WorldWideScience

Sample records for extended direct semidirect

  1. Direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing with a massless neutrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Stephen F.; Ludl, Patrick Otto [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-24

    We discuss the possibility of enforcing a massless Majorana neutrino in the direct and semi-direct approaches to lepton mixing, in which the PMNS matrix is partly predicted by subgroups of a discrete family symmetry, extending previous group searches up to order 1535. We find a phenomenologically viable scheme for the semi-direct approach based on Q(648) which contains Δ(27) and the quaternion group as subgroups. This leads to novel predictions for the first column of the PMNS matrix corresponding to a normal neutrino mass hierarchy with m{sub 1}=0, and sum rules for the mixing angles and phase which are characterised by the solar angle being on the low side θ{sub 12}∼31{sup ∘} and the Dirac (oscillation) CP phase δ being either about ±45{sup ∘} or ±π.

  2. Testing Second Language Oral Proficiency in Direct and Semidirect Settings: A Social-Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Shiozaki, Shuken; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify differences in the neural processes underlying direct and semidirect interviews. We examined brain activation patterns while 20 native speakers of Japanese participated in direct and semidirect interviews in both Japanese (first language [L1]) and English (second language…

  3. A discrete variational identity on semi-direct sums of Lie algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M, Wenxiu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5700 (United States)

    2007-12-14

    The discrete variational identity under general bilinear forms on semi-direct sums of Lie algebras is established. The constant {gamma} involved in the variational identity is determined through the corresponding solution to the stationary discrete zero-curvature equation. An application of the resulting variational identity to a class of semi-direct sums of Lie algebras in the Volterra lattice case furnishes Hamiltonian structures for the associated integrable couplings of the Volterra lattice hierarchy.

  4. Evolution of egoism on semi-directed and undirected Barabási-Albert networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    2015-05-01

    Through Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of the four strategies: Ethnocentric, altruistic, egoistic and cosmopolitan in one community of individuals. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and semi-directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We study the Hammond-Axelrod (HA) model on undirected and semi-directed BA networks for the asexual reproduction case. With a small modification in the traditional HA model, our simulations showed that egoism wins, differently from other results found in the literature where ethnocentric strategy is common. Here, mechanisms such as reciprocity are absent.

  5. Direct and semi-direct radiative forcing of smoke aerosols over clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations from Earth observing satellites indicate that dark carbonaceous aerosols that absorb solar radiation are widespread in the tropics and subtropics. When these aerosols mix with clouds, there is generally a reduction of cloudiness owing to absorption of solar energy in the aerosol layer. Over the subtropical South Atlantic Ocean, where smoke from savannah burning in southern Africa resides above a persistent deck of marine stratocumulus clouds, radiative heating of the smoke layer leads to a thickening of the cloud layer. Here, satellite observations of the albedo of overcast scenes of 25 km2 size or larger are combined with additional satellite observations of clouds and aerosols to estimate the top-of-atmosphere direct radiative forcing attributable to presence of dark aerosol above bright cloud, and the negative semi-direct forcing attributable to the thickening of the cloud layer. The average positive direct radiative forcing by smoke over an overcast scene is 9.2±6.6 W m−2 for cases with an unambiguous signal of absorbing aerosol over cloud in passive ultraviolet remote sensing observations. However, cloud liquid water path is enhanced by 16.3±7.7 g m−2 across the range of values for sea surface temperature for cases of smoke over cloud. The negative radiative forcing associated with this semi-direct effect of smoke over clouds is estimated to be −5.9±3.5 W m−2. Therefore, the cooling associated with the semi-direct cloud thickening effect compensates for greater than 60 % of the direct radiative effect. Accounting for the frequency of occurrence of significant absorbing aerosol above overcast scenes leads to an estimate of the average direct forcing of 1.0±0.7 W m−2 contributed by these scenes averaged over the subtropical southeast Atlantic Ocean during austral winter. The regional average of the negative semi-direct forcing is −0.7±0.4 W m−2

  6. Black carbon semi-direct effects on cloud cover: review and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Koch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Absorbing aerosols (AAs such as black carbon (BC or dust absorb incoming solar radiation, perturb the temperature structure of the atmosphere, and influence cloud cover. Previous studies have described conditions under which AAs either increase or decrease cloud cover. The effect depends on several factors, including the altitude of the AA relative to the cloud and the cloud type. We attempt to categorize the effects into several likely regimes. Cloud cover is decreased if the AAs are embedded in the cloud layer. AAs below cloud may enhance convection and cloud cover. AAs above cloud top stabilize the underlying layer and tend to enhance stratocumulus clouds but may reduce cumulus clouds. AAs can also promote cloud cover in convergent regions as they enhance deep convection and low level convergence as it draws in moisture from ocean to land regions. Most global model studies indicate a regional variation in the cloud response but generally increased cloud cover over oceans and some land regions, with net increased low-level and/or reduced upper level cloud cover. The result is a net negative semi-direct effect feedback from the cloud response to AAs. In some of these climate model studies, the cooling effect of BC due to cloud changes is strong enough to essentially cancel the warming direct effects.

  7. Clinical performance and marginal adaptation of class II direct and semidirect composite restorations over 3.5 years in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Roberto C; Krejci, Ivo; Dietschi, Didier

    2005-07-01

    The study evaluated the clinical performance and marginal adaptation of direct and semi-direct class II composite restorations in a split-mouth design over 3.5 years. 44 upper posterior teeth in 11 adults with primary carious lesions were treated with 22 direct and 22 semi-direct restorations. Conventional cavities were prepared for both types of restorations. A fine fine hybrid composite (APH) and a multifunctional adhesive system (Prisma universal bond 3) were used for all restorations. The incremental "3-sited light curing" technique was applied to direct restorations. Semi-direct inlays were prefabricated on silicone casts and post-cured using light and heat. Clinical performance was evaluated using modified USPHS parameters, while marginal adaptation was judged on replicas, using SEM and a standardized evaluation technique. Clinical results after 3.5 years revealed a 100% retention rate with no fractures, sensitivity or recurrent caries for both types of restorations. SEM-evaluation of the occlusal margins showed at the tooth-restoration interface relatively low rates of marginal openings over the observation period (4-8%). Marginal restoration fractures ranged between 1 and 2%, marginal tooth fractures between 3 and 9%. Differences between the restorative techniques and after the different time observation periods were not statistically significant. Proportions of marginal fractures and openings at the restoration-luting composite interface were less than 10% after 3.5 years. The results indicated no significant differences for direct and semi-direct fine hybrid composite restorations in medium size cavities in posterior teeth with respect to clinical performance and marginal adaptation over 3.5 years.

  8. Science Overview Document Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SJ Ghan; B Schmid; JM Hubbe; CJ Flynn; A Laskin; AA Zelenyuk; DJ Czizco; CN Long; G McFarquhar; J Verlinde; J Harrington; JW Strapp; P Liu; A Korolev; A McDonald; M Wolde; A Fridlind; T Garrett; G Mace; G Kok; S Brooks; D Collins; D Lubin; P Lawson; M Dubey; C Mazzoleni; M Shupe; S Xie; DD Turner; Q Min; EJ Mlawer; D Mitchell

    2007-11-01

    The ARM Climate Research Facility’s (ACRF) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) will deploy an intensive cloud and aerosol observing system to the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for a five week Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) during period 29 March through 30 April 2008. The deployment period is within the International Polar Year, thus contributing to and benefiting from the many ancillary observing systems collecting data synergistically. We will deploy the Canadian National Research Council Convair 580 aircraft to measure temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, single particle composition, concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, ISDAC will deploy two instruments at the ARM site in Barrow: a spectroradiometer to retrieve cloud optical depth and effective radius, and a tandem differential mobility analyzer to measure the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopicity. By using many of the same instruments used during Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted in October 2004, we will be able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during the fall and spring transitions. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary

  9. Direct and semi-direct effects of aerosol climatologies on long-term climate simulations over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Markus; Rockel, Burkhardt

    2017-08-01

    This study compares the direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of different annual cycles of tropospheric aerosol loads for Europe from 1950 to 2009 using the regional climate model COSMO-CLM, which is laterally forced by reanalysis data and run using prescribed, climatological aerosol optical properties. These properties differ with respect to the analysis strategy and the time window, and are then used for the same multi-decadal period. Five simulations with different aerosol loads and one control simulation without any tropospheric aerosols are integrated and compared. Two common limitations of our simulation strategy, to fully assess direct and semi-direct aerosol effects, are the applied observed sea surface temperatures and sea ice conditions, and the lack of short-term variations in the aerosol load. Nevertheless, the impact of different aerosol climatologies on common regional climate model simulations can be assessed. The results of all aerosol-including simulations show a distinct reduction in solar irradiance at the surface compared with that in the control simulation. This reduction is strongest in the summer season and is balanced primarily by a weakening of turbulent heat fluxes and to a lesser extent by a decrease in longwave emissions. Consequently, the seasonal mean surface cooling is modest. The temperature profile responses are characterized by a shallow near-surface cooling and a dominant warming up to the mid-troposphere caused by aerosol absorption. The resulting stabilization of stratification leads to reduced cloud cover and less precipitation. A decrease in cloud water and ice content over Central Europe in summer possibly reinforce aerosol absorption and thus strengthen the vertical warming. The resulting radiative forcings are positive. The robustness of the results was demonstrated by performing a simulation with very strong aerosol forcing, which lead to qualitatively similar results. A distinct added value over the default aerosol

  10. Improvement of parallelization performance of GAMESS: global sum and (semi-)direct integral calculation in multireference perturbation calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Hiroaki; Koseki, Shiro; Nagashima, Umpei

    2004-07-15

    Performance benchmark tests of the multireference perturbation theory (MRPT2) calculation in the GAMESS suite of programs have been performed on a 128-node PC cluster system. The benchmark results point to two kinds of problems with GAMESS: network delay and slow access to disk files. To overcome these bottlenecks, we employ (semi-)direct atomic orbital integral calculations and a new algorithm for the "global sum" operation. These modifications produce remarkable performance improvements, especially in the 128-node PC cluster system, which was almost twice as fast in our version as in the original version. The modification of "global sum" also improved the performance of other types of molecular orbital calculations in GAMESS, such as density functional theory. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 1175-1183, 2004

  11. Simulation of biomass burning aerosols mass distributions and their direct and semi-direct effects over South Africa using a regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M.; Botai, J.; Sivakumar, V.; Tsidu, G. Mengistu

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we examine the mass distributions, direct and semi-direct effects of different biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) over South Africa using the 12-year runs of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4). The results were analyzed and presented for the main BB season (July-October). The results show that Mpumalanga, KwaZulu Natal and the eastern parts of Limpopo are the main local source areas of BBAs in South Africa. In comparison to carbonaceous aerosols, BB-induced sulfate aerosol mass loading and climatic effects were found to be negligible. All carbonaceous aerosols reduce solar radiation at the surface by enhancing local atmospheric radiative heating. The climatic feedback caused by BBAs, resulted in changes in background aerosol concentrations. Thus, on a regional scale, climatic effects of BBAs were also found in areas far away from the BBA loading zones. The feedback mechanisms of the climate system to the aerosol radiative effects resulted in both positive and negative changes to the low-level columnar averaged net atmospheric radiative heating rate (NAHR). Areas that experienced an NAHR reduction showed an increase in cloud cover (CC). During the NAHR enhancement, CC over arid areas decreased; whereas CC over the wet/semi-wet regions increased. The changes in surface temperature (ST) and surface sensible heat flux are more closely correlated with BBA semi-direct effects induced CC alteration than their direct radiative forcing. Furthermore, decreases (or increases) in ST, respectively, lead to the reductions (and enhancements) in boundary layer height and the vice versa on surface pressure. The direct and semi-direct effects of BBAs also jointly promoted a reduction and rise in surface wind speed that was spatially highly variable. Overall, the results suggest that the CC change induced by the presence of radiatively interactive BBAs is important to determine alterations in other climatic variables.

  12. Analysis of the /sup 27/Al(p,. gamma. )/sup 28/Si reaction at subbarrier energies in terms of the direct-semidirect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicinska-Habior, M.; Decowski, P.; Dabrowska, M.; Grochulski, W.; Jaracz, P.; Matulewicz, T.; Sikora, B.; Toke, J.; Somorjai, E.

    1983-06-01

    Differential cross sections for ..gamma..-transitions to 12 states in /sup 28/Si following nonresonant proton capture in /sup 27/Al nuclei (Esub(p)=1.625 keV) were measured and analysed in terms of the direct-semidirect model. The experimental data ar reproduced only when the complex coupling constant with the GDR is enhanced for the f partial wave in the entrance channel.

  13. Parsing for Semidirectional Lambek Grammar is NP-Complete

    CERN Document Server

    Dörre, J

    1996-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of the parsing problem of a variant of Lambek Categorial Grammar that we call {\\em semidirectional}. In semidirectional Lambek calculus $\\SDL$ there is an additional non-directional abstraction rule allowing the formula abstracted over to appear anywhere in the premise sequent's left-hand side, thus permitting non-peripheral extraction. that. We show that the parsing problem for semidirectional Lambek Grammar is NP-complete by a reduction of the 3-Partition problem.

  14. Aerosol Direct, Indirect, Semidirect, and Surface Albedo Effects from Sector Contributions Based on the IPCC AR5 Emissions for Preindustrial and Present-day Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Menon, Surabi

    2012-01-01

    The anthropogenic increase in aerosol concentrations since preindustrial times and its net cooling effect on the atmosphere is thought to mask some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. Although the overall effect of aerosols on solar radiation and clouds is most certainly negative, some individual forcing agents and feedbacks have positive forcing effects. Recent studies have tried to identify some of those positive forcing agents and their individual emission sectors, with the hope that mitigation policies could be developed to target those emitters. Understanding the net effect of multisource emitting sectors and the involved cloud feedbacks is very challenging, and this paper will clarify forcing and feedback effects by separating direct, indirect, semidirect and surface albedo effects due to aerosols. To this end, we apply the Goddard Institute for Space Studies climate model including detailed aerosol microphysics to examine aerosol impacts on climate by isolating single emission sector contributions as given by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) emission data sets developed for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5. For the modeled past 150 years, using the climate model and emissions from preindustrial times to present-day, the total global annual mean aerosol radiative forcing is -0.6 W/m(exp 2), with the largest contribution from the direct effect (-0.5 W/m(exp 2)). Aerosol-induced changes on cloud cover often depends on cloud type and geographical region. The indirect (includes only the cloud albedo effect with -0.17 W/m(exp 2)) and semidirect effects (-0.10 W/m(exp 2)) can be isolated on a regional scale, and they often have opposing forcing effects, leading to overall small forcing effects on a global scale. Although the surface albedo effects from aerosols are small (0.016 W/m(exp 2)), triggered feedbacks on top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing can be 10 times larger. Our results point out that each

  15. The influence of the direct- and semi-direct effect on the weather conditions in Europe caused by the volcanic ash plume of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption during April and May 2010 with WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Stuefer, Martin; Arias, Delia Arnold; Flandorfer, Claudia; Maurer, Christian; Natali, Stefano; Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions, with gas and/or particle emissions, directly influence our environment, with special significance when they either occur near inhabited regions or are transported towards them. In addition to the well-known impact of air traffic, with large economic costs, the ground touching plumes can directly contaminate soil and water and lead to a decrease of air quality. Aerosols are also known to have an impact on weather and climate via their direct effect on radiation and via their impact on cloud formation. These feedbacks between atmospheric aerosol particles and meteorological processes were known for quite some time and have been implemented into several regional models. This study reveals first results obtained with the on-line coupled meteorological and chemical transport model WRF-Chem which is used to simulate the dispersion of the volcanic ash plume caused by the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in 2010. The main emphasis is to determine the influence of feedback processes caused by aerosol-meteorology interactions which can be simulated with WRF-Chem. The model is used with different set-ups (e.g. direct-effect turned off/on) to quantify the influence of the ash plume on the meteorological conditions during the main episode from April until end of May 2010. This contribution focuses on the investigation/quantification of the direct- and semi-direct effects of the ash plume. The simulated changes caused by the presence of the ash cloud on radiation and other atmospheric parameters such as temperature and wind are presented. A comprehensive observation data set from in-situ and remote sensing instruments is used to evaluate the model simulations.

  16. Semidirect composite onlay with cavity sealing: a review of clinical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Amal; Rocca, Giovanni Tommaso; Dietschi, Didier; Krejci, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    The evolution in adhesive dentistry has broadened the indication of esthetic restorative procedures especially with the use of resin composite material. Depending on the clinical situation, some restorative techniques are best indicated. As an example, indirect adhesive restorations offer many advantages over direct techniques in extended cavities. In general, the indirect technique requires two appointments and a laboratory involvement, or it can be prepared chairside in a single visit either conventionally or by the use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing systems. In both cases, there will be an extra cost as well as the need of specific materials. This paper describes the clinical procedures for the chairside semidirect technique for composite onlay fabrication without the use of special equipments. The use of this technique combines the advantages of the direct and the indirect restoration. The semidirect technique for composite onlays offers the advantages of an indirect restoration and low cost, and can be the ideal treatment option for extended cavities in case of financial limitations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Extending the Applicability of Graphlets to Directed Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, David; Ribeiro, Pedro; Silva, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    With recent advances in high-throughput cell biology, the amount of cellular biological data has grown drastically. Such data is often modeled as graphs (also called networks) and studying them can lead to new insights into molecule-level organization. A possible way to understand their structure is by analyzing the smaller components that constitute them, namely network motifs and graphlets. Graphlets are particularly well suited to compare networks and to assess their level of similarity due to the rich topological information that they offer but are almost always used as small undirected graphs of up to five nodes, thus limiting their applicability in directed networks. However, a large set of interesting biological networks such as metabolic, cell signaling, or transcriptional regulatory networks are intrinsically directional, and using metrics that ignore edge direction may gravely hinder information extraction. Our main purpose in this work is to extend the applicability of graphlets to directed networks by considering their edge direction, thus providing a powerful basis for the analysis of directed biological networks. We tested our approach on two network sets, one composed of synthetic graphs and another of real directed biological networks, and verified that they were more accurately grouped using directed graphlets than undirected graphlets. It is also evident that directed graphlets offer substantially more topological information than simple graph metrics such as degree distribution or reciprocity. However, enumerating graphlets in large networks is a computationally demanding task. Our implementation addresses this concern by using a state-of-the-art data structure, the g-trie, which is able to greatly reduce the necessary computation. We compared our tool to other state-of-the art methods and verified that it is the fastest general tool for graphlet counting.

  18. EXTENDE MODEL OF COMPETITIVITY THROUG APPLICATION OF NEW APPROACH DIRECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Arsovski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The basic subject of this work is the model of new approach impact on quality and safety products, and competency of our companies. This work represents real hypothesis on the basis of expert's experiences, in regard to that the infrastructure with using new approach directives wasn't examined until now, it isn't known which product or industry of Serbia is related to directives of the new approach and CE mark, and it is not known which are effects of the use of the CE mark. This work should indicate existing quality reserves and product's safety, the level of possible competency improvement and increasing the profit by discharging new approach directive requires.

  19. Refractoriness of on extended movement to directional change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L R

    1971-12-01

    An extended movement was used to compare the memory-drum and single-channel definitions of psychological refractoriness. The basic movement In response to the first signal (S1) was a forward lunge and a concurrent arm swing through a target string. The response to the second signal (S2) was a reversal of the original movement The interstimulus Interval (ISI) ranged from .10 - .70 sec. in .10-sec. steps. The hypothesis that refractoriness of the reversal movement would decrease as ISI shortened was confirmed by the fact that error frequencies decreased significantly and substantially with decreasing IS I. The availability of some residual capacity to deal with S2 during the refractory period was also indicated by an examination of the relationship between RT2 and the interval between S2 and RT1. This departure from the classical single-channel model shows some agreement with the neuromotor-programming theory.

  20. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, S.J.; Roy, S.; Filinchuk, Y.; Chernyshov, D.; Petukhov, A.V.; Versluijs-Helder, M.; Broersma, A.; Soulimani, F.; Visser, T.; Kegel, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended

  1. Broken symmetries and directed collective energy transport in spatially extended systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flach, S.; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Miroshnichenko, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    We study the appearance of directed energy current in homogeneous spatially extended systems coupled to a heat bath in the presence of an external ac field E(t) . The systems are described by nonlinear field equations. By making use of a symmetry analysis, we predict the right choice of E...

  2. Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children's Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddes, Allard R.; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal direct and extended cross-ethnic friendship effects on out-group evaluations among German (majority status, N = 76) and Turkish (minority status, N = 73) children (age 7-11 years) in ethnically heterogeneous elementary schools were examined at the beginning and end of the school year (time lag: 7 months). The results showed that among…

  3. Direct Imaging of Deformation and Disorder in Extended-Chain Polymer Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    Lenhert, T. J. Resch, and W. W. Adams, "Molecular Packing and Crystalline Order in Polybenzobisoxazole and Polybenzobisthiazole Fibers ", in...WL-TR-91-4011 AiAh 1A0 DIRECT IMAGING OF DEFORMATION AND DISORDER IN EXTENDED-CHAIN POLYMER FIBERS David C. Martin Department of Polymer Science and...Deformation and Disorder in Extended-Chain Polymer Fibers 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) David C. Martin 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year

  4. Impact of Saharan dust on North Atlantic marine stratocumulus clouds: importance of the semidirect effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Farahani, Anahita; Allen, Robert J.; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-05-01

    One component of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) involves dust and marine stratocumulus clouds (MSc). Few observational studies have focused on dust-MSc interactions, and thus this effect remains poorly quantified. We use observations from multiple sensors in the NASA A-Train satellite constellation from 2004 to 2012 to obtain estimates of the aerosol-cloud radiative effect, including its uncertainty, of dust aerosol influencing Atlantic MSc off the coast of northern Africa between 45° W and 15° E and between 0 and 35° N. To calculate the aerosol-cloud radiative effect, we use two methods following Quaas et al. (2008) (Method 1) and Chen et al. (2014) (Method 2). These two methods yield similar results of -1.5 ± 1.4 and -1.5 ± 1.6 W m-2, respectively, for the annual mean aerosol-cloud radiative effect. Thus, Saharan dust modifies MSc in a way that acts to cool the planet. There is a strong seasonal variation, with the aerosol-cloud radiative effect switching from significantly negative during the boreal summer to weakly positive during boreal winter. Method 1 (Method 2) yields -3.8 ± 2.5 (-4.3 ± 4.1) during summer and 1 ± 2.9 (0.6 ± 1) W m-2 during winter. In Method 1, the aerosol-cloud radiative effect can be decomposed into two terms, one representing the first aerosol indirect effect and the second representing the combination of the second aerosol indirect effect and the semidirect effect (i.e., changes in liquid water path and cloud fraction in response to changes in absorbing aerosols and local heating). The first aerosol indirect effect is relatively small, varying from -0.7 ± 0.6 in summer to 0.1 ± 0.5 W m-2 in winter. The second term, however, dominates the overall radiative effect, varying from -3.2 ± 2.5 in summer to 0.9 ± 2.9 W m-2 during winter. Studies show that the semidirect effect can result in a negative (i.e., absorbing aerosol lies above low clouds like MSc) or positive (i.e., absorbing aerosol lies within low clouds) aerosol

  5. Spatial reasoning with augmented points: Extending cardinal directions with local distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Moratz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for supplying existing qualitative direction calculi with a distance component to support fully fledged positional reasoning. The general underlying idea of augmenting points with local reference properties has already been applied in the OPRAm calculus. In this existing calculus, point objects are attached with a local reference direction to obtain oriented points and able to express relative direction using binary relations. We show how this approach can be extended to attach a granular distance concept to direction calculi such as the cardinal direction calculus or adjustable granularity calculi such as OPRAm or the Star calculus. We focus on the cardinal direction calculus and extend it to a multi-granular positional calculus called EPRAm. We provide a formal specification of EPRAm including a composition table for EPRA2 automatically determined using real algebraic geometry. We also report on an experimental performance analysis of EPRA2 in the context of a topological map-learning task proposed for benchmarking qualitative calculi. Our results confirm that our approach of adding a relative distance component to existing calculi improves the performance in realistic tasks when using algebraic closure for consistency checking.

  6. Domino Direct Arylation and Cross-Aldol for Rapid Construction of Extended Polycyclic π-Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Andrea; Bianchi, Gabriele; Po, Riccardo; Swager, Timothy M; Pasini, Dario

    2017-07-05

    Five-membered aromatic heterocycles are a ubiquitous skeleton of π-conjugated organic compounds, and their incorporation requires synthetic protocols that are not easily industrially sustainable or scalable. Improved methodologies for their insertion into π-scaffolds are therefore necessary. We report an efficient and scalable protocol involving a one-pot cross-Aldol direct arylation reaction protocol for the rapid construction of thiophene- and furan-based π-extended organic materials.

  7. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Sandra J; Roy, Soumyajit; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Petukhov, Andrei V; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Broersma, Alfred; Soulimani, Fouad; Visser, Tom; Kegel, Willem K

    2008-08-04

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended structure of {MoO 3(NH 2-CO-NH 2)} infinity consisting of right- and left-handed helical units. In the crystal structure urea acts both as a glue that links the inorganic molybdenum units into a helix and as a supramolecular linker for the stabilization of the crystal structure as a whole. This type of molecular topology resulted in an unexpectedly high thermal stability.

  8. Extending direct mass measurements in the region of the heaviest elements at SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacoppo, Francesca [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: SHIPTRAP-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry allows direct measurements of atomic masses with high precision. This technique is especially suitable to investigate the nuclear structure evolution of radioactive nuclides through binding energies. The heaviest elements investigated so far in pioneering experiments with the SHIPTRAP setup at GSI, Darmstadt, have been nobelium and lawrencium. The existence of such heavy nuclei is closely connected to the nuclear shell effects that stabilize them against spontaneous fission. The direct measurement of the masses of {sup 252-255}No and {sup 255,256}Lr has allowed mapping the evolution of the deformed subshell closure along N=152. In order to extend such studies to heavier and more exotic nuclides, the efficiency and sensitivity of the SHIPTRAP setup has to be further increased. In this talk, an overview of the related developments will be presented. In particular, the online commissioning of a cryogenic buffer gas-stopping cell with improved efficiency will be reported.

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems against Air Threats: The Semi-Direct Control System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelman, Frank; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.; Feichtinger, Walter; Hensellek, Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned cargo aircraft (UCA), which we may see being developed in the coming years, have characteristics that make them suitable for a variety of military operations. The absence of flightcrew and the resulting freedom to use novel configurations reduce costs. The decoupling of aircraft and crew

  10. Continuous manufacturing of extended release tablets via powder mixing and direct compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Tuomas; Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Forsberg, Peter; Fransson, Magnus; Wikström, Håkan; Folestad, Staffan; Lakio, Satu; Tajarobi, Pirjo; Abrahmsén-Alami, Susanna

    2015-11-10

    The aim of the current work was to explore continuous dry powder mixing and direct compression for manufacturing of extended release (ER) matrix tablets. The study was span out with a challenging formulation design comprising ibuprofen compositions with varying particle size and a relatively low amount of the matrix former hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Standard grade HPMC (CR) was compared to a recently developed direct compressible grade (DC2). The work demonstrate that ER tablets with desired quality attributes could be manufactured via integrated continuous mixing and direct compression. The most robust tablet quality (weight, assay, tensile strength) was obtained using high mixer speed and large particle size ibuprofen and HPMC DC2 due to good powder flow. At low mixer speed it was more difficult to achieve high quality low dose tablets. Notably, with HPMC DC2 the processing conditions had a significant effect on drug release. Longer processing time and/or faster mixer speed was needed to achieve robust release with compositions containing DC2 compared with those containing CR. This work confirms the importance of balancing process parameters and material properties to find consistent product quality. Also, adaptive control is proven a pivotal means for control of continuous manufacturing systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of extended release mini-tablets using directly compressible grades of HPMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Faiezah A A; Roberts, Matthew; Seton, Linda; Ford, James L; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R

    2013-11-01

    Hypromellose (HPMC) has been previously used to control drug release from mini-tablets. However, owing to poor flow, production of mini-tablets containing high HPMC levels is challenging. Directly compressible (DC) HPMC grades have been developed by Dow Chemical Company. To compare the properties of HPMC DC (METHOCEL™ K4M and K100M) with regular (REG) HPMC grades. Particle size distribution and flowability of HPMC REG and DC were evaluated. 3 mm mini-tablets, containing hydrocortisone or theophylline as model drugs and 40% w/w HPMC DC or REG were produced. Mini-tablets containing HPMC DC grades were manufactured using a rotary press simulator at forces between 2-4 kN and speeds of 5, 10, 15 or 20 rpm. Mini-tablets containing HPMC REG were produced manually. The improved flowability of HPMC DC grades, which have a narrower particle size distribution and larger particle sizes, meant that simulated large scale production of mini-tablets with good weight uniformity (CV 1.79-4.65%) was feasible. It was not possible to automatically manufacture mini-tablets containing HPMC REG due to the poor flowability of the formulations. Drug release from mini-tablets comprising HPMC DC and REG were comparable. Mini-tablets containing HPMC DC illustrated a higher tensile strength compared to mini-tablets made with HPMC REG. Mini-tablets produced with HPMC DC at different compression speeds had similar drug release profiles. Production of extended release mini-tablets was successfully achieved when HPMC DC was used. Drug release rate was not influenced by the different HPMC DC grades (K4M or K100M) or production speed.

  12. Extending the Direct Behavior Rating: An Examination of Schoolwide Behavior Ratings and Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Allison; Barron, Sheila; Fernando, Josephine; Balint-Langel, Kinga

    2018-01-01

    Direct behavior ratings have been identified as a practical and feasible alternative to direct observation of behavior for monitoring behavioral progress. Despite the evidence of usability, there have been calls for further examination of direct behavior ratings using different behaviors and scales. To this end, we examined the ratings of…

  13. Water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces: Direct evidence of weak dewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben René; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Reitzel, Niels

    2003-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity measurements reveal a significant dewetting of a large hydrophobic paraffin surface floating on water. The dewetting phenomenon extends less than 15 Angstrom into the bulk water phase and results in an integrated density deficit of about one water molecule per 25-30 Angstrom(2......) of water in contact with the paraffin surface. The results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations and related to the hydrophobic effect....

  14. Extending Energy Optimization in Goal-Directed Aiming from Movement Kinematics to Joint Angles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkitt, James J.; Bongers, Raoul M.; Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Lyons, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Energy optimization in goal-directed aiming has been demonstrated as an undershoot bias in primary movement endpoint locations, especially in conditions where corrections to target overshoots must be made against gravity. Two-component models of upper limb movement have not yet considered how joint

  15. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Paliperidone Extended-release on Depressive Symptoms in Schizoaffective Disorder: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Bossie, Cynthia A; Alphs, Larry

    2015-01-01

    This analysis evaluates improvement in symptoms of depression in patients with schizoaffective disorder administered oral paliperidone extended-release by accounting for the magnitude of direct and indirect (changes in negative and positive symptoms and worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms) treatment effects on depressive symptoms. Data for this post hoc analysis were drawn from two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of paliperidone extended-release versus placebo in adult subjects with schizoaffective disorder (N=614; NCT00412373, NCT00397033). Subjects with baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores of 16 or greater were included. Structural equation models (path analyses) were used to separate total effects into direct and indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Change from baseline in 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score at the Week 6 end point was the dependent variable; changes in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive and negative factors and Simpson-Angus Scale (to evaluate extrapyramidal symptoms) scores were independent variables. At baseline, 332 of 614 (54.1%) subjects had a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of 16 or greater. Path analysis determined that up to 26.4 percent of the paliperidone extended-release versus placebo effect on depressive symptoms may be attributed to a direct treatment effect, and 45.8 percent and 28.4 percent were mediated indirectly through improvements on positive and negative symptoms, respectively. No effects were identified as mediated through extrapyramidal symptoms changes (-0.7%). RESULTS of this analysis suggest that paliperidone's effect on depressive symptoms in subjects with schizoaffective disorder participating in two six-week, randomized, placebo-controlled studies is mediated through indirect effects (e.g., positive and negative symptom changes) and a direct treatment effect.

  16. Directed Searches for Broadband Extended Gravitational Wave Emission in Nearby Energetic Core-collapse Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.

    2016-03-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) are factories of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes. SNe Ib/c stand out as potentially originating in relatively compact stellar binaries and they have a branching ratio of about 1% into long gamma-ray bursts. The most energetic events probably derive from central engines harboring rapidly rotating black holes, wherein the accretion of fall-back matter down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) offers a window into broadband extended gravitational wave emission (BEGE). To search for BEGE, we introduce a butterfly filter in time-frequency space by time-sliced matched filtering. To analyze long epochs of data, we propose using coarse-grained searches followed by high-resolution searches on events of interest. We illustrate our proposed coarse-grained search on two weeks of LIGO S6 data prior to SN 2010br (z = 0.002339) using a bank of up to 64,000 templates of one-second duration covering a broad range in chirp frequencies and bandwidth. Correlating events with signal-to-noise ratios > 6 from the LIGO L1 and H1 detectors reduces the total to a few events of interest. Lacking any further properties reflecting a common excitation by broadband gravitational radiation, we disregarded these as spurious. This new pipeline may be used to systematically search for long-duration chirps in nearby CC-SNe from robotic optical transient surveys using embarrassingly parallel computing.

  17. DIRECTED SEARCHES FOR BROADBAND EXTENDED GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EMISSION IN NEARBY ENERGETIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Putten, Maurice H. P. M., E-mail: mvp@sejong.ac.kr [Room 614, Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong Gwangin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-10

    Core-collapse supernovae (CC-SNe) are factories of neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes. SNe Ib/c stand out as potentially originating in relatively compact stellar binaries and they have a branching ratio of about 1% into long gamma-ray bursts. The most energetic events probably derive from central engines harboring rapidly rotating black holes, wherein the accretion of fall-back matter down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) offers a window into broadband extended gravitational wave emission (BEGE). To search for BEGE, we introduce a butterfly filter in time–frequency space by time-sliced matched filtering. To analyze long epochs of data, we propose using coarse-grained searches followed by high-resolution searches on events of interest. We illustrate our proposed coarse-grained search on two weeks of LIGO S6 data prior to SN 2010br (z = 0.002339) using a bank of up to 64,000 templates of one-second duration covering a broad range in chirp frequencies and bandwidth. Correlating events with signal-to-noise ratios > 6 from the LIGO L1 and H1 detectors reduces the total to a few events of interest. Lacking any further properties reflecting a common excitation by broadband gravitational radiation, we disregarded these as spurious. This new pipeline may be used to systematically search for long-duration chirps in nearby CC-SNe from robotic optical transient surveys using embarrassingly parallel computing.

  18. Strengthening Purity: Moral Purity as a Mediator of Direct and Extended Cross-Group Friendships on Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzali, Loris; Brambilla, Marco; Giovannini, Dino; Paolo Colucci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigated whether enhanced perceptions of moral purity drive the effects of intergroup cross-group friendships on the intentions to interact with homosexuals. High-school students (N = 639) reported their direct and extended cross-group friendships with homosexuals as well as their beliefs regarding the moral character of the sexual minority. Participants further reported their desire to interact with homosexuals in the future. Results showed that both face-to-face encounters and extended contact with homosexuals increased their perceived moral purity, which in turn fostered more positive behavioral intentions. Results further revealed the specific role of moral purity in this sense, as differential perceptions along other moral domains (autonomy and community) had no mediation effects on behavioral tendencies toward homosexuals. The importance of these findings for improving intergroup relations is discussed, together with the importance of integrating research on intergroup contact and morality.

  19. An Extended Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST Scheme for Rapid Direct Typing of Leptospira from Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Weiss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid typing of Leptospira is currently impaired by requiring time consuming culture of leptospires. The objective of this study was to develop an assay that provides multilocus sequence typing (MLST data direct from patient specimens while minimising costs for subsequent sequencing.An existing PCR based MLST scheme was modified by designing nested primers including anchors for facilitated subsequent sequencing. The assay was applied to various specimen types from patients diagnosed with leptospirosis between 2014 and 2015 in the United Kingdom (UK and the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (Lao PDR. Of 44 clinical samples (23 serum, 6 whole blood, 3 buffy coat, 12 urine PCR positive for pathogenic Leptospira spp. at least one allele was amplified in 22 samples (50% and used for phylogenetic inference. Full allelic profiles were obtained from ten specimens, representing all sample types (23%. No nonspecific amplicons were observed in any of the samples. Of twelve PCR positive urine specimens three gave full allelic profiles (25% and two a partial profile. Phylogenetic analysis allowed for species assignment. The predominant species detected was L. interrogans (10/14 and 7/8 from UK and Lao PDR, respectively. All other species were detected in samples from only one country (Lao PDR: L. borgpetersenii [1/8]; UK: L. kirschneri [1/14], L. santarosai [1/14], L. weilii [2/14].Typing information of pathogenic Leptospira spp. was obtained directly from a variety of clinical samples using a modified MLST assay. This assay negates the need for time-consuming culture of Leptospira prior to typing and will be of use both in surveillance, as single alleles enable species determination, and outbreaks for the rapid identification of clusters.

  20. Application of Extended Smoluchowski Equations to Formation of Silver Nanoclusters Generated by Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuhang; Feng, Yuanxin

    2016-09-01

    We apply the extended Smoluchowski rate equations with neutralization process between nanocluster (NC) anion and cation to study the formation of silver NCs generated by direct current magnetron sputtering (DC-MSP). By comparing the experimental and simulation results, it was found that the origin of size tuning by the cell length was prolonged aggregation time. Size tuning by DC power (P) was attributed to the enhanced initial number density and ionization fraction of the sputtered materials. It was revealed that parts of NC ions were "lost" after aggregation and the amount of lost ions increased with power (20 W equations are capable to describe the NC formation in gas phase.

  1. Verification of extended model of goal directed behavior applied on aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Vasková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to verify Model of Goal Directed Behavior (EMGB by Perugini and Bagozzi (2001 applied on aggression by Richetin, Richardson and Boykin (2011. Two different studies were performed. Firstly original form of model was verified. In the second study, modification of EMGB through new conceptualization of scale of perceived behavioral control was executed. The research sample consisted together from 385 students of University of P.J. Šafárik and High school in Košice (182 respondents (78 men, 104 women with average age 20,84 years and standard deviation 1,94, who were involved in first study and 203 students (49 men and 154 women, with average age 19,71 and standard deviation 1,99 participated in second study who were administrated questionnaire by Richetin et al. (2011 and Richardson Conflict Response Questionnaire (Richardson & Green, 2006. Expectancy of comparable relationships between particular factors of EMGB in comparison to its published original version was verified. Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. In first study was shown insufficient fit of EMGB model. There were hypothesized two main sources of problems. At first, weak relationship between attitudes and behavioral desire was shown. Following statistical procedures confirmed its direct impact on intention, what is in correspondence with another studies (see Leone, Perugini & Ercolani, 2004, Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001, Richetin et al., 2011. Second source of problems was identified in factor named perceived behavioral control. Difficulties from our point of view lied in conceptualization of the term and its subsequent measurement. In the second study was involved new conceptualization of control. It corresponded with Baumeister´s understanding of selfcontrol as asserting control over one´s emotions, thoughts and behavior. After this modification sufficient fit of EMGB was shown. Besides this, factor of self-control was the strongest predictor of

  2. A comparison of the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation and caffeine on vigilance and cognitive performance during extended wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Lindsey K; McKinley, R Andy; Goodyear, Chuck; Nelson, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation from extended duty hours is a common complaint for many occupations. Caffeine is one of the most common countermeasures used to combat fatigue. However, the benefits of caffeine decline over time and with chronic use. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the pre-frontal cortex at 2 mA for 30 min to remediate the effects of sleep deprivation and to compare the behavioral effects of tDCS with those of caffeine. Three groups of 10 participants each received either active tDCS with placebo gum, caffeine gum with sham tDCS, or sham tDCS with placebo gum during 30 h of extended wakefulness. Our results show that tDCS prevented a decrement in vigilance and led to better subjective ratings for fatigue, drowsiness, energy, and composite mood compared to caffeine and control in sleep-deprived individuals. Both the tDCS and caffeine produced similar improvements in latencies on a short-term memory task and faster reaction times in a psychomotor task when compared to the placebo group. Interestingly, changes in accuracy for the tDCS group were not correlated to changes in mood; whereas, there was a relationship for the caffeine and sham groups. Our data suggest that tDCS could be a useful fatigue countermeasure and may be more beneficial than caffeine since boosts in performance and mood last several hours. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Achieving a robust drug release from extended release tablets using an integrated continuous mixing and direct compression line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakio, Satu; Tajarobi, Pirjo; Wikström, Håkan; Fransson, Magnus; Arnehed, Johan; Ervasti, Tuomas; Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Folestad, Staffan; Abrahmsén-Alami, Susanna

    2016-09-10

    In the present work the viability of integrated continuous mixing and compression processes for manufacturing of extended release (ER) matrix tablets was investigated in terms of dissolution behavior. The purpose was also to evaluate the combined effect of processing variables and compositional variables on the release robustness. The continuous process was provoked by a challenging formulation design, including variable powder characteristics and compositions of high and low amount of poorly soluble and poorly flowing drug substance (ibuprofen). Additionally a relatively low amount of two different ER matrix former grades (standard granulation grade CR and direct compression grade DC2 of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, HPMC) was used to challenge the system. Robust ibuprofen release was obtained faster when HPMC CR was used. However, robust release was also achieved when using HPMC DC2 at high ibuprofen content, even though it took slightly longer time to reach the steady state of the process. Due to its poor flow properties, HPMC CR would be very challenging to use in traditional direct compression. The results showed that by using continuous processing it is possible to manufacture and achieve robust performance of compositions that would not be possible with traditional batch processing due to for instance poorly flowability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct contact as a moderator of extended contact effects: cross-sectional and longitudinal impact on outgroup attitudes, behavioral intentions, and attitude certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Oliver; Hewstone, Miles; Tausch, Nicole; Wagner, Ulrich; Voci, Alberto; Hughes, Joanne; Cairns, Ed

    2010-12-01

    Cross-group friendships (the most effective form of direct contact) and extended contact (i.e., knowing ingroup members who have outgroup friends) constitute two of the most important means of improving outgroup attitudes. Using cross-sectional and longitudinal samples from different intergroup contexts, this research demonstrates that extended contact is most effective when individuals live in segregated neighborhoods having only few, or no, direct friendships with outgroup members. Moreover, by including measures of attitudes and behavioral intentions the authors showed the broader impact of these forms of contact, and, by assessing attitude certainty as one dimension of attitude strength, they tested whether extended contact can lead not only to more positive but also to stronger outgroup orientations. Cross-sectional data showed that direct contact was more strongly related to attitude certainty than was extended contact, but longitudinal data showed both forms of contact affected attitude certainty in the long run.

  5. Direct and indirect costs of patients treated with extended-release oxymorphone HCl or controlled-release oxycodone HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirson, Noam Y; White, Alan G; Birnbaum, Howard G; Schiller, Matt; Waldman, Tracy; Peterson, Kirsten; Ben-Joseph, Rami H; Berner, Todd; Summers, Kent H

    2012-01-01

    Compare direct and indirect costs of oxymorphone extended-release ('oxymorphone') and oxycodone controlled-release ('oxycodone') users. Patients, aged 18+, with ≥1 claim for oxymorphone/oxycodone, Q2:2006-Q4:2009, were selected from a de-identified private payer claims database and observed from the first such claim ('index date') until the earliest of: use of comparator drug; end of continuous eligibility; 12 months ('study period'). Patients with claims for any formulation of the comparator drug during the first 30 days of the study period were excluded. Direct (medical and drug) costs paid by private insurers were reported for patients aged 18-64 (n = 8354) and 65+(n = 3515), as well as sub-sets without cancer (n = 7090 and n = 2444, respectively). Indirect costs (medically-related absenteeism and disability) were reported for all employees, aged 18-64 (n = 1313), and employees without cancer (n = 1146). Multivariate models were used to estimate risk-adjusted costs controlling for patient characteristics. Oxymorphone users, aged 18-64, had lower drug costs ($693 vs $763, p = 0.0035) and similar medical costs ($1875 vs $1976, p = 0.3570) per patient-month compared with oxycodone users (mean follow-up 236 and 280 days, respectively). Indirect costs were not different ($662 vs $670, p = 0.9370). Oxymorphone users, aged 65+, had similar Medicare supplemental drug costs ($533 vs $588, p = 0.0840) and lower medical costs ($459 vs $747, p < 0.0001). Results were comparable for subsets without cancer. Patients with concomitant use of oxymorphone and oxycodone were excluded. Oxymorphone users incur lower risk-adjusted costs in several cost categories, compared with oxycodone users, and no higher costs in any of the examined categories.

  6. Safety and efficacy of direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism -a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindet-Pedersen, Caroline; Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare the safety and efficacy of extended treatment with dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban and warfarin in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched for randomized clinical trials reporting on the use of direct oral...

  7. Direct detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (CTX-M) from blood cultures by LC-MS/MS bottom-up proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Fleurbaaij; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); H.C. van Leeuwen (Hans); M. Kraakman (Margriet); S.T. Bernards; P. Hensbergen (Paul); E. Kuijper

    2017-01-01

    textabstractRapid bacterial species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing in positive blood cultures have an important impact on the antibiotic treatment for patients. To identify extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) directly in positive blood culture bottles, we developed a

  8. Development and evaluation of natural gum-based extended release matrix tablets of two model drugs of different water solubilities by direct compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Mfoafo, Kwadwo Amanor; Kipo, Samuel Lugrie; Kuntworbe, Noble; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam El

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at developing extended release matrix tablets of poorly water-soluble diclofenac sodium and highly water-soluble metformin hydrochloride by direct compression using cashew gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as release retardants. The suitability of light grade cashew gum as a direct compression excipient was studied using the SeDeM Diagram Expert System. Thirteen tablet formulations of diclofenac sodium (∼100 mg) and metformin hydrochloride (∼200 mg) were prepared with varying amounts of cashew gum, xanthan gum and HPMC by direct compression. The flow properties of blended powders and the uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, swelling index and drug content of compressed tablets were determined. In vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were conducted in phosphate buffer (diclofenac: pH 7.4; metformin: pH 6.8) and the kinetics of drug release was determined by fitting the release data to five kinetic models. Cashew gum was found to be suitable for direct compression, having a good compressibility index (ICG) value of 5.173. The diclofenac and metformin matrix tablets produced generally possessed fairly good physical properties. Tablet swelling and drug release in aqueous medium were dependent on the type and amount of release retarding polymer and the solubility of drug used. Extended release of diclofenac (∼24 h) and metformin (∼8-12 h) from the matrix tablets in aqueous medium was achieved using various blends of the polymers. Drug release from diclofenac tablets fitted zero order, first order or Higuchi model while release from metformin tablets followed Higuchi or Hixson-Crowell model. The mechanism of release of the two drugs was mostly through Fickian diffusion and anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The study has demonstrated the potential of blended hydrophilic polymers in the design and optimization of extended release matrix tablets for soluble and poorly soluble drugs by direct

  9. Extended analysis of bpso structure selection of nonlinear auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs ( NARX of direct current motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Mohd Yassin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available System Identification (SI is a discipline concerned with inference of mathematical models from dynamic systems based on their input and output measurements. Among the many types of SI models, the superior NARMAX model and its derivatives (NARX and NARMA are powerful, efficient and unified representations of a variety of nonlinear systems. The identification process of NARX/NARMA/NARMAX is typically performed using the established Orthogonal Least Squares (OLS. Weaknesses of the OLS model are known, leading to various alternatives and modifications of the original algorithm. This paper extends the findings of previous research in application of the Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO for structure selection of a polynomial NARX model on a DC Motor (DCM dataset. The contributions of this paper involve the implementation and analysis of a MySQL database to serve as a lookup table for the BPSO optimization process. Additional analysis regarding the frequencies of term selection is also made possible by the database. An analysis of different preprocessing methods was also performed leading to the best model. The results show that the BPSO structure selection method is improved by the presence of the database, while the magnitude scaling approach was the best preprocessing method for NARX identification of the DCM dataset.

  10. Direct RNA-based detection and differentiation of CTX-M-type extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    Full Text Available The current global spread of multi-resistant Gram-negatives, particularly extended spectrum β-lactamases expressing bacteria, increases the likelihood of inappropriate empiric treatment of critically ill patients with subsequently increased mortality. From a clinical perspective, fast detection of resistant pathogens would allow a pre-emptive correction of an initially inappropriate treatment. Here we present diagnostic amplification-sequencing approach as proof of principal based on the fast molecular detection and correct discrimination of CTX-M-β-lactamases, the most frequent ESBL family. The workflow consists of the isolation of total mRNA and CTX-M-specific reverse transcription (RT, amplification and pyrosequencing. Due to the high variability of the CTX-M-β-lactamase-genes, degenerated primers for RT, qRT as well as for pyrosequencing, were used and the suitability and discriminatory performance of two conserved positions within the CTX-M genes were analyzed, using one protocol for all isolates and positions, respectively. Using this approach, no information regarding the expected CTX-M variant is needed since all sequences are covered by these degenerated primers. The presented workflow can be conducted within eight hours and has the potential to be expanded to other β-lactamase families.

  11. Fermi-LAT Discovery of Extended Gamma-Ray Emission in the Direction of Supernova Remnant W51C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Baring, M.G.; /Rice U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bouvier, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Ecole Polytechnique; /more authors..

    2012-03-30

    The discovery of bright gamma-ray emission coincident with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is reported using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. W51C is a middle-aged remnant ({approx}10{sup 4} yr) with intense radio synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The gamma-ray emission is spatially extended, broadly consistent with the radio and X-ray extent of SNR W51C. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-50 GeV band exhibits steepening toward high energies. The luminosity is greater than 1 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} given the distance constraint of D > 5.5 kpc, which makes this object one of the most luminous gamma-ray sources in our Galaxy. The observed gamma-rays can be explained reasonably by a combination of efficient acceleration of nuclear cosmic rays at supernova shocks and shock-cloud interactions. The decay of neutral p mesons produced in hadronic collisions provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of the accelerated protons amounts to {bar n}{sub H} W{sub p} {approx_equal} 5 x 10{sup 51} (D/6 kpc){sup 2} erg cm{sup -3}. Electron density constraints from the radio and X-ray bands render it difficult to explain the LAT signal as due to inverse Compton scattering. The Fermi LAT source coincident with SNR W51C sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  12. E.U. versus O.E.C.D. Taxation – An Extended Overview for Direct Taxes and Social Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Lazar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a borderless world governed by the mobility of production factors, especially of capital and work force, and characterized by the common markets, taxation/fiscal policy represents a key component of the economic reform and will have a profound impact upon the future of the global economy. For the European Union that still wishes to be seen as a unitary state/force, the complex taxation processes are leaving deep marks upon the business environment development. The OECD countries might not aim the complex coordination processes that define the European Union, but the taxation processes are not without effect upon the business environment development in OECD member states. This paper aims to present a detailed overview of the direct taxation systems – direct taxes and social contributions - at both European and worldwide levels by breaking it down to taxpayer level in order to underline the dynamics and complexity of the taxation process that affect the business environment development. Furthermore, the paper will highlight the impact that the financial crisis had had and still has upon the taxation systems - reducing the fiscal burden upon corporate taxpayer and shifting the burden upon the personal taxpayers.

  13. Analysis and Design of Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter in the Extended Run Time DC UPS System Based on Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper, an extended run time DC UPS system structure with fuel cell and supercapacitor is investigated. A wide input range bi-directional dc-dc converter is described along with the phase-shift modulation scheme and phase-shift with duty cycle control, in different modes...... input voltage combined with load current feedback using PI controller with anti-windup scheme to realize closed-loop control of the whole system, and verify the feasibility of the control scheme proposed by simulation. A 1kW prototype controlled by TMS320F2808 DSP is implemented and tested. Experimental...

  14. Direct and Indirect Gene Regulation by a Life-Extending FOXO Protein in C. elegans: Roles for GATA Factors and Lipid Gene Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peichuan; Judy, Meredith; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In long-lived C. elegans insulin/IGF-1 pathway mutants, the life-extending FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is present throughout the animal, but we find that its activity in a single tissue can delay the aging of other tissues and extend the animal’s life span. To better understand the topography of DAF-16 action among the tissues, we analyzed a collection of DAF-16-regulated genes. DAF-16 regulated most of these genes in a cell-autonomous fashion, often using tissue-specific GATA factors to direct their expression to specific tissues. DAF-16 could also act cell nonautonomously to influence gene expression. DAF-16 affected gene expression in other cells, at least in part, via the lipid-gene regulator MDT-15. DAF-16, and probably MDT-15, could act cell non-autonomously in the endoderm to ameliorate the paralysis caused by expressing Alzheimer’s Aβ protein in muscles. These findings suggest that MDT-15-dependent intercellular signals, possibly lipid signals, can help to coordinate tissue physiology, enhance proteostasis, and extend life in response to DAF-16/FOXO activity. PMID:23312285

  15. Extending ALFALFA in the Direction of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster with the Arecibo L-Band Wide Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Jones, Michael G.; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hoffman, Lyle; Craig, David W.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    We have completed three “Harvesting ALFALFA” Arecibo observing programs in the direction of the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster (PPS) since ALFALFA observations were finished in 2012. The first was to perform follow-up observations on high signal-to-noise (S/N > 6.5) ALFALFA detections needing confirmation and low S/N sources lacking optical counterparts. A few more high S/N objects were observed in the second program along with targets visually selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The third program included low S/N ALFALFA sources having optical counterparts with redshifts that were unknown or differed from the ALFALFA observations. It also included more galaxies selected from SDSS by eye and by Structured Query Language (SQL) searches with parameters intended to select galaxies at the distance of the PPS (~6,000 km/s). We used pointed basic Total-Power Position-Switched Observations in the 1340 - 1430 MHz ALFALFA frequency range. For sources of known redshift, we used the Wideband Arecibo Pulsar Processors (WAPP’s) , while for sources of unknown redshift we utilized a hybrid/dual bandwidth Doppler tracking mode using the Arecibo Interim 50-MHz Correlator with 9-level sampling.Results confirmed that a few high S/N ALFALFA sources are spurious as expected from the work of Saintonge (2007), low S/N ALFALA sources lacking an optical counterpart are all likely to be spurious, but low S/N sources with optical counterparts are generally reliable. Of the optically selected sources, about 80% were detected and tended to be near the distance of the PPS.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  16. Has time come for the use of direct oral anticoagulants in the extended prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients? Yes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageno, Walter

    2017-08-14

    Betrixaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor with a renal excretion of only approximately 5-7%. On June 23rd 2017, it became the first direct oral anticoagulant to receive Food and Drug Administration approval for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients, and the first anticoagulant agent to be approved for extended-duration thromboprophylaxis after hospital discharge in this setting. Approval followed the results of the APEX trial, a phase III clinical trial comparing betrixaban (80 mg) administered for 35-42 days with enoxaparin (40 mg) administered for 10 ± 4 days. This study for the first time applied a risk assessment model, integrating clinical factors and a laboratory marker to identify high risk patients. To improve safety, a dose reduction was used for patients with creatinine clearance between 15 and 30 mL/min (betrixaban 40 mg and enoxaparin 20 mg) and for patients receiving concomitant treatment with potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors (betrixaban 40 mg). The primary prespecified analysis tested the hypothesis that the benefit of extended thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban was greatest in patients with elevated D-dimer, but the 21% relative risk reduction failed to meet the prespecified threshold for statistical significance. However, the analysis of the overall study population showed a favorable net clinical benefit with betrixaban, with a statistically significant reduction in all efficacy outcomes and no increase in major bleeding rates. An ongoing trial, MARINER, is also assessing a combined approach for risk stratification comparing extended-duration rivaroxaban with standard duration low molecular weight heparin.

  17. Identification of a Lifespan Extending Mutation in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cyclin Gene clg1+ by Direct Selection of Long-Lived Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Ruei; Li, Yanhui; Eisenstatt, Jessica R.; Runge, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Model organisms such as budding yeast, worms and flies have proven instrumental in the discovery of genetic determinants of aging, and the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a promising new system for these studies. We devised an approach to directly select for long-lived S. pombe mutants from a random DNA insertion library. Each insertion mutation bears a unique sequence tag called a bar code that allows one to determine the proportion of an individual mutant in a culture containing thousands of different mutants. Aging these mutants in culture allowed identification of a long-lived mutant bearing an insertion mutation in the cyclin gene clg1+. Clg1p, like Pas1p, physically associates with the cyclin-dependent kinase Pef1p. We identified a third Pef1p cyclin, Psl1p, and found that only loss of Clg1p or Pef1p extended lifespan. Genetic and co-immunoprecipitation results indicate that Pef1p controls lifespan through the downstream protein kinase Cek1p. While Pef1p is conserved as Pho85p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and as cdk5 in humans, genome-wide searches for lifespan regulators in S. cerevisiae have never identified Pho85p. Thus, the S. pombe system can be used to identify novel, evolutionarily conserved lifespan extending mutations, and our results suggest a potential role for mammalian cdk5 as a lifespan regulator. PMID:23874875

  18. A New Control Method for a Bi-Directional Phase-Shift-Controlled DC-DC Converter with an Extended Load Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzheng Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Phase-shifted converters are practically important to provide high conversion efficiencies through soft-switching techniques. However, the limitation on a resonant inductor current in the converters often leads to a non-fulfillment of the requirement of minimum load current. This paper presents a new power electronics control technique to enable the dual features of bi-directional power flow and an extended load range for soft-switching in phase-shift-controlled DC-DC converters. The proposed technique utilizes two identical full bridge converters and inverters in conjunction with a new control logic for gate-driving signals to facilitate both Zero Current Switching (ZCS and Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS in a single phase-shift-controlled DC-DC converter. The additional ZCS is designed for light load conditions at which the minimum load current cannot be attained. The bi-directional phase-shift-controlled DC-DC converter can implement the function of synchronous rectification. Its fast dynamic response allows for quick energy recovery during the regenerative braking of traction systems in electrified trains.

  19. Optimized synthesis of π-extended squaraine dyes relevant to organic electronics by direct (hetero)arylation and Sonogashira coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Abby-Jo; Welch, Gregory C

    2017-04-11

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of four molecular π-extended squaraine compounds relevant to the field of organic electronics. The compounds each consist of a bis-indole squaraine core end-capped with indoloquinoxaline units employing three different bridging units, namely thiophene, thiazole, and acetylene. Compound 10 bears a thiophene bridge, 11 consists of a thiophene bridge and fluorinated indoloquinoxaline terminal units, and compounds 12 and 13 are bridged by thiazole and acetylene, respectively. The final compounds are constructed using the atom economical direct (hetero)arylation or the classic Sonogashira carbon-carbon bond formation protocols. Each carbon-carbon bond forming reaction employing thiophene bridges (i.e. synthesis of compounds 10 and 11) has been optimized using the stable and reusable silica supported Pd catalyst, SiliaCat® DPP-Pd, streamlining the synthetic procedure. While compounds 12 and 13 were also accessible using the SiliaCat® DPP-Pd catalyst, the use of Herrmann-Beller and Pd(PPh3)4 catalysts, respectively, lead to improved isolated yields of the final materials. Compounds 10-13 were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, cyclic voltammetry, optical absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and each structure was analysed using density functional theory. All compounds exhibit high thermal stability and good solubility in common organic solvents, including in the greener alternative 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The reported compounds display stable ambipolar redox behaviour, furthermore, we have demonstrated that the frontier molecular energy levels can be effectively tuned by changing the bridging unit as predicted by density functional theory. Most striking is the drastic optical absorption profile changes observed from this class of materials upon post-deposition film annealing, suggesting molecular rearrangement in the solid-state. The induced changes and fine structure observed

  20. Direct compression of cushion-layered ethyl cellulose-coated extended release pellets into rapidly disintegrating tablets without changes in the release profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Armin; Körber, Martin; Bodmeier, Roland

    2013-12-05

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a segregation-free ethyl cellulose-coated extended release multiparticulate formulation to be compressed into tablets without affecting the drug release. Standard tableting excipients (e.g., microcrystalline cellulose, lactose or sorbitol) were layered onto ethyl cellulose-coated propranolol hydrochloride pellets to form a cushion layer in order to eliminate segregation problems normally resulting from particle size difference between coated pellets and excipient powders and second to protect the integrity of the brittle ethyl cellulose coating during compression. The disintegration behavior of the tablets depended strongly on the composition of the cushion layer. Rapid tablet disintegration was obtained with microcrystalline cellulose and the disintegrant sodium croscarmellose. However, the drug release from these cushion-layered pellets still increased upon compression. Incorporation of a glidant into the cushion layer or between the cushion layer and the ethyl cellulose coating reduced the compression effect on drug release markedly. Glidant-containing formulations showed a delayed deformation and damage of the ethyl cellulose-coated pellet upon mechanical stress. In summary, cushion layer based on microcrystalline cellulose facilitated segregation-free compression of a highly compression-sensitive extended release ethyl cellulose-coated pellets into fast-disintegrating and hard tablets without compromising the release properties of the multiparticulates. Directly compressible cushion-layered pellets protected the pellet coating significantly better from damages during tabletting when compared to the conventional compression of blends of coated pellets and excipient powders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. IN-DEPTH SEMI-DIRECTIVE INTERVIEW REGARDING THE METHODS, TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS USED BY BANKS TO ASSESS THE DEGREE OF CUSTOMERS’ SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLTEANU CRISTINA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of market globalization and also the periods of economic instability worldwide led to increased competition and hence to growing concerns of companies to continuously improve their products and services, the quality of which could be a real competitive advantage in attracting and retaining bigger segments of consumers. But to succeed in the market, the companies need to focus their efforts also to finding, knowing, understanding and meeting the needs, requirements and expectations of current and future consumers. Thus, it becomes essential that the flow of information be carried out in two ways: organization – customer, customer – organization, a particular importance being given to the frequency with which they get feedback from customers, this feedback determining the accuracy of the measures taken to improve those aspects appreciated by consumers as being nonconforming. Therefore, knowing the customer perception on the quality of offer has become vital, this being an important determinant of the degree of satisfaction which in turn can decisively influence the profitability of companies, regardless their field of activity. In this context, this paper, which is based on a qualitative marketing research, highlights the main categories of banking products and services used by Romanian consumers and their perceptions on banks and their offers. A particular attention was paid on the methods, techniques and tools used by banks to assess the satisfaction of their customers in order to improve their experience.

  2. Algebraic proofs for shallow water bi-Hamiltonian systems for three cocycle of the semi-direct product of Kac-Moody and Virasoro Lie algebras

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuevsky, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-8 ISSN 2391-5455 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Kac-Moody Lie algebras * cocycles Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/math.2018.16.issue-1/math-2018-0002/math-2018-0002.xml

  3. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  4. Extended Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article...

  5. A multi-centre prospective evaluation of the Check-Direct ESBL Screen for BD MAX as a rapid molecular screening method for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae rectal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, T.G.; Slotboom, B.J.; Maarseveen, N. van; Zwet, A.A. van; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Hagen, F.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A multiplex extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), performed directly on rectal swabs, was compared with a culture-based protocol to study the discrepancies between the two methods, and identify existing

  6. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences....... First, we outline the background of the debate and discuss different argumentative strategies for ExE. In particular, we distinguish ExE from cognate but more moderate claims about the embodied and situated nature of cognition and emotion (Section 1). We then dwell upon two dimensions of ExE: emotions......Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend...

  7. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  8. Analysis of combustion performance and emission of extended expansion cycle and iEGR for low heat rejection turbocharged direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabir Mohd F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing thermal efficiency in diesel engines through low heat rejection concept is a feasible technique. In LHR engines the high heat evolution is achieved by insulating the combustion chamber surfaces and coolant side of the cylinder with partially stabilized zirconia of 0.5 mm thickness and the effective utilization of this heat depend on the engine design and operating conditions. To make the LHR engines more suitable for automobile and stationary applications, the extended expansion was introduced by modifying the inlet cam for late closing of intake valve through Miller’s cycle for extended expansion. Through the extended expansion concept the actual work done increases, exhaust blow-down loss reduced and the thermal efficiency of the LHR engine is improved. In LHR engines, the formation of nitric oxide is more, to reduce the nitric oxide emission, the internal EGR is incorporated using modified exhaust cam with secondary lobe. Modifications of gas exchange with internal EGR resulted in decrease in nitric oxide emissions. In this work, the parametric studies were carried out both theoretically and experimentally. The combustion, performance and emission parameters were studied and were found to be satisfactory.

  9. date extended

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C A L AN DER OF EVENTS. Date of issue of bid document : 2016 September 21. Extended Due date and Time for Receipt of Tender : Up to 2016 October 17, Time 13:00 Hrs. Date and Time of opening of bid : 2016 October 17, Time 15:00 Hrs. Cost of Bid Document : Rs. 100/- only (Non-refundable). Earnest Money Deposit ...

  10. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  11. TLR agonists extend the functional lifespan of professional phagocytic granulocytes in the bony fish gilthead seabream and direct precursor differentiation towards the production of granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulcre, María P; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Angosto, Diego; García-Alcazar, Alicia; Meseguer, José; Mulero, Victoriano

    2011-03-01

    Neutrophils are major cells participants in innate host responses. They are short-lived leukocytes, although microbial products activate intracellular signaling cascades that prolong their survival by inhibiting constitutive apoptosis. To gain insight into the phylogeny of this important cell type, we examined the ability of toll-like receptor agonists to extend the lifespan of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) acidophilic granulocytes, which are the functional equivalent of mammalian neutrophils. The results obtained demonstrated that apoptosis was also the default state of seabream acidophilic granulocytes and that toll-like receptor agonists were able to dramatically extend their functional lifespan (up to 10 days) by inhibiting apoptosis and inducing a long lasting activation of phagocytic and respiratory burst activities, together with the expression of genes coding for several proinflammatory molecules. This process was independent on contaminating cells and interleukin-1β production. In addition, the results showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but not nuclear factor κB, c-Jun terminal kinase or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, was involved in the inhibition of acidophilic granulocyte apoptosis following toll-like receptor engagement. Finally, stimulation of head kidney hematopoietic precursor cells with toll-like receptor agonists promoted their terminal differentiation to acidophilic granulocytes. These results demonstrated that the extension of neutrophil lifespan by microbial products is conserved in lower vertebrates although the magnitude of the response is much higher in fish. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rhiannon N; Hewstone, Miles; Voci, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    In 4 studies, the authors investigated mediators of the effect of cross-group friendship. In Study 1, cross-group friendship among White elementary school children predicted more positive explicit outgroup attitude toward South Asians, mediated by self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. In Study 2, cross-group friendship and extended contact among White and South Asian high school students positively predicted explicit outgroup attitude, mediated by self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. Study 3 replicated these findings in a larger independent sample. In all 3 studies, exposure to the outgroup positively predicted implicit outgroup attitude. Study 4 further showed that self-disclosure improved explicit outgroup attitude via empathy, importance of contact, and intergroup trust. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings, which argue for the inclusion of self-disclosure as a key component of social interventions to reduce prejudice. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...... and the impacts of setting up, crossing and breaking the boundaries of game and non-game. Part three, Interfaces of Play, looks at games as technological and historical artefacts and commodities. The fourth part, Beyond Design, introduces new models for the practical and theoretical dimensions of game design....

  14. Substitutions in PBP3 confer resistance to both ampicillin and extended-spectrum cephalosporins in Haemophilus parainfluenzae as revealed by site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienholtz, Nanna H; Ciechanowski, Aynur Barut; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    using site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinants were also generated using PCR-amplified ftsI from clinical strains encoding multiple amino acid substitutions. MICs of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were determined using Etest ® . Results: Transformation of a susceptible strain with fts......I from clinical strains encoding four substitutions in the transpeptidase region of PBP3 conferred resistance to ampicillin, but not to cephalosporins. Introduction of ftsI from a clinical strain encoding eight substitutions conferred resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. MICs....../H/S in combination with V511A were resistant to ampicillin. Substitution S385T increased the MICs of third-generation cephalosporins if V511A was also present. Conclusions: Substitutions in PBP3 are sufficient to confer resistance to both ampicillin and third-generation cephalosporins in H. parainfluenzae...

  15. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof...

  16. A multi-centre prospective evaluation of the Check-Direct ESBL Screen for BD MAX as a rapid molecular screening method for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae rectal carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, T; Slotboom, B J; van Maarseveen, N; van Zwet, A A; Nabuurs-Franssen, M H; Hagen, F

    2017-11-01

    A multiplex extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), performed directly on rectal swabs, was compared with a culture-based protocol to study the discrepancies between the two methods, and identify existing challenges to apply this assay in routine clinical practice. The secondary objective was to assess the performance of the qPCR. In two Dutch teaching hospitals, 573 rectal swabs were collected prospectively. Culture with additional testing with the Check-MDR CT103XL (Check-Points) was compared with the Check-Direct ESBL Screen for BD MAX (Check-Points), which detects the presence of the ESBL gene families CTX-M1, CTX-M2, CTX-M9 and SHV2/5-ESBL. The culture-based protocol (with Brilliance agar) was considered as the gold standard to assess the performance of the qPCR. Of the 573 rectal swabs, 74 (12.9%) were culture-positive. Eighty-four (14.7%) were qPCR-positive. There were eight culture-positive/qPCR-negative discrepancies and 18 culture-negative/qPCR-positive discrepancies. Sensitivity and specificity of qPCR vs culture were 87.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 79.7-95.7] and 96.3% (95% CI 94.6-98.0), respectively. The Check-Direct ESBL Screen for the BD MAX is an easy-to-perform, quick molecular diagnostic test with the potential to significantly speed up screening for rectal ESBL-E carriage. Discrepancies were observed between the culture-based protocol and the qPCR in 4.5% of tested samples. Existing challenges for implementing qPCR are its limited sensitivity, the need for thorough knowledge of the local ESBL-E genes, and interpretation of culture-negative but qPCR-positive samples. It is believed that the limited sensitivity of qPCR could be optimized by including blaTEM as a molecular target, and improving the limit of detection. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  18. An on-line modelling study of the direct effect of atmospheric aerosols over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, L.; Baro, R.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect human health, ecosystems, materials, visibility and Earth’s climate. Those effects are studied in this present work and depend mainly on the aerosol optical properties and how they influence the Earth’s radiation budget. Such properties can be divided on direct and semi-direct effect, produced by the scattering and absorption of radiation; and indirect effect, which influences the aerosols-cloud interactions. The aim of this work is to assess the direct effect through the study of the mean temperature; the radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface and at the top of the atmosphere; and the interaction of these meteorological variables with particulate matter (PM10). Results indicate decreases in temperature and radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, together with increases in the outgoing radiation at top of the atmosphere, and changes in the particulate matter, thus proving a colder climate due to the direct effect of atmospheric aerosols. (Author)

  19. An on-line modelling study of the direct effect of atmospheric aerosols over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, L.; Baro, R.; Jimenez-Guerrero, P.

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect human health, ecosystems, materials, visibility and Earths climate. Those effects are studied in this present work and depend mainly on the aerosol optical properties and how they influence the Earths radiation budget. Such properties can be divided on direct and semi-direct effect, produced by the scattering and absorption of radiation; and indirect effect, which influences the aerosols-cloud interactions. The aim of this work is to assess the direct effect through the study of the mean temperature; the radiation that reaches the Earths surface and at the top of the atmosphere; and the interaction of these meteorological variables with particulate matter (PM10). Results indicate decreases in temperature and radiation that reaches the Earth's surface, together with increases in the outgoing radiation at top of the atmosphere, and changes in the particulate matter, thus proving a colder climate due to the direct effect of atmospheric aerosols. (Author)

  20. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  1. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  2. Extended defects in Germanium

    CERN Document Server

    Osgood, R M

    2008-01-01

    Intends to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

  3. An extended day program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.

  4. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  5. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  6. Populisme et démocratie semi-directe : la dénaturation des procédés référendaires en France et aux Etats-Unis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Premat

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Si le populisme se caractérise par l’incarnation d’un ensemble de frustrations à l’égard du système représentatif, il est primordial de s’interroger sur le lien entre une déception à l’égard des institutions et les instruments de démocratie semi-directe. En nous appuyant sur une comparaison entre la France et les Etats-Unis pour analyser d´une part comment le référendum et l’initiative populaire ont modifié la donne dans certains Etats américains et d’autre part comment en France les référendums nationaux ont connu la suspicion « plébiscitaire » à plusieurs reprises, nous souhaiterions comprendre si par nature la démocratie semi-directe n’est que le ressentiment engendré par la lenteur du travail de représentation ou si elle est le complément essentiel à la transformation du régime représentatif.Si la frustración contra el sistema representativo es expresada por el populismo, es crucial interrogarse por el acoplamiento entre una decepción relacionada con las instituciones y los instrumentos semidirectos de la democracia. Al comparar Francia con Estados Unidos con el objetivo de analizar por una parte, cómo las iniciativas populares y los referendums influenciaron la legislación de algunos estados americanos y por otra, cómo los referéndums nacionales en Francia fueron reducidos a plebiscitos, intentamos descifrar si la naturaleza de la democracia semidirecta es el resultado de un resentimiento contra la lentitud del trabajo representativo o si concluye la transformación del gobierno representativo.If the feelings of frustration against the representative system are expressed by populism, it is crucial to question the link between a disappointment vis-à-vis the institutions and the semi-direct democracy instruments. By comparing France and United States in order to analyze on the one hand how popular initiatives and referenda influenced the legislation of some American States and on the other

  7. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  8. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...

  9. Parameterization of extended systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The YJBK parameterization (of all stabilizing controllers) is extended to handle systems with additional sensors and/or actuators. It is shown that the closed loop transfer function is still an affine function in the YJBK parameters in the nominal case. Further, some closed-loop stability results...

  10. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  11. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  12. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  13. Extended Theories of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatibene Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of extended theories of gravitation we shall discuss physical equivalences among different formalisms and classical tests. As suggested by the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild framework, the conformal invariance will be preserved and its effect on observational protocols discussed. Accordingly, we shall review standard tests showing how Palatini f(R-theories naturally passes solar system tests. Observation protocols will be discussed in this wider framework.

  14. π-Extended Tetrathiafulvalenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Johannes Fabritius

    This Ph.D.-thesis focuses on the synthesis and properties of various redox-active ¼-extended tetrathiafulvalenes. One class of molecules are so-called H-cruciform shaped molecules. In these molecules the formation of a central stilbene double bond is elucidated. Here it was found that the formation...... of the stilbene bond originates from preformation of a 1,3-dioxa-2-phospholane, formed by reaction between P(OEt)3 present under the reaction conditions and two aldehydes. Under the reaction conditions this 1,3-dioxa-2-phospholane can then be converted to the stilbene. These mechanistic studies lead...

  15. Extended spider cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Japyassú, Hilton F.; Laland, Kevin Neville

    2017-01-01

    HFJ received a visiting professor fellowship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq - Brazil) (PDE PDE232691/2014-2). Research supported in part by a Grant from the John Templeton Foundation to KNL. There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process, and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope w...

  16. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  17. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  18. Extending rational maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gaven J.

    We investigate when a rational endomorphism of the Riemann sphere overline{C} extends to a mapping of the upper half-space {H3 which is rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure. Such an extension has the property that it and all its iterates have uniformly bounded distortion. Such maps are called uniformly quasiregular. We show that, in the space of rational mappings of degree d , such an extension is possible in the structurally stable component where there is a single (attracting) component of the Fatou set and the Julia set is a Cantor set. We show that generally outside of this set no such extension is possible. In particular, polynomials can never admit such an extension.

  19. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  20. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  1. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    characteristics of grandparents and aunts and uncles have few direct effects on educational success, resources in the extended family compensate lacking resources in low-SES families, which in turn promote children’s educational success. The main conclusion is that the total effect of family background......Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based...... on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by siblings from the same immediate family, factors shared by first cousins from the same extended family account for a nontrivial part of the total variance in children’s educational success. Results also show that while socioeconomic...

  2. Career Transitions after a Long Experience as Trade Union Officer: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Scali, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    In France, trade union officers are former shop stewards who have chosen to work full-time for the union for several years. This research investigates the career transitions of former union officers who have returned to the labour market following extended experience with high-level responsibilities in the union. Semi-directed interviews were…

  3. Extended lifetime biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlenbrock, Michael J; Minteer, Shelley D

    2008-06-01

    Over the last 40 years, researchers have been studying and improving enzymatic biofuel cells, but until the last five years, the technology was plagued by short active lifetimes (typically 8 hours to 7 days) that prohibited the commercial use of this technology. This tutorial review introduces the topic of enzymatic biofuel cells and discusses the recent work done to stabilize and immobilize enzymes at bioanodes and biocathodes of biofuel cells. This review covers a wide variety of fuel systems from sugar to alcohols and covers both direct electron transfer (DET) systems and mediated electron transfer (MET) systems.

  4. Extending Wi-Fi Direct for Automated Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    API Application Programing Interface BSS Basic Service Set HA Humanitarian Assistance DFA Deterministic Finite Automaton DR Disaster Relief FA... DFA ..................................................................................................... 26 C. SUMMARY... DFA MODEL ......................................................30 C. TESTING

  5. Hybrid Direct Drive PPU with Extended Operating Range Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-power electric propulsion with Hall thrusters has been proposed as a strong candidate for Electric Path missions, but conventional power processing units (PPUs)...

  6. Extending Perceived Supply Chain Boundaries to Motivate and Direct Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englyst, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Many a change effort has been initiated under the hat of supply chain management in the past decades, motivated by promises of improved performance based on network design and integration of business processes, information systems, and even organizations through the construction of various liaiso...... management, establishing both the scope for change efforts, and the motivation or urgency to change....

  7. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  8. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  9. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  10. Topological defects in extended inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, E.J. (Department of Physics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)); Kolb, E.W. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (USA) Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (USA)); Liddle, A.R. (Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1990-10-15

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings.

  11. Topological defects in extended inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, E.J. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Dept. of Physics); Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Liddle, A.R. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre)

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs.

  12. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed....

  13. Extender for securing a closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  14. Noninvasive bilaminar CAD/CAM composite resin veneers: 
a semi-(in)direct approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal

    Direct composite resin restorations have been recognized for their valuable clinical service and respect of intact hard tissue. The cost-effectiveness and inherent minimally invasive approach of resin-based materials means that they are also gaining popularity for use in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) procedures. Several cases from the student clinics at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC are presented that could have been resolved either with direct composite resin restorations or with indirect porcelain veneers. A novel semi-indirect CAD/CAM approach, characterized by its absolute noninvasiveness and simplicity, was chosen instead. The bilaminar restoration consists of a customized histoanatomical CAD/CAM dentin base (incisoproximal cutback), and a generic enamel skin. The patients can be treated either in one clinical session (semi-directly) or in two clinical sessions (semi-indirectly). The purpose of this article is to present another tool from the anterior restorative armamentarium to bridge the gap between direct and indirect techniques.

  15. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of bull spermatozoa diluted with commercial semen extender and two culture media stored at controlled room temperature (24 °C) for 72 hours. Two Nguni bulls were used for semen collection with the aid of an electro-ejaculator. After macroscopic evaluation ...

  16. Extended cognition in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, Jane M.; Wallgren, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are added to semen extenders to be used for artificial insemination (AI) in livestock breeding to control bacterial contamination in semen arising during collection and processing. The antibiotics to be added and their concentrations for semen for international trade are specified by government directives. Since the animal production industry uses large quantities of semen for artificial insemination, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in semen extenders. Possible alt...

  18. Extended HXR Sources - Albedo Patches or Coronal Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    Extended HXR sources in the presence of compact footpoints have been reported based on visibility amplitudes from different detectors. Attempts have been made to determine the location and extent of these sources through direct imaging. Results of this work will be described for simulated sources and for specific flares at different solar longitudes, with a discussion of the possible nature of the extended sources as either albedo patches or coronal sources or a combination of the two.

  19. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  20. Extended memory management under RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

  1. Extended time-interval analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Riisager, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Several extensions of the halflife analysis method recently suggested by Horvat and Hardy are put forward. Goodness-of-fit testing is included, and the method is extended to cases where more information is available for each decay event which allows applications also for e.g. γ decay data. The re...

  2. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  3. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  4. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  5. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated.

  6. Source arrays for directional and non-directional sound generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, A.P.; Genechten, B. Van

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, methods are presented to design an acoustic source array for both directional sound generation and non-directional sound generation. The methods are based on measured transfer functions to be able to take into account different source sensitivities, to use extended sources that cannot

  7. Evaluate extended surface exchangers carefully

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (US))

    1990-10-01

    Various types of fins, such as circumferential, rectangular, pegs and rods are used in heat transfer equipment. Fins can be used inside as well as on the outside of tubes. However, to illustrate the basic facts of heat transfer and how one should evaluate fins, these discussions pertain to circumferential solid or serrated fins used widely in the energy equipment industry. Extended surfaces have the advantage of reducing the size and weight of heat transfer equipment. In addition they can result in lower gas pressure drop, thus reducing the operating costs. This article compares the performance of an evaporator for a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) using bare and finned tubes. The fact this article brings out is that extended surfaces should be evaluated and purchased based on performance and not based on surface area alone.

  8. Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Toppan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work covers part of the material presented at the Advanced Summer School in Prague. It is mostly devoted to the structural properties of Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension. Several results are presented on the classification of linear, irreducible representations realized on a finite number of time-dependent fields. The connections between supersymmetry transformations, Clifford algebras and division algebras are discussed. A manifestly supersymmetric framework for constructing invariants without using the notion of superfields is presented. A few examples of one-dimensional, N-extended, off-shell invariant sigma models are computed. The relation between supersymmetry transformations and graph theory is outlined. The notion of the fusion algebra of irreps tensor products is presented. The relevance of one-dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as a way to extract information on higher dimensional supersymmetric field theories is discussed. 

  9. Extending a browser C++ simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Roca, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Getting started in computer programming involves using a number of tools such as editors, compilers, debuggers, and terminals. Learning how to use them can be challenging for programming begginers, and installing them may be demanding for certain organizations such as high schools. C– is a project that aims to bridge this gap by providing an educational C++ development environment that runs in a web browser. The goal of this thesis is to extend and improve the current implement...

  10. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods research...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  11. Evolving extended naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Klawonn, Frank; Angelov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers are a very simple, but often effective tool for classification problems, although they are based on independence assumptions that do not hold in most cases. Extended naive Bayes classifiers also rely on independence assumptions, but break them down to artificial subclasses, in this way becoming more powerful than ordinary naive Bayes classifiers. Since the involved computations for Bayes classifiers are basically generalised mean value calculations, they easily render ...

  12. The electrification of the powertrain - from turbohybrid to range extender; Die Elektrifizierung des Antriebs - vom Turbohybrid zum Range Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Robert [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    One of the most concise trends of the last years is the accelerated electrification of the drive strand. For an optimum cost benefit ratio new engine concepts are developed whereby with each concept the key lies in the system tuning. Engine, transmissions, electric motor, battery and tax strategies are optimally co-ordinated. This is exemplary presented at two concepts of emphasis: (a) Turbo-hydride: Utilization of burn-motor auxiliary functions for the simplification of the electrical system; (b) Rank Extender: Here, there exist two different solutions: Solutions with direct drift punch and the pure Range Extender without direct drift punch.

  13. Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brambilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.

  14. Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    access to devices that are out of reach. Thus, we allow users to directly manipulate real-world objects from a distance using their bare hands. A core difficulty we focus on is how to maintain ownership for the unnaturally long virtual arm, which is the strong feeling that one’s limbs are actually part......In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...... of the own body. Fortunately, what the human brain experiences as being part of the own body is very malleable and we find that during interaction the user’s virtual arm can be stretched to more than twice its real length, without breaking the user’s sense of ownership for the virtual limb....

  15. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    -taking behaviors, such as drug use and violence. Here, we scrutinize the research on extended youth parties to identify general changes that young people undergo at these events. We call these celebrations departies, because they center on the organization and facilitation of momentary departures from...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  16. Extended piano techniques : in theory, history and performance practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, Luc Paul Frank

    2009-01-01

    So-called "extended techniques" have suffered a consistent lack of understanding from a theoretical, historical and practical point of view. Although most of them – e.g. playing directly on the strings, cluster- and glissando-techniques – exist in a substantial part of the repertoire for the piano

  17. Supersets for the spectrum of elements in extended Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Seddighin

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available If A is a Banach Algebra with or without an identity, A can be always extended to a Banach algebra A¯ with identity, where A¯ is simply the direct sum of A and C, the algebra of complex numbers. In this note we find supersets for the spectrum of elements of A¯.

  18. Topics in Extended Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Ravi S.

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Each chapter is self-contained and is devoted to the investigation of a particular topic in extended dynamical systems. In the first chapter, an approach based on Langevin equations is implemented to understand the non-Gaussian nature of the probability distribution function (PDF) of local diffusive variables in extended dynamical systems, e.g., a passive scalar advected by turbulent velocity fluctuations. Two mechanisms are proposed for the origin of non-Gaussian tails: One relies on the nature of temporal correlations of the fluctuations that couple additively to the diffusive field, leading to exponential and stretched exponential tails in the PDF; the other depends on multiplicative coupling between the diffusive field and the fluctuations, producing algebraic tails in the PDF. The mechanisms are illustrated using models for a passive scalar and also a current driven Josephson junction array. This study indicates that shapes of local PDFs in turbulent states are non-universal and crucially depend on local couplings and time scales. The second chapter establishes the existence of a class of locally conserving chaotic (deterministic) systems that exhibit Generic Scale Invariance--algebraic decay of spatial and temporal correlations without tuning parameters. This study also reveals the similarity between noise and chaos in extended systems as far as long-wavelength and long -time behavior is concerned. Specifically, a two dimensional coupled-map lattice model with a conserved density is numerically shown to exhibit, in agreement with heuristic arguments, algebraic decay of spatio-temporal correlations in chaotic states with simple predictable exponents. The third chapter investigates scaling behavior of earthquakes in seismic zone models in which an earthquake is modeled by a quasi-static description that ignores short -time dynamics during an earthquake. The models incorporate the essential feature of long-ranged stress

  19. Directed homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata.......We introduce a new notion of directed homology for semicubical sets. We show that it respects directed homotopy and is functorial, and that it appears to enjoy some good algebraic properties. Our work has applications to higher-dimensional automata....

  20. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N., E-mail: rai@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Braga, João P.M., E-mail: philipe@fisica.ufc.br [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza-ICEN, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira-UNILAB, Campus dos Palmares, 62785-000 Acarape, Ceará (Brazil); Lira, Jorge H.S., E-mail: jorge.lira@mat.ufc.br [Departamento de Matemática, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Andrade, José S., E-mail: soares@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2016-04-10

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  1. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jesus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-14

    This researcher participated in the DOE-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling (CEMM), a multi-institutional collaboration led by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Dr. Stephen Jardin as the overall Principal Investigator. This project developed advanced simulation tools to study the non-linear macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. The collaborative effort focused on the development of two large numerical simulation codes, M3D-C1 and NIMROD, and their application to a wide variety of problems. Dr. Ramos was responsible for theoretical aspects of the project, deriving consistent sets of model equations applicable to weakly collisional plasmas and devising test problems for verification of the numerical codes. This activity was funded for twelve years.

  2. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  3. Extended mission life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  4. Extended Fundamental Model of Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Sławomir

    2003-03-01

    Fundamental models are the simplest, one degree of freedom Hamiltonians that serve as a tool to understand the qualitative effects of various resonances. A new, extended fundamental model (EFM) is proposed in order to improve the classical, Andoyer type, second fundamental model (SFM). The EFM Hamiltonian differs from the SFM by the addition of a term with the third power of momentum; it depends on two free parameters. The new model is studied for the case of a first-order resonance, where up to five critical points can be present. Similarly, to the respective SFM, it admits only the saddle-node bifurcations of critical points, but its advantage lies in the capability of generating the separatrix bifurcations, known also as saddle connections. The reduction of parameters for the EFM has been performed in a way that allows the use of the model in the case of the so-called abnormal resonance.

  5. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  6. Catalytic distillation extends its reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

  7. Oral hydromorphone extended-release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, David R P

    2010-12-01

    To review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, tolerability, dosing, and role of the Osmotic-controlled Release Oral delivery System (OROS) hydromorphone extended-release (ER) tablets. A MEDLINE/PUBMED search (1986-August 2010) was conducted to identify studies in the English language, with additional references being obtained from their bibliographies. All studies of hydromorphone ER were reviewed. This is the second long-acting hydromorphone formulation to receive approval by the Food and Drug Administration (a twice-daily formulation was approved in September 2004, but was subsequently withdrawn in July 2005). Hydromorphone is a semi-synthetic mu-opioid receptor agonist structurally similar to morphine, hydrocodone, and oxymorphone. OROS ER technology allows once-daily dosing. Clinical trials have focused on the convertibility of (an) other opioid(s) to hydromorphone ER in chronic malignant and nonmalignant pain. This product displays the expected opioid side effects, being comparable to oxycodone controlled-release. Coadministration with ethanol does not produce the degree of "dose-dumping" seen with the former hydromorphone twice-daily product or oxymorphone ER. Hydromorphone ER is indicated for the management of moderate-to-severe pain in opioidtolerant patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period of time. Dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) and moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 30-60 mL/min). Hydromorphone ER is the newest oral opioid to enter a crowded marketplace now totaling 15 different Schedule 2 opioids (including tapentadol), and tramadol, available in oral, parenteral, rectal, transdermal, transmucosal, and intranasal formulations. It does not appear to have any unique assets or liabilities and should be considered as one of many oral opioids available for the management of persistent pain of moderate

  8. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  9. Using Ferromagnetic Material to Extend and Shield the Magnetic Field of a Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    extend the magnetic field generated by a coil along its axial direction while simultaneously shielding (or reducing) the field in the lateral direction by...the edges of the coil, while simultaneously shielding (or reducing) the field in the lateral direction by the application of ferromagnetic cladding...length much greater than the cross- sectional dimensions. Both had cross sections of 2.5 × 5.0 cm. The fields were determined along the line extending

  10. OCT imaging of myocardium extending to pulmonary vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Dickfeld, Timm; Tang, Qinggong; Wang, Bohan; Chen, Yu

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography to enable a direct visualization of myocardium extending into the pulmonary vein (PV). The results showed that there are obvious differences in the morphology of myocardium and fibrous tissue in the transition region of myocardial sleeve, which is in agreement with the histological analysis. In addition, the myocardial area in transition point has three layers in the depth of 1 mm, and the depth-resolved myocardial fiber show different orientation in the different layers. This characteristic was applied for segmentation of the structures of myocardium extending into PV.

  11. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-08-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life.

  12. Atomic Structure and Properties of Extended Defects in Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczko, R.; Chisholm, M.F.; Kaplan, T.; Maiti, A.; Mostoller, M.; Pantelides, S.T.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1998-10-15

    The Z-contrast technique represents a new approach to high-resolution electron microscopy allowing for the first time incoherent imaging of materials on the atomic scale. The key advantages of the technique, an intrinsically higher resolution limit and directly interpretable, compositionally sensitive imaging, allow a new level of insight into the atomic configurations of extended defects in silicon. This experimental technique has been combined with theoretical calculations (a combination of first principles, tight binding, and classical methods) to extend this level of insight by obtaining the energetic and electronic structure of the defects.

  13. Extending the Schizosaccharomyces pombe molecular genetic toolbox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Fennessy

    Full Text Available Targeted alteration of the genome lies at the heart of the exploitation of S. pombe as a model system. The rate of analysis is often determined by the efficiency with which a target locus can be manipulated. For most loci this is not a problem, however for some loci, such as fin1+, rates of gene targeting below 5% can limit the scope and scale of manipulations that are feasible within a reasonable time frame. We now describe a simple modification of transformation procedure for directing integration of genomic sequences that leads to a 5-fold increase in the transformation efficiency when antibiotic based dominant selection markers are used. We also show that removal of the pku70+ and pku80+ genes, which encode DNA end binding proteins required for the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway, increases the efficiency of gene targeting at fin1+ to around 75-80% (a 16-fold increase. We describe how a natMX6/rpl42+ cassette can be used for positive and negative selection for integration at a targeted locus. To facilitate the evaluation of the impact of a series of mutations on the function of a gene of interest we have generated three vector series that rely upon different selectable markers to direct the expression of tagged/untagged molecules from distinct genomic integration sites. pINTL and pINTK vectors use ura4+ selection to direct disruptive integration of leu1+ and lys1+ respectively, while pINTH vectors exploit nourseothricin resistance to detect the targeted disruption of a hygromycin B resistance conferring hphMX6 cassette that has been integrated on chromosome III. Finally, we have generated a series of multi-copy expression vectors that use resistance to nourseothricin or kanamycin/G418 to select for propagation in prototrophic hosts. Collectively these protocol modifications and vectors extend the versatility of this key model system.

  14. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAMILU

    ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing ... antimicrobial susceptibility test using CLSI recommended, WHO modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. ... Keywords: Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases, Prevalence, Gram-negative urogenital isolates,.

  15. Building an Archive Backbone Extending TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, M.; Apollo, P.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

    2014-05-01

    A data center (DC) willing to add VO (Virtual Observatory) capabilities to existing archival resources, or new ones, will probably face some issues regarding the constraints on the existing structure of the datasets. On the opposite direction a DC may want to give priority to VO flavored data access but maintain flexibility on proprietary or dedicated access solutions. This contribution tries to delineate a solution, feasible for both approaches, taking advantage of the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) existing standards and, at the same time, forcing no constraint at archive generation or ingestion level. The IVOA TAP (Table Access Protocol) specification generalizes the way a set of database schemas and tables, related or not, can be deployed as a queryable resource in the framewok of the Virtual Observatory. The TAP protocol itself has, at its core, a DB schema, named TAP_SCHEMA, that actually acts as an attribute-extended information schema for the exposed set of tables; the TAP_SCHEMA, in short, describes the content of the schemas and tables, and their connections, in a VO aware flavour. It seems then quite immediate to think about pushing the generalization step a little further, i.e. to extend the TAP_SCHEMA itself to provide a more general description of an astrophysical archive (or part of it). Here we discuss on how, adding optional tables and columns to the TAP_SCHEMA, it would be possible to create an archive thin layer solution in terms of this DB schema alongside with a content manager application for it. The goal is to provide a re-usable, configurable connection between an archive's back end and front end, having the benefit of creating a VO translation layer to ease VO resource and service deployment and preserving custom data access and publishing.

  16. Hyperuniformity disorder length spectroscopy for extended particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a hyperuniformity disorder length h was recently introduced for analyzing volume fraction fluctuations for a set of measuring windows [Chieco et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 032909 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032909]. This length permits a direct connection to the nature of disorder in the spatial configuration of the particles and provides a way to diagnose the degree of hyperuniformity in terms of the scaling of h and its value in comparison with established bounds. Here, this approach is generalized for extended particles, which are larger than the image resolution and can lie partially inside and partially outside the measuring windows. The starting point is an expression for the relative volume fraction variance in terms of four distinct volumes: that of the particle, the measuring window, the mean-squared overlap between particle and region, and the region over which particles have nonzero overlap with the measuring window. After establishing limiting behaviors for the relative variance, computational methods are developed for both continuum and pixelated particles. Exact results are presented for particles of special shape and for measuring windows of special shape, for which the equations are tractable. Comparison is made for other particle shapes, using simulated Poisson patterns. And the effects of polydispersity and image errors are discussed. For small measuring windows, both particle shape and spatial arrangement affect the form of the variance. For large regions, the variance scaling depends only on arrangement but particle shape sets the numerical proportionality. The combined understanding permit the measured variance to be translated to the spectrum of hyperuniformity lengths versus region size, as the quantifier of spatial arrangement. This program is demonstrated for a system of nonoverlapping particles at a series of increasing packing fractions as well as for an Einstein pattern of particles with several different extended shapes.

  17. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... included as a chapter in the Handbook are possible measures for best practices of implementation, designed for those who wish to tailor direct democracy instruments to their specific needs. In order to further complement the best practices, a variety of global case studies detail the practical uses...... of direct democracy mechanisms in specific contexts. These country case studies allow for in depth discussion of particular issues, including signature collection and voter participation, campaign financing, media coverage, national variations in the usage of direct democracy procedures and national lessons...

  18. 42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an extended...

  19. Extended empirical likelihood for estimating equations

    OpenAIRE

    Min Tsao; Fan Wu

    2014-01-01

    We derive an extended empirical likelihood for parameters defined by estimating equations which generalizes the original empirical likelihood to the full parameter space. Under mild conditions, the extended empirical likelihood has all the asymptotic properties of the original empirical likelihood. The first-order extended empirical likelihood is easy to use and substantially more accurate than the original empirical likelihood.

  20. Forman curvature for directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sreejith, R P; Saucan, Emil; Samal, Areejit

    2016-01-01

    A goal in network science is the geometrical characterization of complex networks. In this direction, we have recently introduced the Forman's discretization of Ricci curvature to the realm of undirected networks. Investigation of Forman curvature in diverse model and real-world undirected networks revealed that this measure captures several aspects of the organization of complex undirected networks. However, many important real-world networks are inherently directed in nature, and the Forman curvature for undirected networks is unsuitable for analysis of such directed networks. Hence, we here extend the Forman curvature for undirected networks to the case of directed networks. The simple mathematical formula for the Forman curvature in directed networks elegantly incorporates node weights, edge weights and edge direction. By applying the Forman curvature for directed networks to a variety of model and real-world directed networks, we show that the measure can be used to characterize the structure of complex ...

  1. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  2. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  3. The motivation behind extended suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuruc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of motivation of suicidal behaviour in cases of so-called extended suicide is of great importance from a forensic-psychological viewpoint. The initiator of such action is often a person suffering from endogenous depression. The motives behind successful suicide are generally not known. This paper aims to demonstrate the motives behind the successful suicide, less frequent in our conditions, of two family members – a father and a son. The case has been thoroughly analysed by morphological methods with the help of additional laboratory tests. At the centre was a suicide letter which was hidden in a very unusual way and which was elucidated only thanks to autopsy of both persons. The manner of realisation – hanging – was among the most frequent in the region and in the state too. The men were not under the influence of any toxic substances. The motivation behind the suicide was an escape from hard living conditions.

  4. Building and testing models with extended Higgs sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Igor P.

    2017-07-01

    Models with non-minimal Higgs sectors represent a mainstream direction in theoretical exploration of physics opportunities beyond the Standard Model. Extended scalar sectors help alleviate difficulties of the Standard Model and lead to a rich spectrum of characteristic collider signatures and astroparticle consequences. In this review, we introduce the reader to the world of extended Higgs sectors. Not pretending to exhaustively cover the entire body of literature, we walk through a selection of the most popular examples: the two- and multi-Higgs-doublet models, as well as singlet and triplet extensions. We will show how one typically builds models with extended Higgs sectors, describe the main goals and the challenges which arise on the way, and mention some methods to overcome them. We will also describe how such models can be tested, what are the key observables one focuses on, and illustrate the general strategy with a subjective selection of results.

  5. Next generation extended Lagrangian first principles molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M. N.

    2017-08-01

    Extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics [A. M. N. Niklasson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123004 (2008)] is formulated for general Hohenberg-Kohn density-functional theory and compared with the extended Lagrangian framework of first principles molecular dynamics by Car and Parrinello [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)]. It is shown how extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics overcomes several shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while improving or maintaining important features of Car-Parrinello simulations. The accuracy of the electronic degrees of freedom in extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, with respect to the exact Born-Oppenheimer solution, is of second-order in the size of the integration time step and of fourth order in the potential energy surface. Improved stability over recent formulations of extended Lagrangian Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics is achieved by generalizing the theory to finite temperature ensembles, using fractional occupation numbers in the calculation of the inner-product kernel of the extended harmonic oscillator that appears as a preconditioner in the electronic equations of motion. Material systems that normally exhibit slow self-consistent field convergence can be simulated using integration time steps of the same order as in direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, but without the requirement of an iterative, non-linear electronic ground-state optimization prior to the force evaluations and without a systematic drift in the total energy. In combination with proposed low-rank and on the fly updates of the kernel, this formulation provides an efficient and general framework for quantum-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations.

  6. Chern-Simons action for inhomogeneous Virasoro group as extension of three dimensional flat gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnich, Glenn [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Giribet, Gastón [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Universidad de Buenos Aires FCEN-UBA and IFIBA-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Leston, Mauricio [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio IAFE-CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón IAFE, C.C. 67 Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-07-15

    We initiate the study of a Chern-Simons action associated to the semi-direct sum of the Virasoro algebra with its coadjoint representation. This model extends the standard Chern-Simons formulation of three dimensional flat gravity and is similar to the higher-spin extension of three dimensional anti-de Sitter or flat gravity. The extension can also be constructed for the exotic but not for the cosmological constant deformation of flat gravity.

  7. Tilt anisoplanatism in extended turbulence propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Eric P.; Whiteley, Matthew R.; Das, Shashikala T.; Welsh, Byron M.

    2003-04-01

    The use of high-energy laser (HEL) weapon systems in tactical air-to-ground target engagements offers great promise for revolutionizing the USAF's war-fighting capabilities. Laser directed-energy systems will enable ultra-precision strike with minimal collateral damage and significant stand-off range for the aerial platform. The tactical directed energy application differs in many crucial ways from the conventional approach used in missile defense. Tactical missions occur at much lower altitudes and involve look-down to low-contrast ground targets instead of a high-contrast boosting missile. At these lower altitudes, the strength of atmospheric turbulence is greatly enhanced. Although the target slant ranges are much shorter, tactical missions may still involve moderate values of the Rytov number (0.1-0.5), and small isoplanatic angles compared to the diffraction angle. With increased density of air in the propagation path, and the potential for slow-moving or stationary ground targets, HEL-induced thermal blooming will certainly be a concern. In order to minimize the errors induced by tracking through thermal blooming, offset aimpoint tracking can be used. However, this will result in significant tilt anisoplanatism, thus degrading beam stabilization on target. In this paper we investigate the effects of extended turbulence on tracking (or tilt) anisoplanatism using theory and wave optics simulations. The simulations show good agreement with geometric optics predictions at angles larger than about 5 micro-radians (asymptotic regime) while at smaller angles the agreement is poor. We present a theoretical basis for this observation.

  8. Extended model for Richtmyer-Meshkov mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikaelian, K O

    2009-11-18

    We examine four Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) experiments on shock-generated turbulent mix and find them to be in good agreement with our earlier simple model in which the growth rate h of the mixing layer following a shock or reshock is constant and given by 2{alpha}A{Delta}v, independent of initial conditions h{sub 0}. Here A is the Atwood number ({rho}{sub B}-{rho}{sub A})/({rho}{sub B} + {rho}{sub A}), {rho}{sub A,B} are the densities of the two fluids, {Delta}V is the jump in velocity induced by the shock or reshock, and {alpha} is the constant measured in Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments: {alpha}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.05-0.07, {alpha}{sup spike} {approx} (1.8-2.5){alpha}{sup bubble} for A {approx} 0.7-1.0. In the extended model the growth rate beings to day after a time t*, when h = h*, slowing down from h = h{sub 0} + 2{alpha}A{Delta}vt to h {approx} t{sup {theta}} behavior, with {theta}{sup bubble} {approx} 0.25 and {theta}{sup spike} {approx} 0.36 for A {approx} 0.7. They ascribe this change-over to loss of memory of the direction of the shock or reshock, signaling transition from highly directional to isotropic turbulence. In the simplest extension of the model h*/h{sub 0} is independent of {Delta}v and depends only on A. They find that h*/h{sub 0} {approx} 2.5-3.5 for A {approx} 0.7-1.0.

  9. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  10. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  11. Safety assessment of new antithrombotic agents: lessons from the EXTEND study on ximelagatran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnelli, G; Eriksson, B I; Cohen, A T

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ximelagatran, the first oral direct thrombin inhibitor, was shown to be an effective antithrombotic agent but was associated with potential liver toxicity after prolonged administration. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: The aim of the EXTEND study was to assess safety and efficacy of extended...

  12. Extending TF1: Argument parsing, function composition, and vectorization

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang Mang Kin, Arthur Leonard

    2017-01-01

    In this project, we extend the functionality of the TF1 function class in root. We add argument parsing, making it possible to freely pass variables and parameters into pre-defined and user-defined functions. We also introduce a syntax to use certain compositions of functions, namely normalized sums and convolutions, directly in TF1. Finally, we introduce some simple vectorization functionality to TF1 and demonstrate the potential to speed up parallelizable computations.

  13. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Schurtenberger E; Heuberger M

    2011-01-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under am...

  14. Use of commercial extenders and alternatives to prevent sperm agglutination for cryopreservation of brown bear semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Alves, S; Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Lopez-Urueña, E; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragan, S; de Paz, P; Anel, L

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different bovine and canine commercial semen extenders for cryopreservation of brown bear ejaculates and the effect of semen collection directly into extender on sperm agglutination. Semen samples were obtained by electroejaculation from 13 adult males. In experiment 1, eleven ejaculates from eight bears were used to evaluate Bioxcell and Andromed as extenders, whereas in experiment 2, nine ejaculates from six bears were used to evaluate Triladyl canine, CaniPro, and Extender 2 as extenders. An extender specifically developed for brown bears (Test-Tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol, TTF-ULE/bear) served as a control extender in both experiments. After thawing, total and progressive sperm motility and sperm viability were greater (P agglutination in fresh samples (score 0.5 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4 in diluted and control samples, respectively) with no effect on pre-freeze and post-thawing semen quality. In conclusion, TTF-ULE/bear is the most suitable extender for brown bear semen cryopreservation, but comparable results can be obtained with the commercial extender Andromed. In addition, collection of ejaculates directly in TTF-H extender decreases sperm agglutination in fresh samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extended intergroup friendships within social settings : The moderating role of initial outgroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munniksma, Anke; Stark, Tobias; Verkuyten, Maykel; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    The current study hypothesized that extended intergroup friendships improve outgroup attitudes in particular for people with initially unfavorable outgroup attitudes, and for those without direct intergroup friendships. In contrast, building on structural balance theory, it was hypothesized that

  16. Extended empirical likelihood for general estimating equations

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Min; Wu, Fan

    2013-01-01

    We derive an extended empirical likelihood for parameters defined by estimating equations which generalizes the original empirical likelihood for such parameters to the full parameter space. Under mild conditions, the extended empirical likelihood has all asymptotic properties of the original empirical likelihood. Its contours retain the data-driven shape of the latter. It can also attain the second order accuracy. The first order extended empirical likelihood is easy-to-use yet it is substan...

  17. An algebraic approach to symmetric extended formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Extended formulations are an important tool to obtain small (even compact) formulations of polytopes by representing them as projections of higher dimensional ones. It is an important question whether a polytope admits a small extended formulation, i.e., one involving only a polynomial number of inequalities in its dimension. For the case of symmetric extended formulations (i.e., preserving the symmetries of the polytope) Yannakakis established a powerful technique to derive lower bounds and ...

  18. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended

  19. Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are playing more important roles to quantify uncertainties and realize high fidelity simulations in engineering system analyses, such as transients happened in a complex nuclear reactor system. Traditional V&V in the reactor system analysis focused more on the validation part or did not differentiate verification and validation. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a 'black box' approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. The 'black box' method mixes numerical errors with all other uncertainties. It is also not efficient to perform sensitivity analysis. Contrary to the 'black box' method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In these types of approaches equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivities are directly solved for as variables in the simulation. This paper presents the forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty qualification. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other interested physical

  20. Does direct experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miralles, Francesc; Giones, Ferran; Gozun, Brian

    2017-01-01

    of being engaged in entrepreneurial behavior on entrepreneurial intention. We aim to shed light on whether the direct experience reinforces an individual’s entrepreneurial intention or reduces it. Building on an extended version of the planned behavior theory, we use the behavioral reasoning theory...... to propose a research design to study the influence of being currently engaged in entrepreneurial behavior on entrepreneurial intention. We introduce individual’s age as an additional moderator of the effects of directly experiencing entrepreneurial behavior. We use PLS-MGA to complete a multi-group SEM...... analysis for different groups of individuals (from a sample of 430), comparing groups based on their entrepreneurial activity and age group. Results of this research work evidence that current engagement in entrepreneurship activities produces significant differences in the intention to start a new venture...

  1. Extended season for northern butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  2. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  3. Following Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Charlene

    Activities in this elementary unit focus on developing students' locational skills while strengthening their ability to read and follow instructions. Seven maps of varying complexity are accompanied by worksheets containing 8 to 13 direction exercises. Students are instructed to place buildings, landmarks, and labels in accurate locations on each…

  4. ADD, LD and Extended Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, J. B.; Cherkes-Julkowski, M.

    This study examines executive function and its relationship to attention dysfunction and working memory. It attempts to document the manifestations of executive function problems in school-related extended processing tasks, such as verbal problem-solving in math and reading of extended passages. Subjects (in grades 1-12) included 49 children with…

  5. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  6. Strontium doping of bone graft extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Allografts are often used during revision hip replacement surgery for stabilization of the implant. Resorption of the allograft may exceed new bone formation, and instability of the prosthesis can develop. We investigated whether strontium could regulate the imbalance of fast resorption of allograft and slower formation of new bone, because it is both an anabolic and an anticatabolic agent. Method Strontium was added to the implant interface environment by doping a hydroxyapatite bone graft extender. 10 dogs each received 2 experimental titanium implants. The implants were inserted within a 2.7-mm concentric gap in cancellous bone. The gap was filled with 50% (v/v) allograft mixed with 50% bone graft extender. The extender either had 5% strontium doping (SrHA) or was undoped (HA). After 4 weeks, osseointegration and mechanical fixation were evaluated by histomorphometry and by push-out test. Results SrHA bone graft extender induced a 1.2-fold increase in volume of new bone, a 1.2-fold increase in allograft remaining in the gap, and a 1.4-fold increase in surface area of the bone graft extender material in contact with new bone compared to HA bone graft extender. All these increases were statistically significant. SrHA bone graft extender did not significantly improve ongrowth of bone onto the implants or improve any of the mechanical push-out parameters compared to HA bone graft extender. Interpretation Doping of the HA bone graft extender with 5% strontium increased gap healing, preserved more of the allograft in the gap, and increased the ongrowth of bone onto the bone graft extender material, but did not improve mechanical fixation. PMID:21895497

  7. Extended Lagrangian formalism for rheonomic systems with variable mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mušicki Đorđe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the extended Lagrangian formalism for the rheonomic systems (Dj. Mušicki, 2004, which began with the modification of the mechanics of such systems (V. Vujičić, 1987, is extended to the systems with variable mass, with emphasis on the corresponding energy relations. This extended Lagrangian formalism is based on the extension of the set of chosen generalized coordinates by new quantities, suggested by the form of nonstationary constraints, which determine the position of the frame of reference in respect to which these generalized coordinates refer. As a consequence, an extended system of the Lagrangian equations is formulated, accommodated to the variability of the masses of particles, where the additional ones correspond to the additional generalized coordinates. By means of these equations, the energy relations of such systems have been studied, where it is demonstrated that here there are four types of energy conservation laws. The obtained energy laws are more complete and natural than the corresponding ones in the usual Lagrangian formulation for such systems. It is demonstrated that the obtained energy laws, are in full accordance with the energy laws in the corresponding vector formulation, if they are expressed in terms of the quantities introduced in this formulation of mechanics. The obtained results are illustrated by an example: the motion of a rocket, which ejects the gasses backwards, while this rocket moves up a straight line on an oblique plane, which glides uniformly in a horizontal direction.

  8. Direct ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alice V

    2015-01-01

    First described by Engvall and Perlmann, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and sensitive method for detection and quantitation of an antigen using an enzyme-labeled antibody. Besides routine laboratory usage, ELISA has been utilized in medical field and food industry as diagnostic and quality control tools. Traditionally performed in 96-well or 384-well polystyrene plates, the technology has expanded to other platforms with increase in automation. Depending on the antigen epitope and availability of specific antibody, there are variations in ELISA setup. The four basic formats are direct, indirect, sandwich, and competitive ELISAs. Direct ELISA is the simplest format requiring an antigen and an enzyme-conjugated antibody specific to the antigen. This chapter describes the individual steps for detection of a plate-bound antigen using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antibody and luminol-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate. The methodological approach to optimize the assay by chessboard titration is also provided.

  9. Extended cycle hormonal contraception in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucato, Gina S; Gerschultz, Kelly L

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of extended cycles of hormonal contraception to manage menstrual cycle-related complaints in adolescents and to accommodate the menstrual preferences of patients using hormonal contraception. This review summarizes recent findings related to the use of extended cycles and highlights their relevance to adolescents. Many adolescents would prefer to menstruate less frequently. Among health care providers who prescribe hormonal contraceptives, the majority believe suppressing withdrawal bleeding is well tolerated and prescribe extended cycling regimens to their patients. Shortening or eliminating the hormone-free interval results in greater ovarian suppression and thus may increase contraceptive efficacy. Studies in adult women have not identified changes in metabolic parameters beyond what would be expected from traditional cyclic use. New endometrial biopsy data have found no pathologic changes; most women using an extended cycle had atrophic endometriums. Extended cycling is frequently associated with breakthrough bleeding. In some women, this can be managed with a brief hormone-free interval. Recent findings demonstrate high levels of interest in extended cycling among adolescents and providers, and continue to add to the growing body of literature supporting the safety and improved contraceptive efficacy of extended regimens. Further research is warranted to focus on issues including cancer, thrombotic disease and fertility, and should enroll a sufficient adolescent sample.

  10. Modeling the Extended Warranty: A Managerial Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Noah; Eger, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a model of an extended warranty. To maximize profit, a producer always wants to sell with some type of warranty as opposed to selling with no warranty. The extended warranty is more likely to be provided as the consumer becomes more patient, as the producer becomes impatient, or if the likelihood of product failure does not increase too much in the extended period. We show that there is a separating equilibrium in which the high quality producers sell with warranties and the low qu...

  11. Extended Hamiltonian approach to continuous tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Gianpaolo; Leimkuhler, Benedict J

    2015-06-01

    We introduce an enhanced sampling simulation technique based on continuous tempering, i.e., on continuously varying the temperature of the system under investigation. Our approach is mathematically straightforward, being based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation in which an auxiliary degree of freedom, determining the effective temperature, is coupled to the physical system. The physical system and its temperature evolve continuously in time according to the equations of motion derived from the extended Hamiltonian. Due to the Hamiltonian structure, it is easy to show that a particular subset of the configurations of the extended system is distributed according to the canonical ensemble for the physical system at the correct physical temperature.

  12. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Morrell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics are added to semen extenders to be used for artificial insemination (AI in livestock breeding to control bacterial contamination in semen arising during collection and processing. The antibiotics to be added and their concentrations for semen for international trade are specified by government directives. Since the animal production industry uses large quantities of semen for artificial insemination, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in semen extenders. Possible alternatives to antibiotics are discussed, including physical removal of the bacteria during semen processing, as well as the development of novel antimicrobials. Colloid centrifugation, particularly Single Layer Centrifugation, when carried out with a strict aseptic technique, offers a feasible method for reducing bacterial contamination in semen and is a practical method for semen processing laboratories to adopt. However, none of these alternatives to antibiotics should replace strict attention to hygiene during semen collection and handling.

  13. Generalized Laplace Transforms and Extended Heaviside Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2008-01-01

    An extended Heaviside calculus proposed by Peraire in a recent paper is similar to a generalization of the Laplace transform proposed by the present author. This similarity will be illustrated by analysis of an example supplied by Peraire.

  14. Extended Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on findings from a recent clinical trial which showed that extending adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor can have important benefits for some women with early-stage cancer.

  15. PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Confirmed variants of enterobacteriaceae isolated from 143 patients that attended Murtala. Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, were screened for extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint. Suspected ESBLs producers were ...

  16. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  17. Musical Manipulations and the Emotionally Extended Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Krueger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available I respond to Kersten's criticism in his article "Music and Cognitive Extension" of my approach to the musically extended emotional mind in Krueger (2014. I specify how we manipulate—and in so doing, integrate with—music when, as active listeners, we become part of a musically extended cognitive system. I also indicate how Kersten's account might be enriched by paying closer attention to the way that music functions as an environmental artifact for emotion regulation.

  18. Extended Dislocations in Plastically Deformed Metallic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zheng; Yi-Nong Wang; Min Qi; Huiling Du

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sawtooth nature of compressive loading of metallic nanoparticles is observed using a molecular dynamics simulation. The atomic structure evolution confirmed that extended dislocations are the main defects split into two asynchronous partial disloca‐ tions, along with stored and released fault energy. This is considered the essence of sawtooth loading. The size of the nanoparticles relative to the equilibrium width of the extended dislocation is discussed to explain t...

  19. Extended Dislocations in Plastically Deformed Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the sawtooth nature of compressive loading of metallic nanoparticles is observed using a molecular dynamics simulation. The atomic structure evolution confirmed that extended dislocations are the main defects split into two asynchronous partial disloca‐ tions, along with stored and released fault energy. This is considered the essence of sawtooth loading. The size of the nanoparticles relative to the equilibrium width of the extended dislocation is discussed to explain the simulation results.

  20. Testing Different Types of Genotype-Environment Correlation: An Extended Children-of Twins Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusyte, Jurgita; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an extended children-of-twins model, which allowed the authors to test the direction of the association between parenting and child adjustment. Three mechanisms were examined: direct phenotypic influence of parenting on child behavior (controlling for both parental and child genotype), passive genotype-environment correlation,…

  1. Extended Access List untuk Mengendalikan Trafik Jaringan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Antoni Musril

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Keamana jaringan komputer saat ini menjadi hal penting untuk diterapkan. Banyak organisasi yang telah menjadikan teknologi informasi sebagai bahagian penting dalam menunjang aktivitasnya. Akses pengguna yang tidak dibatasi menjadi ancaman bagi sebuah organisasi, karena banyak data dan informasi penting yang tersebar dalam perangkat jaringan komputer di organisasi tersebut dapat disusupi oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan extended access list yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari metode access control list. Extended access list dapat menyaring lalu lintas data suatu jaringan dengan mengontrol apakah paket-paket tersebut dilewatkan atau dihentikan. Extended access list juga dapat menjamin keamanan untuk setiap komputer sehingga jalur komunikasi serta hak akses setiap komputer dapat berjalan dengan baik. Extended access list memungkinkan penyaringan berdasarkan sumber atau alamat tujuan, protokol yang dipilih, port yang digunakan, dan apakah koneksi sudah ditetapkan. Tulisan ini membahas penerapan extended access list dalam jaringan supaya dapat melakukan filter terhadap paket data yang melewati jaringan. Penerapannya menggunakan software Packet Tracer 6.1.1 untuk membuat prototipe jaringan dan mensimulasikannya. Sehingga nanti dapat diterapkan pada jaringan yang sebenarnya. List yang dibangun pada penelitian ini diterapkan untuk protokol antara lain : TCP (WWW, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, POP3, UDP (DNS, dan ICMP (Ping. Hasilnya didapatkan extended access list yang dikonfigurasi pada router dalam topologi penelitian ini mampu melakukan filter terhadap paket yang melewati jaringan. Hasil konfigurasinya sangat spesifik, sehingga penerapan hak akses permit dan deny dapat dilakukan sesuai dengan aturan dan skenario yang dirancang.

  2. Future direction of direct writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Han, Kenneth N.

    2010-11-01

    Direct write technology using special inks consisting of finely dispersed metal nanoparticles in liquid is receiving an undivided attention in recent years for its wide range of applicability in modern electronic industry. The application of this technology covers radio frequency identification-tag (RFID-tag), flexible-electronics, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) display, e-paper, antenna, bumpers used in flip-chip, underfilling, frit, miniresistance applications and biological uses, artificial dental applications and many more. In this paper, the authors have reviewed various direct write technologies on the market and discussed their advantages and shortfalls. Emphasis has given on microdispensing deposition write (MDDW), maskless mesoscale materials deposition (M3D), and ink-jet technologies. All of these technologies allow printing various patterns without employing a mask or a resist with an enhanced speed with the aid of computer. MDDW and M3D are capable of drawing patterns in three-dimension and MDDW, in particular, is capable of writing nanoinks with high viscosity. However, it is still far away for direct write to be fully implemented in the commercial arena. One of the hurdles to overcome is in manufacturing conductive inks which are chemically and physically stable, capable of drawing patterns with acceptable conductivity, and also capable of drawing patterns with acceptable adhesiveness with the substrates. The authors have briefly discussed problems involved in manufacturing nanometal inks to be used in various writing devices. There are numerous factors to be considered in manufacturing such inks. They are reducing agents, concentrations, oxidation, compact ability allowing good conductivity, and stability in suspension.

  3. Extending Atmospheric Composition Processing to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, P.; Tilmes, C.; Balsano, R.; Martin, A.; Soika, V.; Inskeep, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument Science Investigator-led Processing System (OMI SIPS) has been the central data processing system for OMI since its launch on NASA's Aura spacecraft in July, 2004. As part of NASA's evolution from mission based processing to measurement based processing, we are evolving the system into a community oriented Atmospheric Composition Processing System (ACPS). This involves changing focus from the mission (OMI) to the measurement (total column ozone), and a widening of our focus from the mission science teams to the overall scientific community. The current system dispatches and executes software developed by scientists on a computer cluster; archiving the results and distributing the data to numerous parties. Although this works well for the production environment, access to centralized systems has been naturally limited. Ideally, scientists should be able to easily get the data, run their software, make changes and repeat the process until they are happy with the solution to the problems they are trying to solve. In addition it should be simple to migrate research improvements from the community back into the formal production system. Through NASA's "Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth-Sun System Science," we have extended publicly accessible interfaces into the production system. The system provides an open API via a set of SOAP/XML and REST based web services, enabling scientists, researchers and operators to interact directly with the data and services offered by the central system. The system includes metadata, archive, and planner subsystems. The metadata server stores metadata about the data products and provides the ability for processing software to evaluate production rules to determine the appropriate input data files for a given data processing job. The archive server stores the data files themselves and makes then available for clients to retrieve the files as needed. The planner plans out the set of jobs to be run

  4. Uniform and scalable light-sheets generated by extended focusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kevin M; Fiolka, Reto

    2014-10-20

    Light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) affords highly parallelized 3D imaging with optical sectioning capability and minimal light exposure. However, using Gaussian beams for light-sheet generation results in a trade-off between beam waist thickness and the area over which the beam can approximate a light-sheet. Here, we present a novel form of LSFM that uses incoherent extended focusing to produce divergence free light-sheets with near diffraction-limited resolution and uniform intensity distribution along the propagation direction. We demonstrate the imaging performance of the new technique by volumetric imaging of beads, collagen fibers, and melanoma cancer cells with sub-cellular resolution.

  5. [Extended endoscopic endonasal approach to skull base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arbolay, Omar; González-González, Justo; Rojas-Manresa, Jorge Luis

    2012-11-01

    Different approaches to the skull base have been developed through the sphenoidal sinus. Traditional boundaries of the trans-sphenoidal approach can be extended in antero-posterior and lateral plane. We review our experience with extended endoscopic endonasal approach in 127 cases. We used the extended endoscopic endonasal approach in 127 patients with different lesions of the skull base. This study specifically focuses on: type of lesions, surgical approach, outcome and surgical complications. Extended endoscopic endonasal approach was used in 127 patients with following lesions: 61 invasive adenomas to cavernous sinus, 10 clival chordomas, 21 craniopharyngiomas, 26 meningiomas, 4 cerebrospinal fluid leakages, one meningoencephalocele, 2 malignan lesions and 2 thyroid ophthalmopathy. In tumoral lesions gross total resection was achieved in 82.5%, with better results in craniopharyngiomas 90.5%, followed by invasive adenomas with 85.2%, and meningiomas with 84.6%. The most frequent complications were the insipid (8.6%) diabetes, meningoencefalitis (3.9%) and the hydrocephalic (3.9%). Mortality was 3.9%. The extended endoscopic endonasal approach is a promising minimally invasive alternative for selective cases with skull base lesions. As techniques and technology advance this approach may become the procedure of choice for most lesions and should be considered an option in the management of the patients with these complex pathologies by skull base surgeon. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling extended lactations of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, B; Koops, W J; Herrero, M; Van Arendonk, J A

    2000-06-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17 mo), and calving to conception interval (1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 mo). Of the nine models, the diphasic model and lactation persistency model resulted in the best goodness of fit as measured by adjusted coefficient of determination, residual standard deviation, and Durbin-Watson coefficient. All other models showed less accuracy and positively correlated residuals. In extended lactations, models were also fitted using only test-day records before 305 d, which resulted in a different ranking. The diphasic model showed the best prediction of milk yield in standard and extended lactations. We concluded that the diphasic model provided accurate estimates of milk yield for standard and extended lactations. Interpretation of parameters deserves further attention because of the large variation observed. As expected, the calving to conception interval was found to have a negative effect on milk yield for cows with a standard lactation length. In extended lactations, these negative effects of pregnancy on milk yield were not observed.

  7. Dynamic headspace time-extended helix liquid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Chen, Pai-Shan; Huang, Shang-Da

    2009-05-15

    Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) has been proved to be a fast, inexpensive and effective sample pre-treatment technique for the analyses of pesticides and many other compounds. In this investigation, a new headspace microextraction technique, dynamic headspace time-extended helix liquid-phase microextraction (DHS-TEH-LPME), is presented. In this work, use of a solvent cooling system, permits the temperature of the extraction solvent to be lowered. Lowering the temperature of the extraction solvent not only reduces solvent loss but also extends the feasible extraction time, thereby improving extraction efficiency. Use of a larger volume of the solvent not only extends the feasible extraction time but also, after extraction, leaves a larger volume to be directly injected into the gas chromatography (GC) to increase extraction efficiency and instrument signal. The DHS-TEH-LPME technique was used to extract six organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from 110ml water samples that had been spiked with the analytes at ng/l levels, and stirred for 60min. The proposed method attained enrichments up to 2121 fold. The effects of extraction solvent identity, sample agitation, extraction time, extraction temperature, and salt concentration on extraction performance were also investigated. The method detection limits (MDLs) varied from 0.2 to 25ng/l. The calibration curves were linear for at least 2 orders of magnitude with R(2)>==0.996. Relative recoveries in river water were more than 86%.

  8. Estimation of Sideslip Angle Based on Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sideslip angle plays an extremely important role in vehicle stability control, but the sideslip angle in production car cannot be obtained from sensor directly in consideration of the cost of the sensor; it is essential to estimate the sideslip angle indirectly by means of other vehicle motion parameters; therefore, an estimation algorithm with real-time performance and accuracy is critical. Traditional estimation method based on Kalman filter algorithm is correct in vehicle linear control area; however, on low adhesion road, vehicles have obvious nonlinear characteristics. In this paper, extended Kalman filtering algorithm had been put forward in consideration of the nonlinear characteristic of the tire and was verified by the Carsim and Simulink joint simulation, such as the simulation on the wet cement road and the ice and snow road with double lane change. To test and verify the effect of extended Kalman filtering estimation algorithm, the real vehicle test was carried out on the limit test field. The experimental results show that the accuracy of vehicle sideslip angle acquired by extended Kalman filtering algorithm is obviously higher than that acquired by Kalman filtering in the area of the nonlinearity.

  9. Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P. J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu; Miloshevich, G., E-mail: gmilosh@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models.

  10. In new territory: consent and the extended duties dental nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsden, Jacqui

    2015-02-01

    With the introduction of direct access to treatment from dental care professionals (DCPs) in 2013, dental nurses are being trained to support the wider dental team in a number of additional skills. The name for this expanded team role is Extended Duties Dental Nurse (EDDN). These new duties take the EDDN into new territories, one of which includes the issue of consent. This article explains the background to direct access and the extra responsibilities for EDDNs in terms of consent and indemnity. It explores the new knowledge required to gain valid consent and presents a scenario for consideration. The article concludes that it is important for EDDNs to develop their professional approach, taking early advice from the referring dentist and/or professional indemnity adviser if faced with an unfamiliar scenario.

  11. International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This book gathers selected contributions on emerging research work presented at the International Conference eXtended Discretization MethodS (X-DMS), held in Ferrara in September 2015. It highlights the most relevant advances made at the international level in the context of expanding classical discretization methods, like finite elements, to the numerical analysis of a variety of physical problems. The improvements are intended to achieve higher computational efficiency and to account for special features of the solution directly in the approximation space and/or in the discretization procedure. The methods described include, among others, partition of unity methods (meshfree, XFEM, GFEM), virtual element methods, fictitious domain methods, and special techniques for static and evolving interfaces. The uniting feature of all contributions is the direct link between computational methodologies and their application to different engineering areas.

  12. Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Intense research interest over the past decade has yielded diverse and often discrepant theories about the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In particular, a dichotomy has emerged between neuropsychological theories suggesting a primary role for ACC in motivating or 'energizing' behavior, and neuroimaging-inspired theories emphasizing its contribution to cognitive control and reinforcement learning. To reconcile these views, we propose that ACC supports the selection and maintenance of 'options' - extended, context-specific sequences of behavior directed toward particular goals - that are learned through a process of hierarchical reinforcement learning. This theory accounts for ACC activity in relation to learning and control while simultaneously explaining the effects of ACC damage as disrupting the motivational context supporting the production of goal-directed action sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sum rules in extended RPA theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, S.; Lipparini, E.

    1988-11-28

    Different moments m/sub k/ of the excitation strength function are studied in the framework of the second RPA and of the extended RPA in which 2p2h correlations are explicitly introduced into the ground state by using first-order perturbation theory. Formal properties of the equations of motion concerning sum rules are derived and compared with those exhibited by the usual 1p1h RPA. The problem of the separation of the spurious solutions in extended RPA calculations is also discussed.

  14. Extended Interneuronal Network of the Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely G. Szabo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network.

  15. The extended oloid and its inscribed quadrics

    OpenAIRE

    Bäsel, Uwe; Dirnböck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The oloid is the convex hull of two circles with equal radius in perpendicular planes so that the center of each circle lies on the other circle. It is part of a developable surface which we call extended oloid. We determine the tangential system of all inscribed quadrics $\\mathcal{Q}_\\lambda$ of the extended oloid $\\mathcal{O}$ where $\\lambda$ is the system parameter. From this result we conclude parameter equations of the touching curve $\\mathcal{C}_\\lambda$ between $\\mathcal{O}$ and $\\math...

  16. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is propose...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors.......The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  17. Extending Symfony 2 web application framework

    CERN Document Server

    Armand, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o

  18. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side

  19. Extended social force model with a dynamic navigation field for bidirectional pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Qun; Chen, Bo-Kui; Wang, Bing-Hong; Wong, Weng-Fai; Cao, Bing-Yang

    2017-10-01

    An extended social force model with a dynamic navigation field is proposed to study bidirectional pedestrian movement. The dynamic navigation field is introduced to describe the desired direction of pedestrian motion resulting from the decision-making processes of pedestrians. The macroscopic fundamental diagrams obtained using the extended model are validated against camera-based observations. Numerical results show that this extended model can reproduce collective phenomena in pedestrian traffic, such as dynamic multilane flow and stable separate-lane flow. Pedestrians' path choice behavior significantly affects the probability of congestion and the number of self-organized lanes.

  20. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) with spacelab module depicted in art concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This cutaway drawing depicts a typical Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) configuration with the EDO cryogenic (CRYO) pallet mounted in the aft end of the payload bay (PLB) behind the Spacelab (SL) module. This pallet carries the extra cryogenic fuel (hydrogen and oxygen) required to extend the space shuttle orbiter's stay time onorbit to 16 days plus two weather days. Also shown directly behind the crew cabin and in front of the SL module is an expanded tunnel adapter which is a possible option on how to increase available stowage volume for extended missions.

  1. Next Generation Extended Lagrangian Quantum-based Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negre, Christian

    2017-06-01

    A new framework for extended Lagrangian first-principles molecular dynamics simulations is presented, which overcomes shortcomings of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, while maintaining important advantages of the unified extended Lagrangian formulation of density functional theory pioneered by Car and Parrinello three decades ago. The new framework allows, for the first time, energy conserving, linear-scaling Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, which is necessary to study larger and more realistic systems over longer simulation times than previously possible. Expensive, self-consinstent-field optimizations are avoided and normal integration time steps of regular, direct Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics can be used. Linear scaling electronic structure theory is presented using a graph-based approach that is ideal for parallel calculations on hybrid computer platforms. For the first time, quantum based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulation is becoming a practically feasible approach in simulations of +100,000 atoms-representing a competitive alternative to classical polarizable force field methods. In collaboration with: Anders Niklasson, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. SENSITIVITY OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM β - LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    extract and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against confirmed extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBLs) producing enterobacteriaceae isolates of Escherichia coli, ... oncology and neonatal units (Kohler et al, 1999). Medicinal plants have long been utilized as a source of therapeutic agents worldwide due to ...

  3. Apixaban for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Buller, Harry R.; Cohen, Alexander; Curto, Madelyn; Gallus, Alexander S.; Johnson, Margot; Porcari, Anthony; Raskob, Gary E.; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Gallus, Alexander; Raskob, Gary; Weitz, Jeffrey; Prins, Martin; Brandjes, Dees; Kolbach, Dinanda; Limburg, Martinus; Mac Gillavry, Melvin; Otten, Johannes Martinus; Peters, Ron; Roos, Yvo; Segers, Annelise; Slagboom, Ton; Bounameaux, Henry; Hirsh, Jack; Samama, Meyer Michel; Wedel, Hans; Masiukiewicz, Urszula; Pak, Raphael; Sanders, Paul; Sisson, Melanie; Sullivan, Beth; Thompson, John; Auerbach, Jennifer; Cesario, Lynne; Gamero, Miguel; Gordon, Margot; Griffiths, Angela; Noble, Melanie; Ott, Jana; Pennington, Ann; Peffer, Allison; Reinhold, Peggy; Simmons, Melanie; Urwin, Keri; Ceresetto, Jose; McRae, Simon; Pabinger, Ingrid; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto; Spencer, Fred; Gorican, Karel; Husted, Steen Elkiaer; Mottier, Dominique; Harenberg, Job; Pinjala, Ramakrishna; Zeltser, David; Imberti, Davide; Sandset, Morten; Torbicki, Adam; Fijalkowska, Anna; Albino, Jose Pereira; Kirienko, Alexander; Shvarts, Yury; Monreal, Manuel; Jacobson, Barry; Dolan, Gerry; Gudz, Ivan; Ortel, Tom; Spyropoulos, Alex; Torbicki, A.; Fijalkowska, A.; Skupyy, O.; Beryer-Westendorf, J.; de Pellegrin, A.; Prasol, V.; Schellong, S.; Jacobson, B.; Falvo, N.; Abramov, I.; Cizek, V.; Husted, S.; Desai, S.; Gudz, I.; Barillari, G.; Sergeev, O.; Chetter, I.; Inbal, A.; McCollum, C.; Shvalb, P.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Vasylyuk, S.; Kraemmer Nielsen, H.; Pernod, G.; Schmidt, J.; Bova, C.; Gerasymov, V.; Pabinger-Fasching, I.; Skalicka, L.; Zaichuk, A.; Achkar, A.; Bremmelgaard, A.; Chochola, J.; Gould, T.; Khalafallah, A.; Jakobsen, T.; Rose, P.; Zhukov, B.; Dedek, V.; Mirete Ferrer, J.; Pesant, Y.; Repin, A.; Salem, H.; Solis Morales, L.; Spacek, R.; Cannon, K.; Grzelakowski, P.; Jindal, R.; Pereira, A.; Zidkova, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Cardozo, M.; Dunaj, M.; Gallus, A.; Gavish, D.; Ghanima, W.; Harenberg, J.; Leduc, J. J.; Mismetti, P.; Panico, M.; Porreca, E.; Riera, A.; Bareford, D.; Chong, B.; Dvoryashina, I.; Gómez Cerezo, J.; Kobza, I.; Nielsen, T.; Pendleton, R.; Pullman, J.; Schiffman, G.; Stanbro, M.; Zwettler, U.; Aquilanti, S.; Bratsch, H.; Cohen, K.; Elias, D.; Gan, E.; Holaj, R.; Klinke, W.; Liu, H. S. Y.; Sandset, P. M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, E.; Álvarez-Sala, L. A.; Basson, M.; Braester, A.; Bura-Riviere, A.; Calvo Vargas, C.; Cohen, A.; Correa, J.; Elias, M.; Frost, L.; Imberti, D.; Landolfi, R.; Marschang, P.; Moreira, R.; Mottier, D.; Natarajan, S.; Pottier, P.; Tosetto, A.; Tuxen, C.; Vöhringer, H. F.; Alexander, A.; Barbarash, O.; Fajardo Campos, P.; Graham, M.; Gubka, O.; Hudcovic, M.; Hussein, O.; Jackson, D.; Katelnitskiy, I.; Lawall, H.; Monreal, M.; Palareti, G.; Poggio, R.; Roos, J.; Simonneau, G.; Smith, S. W.; Szopinski, P.; Ortel, T.; Zimlichman, R.; Bridgers, D.; Colan, D.; Czekalski, P.; de Jong, D.; Fortinez, J. T.; Garcia Bragado, F.; Harrington, D.; Izbicki, G.; Kadr, H.; Koslow, A.; Loftus, I.; Marais, H.; Neumeister, A.; Oliven, A.; Palla, A.; Pop, C.; Prandoni, P.; Puskas, A.; Sanchez Llamas, F.; Shotan, A.; Shvarts, Y.; Singh, P.; Tveit, A.; Baker, R.; Borja, V.; Brenner, B.; Brown, H.; Ceresetto, J.; Cha, T. J.; Cohen, Y.; D'Angelo, A.; Dhar, A.; Friis, E.; Hueur, H.; Jiménez Rodríguez Madridejos, R.; Karl, J.; Karrasch, J.; Lishner, M.; Manenti, E.; McRae, S.; Meneveau, N.; Nguyen, D.; Sanchez-Escalante, L.; Santoscoy Ibarra, J.; Sokurenko, G.; Staroverov, I.; Stein, R.; Abdullah, I.; Agnelli, G.; Alcocer Gamba, M.; Balanda, J.; Bruckner, I.; Calabuig Alborch, J.; Caraco, Y.; Comerota, A.; Cromer, M.; de Araujo Filho, J.; de los Rios Ibarra, M.; Diaz-Castañon, J.; Doshi, A.; Ebrahim, I.; Fessel, W. J.; Fletcher, E.; Fourie, N.; Fu, C.; Gutowski, P.; Haddad, G.; Hoffman, U.; Jardula, M.; Kvasnicka, T.; Lewczuk, J.; Leyden, M.; Livneh, A.; Lodigiani, C.; Lovell, C.; Miekus, P.; Paloma, M. J.; Parakh, R.; Raval, M.; Schmidt-Lucke, J.; Shtutin, O.; Soroka, V.; Stevens, D.; Sulik, P.; Tay, J. C.; Vejby-Christensen, H.; Vinereanu, D.; Baghestanian, M.; Bono, J.; Cerana, S.; Freire, A.; Gibson, K.; Giumelli, C.; Iastrebner, C.; Karpenko, A.; Kelly, A.; Lacroix, P.; LaFata, J.; Lobo, S.; Macik, B. G.; Marchena Yglesias, P.; Nishinari, K.; Pinjala, R.; Podczeck-Schweighofer, A.; Raby, K.; Sirpal, S.; Solymoss, S.; Spencer, F.; van Zyl, L.; Vargas Núñez, J. A.; von Bilderling, P.; Warr, T.; Wronski, J.; Wurster, M.; Albino, J. A.; Albuquerque, L.; Averill, F.; Baek, S. H.; Bello, F.; Bergoeing, M.; Blanc, F. X.; Bloomberg, R.; Bolster, D.; Brockmyre, A.; Calimano, C.; Checketts, D.; Cieplinski, W.; Chervu, A.; Collado, F.; Denaro, C.; Gaciong, Z.; Game, M.; Iskander, A.; Kaatz, S.; Kim, D. I.; Koura, F.; Laguna, F.; Lanas Zanetti, F.; Lindhoff-Last, E.; Melaniuk, M.; Meade, A.; Murphy, T.; Ng, H. J.; Páramo Fernández, J. A.; Patil, C.; Piovella, F.; Prisco, D.; Pruszczyk, P.; Reimers, G.; Rivera, E.; Rodriguez-Cintron, W.; Rosenthal, S.; Salbach, P.; Salvador, D.; Schuller, D.; Siragusa, S.; Staniszewski, R.; Torp, R.; Vora, K.; Yip, G.; Alfieri, A.; Belaji, V.; Bhagavan, N.; Carnovali, M.; Cobos Segarra, J.; Di Todaro, F.; Dowell, A.; Corder, C.; Crispin, P.; Cuadrado, J.; Flippo, G.; Fraiz, J.; Guillaumon, A.; Gvora, T.; Hakki, S.; Harris, L.; Ison, R.; Htun, P. T.; Jasani, R.; Kates, M.; Kaminski, L.; Kamerkar, D.; Kirienko, A.; Kroger, K.; LaPerna, L.; Leiva, J.; Luber, J.; McCann, A.; McKenzie, W.; Menna Barreto, S.; Moran, J.; Nikulnikov, P.; Paliwal, Y.; Patel, M.; Pilger, E.; Renwick, W.; Shevela, A.; Starosiliz, D.; Stringam, S.; Spyropoulos, A.; To, R.; Updegrove, J.; van Bellen, B.; Waintrub, M.; White, J.; Yeo, E.; Zangroniz, P.; Zeltser, D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Apixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor that can be administered in a simple, fixed-dose regimen, may be an option for the extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind study, we compared two doses of apixaban (2.5 mg and 5 mg, twice daily) with

  4. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  5. Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate cosmological models with extended Chaplygin gas (ECG) as a candidate for dark energy and determine the equation of state parameters using observed data namely, observed Hubble data, baryon acousticoscillation data and cosmic microwave background shift data. Cosmological models are investigated ...

  6. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  7. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  8. Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the

  9. [Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.

  10. Extending the Instructional Systems Development Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colin E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes ways that components of Information Engineering (IE) methodology can be used by training system developers to extend Instructional Systems Development (ISD) methodology. Aspects of IE that are useful in ISD are described, including requirements determination, group facilitation, integrated automated tool support, and prototyping.…

  11. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producers in Kano, Nigeria. Method: A total of 604 consecutive clinical samples obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. (AKTH), Kano between January and July 2010 were ...

  12. Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.

  13. Some Remarks on the Extended Galilean Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Daniel M.

    1979-01-01

    The extended Galilean transformation carries an inertial frame into a rigid frame with uniform spatial, but arbitrary translational acceleration. Besides being useful in discussing the equivalence principle, this transformation provides a physical interpretation for the theorem in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, that we cannot coherently…

  14. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  15. Modeling survival data extending the cox model

    CERN Document Server

    Therneau, Terry M

    2000-01-01

    Extending the Cox Model is aimed at researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who have some exposure to traditional methods of survival analysis The emphasis is on semiparametric methods based on the proportional hazards model The inclusion of examples with SAS and S-PLUS code will make the book accessible to most working statisticians

  16. Impact of Divorce on the Extended Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Esther Oshiver, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 11 articles focusing on psychological, sociological, legal, economic, and clinical aspects of divorce and the extended family. Examines issues including: (1) dynamics of the family kinship system; (2) family life cycle and divorce; (3) kin role in divorce adjustment; and (4) changes in family relationships. (RC)

  17. The inflation sector of extended inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In extended inflation, the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. This paper discusses several effects that might obtain if the universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition.

  18. Extended Learning Time: Research and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelow, Shawn; Holland, Jenifer Gager; Jackson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    In recent years policymakers have increasingly looked to Extended Learning Time (ELT) as a means of improving student outcomes. As a result, some school districts have increased academic time for students by adding time to the school day or days to the school year. In other communities, schools and community-based organizations have partnered to…

  19. Modelling extended lactations of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Koops, W.J.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17

  20. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past few years, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. Several studies in recent years documented the prevalence and occurrence of ESBLproducing ...

  1. Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance to broad spectrum β lactams, mediated by extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESβL) is an increasing problem worldwide. Production of these enzymes in clinical infections can result in treatment failure if one of the second or third generation cephalosporins is used. This study investigates the incidence of ESBL ...

  2. Schedule-extended synchronous dataflow graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damavandpeyma, M.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Corporaal, H.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFGs) are used extensively to model streaming applications. An SDFG can be extended with scheduling decisions, allowing SDFG analysis to obtain properties, such as throughput or buffer sizes for the scheduled graphs. Analysis times depend strongly on the size of the

  3. Short Communication: Production of extended spectrum beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidrug resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli constitute a problem in many hospitals. The antibiotic susceptibility profile and the Production of Extended Spetrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) of the strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were assessed by the Kirby-Bauer technique and ...

  4. Remarks on the extended characteristic uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, D.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2001-03-09

    Three remarks concerning the form and the range of validity of the state-extended characteristic uncertainty relations (URs) are presented. A more general definition of the uncertainty matrix for pure and mixed states is suggested. Some new URs are provided. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  5. Extending the frontiers of employment regulation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UWC

    legislation will be needed in changing the complex of political, social and economic factors by which that inequality ..... workers is prevalent.57 While SD7 does not deal with discrimination, the EEA extends comprehensive ..... Employer indifference or resistance (active or passive) remains the single greatest barrier to more ...

  6. Diagrammar in an extended theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.

    2017-08-01

    We show how the S-matrix of an extended theory of gravity defined by its three-point amplitudes can be constructed by demanding factorisation. The resultant S-matrix has tree amplitudes obeying the same soft singularity theorems as Einstein gravity including the sub-sub-leading terms.

  7. Experimental limits on antigravity in extended supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bellucci, S.; Faraoni, V.

    1995-01-01

    The available tests of the equivalence principle constrain the mass of the Higgs-like boson appearing in extended supergravity theories. We determine the constraints imposed by the present and future high precision experiments on the antigravity fields arising from $N=2,8$ supergravity.

  8. SENSITIVITY OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM β - LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    INTRODUCTION. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are plasmid mediated enzymes that confer resistance to bacterial pathogens. The enzymes pose threat to current β- .... Brick-red precipitates at the bottom of the test tubes would denote the presence of reducing sugars in accordance with Brain and. Turner (1975).

  9. Venus: No Breaks from an Extended Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. B.; Kankanamge, D. G. J.

    2017-05-01

    High surface temperatures lead to lower heat flow and lower stress as planets transition out of the heat-pipe mode into subsolidus convection. This causes Venus to miss the window for plate tectonics due to an extended heat-pipe childhood.

  10. Horizant: gabapentin enacarbil extended-release tablets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    ... enacarbil extended-release tablets for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RLS in adults. Gabapentin enacarbil is not recommended for patients required to sleep during the daytime and remain awake at night. Efficacy. Gabapentin enacarbil efficacy was established in two 12-week clinical studies in adults diagnosed with RLS using the International Restless ...

  11. The extended arm of health professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    responsibility for both the patient's well-being and for the patient's compliance with the daily regimen. Relatives were caught in a conflicting double role. They were the extended arm of the health professionals but also the caring, supporting partner. A tension arose between relatives' desire to help...

  12. 75 FR 61165 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  13. 76 FR 38407 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  14. 77 FR 5262 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement (DE) mortgagees...

  15. 76 FR 53148 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  16. Could the Extended Phenotype Extend to the Cellular and Subcellular Levels in Insect-Induced Galls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Gonçalves da Silva Carneiro

    Full Text Available Neo-ontogenesis of plant galls involves redifferentiation of host plant tissues to express new phenotypes, when new cell properties are established via structural-functional remodeling. Herein, Psidium cattleianum leaves and Nothotrioza cattleiani galls are analyzed by developmental anatomy, cytometry and immunocytochemistry of cell walls. We address hypothesis-driven questions concerning the organogenesis of globoid galls in the association of P. cattleianum-N. cattleianum, and P. myrtoides-N. myrtoidis. These double co-generic systems represent good models for comparing final gall shapes and cell lineages functionalities under the perspective of convergent plant-dependent or divergent insect-induced characteristics. Gall induction, and growth and development are similar in both galls, but homologous cell lineages exhibit divergent degrees of cell hypertrophy and directions of elongation. Median cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls hypertrophy the most, while in P. myrtoides galls there is a centrifugal gradient of cell hypertrophy. Cortical cells in P. cattleianum galls tend to anisotropy, while P. myrtoidis galls have isotropically hypertrophied cells. Immunocytochemistry evidences the chemical identity and functional traits of cell lineages: epidermal cells walls have homogalacturonans (HGAs and galactans, which confer rigidity to sites of enhanced cell division; oil gland cell walls have arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs that help avoiding cell death; and parenchyma cell walls have HGAs, galactans and arabinans, which confer porosity. Variations in such chemical identities are related to specific sites of hypertrophy. Even though the double co-generic models have the same macroscopic phenotype, the globoid morphotype, current analyses indicate that the extended phenotype of N. cattleiani is substantiated by cellular and subcellular specificities.

  17. Direct or indirect - that is the question!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Time has passed since the prevention of caries was performed by extending cavity preparations wide in the tooth and below the gingiva. In the same period adhesive techniques have improved and nowadays made it possible to extend the indications for direct composite resin restorations, also when...... or crown is made. Factors as remaining tooth structure, endodontic treatment, number of teeth, caries risk, para-functional habits, material properties, economy etc. will all have an influence, when the dentist guides the patient to choose the best solution. What is best for the tooth – direct or indirect...

  18. Radial Equilibrium of Extended Object in a Circular Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Korovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades the problems in mechanics of orbital motion and equilibrium of extended objects draw attention of domestic and foreign experts because of their interest in such projects as the space tether systems and space elevators.The article deals with the nonlinear equations of equilibrium one-dimensional objects in a central gravitational field in a circular orbit. It considers transition from the material point to the objects in the form of dumbbells, a homogeneous rod, and a type of garland. It is shown that the motion of the mass center of these objects is non-Keplerian. In some cases the analytical expressions of the angular velocity of the center of mass are obtained.A point of the object extended in the radial direction, called the orbital center, has a Keplerian angular velocity. The orbital center is characterized by a zero gravity and a maximum of the tension force. The orbital center is always below the center of mass.The gravitation-centrifugal forces provide stretching the extended object in orbit. The analytic expressions for the tension force in typical cases have been received, and their properties have been analyzed. The article shows the nature and acceleration value in the sections of the radially extended objects of acceleration that is determined by difference between gravitational and centrifugal forces.The article offers to consider a gravitation-centrifugal load, which acts on the extended object, as the self-balanced system of forces of the apparent weight with the variable apparent acceleration along a radius. This gives a simple general formula for determining the tensile force in the cross sections of the radially oriented one-dimensional objects.The calculation of the simplest space elevator has been fulfilled. Provided that there is a lack of compressive stresses, have been determined the minimum length of an elevator as a homogeneous rod, distribution of the tensile force by length, and requirements for

  19. Thermodynamic Products in the Extended Phase Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the thermodynamic properties of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole, charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence and charged AdS BH in $f(R)$ gravity in the extended phase-space. Where the cosmological constant should be treated as thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate parameter as thermodynamic volume. Then they should behave as a analog of Van der Waal like systems. In the extended phase space we have calculated the \\emph{entropy product} and \\emph{thermodynamic volume product} of all horizons. The mass(or enthalpy) independent nature of the said products signals they are "universal" quantities. Various types of pictorial diagram of the specific heat is given. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second order phase transition occurs under certain condition.

  20. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Richman, S. Ethier, and N. Pomphrey

    2008-01-22

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  1. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: dombriz@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results.

  2. Does string theory lead to extended inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-05-01

    We consider the relationship between string theory and currently proposed models of extended inflation. In doing so, we discuss the conformal actions in string theory and in Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. We show explicitly the equivalence of pictures in which either gauge or gravitational couplings are changing with time. We demonstrate that the existence of the dilation in string theory does not naturally lead to extended inflation as currently discussed. We also discuss the resolution of the graceful exit problem of old inflation in Einstein gravity using either power-law inflation, or exponential inflation with a changing bubble formation rate. On leave of absence from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

  3. Application of electron closures in extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Eric; Adair, Brett; Taylor, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    Rigorous closure of the extended MHD equations in plasma fluid codes includes the effects of electron heat conduction along perturbed magnetic fields and contributions of the electron collisional friction and stress to the extended Ohms law. In this work we discuss application of a continuum numerical solution to the Chapman-Enskog-like electron drift kinetic equation using the NIMROD code. The implementation is a tightly-coupled fluid/kinetic system that carefully addresses time-centering in the advance of the fluid variables with their kinetically-computed closures. Comparisons of spatial accuracy, computational efficiency and required velocity space resolution are presented for applications involving growing magnetic islands in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. The reduction in parallel heat conduction due to particle trapping in toroidal geometry is emphasized. Work supported by DOE under Grant Nos. DE-FC02-08ER54973 and DE-FG02-04ER54746.

  4. Extending applicability of bimetric theory: chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-01

    This article extends bimetric formulations of massive gravity to make the mass of the graviton to depend on its environment. This minimal extension offers a novel way to reconcile massive gravity with local tests of general relativity without invoking the Vainshtein mechanism. On cosmological scales, it is argued that the model is stable and that it circumvents the Higuchi bound, hence relaxing the constraints on the parameter space. Moreover, with this extension the strong coupling scale is also environmentally dependent in such a way that it is kept sufficiently higher than the expansion rate all the way up to the very early universe, while the present graviton mass is low enough to be phenomenologically interesting. In this sense the extended bigravity theory serves as a partial UV completion of the standard bigravity theory. This extension is very generic and robust and a simple specific example is described.

  5. Extended range interferometry based on wavefront shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczupak, M. L.; Salbut, L.

    2007-09-01

    There are many cases when absolute measurements of objects with large height differences or height discontinuity is needed. These measurements can not be covered by classical interferometry since the range of non-ambiguity is limited to half the optical wavelength. Several techniques have been already developed for extending of non-ambiguity range. However most of them is based on multi-wavelength methods which demands expensive light sources and special environment conditions. In this work the new interferometric technique for absolute measurements of large steps discontinuities is proposed. Variable wavefront of the illuminating beam and special procedure for calibration of the measurement volume are used for extending of the measurement range without using multispectral sources. Additionally, calibration of the measurement area simplifies fringe processing and quicken measures. Theoretical analysis of this technique, its numerical simulations and experimental verification are presented and discussed.

  6. Extended diagnostic criteria used for indirect challenge testing in elite asthmatic swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma with or without exercise induced symptoms among elite and elite aspiring swimmers and to compare sport specific exercise provocation with mannitol provocation. 101 adolescent swimmers were investigated with mannitol provocation and sport specific exercise challenge test. Mannitol positivity was defined as either direct FEV(1) PD15 (ordinary criteria) or as β(2)-reversibility ≥15% after challenge (extended criteria). A direct positive exercise test was defined as a drop in FEV(1) of 10% (ordinary criteria) or a difference in FEV of ≥15% either spontaneous, variability, or with β2-agonist, reversibility (extended criteria). We found a high prevalence of mannitol and/or exercise positivity. Twenty-six swimmers were mannitol direct positive and 14 were direct exercise positive using ordinary criteria. Using extended criteria 43 were mannitol positive and 24 were exercise positive. When including reversibility and variability to define a positive test the sensitivity for current asthma with or without exercise induced symptoms increased while the specificity remained roughly unchanged. Direct positivity for mannitol and exercise poorly overlapped using ordinary criteria but improved using extended criteria. We found a high prevalence of asthma among elite swimmers. The use of variability and reversibility (liability) as additional criteria to define a positive test provided to our mind relevant information and should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  8. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  9. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  10. Interacting Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) model on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtain...

  11. The renewable tradition (extended play remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Amerika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a network of appropriation artists, process philosophers, performance poets, pla(ygiarists, and other remix provocateurs, this experimental artist essay investigates the act of remixologically inhabiting the body language of others and, in the process, devises an aesthetic theory that situates the contemporary artist as a "postproduction medium" whose methodologies further extend avant-garde practice into the 21st century.

  12. Extending DUNE: The dune-xt modules

    OpenAIRE

    Leibner, Tobias; Milk, René; Schindler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We present our effort to extend and complement the core modules of the Distributed and Unified Numerics Environment DUNE (http://dune-project.org) by a well tested and structured collection of utilities and concepts. We describe key elements of our four modules dune-xt-common, dune-xt-grid, dune-xt-la and dune-xt-functions, which aim at further enabling the programming of generic algorithms within DUNE as well as adding an extra layer of usability and convenience.

  13. FRW Cosmology with the Extended Chaplygin Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pourhassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose extended Chaplygin gas equation of state for which it recovers barotropic fluid with quadratic equation of state. We use numerical method to investigate the behavior of some cosmological parameters such as scale factor, Hubble expansion parameter, energy density, and deceleration parameter. We also discuss the resulting effective equation of state parameter. Using density perturbations we investigate the stability of the theory.

  14. Socially extended intentions-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    . Tollefsen’s account is specifically constructed to account for the joint activities of infants and toddlers who lack the capacity to think of others as planning agents and grasp their plan-like intentions (a capacity required by Michael Bratman’s (1992, 1993, 2009a, 2009b) influential account of joint...... activity). At the end of the paper, I raise some doubts regarding the extent to which infants and toddlers have socially extended intentions-in-action....

  15. Fusion Rules for Extended Current Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Baver, Ernest; Gepner, Doron

    1996-01-01

    The initial classification of fusion rules have shown that rational conformal field theory is very limited. In this paper we study the fusion rules of extend ed current algebras. Explicit formulas are given for the S matrix and the fusion rules, based on the full splitting of the fixed point fields. We find that in s ome cases sensible fusion rules are obtained, while in others this procedure lea ds to fractional fusion constants.

  16. Thermodynamic volume and the extended Smarr relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-04-01

    We continue to explore the scaling transformation in the reduced action formalism of gravity models. As an extension of our construction, we consider the extended forms of the Smarr relation for various black holes, adopting the cosmological constant as the bulk pressure as in some literatures on black holes. Firstly, by using the quasi-local formalism for charges, we show that, in a general theory of gravity, the volume in the black hole thermodynamics could be defined as the thermodynamic conjugate variable to the bulk pressure in such a way that the first law can be extended consistently. This, so called, thermodynamic volume can be expressed explicitly in terms of the metric and field variables. Then, by using the scaling transformation allowed in the reduced action formulation, we obtain the extended Smarr relation involving the bulk pressure and the thermodynamic volume. In our approach, we do not resort to Euler's homogeneous scaling of charges while incorporating the would-be hairy contribution without any difficulty.

  17. A GPU-accelerated extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Bormin

    2011-11-01

    The extended Kalman filter is one of the most widely used techniques for state estimation of nonlinear systems. In its two steps of forecast and data assimilation, many matrix operations including multiplication and inversion are involved. As recent graphic processor units (GPU) have shown to provide much speedup in matrix operations, we will explore in this work a GPU-based implementation of the extended Kalman filter. The Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) on the Nvidia GeForce GTX 590 GPU hardware will be used for comparison with a single threaded CPU counterpart. Experiments were conducted on typical large-scale over-determined systems with thousands of components in states and measurements. Within the GPU memory limit, a speedup of 1386x is achieved for a system with measurements having 5000 components and states having 3750 components. The speedup profile for various combinations of measurement and state sizes will serve as good reference for future implementation of extended Kalman filter on real large-scale applications.

  18. Why an extended evolutionary synthesis is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerd B

    2017-10-06

    Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process. A renewed and extended theoretical synthesis, advocated by several authors in this issue, aims to unite pertinent concepts that emerge from the novel fields with elements of the standard theory. The resulting theoretical framework differs from the latter in its core logic and predictive capacities. Whereas the MS theory and its various amendments concentrate on genetic and adaptive variation in populations, the extended framework emphasizes the role of constructive processes, ecological interactions and systems dynamics in the evolution of organismal complexity as well as its social and cultural conditions. Single-level and unilinear causation is replaced by multilevel and reciprocal causation. Among other consequences, the extended framework overcomes many of the limitations of traditional gene-centric explanation and entails a revised understanding of the role of natural selection in the evolutionary process. All these features stimulate research into new areas of evolutionary biology.

  19. Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.

  20. Extended Self Similarity in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2005-12-01

    The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of MHD turbulence over extended temporal scales. A hallmark of turbulence is scaling- and scaling in the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of fluctuations in certain solar wind in- situ bulk plasma parameters has been established from WIND and ACE observations on `short' timescales up to a few hours. On longer timescales there is a crossover in scaling to uncorrelated behaviour. The intermittency of the system is expressed in these parameters through the non-Gaussian nature of the fluctuations PDF up to this timescale. Here we apply a generic approach to turbulence- that of Extended Self Similarity (ESS)- to the analysis of solar wind observations. We find that ESS can extend the range of scaling and for some parameters reveals two distinct scaling regions for the `short' and long timescales, whereas for others, a single scaling encompasses the behaviour over the full range of timescales. That certain parameters, and conditions, can be distinguished via ESS may provide physical insight into the turbulent solar wind.

  1. Chemotaxis : insights from the extending pseudopod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Haastert, Peter J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemotaxis is one of the most fascinating processes in cell biology. Shallow gradients of chemoattractant direct the movement of cells, and an intricate network of signalling pathways somehow instructs the movement apparatus to induce pseudopods in the direction of these gradients. Exciting new

  2. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  3. Simulation of bulk aerosol direct radiative effects and its climatic feedbacks in South Africa using RegCM4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, M.; Botai, J.; Sivakumar, V.; Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Rautenbach, C. J. deW.; Moja, Shadung J.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, 12 year runs of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) have been used to analyze the bulk aerosol radiative effects and its climatic feedbacks in South Africa. Due to the geographical locations where the aerosol potential source regions are situated and the regional dynamics, the South African aerosol spatial-distribution has a unique feature. Across the west and southwest areas, desert dust particles are dominant. However, sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are primarily distributed over the east and northern regions of the country. Analysis of the Radiative Effects (RE) shows that in South Africa the bulk aerosols play a role in reducing the net radiation absorbed by the surface via enhancing the net radiative heating in the atmosphere. Hence, across all seasons, the bulk aerosol-radiation-climate interaction induced statistically significant positive feedback on the net atmospheric heating rate. Over the western and central parts of South Africa, the overall radiative feedbacks of bulk aerosol predominantly induces statistically significant Cloud Cover (CC) enhancements. Whereas, over the east and southeast coastal areas, it induces minimum reductions in CC. The CC enhancement and RE of aerosols jointly induce radiative cooling at the surface which in turn results in the reduction of Surface Temperature (ST: up to -1 K) and Surface Sensible Heat Flux (SSHF: up to -24 W/m2). The ST and SSHF decreases cause a weakening of the convectively driven turbulences and surface buoyancy fluxes which lead to the reduction of the boundary layer height, surface pressure enhancement and dynamical changes. Throughout the year, the maximum values of direct and semi-direct effects of bulk aerosol were found in areas of South Africa which are dominated by desert dust particles. This signals the need for a strategic regional plan on how to reduce the dust production and monitoring of the dust dispersion as well as it initiate the need of further research on different

  4. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  5. The effects of fishing extend well beyond the direct impact on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in the structure of fish communities have been docu- mented for several heavily exploited fisheries. Fogarty and Murawski (1998) reported changes in the com- munity structure of Georges Bank, where the com- munity is seemingly dominated by skates and dogfish following a substantial reduction in the biomass of.

  6. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    contro’ s ide- wal IIProf ilIes du ring prcc ess. mg by u:: nd etchant gas/monomer em’ixtu res i r radiated with an excimer laser. In thelir initial wrk...Federico Capasso and Malvin C. Teich p 5-" .5 5 m w 4 %S N I , - Reprinted from PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS Vol. 57, No. 12, 22 September 1986 ’- ~~1417...Electron Feedback Federico Capasso A T& T Bell Laboratories. Murray Hill. Nem Jersev O 79 74 and Malvin C. Teich Columhbia Raiaution Laboratori

  7. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-31

    in the semiconductor at a distance x from the surface, E is the dielectric constant of the semiconductor, and (x) = q(nno - Pno + Pn - n ) (4) is the... acid (HF). The samples were dried in N2 gas, and oxidized in dry 02 at 12000C in the presence of hydrogen chloride (HCl). High-tempera- 22ture (1200°C...hydrogen containing molecules. We are currently studying the vibrational relaxation of SO 2over the temperature range 210 K to 500 K. Sulphur dioxide has

  8. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    1818 (1975). (14) D.R. Hardin, K.B. Woodall and R~. Grice , Mol. Phys. 26, 1057 (1973). (15) W.S. Struve, T. Kitigawa and D.R. Herschbach, J. Chem...cross sections until the maxima are reached. Because 4Tra n is 0the quantum mechanical result for a hard-sphere collisional cross section, the...intermediate n range, Li cross sections reach their maximum values slightly lower than Na by a difference of 1 to 3 in n; Li’s maxima are - . smaller

  9. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    Brennan, T. Wang, and K. Hess , IEEE Elec. Device Lett. 6, 199 (1985). 8 R. Ludeke, D. Straub, F. J. Himpsel and G. Landgren, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A...800 North Qui~nc% Scrett Dr. Rudolf C. Buser galling Al. X :033: Am : Code .11I1A Night ’.Lsion & Electro-Optics Arrln tton. VA Dbs r. J. Neff ATT-N

  10. Research Investigation Directed Toward Extending the Useful Range of the Electromagnetic Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-31

    acetonitrile (CH3CN) in Ar, has a simple LIF spectrum which can be probed by the fundamental of the BBQ dye at 387nm. This experiment will be done in...and triplet sensitization experiments to evaluate the rates of singlet-triplet interconversion of DPM in acetonitrile at ambient temperature. From these...have chosen to study the mixed solvent system butanol /hexadecane because of their similar viscosities 3.0 and 3.3 cp at 200C, respectively. The

  11. Extending TOPS: Ontology-driven Anomaly Detection and Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Michaelis, A.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include a capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. We can query the knowledge base and answer questions about dataset compatibilities, similarities and dependencies so that we can, for example, automatically analyze similar datasets in order to verify a given anomaly occurrence in multiple data sources. We are further extending the system to go beyond anomaly detection towards reasoning about possible causes of anomalies that are also encoded in the knowledge base as either learned or implied knowledge. This enables us to scale up the analysis by eliminating a large number of anomalies early on during the processing by either failure to verify them from other sources, or matching them directly with other observable events without having to perform an extensive and time-consuming exploration and analysis. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. The information is stored using Sesame server and is accessible through both Java API and web services using SeRQL and SPARQL query languages. Inference is provided using OWLIM component integrated with Sesame.

  12. Evolutionary biology today and the call for an extended synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futuyma, Douglas J

    2017-10-06

    Evolutionary theory has been extended almost continually since the evolutionary synthesis (ES), but except for the much greater importance afforded genetic drift, the principal tenets of the ES have been strongly supported. Adaptations are attributable to the sorting of genetic variation by natural selection, which remains the only known cause of increase in fitness. Mutations are not adaptively directed, but as principal authors of the ES recognized, the material (structural) bases of biochemistry and development affect the variety of phenotypic variations that arise by mutation and recombination. Against this historical background, I analyse major propositions in the movement for an 'extended evolutionary synthesis'. 'Niche construction' is a new label for a wide variety of well-known phenomena, many of which have been extensively studied, but (as with every topic in evolutionary biology) some aspects may have been understudied. There is no reason to consider it a neglected 'process' of evolution. The proposition that phenotypic plasticity may engender new adaptive phenotypes that are later genetically assimilated or accommodated is theoretically plausible; it may be most likely when the new phenotype is not truly novel, but is instead a slight extension of a reaction norm already shaped by natural selection in similar environments. However, evolution in new environments often compensates for maladaptive plastic phenotypic responses. The union of population genetic theory with mechanistic understanding of developmental processes enables more complete understanding by joining ultimate and proximate causation; but the latter does not replace or invalidate the former. Newly discovered molecular phenomena have been easily accommodated in the past by elaborating orthodox evolutionary theory, and it appears that the same holds today for phenomena such as epigenetic inheritance. In several of these areas, empirical evidence is needed to evaluate enthusiastic speculation

  13. DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bláha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available UAV systems have become an attractive data acquisition platform in emerging applications. As measuring instrument they extend the lineup of possible surveying methods in the field of geomatics. However, most of UAVs are equipped with low-cost navigation sensors such as GPS or INS, allowing a positioning accuracy of 3 to 5 m. As a result the acquired position- and orientation data fea- tures a low accuracy which implicates that it cannot be used in applications that require high precision data on cm-level (e.g. direct georeferencing. In this paper we will analyze the potential of differential post-processing of GPS data from UAV in order to im- prove the positioning accuracy for applications basing on direct georeferencing. Subsequently, the obtained results are compared and verified with a track of the octocopter carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GPS data acquisition. The results show that the differential post-processing essentially improved the accuracy of the Falcon position data. Thereby the average offset be- tween the data sets (GPS data, track and the corresponding standard deviation is 0.82 m and 0.45 m, respectively. However, under ideal conditions it is even possible to improve this positioning accuracy to the cm-range. Furthermore, there are still several sources of error such as the offset between the GPS antenna of the Falcon 8 and the prism which is used for the track. Considering this fact there is further room for improvement regarding the here discussed positioning method.

  14. Radar correlated imaging for extended target by the combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tingting; Wang, Lianlian; Lu, Guanghua

    2017-07-01

    Radar correlated imaging (RCI) introduces the optical correlated imaging technology to traditional microwave imaging, which has raised widespread concern recently. Conventional RCI methods neglect the structural information of complex extended target, which makes the quality of recovery result not really perfect, thus a novel combination of negative exponential restraint and total variation (NER-TV) algorithm for extended target imaging is proposed in this paper. The sparsity is measured by a sequential order one negative exponential function, then the 2D total variation technique is introduced to design a novel optimization problem for extended target imaging. And the proven alternating direction method of multipliers is applied to solve the new problem. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm could realize high resolution imaging efficiently for extended target.

  15. Ergonomics--future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caple, David C

    2007-12-01

    The International Ergonomics Association plays a leadership role in shaping the future of ergonomics. Having formed nearly 50 years ago for researchers to meet and exchange their findings, it still provides a wide range of opportunities for promoting research and teaching. In 2006, the IEA is also an outward looking organisation with linkages to governments, international agencies and other professional associations. We have many opportunities to extend our engagement with industry and the community through the IEA communication strategy and Technical Committees. Whilst the IEA now has 20 Technical Committees that demonstrate the diversity of ergonomics research there is a growing trend towards integration of specialist areas. The emergence of a holistic approach to research and application of ergonomics is making a new direction for the ergonomics profession. Apart from the role of a technical specialist, the Ergonomist is also a team member with a range of other stakeholders. To be effective in practice, the Ergonomist needs to be a good communicator and "agent of change" who can mentor others to develop simple cost effective interventions. Research is fundamental to the science of ergonomics. Evaluation of interventions remains a major component of future ergonomics research. Sustainable positive outcomes based on a holistic approach will result in a broad uptake of ergonomics findings. In industry future challenges relating to psychological health in developed countries and the informal sector in developing countries are emerging as new areas for research and application of ergonomics.

  16. Predicting extended wear complications from overnight corneal swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A D; Fusaro, R E; Polse, K A; Lin, M C; Giasson, C J

    2001-12-01

    To examine the hypothesis that the corneal overnight swelling response (ONSR) is a predictor of ocular complications in contact lens extended wear (EW). The Berkeley Contact Lens Extended Wear Study (CLEWS) was a randomized, concurrently controlled clinical trial in which more than 200 subjects in EW with rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses were observed for 1 year. After adapting to EW, subjects were randomized to either medium or high oxygen-permeable (Dk) RGP lenses and underwent clinical assessments, keratometry, and corneal pachometry at 3-month intervals. The ONSR was directly related to lens Dk (P = 0.01) and exhibited substantial variability across subjects. The probability of remaining free of complications over time was not significantly lower for subjects with a mild ONSR compared with those with greater edema (P = 0.84). The risk of development of keratopathy was not significantly related to the ONSR (relative risk = 1.00). The corneal ONSR is not a good predictor of ocular complications in 1 year of RGP EW. Lenses that cause little or no corneal edema are not necessarily safer for overnight wear.

  17. Corneal response to different oxygen levels during extended wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, R K; Polse, K A

    1991-04-01

    In this study we explored the relationship between hypoxic exposure level and corneal response by assuming that the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) under a contact lens during eye closure is directly related to oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L). To study this relationship, we monitored a group of subjects who wore RGP lenses of various Dk/L values on an extended wear basis. The results revealed that as Dk/L increases, there is a substantial decrease in overnight corneal edema and epithelial microcysts. However, other responses seemingly related to purely mechanical properties (e.g., lens adherence, corneal topographical changes, and 3-9 limbal superficial punctate keratitis) appear to be independent of Dk/L. Results also suggest that sufficient PO2 levels under a contact lens can minimize endothelial morphological changes associated with hypoxia. We conclude that metabolically driven complications accompanying RGP extended wear can be substantially eliminated with lenses having Dk/L values of 80 x 10(-9) (cm x mL O2)/(sec x mL x mm Hg) or greater.

  18. Extended spectrum SWIR camera with user-accessible Dewar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benapfl, Brendan; Miller, John Lester; Vemuri, Hari; Grein, Christoph; Sivananthan, Siva

    2017-02-01

    Episensors has developed a series of extended short wavelength infrared (eSWIR) cameras based on high-Cd concentration Hg1-xCdxTe absorbers. The cameras have a bandpass extending to 3 microns cutoff wavelength, opening new applications relative to traditional InGaAs-based cameras. Applications and uses are discussed and examples given. A liquid nitrogen pour-filled version was initially developed. This was followed by a compact Stirling-cooled version with detectors operating at 200 K. Each camera has unique sensitivity and performance characteristics. The cameras' size, weight and power specifications are presented along with images captured with band pass filters and eSWIR sources to demonstrate spectral response beyond 1.7 microns. The soft seal Dewars of the cameras are designed for accessibility, and can be opened and modified in a standard laboratory environment. This modular approach allows user flexibility for swapping internal components such as cold filters and cold stops. The core electronics of the Stirlingcooled camera are based on a single commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) that also performs on-board non-uniformity corrections, bad pixel replacement, and directly drives any standard HDMI display.

  19. Penrose junction conditions extended: Impulsive waves with gyratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolský, J.; Švarc, R.; Steinbauer, R.; Sämann, C.

    2017-09-01

    We generalize the classical junction conditions for constructing impulsive gravitational waves by the Penrose "cut and paste" method. Specifically, we study nonexpanding impulses which propagate in spaces of constant curvature with any value of the cosmological constant (that is, Minkowski, de Sitter, or anti-de Sitter universes) when additional off-diagonal metric components are present. Such components encode a possible angular momentum of the ultrarelativistic source of the impulsive wave—the so-called gyraton. We explicitly derive and analyze a specific transformation that relates the distributional form of the metric to a new form which is (Lipschitz) continuous. Such a transformation automatically implies an extended version of the Penrose junction conditions. It turns out that the conditions for identifying points of the background spacetime across the impulse are the same as in the original Penrose cut and paste construction, but their derivatives now directly represent the influence of the gyraton on the axial motion of test particles. Our results apply both for vacuum and nonvacuum solutions of Einstein's field equations and can also be extended to other theories of gravity.

  20. Aqueous Self-Sorting in Extended Supramolecular Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization and self-sorting processes are responsible for the regulation and control of the vast majority of biological processes that eventually sustain life on our planet. Attempts to unveil the complexity of these systems have been devoted to the investigation of the binding processes between artificial molecules, complexes or aggregates within multicomponent mixtures, which has facilitated the emergence of the field of self-sorting in the last decade. Since, artificial systems involving discrete supramolecular structures, extended supramolecular aggregates or gel-phase materials in organic solvents or—to a lesser extent—in water have been investigated. In this review, we have collected diverse strategies employed in recent years to construct extended supramolecular aggregates in water upon self-sorting of small synthetic molecules. We have made particular emphasis on co-assembly processes in binary mixtures leading to supramolecular structures of remarkable complexity and the influence of different external variables such as solvent and concentration to direct recognition or discrimination processes between these species. The comprehension of such recognition phenomena will be crucial for the organization and evolution of complex matter.

  1. 20 CFR 336.15 - How to claim extended benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How to claim extended benefits. 336.15 Section 336.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.15 How to claim extended...

  2. 20 CFR 336.14 - Extended benefit period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extended benefit period. 336.14 Section 336.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.14 Extended benefit period...

  3. Comparison of different extenders and storage temperature on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen was pooled and randomly allocated to four groups and diluted at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), Kobidil+, egg yolk citrate (EYC) and non-extended semen (Control). Each extender had two similar semen samples, making a total of eight samples. Extended and non-extended semen were ...

  4. Extended dynamic spin-fluctuation theory of metallic magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, N B; Reser, B I; Grebennikov, V I

    2011-07-13

    A dynamic spin-fluctuation theory that directly takes into account nonlocality of thermal spin fluctuations and their mode-mode interactions is developed. The Gaussian approximation in the theory is improved by a self-consistent renormalization of the mean field and spin susceptibility due to the third-and fourth-order terms of the free energy, respectively. This eliminates the fictitious first-order phase transition, which is typical for the Gaussian approximation, and yields a proper second-order phase transition. The effect of nonlocal spin correlations is enhanced by taking into account uniform fluctuations in the single-site mean Green function. Explicit computational formulae for basic magnetic characteristics are obtained. The extended theory is applied to the calculation of magnetic properties of Fe-Ni Invar. Almost full agreement with experiment is achieved for the magnetization, Curie temperature, and local and effective magnetic moments.

  5. Extended dynamic spin-fluctuation theory of metallic magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, N B [Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Reser, B I; Grebennikov, V I, E-mail: melnikov@cs.msu.su, E-mail: reser@imp.uran.ru, E-mail: greben@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-13

    A dynamic spin-fluctuation theory that directly takes into account nonlocality of thermal spin fluctuations and their mode-mode interactions is developed. The Gaussian approximation in the theory is improved by a self-consistent renormalization of the mean field and spin susceptibility due to the third- and fourth-order terms of the free energy, respectively. This eliminates the fictitious first-order phase transition, which is typical for the Gaussian approximation, and yields a proper second-order phase transition. The effect of nonlocal spin correlations is enhanced by taking into account uniform fluctuations in the single-site mean Green function. Explicit computational formulae for basic magnetic characteristics are obtained. The extended theory is applied to the calculation of magnetic properties of Fe-Ni Invar. Almost full agreement with experiment is achieved for the magnetization, Curie temperature, and local and effective magnetic moments.

  6. Extended OQL for Object Oriented Parallel Query Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Fountoukis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, an extension to the object query language (OQL for incorporating binary relational expressions is investigated. The extended query language is suitable for query submissions to an object oriented database, whose functionality is based upon the algebra of binary relations. Algebraic expressions, consisting of simple and multiple merged chains of binary relations, are stated in SQL syntax-based object queries, which are utilized by a multiwavefront algorithm mapped on a multi-directional multi-functional engine(M2FE, for object oriented parallel query processing. The proposed extension also attempts to solve other object oriented database issues, such as inheritance, relationships between objects and literals, and recursive queries.

  7. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  8. Extended hamiltonian formalism and Lorentz-violating lagrangians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colladay, Don

    2017-09-01

    A new perspective on the classical mechanical formulation of particle trajectories in Lorentz-violating theories is presented. Using the extended hamiltonian formalism, a Legendre Transformation between the associated covariant lagrangian and hamiltonian varieties is constructed. This approach enables calculation of trajectories using Hamilton's equations in momentum space and the Euler-Lagrange equations in velocity space away from certain singular points that arise in the theory. Singular points are naturally de-singularized by requiring the trajectories to be smooth functions of both velocity and momentum variables. In addition, it is possible to identify specific sheets of the dispersion relations that correspond to specific solutions for the lagrangian. Examples corresponding to bipartite Finsler functions are computed in detail. A direct connection between the lagrangians and the field-theoretic solutions to the Dirac equation is also established for a special case.

  9. Extended abstracts Fall 2012 automorphisms of free groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lustig, Martin; Ventura, Enric

    2014-01-01

    This volume features seventeen extended conference abstracts corresponding to selected talks given by participants at the CRM research program “Automorphisms of Free Groups: Algorithms, Geometry and Dynamics”, which took place at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica in Barcelona in fall 2012. Most of them are short articles giving preliminary presentations of new results not yet published in regular research journals. The articles are the result from a direct collaboration among active researchers in the area after working in a dynamic and productive atmosphere. The book is intended for established researchers in the area of Group Theory, as well as for PhD and postdoc students who wish to learn more about the latest advances in this active area of research.

  10. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-09-25

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  11. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Brezina, M [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Falgout, R [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Manteuffel, T [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); McCormick, S [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Ruge, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Sheehan, B [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Xu, J [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Zikatanov, L [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  12. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  13. Extended Carbon Cognition as a Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2011-01-01

    . As a result of this analysis carbon accounting emerges as enabled through an extended system of cognition. The paper concludes by tentatively suggesting a view on this machinery as co-constituting a wider -- to borrow Guattari's term -- Universe: A Universe of references to carbon. Following these relations...... of thinking allows to question the conceptualisa- tions of the actors involved and how their practical interactions render carbon, nature and our society (un)sustainable. This, I hope, provides a chance to better conceptualise individuals, their social and material contexts, and through that, corresponding...

  14. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...... generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM....

  15. Extended solutions for the biadjoint scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Pieter-Jan; White, Chris D.

    2017-12-01

    Biadjoint scalar field theories are increasingly important in the study of scattering amplitudes in various string and field theories. Recently, some first exact nonperturbative solutions of biadjoint scalar theory were presented, with a pure power-like form corresponding to isolated monopole-like objects located at the origin of space. In this paper, we find a novel family of extended solutions, involving non-trivial form factors that partially screen the divergent field at the origin. All previous solutions emerge as special cases.

  16. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  17. An extended Farm Site Development Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Hanekom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient and ineffective use of arable land in South Africa is one of the numerous challenges within its agricultural sector. Previous research has indicated that a method, the Farm Site Development Method (FSDM, could increase the effective and efficient use of arable land by providing a roadmap to the farm owner for incrementally transforming the current state facilities and resources of a farm towards a future saturation state. The FSDM was then demonstrated at a crop-producing farm and several opportunities existed to extend its utility. Here we suggest its extension for application to a livestock farm, and also include optimisation techniques, demand planning and financial planning.

  18. Extending matchgates into universal quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brod, Daniel J.; Galvao, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, 24210-340 (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Matchgates are a family of two-qubit gates associated with noninteracting fermions. They are classically simulatable if acting only on nearest neighbors but become universal for quantum computation if we relax this restriction or use swap gates [Jozsa and Miyake, Proc. R. Soc. A 464, 3089 (2008)]. We generalize this result by proving that any nonmatchgate parity-preserving unitary is capable of extending the computational power of matchgates into universal quantum computation. We identify the single local invariant of parity-preserving unitaries responsible for this, and discuss related results in the context of fermionic systems.

  19. Nanohybrid vs. fine hybrid composite in extended Class II cavities after six years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krämer, N.; García-Godoy, F.; Reinelt, C.; Feilzer, A.J.; Frankenberger, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In a controlled prospective split-mouth study, clinical behavior of two different resin composites in extended Class II cavities was observed over six years. Methods Thirty patients received 68 direct resin composite restorations (Solobond M + Grandio: n = 36; Syntac + Tetric Ceram: n =

  20. An embedded crack in a constant strain triangle utilizing extended finite element concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper revisits the formulation of the CST element with an embedded discrete crack taking advantage of the direct formulations developed within the framework of the extended finite element method, XFEM. The result is a simple element for modeling cohesive fracture processes in quasi-brittle m...

  1. The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. : I. Emission line ratios and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penston, M. V.; Robinson, A.; Alloin, D.; Appenzeller, I.; Aretxaga, I.; Axon, D. J.; Baribaud, T.; Barthel, P.; Baum, S. A.; Boisson, C.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Clavel, J.; Colina, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Diaz, A.; Dietrich, M.; Durret, F.; Dyson, J. E.; Gondhalekar, P.; van Groningen, E.; Jablonka, P.; Jackson, N.; Kollatschny, W.; Laurikainen, E.; Lawrence, A.; Masegosa, J.; McHardy, I.; Meurs, E. J. A.; Miley, G.; Moles, M.; O'Brien, P.; O'Dea, C.; del Olmo, A.; Pedlar, A.; Perea, J.; Perez, E.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Perry, J.; Pilbratt, G.; Rees, M.; Robson, I.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Schilizzi, R.; Stasińska, G.; Stirpe, G. M.; Tadhunter, C.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Unger, S.; Vila-Vilaro, V.; Vilchez, J.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M. J.; Yates, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the Extended Narrow Line Region (ENLR) of the galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically

  2. Intramuscular extended-release naltrexone: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastfriend, David R

    2011-01-01

    Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol), developed to address poor adherence in addictive disorders, is approved for use in alcohol and opioid-dependence disorders. In alcohol-dependent adults with ≥ 4-day initial abstinence, XR-NTX increased initial and 6-month abstinence. An fMRI study found that XR-NTX attenuated the salience of alcohol visual and olfactory cues in the absence of alcohol, and post hoc analyses demonstrated efficacy even during high cue-exposure holiday periods. Safety and tolerability have generally been good, without adverse hepatic impact or intractable acute pain management. XR-NTX use appears feasible in primary care and public systems, and retrospective claims analyses have found cost savings and decreased intensive service utilization relative to oral agents. In opioid dependence, following detoxification, XR-NTX shows efficacy for maintaining abstinence, improving retention, decreasing craving, and preventing relapse. Trials are also exploring its use for the treatment of stimulant dependence. XR-NTX appears compatible with counseling and self-help attendance. While more research is needed, current findings suggest that a formulation of naltrexone that was sought beginning over three decades ago is fulfilling its promise as an extended-release pharmacotherapeutic. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  4. Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Isosorbide Chain Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javni, Ivan; Bilic, Olivera; Bilic, Nikola; Petrovic, Zoran; Eastwood, Eric; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-12-15

    Isosorbide, a renewable diol derived from starch, was used alone or in combination with butane diol (BD) as the chain extender in two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) with 50 and 70% polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) soft segment concentration (SSC), respectively. In the synthesized TPUs, the hard segment composition was systematically varied in both series following BD/isosorbide molar ratios of 100 : 0; 75 : 25; 50 : 50; 25 : 75, and 0 : 100 to examine in detail the effect of chain extenders on properties of segmented polyurethane elastomers with different morphologies. We found that polyurethanes with 50% SSC were hard elastomers with Shore D hardness of around 50, which is consistent with assumed co-continuous morphology. Polymers with 70% SSC displayed lower Shore A hardness of 74–79 (Shore D around 25) as a result of globular hard domains dispersed in the soft matrix. Insertion of isosorbide increased rigidity, melting point and glass transition temperature of hard segments and tensile strength of elastomers with 50% SSC. These effects were weaker or non-existent in 70% SSC series due to the short hard segments and low content of isosorbide. We also found that the thermal stability was lowered by increasing isosorbide content in both series.

  5. Extending the viability of sea urchin gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, M A; Oppenheimer, S B

    1995-04-01

    The sea urchin is the material of choice for studying many early developmental events. Methods to extend the viability of sea urchin gametes have not received much attention, but it is well known that the eggs are easily damaged by freezing. This study was designed to extend the viability of Lytechinus pictus eggs and sperm without freezing. Gamete viability measurements were based on relative numbers of fertilized vs unfertilized eggs, percentage fertilization, and on observations of embryonic development. Results indicate that gametes can be stored longer and at lower temperatures than previously described. Sperm were consistently kept viable for at least 12 days with little decrease in viability when stored in glass test tubes or plastic petri dishes and submerged in ice inside a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. In one experiment, sperm stored in glass test tubes on ice remained viable up to 20 days after extraction. Eggs were maintained from 1 to 7 days, rather than the 1 day or so previously reported, when stored in glass test tubes submerged in ice in a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. Results of egg and sperm experiments varied at different times in the season. Such variations may be caused by seasonal cytoplasmic changes, population differences, or the time mature individuals were maintained unfed in aquaria prior to use. Results from this study should be useful for a variety of research, mariculture, and teaching applications in which sea urchin supplies are limited or when the same gamete population is required for subsequent experiments.

  6. Extended kinetic theory applied to snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Fellin, Wolfgang; Kofler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In this work we apply the extended kinetic theory, a three-dimensional rheological model for rapid granular flows, to the two-dimensional, depth-averaged shallow water framework, used in snow avalanche simulations. Usually, empirical relations are used to determine the basal friction, which represents the material behavior in the avalanche. Here we present an energy equivalent basal friction relation which accounts for energy dissipating processes in the avalanche body as predicted by the extended kinetic theory. The obtained relation is compared to traditional basal friction relations, e.g. the Voellmy model by conducting numerical simulations with both approaches. As reference, field measurements of runout, affected area and velocity are compared to the simulation results. Two avalanche events, that occurred at the Vallée de la Sionne and Ryggfonn test sites, are evaluated with this method. It is shown that the kinetic theory delivers a physically based explanation for the structure of phenomenological friction relations. However, the new form of the frictional terms explicitly takes the flow depth into account. As consequence, improvements in finding unified parameter sets for various observation variables and events of different sizes could be achieved.

  7. An extended synthesis for evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theory is undergoing an intense period of discussion and reevaluation. This, contrary to the misleading claims of creationists and other pseudoscientists, is no harbinger of a crisis but rather the opposite: the field is expanding dramatically in terms of both empirical discoveries and new ideas. In this essay I briefly trace the conceptual history of evolutionary theory from Darwinism to neo-Darwinism, and from the Modern Synthesis to what I refer to as the Extended Synthesis, a more inclusive conceptual framework containing among others evo-devo, an expanded theory of heredity, elements of complexity theory, ideas about evolvability, and a reevaluation of levels of selection. I argue that evolutionary biology has never seen a paradigm shift, in the philosophical sense of the term, except when it moved from natural theology to empirical science in the middle of the 19th century. The Extended Synthesis, accordingly, is an expansion of the Modern Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s, and one that--like its predecessor--will probably take decades to complete.

  8. Continuum balances from extended Hamiltonian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusteri, Giulio G; Podio-Guidugli, Paolo; Fried, Eliot

    2017-06-14

    The classical procedure devised by Irving and Kirkwood in 1950 and completed slightly later by Noll produces counterparts of the basic balance laws of standard continuum mechanics starting from an ordinary Hamiltonian description of the dynamics of a system of material points. Post-1980 molecular dynamics simulations of the time evolution of such systems use extended Hamiltonians such as those introduced by Andersen, Nosé, and Parrinello and Rahman. The additional terms present in these extensions affect the statistical properties of the system so as to capture certain target phenomenologies that would otherwise be beyond reach. We here propose a physically consistent application of the Irving-Kirkwood-Noll procedure to the extended Hamiltonian systems of material points. Our procedure produces balance equations at the continuum level featuring non-standard terms because the presence of auxiliary degrees of freedom gives rise to additional fluxes and sources that influence the thermodynamic and transport properties of the continuum model. Being aware of the additional contributions may prove crucial when designing multiscale computational schemes in which information is exchanged between the atomistic and continuum levels.

  9. Applying SPAM to the extended MWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley-Walker, N.; Intema, H.

    2017-01-01

    The extended baselines of the MWA move the instrument into a more difficult calibration and imaging regime, where the more widely-separated antennas are more likely to view the sky through different ionospheric conditions, leading to differential refractive effects over the array. Current extrapolations by Trott, Jordan, and Hurley-Walker imply that the diffractive scale will remain larger than the longest baseline for 50-70% of observations, but these are extrapolations only. Other instruments have performed observations with baselines longer than the diffractive scale, and used software techniques to mitigate the ionospheric distortions. One such survey is the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Sky Survey (TGSS) at 150 MHz. Intema et al. (2016) used the Source Peeling & Atmospheric Modeling (SPAM) software to produce a catalogue of over 600,000 sources from data that had previously been slow and difficult to process. This proposal is for a short series of observations to test the usage of the SPAM software on the extended MWA, and to find the optimal observing parameters for its use. If successful, this could assist other groups in effectively utilising the long baselines.

  10. EXTENDED LUCAS TUBE: GRAF HAMILTONIAN BARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernastuti .

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Hamiltonian cycle in a connected graph G is defined as a closed walk that traverses every vertex of G exactly once, except the starting vertex at which the walk also terminates. If an edge from a Hamiltonian cycle is removed, it forms a path calleda Hamiltonian path. A graph G is called Hamiltonian if there is a Hamiltonian cyclein G. It is known that every hypercube graph is Hamiltonian. But when one or more vertices are removed from a hypercube graph, will it still be Hamiltonian? Some induced subgraphs of a hypercube graph such as the Fibonacci cube (FC, the extended Fibonaccicube (EFC, and the Lucas cube (LC have been introduced and their Hamiltonicities have been investigated. Research results showed that less than a third of FC graphs are Hamiltonian although all of them have Hamiltonian path. All EFC graphs are Hamiltonian and none of LC graphs is Hamiltonian although some still have Hamiltonian paths.This paper introduces another subgraph of a hypercube graph called the Extended Lucas Cube (ELC. The ELC is shown to be Hamiltonian by using the approach of k-Gray Code and Bipartition Property.

  11. A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-Table Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.

  12. Extended MRI findings of intersection syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Roger P.; Hatem, Stephen F.; Recht, Michael P. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The symptoms and physical findings of intersection syndrome have been well described in the clinical medical literature. However, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with intersection syndrome of the forearm have only recently been described in a small number of patients. We review our experience with imaging of intersection syndrome, describe previously unreported MRI findings, and emphasize modifications to MRI protocols for its evaluation. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective review of patients with MRI findings consistent with intersection syndrome of the forearm during the period from January 2004 to September 2006. Six patients were identified, three males and three females, with an average age of 39.3 years. The MRI examinations were reviewed to assess signal abnormalities within and adjacent to the first and second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC): tendinosis, peritendinous edema or fluid, muscle edema, subcutaneous edema, and juxtacortical edema. The overall longitudinal extent of signal alterations was measured as well as the distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC. Review of the MRIs showed increased intrasubstance tendon signal suggesting tendinosis in two of the six patients, peritendinous edema or fluid in all six patients, muscle edema in five of the six patients, and subcutaneous edema in three of the six patients. Juxtacortical edema was seen in one patient. Peritendinous edema or fluid extended distally beyond the radiocarpal joint in three of the six patients. The average distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC was 3.95 cm, in keeping with recently published data. Intersection syndrome is an uncommon MRI diagnosis. In addition to the previously described MRI findings of edema adjacent to the first or second DETC, possibly with proximal extension and subcutaneous edema, we have identified

  13. Complete Solutions to Extended Stokes' Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Min Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study is to theoretically solve the viscous flow of either a finite or infinite depth, which is driven by moving plane(s. Such a viscous flow is usually named as Stokes' first or second problems, which indicates the fluid motion driven by the impulsive or oscillating motion of the boundary, respectively. Traditional Stokes' problems are firstly revisited, and three extended problems are subsequently examined. Using some mathematical techniques and integral transforms, complete solutions which can exactly capture the flow characteristics at any time are derived. The corresponding steady-state and transient solutions are readily determined on the basis of complete solutions. Current results have wide applications in academic researches and are of significance for future studies taking more boundary conditions and non-Newtonian fluids into account.

  14. Autopoiesis + extended cognition + nature = can buildings think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollens, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate metabolic, bioremedial functions into the performance of buildings and to balance generative architecture's dominant focus on computational programming and digital fabrication, this text first discusses hybridizing Maturana and Varela's biological theory of autopoiesis with Andy Clark's hypothesis of extended cognition. Doing so establishes a procedural protocol to research biological domains from which design could source data/insight from biosemiotics, sensory plants, and biocomputation. I trace computation and botanic simulations back to Alan Turing's little-known 1950s Morphogenetic drawings, reaction-diffusion algorithms, and pioneering artificial intelligence (AI) in order to establish bioarchitecture's generative point of origin. I ask provocatively, Can buildings think? as a question echoing Turing's own, "Can machines think?"

  15. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...

  16. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ($C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incorporate the lines, areas, volumes,.... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane,... dynamics of $p$-loops (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations ...

  17. Extended Analysis of the Casimir Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are several arguments for the conventional form of the Zero Point Energy fre- quency spectrum to be put in doubt. It has thus to be revised in to that of a self-consistent system in statistical equilibrium where the total energy de nsity and the equivalent pres- sure become finite. An extended form of the Casimir force is th ereby proposed to be used as a tool for determining the local magnitude of the same pressure. This can be done in terms of measurements on the force between a pair po lished plane plates consisting of different metals, the plates having very small or zero air gaps. T his corre- sponds to the largest possible Casimir force. Even then, the re may arise problems with other adhering forces, possibly to be clarified in further experiments.

  18. Extended Higgs sectors in radiative neutrino models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Antipin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Testable Higgs partners may be sought within the extensions of the SM Higgs sector aimed at generating neutrino masses at the loop level. We study a viability of extended Higgs sectors for two selected models of radiative neutrino masses: a one-loop mass model, providing the Higgs partner within a real triplet scalar representation, and a three-loop mass model, providing it within its two-Higgs-doublet sector. The Higgs sector in the one-loop model may remain stable and perturbative up to the Planck scale, whereas the three-loop model calls for a UV completion around 106 GeV. Additional vector-like lepton and exotic scalar fields, which are required to close one- and three-loop neutrino-mass diagrams, play a decisive role for the testability of the respective models. We constrain the parameter space of these models using LHC bounds on diboson resonances.

  19. Optical flow computation using extended constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1996-01-01

    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  20. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-06

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  1. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  2. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2013-01-01

    and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies......The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present...... in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime...

  3. Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Song, Z

    2015-10-23

    We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic XY model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the XY model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.

  4. Self-Gravitating Systems in Extended Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Stabile

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the weak field limit, we discuss astrophysical applications of Extended Theories of Gravity where higher order curvature invariants and scalar fields are considered by generalizing the Hilbert-Einstein action linear in the Ricci curvature scalar R. Results are compared to General Relativity in the hypothesis that Dark Matter contributions to the dynamics can be neglected thanks to modified gravity. In particular, we consider stellar hydrostatic equilibrium, galactic rotation curves, and gravitational lensing. Finally, we discuss the weak field limit in the Jordan and Einstein frames pointing out how effective quantities, as gravitational potentials, transform from one frame to the other and the interpretation of results can completely change accordingly.

  5. Extending OLAP Querying to External Object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Shoshani, Arie; Gu, Junmin

    inherent in data in nonstandard applications are not accommodated well by OLAP systems. In contrast, object database systems are built to handle such complexity, but do not support OLAP-type querying well. This paper presents the concepts and techniques underlying a flexible, multi-model federated system...... that enables OLAP users to exploit simultaneously the features of OLAP and object systems. The system allows data to be handled using the most appropriate data model and technology: OLAP systems for dimensional data and object database systems for more complex, general data. Additionally, physical data...... integration can be avoided. As a vehicle for demonstrating the capabilities of the system, a prototypical OLAP language is defined and extended to naturally support queries that involve data in object databases. The language permits selection criteria that reference object data, queries that return...

  6. Extended Lagrange interpolation in L1 spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occorsio, Donatella; Russo, Maria Grazia

    2016-10-01

    Let w (x )=e-xβxα , w ¯(x )=x w (x ) and denote by {pm(w)}m,{pn(w¯)}n the corresponding sequences of orthonormal polynomials. The zeros of the polynomial Q2 m +1=pm +1(w )pm(w ¯) are simple and are sufficiently far among them. Therefore it is possible to construct an interpolation process essentially based on the zeros of Q2m+1, which is called "Extended Lagrange Interpolation". Here we study the convergence of this interpolation process in suitable weighted L1 spaces. This study completes the results given by the authors in previous papers in weighted Lup((0 ,+∞ )) , for 1≤p≤∞. Moreover an application of the proposed interpolation process in order to construct an e cient product quadrature scheme for weakly singular integrals is given.

  7. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  8. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

  9. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  10. The Physics Case for Extended Tevatron Running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Darien R.

    2010-11-01

    Run II of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is currently scheduled to end late in 2011. Given the current performance of the collider and of the CDF and D0 detectors, it is estimated that the current data set could be approximately doubled with a run extended into 2014. A few examples are presented of the physics potential of these additional statistics. These are discussed in the context of the expected reach of the LHC 7 TeV data and the existing Tevatron data. In particular, an extraordinary opportunity is described which could probe the existence of a standard model Higgs boson with mass in the currently preferred region between 115 GeV and 150 GeV.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamics within the extended thermodynamics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S.; Carvalho, J.C.; Jafelice, L.C. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Experimental

    1994-12-31

    The equations of the magnetohydrodynamics are discussed in the framework of the extended thermodynamics. It is shown that such an approach is equivalent to consider the Ohm`s law when the inertial current (J) is included in it. Under certain conditions this new term implies that the magnetic field (B) diffusion is described by a telegrapher type equation (i.e., t{sub pl}{delta}{sup 2} B/{delta}t{sup 2} + {delta}B/{delta}t - n{nabla}{sup 2} B = 0: in the case the plasma velocity v = 0), instead of the usual hydromagnetic diffusion equation. As in the case of the temperature, the causality requirements are naturally obeyed since the propagation of the magnetic field is governed by a hyperbolic type equation. (author). 8 refs.

  12. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

    1994-12-31

    The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.

  14. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1-5 am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9 pm-5 am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  15. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  16. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro C.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces (C-spaces is presented whose “point” coordinates are non-commuting Clifford-valued quantities which incorporate lines, areas, volumes, hyper-volumes. . . degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, p-brane. . . dynamics of p-loops (closed p-branes in target D-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. C-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale, maximal acceleration, non-commuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures. It permits to study the dynamics of all (closed p-branes, for all values of p, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT, the problem of time in Cosmology and admits superluminal propagation (tachyons without violations of causality. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows and the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations in phase-space allows to show why Planck areas are invariant under acceleration-boosts transformations. This invariance feature suggests that a maximal-string tension principle may be operating in Nature. We continue by pointing out how the relativity of signatures of the underlying n-dimensional spacetime results from taking different n-dimensional slices through C-space. The conformal group in spacetime emerges as a natural subgroup of the Clifford group and Relativity in C-spaces involves natural scale changes in the sizes of physical objects without the introduction of forces nor Weyl’s gauge field of dilations. We finalize by constructing the generalization of Maxwell theory of Electrodynamics of point charges to a theory in C-spaces that involves extended charges coupled to antisymmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank. In the concluding remarks we outline briefly

  17. Extended distribution functions for our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Binney, James

    2015-06-01

    We extend models of our Galaxy based on distribution functions that are analytic functions of the action integrals to extended distribution functions (EDFs), which have an analytic dependence on metallicity as well. We use a simple, but physically motivated, functional forms for the metallicity of the interstellar medium as a function of radius and time and for the star formation rate, and a model for the diffusion of stars through phase space to suggest the required functional form of an EDF. We introduce a simple prescription for radial migration that preserves the overall profile of the disc while allowing individual stars to migrate throughout the disc. Our models explicitly consider the thin and thick discs as two distinct components separated in age. We show how an EDF can be used to incorporate realistic selection functions in models, and to construct mock catalogues of observed samples. We show that the selection function of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) biases in favour of young stars, which have atypically small random velocities. With the selection function taken into account our models produce good fits of the GCS data in chemo-dynamical space and the Gilmore & Reid (1983) density data. From our EDF, we predict the structure of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration G-dwarf sample. The kinematics are successfully predicted. The predicted metallicity distribution has too few stars with [Fe/H] ≃ -0.5 dex and too many metal-rich stars. A significant problem may be the lack of any chemical-kinematic correlations in our thick disc. We argue that EDFs will prove essential tools for the analysis of both observational data and sophisticated models of Galaxy formation and evolution.

  18. Evaluating and Extending the Ocean Wind Climate Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardulli, Lucrezia; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Stiles, Bryan W.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Long, David G.; Hoffman, Ross N.; Stoffelen, Ad; Verhoef, Anton; O'Neill, Larry W.; Farrar, J. Tomas; Vandemark, Douglas; Fore, Alexander G.; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.; Turk, F. Joseph; Gaston, Robert; Tyler, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Satellite microwave sensors, both active scatterometers and passive radiometers, have been systematically measuring near-surface ocean winds for nearly 40 years, establishing an important legacy in studying and monitoring weather and climate variability. As an aid to such activities, the various wind datasets are being intercalibrated and merged into consistent climate data records (CDRs). The ocean wind CDRs (OW-CDRs) are evaluated by comparisons with ocean buoys and intercomparisons among the different satellite sensors and among the different data providers. Extending the OW-CDR into the future requires exploiting all available datasets, such as OSCAT-2 scheduled to launch in July 2016. Three planned methods of calibrating the OSCAT-2 σo measurements include 1) direct Ku-band σo intercalibration to QuikSCAT and RapidScat; 2) multisensor wind speed intercalibration; and 3) calibration to stable rainforest targets. Unfortunately, RapidScat failed in August 2016 and cannot be used to directly calibrate OSCAT-2. A particular future continuity concern is the absence of scheduled new or continuation radiometer missions capable of measuring wind speed. Specialized model assimilations provide 30-year long high temporal/spatial resolution wind vector grids that composite the satellite wind information from OW-CDRs of multiple satellites viewing the Earth at different local times. PMID:28824741

  19. Evaluating and Extending the Ocean Wind Climate Data Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Frank J; Ricciardulli, Lucrezia; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Stiles, Bryan W; Bourassa, Mark A; Long, David G; Hoffman, Ross N; Stoffelen, Ad; Verhoef, Anton; O'Neill, Larry W; Farrar, J Tomas; Vandemark, Douglas; Fore, Alexander G; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M; Turk, F Joseph; Gaston, Robert; Tyler, Douglas

    2017-05-01

    Satellite microwave sensors, both active scatterometers and passive radiometers, have been systematically measuring near-surface ocean winds for nearly 40 years, establishing an important legacy in studying and monitoring weather and climate variability. As an aid to such activities, the various wind datasets are being intercalibrated and merged into consistent climate data records (CDRs). The ocean wind CDRs (OW-CDRs) are evaluated by comparisons with ocean buoys and intercomparisons among the different satellite sensors and among the different data providers. Extending the OW-CDR into the future requires exploiting all available datasets, such as OSCAT-2 scheduled to launch in July 2016. Three planned methods of calibrating the OSCAT-2 σ o measurements include 1) direct Ku-band σ o intercalibration to QuikSCAT and RapidScat; 2) multisensor wind speed intercalibration; and 3) calibration to stable rainforest targets. Unfortunately, RapidScat failed in August 2016 and cannot be used to directly calibrate OSCAT-2. A particular future continuity concern is the absence of scheduled new or continuation radiometer missions capable of measuring wind speed. Specialized model assimilations provide 30-year long high temporal/spatial resolution wind vector grids that composite the satellite wind information from OW-CDRs of multiple satellites viewing the Earth at different local times.

  20. Extending the Study of Gender Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2002-01-01

    Responds to concerns that individual items included as stereotypes in the Occupation Activity Trait Scales (children's and adult's versions) are not highly stereotyped. Discusses future directions for research, noting that a developmental approach is critical to understanding gender differentiation establishment and that it is also important to…

  1. Extending the technological capability of turning operation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic characteristic of components of the engine lathe technological system supplied with the proposed MAS was studied, and a mathematical model was obtained and presented as a system with one degree of freedom in the direction of Z-axis. The stable zones of operating were defined using Leonarion graphic ...

  2. Future directions of MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Fredian, T., E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stillerman, J., E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • This paper describes the directions in the evolution of the MDSplus data system. • It describes three Use Cases in data streaming. • It shows the performance of MDSplus in local and remote data streaming. • It describes the main concepts in decoupling data access. • It presents the last features and tools. - Abstract: The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since then MDSplus has been progressively adopted in an increasing number of fusion experiments and its original implementation has been extended during these years to cover new requirements and toward a multi-platform implementation. Currently MDSplus is in use at more than 30 laboratories and is being used both for pulsed applications as well as for continuous data streaming for long lasting experiments. Thanks to its large user base, it has been possible to collect requirements driving the evolution of the system toward improved usability and better performance. An important recent feature of the MDSplus is its ability of handling a continuous stream of data, which is readily available as soon at it has been stored in the pulse files. Current development is oriented toward an improved modularity of MDSplus and the integration of new functionality. Improved modularity is achieved by moving away from monolithic implementation toward a plug-ins approach. This has already been achieved recently for the management of remote data access, where the original TCP/IP implementation can now be integrated with new user-provided network protocols. Following a similar approach, work is in progress to let new back-ends be integrated in the MDSplus data access layer. By decoupling the MDSplus data management from the disk data file format it is possible to integrate new solutions such as data cloud without affecting the user Application Programming Interface.

  3. Planning of the Extended Reach well Dieksand 2; Planung der Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, U.; Berners, H. [RWE-DEA AG, Hamburg (Germany). Drilling Team Mittelplate und Dieksand; Hadow, A.; Klop, G.; Sickinger, W. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstdorf (Germany); Sudron, K.

    1998-12-31

    The Mittelplate oil field is located 7 km offshore the town of Friedrichskoog. Reserves are estimated at 30 million tonnes of oil. At a production rate of 2,500 t/d, it will last about 33 years. The transport capacity of the offshore platform is limited, so that attempts were made to enhance production by constructing the extended reach borehole Dieksand 2. Details are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Erdoelfeld Mittelplate liegt am suedlichen Rand des Nationalparks Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, ca. 7000 m westlich der Ortschaft Friedrichskoog. Die gewinnbaren Reserven betragen ca. 30 Millionen t Oel. Bei einer Foerderkapazitaet von 2.500 t/Tag betraegt die Foerderdauer ca. 33 Jahre. Aufgrund der begrenzten Transportkapazitaeten von der Insel, laesst sich durch zusaetzliche Bohrungen von der kuenstlichen Insel Mittelplate keine entscheidende Erhoehung der Foerderkapazitaet erzielen. Ab Sommer 1996 wurde erstmals die Moeglichkeit der Lagerstaettenerschliessung von Land untersucht. Ein im Mai 1997 in Hamburg etabliertes Drilling Team wurde mit der Aufgabe betraut, die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 zu planen und abzuteufen. Die Planungsphasen fuer die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 wurden aufgezeigt. Die fuer den Erfolg einer Extended Reach Bohrung wichtigen Planungsparameter wurden erlaeutert. Es wurden Wege gezeigt, wie bei diesem Projekt technische und geologische Risiken in der Planung mit beruecksichtigt und nach Beginn der Bohrung weiter bearbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  4. A Formalization and Proof of the Extended Church-Turing Thesis -Extended Abstract-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachum Dershowitz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We prove the Extended Church-Turing Thesis: Every effective algorithm can be efficiently simulated by a Turing machine. This is accomplished by emulating an effective algorithm via an abstract state machine, and simulating such an abstract state machine by a random access machine, representing data as a minimal term graph.

  5. Regularly Controlled Bidirectional Extended Linear Basic Grammars (Revised and extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne

    1989-01-01

    We study the concept of bidirectional application of productions -- i.e., using a production of a grammar as a reduction too -- with respect to regularly controlled extended linear basic (macro) grammars [3], provided with a restricted mode of derivation. So this new grammatical model is in essence

  6. Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Extended Thoracodorsal Artery Perforator Propeller Flaps and Implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Gudjon L; Børsen-Koch, Mikkel; Nielsen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    (200-330), and the average implant size used was 350 cm(3) (195-650). We demonstrate how the extended thoracodorsal artery perforator propeller flap allows for a swift and reliable direct to implant bilateral total breast reconstruction in a simple setting and is a valuable adjunct to our armamentarium......We present our experience of bilateral total breast reconstruction using a double-sided extended thoracodorsal artery perforator propeller flap in a case series of 10 patients. Reconstruction was successfully achieved in all cases with few complications. The median time for surgery was 275 minutes...... of techniques for single-stage bilateral breast reconstruction....

  7. Comparison between the new G'/G expansion method and the extended homogeneous balance method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gozukizil

    2015-12-01

    some modifications using the Riccati equation and the reduced nonlinear ordinary differential equation, respectively, the new G'/G expansion method is straightforward and concise, and taking special values for parameters and using some hyperbolic identities, all the solutions obtained by the extended homogeneous balance method coincide with the solutions obtained by the new G'/G expansion method. Moreover, the new G'/G expansion method gives the general form of solutions and is applied to nonlinear partial differential equations directly without using tedious calculation instead of the extended homogeneous balance method.

  8. Extended theory of harmonic maps connects general relativity to chaos and quantum mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Duan, Yi-Shi

    2017-10-01

    General relativity and quantum mechanism are two separate rules of modern physics explaining how nature works. Both theories are accurate, but the direct connection between two theories was not yet clarified. Recently, researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. Here, we showed the early reported extended HM theory that included the general relativity can also be used to recover the classic chaos equations and even the Schrodinger equation in quantum physics, suggesting the extended theory of harmonic maps may act as a universal theory of physics.

  9. Extended Breast-Feeding: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Curious about extended breast-feeding? Know the benefits, the role breast milk plays ... baby beyond age 1 — also known as extended breast-feeding — you might have questions about the process. Get ...

  10. Head-controlled assistive telerobot with extended physiological proprioception capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganicoff, Marcos; Rahman, Tariq; Mahoney, Ricardo; Pino, D.; Jayachandran, Vijay; Kumar, Vijay; Chen, Shoupu; Harwin, William S.

    1995-12-01

    People with disabilities such as quadriplegia can use mouth-sticks and head-sticks as extension devices to perform desired manipulations. These extensions provide extended proprioception which allows users to directly feel forces and other perceptual cues such as texture present at the tip of the mouth-stick. Such devices are effective for two principle reasons: because of their close contact with the user's tactile and proprioceptive sensing abilities; and because they tend to be lightweight and very stiff, and can thus convey tactile and kinesthetic information with high-bandwidth. Unfortunately, traditional mouth-sticks and head-sticks are limited in workspace and in the mechanical power that can be transferred because of user mobility and strength limitations. We describe an alternative implementation of the head-stick device using the idea of a virtual head-stick: a head-controlled bilateral force-reflecting telerobot. In this system the end-effector of the slave robot moves as if it were at the tip of an imaginary extension of the user's head. The design goal is for the system is to have the same intuitive operation and extended proprioception as a regular mouth-stick effector but with augmentation of workspace volume and mechanical power. The input is through a specially modified six DOF master robot (a PerForceTM hand-controller) whose joints can be back-driven to apply forces at the user's head. The manipulation tasks in the environment are performed by a six degree-of-freedom slave robot (the Zebra-ZEROTM) with a built-in force sensor. We describe the prototype hardware/software implementation of the system, control system design, safety/disability issues, and initial evaluation tasks.

  11. Extending classical multirate signal processing theory to graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Oguzhan; Vaidyanathan, Palghat P.

    2017-08-01

    A variety of different areas consider signals that are defined over graphs. Motivated by the advancements in graph signal processing, this study first reviews some of the recent results on the extension of classical multirate signal processing to graphs. In these results, graphs are allowed to have directed edges. The possibly non-symmetric adjacency matrix A is treated as the graph operator. These results investigate the fundamental concepts for multirate processing of graph signals such as noble identities, aliasing, and perfect reconstruction (PR). It is shown that unless the graph satisfies some conditions, these concepts cannot be extended to graph signals in a simple manner. A structure called M-Block cyclic structure is shown to be sufficient to generalize the results for bipartite graphs on two-channels to M-channel filter banks. Many classical multirate ideas can be extended to graphs due to the unique eigenstructure of M-Block cyclic graphs. For example, the PR condition for filter banks on these graphs is identical to PR in classical theory, which allows the use of well-known filter bank design techniques. In order to utilize these results, the adjacency matrix of an M-Block cyclic graph should be given in the correct permutation. In the final part, this study proposes a spectral technique to identify the hidden M-Block cyclic structure from a graph with noisy edges whose adjacency matrix is given under a random permutation. Numerical simulation results show that the technique can recover the underlying M-Block structure in the presence of random addition and deletion of the edges.

  12. Methanol as a gasoline extender: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, E E

    1974-11-29

    The tests conducted with the three vehicles at different emission control levels suggest that, in the area of fuel economy and emissions, potential benefits with methanol blends are related to carburetion and are only significant in the case of the rich-operating cars built before emission control standards were imposed. Theoretical considerations related to methanol's leaning effect on carburetion support this conclusion. Potential advantages for methanol in these areas are therefore continuously diminishing as the older cars leave the roads. At present, these older cars use only about one-fourth of the totalc motor gasoline consumed and, before methanol could be used on a large scale, this fraction would be much smaller. The use of methanol in gasoline would almost certainly create severe product quality problems. Water contamination could lead to phase separation in the distribution system and possibly in the car tank as well, and this would require additional investment in fuel handling and blending equipment. Excess fuel volatility in hot weather may also have adverse effects on car performance if the methanol blends include typical concentrations of butanes and pentanes. Removal of these light hydrocarbon components would detract from methanol's role as a gasoline extender and if current fuel volatility specifications were maintained, its use could lead to a net loss in the total available energy for use in motor fuels. Car performance problems associated with excessively lean operation would also be expected in the case of a significant proportion of late-model cars which are adjusted to operate on lean fuel-air mixtures. If methanol does become available in large quantities, these factors suggest that it would be more practical to use it for purposes other than those related to the extending of motor gasoline, such as for gas turbines used for electric power generation. In this case, the "pure" methanol would act as a cleanburning fuel, having none of the

  13. The Extended Concept of Security and the Czech Security Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Stejskal

    2008-12-01

    accompany the drawing up of a new security strategy for the country. A step in the right direction would be if, after public debate, the Government submitted a new version of the country’s security strategy for consideration and approval to the Parliament as the supreme representative body. The new strategy would thus be assigned greater importance than that of 2003 which was adopted only by the Government and, as a result, was often denied the status of a binding document. A broader public debate over the new security strategy would help ensure that the extended concept of security is more fully implemented in practice.

  14. Stochastic population dynamics in spatially extended predator–prey systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobramysl, Ulrich; Mobilia, Mauro; Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe C.

    2018-02-01

    Spatially extended population dynamics models that incorporate demographic noise serve as case studies for the crucial role of fluctuations and correlations in biological systems. Numerical and analytic tools from non-equilibrium statistical physics capture the stochastic kinetics of these complex interacting many-particle systems beyond rate equation approximations. Including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator–prey competition invalidates the neutral Lotka–Volterra population cycles. Stochastic models yield long-lived erratic oscillations stemming from a resonant amplification mechanism. Spatially extended predator–prey systems display noise-stabilized activity fronts that generate persistent correlations. Fluctuation-induced renormalizations of the oscillation parameters can be analyzed perturbatively via a Doi–Peliti field theory mapping of the master equation; related tools allow detailed characterization of extinction pathways. The critical steady-state and non-equilibrium relaxation dynamics at the predator extinction threshold are governed by the directed percolation universality class. Spatial predation rate variability results in more localized clusters, enhancing both competing species’ population densities. Affixing variable interaction rates to individual particles and allowing for trait inheritance subject to mutations induces fast evolutionary dynamics for the rate distributions. Stochastic spatial variants of three-species competition with ‘rock-paper-scissors’ interactions metaphorically describe cyclic dominance. These models illustrate intimate connections between population dynamics and evolutionary game theory, underscore the role of fluctuations to drive populations toward extinction, and demonstrate how space can support species diversity. Two-dimensional cyclic three-species May–Leonard models are characterized by the emergence of spiraling patterns whose properties are elucidated by a mapping onto a

  15. Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…

  16. 20 CFR 615.7 - Extended Benefits; maximum amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extended Benefits; maximum amount. 615.7 Section 615.7 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EXTENDED BENEFITS IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM § 615.7 Extended Benefits; maximum amount...

  17. 20 CFR 615.6 - Extended Benefits; weekly amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extended Benefits; weekly amount. 615.6 Section 615.6 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EXTENDED BENEFITS IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM § 615.6 Extended Benefits; weekly amount...

  18. An application of the extended RSA congruence | Omokaro | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In [4], we proved that the RSA congruence could be extended to a situation where the modulus of the congruence is a simple product of primes. In this work, we discuss the cryptosystem of this extended RSA congruence as an analogue of the RSA cryptosystem, which is hereafter referred to as the Extended RSA ...

  19. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Gram Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Gram Negative Bacilli from Clinical Specimens in a Teaching Hospital in South Eastern Nigeria. ... generation cephalosporins used but 40 (16%) actually produced the extended spectrum beta- lactamase enzymes. This shows the existence of Extended Spectrum Beta- ...

  20. Extending particle tracking capability with Delaunay triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kejia; Anthony, Stephen M; Granick, Steve

    2014-04-29

    Particle tracking, the analysis of individual moving elements in time series of microscopic images, enables burgeoning new applications, but there is need to better resolve conformation and dynamics. Here we describe the advantages of Delaunay triangulation to extend the capabilities of particle tracking in three areas: (1) discriminating irregularly shaped objects, which allows one to track items other than point features; (2) combining time and space to better connect missing frames in trajectories; and (3) identifying shape backbone. To demonstrate the method, specific examples are given, involving analyzing the time-dependent molecular conformations of actin filaments and λ-DNA. The main limitation of this method, shared by all other clustering techniques, is the difficulty to separate objects when they are very close. This can be mitigated by inspecting locally to remove edges that are longer than their neighbors and also edges that link two objects, using methods described here, so that the combination of Delaunay triangulation with edge removal can be robustly applied to processing large data sets. As common software packages, both commercial and open source, can construct Delaunay triangulation on command, the methods described in this paper are both computationally efficient and easy to implement.

  1. Positive mass theorem in extended supergravities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Nozawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the Witten–Nester formalism, we present a useful prescription using Weyl spinors towards the positivity of mass. As a generalization of arXiv:1310.1663, we show that some “positivity conditions” must be imposed upon the gauge connections appearing in the supercovariant derivative acting on spinors. A complete classification of the connection fulfilling the positivity conditions is given. It turns out that these positivity conditions are indeed satisfied for a number of extended supergravity theories. It is shown that the positivity property holds for the Einstein-complex scalar system, provided that the target space is Hodge–Kähler and the potential is expressed in terms of the superpotential. In the Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theory with a dilaton potential, the dilaton coupling function and the superpotential are fixed by the positive mass property. We also explore the N=8 gauged supergravity and demonstrate that the positivity of the mass holds independently of the gaugings and the deformation parameters.

  2. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  3. The Extended Baryonic Halo of NGC 3923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Miller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy halos and their globular cluster systems build up over time by the accretion of small satellites. We can learn about this process in detail by observing systems with ongoing accretion events and comparing the data with simulations. Elliptical shell galaxies are systems that are thought to be due to ongoing or recent minor mergers. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the baryonic halo—light profile, globular clusters, and shells/streams—of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 from deep Dark Energy Camera (DECam g and i-band imaging. We present the 2D and radial distributions of the globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of about 185 kpc, or ∼ 37 R e , making this one of the most extended cluster systems studied. The total number of clusters implies a halo mass of M h ∼ 3 × 10 13 M ⊙ . Previous studies had identified between 22 and 42 shells, making NGC 3923 the system with the largest number of shells. We identify 23 strong shells and 11 that are uncertain. Future work will measure the halo mass and mass profile from the radial distributions of the shell, N-body models, and line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD measurements of the shells using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE.

  4. Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.

  5. Thermalization and Pseudolocality in Extended Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Recently, it was understood that modified concepts of locality played an important role in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by thermodynamic susceptibilities. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states, which are determined by pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states at high enough temperatures, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to the evolution dynamics. If the evolution dynamics does not admit any conserved pseudolocal charges other than the evolution Hamiltonian, we show that any stationary pseudolocal state with respect to these dynamics is a thermal Gibbs state, and that Gibbs thermalization occurs. The framework is that of translation-invariant states on hypercubic quantum lattices of any dimensionality (including quantum chains) and finite-range Hamiltonians, and does not involve integrability.

  6. Preoperative venogram in planning extended craniectomies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzieri, C.F.; Duchesneau, P.M.; Rosenbloom, S.A.; Weinstein, M.A.; Sacher, M.

    1987-07-01

    A technique of extended craniectomy sometimes allows removal of large central or transtentorial mass lesions at a single operative sitting because it affords better exposure and control of normal structures. While seeking to avoid multiple craniotomies, this method requires permanent ligation of the transverse venous sinus. Unless there is adequate collateral venous drainage from the ipsilateral hemisphere, the patient is at risk for venous infarction in the post-craniectomy period. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of establishing the presence of collateral venous drainage preoperatively. Each carotid artery is injected with the head in a neutral position and with the head turned to the side ipsilateral to the carotid artery injection in an attempt to divert the venous flow. Fifty patients were examined using this method; seven were being evaluated for possible craniectomies. The technique identified nine patients with potential venous collaterals (20%). They would otherwise have been considered nonoperable: two of the six patients eventually operated upon (33%) fell into this category. In general, the operative procedure may be safe more often on the left than the right (45%) vs (20%). Particular attention must be given to the pattern of venous drainage from the posterior temporal lobe to avoid isolation of the venous drainage from this area.

  7. Extended Target Shape Estimation by Fitting B-Spline Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-long Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the difficulty of shape estimation for the extended targets, a novel algorithm is proposed by fitting the B-spline curve. For the single extended target tracking, the multiple frame statistic technique is introduced to construct the pseudomeasurement sets and the control points are selected to form the B-spline curve. Then the shapes of the extended targets are extracted under the Bayes framework. Furthermore, the proposed shape estimation algorithm is modified suitably and combined with the probability hypothesis density (PHD filter for multiple extended target tracking. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm has a good performance for shape estimate of any extended targets.

  8. Volcanoes - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Holocene volcanoes, which are those thought to be active in the last 10,000 years, that are within an extended area of the northern...

  9. Extended overview techniques for outdoor augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veas, Eduardo; Grasset, Raphaël; Kruijff, Ernst; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we explore techniques that aim to improve site understanding for outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) applications. While the first person perspective in AR is a direct way of filtering and zooming on a portion of the data set, it severely narrows overview of the situation, particularly over large areas. We present two interactive techniques to overcome this problem: multi-view AR and variable perspective view. We describe in details the conceptual, visualization and interaction aspects of these techniques and their evaluation through a comparative user study. The results we have obtained strengthen the validity of our approach and the applicability of our methods to a large range of application domains.

  10. EXTENDED SPEECH EMOTION RECOGNITION AND PREDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Anagnostopoulos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans are considered to reason and act rationally and that is believed to be their fundamental difference from the rest of the living entities. Furthermore, modern approaches in the science of psychology underline that humans as a thinking creatures are also sentimental and emotional organisms. There are fifteen universal extended emotions plus neutral emotion: hot anger, cold anger, panic, fear, anxiety, despair, sadness, elation, happiness, interest, boredom, shame, pride, disgust, contempt and neutral position. The scope of the current research is to understand the emotional state of a human being by capturing the speech utterances that one uses during a common conversation. It is proved that having enough acoustic evidence available the emotional state of a person can be classified by a set of majority voting classifiers. The proposed set of classifiers is based on three main classifiers: kNN, C4.5 and SVM RBF Kernel. This set achieves better performance than each basic classifier taken separately. It is compared with two other sets of classifiers: one-against-all (OAA multiclass SVM with Hybrid kernels and the set of classifiers which consists of the following two basic classifiers: C5.0 and Neural Network. The proposed variant achieves better performance than the other two sets of classifiers. The paper deals with emotion classification by a set of majority voting classifiers that combines three certain types of basic classifiers with low computational complexity. The basic classifiers stem from different theoretical background in order to avoid bias and redundancy which gives the proposed set of classifiers the ability to generalize in the emotion domain space.

  11. Extending and implementing the Persistent ID pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Car, Nicholas; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The recent double decade anniversary of scholarly persistent identifier use has triggered journal special editions such as "20 Years of Persistent Identifiers". For such a publication, it is apt to consider the longevity of some persistent identifier (PID) mechanisms (Digital Object Identifiers) and the partial disappearance of others (Life Sciences IDs). We have previously postulated a set of "PID Pillars" [1] which are design principles aimed at ensuring PIDs can survive technology and social change and thus persist for the long term that we have drawn from our observations of PIDs at work over many years. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers' system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In this presentation, first we extend on our previous work of introducing the pillars by refining their descriptions, giving specific suggestions for each and presenting some work that addresses them. Second, we propose a baseline data model for persistent identifiers that, if used, would assist the separation of PID metadata and PID system functioning. This would allow PID system function specifics to change over time (e.g. resolver services or even resolution protocols) and yet preserve the PIDs themselves. Third, we detail our existing PID system — the PID Service [2] — that partially implements the pillars and describe both its successes and shortcomings. Finally, we describe our planned next-generation system that will aim to use the baseline data model and fully implement the pillars.

  12. Sensitivity of Mesoscale Modeling of Smoke Direct Radiative Effect to the Emission Inventory: a Case Study in Northern Sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Ichoku, Charles; Hyer, Edward J.; Yang, Zhifeng; Ge, Cui; Su, Shenjian; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha; Kaiser, Johannes W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    An ensemble approach is used to examine the sensitivity of smoke loading and smoke direct radiative effect in the atmosphere to uncertainties in smoke emission estimates. Seven different fire emission inventories are applied independently to WRF-Chem model (v3.5) with the same model configuration (excluding dust and other emission sources) over the northern sub-Saharan African (NSSA) biomass-burning region. Results for November and February 2010 are analyzed, respectively representing the start and end of the biomass burning season in the study region. For February 2010, estimates of total smoke emission vary by a factor of 12, but only differences by factors of 7 or less are found in the simulated regional (15degW-42degE, 13degS-17degN) and monthly averages of column PM(sub 2.5) loading, surface PM(sub 2.5) concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), smoke radiative forcing at the top-of-atmosphere and at the surface, and air temperature at 2 m and at 700 hPa. The smaller differences in these simulated variables may reflect the atmospheric diffusion and deposition effects to dampen the large difference in smoke emissions that are highly concentrated in areas much smaller than the regional domain of the study. Indeed, at the local scale, large differences (up to a factor of 33) persist in simulated smoke-related variables and radiative effects including semi-direct effect. Similar results are also found for November 2010, despite differences in meteorology and fire activity. Hence, biomass burning emission uncertainties have a large influence on the reliability of model simulations of atmospheric aerosol loading, transport, and radiative impacts, and this influence is largest at local and hourly-to-daily scales. Accurate quantification of smoke effects on regional climate and air quality requires further reduction of emission uncertainties, particularly for regions of high fire concentrations such as NSSA.

  13. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  14. Color extended visual cryptography using error diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, InKoo; Arce, Gonzalo R; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Color visual cryptography (VC) encrypts a color secret message into n color halftone image shares. Previous methods in the literature show good results for black and white or gray scale VC schemes, however, they are not sufficient to be applied directly to color shares due to different color structures. Some methods for color visual cryptography are not satisfactory in terms of producing either meaningless shares or meaningful shares with low visual quality, leading to suspicion of encryption. This paper introduces the concept of visual information pixel (VIP) synchronization and error diffusion to attain a color visual cryptography encryption method that produces meaningful color shares with high visual quality. VIP synchronization retains the positions of pixels carrying visual information of original images throughout the color channels and error diffusion generates shares pleasant to human eyes. Comparisons with previous approaches show the superior performance of the new method.

  15. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeth, Hilton

    2017-01-01

    Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores), of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product. PMID:29156617

  16. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Deeth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extended shelf-life (ESL or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores, of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  17. Extraction of Extended Small-Scale Objects in Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Detection and localization problem of extended small-scale objects with different shapes appears in radio observation systems which use SAR, infra-red, lidar and television camera. Intensive non-stationary background is the main difficulty for processing. Other challenge is low quality of images, blobs, blurred boundaries; in addition SAR images suffer from a serious intrinsic speckle noise. Statistics of background is not normal, it has evident skewness and heavy tails in probability density, so it is hard to identify it. The problem of extraction small-scale objects is solved here on the basis of directional filtering, adaptive thresholding and morthological analysis. New kind of masks is used which are open-ended at one side so it is possible to extract ends of line segments with unknown length. An advanced method of dynamical adaptive threshold setting is investigated which is based on isolated fragments extraction after thresholding. Hierarchy of isolated fragments on binary image is proposed for the analysis of segmentation results. It includes small-scale objects with different shape, size and orientation. The method uses extraction of isolated fragments in binary image and counting points in these fragments. Number of points in extracted fragments is normalized to the total number of points for given threshold and is used as effectiveness of extraction for these fragments. New method for adaptive threshold setting and control maximises effectiveness of extraction. It has optimality properties for objects extraction in normal noise field and shows effective results for real SAR images.

  18. Extending the application of DSAM to atypical stopping media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Samanta, S.; Bhattacharjee, R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Kolkata 700098 (India); Raut, R., E-mail: rraut@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Kolkata 700098 (India); Ghugre, S.S. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Kolkata 700098 (India); Sinha, A.K. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore 452001 (India); Garg, U. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Chakrabarti, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dhal, A.; Raju, M. Kumar; Madhavan, N.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Suryanarayana, K.; Rao, P.V. Madhusudhana [Department of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Palit, R.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2017-01-01

    A methodology that manifolds the possibilities of level lifetime measurements using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM), and extends its application beyond the conventional thin-target-on-thick-elemental-backing setups, is presented. This has been achieved primarily through application of the TRIM code to simulate the stopping of the recoils in the target and the backing media. Using the TRIM code, primarily adopted in the domain of materials research, in the context of lifetime analysis require rendition of the simulation results into a representation that appropriately incorporates the nuances of nuclear reaction along with the associated kinematics, besides the transformation from an energy-coordinate representation to a velocity-direction profile as required for lifetime analysis. The present development makes it possible to practice DSAM in atypical experimental scenarios such as those using molecular or multi-layered target and/or backing as the stopping medium. These aberrant cases, that were beyond representation in the customary Doppler shape analysis can, in the light of the present work, be conveniently used in the DSAM based investigations. The new approach has been validated through re-examination of known lifetimes measured both in the conventional as well as in the deviant setups.

  19. Mapping Transcription Factors on Extended DNA: A Single Molecule Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Yuval; Gassman, Natalie; Weiss, Shimon

    The ability to determine the precise loci and distribution of nucleic acid binding proteins is instrumental to our detailed understanding of cellular processes such as transcription, replication, and chromatin reorganization. Traditional molecular biology approaches and above all Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) based methods have provided a wealth of information regarding protein-DNA interactions. Nevertheless, existing techniques can only provide average properties of these interactions, since they are based on the accumulation of data from numerous protein-DNA complexes analyzed at the ensemble level. We propose a single molecule approach for direct visualization of DNA binding proteins bound specifically to their recognition sites along a long stretch of DNA such as genomic DNA. Fluorescent Quantum dots are used to tag proteins bound to DNA, and the complex is deposited on a glass substrate by extending the DNA to a linear form. The sample is then imaged optically to determine the precise location of the protein binding site. The method is demonstrated by detecting individual, Quantum dot tagged T7-RNA polymerase enzymes on the bacteriophage T7 genomic DNA and assessing the relative occupancy of the different promoters.

  20. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-08-22

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the 'extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism-environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. The extended evolutionary synthesis: its structure, assumptions and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N.; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sterelny, Kim; Müller, Gerd B.; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John

    2015-01-01

    Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways—one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the ‘extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution, the origin of character variation and organism–environment complementarity. We spell out the structure, core assumptions and novel predictions of the EES, and show how it can be deployed to stimulate and advance research in those fields that study or use evolutionary biology. PMID:26246559

  2. Extending human proprioception to cyber-physical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kevin; Robinson, Ethan; Dickstein, Leah; Hahn, Heidi A.; Cattaneo, Alessandro; Mascareñas, David

    2016-04-01

    Despite advances in computational cognition, there are many cyber-physical systems where human supervision and control is desirable. One pertinent example is the control of a robot arm, which can be found in both humanoid and commercial ground robots. Current control mechanisms require the user to look at several screens of varying perspective on the robot, then give commands through a joystick-like mechanism. This control paradigm fails to provide the human operator with an intuitive state feedback, resulting in awkward and slow behavior and underutilization of the robot's physical capabilities. To overcome this bottleneck, we introduce a new human-machine interface that extends the operator's proprioception by exploiting sensory substitution. Humans have a proprioceptive sense that provides us information on how our bodies are configured in space without having to directly observe our appendages. We constructed a wearable device with vibrating actuators on the forearm, where frequency of vibration corresponds to the spatial configuration of a robotic arm. The goal of this interface is to provide a means to communicate proprioceptive information to the teleoperator. Ultimately we will measure the change in performance (time taken to complete the task) achieved by the use of this interface.

  3. Extending the Millimeter-Submillimeter Spectrum of Protonated Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenitz, Kevin; Zou, Luyao; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2017-06-01

    Protonated formaldehyde has been detected in the interstellar medium, where it participates in the formation and destruction of methanol. The rotational spectrum for protonated formaldehyde has been previously recorded by Amano and coworkers from 120-385 GHz using a hollow cathode discharge source for ion production. Additionally, protonated formaldehyde was produced in a supersonic expansion discharge source by Duncan and coworkers, but it was detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Higher frequency spectra would help to guide additional observational studies of protonated formaldehyde using instruments such as the ALMA and SOFIA observatories. As such, we have used a supersonic expansion discharge source to produce protonated formaldehyde, and recorded its spectrum using millimeter-submillimeter direct absorption spectroscopy. The rotational spectrum was recorded from 350-1000 GHz. Here we will present the experimental design, specifically focusing on the optimization of the source for production of organic ions. We will also present the spectroscopic results for protonated formaldehyde and a spectral analysis with associated prediction that can be extended to frequencies above 1 THz.

  4. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E; Heuberger, M

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ~3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  5. The extended surface forces apparatus. IV. Precision static pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurtenberger, E.; Heuberger, M.

    2011-10-01

    We report on design and performance of an extended surface forces apparatus (eSFA) built into a pressurized system. The aim of this instrument is to provide control over static pressure and temperature to facilitate direct surface force experiments in equilibrium with fluids at different loci of their phase diagram. We built an autoclave that can bear a miniature eSFA. To avoid mechanical or electrical feedtroughs the miniature apparatus uses an external surface coarse approach stage under ambient conditions. The surface separation is thus pre-adjusted to approximately ˜3 μm before sliding the apparatus into the autoclave. Inside the autoclave, the surface separation can be further controlled with a magnetic drive at sub-Ångstrom precision over a 14 μm range. The autoclave pressure can then be set and maintained between 20 mbar and 170 bars with few mbar precision. The autoclave is connected to a specially designed pressurization system to precondition the fluids. The temperature can be controlled between -20 and 60 °C with few mK precision. We demonstrate the operation of the instrument in the case of gaseous or liquid carbon dioxide. Thanks to a consequent decoupling of the eSFA mechanical loop from the autoclave structure, the obtained measurement stability and reproducibility, at elevated pressures, is comparable to the one established for the conventional eSFA, operated under ambient conditions.

  6. Potentials' distribution in high resistivity soil around extended grounding electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonin V. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential distribution in high resistivity soil around extended grounding electrodes has been described in the paper. The high-voltage polygon has been developed for experimental investigation. It is well known that direct or indirect lightning discharges could produce dangerous conditions for human body, as well as unwanted electromagnetic interferences among electrical and electronic systems. Therefore the electromagnetic characterization of earth electrodes under high pulse transient currents is an important highpoint in the design of a grounding system. The Marx generator was developed to generate impulse similar to lightning impulse. The potentials have been measured by the probe measurement system previously developed. Grounding resistance is the main characteristic of the grounding systems. From the literature analysis and experimental data it has been shown that steady state grounding resistance can differ from impulse grounding resistance. This phenomenon is caused by the ionization process and sparking occurring in the surrounding soil. Channel spark resistance is much less soil resistivity, therefore the soil resistivity and grounding resistance decrease. Calculations of potentials in the soil have been carried out using the finite element method. The experimental data have been compared with the results of the potential distribution calculation. It has been shown that the resulting spark channels in soils significantly affect the potential distribution. Accordingly, the sparking channels are to be considered while calculating the step voltage.

  7. Start-Stop Moment Optimization of Range Extender and Control Strategy Design for Extended -Range Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-bo; Han, Bing-yuan; Bei, Shao-yi

    2017-10-01

    Range extender is the core component of E-REV, its start-stop control determines the operation modes of vehicle. This paper based on a certain type of E-REV, researched constant power control strategy of range extender in extended-range model, to target range as constraint condition, combined with different driving cycle conditions, by correcting battery SOC for range extender start-stop moment, optimized the control strategy of range extender, and established the vehicle and range extender start-stop control simulation model. Selected NEDC and UDDS conditions simulation results show that: under certain target mileage, the range extender running time reduced by 37.2% and 28.2% in the NEDC condition, and running time UDDS conditions were reduced by 40.6% and 33.5% in the UDDS condition, reached the purpose of meeting the vehicle mileage and reducing consumption and emission.

  8. Extended duration of anticoagulation with edoxaban in patients with venous thromboembolism: a post-hoc analysis of the Hokusai-VTE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raskob, Gary; Ageno, Walter; Cohen, Alexander T.; Brekelmans, Marjolein P. A.; Grosso, Michael A.; Segers, Annelise; Meyer, Guy; Verhamme, Peter; Wells, Philip S.; Lin, Min; Winters, Shannon M.; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Büller, Harry R.

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on the relative efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants, such as edoxaban, compared with vitamin K antagonists during extended therapy for venous thromboembolism. This analysis evaluates the risk-benefit of extended treatment for up to 12 months with edoxaban compared

  9. Warped AdS{sub 3} black holes in higher derivative gravity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detournay, Stéphane [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Douxchamps, Laure-Anne [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Ng, Gim Seng [Department of Physics, McGill University,Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Zwikel, Céline [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2016-06-06

    We consider warped AdS{sub 3} black holes in generic higher derivatives gravity theories in 2+1 dimensions. The asymptotic symmetry group of the phase space containing these black holes is the semi-direct product of a centrally extended Virasoro algebra and an affine u(1) Kac-Moody algebra. Previous works have shown that in some specific theories, the entropy of these black holes agrees with a Cardy-like entropy formula derived for warped conformal field theories. In this paper, we show that this entropy matching continues to hold for the most general higher derivative theories of gravity. We also discuss the existence of phase transitions.

  10. Extending procedural justice theory: a Fiducia report on the design of new survey indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Jackson; Ben Bradford; Mike Hough; Stephany Carrillo

    2014-01-01

    A key goal of the Fiducia project is to extend procedural justice theory in three new directions. The first relates to public perceptions of new forms of criminal behaviour. The second concerns the applicability of procedural justice theory to these new forms of behaviour. The third considers the notion that legitimacy crosses national borders. In this Fiducia report we motivate and outline core theory, concepts and measures. We also present the questionnaire to be fielded in seven European c...

  11. Distributed Estimation of Oscillations in Power Systems: an Extended Kalman Filtering Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhe; Shi, Di; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Qibing; Huang, Junhui; Pan, Sen

    2017-01-01

    Online estimation of electromechanical oscillation parameters provides essential information to prevent system instability and blackout and helps to identify event categories and locations. We formulate the problem as a state space model and employ the extended Kalman filter to estimate oscillation frequencies and damping factors directly based on data from phasor measurement units. Due to considerations of communication burdens and privacy concerns, a fully distributed algorithm is proposed ...

  12. Extending Penning trap mass measurements with SHIPTRAP to the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Herfurth, F.; Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany and Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Droese, C.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Duellmann, Ch. E. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eibach, M. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, 35392 Giessen (Germany); Hessberger, F. P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Ramirez, E. Minaya [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany and GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Nesterenko, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-03-19

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides provides accurate mass values and absolute binding energies. Such mass measurements are sensitive indicators of the nuclear structure evolution far away from stability. Recently, direct mass measurements have been extended to the heavy elements nobelium (Z=102) and lawrencium (Z=103) with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. The results probe nuclear shell effects at N=152. New developments will pave the way to access even heavier nuclides.

  13. Extending OpenMP for NUMA Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bircsak

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes extensions to OpenMP that implement data placement features needed for NUMA architectures. OpenMP is a collection of compiler directives and library routines used to write portable parallel programs for shared-memory architectures. Writing efficient parallel programs for NUMA architectures, which have characteristics of both shared-memory and distributed-memory architectures, requires that a programmer control the placement of data in memory and the placement of computations that operate on that data. Optimal performance is obtained when computations occur on processors that have fast access to the data needed by those computations. OpenMP -- designed for shared-memory architectures -- does not by itself address these issues. The extensions to OpenMP Fortran presented here have been mainly taken from High Performance Fortran. The paper describes some of the techniques that the Compaq Fortran compiler uses to generate efficient code based on these extensions. It also describes some additional compiler optimizations, and concludes with some preliminary results.

  14. RNA interference and Register Machines (extended abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Hamano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is a mechanism whereby small RNAs (siRNAs directly control gene expression without assistance from proteins. This mechanism consists of interactions between RNAs and small RNAs both of which may be single or double stranded. The target of the mechanism is mRNA to be degraded or aberrated, while the initiator is double stranded RNA (dsRNA to be cleaved into siRNAs. Observing the digital nature of RNAi, we represent RNAi as a Minsky register machine such that (i The two registers hold single and double stranded RNAs respectively, and (ii Machine's instructions are interpreted by interactions of enzyme (Dicer, siRNA (with RISC com- plex and polymerization (RdRp to the appropriate registers. Interpreting RNAi as a computational structure, we can investigate the computational meaning of RNAi, especially its complexity. Initially, the machine is configured as a Chemical Ground Form (CGF, which generates incorrect jumps. To remedy this problem, the system is remodeled as recursive RNAi, in which siRNA targets not only mRNA but also the machine instructional analogues of Dicer and RISC. Finally, probabilistic termination is investigated in the recursive RNAi system.

  15. Affinity Propagation Clustering of Measurements for Multiple Extended Target Tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Zhang; Renbiao Wu

    2015-01-01

    More measurements are generated by the target per observation interval, when the target is detected by a high resolution sensor, or there are more measurement sources on the target surface. Such a target is referred to as an extended target. The probability hypothesis density filter is considered an efficient method for tracking multiple extended targets. However, the crucial problem of how to accurately and effectively partition the measurements of multiple extended targets remains unsolved....

  16. Extending Landauer's bound from bit erasure to arbitrary computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, David

    The minimal thermodynamic work required to erase a bit, known as Landauer's bound, has been extensively investigated both theoretically and experimentally. However, when viewed as a computation that maps inputs to outputs, bit erasure has a very special property: the output does not depend on the input. Existing analyses of thermodynamics of bit erasure implicitly exploit this property, and thus cannot be directly extended to analyze the computation of arbitrary input-output maps. Here we show how to extend these earlier analyses of bit erasure to analyze the thermodynamics of arbitrary computations. Doing this establishes a formal connection between the thermodynamics of computers and much of theoretical computer science. We use this extension to analyze the thermodynamics of the canonical ``general purpose computer'' considered in computer science theory: a universal Turing machine (UTM). We consider a UTM which maps input programs to output strings, where inputs are drawn from an ensemble of random binary sequences, and prove: i) The minimal work needed by a UTM to run some particular input program X and produce output Y is the Kolmogorov complexity of Y minus the log of the ``algorithmic probability'' of Y. This minimal amount of thermodynamic work has a finite upper bound, which is independent of the output Y, depending only on the details of the UTM. ii) The expected work needed by a UTM to compute some given output Y is infinite. As a corollary, the overall expected work to run a UTM is infinite. iii) The expected work needed by an arbitrary Turing machine T (not necessarily universal) to compute some given output Y can either be infinite or finite, depending on Y and the details of T. To derive these results we must combine ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics with fundamental results from computer science, such as Levin's coding theorem and other theorems about universal computation. I would like to ackowledge the Santa Fe Institute, Grant No

  17. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  18. Extending the amygdala in theories of threat processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew S.; Oler, Jonathan A.; Tromp, Do P.M.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2015-01-01

    The central extended amygdala is an evolutionarily conserved set of interconnected brain regions that play an important role in threat processing to promote survival. Two core components of the central extended amygdala, the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) are highly similar regions that serve complimentary roles by integrating fear- and anxiety-relevant information. Survival depends on the central extended amygdala's ability to rapidly integrate and respond to threats that vary in their immediacy, proximity, and characteristics. Future studies will benefit from understanding alterations in central extended amygdala function in relation to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25851307

  19. Affinity Propagation Clustering of Measurements for Multiple Extended Target Tracking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Renbiao

    2015-01-01

    .... In this paper, affinity propagation clustering is introduced into measurement partitioning for extended target tracking, and the elliptical gating technique is used to remove the clutter measurements...

  20. DirectX-pelimoottori

    OpenAIRE

    Heiskanen, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli opiskella ja tutkia DirectX 11 -ohjelmistorajapintoja ja tavoitteena oli ohjelmoida toimiva pelimoottorin runko Windows-ympäristöön. Työssä tutustuttiin Windows-ohjelmistokehitysympäristöön ja DirectX:n eri osa-alueisiin. Microsoftin kehittämä DirectX on kokoelma etenkin pelintekoon suunnattuja ohjelmointirajapintoja. DirectX tarjoaa yhtenäisen kehitysympäristön mm. grafiikanluontiin, äänien hallintaan ja ohjauslaitteita varten. DirectX esiintyi ensimmäisen...

  1. The Extended Mind Theory of Cognitive Distortions in Sex Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Tony

    2009-01-01

    An innovative theory of the nature of cognition, the extended mind theory (EMT), has emerged recently in the cognitive science literature. According to the EMT, the boundaries of the mind extend beyond the boundaries of skull and skin, into the world beyond. My aim in this paper is to consider the practical implications of the EMT for therapists…

  2. Do glycine-extended hormone precursors have clinical significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens Frederik

    2014-01-01

    and clinical effects of glycine-extended precursors for most other amidated hormones than gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK). The idea of glycine-extended peptides as independent messengers was interesting. But clinical science has to move ahead from ideas that cannot be supported at key points after decades...

  3. LR-parsing of Extended Context-free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    1976-01-01

    To improve the readability of a grammar it is common to use extended context free grammars (ECFGs) which are context free grammars (CFGs) extended with the repetition operator (*), the alternation operator (¦) and parentheses to express the right hand sides of the productions. The topic treated h...

  4. Relation of Core Dominance Parameter and Extended Spectral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The correlations between differences of two core domi- nance parameters and core/extended spectral index are investigated. The extended spectral index is associated with the differences very well, while there is a weak relationship between core spectral index and the differences. The average core spectral index ...

  5. Relation of Core Dominance Parameter and Extended Spectral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The correlations between differences of two core dominance parameters and core/extended spectral index are investigated. The extended spectral index is associated with the differences very well, while there is a weak relationship between core spectral index and the differences. The average core ...

  6. Is extended biopsy protocol justified in all patients with suspected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the significance of an extended 10-core transrectal biopsy protocol in different categories of patients with suspected prostate cancer using digital guidance. Materials and Methods: We studied 125 men who were being evaluated for prostate cancer. They all had an extended 10-core digitally guided ...

  7. General Extenders and Grammaticalization: Insights from London Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale study investigates variation in the use of general extenders (e.g. "and everything," "or something," "and all that") in the speech of a group of British children aged 7 to 11 years. The overarching aims of the study are to investigate whether preadolescents' use of general extenders is socially…

  8. Pseudorandomness analysis of the (extended) Lai–Massey scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Yiyuan; Desmedt, Y.; Lai, Xuejia; Gong, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we find that the two-round (extended) Lai–Massey scheme is not pseudorandom and three-round (extended) Lai–Massey scheme is not strong pseudorandom. Combined with previous work, we prove that three rounds are necessary and sufficient for the pseudorandomness and four rounds are

  9. An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; van Halteren, Aart; Konstantas, D.; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Mobile health systems extend the enterprise computing system of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a methodology for the development of such extended enterprise computing systems which applies a model-driven design and development approach

  10. Adhesion Properties of Plywood Glue Containing Soybean Meal as Extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of soybean meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive intended for sprayline coaters. Ground soybean meal, with 51.5% (dry basis, db) crude protein and 1.5% (db) residual oil, replaced the current industry extender, wheat flour, in the standard ...

  11. Evaluation of an Extended-Day Kindergarten Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Following a model for an extended-day kindergarten program that had been in operation in select schools for nearly 20 years, a southeastern Virginia school division expanded the Extended-Day Kindergarten (EDK) Program with an additional 40 classes in 39 schools during the 2006-2007 school year. The EDK Program supplemented the traditional half-day…

  12. Polyurethanes elastomers with amide chain extenders of uniform length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schuur, J.M.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Noordover, Bart; Gaymans, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate based polyurethanes with amide extenders were synthesized poly(propylene oxide) with a number average molecular weight of 2000 and endcapped with toluene diisocyanate was used as the polyether segment. The chain extenders were based on poly(hexamethylene terephthalamide):

  13. Distribution Profile of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Escherichia coli are known pathogenic organism that has caused diseases which has led to severe morbidity and increased death rate. The occurrence of extended spectrum beta Lactamase (bla) producing Escherichia coli has been on the rise. Water samples were investigated as a potential reservoir for the Extended ...

  14. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of vitamin E supplementation in tris-egg yolk extender on sperm parameters of West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was determined. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of vitamin E (2, 4, 6 and 8 mM) were diluted with semen samples. The diluted semen samples were cryopreserved for 30 ...

  15. Cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa in tris-egg yolk extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of melatonin supplementation in semen extenders on cryosurvival of spermatozoa obtained from West African Dwarf (WAD) goat bucks was studied. Tris-egg yolk extenders supplemented with different levels of melatonin (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM) were diluted with semen samples. The diluted semen samples were ...

  16. Series solutions and a perturbation formula for the extended ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Then we generalize the Tollmien–Lin perturbation formula for the behavior of ci, the imaginary part of the phase velocity as the wave number k → ks − to the extended Rayleigh problem and subsequently, we use this formula to demonstrate the instability of a particular shear flow. Keywords. Hydrodynamic stability; extended ...

  17. An application of augmented MDA for the extended healthcare enterprise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; van Halteren, Aart; Konstantas, D.; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile health systems extend the Enterprise Computing System (ECS) of the healthcare provider by bringing services to the patient any time and anywhere. We propose a methodology for the development of such extended ECSs which applies a model-driven design and development approach augmented with

  18. Continuous or extended cycle vs. cyclic use of combined hormonal contraceptives for contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Alison; Micks, Elizabeth; Gallo, Maria F; Jensen, Jeffrey T; Grimes, David A

    2014-07-29

    quality. However, the variations in type of hormones and time length for extended-cycle dosing make a formal meta-analysis impossible. Future studies should choose a previously described type of CHC and dosing regimen. More attention needs to be directed towards participant satisfaction, continuation, and menstruation-associated symptoms.

  19. Affinity Propagation Clustering of Measurements for Multiple Extended Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available More measurements are generated by the target per observation interval, when the target is detected by a high resolution sensor, or there are more measurement sources on the target surface. Such a target is referred to as an extended target. The probability hypothesis density filter is considered an efficient method for tracking multiple extended targets. However, the crucial problem of how to accurately and effectively partition the measurements of multiple extended targets remains unsolved. In this paper, affinity propagation clustering is introduced into measurement partitioning for extended target tracking, and the elliptical gating technique is used to remove the clutter measurements, which makes the affinity propagation clustering capable of partitioning the measurement in a densely cluttered environment with high accuracy. The Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter is implemented for multiple extended target tracking. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, which provides improved performance, while obviously reducing the computational complexity.

  20. Affinity Propagation Clustering of Measurements for Multiple Extended Target Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wu, Renbiao

    2015-09-08

    More measurements are generated by the target per observation interval, when the target is detected by a high resolution sensor, or there are more measurement sources on the target surface. Such a target is referred to as an extended target. The probability hypothesis density filter is considered an efficient method for tracking multiple extended targets. However, the crucial problem of how to accurately and effectively partition the measurements of multiple extended targets remains unsolved. In this paper, affinity propagation clustering is introduced into measurement partitioning for extended target tracking, and the elliptical gating technique is used to remove the clutter measurements, which makes the affinity propagation clustering capable of partitioning the measurement in a densely cluttered environment with high accuracy. The Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density filter is implemented for multiple extended target tracking. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, which provides improved performance, while obviously reducing the computational complexity.

  1. Auditory deficits in amusia extend beyond poor pitch perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Congenital amusia is a music perception disorder believed to reflect a deficit in fine-grained pitch perception and/or short-term or working memory for pitch. Because most measures of pitch perception include memory and segmentation components, it has been difficult to determine the true extent of pitch processing deficits in amusia. It is also unclear whether pitch deficits persist at frequencies beyond the range of musical pitch. To address these questions, experiments were conducted with amusics and matched controls, manipulating both the stimuli and the task demands. First, we assessed pitch discrimination at low (500Hz and 2000Hz) and high (8000Hz) frequencies using a three-interval forced-choice task. Amusics exhibited deficits even at the highest frequency, which lies beyond the existence region of musical pitch. Next, we assessed the extent to which frequency coding deficits persist in one- and two-interval frequency-modulation (FM) and amplitude-modulation (AM) detection tasks at 500Hz at slow (fm=4Hz) and fast (fm=20Hz) modulation rates. Amusics still exhibited deficits in one-interval FM detection tasks that should not involve memory or segmentation. Surprisingly, amusics were also impaired on AM detection, which should not involve pitch processing. Finally, direct comparisons between the detection of continuous and discrete FM demonstrated that amusics suffer deficits in both coding and segmenting pitch information. Our results reveal auditory deficits in amusia extending beyond pitch perception that are subtle when controlling for memory and segmentation, and are likely exacerbated in more complex contexts such as musical listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Video-assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy in myasthenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sonzogni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is an autoimmune disease marked by weakness of voluntary musculature. Medical and surgical therapy of adult myasthenia is well documented. There is little pediatric surgical evidence, only a few case reports being available. The aim of this paper is to verify whether the surgical and anesthesiological techniques can warrant an early and safe discharge from the operating room. The secondary aim is to assess the presence of perioperative indicators that can eventually be used as predictors of postoperative care. During the years 2006-2009, 10 pediatric patients were treated according to a surgical approach based on video assisted thoracoscopic extended thymectomy (VATET. Standard preoperative evaluation is integrated with functional respiratory tests. Anesthetic induction was made with propofol and fentanyl/remifentanyl and maintenance was obtained with sevoflurane/desflurane/propofol ± remifentanyl. A muscle relaxant was used in only one patient. Right or left double-lumen bronchial tube (Ruesch Bronchopart® Carlens placement was performed. Six patients were transferred directly to the surgical ward while 4 were discharged to the intensive care unit (ICU; ICU stay was no longer than 24 h. Length of hospital stay was 4.4±0.51 days. No patient was readmitted to the hospital and no surgical complications were reported. Volatile and intravenous anesthetics do not affect ventilator weaning, extubation or the postoperative course. Paralyzing agents are not totally contraindicated, especially if short-lasting agents are used with neuromuscular monitoring devices and new reversal drugs. Perioperative evaluation of the myasthenic patient is mandatory to assess the need for postoperative respiratory support and also predict timely extubation with early transfer to the surgical department. Availability of new drugs and of reversal drugs, the current practice of mini-invasive surgical techniques, and the availability of post

  3. Extended models for nosocomial infection: parameter estimation and model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alun; Khader, Karim; Redd, Andrew; Leecaster, Molly; Zhang, Yue; Jones, Makoto; Greene, Tom; Samore, Matthew

    2017-10-12

    We consider extensions to previous models for patient level nosocomial infection in several ways, provide a specification of the likelihoods for these new models, specify new update steps required for stochastic integration, and provide programs that implement these methods to obtain parameter estimates and model choice statistics. Previous susceptible-infected models are extended to allow for a latent period between initial exposure to the pathogen and the patient becoming themselves infectious, and the possibility of decolonization. We allow for multiple facilities, such as acute care hospitals or long-term care facilities and nursing homes, and for multiple units or wards within a facility. Patient transfers between units and facilities are tracked and accounted for in the models so that direct importation of a colonized individual from one facility or unit to another might be inferred. We allow for constant transmission rates, rates that depend on the number of colonized individuals in a unit or facility, or rates that depend on the proportion of colonized individuals. Statistical analysis is done in a Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to obtain a sample of parameter values from their joint posterior distribution. Cross validation, deviance information criterion and widely applicable information criterion approaches to model choice fit very naturally into this framework and we have implemented all three. We illustrate our methods by considering model selection issues and parameter estimation for data on methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance tests over 1 year at a Veterans Administration hospital comprising seven wards. © The authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  4. EXTENDING THE SCALABILITY OF ISTSOS WITHIN THE 4ONSE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Strigaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An Environmental Monitoring System (EMS is needed not only to prevent many natural risks such as droughts, flooding and landslides but also to provide information for a better management of water resources and crops irrigation and finally it helps to increase the reliability of weather and climatological models. In addition, a monitoring system can directly impact the economic, social and political spheres. Unfortunately, in most developing and low income countries, due to the high costs of hardware and software there is a lack of efficient monitoring systems. The aim of the 4onse project (analysis of Four times Open Non-conventional system for Sensing the Environment, funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation, is the development of a totally open solution to monitor the environment. As well as the hardware layer, a monitoring system needs a data management software usually hosted on a server structure. As a software platform which is SOS OGC compliant, istSOS is chosen to receive, manage, validate and distribute environmental data. In the following article a solution to support big data is presented to extend the istSOS capabilities. In fact, a sensors network can hardly stress a data management system because of the several concurrent users and sensors and the long time series which every weather station can easily produce. Thus, a software called istSOS-proxy is developed as a single access point over multiple instances of istSOS whose procedures are distributed to balance the total load. First results on the effectiveness of the solution are proved thanks to load testing simulations of different levels of concurrent users.

  5. A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Pouyan R; Park, Hame; Warkentin, Andrej; Kiebel, Stefan J; Bitzer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs). Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM). Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM) for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments.

  6. [The extended free lateral arm flap for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Yang, Xu-Dong; Li, Wei; Chen, Xiu-Juan; Hu, Qin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    To summary the application of the extended free lateral arm flaps for buccal soft tissue reconstruction after buccal cancer. From January to August 2011, three patients underwent the operation of buccal defect reconstruction using the extended free lateral arm flap in one-stage. PRCA was identification with the Doppler probe. According to the mark of PRCA, size and shape of defects, the flaps were designed and extended to the lateral epicondyle of humerus. The flap size ranged from 9 cm x 5 cm to 10 cm x 6 cm with a pedicle of 10 cm in length. The wounds at donor sites were closed directly. Vascular crisis happened in one case due to local negative pressure, which resolved after emergency management. All the flaps survived completely. The patients were followed up for 6 to 10 months with no recurrence. Both the esthetic and functional results were satisfactory. Two cases suffered from numb feeling in donor sites which alleviated six months later. The extended free lateral arm flap has reliable blood supply with appropriate thickness. It is an optional method for reconstruction of buccal defects after ablation of buccal cancer.

  7. The Extended Core Coax: A novel nanoarchitecture for lab-on-a-chip electrochemical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Amy E.; D'Imperio, Luke; Burns, Michael J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.

    We report a novel nanoarchitecture, the Extended Core Coax (ECC) that has applicability for the detection of biomarkers in lab-on-a-chip diagnostic devices. ECC is capable of providing accessible, highly sensitive, and specific disease diagnosis at point-of-care. The architecture represents a vertically oriented nanocoax comprised of a gold inner metal core that extends 200nm above a chrome outer metal shield, separated by a dielectric annulus. Each ECC chip contains 7 discrete sensing arrays, 0.49 mm2 in size, containing 35,000 nanoscale coaxes wired in parallel. Previous non-extended nanocoaxial architectures have demonstrated a limit of detection (LOD) of 2 ng/mL of cholera toxin using an off-chip setup. This sensitivity compares favorably to the standard optical ELISA used in clinical settings. The ECC matches this LOD, and additionally offers the benefit of specific and reliable biofunctionalization on the extended gold core. Thus, the ECC is an attractive candidate for development as a full lab-on-a-chip biosensor for detection of infectious disease biomarkers, such as cholera toxin, through tethering of biomarker recognition proteins, such as antibodies, directly on the device. Support from the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute award No. CA137681 and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases award No. AI100216).

  8. A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Pouyan R.; Park, Hame; Warkentin, Andrej; Kiebel, Stefan J.; Bitzer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs). Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM). Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM) for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments. PMID:28553219

  9. A Bayesian Reformulation of the Extended Drift-Diffusion Model in Perceptual Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouyan R. Fard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual decision making can be described as a process of accumulating evidence to a bound which has been formalized within drift-diffusion models (DDMs. Recently, an equivalent Bayesian model has been proposed. In contrast to standard DDMs, this Bayesian model directly links information in the stimulus to the decision process. Here, we extend this Bayesian model further and allow inter-trial variability of two parameters following the extended version of the DDM. We derive parameter distributions for the Bayesian model and show that they lead to predictions that are qualitatively equivalent to those made by the extended drift-diffusion model (eDDM. Further, we demonstrate the usefulness of the extended Bayesian model (eBM for the analysis of concrete behavioral data. Specifically, using Bayesian model selection, we find evidence that including additional inter-trial parameter variability provides for a better model, when the model is constrained by trial-wise stimulus features. This result is remarkable because it was derived using just 200 trials per condition, which is typically thought to be insufficient for identifying variability parameters in DDMs. In sum, we present a Bayesian analysis, which provides for a novel and promising analysis of perceptual decision making experiments.

  10. Bioequivalence of oxymorphone extended release and crush-resistant oxymorphone extended release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiske WD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Irma H Benedek, Janet Jobes, Qinfang Xiang, William D Fiske Endo Pharmaceuticals Inc, Chadds Ford, PA, USA Background: A formulation of crush-resistant extended-release opioids may deter abuse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of oxymorphone extended-release (Oxy-ER and a crush-resistant formulation of oxymorphone extended-release (Oxy-CRF. Methods: In three open-label, randomized studies, healthy adults at a clinical research center received two single oral doses of Oxy-ER and two single doses of Oxy-CRF, each separated by a ≥7-day washout. Doses were administered under fasted conditions (study 1, 5 mg doses; study 2, 40 mg doses or after a high-fat breakfast (study 3, 40 mg doses. Subjects administered 40 mg doses also received naltrexone. The primary endpoint was systemic oxymorphone exposure; the bioequivalence criterion was met if the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratio (Oxy-CRF/Oxy-ER for oxymorphone area under the curve from time 0 to the last measured concentration (AUC0–t, AUC from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–inf, and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax were within 0.8–1.25. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events. Results: In studies 1, 2, and 3, the safety population comprised 30, 37, and 36 subjects and the pharmacokinetics population comprised 27, 30, and 29 subjects, respectively. Oxy-ER and Oxy-CRF produced similar mean ± standard deviation oxymorphone AUC0–t (study 1, 5.05 ± 1.55 versus 5.29 ± 1.52 ng · h/mL; study 2, 31.51 ± 10.95 versus 31.23 ± 10.33 ng · h/mL; study 3, 50.16 ± 14.91 versus 49.01 ± 14.03 ng · h/mL and Cmax (0.38 ± 0.11 versus 0.37 ± 0.12 ng/mL; 2.37 ± 1.20 versus 2.41 ± 0.94 ng/mL; 5.87 ± 1.99 versus 5.63 ± 2.26 ng/mL under all conditions. The 90% confidence intervals for plasma oxymorphone AUC0–t, AUC0–inf, and Cmax fulfilled the bioequivalence criterion. Adverse event rates were similar with Oxy-ER and Oxy-CRF (study 1, 25

  11. Bioequivalence of oxymorphone extended release and crush-resistant oxymorphone extended release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Irma H; Jobes, Janet; Xiang, Qinfang; Fiske, William D

    2011-01-01

    Background A formulation of crush-resistant extended-release opioids may deter abuse. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioequivalence of oxymorphone extended-release (Oxy-ER) and a crush-resistant formulation of oxymorphone extended-release (Oxy-CRF). Methods In three open-label, randomized studies, healthy adults at a clinical research center received two single oral doses of Oxy-ER and two single doses of Oxy-CRF, each separated by a ≥7-day washout. Doses were administered under fasted conditions (study 1, 5 mg doses; study 2, 40 mg doses) or after a high-fat breakfast (study 3, 40 mg doses). Subjects administered 40 mg doses also received naltrexone. The primary endpoint was systemic oxymorphone exposure; the bioequivalence criterion was met if the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratio (Oxy-CRF/Oxy-ER) for oxymorphone area under the curve from time 0 to the last measured concentration (AUC0–t), AUC from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–inf), and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) were within 0.8–1.25. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events. Results In studies 1, 2, and 3, the safety population comprised 30, 37, and 36 subjects and the pharmacokinetics population comprised 27, 30, and 29 subjects, respectively. Oxy-ER and Oxy-CRF produced similar mean ± standard deviation oxymorphone AUC0–t (study 1, 5.05 ± 1.55 versus 5.29 ± 1.52 ng · h/mL; study 2, 31.51 ± 10.95 versus 31.23 ± 10.33 ng · h/mL; study 3, 50.16 ± 14.91 versus 49.01 ± 14.03 ng · h/mL) and Cmax (0.38 ± 0.11 versus 0.37 ± 0.12 ng/mL; 2.37 ± 1.20 versus 2.41 ± 0.94 ng/mL; 5.87 ± 1.99 versus 5.63 ± 2.26 ng/mL) under all conditions. The 90% confidence intervals for plasma oxymorphone AUC0–t, AUC0–inf, and Cmax fulfilled the bioequivalence criterion. Adverse event rates were similar with Oxy-ER and Oxy-CRF (study 1, 25% versus 23%; study 2, 9% versus 16%; study 3, 20% each group). Conclusion Oxy-CRF and Oxy-ER (5 mg and 40 mg) are bioequivalent

  12. Subacute narrowing of the left main coronary artery following directional atherectomy for proximal obstructive coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, J. J.; Koch, K. T.; van der Wal, A. C.; Becker, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Directional atherectomy is an alternative device for treatment of highly eccentric or proximal coronary lesions considered less suitable for balloon angioplasty. We report a patient with exuberant neointimal proliferation, extending into the left main coronary artery, following directional

  13. Intuitive Direction Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klippel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in this article test the hypothesis that formal direction models used in artificial intelligence correspond to intuitive direction concepts of humans. Cognitively adequate formal models of spatial relations are important for information retrieval tasks, cognitive robotics, and multiple spatial reasoning applications. We detail two experiments using two objects (airplanes systematically located in relation to each other. Participants performed a grouping task to make their intuitive direction concepts explicit. The results reveal an important, so far insufficiently discussed aspect of cognitive direction concepts: Intuitive (natural direction concepts do not follow a one-size-fits-all strategy. The behavioral data only forms a clear picture after participants' competing strategies are identified and separated into categories (groups themselves. The results are important for researchers and designers of spatial formalisms as they demonstrate that modeling cognitive direction concepts formally requires a flexible approach to capture group differences.

  14. Population aging and the extended family in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Population aging produces changes in the availability of kin with uncertain implications for extended living arrangements. We propose a highly stylized model that can be used to analyze and project age-specific proportions of adults living in extended and nuclear households. The model is applied to Taiwan using annual data from 1978-1998. We estimate cohort and age effects showing that more recently born cohorts of seniors are less likely to live in extended households, but that as seniors age the proportion living in extended households increases. The effect of individual aging has diminished over time, however. The proportion of non-senior adults living in extended households has increased steadily because changes in the age structure have increased the availability of older kin. The model is used to project living arrangements and we conclude that the proportion living in extended households will begin to decline gradually for both seniors and non-seniors. The extended family is becoming less important in Taiwan, but it is not on the way out.

  15. Direct Sowing of Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Alföldi, Thomas; Böhler, Daniel; Dierauer, Hansueli; Hegglin, Django; Böhler, Josef; Breiter, Hanspeter

    2015-01-01

    In organic farming, the plough is generally used in maize cultivation because it provides a simple way to control weed. Unfortunately, regarding soil erosion, compaction and runoff, ploughing is especially harmful in maize cultivation. Direct sowing of maize could largely solve these problems. The video presents the technique of direct sowing of maize, for example in a field of rolled field pea. In the last years, FiBL tests have shown that under optimal conditions, the direct s...

  16. Directional radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  17. Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Directed Energy Anechoic Chamber comprises a power anechoic chamber and one transverse electromagnetic cell for characterizing radiofrequency (RF) responses of...

  18. Colposcopy - directed biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... squamous cells - colposcopy; Pap smear - colposcopy; HPV - colposcopy; Human papilloma virus - colposcopy; Cervix - colposcopy; Colposcopy Images Female reproductive anatomy Colposcopy-directed biopsy Uterus References American College of ...

  19. Posttraumatic appendicitis: further extending the extended Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Charlotte; Goldner, D Eliot

    2009-06-01

    Several cases of appendicitis after blunt abdominal trauma have been reported in the literature. A 41-year-old man on a cruise ship began to experience acute abdominal pain several hours after cliff diving from a 20-ft height and landing hard against the water on his right side. The patient's symptoms were treated and he remained on the ship until its scheduled arrival in port 2 days later. In the emergency department, a bedside extended Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (eFAST) examination showed no evidence of free fluid in the abdominal cavity, pericardial effusion, or pneumothorax. Next, an ultrasound of the right lower quadrant was performed, which revealed a 1.06 cm, noncompressible appendix consistent with appendicitis. Although physical examination remains the gold standard for evaluation of the acute abdomen, the presentation of acute appendicitis is historically unreliable and delays in its diagnosis can result in significant increases in morbidity and mortality. Ultrasonography has been shown to have clear value in the evaluation of the acute abdomen. It is the authors' opinion that ultrasonography may have an unrealized potential as a diagnostic tool for traumatic appendicitis in the trauma bay and as a triage tool for the cruise ship physician who must evaluate a patient with traumatic abdominal pain and determine the need for medical evacuation.

  20. Pricing Extendible Options Using the Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Iqmal Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the fast Fourier transform (FFT approach, within the Black-Scholes framework, to the valuation of options whose time to maturity can be extended to a future date (extendible options. We determine the valuation of the extendible options as sums of expectations of indicator functions, leading to a semianalytic expression for the value of the options over a range of strikes. Compared to Monte Carlo simulation, numerical examples demonstrate that the FFT is both computationally more efficient and higher in accuracy.

  1. Extracting weights from edge directions to find communities in directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Darong; Lu, Hongtao; Nardini, Christine

    2010-06-01

    Community structures are found to exist ubiquitously in real-world complex networks. We address here the problem of community detection in directed networks. Most of the previous literature ignores edge directions and applies methods designed for community detection in undirected networks, which discards valuable information and often fails when different communities are defined on the basis of incoming and outgoing edges. We suggest extracting information about edge directions using a PageRank random walk and translating such information into edge weights. After extraction we obtain a new weighted directed network in which edge directions can then be safely ignored. We thus transform community detection in directed networks into community detection in reweighted undirected networks. Such an approach can benefit directly from the large volume of algorithms for the detection of communities in undirected networks already developed, since it is not obvious how to extend these algorithms to account for directed networks and the procedure is often difficult. Validations on synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate that the proposed framework can effectively detect communities in directed networks.

  2. Online Cancer Information Seeking: Applying and Extending the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stee, Stephanie K; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-10-30

    This study applied the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS) to online cancer information and extended the model by incorporating an exogenous variable: interest in online health information exchange with health providers. A nationally representative sample from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 4 was analyzed to examine the extended CMIS in predicting online cancer information seeking. Findings from a structural equation model supported most of the hypotheses derived from the CMIS, as well as the extension of the model related to interest in online health information exchange. In particular, socioeconomic status, beliefs, and interest in online health information exchange predicted utility. Utility, in turn, predicted online cancer information seeking, as did information-carrier characteristics. An unexpected but important finding from the study was the significant, direct relationship between cancer worry and online cancer information seeking. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. The modulational instability in the extended Hasegawa-Mima equation with a finite Larmor radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S.; Hnat, B.; Connaughton, C.; Nazarenko, S.; Rowlands, G.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of the finite Larmor radius on the generation of zonal flows by the four-wave modulational instability are investigated using an extended form of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. Growth rates of the zonal mode are quantified using analytical predictions from a four-mode truncated model, as well as from direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear extended Hasegawa-Mima equation. We not only consider purely zonal flows but also examine the generic oblique case and show that, for small Larmor radii, off-axis modes may become dominant. We find a key parameter Mρ which characterises the behaviour of the system due to changes in the Larmor radius. We find that, similarly to previous results obtained by changing the driving wave amplitude, two separate dynamical regimes can be accessed. These correspond to oscillatory energy transfer between zonal flows and a driving wave and the fully saturated zonal flow.

  4. The modulational instability in the extended Hasegawa-Mima equation with a finite Larmor radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, S.; Hnat, B.; Rowlands, G. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Connaughton, C.; Nazarenko, S. [Department of Mathematics, Warwick University, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of the finite Larmor radius on the generation of zonal flows by the four-wave modulational instability are investigated using an extended form of the Hasegawa-Mima equation. Growth rates of the zonal mode are quantified using analytical predictions from a four-mode truncated model, as well as from direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear extended Hasegawa-Mima equation. We not only consider purely zonal flows but also examine the generic oblique case and show that, for small Larmor radii, off-axis modes may become dominant. We find a key parameter M{sub {rho}} which characterises the behaviour of the system due to changes in the Larmor radius. We find that, similarly to previous results obtained by changing the driving wave amplitude, two separate dynamical regimes can be accessed. These correspond to oscillatory energy transfer between zonal flows and a driving wave and the fully saturated zonal flow.

  5. Extended-Range Passive RFID and Sensor Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Kennedy, Timothy F.; Lin, Gregory Y.; Barton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Extended-range passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and related sensor tags are undergoing development. A tag of this type incorporates a retroreflective antenna array, so that it reflects significantly more signal power back toward an interrogating radio transceiver than does a comparable passive RFID tag of prior design, which does not incorporate a retroreflective antenna array. Therefore, for a given amount of power radiated by the transmitter in the interrogating transceiver, a tag of this type can be interrogated at a distance greater than that of the comparable passive RFID or sensor tag of prior design. The retroreflective antenna array is, more specifically, a Van Atta array, named after its inventor and first published in a patent issued in 1959. In its simplest form, a Van Atta array comprises two antenna elements connected by a transmission line so that the signal received by each antenna element is reradiated by the other antenna element (see Figure 1). The phase relationships among the received and reradiated signals are such as to produce constructive interference of the reradiated signals; that is, to concentrate the reradiated signal power in a direction back toward the source. Hence, an RFID tag equipped with a Van Atta antenna array automatically tracks the interrogating transceiver. The effective gain of a Van Atta array is the same as that of a traditional phased antenna array having the same number of antenna elements. Additional pairs of antenna elements connected by equal-length transmission lines can be incorporated into a Van Atta array to increase its directionality. Like some RFID tags here-to-fore commercially available, an RFID or sensor tag of the present developmental type includes one-port surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) devices. In simplified terms, the mode of operation of a basic one-port SAW device as used heretofore in an RFID device is the following: An interrogating radio signal is converted, at an input end, from

  6. On directed coverings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    In [1], we study coverings in the setting of directed topology. Unfortunately, there is a condition missing in the definition of a directed covering. Some of the results in [1] require this extra condition and in fact it was claimed to follow from the original definition. It is the purpose...

  7. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  8. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  9. Directionality effects in percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Sidney

    The percolation properties of random networks containing resistors (two-way streets) and/or diodes (one-way streets) are considered. The directionality constraints of the diodes are found to lead to novel geometrical behavior. As a simple example, various random cluster models with a preferred direction, such as directed random walks or directed lattice animals, are shown to be anisotropic in character. The critical behavior of directed percolation is then treated and its connection with branching Markov processes is explained. A closely related "reverse" percolation problem, a transition from one-way percolation to isotropic percolation, is introduced. Finally, the geometrical properties of a network containing arbitrarily oriented diodes are treated. Symmetry and duality arguments are applied to yield exact results for certain aspects of its critical behavior.

  10. Symposium on quantum electronics. Extended abstracts of contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    Extended abstracts are provided for papers presented in these subject areas: lasers; quantum optics; nonlinear optics; laser photochemistry; laser spectroscopy; laser scattering; laser produced plasma; and laser applications. (GHT)

  11. Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...

  12. Creating a Generic Extended Enterprise Management Model using GERAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Kaas-Pedersen, Carsten; Vesterager, Johan

    1998-01-01

    of virtual enterprises. Through the introduction of GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) an initial version of a basic framework for extended enterprise management is introduced. This basic framework is the first step towards the creation of a generic extended enterprise......The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept...... management model. By working with GERAM in relation to extended enterprise management it has been found that it provides a useful background for organising knowledge, experience and the activities within the project...

  13. A propositional typicality logic for extending rational consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available -1 Trends in Belief Revision and Argumentation Dynamics Book chapter A Propositional Typicality Logic for Extending Rational Consequence Richard Booth, Thomas Meyer, Ivan Varzinczak CSIR, Meraka Institute, Pretoria, South Africa, 0001 Corresponding...

  14. Optical technologies in extended-reach access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Elaine; Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    The merging of access and metro networks has been proposed as a solution to lower the unit cost of customer bandwidth. This paper reviews some of the recent advances and challenges in extended-reach optical access networks....

  15. NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature dataset derived from the International...

  16. Analytical Results Connecting Stellar Structure Parameters and Extended Reaction Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans J. Haubold

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible modification in the velocity distribution in the nonresonant reaction rates leads to an extended reaction rate probability integral. The closed form representation for these thermonuclear functions is used to obtain the stellar luminosity and neutrino emission rates. The composite parameter that determines the standard nuclear reaction rate through the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution is extended to * by the extended reaction rates through a more general distribution than the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The new distribution is obtained by the pathway model introduced by Mathai (2005. Simple analytic models considered by various authors are utilized for evaluating stellar luminosity and neutrino emission rates and are obtained in generalized special functions such as Meijer's G-function and Fox's H-function. The standard and extended nonresonant thermonuclear functions are compared by plotting them. Behaviour of the new energy distribution, which is more general than the Maxwell-Boltzmann, is also studied.

  17. Analogy to Derive an Extended Pythagorean Theorem to ''N'' Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta-Robledo J.U.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates that it is possible to extend the Pythagorean Theorem to ''N'' dimensions. This demonstration is mainly done based on linear algebra, especially in the vector product of ''N'' dimensions.

  18. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  19. Drug Extends Lives of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extends Lives of Patients With Advanced Prostate Cancer: Studies Findings could 'change clinical practice overnight,' leading oncologist ... when added to standard androgen deprivation therapy, both studies found. Abiraterone also appeared to more than double ...

  20. A note on extending decision algorithms by stable predicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ferro

    1988-11-01

    Full Text Available A general mechanism to extend decision algorithms to deal with additional predicates is described. The only conditions imposed on the predicates is stability with respect to some transitive relations.

  1. The entity-to-algorithm allocation problem: Extending the analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the investigation into the algorithm selection problem in hyper-heuristics, otherwise referred to as the entity-to-algorithm allocation problem, introduced by Grobler et al.. Two newly developed population-based portfolio...

  2. Optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation is studied. The optimal control under boundary condition is given, the existence of optimal solution to the equation is proved and the optimality system is established.

  3. Prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (esbls) among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Confirmed variants of enterobacteriaceae isolated from 143 patients that attended Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, were screened for extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint. Suspected ESBLs producers were subjected to ...

  4. Direction of dependence in measurement error models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Wolfgang; Merkle, Edgar C; von Eye, Alexander

    2017-09-05

    Methods to determine the direction of a regression line, that is, to determine the direction of dependence in reversible linear regression models (e.g., x→y vs. y→x), have experienced rapid development within the last decade. However, previous research largely rested on the assumption that the true predictor is measured without measurement error. The present paper extends the direction dependence principle to measurement error models. First, we discuss asymmetric representations of the reliability coefficient in terms of higher moments of variables and the attenuation of skewness and excess kurtosis due to measurement error. Second, we identify conditions where direction dependence decisions are biased due to measurement error and suggest method of moments (MOM) estimation as a remedy. Third, we address data situations in which the true outcome exhibits both regression and measurement error, and propose a sensitivity analysis approach to determining the robustness of direction dependence decisions against unreliably measured outcomes. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the performance of MOM-based direction dependence measures and their robustness to violated measurement error assumptions (i.e., non-independence and non-normality). An empirical example from subjective well-being research is presented. The plausibility of model assumptions and links to modern causal inference methods for observational data are discussed. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Extended germa[N]pericyclynes: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Hiroki; Fujiwara, Taro; Mori, Junta; Nagao, Tomohiko; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Morimoto, Tsumoru; Ito, Shunichiro; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki; Kakiuchi, Kiyomi

    2017-02-14

    We herein describe the syntheses and characterization of extended germa[N]pericyclynes, which are macrocycles composed of germanium-butadiyne units. The obtained novel extended germa[4]-[8]pericyclynes were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence and phosphorescence emission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, and exhibited characteristic absorptions and emissions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggested smaller HOMO-LUMO gap energy compared to that of general germapericyclynes.

  6. Extended Riemann-Liouville type fractional derivative operator with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a class of new extended forms of the beta function, Gauss hypergeometric function and Appell-Lauricella hypergeometric functions by means of the modified Bessel function of the third kind. Some typical generating relations for these extended hypergeometric functions are obtained by defining the extension of the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative operator. Their connections with elementary functions and Fox’s H-function are also presented.

  7. Extending product modeling methods for integrated product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonev, Martin; Wörösch, Michael; Hauksdóttir, Dagný

    2013-01-01

    . Updated design requirements have then to be made explicit and mapped against the existing product architecture. In this paper, existing methods are adapted and extended through linking updated requirements to suitable product models. By combining several established modeling techniques, such as the DSM......Despite great efforts within the modeling domain, the majority of methods often address the uncommon design situation of an original product development. However, studies illustrate that development tasks are predominantly related to redesigning, improving, and extending already existing products...

  8. Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....

  9. Extended Yeh's method for optically active anisotropic layered media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Arteaga, Oriol

    2017-09-15

    We extend the original method of Yeh [J. Opt. Soc. Am.69, 742 (1979)JOSAAH0030-394110.1364/JOSA.69.000742] for calculating the reflection and transmission from anisotropic layered structures to media exhibiting not only dielectric, but also magnetic anisotropy, as well as optical activity. We likewise establish the relationship between the optical activity and gyration tensors from the two most used constitutive relations for optically active media and illustrate the extended Yeh's method on a practically important example.

  10. Extending Particle Swarm Optimisers with Self-Organized Criticality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvbjerg, Morten; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    Particle swarm optimisers (PSOs) show potential in function optimisation, but still have room for improvement. Self-organized criticality (SOC) can help control the PSO and add diversity. Extending the PSO with SOC seems promising reaching faster convergence and better solutions.......Particle swarm optimisers (PSOs) show potential in function optimisation, but still have room for improvement. Self-organized criticality (SOC) can help control the PSO and add diversity. Extending the PSO with SOC seems promising reaching faster convergence and better solutions....

  11. Solvability of Extended General Strongly Mixed Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwant Singh Thakur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of extended general strongly mixed variational inequalities is introduced and studied in Hilbert spaces. An existence theorem of solution is established and using resolvent operator technique, a new iterative algorithm for solving the extended general strongly mixed variational inequality is suggested. A convergence result for the iterative sequence generated by the new algorithm is also established.

  12. Extended-Release Niacin Acutely Suppresses Postprandial Triglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M. Haris U.; Qamar, Arman; Gadi, Ramprasad; Lilly, Scott; Goel, Harsh; Hampson, Jaison; Mucksavage, Megan L.; Nathanson, Grace A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Dunbar, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Postprandial triglyceridemia predicts cardiovascular events. Niacin might lower postprandial triglycerides (TG) by restricting free fatty acid (FFA). Immediate-release niacin reduced postprandial TGs, but extended-release niacin failed to do so when dosed the night before a fat challenge. Aims 1) Determine whether extended-release niacin dosed before a fat challenge suppresses postprandial TG. 2) Determine whether postprandial TG is related to FFA restriction. Methods Double-blinded, placebo-controlled, random-order crossover experiment, where healthy volunteers took 2 g extended-release niacin or placebo 1 hour before heavy cream. We sampled blood over 12 hours, and report TG and FFA as means±SD for incremental area under the curve (iAUC) and nadir. Results Combining 43 fat challenges from 22 subjects, postprandial TG iAUC was +312±200 on placebo vs +199±200 mg/dL*h on extended-release niacin (33% drop, p= 0.02). The incremental nadir for FFA was −0.07±0.15 on placebo vs −0.27±0.13 mmol/L on extended-release niacin (pniacin (20% drop, p=0.0015). The TG iAUC was strongly related to the post-dose drop in FFA (r=+0.58, p=0.0007). Conclusions Given right before a fat meal, even a single dose of extended-release niacin suppresses postprandial triglyceridemia. This establishes that postprandial TG suppression is an acute pharmacodynamic effect of extended-release niacin, probably the result of marked FFA restriction. Further study is warranted to determine whether mealtime dosing would augment the clinical efficacy of extended-release niacin therapy. PMID:22840917

  13. Extending a BDI agents' architecture with open emotional components

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Espinosa, Bexy; Vivancos Rubio, Emilio; Botti Navarro, Vicente Juan

    2014-01-01

    Recently an increasing amount of research focuses on improving agents believability by adding affective features to its traditional modeling. This is probably due to the demands of reaching ever more realistic behaviors on agents simulations which extends to several and diverse applications fields. The present work proposes O3A: an Open Affective Agent Architecture, which extends a traditional BDI agent architecture improving a practical reasoning with more “human” characteristics. This archi...

  14. Calculation of transonic flows using an extended integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, D.

    1976-01-01

    An extended integral equation method for transonic flows is developed. In the extended integral equation method velocities in the flow field are calculated in addition to values on the aerofoil surface, in contrast with the less accurate 'standard' integral equation method in which only surface velocities are calculated. The results obtained for aerofoils in subcritical flow and in supercritical flow when shock waves are present compare satisfactorily with the results of recent finite difference methods.

  15. A Note of Extended Proca Equations and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianto V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for quite long time that the electrodynamics of Maxwell equations can be extended and generalized further into Proca equations. The implications of in- troducing Proca equations include an alternative description of superconductivity, via extending London equations. In the light of another paper suggesting that Maxwell equations can be written using quaternion numbers, then we discuss a plausible exten- sion of Proca equation using biquaternion number. Further implications and experi- ments are recommended.

  16. Effect of Molecular Chain Structure on Fracture Mechanical Properties of Aeronautical Polymethyl Methacrylate Using Extended Digital Image Correlation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to investigate the fracture mechanical properties of aeronautical polymethyl methacrylate, which has been treated with directional tensile technology. Because of the special processing of directional polymethyl methacrylate, the molecular chain structures are different in different directions. The mechanical properties depend on the specific molecular chain structures. We use extended digital image correlation to measure the displacement field near the tip of the crack when the cracks grow in different directions in directional polymethyl methacrylate. We then tested the critical load for different specimens and analyzed the fracture morphology of the different specimens. Thanks to the experimental results, a molecular chain model of directional polymethyl methacrylate could be established. The analysis results using the molecular chain model are consistent with the experiments, which confirms the reliability of the molecular chain model.

  17. Analysis of RTM extended images for VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir

    2016-04-28

    Extended images obtained from reverse time migration (RTM) contain information about the accuracy of the velocity field and subsurface illumination at different incidence angles. Here, we evaluate the influence of errors in the anisotropy parameters on the shape of the residual moveout (RMO) in P-wave RTM extended images for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media. Using the actual spatial distribution of the zero-dip NMO velocity (Vnmo), which could be approximately estimated by conventional techniques, we analyze the extended images obtained with distorted fields of the parameters η and δ. Differential semblance optimization (DSO) and stack-power estimates are employed to study the sensitivity of focusing to the anisotropy parameters. We also build angle gathers to facilitate interpretation of the shape of RMO in the extended images. The results show that the signature of η is dip-dependent, whereas errors in δ cause defocusing only if that parameter is laterally varying. Hence, earlier results regarding the influence of η and δ on reflection moveout and migration velocity analysis remain generally valid in the extended image space for complex media. The dependence of RMO on errors in the anisotropy parameters provides essential insights for anisotropic wavefield tomography using extended images.

  18. Pramipexole Extended Release: A Novel Treatment Option in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Eisenreich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pramipexole, the most commonly prescribed dopamine agonist worldwide, meanwhile serves as a reference substance for evaluation of new drugs. Based on numerous clinical data and vast experiences, efficacy and safety profiles of this non-ergoline dopamine agonist are well characterized. Since October 2009, an extended-release formulation of pramipexole has been available for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Pramipexole administration can be cut down from three times to once a day due to the newly developed extended-release formulation. This is considerable progress in regard to minimizing pill burden and enhancing compliance. Moreover, the 24 h continuous drug release of the once-daily extended-release formulation results in fewer fluctuations in plasma concentrations over time compared to immediate-release pramipexole, given three times daily. The present study summarizes pharmacokinetics and all essential pharmacological and clinical characteristics of the extended-release formulation. In addition, it provides all study data, available so far, with regard to transition and de-novo administration of extended-release formulation for patients with Parkinson's disease. It further compares efficacy and safety data of immediate-release pramipexole with the extended-release formulation of pramipexole.

  19. Pramipexole extended release: a novel treatment option in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenreich, Wolfram; Sommer, Bernd; Hartter, Sebastian; Jost, Wolfgang H

    2010-12-19

    Pramipexole, the most commonly prescribed dopamine agonist worldwide, meanwhile serves as a reference substance for evaluation of new drugs. Based on numerous clinical data and vast experiences, efficacy and safety profiles of this non-ergoline dopamine agonist are well characterized. Since October 2009, an extended-release formulation of pramipexole has been available for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Pramipexole administration can be cut down from three times to once a day due to the newly developed extended-release formulation. This is considerable progress in regard to minimizing pill burden and enhancing compliance. Moreover, the 24 h continuous drug release of the once-daily extended-release formulation results in fewer fluctuations in plasma concentrations over time compared to immediate-release pramipexole, given three times daily. The present study summarizes pharmacokinetics and all essential pharmacological and clinical characteristics of the extended-release formulation. In addition, it provides all study data, available so far, with regard to transition and de-novo administration of extended-release formulation for patients with Parkinson's disease. It further compares efficacy and safety data of immediate-release pramipexole with the extended-release formulation of pramipexole.

  20. Laboratory directed research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-15

    The purposes of Argonne's Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program are to encourage the development of novel concepts, enhance the Laboratory's R D capabilities, and further the development of its strategic initiatives. Among the aims of the projects supported by the Program are establishment of engineering proof-of-principle''; development of an instrumental prototype, method, or system; or discovery in fundamental science. Several of these project are closely associated with major strategic thrusts of the Laboratory as described in Argonne's Five Year Institutional Plan, although the scientific implications of the achieved results extend well beyond Laboratory plans and objectives. The projects supported by the Program are distributed across the major programmatic areas at Argonne. Areas of emphasis are (1) advanced accelerator and detector technology, (2) x-ray techniques in biological and physical sciences, (3) advanced reactor technology, (4) materials science, computational science, biological sciences and environmental sciences. Individual reports summarizing the purpose, approach, and results of projects are presented.