal mandates. The Driver Fitness Medical Guidelines published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) provide assistance to clinicians. Drivers with obstructive sleep apnea may continue to drive if they have no excessive daytime sleepiness and their apnea-hypopnea index is less than 20 per hour. Those with excessive daytime sleepiness or an apnea-hypopnea index of 20 per hour or more may not drive until their condition is effectively treated. Drivers with sleep disorders amenable to pharmaceutical treatment (eg, narcolepsy) may resume driving as long as the therapy has eliminated excessive daytime sleepiness. Following these guidelines, documenting compliance to recommended therapy, and using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale to assess subjective sleepiness can be helpful in determining patients' fitness to drive.

  11. Passive cooling of control rod drive mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.; Schwirian, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for passively cooling the control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs) in the reactor vessel of a nuclear power plant. Passive cooling is achieved by dispersing a plurality of chimneys within the CRDM array in positions where a control rod is not required. The chimneys induce convective air currents which cause ambient air from within the containment to flow over the CRDM coils. The air heated by the coils is guided into inlets in the chimneys by baffles. The chimney is insulated and extends through the seismic support platform and missile shield disposed above the closure head. A collar of adjustable height mates with plate elements formed at the distal end of the CRDM pressure housings by an interlocking arrangement so that the seismic support platform provides lateral restraint for the chimneys. (Author)

  12. Effects of central nervous system drugs on driving: speed variability versus standard deviation of lateral position as outcome measure of the on-the-road driving test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The on-the-road driving test in normal traffic is used to examine the impact of drugs on driving performance. This paper compares the sensitivity of standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and SD speed in detecting driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to identify studies applying the on-the-road driving test, examining the effects of anxiolytics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and hypnotics. The proportion of comparisons (treatment versus placebo) where a significant impairment was detected with SDLP and SD speed was compared. About 40% of 53 relevant papers did not report data on SD speed and/or SDLP. After placebo administration, the correlation between SDLP and SD speed was significant but did not explain much variance (r = 0.253, p = 0.0001). A significant correlation was found between ΔSDLP and ΔSD speed (treatment-placebo), explaining 48% of variance. When using SDLP as outcome measure, 67 significant treatment-placebo comparisons were found. Only 17 (25.4%) were significant when SD speed was used as outcome measure. Alternatively, for five treatment-placebo comparisons, a significant difference was found for SD speed but not for SDLP. Standard deviation of lateral position is a more sensitive outcome measure to detect driving impairment than speed variability.

  13. Pain in cognitively impaired older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmelee, P A

    1996-08-01

    To summarize, there has been shamefully little empirical research directly examining the prevalence and correlates of pain among cognitively impaired older people. Even less is known about techniques for assessing and managing pain in this group. Existing evidence suggests that cognitively impaired older persons may voice fewer complaints about pain, but there is no reason to believe that they are in fact at less risk of pain than their cognitively intact age-mates. Rather, for whatever reason, persons with cognitively deficits appear to be less inclined to report pain than are intact elders of similar health status. This reporting difference may account at least in part for the fact that pain is less likely to be treated aggressively among cognitively impaired individuals. Unfortunately, knowing the reason for this state of affairs does not mitigate its implication: cognitive deficits place frail older persons at risk of unnecessary pain simply because it is not properly identified. Data reviewed in this chapter suggest that accurate assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older persons, far from being impossible, may actually be only slightly more demanding than it is in intact individuals. Even among markedly impaired elders, self-reports should certainly be taken as valid indicators; early evidence suggests promising avenues for developing reliable, clear-cut guidelines for the nonverbal assessment of pain in very severely demented individuals. As the nation grows older and medical care advances, a growing proportion of individuals can expect to live well into their eighth and even ninth decades. Unfortunately, with this extended life span comes increased likelihood of both cognitive impairment and pain. Thus, expansion of our repertoire of techniques for assessing and managing pain among cognitively impaired older persons must be a central priority for research on pain in late life.

  14. Effects of Cognitive Load on Driving Performance: The Cognitive Control Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Johan; Markkula, Gustav; Victor, Trent; Merat, Natasha

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to outline an explanatory framework for understanding effects of cognitive load on driving performance and to review the existing experimental literature in the light of this framework. Although there is general consensus that taking the eyes off the forward roadway significantly impairs most aspects of driving, the effects of primarily cognitively loading tasks on driving performance are not well understood. Based on existing models of driver attention, an explanatory framework was outlined. This framework can be summarized in terms of the cognitive control hypothesis: Cognitive load selectively impairs driving subtasks that rely on cognitive control but leaves automatic performance unaffected. An extensive literature review was conducted wherein existing results were reinterpreted based on the proposed framework. It was demonstrated that the general pattern of experimental results reported in the literature aligns well with the cognitive control hypothesis and that several apparent discrepancies between studies can be reconciled based on the proposed framework. More specifically, performance on nonpracticed or inherently variable tasks, relying on cognitive control, is consistently impaired by cognitive load, whereas the performance on automatized (well-practiced and consistently mapped) tasks is unaffected and sometimes even improved. Effects of cognitive load on driving are strongly selective and task dependent. The present results have important implications for the generalization of results obtained from experimental studies to real-world driving. The proposed framework can also serve to guide future research on the potential causal role of cognitive load in real-world crashes.

  15. Longitudinal decline of driving safety in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uc, Ergun Y; Rizzo, Matthew; O'Shea, Amy M J; Anderson, Steven W; Dawson, Jeffrey D

    2017-11-07

    To longitudinally assess and predict on-road driving safety in Parkinson disease (PD). Drivers with PD (n = 67) and healthy controls (n = 110) drove a standardized route in an instrumented vehicle and were invited to return 2 years later. A professional driving expert reviewed drive data and videos to score safety errors. At baseline, drivers with PD performed worse on visual, cognitive, and motor tests, and committed more road safety errors compared to controls (median PD 38.0 vs controls 30.5; p < 0.001). A smaller proportion of drivers with PD returned for repeat testing (42.8% vs 62.7%; p < 0.01). At baseline, returnees with PD made fewer errors than nonreturnees with PD (median 34.5 vs 40.0; p < 0.05) and performed similar to control returnees (median 33). Baseline global cognitive performance of returnees with PD was better than that of nonreturnees with PD, but worse than for control returnees ( p < 0.05). After 2 years, returnees with PD showed greater cognitive decline and larger increase in error counts than control returnees (median increase PD 13.5 vs controls 3.0; p < 0.001). Driving error count increase in the returnees with PD was predicted by greater error count and worse visual acuity at baseline, and by greater interval worsening of global cognition, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale activities of daily living score, executive functions, visual processing speed, and attention. Despite drop out of the more impaired drivers within the PD cohort, returning drivers with PD, who drove like controls without PD at baseline, showed many more driving safety errors than controls after 2 years. Driving decline in PD was predicted by baseline driving performance and deterioration of cognitive, visual, and functional abnormalities on follow-up. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Extended High Frequency Audiometry in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuneyt Kucur

    2013-01-01

    and BMI of PCOS and control groups were comparable. Each subject was tested with low (250–2000 Hz, high (4000–8000 Hz, and extended high frequency audiometry (8000–20000. Hormonal and biochemical values including LH, LH/FSH, testosterone, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-I, and CRP were calculated. Results. PCOS patients showed high levels of LH, LH/FSH, testosterone, fasting insulin, glucose, HOMA-I, and CRP levels. The hearing thresholds of the groups were similar at frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz; statistically significant difference was observed in 8000–14000 Hz in PCOS group compared to control group. Conclusion. PCOS patients have hearing impairment especially in extended high frequencies. Further studies are needed to help elucidate the mechanism behind hearing impairment in association with PCOS.

  17. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  18. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  19. Validity of the mini-mental state examination and the montreal cognitive assessment in the prediction of driving test outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Ann M; Duncanson, Haley; Kapust, Lissa R; Xi, Patricia M; O'Connor, Margaret G

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive screening measures, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in predicting driving test outcome for individuals with and without cognitive impairment. Retrospective cohort study. A clinical driving evaluation program at a teaching hospital in the United States. Adult drivers who underwent assessment with the MMSE and MoCA as part of a comprehensive driving evaluation between 2010 and 2014 (N=92). MMSE and MoCA total scores were independent variables. The outcome measure was performance on a standardized road test. A preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment enhanced the validity of cognitive screening measures in the identification of at-risk drivers. In individuals with cognitive impairment there was a significant relationship between MoCA score and on-road outcome. Specifically, an individual was 1.36 times as likely to fail the road test with each 1-point decrease in MoCA score. No such relationship was detected in those without a diagnosis of cognitive impairment. For individuals who have not been diagnosed with cognitive impairment, neither the MMSE nor the MoCA can be reliably used as an indicator of driving risk, but for individuals with a preestablished diagnosis of cognitive impairment, the MoCA is a useful tool in this regard. A score on the MoCA of 18 or less should raise concerns about driving safety. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Lessons learned from evaluating Maryland's anti-drunk driving campaign: assessing the evidence for cognitive, behavioral, and public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H

    2009-07-01

    The evidence concerning Maryland's anti-drunk driving program, Checkpoint Strikeforce, is reviewed. To date, there is no evidence to indicate that this campaign, which involves a number of sobriety checkpoints and media activities to promote these efforts, has had any impact on public perceptions, driver behaviors, or alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and injuries. This conclusion is drawn after examining statistics for alcohol-related crashes, police citations for impaired driving, and public perceptions of alcohol-impaired driving risk. Comparisons are also made with other states in the mid-Atlantic region, where similar campaign activities have occurred. Reasons for this failure in Maryland include insufficient levels of enforcement (e.g., too few sobriety checkpoints and vehicle contacts occurred to raise public perceptions of risk pertaining to impaired driving) and inadequate publicity surrounding this campaign. Suggestions for overcoming these problems are offered.

  1. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  2. Multidisciplinary design of electrical drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaabjerg, F.; Rasmussen, P.O.; Pedersen, J.K.

    1999-07-01

    Traditionally, simulation tools for drives can simulate electrical parameters, torque and different loads. Those parameters are in many cases appropriate. However, power electronics in drives will also influence on torque ripple, temperature, vibration and acoustical noise from the motor and it is necessary to include those phenomena in the next generation of simulation tools for electrical drives. This paper describes a new design program where acoustic noise of electromagnetic origin can be simulated and even be heard by the motor and drives designer. The design program is based on a simple vibrational/acoustic model where the parameters can be calculated based on the geometry of the motor. Examples of vibrational/acoustical modelling are included and verified in both time and frequency domain. Special emphasis is on the switched reluctance motor. (au)

  3. Clinical Action against Drunk Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald A Redelmeier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.

  4. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  5. Extended cognition and epistemic luck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    When extended cognition is extended into mainstream epistemology, an awkward tension arises when considering cases of environmental epistemic luck. Surprisingly, it is not at all clear how the mainstream verdict that agents lack knowledge in cases of environmental luck can be reconciled with

  6. We can predict when driving is no longer safe for people who have HD using standard neuropsychological measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Bonnie L; Kaplan, Richard F; Nowicki, Ariel E; Barclay, Jessy E; Gertsberg, Anna G

    2014-01-01

    Early cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's Disease (HD) is typically of a subcortical frontal executive type, with bradyphrenia, poor spatial and working memory, poor planning and organization, a lack of judgment, and poor mental flexibility. Although there is literature suggesting a correlation between deficits in speed of processing, working memory and executive function on driving competency, there is little direct evidence comparing these declines on tests to actual driving skills. The current study examines the utility of specific neuropsychological measures in predicting actual driving competency in patients with HD. Fifty-two patients at the UConn Health HD Program underwent yearly neuropsychological evaluations and were included in this study. Four scales were chosen a priori to predict driving impairment because of their reported relationship to driving ability. Within each test category, subjects who scored below the threshold suggestive of neurological impairment were found to have results within the impaired range (1.5 standard deviations below corrective normative data). A referral to the Connecticut Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) for a driving evaluation was subsequently made on patients who were found impaired on any two of these tests. The authors found a strong relationship between scores on a simple battery of four neuropsychological tests and driving competency. This short battery may prove of pragmatic value for clinicians working with people with HD and their families.

  7. Driving safety in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, T A; Cimino, C R; Malek, A R; Gardner, N; Leaverton, P L; Dunne, P B; Hauser, R A

    2002-12-10

    In this study, 39 patients with PD and 25 control subjects without neurologic disease completed testing in a driving simulator. PD patients had more total collisions on the driving simulator than control subjects (t = -3.7, p < 0.01). In PD patients, collisions were associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage (chi(2) = 12.4, p = 0.006) and correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.5, p < 0.01).

  8. Warp drive with zero expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)

    2002-03-21

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  9. Selective Perception for Robot Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    models are theories of human cognitive activity during driving. Van der Molen and Botticher recently reviewed several of these models [ van der Molen 871...how to represent driving knowledge, how to perceive traffic situations, or how to process information to obtain actions. Van der Molen and Botticher...attempted to compare the operations of various models objectively on the same task [Rothengatter 88, van der Molen 87], but the models could be

  10. Scale-invariant extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a model of extended inflation which makes use of the nonlinear realization of scale invariance involving the dilaton coupled to an inflaton field whose potential admits a metastable ground state. The resulting theory resembles the Jordan-Brans-Dicke version of extended inflation. However, quantum effects, in the form of the conformal anomaly, generate a mass for the dilaton, thus allowing our model to evade the problems of the original version of extended inflation. We show that extended inflation can occur for a wide range of inflaton potentials with no fine-tuning of dimensionless parameters required. Furthermore, we also find that it is quite natural for the extended-inflation period to be followed by an epoch of slow-rollover inflation as the dilaton settles down to the minimum of its induced potential

  11. Low backlash direct drive actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1994-01-01

    A low backlash direct drive actuator is described which comprises a motor such as a stepper motor having at least 200 steps per revolution; a two part hub assembly comprising a drive hub coaxially attached to the shaft of the motor and having a plurality of drive pins; a driven hub having a plurality of bores in one end thereof in alignment with the drive pins in the drive hub and a threaded shaft coaxially mounted in an opposite end of the driven hub; and a housing having a central bore therein into which are fitted the drive hub and driven hub, the housing having a motor mount on one end thereof to which is mounted the stepper motor, and a closed end portion with a threaded opening therein coaxial with the central bore in the housing and receiving therein the threaded shaft attached to the driven hub. Limit switches mounted to the housing cooperate with an enlarged lip on the driven hub to limit the lateral travel of the driven hub in the housing, which also acts to limit the lateral travel of the threaded shaft which functions as a lead screw.

  12. Driving under the influence of khat--alkaloid concentrations and observations in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F

    2004-02-10

    The use of the herbal stimulant khat (Catha edulis FORSK) is maintained by immigrants from countries where it is part of their cultural life (Arabian Peninsula and eastern Africa). In western countries the drug and its effects are largely unknown and no experience in evaluating impairment symptoms due to the khat-alkaloids, e.g. cathinone, cathine and norephedrine exists. Blood and urine samples from khat users involved in 19 cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs were analysed and correlated with the results of medical examination and police officer reports. In 3 cases impaired driving and in 10 cases marked impairment of psychophysical functions was observed such as effects on the nervous system (slow pupil reaction to light, dry mouth, increased heart-rate), trembling, restlessness/nervousness, daze/apathy/dullness, impairment of attention, walking and standing on one leg. However, the alkaloid concentrations assayed in blood did not correlate with the impairment symptoms. Apart from an acute phase of indirect sympathomimetic action the development of habituation and withdrawal symptoms must also be considered in explaining the diversity of effects observed. From these results it can be concluded that chewing khat may severely impair driving ability, but may also be without noticeable effects.

  13. A methoxydiphenidine-impaired driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, Nicole; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Skopp, Gisela

    2016-03-01

    Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. The concentration of MXP has been determined from a serum sample (57 ng/mL) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and its major metabolite were present in concentrations of 111, 28, and 3 ng/mL, respectively. The subject presented with amnesia, out-of-body experiences, bizarre behavior, and decreased motor abilities. At present, information on human toxicity of MXP is not available. MXP is comparable in structure as well as in action at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to phencyclidine or ketamine. Therefore, it is likely that MXP exerts similar severe psychotropic action in man. However, there is no information on the duration and intensity of MXP's impairing effects, the interpretation of a particular concentration in the blood or serum, and its detectability in routine drug screenings. Confirmation analysis may be confined to cases where the police has specific intelligence that points to MXP use.

  14. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    stored at 24 °C. Sperm motility parameters, morphology, and viability were analysed ... body size, slow average daily weight gain, decreased fertility, extended .... were determined by counting a total of 200 spermatozoa per each stained slide.

  15. High-power converters and AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.

  16. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  17. Motivational factors associated with drowsy driving behavior: a qualitative investigation of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Lee, Clark J; Weiner, Talia

    2018-02-01

    This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. Four focus groups of college students. A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Notes and transcripts from the focus group sessions were analyzed to identify recurring themes regarding attitudes, motivations, experiences, influences, and potential preventive messaging strategies related to drowsy driving. Although most participants had heard of drowsy driving and were concerned about it, they did not associate it with legal risks and were more concerned about alcohol-impaired and distracted driving as crash risks. Participants viewed drowsy driving as a normal and unavoidable part of their lives over which they had little control. For potential anti-drowsy driving messaging strategies, participants preferred messages delivered via audiovisual or social media that featured graphic and emotional portrayals of crashes and their consequences. Participants also voiced strong support for preventive messaging strategies equating various degrees of sleep deprivation to known impairing levels of alcohol, as well as messages providing cues to action to actual drowsy drivers on roadways. Increased enforcement, education, and public messaging campaigns are needed to increase knowledge and influence attitudes and opinions among young drivers about the dangers and social unacceptability of drowsy driving. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Driving performance in persons with mild to moderate symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Hannes; Brijs, Tom; Alders, Geert; Wets, Geert; Feys, Peter

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether driving performance is impaired in persons with mild to moderate multiple sclerosis (MS). This study included 15 persons with MS (pwMS) and 17 healthy controls. The MS group exhibited mild to moderate impairments on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (median, Q1-Q3; 3.5, 2.5-4). The driving simulation required participants to drive in daily traffic while attending to a divided attention (DA) task. Computerized measures on the driving task included number of accidents, tickets, speed maintenance, standard deviation of lateral position, and time to collision. Response times and accuracy on the DA task were also computer generated. Additionally, pwMS completed a clinical evaluation encompassing motor, functional, visual, psychosocial and cognitive tests. No differences between healthy controls and pwMS were observed on all measures of the primary driving task. PwMS performed worse than healthy controls on DA response time (3.10 s, 2.87-3.68 versus 2.15 s, 2.04-2.43; p = 0.001) and accuracy (15 correct answers, 11-18 versus 24 correct answers, 22-25; p driving task above the DA task. The relationship between depression and driving performance in MS merits further investigation.

  19. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamanini, Nicola; Wright, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  20. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions of two variables are given. This type of asymptotic functions has been introduced as an extension of continuous ordinary functions. The presented examples are realizations of some Schwartz distributions delta(x), THETA(x), P(1/xsup(n)) and can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. The examples illustrate the method of construction of extended asymptotic functions similar to the distributions. The set formed by the extended asymptotic functions is also considered. It is shown, that this set is not closed with respect to addition and multiplication

  1. Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamanini, Nicola [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA-Saclay, CNRS UMR 3681, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wright, Matthew, E-mail: nicola.tamanini@cea.fr, E-mail: matthew.wright.13@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from ΛCDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.

  2. i3Drive, a 3D interactive driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroz, Miha; Prebil, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    i3Drive, a wheeled-vehicle simulator, can accurately simulate vehicles of various configurations with up to eight wheels in real time on a desktop PC. It presents the vehicle dynamics as an interactive animation in a virtual 3D environment. The application is fully GUI-controlled, giving users an easy overview of the simulation parameters and letting them adjust those parameters interactively. It models all relevant vehicle systems, including the mechanical models of the suspension, power train, and braking and steering systems. The simulation results generally correspond well with actual measurements, making the system useful for studying vehicle performance in various driving scenarios. i3Drive is thus a worthy complement to other, more complex tools for vehicle-dynamics simulation and analysis.

  3. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  4. Perceptual load in different regions of the visual scene and its relevance for driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Hadas; Yeshurun, Yaffa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the role played by perceptual load, at both central and peripheral regions of the visual scene, in driving safety. Attention is a crucial factor in driving safety, and previous laboratory studies suggest that perceptual load is an important factor determining the efficiency of attentional selectivity. Yet, the effects of perceptual load on driving were never studied systematically. Using a driving simulator, we orthogonally manipulated the load levels at the road (central load) and its sides (peripheral load), while occasionally introducing critical events at one of these regions. Perceptual load affected driving performance at both regions of the visual scene. Critically, the effect was different for central versus peripheral load: Whereas load levels on the road mainly affected driving speed, load levels on its sides mainly affected the ability to detect critical events initiating from the roadsides. Moreover, higher levels of peripheral load impaired performance but mainly with low levels of central load, replicating findings with simple letter stimuli. Perceptual load has a considerable effect on driving, but the nature of this effect depends on the region of the visual scene at which the load is introduced. Given the observed importance of perceptual load, authors of future studies of driving safety should take it into account. Specifically, these findings suggest that our understanding of factors that may be relevant for driving safety would benefit from studying these factors under different levels of load at different regions of the visual scene. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Effects of alprazolam on driving ability, memory functioning and psychomotor performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Verbaten, Marinus N

    2002-08-01

    Alprazolam is prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder. Most users are presumably involved in daily activities such as driving. However, the effects of alprazolam on driving ability have never been investigated. This study was conducted to determine the effects of alprazolam (1 mg) on driving ability, memory and psychomotor performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. One hour after oral administration, subjects performed a standardized driving test on a primary highway during normal traffic. They were instructed to drive with a constant speed (90 km/h) while maintaining a steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Primary performance measures were the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) and the Standard Deviation of Speed (SDS). After the driving test, subjective driving quality, mental effort, and mental activation during driving were assessed. A laboratory test battery was performed 2.5 h after treatment administration, comprising the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test, a Continuous Tracking Test, and a Divided Attention Test. Relative to placebo, alprazolam caused serious driving impairment, as expressed by a significantly increased SDLP (F(1,19) = 97.3, p driving quality (F(1,19) = 16.4, p driving (F(1,19) = 26.4, p drive an automobile or operate potentially dangerous machinery.

  6. Symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Marcin L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...

  7. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  8. Quasi-extended asymptotic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The class F of ''quasi-extended asymptotic functions'' is introduced. It contains all extended asymptotic functions as well as some new asymptotic functions very similar to the Schwartz distributions. On the other hand, every two quasiextended asymptotic functions can be multiplied as opposed to the Schwartz distributions; in particular, the square delta 2 of an asymptotic function delta similar to Dirac's delta-function, is constructed as an example

  9. Some problems with extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    The recently proposed extended inflation scenario is examined. Upper bounds on the Brans-Dicke parameter ω are obtained by requiring that the recovery from the supercooled regime be such that the presently observed Universe could have emerged. These bounds are well below the present-day experimental limits, implying that one must use models which have a potential to fix the present value of the Brans-Dicke-like scalar field. The implications for extended inflation in such models are discussed

  10. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  11. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  12. Lithium and Renal Impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Nolen, Willem A

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lithium is established as an effective treatment of mania, of depression in bipolar and unipolar disorder, and in maintenance treatment of these disorders. However, due to the necessity of monitoring and concerns about irreversible adverse effects, in particular renal impairment......, after long-term use, lithium might be underutilized. METHODS: This study reviewed 6 large observational studies addressing the risk of impaired renal function associated with lithium treatment and methodological issues impacting interpretation of results. RESULTS: An increased risk of renal impairment...... associated with lithium treatment is suggested. This increased risk may, at least partly, be a result of surveillance bias. Additionally, the earliest studies pointed toward an increased risk of end-stage renal disease associated with lithium treatment, whereas the later and methodologically most sound...

  13. Extended likelihood inference in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F. Jr.; Beckman, R.J.; Waller, R.A.

    1978-10-01

    Extended likelihood methods of inference are developed in which subjective information in the form of a prior distribution is combined with sampling results by means of an extended likelihood function. The extended likelihood function is standardized for use in obtaining extended likelihood intervals. Extended likelihood intervals are derived for the mean of a normal distribution with known variance, the failure-rate of an exponential distribution, and the parameter of a binomial distribution. Extended second-order likelihood methods are developed and used to solve several prediction problems associated with the exponential and binomial distributions. In particular, such quantities as the next failure-time, the number of failures in a given time period, and the time required to observe a given number of failures are predicted for the exponential model with a gamma prior distribution on the failure-rate. In addition, six types of life testing experiments are considered. For the binomial model with a beta prior distribution on the probability of nonsurvival, methods are obtained for predicting the number of nonsurvivors in a given sample size and for predicting the required sample size for observing a specified number of nonsurvivors. Examples illustrate each of the methods developed. Finally, comparisons are made with Bayesian intervals in those cases where these are known to exist

  14. Social communication impairments: pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert L

    2007-06-01

    Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized.

  15. Driving safety in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marottoli, R A

    1993-05-01

    Driving safety in elderly individuals is becoming an increasingly important issue in geriatrics and in medical practice. The number of elderly drivers is increasing as the population ages, and especially as current generations of female drivers age. Concern is raised about their safe operation of motor vehicles because of the increasing likelihood with advancing age of developing conditions that may adversely affect the visual, cognitive, and motor abilities integral to driving. But this issue is not only a medical one, since there are social and political components as well. This discussion will describe the background of this issue, focus on the changes that may occur with aging and their potential relationship to driving ability, and, finally, will outline an approach that physicians may employ in their practice.

  16. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment.

  17. CLIC Drive Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, S; Gudkov, D; Soby, L; Syratchev, I

    2011-01-01

    CLIC, an electron-positron linear collider proposed to probe the TeV energy scale, is based on a two-beam scheme where RF power to accelerate a high energy luminosity beam is extracted from a high current drive beam. The drive beam is efficiently generated in a long train at modest frequency and current then compressed in length and multiplied in frequency via bunch interleaving. The drive beam decelerator requires >40000 quadrupoles, each holding a beam position monitor (BPM). Though resolution requirements are modest (2 microns) these BPMs face several challenges. They must be compact and inexpensive. They must operate below waveguide cutoff to insure locality of position signals, ruling out processing at the natural 12 GHz bunch spacing frequency. Wakefields must be kept low. We find compact conventional stripline BPM with signals processed below 40 MHz can meet requirements. Choices of mechanical design, operating frequency, bandwidth, calibration and processing algorithm are presented. Calculations of wa...

  18. Correlates of drug use and driving among undergraduate college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Christine; Saleheen, Hassan; Borrup, Kevin; Rogers, Steve; Lapidus, Garry

    2014-01-01

    Drug use by drivers is a significant and growing highway safety problem. College students are an important population to understand drugged driving. The objective of this study was to examine correlates of drugged driving among undergraduate college students. We conducted an anonymous, confidential, 24-question survey at a large New England public university during the 2010-2011 academic year among undergraduates in courses that met a graduation requirement. Data include demographics; academics; housing status; lifestyle; personal values; high school/college drug use; and driving following alcohol use, drug use, or both; and as a passenger with a driver who used alcohol, drugs, or both. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests compared driver alcohol use, drug use, or both with demographic, academic, and lifestyle variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed with drugged driving as the dependent variable. Odds ratios and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated for each of the potential explanatory variables in relation to the outcome. Four hundred forty-four of 675 students completed surveys (66% participation rate). Participants were representative of the student body with a mean age of 19.4 (±1.3 years), 51 percent male, 75 percent white, and 10 percent Hispanic. Seventy-eight percent lived on campus, 93 percent had a driver's license, and 37 percent had access to a car. Students disagreed that cannabinoids impair driving (18%) compared to other drugs (17%), stimulants (13%), depressants (11%), hallucinogens (8%), and alcohol (7%). Twenty-three percent drove after alcohol use and 22 percent drove after drug use. Forty-one percent reported having been a passenger with a driver who had been drinking and 37 percent with a driver using drugs. Drugged driving was more likely among males vs. females (30% vs. 14%, P driving included using drugs in high school (odds ratio [OR] = 9.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4

  19. Pediatrician attitudes, knowledge, and practice behavior regarding teen driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan T; Borrup, Kevin; Corsi, John M; Kelliher, Kristine M; Saleheen, Hassan; Banco, Leonard; Lapidus, Garry

    2009-01-01

    Each year about 4,000 teens ages 16-19 die on U.S. roads. Injury prevention counseling is recommended as a valuable and cost-effective part of routine health supervision. This study describes pediatrician knowledge and practice regarding teen driving safety. A 31-item self-administered survey was mailed to pediatricians. 160 of 392 pediatricians (41%) completed the survey. During a health supervision visit 93% of pediatricians reported discussing seat belt use, 89% impaired driving, 54% teen licensing laws, and 16% parent teen contract. Half reported having a teen in their practice killed in a crash. A majority surveyed report discussing and counseling teens on first wave teen driver safety issues (seat belts, alcohol use), but most do not discuss graduated driver licensing laws or related issues. Broadly adopted, this inexpensive counseling approach, could lead to reductions in teen motorvehicle crash injuries.

  20. Determinants of Effort in Drunk-Driving Interventions: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Samuel R.; Zagumny, Matthew J.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys college students (N=119) to examine psychosocial predictors of interventions to prevent drunk driving. Results show that the level of comparative impairment between the intervenor and the drunk driver, the sense of moral/social obligation to intervene, and the number of people consulted about the intervention significantly predicted…

  1. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the

  2. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety, and considers directions for future research.

  3. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  4. Control-rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodoi, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent falling of control rods due to malfunction. Constitution: The device of the present invention has a scram function in particular, and uses principally a fluid pressure as a scram accelerating means. The control rod is held by upper and lower holding devices, which are connected by a connecting mechanism. This connecting mechanism is designed to be detachable only at the lower limit of driving stroke of the control rod so that there occurs no erroneous scram resulting from careless disconnection of the connecting mechanism. Further, scramming operation due to own weight of the scram operating portion such as control rod driving shaft may be effected to increase freedom. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Psychological Factors related with Driving under the Influence of Alcohol and Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Budak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Driving under the influence of alcohol and substance use is an important traffic problem that caused many people in the world to lose their lieves. Many features that are important in terms of driving adversely affected under the influence of alcohol and substance and therefore impaired driving behavior arises in drivers. The most effective way to fight for prevent this impaired driver behavier is the restrictions and regulations imposed on drivers in traffic related to alcohol and drug use. Nevertheless, in the literature, some drivers continue to impaired driving function with a risky traffic behavior, in which the driver personality (risk-taking, thrill-seeking, self-control, psychopathological (substance abuse, personality disorders, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, anger and aggression, and many other neuropsychological features are considered to have a relationship with this situation. In this article psychological, psychopathological and neuropsychological studies have examined regarding drive under the influence of alcohol and drug. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 333-347

  6. Apparatus for installing and removing a control rod drive in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, A.P.L.; Ward, R.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for installing and removing a control rod drive from beneath the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. It consists of elevator carriage for carrying the control rod drive into and out of the region beneath the pressure vessel in a generally horizontal position, an elevator cradle mounted on the carriage for pivotal movement about an axis between horizontal and vertical positions and for vertical movement, when in the vertical position, means for securing the control rod drive to the elevator cradle, and a winch cart movable horizontally between a first position spaced from the pivot axis and a second position near the pivot axis. The cart has a winch cable supporting the lower end of the elevator carriage for moving the elevator carriage and the control rod drive between horizontal and vertical positions on the elevator carriage when the cart is spaced from the pivot axis and for raising and lowering the elevator cradle and the control rod drive when the cart is positioned near the pivot axis. The control rod drive is mounted on the elevator cradle by a bearing permitting rotational and horizontal movement of the control rod drive when the drive is in a vertical position, a swing arm, a pneumatically actuated cylinder in axial alignment with the control rod drive for raising and lowering the control rod drive, and means pivotally mounting the cylinder on the swing arm for movement about an axis spaced from and generally parallel to the vertically extending axis so that the position of the cylinder and the control rod drive can be shifted horizontally about the vertically extending axes

  7. Driving simulator sickness: Impact on driving performance, influence of blood alcohol concentration, and effect of repeated simulator exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helland, Arne; Lydersen, Stian; Lervåg, Lone-Eirin; Jenssen, Gunnar D; Mørland, Jørg; Slørdal, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator exposure on the degree of simulator sickness. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent three simulated driving trials of 1h's duration with a curvy rural road scenario, and rated their degree of simulator sickness after each trial. Subjects drove sober and with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of approx. 0.5g/L and 0.9g/L in a randomized order. Simulator sickness score (SSS) did not influence the primary outcome measure SDLP. Higher SSS significantly predicted lower average speed and frequency of steering wheel reversals. These effects seemed to be mitigated by alcohol. Higher BAC significantly predicted lower SSS, suggesting that alcohol inebriation alleviates simulator sickness. The negative relation between the number of previous exposures to the simulator and SSS was not statistically significant, but is consistent with habituation to the sickness-inducing effects, as shown in other studies. Overall, the results suggest no influence of simulator sickness on SDLP or several other driving performance measures. However, simulator sickness seems to cause test subjects to drive more carefully, with lower average speed and fewer steering wheel reversals, hampering the interpretation of these outcomes as measures of driving impairment and safety. BAC and repeated simulator exposures may act as confounding variables by influencing the degree of simulator sickness in experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive validity of driving-simulator assessments following traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Poole, John H; Lee, Eun Ha; Jaffe, David L; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Brodd, Edward

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate whether driving simulator and road test evaluations can predict long-term driving performance, we conducted a prospective study on 11 patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Sixteen healthy subjects were also tested to provide normative values on the simulator at baseline. At their initial evaluation (time-1), subjects' driving skills were measured during a 30-minute simulator trial using an automated 12-measure Simulator Performance Index (SPI), while a trained observer also rated their performance using a Driving Performance Inventory (DPI). In addition, patients were evaluated on the road by a certified driving evaluator. Ten months later (time-2), family members observed patients driving for at least 3 hours over 4 weeks and rated their driving performance using the DPI. At time-1, patients were significantly impaired on automated SPI measures of driving skill, including: speed and steering control, accidents, and vigilance to a divided-attention task. These simulator indices significantly predicted the following aspects of observed driving performance at time-2: handling of automobile controls, regulation of vehicle speed and direction, higher-order judgment and self-control, as well as a trend-level association with car accidents. Automated measures of simulator skill (SPI) were more sensitive and accurate than observational measures of simulator skill (DPI) in predicting actual driving performance. To our surprise, the road test results at time-1 showed no significant relation to driving performance at time-2. Simulator-based assessment of patients with brain injuries can provide ecologically valid measures that, in some cases, may be more sensitive than a traditional road test as predictors of long-term driving performance in the community.

  9. Sleep apnoea and driving: how can this be dealt with?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krieger

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness has long been known to be associated with an increased risk of often particularly severe traffic accidents. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is among the most prevalent conditions leading to excessive daytime sleepiness, in addition to impaired cognitive function, both of which are likely to impair driving ability. An increased risk of traffic accidents has been demonstrated repeatedly, in association with OSA, as well its normalisation with effective treatment. However, it seems that not all patients are at equal risk, but it is not clear how to identify when and how at-risk patients can be identified. Nevertheless, some European countries have made specific regulations concerning OSA and/or excessive daytime sleepiness and the capacity to obtain or to keep a driving license. Most countries have the general rule that "a driving license should not be given or renewed to any candidate or license holder suffering from a disorder ... likely to compromise safety on the road", without a specific mention of sleepiness and/or sleep apnoea. However, the way in which such a statement is applied and the measures taken to identify unfit drivers vary greatly from country to country. In addition, in those countries that have made specific regulations, no evaluation of their efficacy in reducing sleepiness-related accidents is available. In practice, it is the physician's responsibility to inform the untreated obstructive sleep apnoea patient about the risk associated with their condition, and about the regulations that prevail in their country, if relevant; only in a few countries, is the physician allowed (or compelled to report the unfit patient to the licensing authorities. Although it is generally accepted that the treated patient may be allowed to drive, the specific treatment conditions that eliminate the risk are not clearly established.

  10. Advantages of Square-Root Extended Kalman Filter for Sensorless Control of AC Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Peroutka, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 11 (2012), s. 4189-4196 ISSN 0278-0046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Kalman filters * Mathematical model * AC motors Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 5.165, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/AS/smidl-0436868.pdf

  11. Electrohydraulic drive system with planetary superposed gears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, A.; Klimek, K.H.; Welz, H.

    1989-01-01

    To prevent drive problems in ploughs the drives must be designed in such a way as to compensate for asymmetries. If electromechanical drives are replaced by an electrohydraulic drive system with superposed planetary gears and hydrostatic torque reaction supports the following advantages occur: load-free acceleration, load equalisation between main and auxiliary drive, overload protection, and reduction of systems vibrations. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Bacteriospermia in extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Gary C; Lu, Kristina G

    2005-01-15

    Bacteriospermia is a frequent finding in freshly extended porcine semen and can result in detrimental effects on semen quality and longevity if left uncontrolled. The primary source of bacterial contamination is the boar. Other sources that have been identified include environment, personnel, and the water used for extender preparation. A 1-year retrospective study was performed on submissions of extended porcine semen for routine quality control bacteriological screening at the University of Pennsylvania. Out of 250 sample submissions, 78 (31.2%) tested positive for bacterial contamination. The most popular contaminants included Enterococcus spp. (20.5%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15.4%), Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (10.3%), Serratia marcescens (10.3%), Acinetobacter lwoffi (7.7%), Escherichia coli (6.4%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.4%), and others (23.0%). Prudent individual hygiene, good overall sanitation, and regular monitoring can contribute greatly in controlling bacterial load. Strategies that incorporate temperature-dependent bacterial growth and hyperthermic augmentation of antimicrobial activity are valuable for effective control of susceptible bacterial loads. Aminoglycosides remain the most popular antimicrobial class used in porcine semen extenders, with beta-lactam and lincosamide use increasing. With the advent of more novel antimicrobial selection and semen extender compositions in swine, prudent application and understanding of in vitro pharmacodynamics are becoming paramount to industry success in the use of this breeding modality.

  13. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  14. Drive-By-Wire Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-29

    Symposium Intelligent Systems for the Objective Fleet uTransmission controls uSteering (both on-transmission and under-carriage) uBraking (service and...parking) uTransmission select uThrottle uOther Electromechanical Opportunities uTurret drives (elevation, traverse) uAutomatic propellant handling systems

  15. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  16. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed. (authors)

  17. Synergy in RF Current Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, R.J.; Giruzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Auxiliary methods for efficient non-inductive current drive in tokamaks generally involve the interaction of externally driven waves with superthermal electrons. Among the possible schemes, Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) current drive have been so far the most successful. An interesting aspect of their combined use is the fact that since they involve possibly overlapping domains in velocity and configuration spaces, a synergy between them is expected for appropriate parameters. The signature of this effect, significant improvement of the EC current drive efficiency, results from a favorable interplay of the quasilinear diffusions induced by both waves. Recently, improvements of the EC current drive efficiency in the range of 2-4 have been measured in fully non-inductive discharges in the Tore Supra tokamak, providing the first clear evidence of this effect in steady-state conditions. We present here the experimental aspects of these discharges. The associated kinetic modeling and current state of understanding of the LH-EC synergy phenomenon are also discussed

  18. Safe Driving After Propofol Sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerlin-Grady, Lee; Austin, Paul N; Gabaldon, Dion A

    2017-10-01

    Propofol is a short-acting medication with fast cognitive and psychomotor recovery. However, patients are usually instructed not to drive a motor vehicle for 24 hours after receiving propofol. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence examining when it is safe to drive after receiving propofol for sedation for diagnostic and surgical procedures. This is a systematic review of the literature. A search of the literature was conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for the time period 1990 to 2015. Two randomized controlled trials and two observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a simulator, investigators examined driving ability of subjects who received modest doses (about 100 mg) of propofol for endoscopic procedures and surveyed subjects who drove immediately after discharge. There were methodological concerns with the studies such as small sample sizes, modest doses of propofol, and three of the four studies were done in Japan by the same group of investigators limiting generalizability. This limited research suggests that it may be safe for patients to drive sooner than 24 hours after receiving propofol. However, large multicenter trials using heterogenous samples using a range of propofol doses are needed to support an evidence-based revision to the current discharge guidelines for patients receiving propofol. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Driving When You Have Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asp Wear your safety belt Always wear your safety belt when you are driving or riding in a car. Make sure that every person who is riding with you also is buckled up. Wear your safety belt even if your car has air bags. ...

  20. Current drive for rotamak plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Experiments which have been undertaken over a number of years have shown that a rotating magnetic field can drive a significant non-linear Hall current in a plasma. Successful experiments of this concept have been made with a device called rotamak. In its original configuration this device was a field reversed ...