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Sample records for expressive language function

  1. Atypical cortical language organization in epilepsy patients: evidence for divergent hemispheric dominance for receptive and expressive language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliashiv, Dawn S; Kurelowech, Lacey; Quint, Patti; Chung, Jeffrey M; Otis, Shirley M; Gage, Nicole M

    2014-06-01

    The central goal of presurgical language mapping is to identify brain regions that subserve cortical language function to minimize postsurgical language deficits. Presurgical language mapping in patients with epilepsy presents a key challenge because of the atypical pattern of hemispheric language dominance found in this population, with higher incidences of bilateral and right-biased language dominance than typical. In this prospective study, we combine magnetoencephalography with a panel of tasks designed to separately assess receptive and expressive function to provide a sensitive measure of language function in 15 candidates for resective surgery. We report the following: 4 of 15 patients (27%) showed left hemisphere dominance across all tasks, 4 of 15 patients (27%) showed right hemisphere dominance across all tasks, and 7 of 15 (46%) showed discordant language dominance, with right-dominant receptive and left-dominant expressive language. All patients with discordant language dominance showed this right-receptive and left-expressive pattern. Results provide further evidence supporting the importance of using a panel of tasks to assess separable aspects of language function. The clinical relevance of the findings is discussed, especially about current clinical operative measures for assessing language dominance, which use single hemisphere procedure (intracarotid amobarbital procedure and awake intraoperative stimulation) for determining language laterality.

  2. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  3. Comparison of two fMRI tasks for the evaluation of the expressive language function

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    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Martinez, Juan-Carlos [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Valencia (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    Presurgical evaluation of language is important in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery since language decline is a frequent complication after an operation. Different functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks, such as the verb generation task (VGT) and the verbal fluency task (VFT) have been employed. Our objective was to compare how effective these tasks are at evaluating language functioning in controls (study 1) and patients (study 2). Eighteen controls and 58 patient candidates for neurosurgery (16 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 42 patients with brain lesions: 11 astrocytomas, six cavernomas, 14 gliomas, four AVM and seven meningiomas) were recruited in order to compare the activation patterns of language areas as determined by the VGT and VFT. In both samples, the VGT produced a more specific activation of left Broca's area. In contrast, the VFT yielded a wider and more intense activation of the left Broca's area in controls, as well as other activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Additionally, both studies showed good agreement on language dominance derived from the tasks, although there was some variability in laterality index scores. Both language tasks are useful in evaluation of expressive language. The VGT is a more specific task, while the VFT is more unspecific but activates language-related areas that are not found with the VGT owing to its phonological component. Therefore, each task contributes to the lateralisation and localisation of expressive language areas with complementary information. The advisability of combining tasks to improve fMRI presurgical evaluation is confirmed. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of two fMRI tasks for the evaluation of the expressive language function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar; Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Martinez, Juan-Carlos; Villanueva, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Presurgical evaluation of language is important in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery since language decline is a frequent complication after an operation. Different functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tasks, such as the verb generation task (VGT) and the verbal fluency task (VFT) have been employed. Our objective was to compare how effective these tasks are at evaluating language functioning in controls (study 1) and patients (study 2). Eighteen controls and 58 patient candidates for neurosurgery (16 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 42 patients with brain lesions: 11 astrocytomas, six cavernomas, 14 gliomas, four AVM and seven meningiomas) were recruited in order to compare the activation patterns of language areas as determined by the VGT and VFT. In both samples, the VGT produced a more specific activation of left Broca's area. In contrast, the VFT yielded a wider and more intense activation of the left Broca's area in controls, as well as other activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the striatum. Additionally, both studies showed good agreement on language dominance derived from the tasks, although there was some variability in laterality index scores. Both language tasks are useful in evaluation of expressive language. The VGT is a more specific task, while the VFT is more unspecific but activates language-related areas that are not found with the VGT owing to its phonological component. Therefore, each task contributes to the lateralisation and localisation of expressive language areas with complementary information. The advisability of combining tasks to improve fMRI presurgical evaluation is confirmed. (orig.)

  5. Comparative Study of Early Childhood High-Function Autism and Developmental Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchen Yang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal cognitive profile and general social functioning were compared between two groups of children aged 5 to 7 years, one with high-function autism and the other with developmental mixed receptive-expressive language disorders. The two groups, totaling 50 children, were matched for age and non-verbal IQ (mean, 90. Both groups had impaired verbal cognitive profile and social adaptive functioning, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The implications of our findings are discussed. Current preschool and early childhood medical-educational intervention programs in Taiwan must design and implement curricula in which children with language delay, whether autistic or not, can develop essential social skills.

  6. Personality expression in Chinese language use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lin; Lu, Jiahui; Ramsay, Jonathan; Yang, Shanshan; Qu, Weina; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-12-01

    To date, little research has investigated personality expressions in languages other than English. Given that the Chinese language has the largest number of native speakers in the world, it is vitally important to examine the associations between personality and Chinese language use. In this research, we analysed Chinese microblogs and identified word categories and factorial structures associated with personality traits. We also compared our results with previous findings in English and showed that linguistic expression of personality has both universal- and language-specific aspects. Expression of personality via content words is more likely to be consistent across languages than expression via function words. This makes an important step towards uncovering universal patterns of personality expression in language. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. A survey of functional programming language principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  8. Two Functions of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Carol Fleisher

    1977-01-01

    Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopic study and the Wada test for presurgical evaluation of expressive and receptive language functions in glioma patients: with a case report of dissociated language functions.

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    Sato, Yosuke; Uzuka, Takeo; Aoki, Hiroshi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Oishi, Makoto; Fukuda, Masafumi; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-02-29

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has proven to be useful for the evaluation of language lateralization in healthy subjects, infants, and epileptic patients. This study for the first time investigated the expressive and receptive language functions separately, using NIRS in presurgical glioma patients. We also describe a special case with dissociated pattern of language functions. Ten glioma patients were examined. Using NIRS, the hemodynamic changes during a verb generation task or story listening task were measured in the cerebral hemisphere on either side covering the language areas. Following the NIRS study, the Wada test was performed in all the patients. The NIRS study revealed increases of oxyhemoglobin and decreases of deoxyhemoglobin in the language areas elicited by both tasks. In 9 patients, who were all right-handed, the expressive and receptive language functions were lateralized to the left hemisphere. The results of the NIRS study were completely consistent with those of the Wada test. In the remaining 1 patient with a right sided insular glioma, who was right-handed, the NIRS study revealed stronger activation of the right inferior frontal region during the verb generation task, and stronger activation of the left superior temporal region during the story listening task. This dissociated language function was validated by the Wada test and the postoperative neurological course. These results demonstrate that a NIRS study using our technique is extremely valuable for preoperative assessment of the language functions and exemplifies how a preoperative NIRS study can allow detection of unforeseen language lateralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  11. Laboratory automation in a functional programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runciman, Colin; Clare, Amanda; Harkness, Rob

    2014-12-01

    After some years of use in academic and research settings, functional languages are starting to enter the mainstream as an alternative to more conventional programming languages. This article explores one way to use Haskell, a functional programming language, in the development of control programs for laboratory automation systems. We give code for an example system, discuss some programming concepts that we need for this example, and demonstrate how the use of functional programming allows us to express and verify properties of the resulting code. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. Dissociated language functions: a matter of atypical language lateralization or cerebral plasticity?

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    Acioly, Marcus Andre; Gharabaghi, Alireza; Zimmermann, Christoph; Erb, Michael; Heckl, Stefan; Tatagiba, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The left hemisphere is generally considered to harbor language functions. Atypical cortical language lateralization is mainly demonstrated in left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, whereas dissociated language functions have been reported in association with brain injuries as a part of the reorganization process. We present a thoughtful discussion on the underlying mechanisms of dissociated language functions through an illustrative case of dissociated expressive language. A 31-year-old left-handed woman presented with a recurrent left frontal glioma. Preoperative language functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) panel revealed right-sided dominance for two different language tasks (verbal fluency and visual naming), and the word chain task demonstrated maximal activation in the left hemisphere at the posterior margin of the tumor. The patient was operated on awake to assess language functions intraoperatively. Preoperative fMRI findings were confirmed revealing a task-specific dissociation of expressive language functions. Surgical resection was taken to the functional boundaries. Postoperatively, no language dysfunction occurred. Dissociated language functions are prone to occur in long-standing lesions. Different patterns of dissociation may be encountered due to interindividual particularities and cerebral plasticity. The presented patient is unique by demonstrating new insight into expressive language dissociation, emphasizing the role of a preoperative language fMRI panel and the capability of intraoperative language mapping for identifying special language networks. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Persistent Functional Languages: Toward Functional Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Functional languages provide new approaches to concurrency control, based on techniques such as lazy evaluation and memoization. We have designed and implemented a persistent functional language based on these ideas, which we plan to use for the implementation of a relational database system. With

  14. Two functions of early language experience.

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    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  15. Mandarin functional MRI Language paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ci, He; van Graan, Andre; Gonz?lvez, Gloria; Thompson, Pamela; Hill, Andrea; Duncan, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. Materials and Methods Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency?character (VFC), and verbal fluency?letter (VFL). All functional images wer...

  16. Towards a reversible functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    /equality operator also simplifies inverse computation and program inversion. We discuss the advantages of a reversible functional language using example programs, including run-length encoding. Program inversion is seen to be as lightweight as for imperative reversible languages and realized by recursive descent...

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: language function.

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    Epstein, C M

    1998-07-01

    Studies of language using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have focused both on identification of language areas and on elucidation of function. TMS may result in either inhibition or facilitation of language processes and may operate directly at a presumptive site of language cortex or indirectly through intracortical networks. TMS has been used to create reversible "temporary lesions," similar to those produced by Wada tests and direct cortical electrical stimulation, in cerebral cortical areas subserving language function. Rapid-rate TMS over the left inferior frontal region blocks speech output in most subjects. However, the results are not those predicted from classic models of language organization. Speech arrest is obtained most easily over facial motor cortex, and true aphasia is rare, whereas right hemisphere or bilateral lateralization is unexpectedly prominent. A clinical role for these techniques is not yet fully established. Interfering with language comprehension and verbal memory is currently more difficult than blocking speech output, but numerous TMS studies have demonstrated facilitation of language-related tasks, including oral word association, story recall, digit span, and picture naming. Conversely, speech output also facilitates motor responses to TMS in the dominant hemisphere. Such new and often-unexpected findings may provide important insights into the organization of language.

  18. Garbage collection for reversible functional languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2015-01-01

    Reversible languages are programming languages where all programs can run both forwards and backwards. Reversible functional languages have been proposed that use symmetric pattern matching and data construction. To be reversible, these languages require linearity: Every variable must be used...

  19. The cognitive functions of language.

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    Carruthers, Peter

    2002-12-01

    This paper explores a variety of different versions of the thesis that natural language is involved in human thinking. It distinguishes amongst strong and weak forms of this thesis, dismissing some as implausibly strong and others as uninterestingly weak. Strong forms dismissed include the view that language is conceptually necessary for thought (endorsed by many philosophers) and the view that language is de facto the medium of all human conceptual thinking (endorsed by many philosophers and social scientists). Weak forms include the view that language is necessary for the acquisition of many human concepts and the view that language can serve to scaffold human thought processes. The paper also discusses the thesis that language may be the medium of conscious propositional thinking, but argues that this cannot be its most fundamental cognitive role. The idea is then proposed that natural language is the medium for nondomain-specific thinking, serving to integrate the outputs of a variety of domain-specific conceptual faculties (or central-cognitive "quasimodules"). Recent experimental evidence in support of this idea is reviewed and the implications of the idea are discussed, especially for our conception of the architecture of human cognition. Finally, some further kinds of evidence which might serve to corroborate or refute the hypothesis are mentioned. The overall goal of the paper is to review a wide variety of accounts of the cognitive function of natural language, integrating a number of different kinds of evidence and theoretical consideration in order to propose and elaborate the most plausible candidate.

  20. Rethinking clinical language mapping approaches: discordant receptive and expressive hemispheric language dominance in epilepsy surgery candidates.

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    Gage, Nicole M; Eliashiv, Dawn S; Isenberg, Anna L; Fillmore, Paul T; Kurelowech, Lacey; Quint, Patti J; Chung, Jeffrey M; Otis, Shirley M

    2011-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shed light on cortical language organization, with findings implicating the left and right temporal lobes in speech processing converging to a left-dominant pattern. Findings highlight the fact that the state of theoretical language knowledge is ahead of current clinical language mapping methods, motivating a rethinking of these approaches. The authors used magnetoencephalography and multiple tasks in seven candidates for resective epilepsy surgery to investigate language organization. The authors scanned 12 control subjects to investigate the time course of bilateral receptive speech processes. Laterality indices were calculated for left and right hemisphere late fields ∼150 to 400 milliseconds. The authors report that (1) in healthy adults, speech processes activated superior temporal regions bilaterally converging to a left-dominant pattern, (2) in four of six patients, this was reversed, with bilateral processing converging to a right-dominant pattern, and (3) in three of four of these patients, receptive and expressive language processes were laterally discordant. Results provide evidence that receptive and expressive language may have divergent hemispheric dominance. Right-sided receptive language dominance in epilepsy patients emphasizes the need to assess both receptive and expressive language. Findings indicate that it is critical to use multiple tasks tapping separable aspects of language function to provide sensitive and specific estimates of language localization in surgical patients.

  1. Taboo Language Expressed in American Film "Crank 2"

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMA, ROSIKAH

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Taboo, types of taboo words, types of anger express, Crank 2. In communication, people use many language. Sometimes people use formal and informal language in communication. Many people communicate with inapproriate language as speaking with friends or family by using impolite language for example taboo language.As we know, taboo language is an unfavourable language in society. But, taboo language becomes common phenomenon today. People free to speak what they want, there are many p...

  2. The functional neuroanatomy of language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    There has been substantial progress over the last several years in understanding aspects of the functional neuroanatomy of language. Some of these advances are summarized in this review. It will be argued that recognizing speech sounds is carried out in the superior temporal lobe bilaterally, that the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally is involved in phonological-level aspects of this process, that the frontal/motor system is not central to speech recognition although it may modulate auditory perception of speech, that conceptual access mechanisms are likely located in the lateral posterior temporal lobe (middle and inferior temporal gyri), that speech production involves sensory-related systems in the posterior superior temporal lobe in the left hemisphere, that the interface between perceptual and motor systems is supported by a sensory-motor circuit for vocal tract actions (not dedicated to speech) that is very similar to sensory-motor circuits found in primate parietal lobe, and that verbal short-term memory can be understood as an emergent property of this sensory-motor circuit. These observations are considered within the context of a dual stream model of speech processing in which one pathway supports speech comprehension and the other supports sensory-motor integration. Additional topics of discussion include the functional organization of the planum temporale for spatial hearing and speech-related sensory-motor processes, the anatomical and functional basis of a form of acquired language disorder, conduction aphasia, the neural basis of vocabulary development, and sentence-level/grammatical processing.

  3. The Metapedagogic Function of Language: Language for Language Teaching (Cases from the Nepalese Context)

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    Poudel, Kamal Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The metalingual (also called "metalinguistic") function of language is a well-discussed concept in the literature of functional linguistics. It is often conceived as a purpose in which language is used to define or talk about language itself. Similarly, the purpose in which language is used for teaching in general is explained as the…

  4. Recruitment of Language-, Emotion- and Speech-Timing Associated Brain Regions for Expressing Emotional Prosody: Investigation of Functional Neuroanatomy with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Jazdzyk, Agnieszka; Stets, Manuela; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke non-sense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs. neutral intonation) requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information.

  5. Recruitment of language-, emotion- and speech timing associated brain regions for expressing emotional prosody: Investigation of functional neuroanatomy with fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. C. Mitchell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to progress understanding of prosodic emotion expression by establishing brain regions active when expressing specific emotions, those activated irrespective of the target emotion, and those whose activation intensity varied depending on individual performance. BOLD contrast data were acquired whilst participants spoke nonsense words in happy, angry or neutral tones, or performed jaw-movements. Emotion-specific analyses demonstrated that when expressing angry prosody, activated brain regions included the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the insula, and the basal ganglia. When expressing happy prosody, the activated brain regions also included the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and basal ganglia, with additional activation in the anterior cingulate. Conjunction analysis confirmed that the superior temporal gyrus and basal ganglia were activated regardless of the specific emotion concerned. Nevertheless, disjunctive comparisons between the expression of angry and happy prosody established that anterior cingulate activity was significantly higher for angry prosody than for happy prosody production. Degree of inferior frontal gyrus activity correlated with the ability to express the target emotion through prosody. We conclude that expressing prosodic emotions (vs neutral intonation requires generic brain regions involved in comprehending numerous aspects of language, emotion-related processes such as experiencing emotions, and in the time-critical integration of speech information.

  6. Parallel transaction processing in functional languages, towards practical functional databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Huisman, Marieke; de Keijzer, Ander

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows how functional languages can be adapted for transaction processing, and discusses the implementation of a parallel runtime system for such functional transaction processing languages. We extend functional languages with current state variables and result state variables to allow the

  7. [Expressive language disorder and focal paroxysmal activity].

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    Valdizán, José R; Rodríguez-Mena, Diego; Díaz-Sardi, Mauricio

    2011-03-01

    In cases of expressive language disorder (ELD), the child is unable to put his or her thoughts into words. Comorbidity is present with difficulties in repeating, imitating or naming. There are no problems with pronunciation, as occurs in phonological disorder, it may present before the age of three years and is crucial between four and seven years of age. Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have been carried out not only in ELD, but also in clinical pictures where the language disorder was the main symptom or was associated to another neurodevelopmental pathology. We conducted a retrospective study involving a review of 100 patient records, with patients (25 girls and 75 boys) aged between two and six years old who had been diagnosed with ELD (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revised) and were free of seizures and not receiving treatment. They were submitted to an EEG and received treatment with valproic acid if EEG findings were positive. Only six patients (males) presented localised spike-wave paroxysmal EEG activity in the frontotemporal region. This 6% is a percentage that is higher than the one found in the normal children's population (2%), but lower than the value indicated in the literature for language disorders, which ranges between 20% and 50%. These patients responded positively to the treatment and both expressive language and EEG findings improved. It is possible that in ELD without paroxysms there may be a dysfunction in the circuit made up of the motor cortex-neostriatum prior to grammatical learning, whereas if there are paroxysms then this would point to neuronal hyperactivity, perhaps associated to this dysfunction or not, in cortical areas. In our cases valproic acid, together with speech therapy, helped the children to recover their language abilities.

  8. Programming a real code in a functional language (part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, C.P.

    1991-09-10

    For some, functional languages hold the promise of allowing ease of programming massively parallel computers that imperative languages such as Fortran and C do not offer. At LLNL, we have initiated a project to write the physics of a major production code in Sisal, a functional language developed at LLNL in collaboration with researchers throughout the world. We are investigating the expressibility of Sisal, as well as its performance on a shared-memory multiprocessor, the Y-MP. An interesting aspect of the project is that Sisal modules can call Fortran modules, and are callable by them. This eliminates the rewriting of 80% of the production code that would not benefit from parallel execution. Preliminary results indicate that the restrictive nature of the language does not cause problems in expressing the algorithms we have chosen. Some interesting aspects of programming in a mixed functional-imperative environment have surfaced, but can be managed. 8 refs.

  9. Evaluation of Language Function under Awake Craniotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANNO, Aya; MIKUNI, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is the only established way to assess patients’ language functions intraoperatively and to contribute to their preservation, if necessary. Recent guidelines have enabled the approach to be used widely, effectively, and safely. Non-invasive brain functional imaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, have been used preoperatively to identify brain functional regions corresponding to language, and their accuracy has increased year by year. In addition, the use of neuronavigation that incorporates this preoperative information has made it possible to identify the positional relationships between the lesion and functional regions involved in language, conduct functional brain mapping in the awake state with electrical stimulation, and intraoperatively assess nerve function in real time when resecting the lesion. This article outlines the history of awake craniotomy, the current state of pre- and intraoperative evaluation of language function, and the clinical usefulness of such functional evaluation. When evaluating patients’ language functions during awake craniotomy, given the various intraoperative stresses involved, it is necessary to carefully select the tasks to be undertaken, quickly perform all examinations, and promptly evaluate the results. As language functions involve both input and output, they are strongly affected by patients’ preoperative cognitive function, degree of intraoperative wakefulness and fatigue, the ability to produce verbal articulations and utterances, as well as perform synergic movement. Therefore, it is essential to appropriately assess the reproducibility of language function evaluation using awake craniotomy techniques. PMID:25925758

  10. Evaluation of Language Function under Awake Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Aya; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is the only established way to assess patients' language functions intraoperatively and to contribute to their preservation, if necessary. Recent guidelines have enabled the approach to be used widely, effectively, and safely. Non-invasive brain functional imaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, have been used preoperatively to identify brain functional regions corresponding to language, and their accuracy has increased year by year. In addition, the use of neuronavigation that incorporates this preoperative information has made it possible to identify the positional relationships between the lesion and functional regions involved in language, conduct functional brain mapping in the awake state with electrical stimulation, and intraoperatively assess nerve function in real time when resecting the lesion. This article outlines the history of awake craniotomy, the current state of pre- and intraoperative evaluation of language function, and the clinical usefulness of such functional evaluation. When evaluating patients' language functions during awake craniotomy, given the various intraoperative stresses involved, it is necessary to carefully select the tasks to be undertaken, quickly perform all examinations, and promptly evaluate the results. As language functions involve both input and output, they are strongly affected by patients' preoperative cognitive function, degree of intraoperative wakefulness and fatigue, the ability to produce verbal articulations and utterances, as well as perform synergic movement. Therefore, it is essential to appropriately assess the reproducibility of language function evaluation using awake craniotomy techniques.

  11. Functional language and data flow architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercegovac, M. D.; Patel, D. R.; Lang, T.

    1983-01-01

    This is a tutorial article about language and architecture approaches for highly concurrent computer systems based on the functional style of programming. The discussion concentrates on the basic aspects of functional languages, and sequencing models such as data-flow, demand-driven and reduction which are essential at the machine organization level. Several examples of highly concurrent machines are described.

  12. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....

  13. Association between lesion location and language function in adult glioma using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings identify the key anatomic structures involved in language functioning in adult glioma patients using an innovative lesion analysis technique and suggest that expressive language abilities may be more task-dependent and distributed than receptive language abilities.

  14. Two languages, two personalities? Examining language effects on the expression of personality in a bilingual context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Bond, Michael Harris

    2010-11-01

    The issue of whether personality changes as a function of language is controversial. The present research tested the cultural accommodation hypothesis by examining the impact of language use on personality as perceived by the self and by others. In Study 1, Hong Kong Chinese-English bilinguals responded to personality inventories in Chinese or English on perceived traits for themselves, typical native speakers of Chinese, and typical native speakers of English. Study 2 adopted a repeated measures design and collected data at three time points from written measures and actual conversations to examine whether bilinguals exhibited different patterns of personality, each associated with one of their two languages and the ethnicity of their interlocutors. Self-reports and behavioral observations confirmed the effects of perceived cultural norms, language priming, and interlocutor ethnicity on various personality dimensions. It is suggested that use of a second language accesses the perceived cultural norms of the group most associated with that language, especially its prototypic trait profiles, thus activating behavioral expressions of personality that are appropriate in the corresponding linguistic-social context.

  15. A Functional Language for Specifying Business Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work on developing a functional domain specific language for specifying business reports. The report specification language is part of a novel enterprise resource planing system based on the idea of a providing a lean core system that is highly customisable via a variety of domain...

  16. Functional graphical languages for process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A wide variety of safety systems are in use today in the process industries. Most of these systems rely on control software using procedural programming languages. This study investigates the use of functional graphical languages for controls in the process industry. Different vendor proprietary software and languages are investigated and evaluation criteria are outlined based on ability to meet regulatory requirements, reference sites involving applications with similar safety concerns, QA/QC procedures, community of users, type and user-friendliness of the man-machine interface, performance of operational code, and degree of flexibility. (author) 16 refs., 4 tabs

  17. The functions of language: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Gina; Dunbar, R I M

    2013-08-14

    We test between four separate hypotheses (social gossip, social contracts, mate advertising and factual information exchange) for the function(s) of language using a recall paradigm. Subjects recalled the social content of stories (irrespective of whether this concerned social behavior, defection or romantic events) significantly better than they did ecological information. Recall rates were no better on ecological stories if they involved flamboyant language, suggesting that, if true, Miller's "Scheherazade effect" may not be independent of content. One interpretation of these results might be that language evolved as an all-purpose social tool, and perhaps acquired specialist functions (sexual advertising, contract formation, information exchange) at a later date through conventional evolutionary windows of opportunity.

  18. The Functions of Language: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Redhead

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We test between four separate hypotheses (social gossip, social contracts, mate advertising and factual information exchange for the function(s of language using a recall paradigm. Subjects recalled the social content of stories (irrespective of whether this concerned social behavior, defection or romantic events significantly better than they did ecological information. Recall rates were no better on ecological stories if they involved flamboyant language, suggesting that, if true, Miller's “Scheherazade effect” may not be independent of content. One interpretation of these results might be that language evolved as an all-purpose social tool, and perhaps acquired specialist functions (sexual advertising, contract formation, information exchange at a later date through conventional evolutionary windows of opportunity.

  19. On the Expressive Power of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that: (1......) recursive procedures with parameters can be encoded into parameterless recursive procedures with dynamic scoping, and viceversa. (2) replication can be encoded into parameterless recursive procedures with static scoping, and viceversa. (3) the languages from (1) are strictly more expressive than...

  20. Language and executive functioning in the context of specific language impairment and bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laloi, A.

    2015-01-01

    The present thesis has investigated how French-speaking monolingual and bilingual children with SLI (specific language impairment) performed on various tasks examining language and executive functioning (EF) abilities, in comparison to monolingual and bilingual peers without SLI. Language was

  1. A functional language for specifying business reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work on developing a functional domain specificlanguage for specifying business reports. The report specificationlanguage is part of a novel enterprise resource planing system basedon the idea of a providing a lean core system that is highlycustomisable via a variety of domain...... specific languages....

  2. Influence of valproate on language functions in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Jin Woong; Kim, Soon Chul; Kim, Sun Jun

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influences of valproate (VPA) on the language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric patients with epilepsy. We reviewed medical records of 53 newly diagnosed patients with epilepsy, who were being treated with VPA monotherapy (n=53; 22 male patients and 31 female patients). The subjects underwent standardized language tests, at least twice, before and after the initiation of VPA. The standardized language tests used were The Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of The Expressive/Receptive Language Function Test, and the Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology. Since all the patients analyzed spoke Korean as their first language, we used Korean language tests to reduce the bias within the data. All the language parameters of the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities slightly improved after the initiation of VPA in the 53 pediatric patients with epilepsy (mean age: 11.6±3.2years), but only "prediction" was statistically significant (determining cause, 14.9±5.1 to 15.5±4.3; making inference, 16.1±5.8 to 16.9±5.6; prediction, 11.1±4.9 to 11.9±4.2; total score of TOPS, 42.0±14.4 to 44.2±12.5). The patients treated with VPA also exhibited a small extension in mean length of utterance in words (MLU-w) when responding, but this was not statistically significant (determining cause, 5.4±2.0 to 5.7±1.6; making inference, 5.8±2.2 to 6.0±1.8; prediction, 5.9±2.5 to 5.9±2.1; total, 5.7±2.1 to 5.9±1.7). The administration of VPA led to a slight, but not statistically significant, improvement in the receptive language function (range: 144.7±41.1 to 148.2±39.7). Finally, there were no statistically significant changes in the percentage of articulation performance after taking VPA. Therefore, our data suggested that VPA did not have negative impact on the language function, but rather slightly improved problem-solving abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intraoperative mapping of expressive language cortex using passive real-time electrocorticography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmiLyn M. Taplin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we investigated the utility and practicality of passive intraoperative functional mapping of expressive language cortex using high-resolution electrocorticography (ECoG. The patient presented here experienced new-onset seizures caused by a medium-grade tumor in very close proximity to expressive language regions. In preparation of tumor resection, the patient underwent multiple functional language mapping procedures. We examined the relationship of results obtained with intraoperative high-resolution ECoG, extraoperative ECoG utilizing a conventional subdural grid, extraoperative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS mapping, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results demonstrate that intraoperative mapping using high-resolution ECoG is feasible and, within minutes, produces results that are qualitatively concordant to those achieved by extraoperative mapping modalities. They also suggest that functional language mapping of expressive language areas with ECoG may prove useful in many intraoperative conditions given its time efficiency and safety. Finally, they demonstrate that integration of results from multiple functional mapping techniques, both intraoperative and extraoperative, may serve to improve the confidence in or precision of functional localization when pathology encroaches upon eloquent language cortex.

  4. Communication, language and expression body in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gomes da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to give basis for understanding corporal expression as a language, which would enable the child to produce information/knowledge within the physical education. Based on the concepts of childhood, language and comunication, we understand that the phsysical education must promove the establishment of comunicative relationships, in which corporal expresion apears as a special manifestation. Based on Peirce Semiotics, the corporal expression is conceive as a language in itself, constitude by spontan gests, which ar produced by diversous stimuli. This enable the children to construct interpretating/interpretative relations in this signs fluxe, and, because of it, to produce knowledge.

  5. Cognitive Style and Achievement in Imperative and Functional Programming Language Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. Paul, Jr.; Munsinger, Brita

    This paper investigates the relationship between learning style and programming achievement in two paradigms: imperative and functional. An imperative language achieves its effect by changing the value of variables by means of assignment statements while functional languages rely on evaluation of expressions rather than side-effects. Learning…

  6. Speech and Language Functions that Require a Functioning Broca's Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Cameron; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Newhart, Melissa; Gingis, Leila; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    A number of previous studies have indicated that Broca's area has an important role in understanding and producing syntactically complex sentences and other language functions. If Broca's area is critical for these functions, then either infarction of Broca's area or temporary hypoperfusion within this region should cause impairment of these…

  7. HTEL: a HyperText Expression Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    been submitted.A special tool has been used to build the HTEL-interpreter, as an example belonging a family of interpreters for domain specific languages. Members of that family have characteristics that are closely related to structural patterns found in the mark-ups of HTML. HTEL should also be seen...

  8. The Effectiveness of Dialogic Reading in Increasing English Language Learning Preschool Children's Expressive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Diana; Dauksas, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of dialogic reading in increasing the literacy interactions between English language learning parents (ELL) and their preschool aged children and children's expressive language development were studied. Twenty-one ELL parents of preschool aged children received dialogic reading training every other week for a ten-week period.…

  9. The functional role of the periphery in emotional language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Havas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Language can impact emotion, even when it makes no reference to emotion states. For example, reading sentences with positive meanings (The water park is refreshing on the hot summer day induces patterns of facial feedback congruent with the sentence emotionality (smiling, whereas sentences with negative meanings induce a frown. Moreover, blocking facial afference with botox selectively slows comprehension of emotional sentences. Therefore, theories of cognition should account for emotion-language interactions above the level of explicit emotion words, and the role of peripheral feedback in comprehension. For this special issue exploring frontiers in the role of the body and environment in cognition, we propose a theory in which facial feedback provides a context-sensitive constraint on the simulation of actions described in language. Paralleling the role of emotions in real-world behavior, our account proposes that 1 facial expressions accompany sudden shifts in well-being as described in language; 2 facial expressions modulate emotion states during reading; and 3 emotion states prepare the reader for an effective simulation of the ensuing language content. To inform the theory and guide future research, we outline a framework based on internal models for motor control. To support the theory, we assemble evidence from diverse areas of research. Taking a functional view of emotion, we tie the theory to behavioral and neural evidence for a role of facial feedback in cognition. Our theoretical framework provides a detailed account that can guide future research on the role of emotional feedback in language processing, and on interactions of language and emotion. It also highlights the bodily periphery as relevant to theories of embodied cognition.

  10. Pulmonary Function Affects Language Performance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewina O Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Good pulmonary function (PF is associated with preservation of cognitive performance, primarily of executive functions, in aging (Albert et al., 1995; Chyou et al., 1996; Emery, Finkel, & Pedersen, 2012; Yohannes & Gindo, 2013. The contribution of PF to older adults’ language abilities, however, has never been explored, to our knowledge. We addressed this gap by examining the effects of PF on older adults’ language functions, as measured by naming and sentence processing accuracy. We predicted similar effects as found for executive functions, given the positive associations between executive functions and sentence processing in aging (e.g., Goral et al., 2011. Methods Data were collected from 190 healthy adults aged 55 to 84 years (M = 71.1, SD = 8.1, with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Procedure PF was measured prior to language testing. Measures included forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC. Language functions were assessed through performance on computer-administered lexical retrieval and sentence processing tasks. Sentence processing was measured using two auditory comprehension tasks: one, of embedded sentences (ES, the other, of sentences with multiple negatives (MN. Lexical retrieval was measured using the Boston Naming Test (BNT and Action Naming Test (ANT. Performance was scored for percent accuracy. Additionally, lexical retrieval was evaluated with a phonemic fluency task (FAS, which also taps executive function abilities. Statistical Analyses Multiple regression was used to examine the association between pulmonary and language functions, adjusting for age, education, gender, history of respiratory illness, current level of physical activities, and current and past smoking. Results Better PF was associated with better sentence processing and lexical retrieval on naming tasks, but not with phonemic fluency, after adjusting for covariates. Higher FVC was

  11. Executive functions and language in children with different subtypes of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Rodríguez, V; Ramírez Santana, G M; Hernández Expósito, S

    The marked heterogeneity among children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI) highlights the importance of studying and describing cases based on the distinction between the expressive and receptive-expressive SLI subtypes. The main objective of this study was to examine neuropsychological, linguistic, and narrative behaviours in children with different SLI subtypes. A comprehensive battery of language and neuropsychological tests was administered to a total of 58 children (29 with SLI and 29 normal controls) between 5.60 and 11.20 years old. Both SLI subtypes performed more poorly than the control group in language skills, narrative, and executive function. Furthermore, the expressive SLI group demonstrated substantial ungrammaticality, as well as problems with verbal fluency and both verbal and spatial working memory, while the receptive-expressive SLI subtype displayed poorer neuropsychological performance in general. Our findings showed that children with either SLI subtype displayed executive dysfunctions that were not limited to verbal tasks but rather extended to nonverbal measures. This could reflect a global cognitive difficulty which, along with declining linguistic and narrative skills, illustrates the complex profile of this impairment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  13. Streaming for Functional Data-Parallel Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederik Meisner

    In this thesis, we investigate streaming as a general solution to the space inefficiency commonly found in functional data-parallel programming languages. The data-parallel paradigm maps well to parallel SIMD-style hardware. However, the traditional fully materializing execution strategy...... by extending two existing data-parallel languages: NESL and Accelerate. In the extensions we map bulk operations to data-parallel streams that can evaluate fully sequential, fully parallel or anything in between. By a dataflow, piecewise parallel execution strategy, the runtime system can adjust to any target...... flattening necessitates all sub-computations to materialize at the same time. For example, naive n by n matrix multiplication requires n^3 space in NESL because the algorithm contains n^3 independent scalar multiplications. For large values of n, this is completely unacceptable. We address the problem...

  14. Body language in the brain: constructing meaning from expressive movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Marie Tipper

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This fMRI study investigated neural systems that interpret body language - the meaningful emotive expressions conveyed by body movement. Participants watched videos of performers engaged in modern dance or pantomime that conveyed specific themes such as hope, agony, lust, or exhaustion. We tested whether the meaning of an affectively laden performance was decoded in localized brain substrates as a distinct property of action separable from other superficial features, such as choreography, kinematics, performer, and low-level visual stimuli. A repetition suppression (RS procedure was used to identify brain regions that decoded the meaningful affective state of a performer, as evidenced by decreased activity when emotive themes were repeated in successive performances. Because the theme was the only feature repeated across video clips that were otherwise entirely different, the occurrence of RS identified brain substrates that differentially coded the specific meaning of expressive performances. RS was observed bilaterally, extending anteriorly along middle and superior temporal gyri into temporal pole, medially into insula, rostrally into inferior orbitofrontal cortex, and caudally into hippocampus and amygdala. Behavioral data on a separate task indicated that interpreting themes from modern dance was more difficult than interpreting pantomime; a result that was also reflected in the fMRI data. There was greater RS in left hemisphere, suggesting that the more abstract metaphors used to express themes in dance compared to pantomime posed a greater challenge to brain substrates directly involved in decoding those themes. We propose that the meaning-sensitive temporal-orbitofrontal regions observed here comprise a superordinate functional module of a known hierarchical action observation network, which is critical to the construction of meaning from expressive movement. The findings are discussed with respect to a predictive coding model of action

  15. Working memory mediates the effects of gestational age at birth on expressive language development in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Valentina; Cantiani, Chiara; Dionne, Ginette; Marini, Andrea; Mascheretti, Sara; Molteni, Massimo; Marino, Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    This study tested the role of temporary memory, measured by phonological short-term memory (pSTM) and verbal working memory (vWM), as a mediator of the effect of 3 putative risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, home literacy environment, birth gestational age) upon expressive and receptive language. A community-based sample of 646 Italian children aged 6-11 years was assessed with a comprehensive battery of language and cognitive tests. A mediation analysis was used to examine whether memory mediates environmental/biological effects on language. The results demonstrated a developmental cascade of effects, whereby the duration of pregnancy drives vWM functioning that, in turn, may affect expressive linguistic outcome Conclusion: Treatments focused on vWM, specifically to preterm children, may improve their language development, with enduring consequences on educational and psychosocial outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Executive functions in mono- and bilingual children with language impairment - issues for speech-language pathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as language impairment. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including nonlinguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinica...

  17. Neuropsychological assessment of language functions during functional magnetic resonance imaging: development of new tasks. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersten, Ewa; Jakuciński, Maciej; Kuliński, Radosław; Koziara, Henryk; Mroziak, Barbara; Nauman, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complex and extended cerebral organization of language functions, the brain regions crucial for speech and language, i.e. eloquent areas, have to be affected by neurooncological surgery. One of the techniques that may be helpful in pre-operative planning of the extent of tumour removal and estimating possible complications seems to be functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The aim of the study was to develop valid procedures for neuropsychological assessment of various language functions visualisable by fMRI in healthy individuals. In this fMRI study, 10 healthy (with no CNS pathology), right-handed volunteers aged 25-35 were examined using four tasks designed to measure different language functions, and one for short-term memory assessment. A 1.5-T MRI scanner performing ultrafast functional (EPI) sequences with 4-mm slice thickness and 1-mm interslice gap was used to detect the BOLD response to stimuli present-ed in a block design (30-second alternating blocks of activity and rest). The analyses used the SPM software running in a MATLAB environment, and the obtained data were interpreted by means of colour-coded maps superimposed on structural brain scans. For each of the tasks developed for particular language functions, a different area of increased neuronal activity was found. The differential localization of function-related neuronal activity seems interesting and the research worth continuing, since verbal communication failure may result from impairment of any of various language functions, and studies reported in the literature seem to focus on verbal expression only.

  18. Gesture and Signing in Support of Expressive Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Ramos, Leslie K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this teacher inquiry is to explore the effects of signing and gesturing on the expressive language development of non-verbal children. The first phase of my inquiry begins with the observations of several non-verbal students with various etiologies in three different educational settings. The focus of these observations is to…

  19. Language and executive functioning in children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parigger, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines language abilities of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and compares these abilities to those of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing children. Executive functioning, an umbrella term for various higher order

  20. THE TEACHING OF FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE SKILLS IN A SECOND LANGUAGE TO A CHILD WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Chong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examined the rate of self-initiated communication acquisition, in a second language, of a child with autism. The language treatment objective was to teach functional communication skills in English through the use of Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS. The findings of this study show that it is possible for a child with autism to acquire functional communication skills in his second language even though he did not possess such communication skills in his first language.

  1. Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL): A New Measure for Spontaneous and Expressive Language of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Junker, Dörte; Lord, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A new language measure, the Observation of Spontaneous Expressive Language (OSEL), is intended to document spontaneous use of syntax, pragmatics, and semantics in 2-12-year-old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other communication disorders with expressive language levels comparable to typical 2-5 year olds. Because the purpose of…

  2. Functional MRI of Language Processing and Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Méndez Orellana (Carolina)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ My thesis describe the utility of implementing fMRI to investigate how the language system is reorganized in brain damaged patients. Specifically for aphasia research fMRI allows to show how specific language treatment methods have the potential to enhance language

  3. Study of functional brain imaging for bilingual language cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da

    2008-01-01

    Bilingual and multilingual brain studies of language recognition is an interdisciplinary subject which needs to identify different levels involved in the neural representation of languages, such as neuroanatomical, neurofunctional, biochemical, psychological and linguistic levels. Furthermore, specific factor's such as age, manner of acquisition and environmental factors seem to affect the neural representation. Functional brain imaging, such as PET, SPECT and functional MRI can explore the neurolinguistics representation of bilingualism in the brain in subjects, and elucidate the neuronal mechanisms of bilingual language processing. Functional imaging methods show differences in the pattern of cerebral activation associated with a second language compared with the subject's native language. It shows that verbal memory processing in two unrelated languages is mediated by a common neural system with some distinct cortical areas. The different patterns of activation differ according to the language used. It also could be ascribed either to age of acquisition or to proficiency level. And attained proficiency is more important than age of acquisition as a determinant of the cortical representation of the second language. The study used PET and SPECT shows that sign and spoken language seem to be localized in the same brain areas, and elicit similar regional cerebral blood flow patterns. But for sign language perception, the functional anatomy overlaps that of language processing contain both auditory and visual components. And the sign language is dependent on spatial information too. (authors)

  4. Functional MRI language mapping in pre-surgical epilepsy patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is commonly applied to study the neural substrates of language in clinical research and for neurosurgical planning. fMRI language mapping is used to assess language lateralisation, or determine hemispheric dominance, and to localise regions of the brain ...

  5. Rehabilitation of language in expressive aphasias: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Ren da Fontoura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This paper reviews the methodological characteristics of studies on rehabilitation of expressive aphasia, describing the techniques of rehabilitation used. Methods: The databases Medline, Science Direct and PubMed were searched for relevant articles (January 1999 to December 2011 using the keywords Expressive / Broca / Nonfluent Aphasia, combined with Language or Speech Rehabilitation / Therapy / Intervention. Results: A total of 56 articles were retrieved describing rehabilitation techniques, including 22 with a focus on lexical processing, 18 on syntax stimulation, seven with the aim of developing speech and nine with multiple foci. Conclusion: A variety of techniques and theoretical approaches are available, highlighting the heterogeneity of research in this area. This diversity can be justified by the uniqueness of patients' language deficits, making it difficult to generalize. In addition, there is a need to combine the formal measures of tests with measures of pragmatic and social skills of communication to determine the effect of rehabilitation on the patient's daily life.

  6. Effects of Epilepsy on Language Functions: Scoping Review and Data Mining Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Manaswita; Murray, Laura; Miller, Wendy; Groves, Doyle

    2018-03-01

    This study involved a scoping review to identify possible gaps in the empirical description of language functioning in epilepsy in adults. With access to social network data, data mining was used to determine if individuals with epilepsy are expressing language-related concerns. For the scoping review, scientific databases were explored to identify pertinent articles. Findings regarding the nature of epilepsy etiologies, patient characteristics, tested language modalities, and language measures were compiled. Data mining focused on social network databases to obtain a set of relevant language-related posts. The search yielded 66 articles. Epilepsy etiologies except temporal lobe epilepsy and older adults were underrepresented. Most studies utilized aphasia tests and primarily assessed single-word productions; few studies included healthy control groups. Data mining revealed several posts regarding epilepsy-related language problems, including word retrieval, reading, writing, verbal memory difficulties, and negative effects of epilepsy treatment on language. Our findings underscore the need for future specification of the integrity of language in epilepsy, particularly with respect to discourse and high-level language abilities. Increased awareness of epilepsy-related language issues and understanding the patients' perspectives about their language concerns will allow researchers and speech-language pathologists to utilize appropriate assessments and improve quality of care.

  7. Child gender influences paternal behavior, language, and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Rentscher, Kelly E; Hackett, Patrick D; Mehl, Matthias R; Rilling, James K

    2017-06-01

    Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli. Compared with fathers of sons, fathers of daughters were more attentively engaged with their daughters, sang more to their daughters, used more analytical language and language related to sadness and the body with their daughters, and had a stronger neural response to their daughter's happy facial expressions in areas of the brain important for reward and emotion regulation (medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]). In contrast, fathers of sons engaged in more rough and tumble play (RTP), used more achievement language with their sons, and had a stronger neural response to their son's neutral facial expressions in the medial OFC (mOFC). Whereas the mOFC response to happy faces was negatively related to RTP, the mOFC response to neutral faces was positively related to RTP, specifically for fathers of boys. These results indicate that real-world paternal behavior and brain function differ as a function of child gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verly, Marjolein; Verhoeven, Judith; Zink, Inge; Mantini, Dante; Peeters, Ronald; Deprez, Sabine; Emsell, Louise; Boets, Bart; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Lagae, Lieven; De Cock, Paul; Rommel, Nathalie; Sunaert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19) and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI. PMID:24567909

  9. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Verly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19 and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI.

  10. Language Lateralization in Children Using Functional Transcranial Doppler Sonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Anja; Moeller, Nicola; Knake, Susanne; Hermsen, Anke; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Rosenow, Felix; Hamer, Hajo M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Language lateralization with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) and lexical word generation has been shown to have high concordance with the Wada test and functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults. We evaluated a nonlexical paradigm to determine language dominance in children. Method: In 23 right-handed children (12…

  11. Compilation of functional languages using flow graph analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Glaser, Hugh; Wild, John M.

    A system based on the notion of a flow graph is used to specify formally and to implement a compiler for a lazy functional language. The compiler takes a simple functional language as input and generates C. The generated C program can then be compiled, and loaded with an extensive run-time system to

  12. The Structure and Functions of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle John R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss the nature of language. I find the present state of the subject, the Philosophy of Language, and the present state of Lin- guistics to be both, for different reasons, unsatisfactory. The problem with the Philosophy of Language is that its practitioners tend to lose sight of the psy- chological reality of language, i.e. of speaking and writing. Historically this is because the Philosophy of Language began with Frege’s logic and has continued to the present day to be heavily influenced by considerations of formal logic. Logicians need not be interested in the psychological reality of logical systems. Frege’s logical system is much more powerful than Aristotle’s, but for all I know Aristotle may be closer to the way people actually think. It does not matter to logicians.

  13. Executive functions in mono- and bilingual children with language impairment - issues for speech-language pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty

    2015-01-01

    The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as LI. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including non-linguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinical utility as less subjected to language use and exposure than linguistic measures. A possible bilingual advantage, and consequences for speech-language pathology practices and future research are discussed.

  14. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  15. Inter-functional influence of culture and language during the process of foreign language teaching of teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergeshali kyzy A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article describes some theoretical tasks of multicultural education of teenagers in foreign language teaching. The work also has analyzed inter-functional influence of the language and culture in the process of foreign language teaching.

  16. Comparison of Spontaneously Elicited Language Patterns in Specific Language Impairment and High-Functioning Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Megan; Trauner, Doris

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to characterize differences in the use of language in children with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism by analyzing verbal responses on standardized tests. The overall goal was to provide clinicians with additional tools with which to aid in distinguishing the two neurodevelopmental disorders. This study included 16 children with specific language impairment, 28 children with high-functioning autism, and 52 typically developing participants between the ages of six and 14. Groups were matched for age, and specific language impairment and high-functioning autism groups were matched on verbal and performance IQ. Responses from standardized tests were examined for response length, grammatical errors, filler words, perseverations, revisions (repeated attempts to begin or continue a sentence), off-topic attention shifts (lapses in attention to the task), and rambling. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric methods. Specific language impairment responses were longer and contained more filler words than did those of the other two groups, whereas high-functioning autism responses exhibited more grammatical errors, off-topic attention shifts, and rambling. Specific language impairment and high-functioning autism responses showed higher rates of perseveration compared with controls. There were no significant differences in revisions among the three groups. Differences in language patterns of participants with specific language impairment and high-functioning autism may be useful to the clinician in helping to differentiate isolated language impairment from high-functioning autism. The results also support the conclusion that the two conditions are separable, and each exhibits a different pattern of language dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional Language Shift to the Right Hemisphere in Patients with Language-Eloquent Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Sandro M.; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Experimental design Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1  =  left dominant; ratio dominant). Results Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning “all errors” and “all errors without hesitations”, which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. Conclusions This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur. PMID:24069410

  18. Functional language shift to the right hemisphere in patients with language-eloquent brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1 = left dominant; ratio right dominant). Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning "all errors" and "all errors without hesitations", which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur.

  19. How Do Typically Developing Deaf Children and Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Use the Face When Comprehending Emotional Facial Expressions in British Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions in sign language carry a variety of communicative features. While emotion can modulate a spoken utterance through changes in intonation, duration and intensity, in sign language specific facial expressions presented concurrently with a manual sign perform this function. When deaf adult signers cannot see facial features, their…

  20. Language disturbance and functioning in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Eric; Segurado, Ricardo; Renwick, Laoise; McClenaghan, Aisling; Sexton, Sarah; Frawley, Timothy; Chan, Carol K; Bonar, Maurice; Clarke, Mary

    2016-01-30

    Language disturbance has a central role in the presentation of psychotic disorders however its relationship with functioning requires further clarification, particularly in first episode psychosis (FEP). Both language disturbance and functioning can be evaluated with clinician-rated and performance-based measures. We aimed to investigate the concurrent association between clinician-rated and performance-based measures of language disturbance and functioning in FEP. We assessed 108 individuals presenting to an Early Intervention in Psychosis Service in Ireland. Formal thought disorder (FTD) dimensions and bizarre idiosyncratic thinking (BIT) were rated with structured assessment tools. Functioning was evaluated with a performance-based instrument, a clinician-rated measure and indicators of real-world functioning. The disorganisation dimension of FTD was significantly associated with clinician-rated measures of occupational and social functioning (Beta=-0.19, P<0.05 and Beta=-0.31, P<0.01, respectively). BIT was significantly associated with the performance-based measure of functioning (Beta=-0.22, P<0.05). Language disturbance was of less value in predicting real-world measures of functioning. Clinician-rated and performance-based assessments of language disturbance are complementary and each has differential associations with functioning. Communication disorders should be considered as a potential target for intervention in FEP, although further evaluation of the longitudinal relationship between language disturbance and functioning should be undertaken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective attention to the mouth is associated with expressive language skills in monolingual and bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tawny; Atagi, Natsuki; Johnson, Scott P

    2018-05-01

    Infants increasingly attend to the mouths of others during the latter half of the first postnatal year, and individual differences in selective attention to talking mouths during infancy predict verbal skills during toddlerhood. There is some evidence suggesting that trajectories in mouth-looking vary by early language environment, in particular monolingual or bilingual language exposure, which may have differential consequences in developing sensitivity to the communicative and social affordances of the face. Here, we evaluated whether 6- to 12-month-olds' mouth-looking is related to skills associated with concurrent social communicative development-including early language functioning and emotion discriminability. We found that attention to the mouth of a talking face increased with age but that mouth-looking was more strongly associated with concurrent expressive language skills than chronological age for both monolingual and bilingual infants. Mouth-looking was not related to emotion discrimination. These data suggest that selective attention to a talking mouth may be one important mechanism by which infants learn language regardless of home language environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emotionality and Second Language Writers: Expressing Fear through Narrative in Thai and in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcharatsri, Pisarn Bee

    2013-01-01

    Writing to express emotions can be a challenging task for second language (L2) writers, especially because it tends to be a process that is less addressed in language classrooms. This paper aims to expand thinking on L2 literacy and writing by exploring how L2 writers can express emotion (fear) through narratives both in their first language (L1)…

  3. Functional Connectivity Changes in Second Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Ladan Ghazi; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Ines

    2013-01-01

    Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec,…

  4. Promoting Expressive Language in Young Children with or At-Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Preschool Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D; Shepley, Collin; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often demonstrate delays in expressive communication, impacting their ability to independently function in typical environments. Individuals with ASD who develop expressive language during early childhood experience better outcomes later in life; therefore, examination of naturalistic language interventions (NLIs) remain an important area of investigation. The current study used a multiple probe design across participants to examine the effects of a classroom-based NLI on various expressive language targets in three preschool-aged children demonstrating characteristics of ASD. Findings suggest the intervention had positive and maintained effects on trial-based use of language targets, as well as concomitant changes in commenting, requesting, and phrase complexity. Implications regarding implementation of NLIs within typical classroom play activities are discussed.

  5. Intraoperative mapping of language functions: a longitudinal neurolinguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmberger, Josef; Ruge, Maximilian; Kreth, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Briegel, Josef; Reulen, Hans-Juergen; Tonn, Joerg-Christian

    2008-10-01

    This prospective longitudinally designed study was conducted to evaluate language functions pre- and postoperatively in patients who underwent microsurgical treatment of tumors in close proximity to or within language areas and to detect those patients at risk for a postoperative aphasic disturbance. Between 1991 and 2005, 153 awake craniotomies with subsequent cortical mapping of language functions were performed in 149 patients. Language functions were assessed using a standardized test battery. Risk factors were obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Language mapping was able to be performed in all patients, and complete tumor resection was achieved in 48.4%. Within 21 days after surgery a new language deficit (aphasic disturbance) was observed in 41 (32%) of the 128 cases without preoperative deficits. There were a total of 60 cases involving postoperative aphasic disturbances, including cases both with and without preoperative disturbances. Risk factors for postoperative aphasic disturbance were preoperative aphasia (planguage-positive sites within the tumor (planguage disturbances. A total of 17.6% of all cases demonstrated new postoperative language disturbances after 7 months. Risk factors for persistent aphasic disturbance were increased age (>40 years, planguage-relevant areas intraoperatively, even when they are located within the tumor. New postoperative deficits resolve in the majority of patients, which may be a result of cortical mapping as well as functional reorganization.

  6. Early identification: Language skills and social functioning in deaf and hard of hearing preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netten, Anouk P; Rieffe, Carolien; Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Soede, Wim; Dirks, Evelien; Korver, Anna M H; Konings, Saskia; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; Dekker, Friedo W; Frijns, Johan H M

    2015-12-01

    Permanent childhood hearing impairment often results in speech and language problems that are already apparent in early childhood. Past studies show a clear link between language skills and the child's social-emotional functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the level of language and communication skills after the introduction of early identification services and their relation with social functioning and behavioral problems in deaf and hard of hearing children. Nationwide cross-sectional observation of a cohort of 85 early identified deaf and hard of hearing preschool children (aged 30-66 months). Parents reported on their child's communicative abilities (MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III), social functioning and appearance of behavioral problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Receptive and expressive language skills were measured using the Reynell Developmental Language Scale and the Schlichting Expressive Language Test, derived from the child's medical records. Language and communicative abilities of early identified deaf and hard of hearing children are not on a par with hearing peers. Compared to normative scores from hearing children, parents of deaf and hard of hearing children reported lower social functioning and more behavioral problems. Higher communicative abilities were related to better social functioning and less behavioral problems. No relation was found between the degree of hearing loss, age at amplification, uni- or bilateral amplification, mode of communication and social functioning and behavioral problems. These results suggest that improving the communicative abilities of deaf and hard of hearing children could improve their social-emotional functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics.

  8. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  9. The role of the cerebellum in the regulation of language functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starowicz-Filip, Anna; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Moskała, Marek; Krzyżewski, Roger M; Kwinta, Borys; Kwiatkowski, Stanisław; Milczarek, Olga; Rajtar-Zembaty, Anna; Przewoźnik, Dorota

    2017-08-29

    The present paper is a review of studies on the role of the cerebellum in the regulation of language functions. This brain structure until recently associated chiefly with motor skills, visual-motor coordination and balance, proves to be significant also for cognitive functioning. With regard to language functions, studies show that the cerebellum determines verbal fluency (both semantic and formal) expressive and receptive grammar processing, the ability to identify and correct language mistakes, and writing skills. Cerebellar damage is a possible cause of aphasia or the cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS). Decreased cerebellocortical connectivity as well as anomalies in the structure of the cerebellum are emphasized in numerous developmental dyslexia theories. The cerebellum is characterized by linguistic lateralization. From the neuroanatomical perspective, its right hemisphere and dentate nucleus, having multiple cerebellocortical connections with the cerebral cortical language areas, are particularly important for language functions. Usually, language deficits developed as a result of a cerebellar damage have subclinical intensity and require applying sensitive neuropsychological diagnostic tools designed to assess higher verbal functions.

  10. Expressive and receptive language skills in preschool children from a socially disadvantaged area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ashling; Gibbon, Fiona E; O'shea, Aoife

    2016-02-01

    Evidence suggests that children present with receptive language skills that are equivalent to or more advanced than expressive language skills. This profile holds true for typical and delayed language development. This study aimed to determine if such a profile existed for preschool children from an area of social deprivation and to investigate if particular language skills influence any differences found between expressive and receptive skills. Data from 187 CELF P2 UK assessments conducted on preschool children from two socially disadvantaged areas in a city in southern Ireland. A significant difference was found between Receptive Language Index (RLI) and Expressive Language Index (ELI) scores with Receptive scores found to be lower than Expressive scores. The majority (78.6%) of participants had a lower Receptive Language than Expressive score (RLI ELI), with very few (3.2%) having the same Receptive and Expressive scores (RLI = ELI). Scores for the Concepts and Following Directions (receptive) sub-test were significantly lower than for the other receptive sub tests, while scores for the Expressive Vocabulary sub-test were significantly higher than for the other expressive sub tests. The finding of more advanced expressive than receptive language skills in socially deprived preschool children is previously unreported and clinically relevant for speech-language pathologists in identifying the needs of this population.

  11. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers' Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F; Bohlmann, Natalie L; Palacios, Natalia A

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's ( N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages.

  12. Cross-Language Associations in the Development of Preschoolers’ Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michelle F.; Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Palacios, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population of dual language learners (DLLs) entering preschool classrooms highlights a continued need for research on the development of dual language acquisition, and specifically vocabulary skills, in this age group. This study describes young DLL children's (N = 177) vocabulary development in both English and Spanish simultaneously, and how vocabulary skills in each language relate to one another, during a contextual shift that places greater emphasis on the acquisition of academic English language skills. Findings demonstrated that DLL preschoolers made gains in vocabulary in both languages with more change evidenced in receptive, in comparison to expressive, vocabulary as well as in English in comparison to Spanish. When examining whether children's vocabulary scores in one language at the beginning of preschool interact with their vocabulary scores in the other language to predict vocabulary growth, no significant associations were found for receptive vocabulary. In contrast, the interaction between initial English and Spanish expressive vocabulary scores was negatively related to growth in English expressive vocabulary. This cross-language association suggests that children who have low expressive vocabulary skills in both languages tend to grow faster in their English expressive vocabulary. The study extends previous work on dual language development by examining growth in expressive and receptive vocabulary in both English and Spanish. It also provides suggestions for future work to inform a more comprehensive understanding of DLL children's development in both languages. PMID:26807002

  13. Bricklayer: An Authentic Introduction to the Functional Programming Language SML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Winter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional programming languages are seen by many as instrumental to effectively utilizing the computational power of multi-core platforms. As a result, there is growing interest to introduce functional programming and functional thinking as early as possible within the computer science curriculum. Bricklayer is an API, written in SML, that provides a set of abstractions for creating LEGO artifacts which can be viewed using LEGO Digital Designer. The goal of Bricklayer is to create a problem space (i.e., a set of LEGO artifacts that is accessible and engaging to programmers (especially novice programmers while providing an authentic introduction to the functional programming language SML.

  14. Psychometric function for NU-6 word recognition in noise: effects of first language and dominant language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Zaki, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    The present study attempted to establish psychometric function in individuals whose first language is not English. Psychometric function was obtained for one of the most commonly used clinical tests, the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (Tillman & Carhart 1966), so that findings could be directly applied to everyday clinical practice. Five groups of 14 normal-hearing, adult listeners differing in their first language and dominant language (English monolinguals, English- and Arabic-dominant Arabic-English bilinguals, and English- and Russian-dominant Russian-English bilinguals) participated. Both forms of the Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 test (8 lists of 50 monosyllabic English words) were presented. The lists were randomly assigned to eight signal-to-noise ratios (-3 to 18 dB in 3 dB steps). Listeners responded verbally and in writing. Psychometric functions were derived via logistic regression and described by two parameters: the 50% correct performance level (θ) and the slope (k). Both English-dominant bilingual groups obtained psychometric functions comparable with monolinguals. The θ and k of the functions for these three groups of participants were consistent with the literature. Compared with these three groups, non-English-dominant bilinguals' functions grew significantly more gradually (i.e., a significantly higher θ and a significantly lower k). No differences in either θ or k were found between bilinguals with the same dominant language but different first languages. Bilinguals reporting themselves to be dominant in English generate monolingual-like psychometric functions. By contrast, a different set of psychometric properties describes the function of bilinguals dominant in their first language. Because first language did not appear to be a significant factor in determining bilinguals' functions, it is concluded that English learning history and English proficiency are more important variables than first language for

  15. Cortical language activation in aphasia: a functional MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaojun; Zhang Minming; Shang Desheng; Wang Qidong; Luo Benyan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences of the underlying neural basis of language processing between normal subjects and aphasics, and to study the feasibility for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in examining the cortical language activation in clinical aphasics. Methods: fMRI was used to map language network in 6 normal subjects and 3 patients with aphasia who were in the stage of recovery from acute stroke. The participants performed word generation task during fMRI scanning, which measured the signal changes associated with regional neural activity induced by the task. These signal changes were processed to statistically generate the activation map that represented the language area. Results: In normal subjects, a distributed language network was activated. Activations were present in the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital regions in normal group. In the patient group, however, no activation was showed in the left inferior frontal gyrus whether or not the patient had lesion in the left frontal lobe. Two patients showed activations in some right hemisphere regions where no activation appeared in normal subjects. Conclusion: The remote effect of focal lesion and functional redistribution or reorganization was found in aphasic patients. fMRI was useful in evaluating the language function in aphasic patients. (authors)

  16. Intervention for Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…

  17. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Lawrence Ian; DeScioli, Peter

    2017-01-01

    What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it's unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional) video of the recipient's character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient's losses were uncertain (Experiment 1), the recipient's losses were certain (Experiment 2), or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3). Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  18. The Communicative Function of Sad Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ian Reed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it’s unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional video of the recipient’s character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss. The proposer then decided how much money to give to the recipient. In three experiments, we test alternative theories by using situations in which the recipient’s losses were uncertain (Experiment 1, the recipient’s losses were certain (Experiment 2, or the recipient claims failed gains rather than losses (Experiment 3. Overall, we find that participants gave more money to recipients who displayed sad expressions compared to neutral expressions, but only under conditions of uncertain loss. This finding supports the hypothesis that sad expressions function to increase the credibility of claims of loss.

  19. Interjections and the Language Functions Debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elffers, E.

    2008-01-01

    Five views of the function of interjections, developed in the first half of the 20th century by the psychologist-linguist Bühler, the linguists Gardiner, and Jakobson, and the psychologists Révész and Duijker, are discussed. All five scholars reject the earlier psychologism that reinforced the

  20. [Language Functions in the Frontal Association Area: Brain Mechanisms That Create Language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kayako; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2016-11-01

    Broca's area is known to be critically involved in language processing for more than 150 years. Recent neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, enabled the subdivision of Broca's area based on both functional and anatomical aspects. Networks among the frontal association areas, especially the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and other cortical regions in the temporal/parietal association areas, are also important for language-related information processing. Here, we review how neuroimaging studies, combined with research paradigms based on theoretical linguistics, have contributed to clarifying the critical roles of the left IFG in syntactic processing and those of language-related networks, including cortical and cerebellar regions.

  1. Merely Misunderstood? Receptive, Expressive, and Pragmatic Language in Young Children With Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremillion, Monica L.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) often seem to have poorer language skills compared to same-age peers; however, language as an early risk factor for DBD has received little empirical attention. The present study provides an empirical examination of associations between normal language variation and DBD by investigating receptive, expressive, and pragmatic language skills and preschool DBD symptoms. The sample consisted of 109 preschoolers ages 3 to 6 (M = 4.77 years, SD = 1.10, 59% boys; 73% with DBD, including oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) along with their primary caregivers, who completed a clinician-administered interview, symptom questionnaires, and a questionnaire measure of pragmatic language, and teacher and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires. Children completed objective tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary. Preschoolers with DBD showed poorer receptive, expressive, and pragmatic skills compared to preschoolers without DBD. Preschoolers with ADHD-only or ADHD+ODD exhibited poorer language skills, compared to ODD and non-DBD groups. Specificity analyses suggested that parent-rated hyperactivity-impulsivity were particularly associated with poorer language skills. Thus, preschoolers with DBD exhibited poorer language skills compared to preschoolers without DBD, and preschoolers with increased hyperactivity-impulsivity exhibited particular problems with language skills. This work suggests the need for early assessment of language in preschoolers, particularly those with ADHD, as well as the possible utility of tailored interventions focused on improving language skills, particularly for those with high hyperactivity-impulsivity. PMID:23924073

  2. Compiler-Enforced Cache Coherence Using a Functional Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Wolski

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost of hardware cache coherence, both in terms of execution delay and operational cost, is substantial for scalable systems. Fortunately, compiler-generated cache management can reduce program serialization due to cache contention; increase execution performance; and reduce the cost of parallel systems by eliminating the need for more expensive hardware support. In this article, we use the Sisal functional language system as a vehicle to implement and investigate automatic, compiler-based cache management. We describe our implementation of Sisal for the IBM Power/4. The Power/4, briefly available as a product, represents an early attempt to build a shared memory machine that relies strictly on the language system for cache coherence. We discuss the issues associated with deterministic execution and program correctness on a system without hardware coherence, and demonstrate how Sisal (as a functional language is able to address those issues.

  3. Functional MRI in Patients with Intracranial Lesions near Language Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, B; Erdogan, C; Yildirim, N; Bora, I; Bekar, A; Parlak, M

    2006-06-30

    We aimed to depict Broca's area and Wernicke's area by word generation and sentence formation paradigms in patients with various intracranial lesions adjacent to language areas using functional MRI technique and to evaluate the ability of functional MRI to lateralize the hemispheric dominance for language. Twenty-three right-handed patients were included in this study. Lesions were classified as low-grade glioma (n=8), high-grade glioma (n=9), metastasis (n=1), meningioma (n=1), arteriovenous malformation (n=2) and mesial temporal sclerosis (n=2). We performed blood-oxygenated-level-dependant functional MRI using a 1.5-T unit. Word generation and sentence formation tasks were used to activate language areas. Language areas were defined as Brodmann 44, 45 (Broca's area) and Brodmann 22 area (Wernicke's area). Laterality index was used to show the dominant hemisphere. Two poorly cooperative patients showed no activation and were excluded from the study. Broca's area was localized in 21 patients (100 %). Wernicke's area, on the other hand, could only be localized in eight of the 21 patients (38 %).The left hemisphere was dominant in 86% of patients while atypical language lateralization (right or bilateral) was demonstrated in 14% of the patients. Bilateral activation areas were shown in 10% of those patients while right cerebral hemisphere was dominant in 4% of the patients. Word generation and sentence formation tasks are especially helpful in localizing Broca's area. Wernicke's area could also be demonstrated in some of the cases. Functional MRI can be used as an important and useful means of demonstrating language areas in patients with lesions adjacent to those areas and depicting the hemispheric dominance.

  4. What is the Wymysorys Language for Vilamovians Today? Different Functions, Different Language Altitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoteusz Król

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available What makes the Wilamowice town so unique is the original language, Wymysorys. Vilamovian was brought to Poland by the settlers from the Western Europe and survived through the historical storms in the region till today. However, due to the after-Second World War suppressions of the German-like speaking community – bans of using the language, population displacement and deportations to the labor camps – the intergenerational knowledge transfer was disrupted. Children for whom the Vilamovian was their first language were being force to “unlearn” the language on the behalf of the dominating Polish. This violent political practice resulted in life-lasting trauma and unbreakable fear of speaking Vilamovian. Their native language was being forgotten by the post-war generations, although it was too late for them to naturally canvass Polish instead. Accordingly, a number of people declaring to do not know Wymysorys use particular words from it, while talking in Polish about traditional Vilamovian clothing, customs and values, deeply associated with Vilamowian identity. Contradictory to the earlier predications that Vilamowian language will die completely by the end of the 20th century, in the being of the second decade of the 21st century the dedicated revitalization program was introduced in the region. The initiative engaged scientists from major Polish universities – the University of Warsaw, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań – as well as foreign scholars. Wymysorys was introduced to the curriculum of the local schools and the intergenerational meetings are being held regularly. After some time, the Vilamovians also engaged into the revitalization program, even though there are strong differences in their linguistic bases. Today, the knowledge and use of Vilamowian is vividly growing amongst the young. The language once almost forgotten starts not only to gain back its communicative function, but more and more often takes upon a

  5. Developmental profile of speech-language and communicative functions in an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B; Vollmann, Ralf; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Green, Vanessa A; van der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-08-01

    We assessed various aspects of speech-language and communicative functions of an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome (RTT) to describe her developmental profile over a period of 11 years. For this study, we incorporated the following data resources and methods to assess speech-language and communicative functions during pre-, peri- and post-regressional development: retrospective video analyses, medical history data, parental checklists and diaries, standardized tests on vocabulary and grammar, spontaneous speech samples and picture stories to elicit narrative competences. Despite achieving speech-language milestones, atypical behaviours were present at all times. We observed a unique developmental speech-language trajectory (including the RTT typical regression) affecting all linguistic and socio-communicative sub-domains in the receptive as well as the expressive modality. Future research should take into consideration a potentially considerable discordance between formal and functional language use by interpreting communicative acts on a more cautionary note.

  6. The English Language in Japan: History, Attitudes, and Functions. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachru, Braj B.; Smith, Larry E.

    1995-01-01

    Introduces this special issue on the English language in Japan, which focuses on the historical phases of the introduction of English, the role of English in the educational system and the media, the contact and convergence of Japanese and English, the functions of English in Japan, and Japanese attitudes toward English. (three references) (MDM)

  7. Effects of Language of Implementation on Functional Analysis Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, Mandy; O'Reilly, Mark; Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Mulloy, Austin; Aguilar, Jeannie; Singer, George

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of language of implementation on functional analysis outcomes for a child with a severe intellectual disability from a Spanish-speaking home. Challenging behavior was assessed during 5-min sessions under 4 conditions; attention, play-verbal, play-nonverbal, and demand and across 2 phases; implementation in…

  8. Executive function behaviours in children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, J.M.; Vugs, B.A.M.; Scheper, A.R.; Hendriks, M.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that linguistic and non-linguistic factors may contribute to the problems associated with specific language impairment (SLI). One factor that has been implicated is executive functioning (EF). Most studies investigating EF in children with SLI use performance

  9. A Derivational Approach to the Operational Semantics of Functional Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacka, Malgorzata

    We study the connections between different forms of operational semantics for functional programming languages and we present systematic methods of interderiving reduction semantics, abstract machines and higher-order evaluators. We first consider two methods based on program transformations: a s...

  10. Executive Functioning and Figurative Language Comprehension in Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…

  11. Language mastery, narrative abilities and oral expression abilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of language and language mastery for science learning has been the object of extensive investigation in recent decades, leading to ample recognition. However, specific focus on the role of narrative abilities is still scarce. This work focuses on the relevance of narrative abilities for chemistry learning.

  12. The relationship between executive functioning and language: Examining vocabulary, syntax, and language learning in preschoolers attending Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lisa J; Alexander, Alexandra; Greenfield, Daryl B

    2017-12-01

    Early childhood marks a time of dynamic development within language and cognitive domains. Specifically, a body of research focuses on the development of language as related to executive functions, which are foundational cognitive skills that relate to both academic achievement and social-emotional development during early childhood and beyond. Although there is evidence to support the relationship between language and executive functions, existing studies focus mostly on vocabulary and fail to examine other components of language such as syntax and language learning skills. To address this gap, this study examined the relationship between executive functioning (EF) and three aspects of language: syntax, vocabulary, and language learning. A diverse sample of 182 children (67% Latino and 33% African American) attending Head Start were assessed on both EF and language ability. Findings demonstrated that EF related to a comprehensive latent construct of language composed of vocabulary, syntax, and language learning. EF also related to each individual component of language. This study furthers our understanding of the complex relationship between language and cognitive development by measuring EF as it relates to various components of language in a sample of preschoolers from low-income backgrounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroanatomical prerequisites for language functions in the maturing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Jens; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D

    2011-02-01

    The 2 major language-relevant cortical regions in the human brain, Broca's area and Wernicke's area, are connected via the fibers of the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus (AF/SLF). Here, we compared this pathway in adults and children and its relation to language processing during development. Comparison of fiber properties demonstrated lower anisotropy in children's AF/SLF, arguing for an immature status of this particular pathway with conceivably a lower degree of myelination. Combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data indicated that in adults the termination of the AF/SLF fiber projection is compatible with functional activation in Broca's area, that is pars opercularis. In children, activation in Broca's area extended from the pars opercularis into the pars triangularis revealing an alternative connection to the temporal lobe (Wernicke's area) via the ventrally projecting extreme capsule fiber system. fMRI and DTI data converge to indicate that adults make use of a more confined language network than children based on ongoing maturation of the structural network. Our data suggest relations between language development and brain maturation and, moreover, indicate the brain's plasticity to adjust its function to available structural prerequisites.

  14. DD-PREF: a language for expressing preferences over sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; desJardins, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present a representation language, DD-PREF (for Diversity and Depth PREFrences), for specifying the desired diversity and depth of sets of objects where each object is represented as a vector of feature values.

  15. Template-based generation of natural language expressions with Controlled M-Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appelo, Lisette; Leermakers, M.C.J.; Rous, J.H.G.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the generation of related natural-language expressions. The method is based on a formal grammar of the natural language in question, specified in the Controlled M-Grammar (CMG) formalism. In the CMG framework the generation of an utterance is controlled by a derivation

  16. Deaf Students' Receptive and Expressive American Sign Language Skills: Comparisons and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…

  17. An Analysis of Naturalistic Interventions for Increasing Spontaneous Expressive Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Justin D.; Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca; Gast, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify naturalistic language interventions for increasing spontaneous expressive language (defined in this review as absence of verbal prompt or other verbalization from adults or peers) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Also, the methodological rigor and effectiveness of each study were evaluated…

  18. Fine Motor Skill Predicts Expressive Language in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor…

  19. Differing Roles of the Face and Voice in Early Human Communication: Roots of Language in Multimodal Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuna Jhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking roots of language, we probed infant facial expressions and vocalizations. Both have roles in language, but the voice plays an especially flexible role, expressing a variety of functions and affect conditions with the same vocal categories—a word can be produced with many different affective flavors. This requirement of language is seen in very early infant vocalizations. We examined the extent to which affect is transmitted by early vocal categories termed “protophones” (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls and by their co-occurring facial expressions, and similarly the extent to which vocal type is transmitted by the voice and co-occurring facial expressions. Our coder agreement data suggest infant affect during protophones was most reliably transmitted by the face (judged in video-only, while vocal type was transmitted most reliably by the voice (judged in audio-only. Voice alone transmitted negative affect more reliably than neutral or positive affect, suggesting infant protophones may be used especially to call for attention when the infant is in distress. By contrast, the face alone provided no significant information about protophone categories. Indeed coders in VID could scarcely recognize the difference between silence and voice when coding protophones in VID. The results suggest that partial decoupling of communicative roles for face and voice occurs even in the first months of life. Affect in infancy appears to be transmitted in a way that audio and video aspects are flexibly interwoven, as in mature language.

  20. Differing Roles of the Face and Voice in Early Human Communication: Roots of Language in Multimodal Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Yuna; Franklin, Beau; Ramsdell-Hudock, Heather L; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2017-01-01

    Seeking roots of language, we probed infant facial expressions and vocalizations. Both have roles in language, but the voice plays an especially flexible role, expressing a variety of functions and affect conditions with the same vocal categories-a word can be produced with many different affective flavors. This requirement of language is seen in very early infant vocalizations. We examined the extent to which affect is transmitted by early vocal categories termed "protophones" (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls) and by their co-occurring facial expressions, and similarly the extent to which vocal type is transmitted by the voice and co-occurring facial expressions. Our coder agreement data suggest infant affect during protophones was most reliably transmitted by the face (judged in video-only), while vocal type was transmitted most reliably by the voice (judged in audio-only). Voice alone transmitted negative affect more reliably than neutral or positive affect, suggesting infant protophones may be used especially to call for attention when the infant is in distress. By contrast, the face alone provided no significant information about protophone categories. Indeed coders in VID could scarcely recognize the difference between silence and voice when coding protophones in VID. The results suggest that partial decoupling of communicative roles for face and voice occurs even in the first months of life. Affect in infancy appears to be transmitted in a way that audio and video aspects are flexibly interwoven, as in mature language.

  1. Fine motor skill predicts expressive language in infant siblings of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2013-11-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor skill from 12 to 24 months in HR infants (Study 1) and its relation to later expressive vocabulary at 36 months in HR infants (Study 2). In Study 1, we also included 25 infants without a family history of autism to serve as a normative comparison group for a parent-report fine motor measure. We found that HR infants exhibited fine motor delays between 12 and 24 months and expressive vocabulary delays at 36 months. Further, fine motor skill significantly predicted expressive language at 36 months. Fine motor and expressive language skills are related early in development in HR infants, who, as a group, exhibit risk for delays in both. Our findings highlight the importance of considering fine motor skill in children at risk for language impairments and may have implications for early identification of expressive language difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fine motor skills and expressive language: a study with children with congenital hypotyreoidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzato, Renata Camargo; Santos, Denise Castilho Cabrera; Goto, Maura Mikie Fukujima; Ouro, Michelle Prado Cabral do; Santos, Carolina Taddeo Mendes Dos; Dutra, Vivian; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro

    2017-03-09

    To screen the global development of children with and without congenital hypothyroidism and to investigate the association between fine motor skills and expressive language development in both groups. This is a prospective study of a cohort of children diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism and monitored in a reference service for congenital hypothyroidism of a public hospital and of children without this disorder. The screening was performed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III in the cognitive, gross and fine motor skills, and receptive and expressive language domains. The children's performance was expressed in three categories: competent, and non-competent. We screened 117 children with average age of 21 months diagnosed with Congenital Hypothyroidism at birth, with the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) level normalized during screening, and 51 children without the condition. The children with Congenital Hypothyroidism presented lower performance in gross and fine motor skills upon comparison between the two groups, and no differences were found in the cognitive and receptive and expressive language domains. The association between fine motor skills and language persisted in the group with Hypothyroidism, demonstrating that the interrelationship of skills is present in all individuals, although this group is two times more likely to present expressive language impairment when fine motor skills are already compromised. In the development process, both skills - motor and expressive language - might be associated and/or dependent on each other in the sample assessed.

  3. Signed language and human action processing: evidence for functional constraints on the human mirror-neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather Patterson

    2008-12-01

    In the quest to further understand the neural underpinning of human communication, researchers have turned to studies of naturally occurring signed languages used in Deaf communities. The comparison of the commonalities and differences between spoken and signed languages provides an opportunity to determine core neural systems responsible for linguistic communication independent of the modality in which a language is expressed. The present article examines such studies, and in addition asks what we can learn about human languages by contrasting formal visual-gestural linguistic systems (signed languages) with more general human action perception. To understand visual language perception, it is important to distinguish the demands of general human motion processing from the highly task-dependent demands associated with extracting linguistic meaning from arbitrary, conventionalized gestures. This endeavor is particularly important because theorists have suggested close homologies between perception and production of actions and functions of human language and social communication. We review recent behavioral, functional imaging, and neuropsychological studies that explore dissociations between the processing of human actions and signed languages. These data suggest incomplete overlap between the mirror-neuron systems proposed to mediate human action and language.

  4. Functional connectivity changes in second language vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi Saidi, Ladan; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Inés

    2013-01-01

    Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec, Bellec et al., 2008) were gathered, in the shallow and consolidation phases of L2 vocabulary learning. Functional connectivity remained unchanged across learning phases for L1, whereas total, between- and within-network integration levels decreased as proficiency for L2 increased. The results of this study provide the first functional connectivity evidence regarding the dynamic role of the language processing and cognitive control networks in L2 learning (Abutalebi, Cappa, & Perani, 2005; Altarriba & Heredia, 2008; Leonard et al., 2011; Parker-Jones et al., 2011). Thus, increased proficiency results in a higher degree of automaticity and lower cognitive effort (Segalowitz & Hulstijn, 2005). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Second Language Word Learning through Repetition and Imitation: Functional Networks as a Function of Learning Phase and Language Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi-Saidi, Ladan; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Aim : Repetition and imitation are among the oldest second language (L2) teaching approaches and are frequently used in the context of L2 learning and language therapy, despite some heavy criticism. Current neuroimaging techniques allow the neural mechanisms underlying repetition and imitation to be examined. This fMRI study examines the influence of verbal repetition and imitation on network configuration. Integration changes within and between the cognitive control and language networks were studied, in a pair of linguistically close languages (Spanish and French), and compared to our previous work on a distant language pair (Ghazi-Saidi et al., 2013). Methods : Twelve healthy native Spanish-speaking (L1) adults, and 12 healthy native Persian-speaking adults learned 130 new French (L2) words, through a computerized audiovisual repetition and imitation program. The program presented colored photos of objects. Participants were instructed to look at each photo and pronounce its name as closely as possible to the native template (imitate). Repetition was encouraged as many times as necessary to learn the object's name; phonological cues were provided if necessary. Participants practiced for 15 min, over 30 days, and were tested while naming the same items during fMRI scanning, at week 1 (shallow learning phase) and week 4 (consolidation phase) of training. To compare this set of data with our previous work on Persian speakers, a similar data analysis plan including accuracy rates (AR), response times (RT), and functional integration values for the language and cognitive control network at each measure point was included, with further L1-L2 direct comparisons across the two populations. Results and Discussion : The evidence shows that learning L2 words through repetition induces neuroplasticity at the network level. Specifically, L2 word learners showed increased network integration after 3 weeks of training, with both close and distant language

  6. Parents' Expression and Discussion of Emotion in the Multilingual Family: Does Language Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Kennedy, Morgan; Zhou, Qing

    2012-07-01

    Parents regularly use words to express and discuss emotion with their children, but does it matter which language they use to do so? In this article, we examine this question in the multilingual family context by integrating findings from both psychological and linguistic research. We propose that parents' use of different languages for emotional expression or discussion holds significant implications for children's emotional experience, understanding, and regulation. Finally, we suggest that an understanding of the implications of emotion-related language shifts is critical, particularly in adapting interventions within a rapidly diversifying society. © The Author(s) 2012.

  7. Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Paldino, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs.

  8. Human Eosinophils Express Functional CCR7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Estanislau, Jessica; Weller, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Human eosinophils display directed chemotactic activity toward an array of soluble chemokines. Eosinophils have been observed to migrate to draining lymph nodes in experimental models of allergic inflammation, yet it is unknown whether eosinophils express CCR7, a key chemokine receptor in coordinating leukocyte trafficking to lymph nodes. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate expression of CCR7 by human eosinophils and functional responses to CCL19 and CCL21, the known ligands of CCR7. Human eosinophils were purified by negative selection from healthy donors. CCR7 expression of freshly purified, unstimulated eosinophils and of IL-5–primed eosinophils was determined by flow cytometry and Western blot. Chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21 was measured in transwell assays. Shape changes to CCL19 and CCL21 were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Calcium fluxes of fluo-4 AM–loaded eosinophils were recorded by flow cytometry after chemokine stimulation. ERK phosphorylation of CCL19- and CCL21-stimulated eosinophils was measured by Western blot and Luminex assay. Human eosinophils expressed CCR7 as demonstrated by flow cytometry and Western blots. Eosinophils exhibited detectable cell surface expression of CCR7. IL-5–primed eosinophils exhibited chemotaxis toward CCL19 and CCL21 in a dose-dependent fashion. Upon stimulation with CCL19 or CCL21, IL-5–primed eosinophils demonstrated dose-dependent shape changes with polarization of F-actin and exhibited calcium influxes. Finally, primed eosinophils stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21 exhibited increased phosphorylation of ERK in response to both CCR7 ligands. We demonstrate that human eosinophils express CCR7 and have multipotent responses to the known ligands of CCR7. PMID:23449735

  9. Expressive language of two year-old pre-term and full-term children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isotani, Selma Mie; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de; Chiari, Brasília Maria; Perissinoto, Jacy

    2009-01-01

    expressive language of pre-term children. to compare the expressive vocabulary of two year-old children born prematurely, to that of those born at term. the study sample was composed by 118 speech-language assessment protocols, divided in two groups: the pre-term group (PTG) composed by 58 underweight premature children followed by a multi-professional team at the Casa do Prematuro (House of Premature Children) at Unifesp, and the full-term group (FTG) composed by 60 full-term born children. In order to evaluate the expressive language of these children, the Lave - Lista de Avaliação do Vocabulário Expressivo (Assessment List of the Expressive Vocabulary) was used. The Lave is an adaptation of the LDS - Language Development Survey - for the Brazilian Portuguese Language. The Lave investigates the expressive language and detects delays in oral language. children born underweight and prematurely present a greater occurrence of expressive language delay, 27.6%. These pre-term children present significantly lower expressive vocabulary and phrasal extension than children of the same age born at full-term in all semantic categories. Family income proved to be positively associated to phrasal extension, as well as to gestational age and weight at birth; thus indicating the effect of these adverse conditions still during the third year of age. The audiological status was associated to word utterances in the PTG. children born prematurely and underweight are at risk in terms of vocabulary development; this determines the need for speech-therapy intervention programs.

  10. Describing and optimizing reversible logic using a functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    the recognisable inversion combinator f^(-1), which defines the inverse function of f using an efficient semantics. It is important to ensure that all circuits descriptions are reversible, and furthermore we must require this to be done statically. This is en- sured by the type system, which also allows...... the description of arbitrary sized circuits. The combination of the functional language and the restricted reversible model results in many arithmetic laws, which provide more possibilities for term rewriting and, thus, the opportunity for good optimisation....

  11. Detecting resting-state functional connectivity in the language system using functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jin; Lu, Chun-Ming; Biswal, Bharat B.; Zang, Yu-Feng; Peng, Dan-Lin; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2010-07-01

    Functional connectivity has become one of the important approaches to understanding the functional organization of the human brain. Recently, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was demonstrated as a feasible method to study resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) in the sensory and motor systems. However, whether such fNIRS-based RSFC can be revealed in high-level and complex functional systems remains unknown. In the present study, the feasibility of such an approach is tested on the language system, of which the neural substrates have been well documented in the literature. After determination of a seed channel by a language localizer task, the correlation strength between the low frequency fluctuations of the fNIRS signal at the seed channel and those at all other channels is used to evaluate the language system RSFC. Our results show a significant RSFC between the left inferior frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex, components both associated with dominant language regions. Moreover, the RSFC map demonstrates left lateralization of the language system. In conclusion, the present study successfully utilized fNIRS-based RSFC to study a complex and high-level neural system, and provides further evidence for the validity of the fNIRS-based RSFC approach.

  12. Subtle Implicit Language Facts Emerge from the Functions of Constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Adele E

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about the unlikelihood of innate, syntax-specific, universal knowledge of language (Universal Grammar) on the grounds that it is biologically implausible, unresponsive to cross-linguistic facts, theoretically inelegant, and implausible and unnecessary from the perspective of language acquisition. While relevant, much of this discussion fails to address the sorts of facts that generative linguists often take as evidence in favor of the Universal Grammar Hypothesis: subtle, intricate, knowledge about language that speakers implicitly know without being taught. This paper revisits a few often-cited such cases and argues that, although the facts are sometimes even more complex and subtle than is generally appreciated, appeals to Universal Grammar fail to explain the phenomena. Instead, such facts are strongly motivated by the functions of the constructions involved. The following specific cases are discussed: (a) the distribution and interpretation of anaphoric one, (b) constraints on long-distance dependencies, (c) subject-auxiliary inversion, and (d) cross-linguistic linking generalizations between semantics and syntax.

  13. Executive functioning in pre-school children with autism spectrum disorders: The relationship between executive functioning and language

    OpenAIRE

    Linnerud, Ida Cathrine Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and there are several indications of a modifying relationship between executive functions and language in children. However, there is limited research on the relationship between executive functioning and language in young children with ASD. The current study compared real-world executive functioning between groups of children with ASD, language disorders (LD), and typical development (T...

  14. The Receptive-Expressive Gap in the Vocabulary of Young Second-Language Learners: Robustness and Possible Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1)-English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in…

  15. Language functions in preterm-born children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort-van der Spek, Inge L; Franken, Marie-Christine J P; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2012-04-01

    Preterm-born children (language function problems compared with term-born children. It is unknown whether these problems decrease, deteriorate, or remain stable over time. The goal of this research was to determine the developmental course of language functions in preterm-born children from 3 to 12 years of age. Computerized databases Embase, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and PsycInfo were searched for studies published between January 1995 and March 2011 reporting language functions in preterm-born children. Outcome measures were simple language function assessed by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and complex language function assessed by using the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Pooled effect sizes (in terms of Cohen's d) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for simple and complex language functions were calculated by using random-effects models. Meta-regression was conducted with mean difference of effect size as the outcome variable and assessment age as the explanatory variable. Preterm-born children scored significantly lower compared with term-born children on simple (d = -0.45 [95% CI: -0.59 to -0.30]; P language function tests, even in the absence of major disabilities and independent of social economic status. For complex language function (but not for simple language function), group differences between preterm- and term-born children increased significantly from 3 to 12 years of age (slope = -0.05; P = .03). While growing up, preterm-born children have increasing difficulties with complex language function.

  16. Receptive and expressive English language assessments used for young children: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laureen J; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Bidonde, Julia; Boden, Catherine; Doi, Carolyn

    2017-04-04

    The majority of a child's language development occurs in the first 5 years of life when brain development is most rapid. There are significant long-term benefits to supporting all children's language and literacy development such as maximizing their developmental potential (i.e., cognitive, linguistic, social-emotional), when children are experiencing a critical period of development (i.e., early childhood to 9 years of age). A variety of people play a significant role in supporting children's language development, including parents, guardians, family members, educators, and/or speech-language pathologists. Speech-language pathologists and educators are the professionals who predominantly support children's language development in order for them to become effective communicators and lay the foundation for later developing literacy skills (i.e., reading and writing skills). Therefore, these professionals need formal and informal assessments that provide them information on a child's understanding and/or use of the increasingly complex aspects of language in order to identify and support the receptive and expressive language learning needs of diverse children during their early learning experiences (i.e., aged 1.5 to 9 years). However, evidence on what methods and tools are being used is lacking. The authors will carry out a scoping review of the literature to identify studies and map the receptive and expressive English language assessment methods and tools that have been published and used since 1980. Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage approach to conducting a scoping review was drawn upon to design the protocol for this investigation: (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) study selection; (4) charting the data; (5) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results; and (6) consultation. This information will help these professionals identify and select appropriate assessment methods or tools that can be used to support

  17. Functional Automata - Formal Languages for Computer Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco T. Morazán

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An introductory formal languages course exposes advanced undergraduate and early graduate students to automata theory, grammars, constructive proofs, computability, and decidability. Programming students find these topics to be challenging or, in many cases, overwhelming and on the fringe of Computer Science. The existence of this perception is not completely absurd since students are asked to design and prove correct machines and grammars without being able to experiment nor get immediate feedback, which is essential in a learning context. This article puts forth the thesis that the theory of computation ought to be taught using tools for actually building computations. It describes the implementation and the classroom use of a library, FSM, designed to provide students with the opportunity to experiment and test their designs using state machines, grammars, and regular expressions. Students are able to perform random testing before proceeding with a formal proof of correctness. That is, students can test their designs much like they do in a programming course. In addition, the library easily allows students to implement the algorithms they develop as part of the constructive proofs they write. Providing students with this ability ought to be a new trend in the formal languages classroom.

  18. Language, culture and emotions: exploring ethnic minority patients' emotional expressions in primary healthcare consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maesschalck, Stéphanie; Deveugele, Myriam; Willems, Sara

    2011-09-01

    This study explores ethnic minority patients' expression of emotional cues and concerns in primary healthcare, and examines relationships with patient, provider and consultation attributes. 191 video-recorded consultations were analyzed using the VR-CoDES. Patients were interviewed before the consultation. Generalized Estimating Equations models (GEE) were used to test for associations. Psychosocial versus bio-medically oriented encounters contained significantly more cues (p≤0.05). Patients with poor versus good language proficiency expressed significantly less cues (p≤0.001). No significant correlations were found with patients' cultural values, patients' or physicians' gender or the presence of an interpreter. Female patients express more concerns (p≤0.05), female physicians have a higher number of concerns expressed by patients (p≤0.02). This study shows that independent of physician and diagnosis, patients' language proficiency has a more important impact on the number of cues expressed by the patient than cultural difference. Medical schools and Continuing Medical Education should focus on training programs for recognizing and handling linguistic barriers between physicians and patients. Patient education programs should encourage patients who experience language barriers to open up to physicians. In situations where language is a barrier, physicians and patients should be encouraged to use interpreters to enhance the expression of emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Broca's area network in language function.Broca's area network in language function: A pooling-data connectivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron eBernal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Modern neuroimaging developments have demonstrated that cognitive functions correlate with brain networks rather than specific areas. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the connectivity of Broca's area based on language tasks. Methods. A connectivity modeling study was performed by pooling data of Broca's activation in language tasks. Fifty-seven papers that included 883 subjects in 84 experiments were analyzed. Analysis of Likelihood Estimates of pooled data was utilized to generate the map; thresholds at p < 0.01 were corrected for multiple comparisons and false discovery rate. Resulting images were co-registered into MNI standard space. Results. A network consisting of 16 clusters of activation was obtained. Main clusters were located in the frontal operculum, left posterior temporal region, supplementary motor area, and the parietal lobe. Less common clusters were seen in the sub-cortical structures including the left thalamus, left putamen, secondary visual areas and the right cerebellum. Conclusions. BA44-related networks involved in language processing were demonstrated utilizing a pooling-data connectivity study. Significance, interpretation and limitations of the results are discussed.

  20. The Category of Definiteness Indefiniteness through the Prism of Functional Approach to Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labetova Victoria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The studying of language phenomena with the emphasis on their functional component is topical for modern linguistics. This approach gives a boost to thinking over various (semantic, morphological, syntactic forms through the prism of their functional-semantic load. The analysis of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness from this point of view allows defining the actual theoretical categorial model and the system of its expressive means. Purpose: The aim of the article is to define the essence and the bounds of the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in the Ukrainian language and reveal its expressive potential. Results: The category of definiteness/indefiniteness is a universal category that is based on the symbiosis of psychic, cognitive and lingual spheres. Its functional potential is accumulated in cognitive and communicative fields so it is not restricted only to defining spheres of definiteness or indefiniteness. Not only do things or objects appear definite or indefinite in the process of communication or its interpretation but also their characteristics or properties may acquire these senses. The category of definiteness/indefiniteness correlates with other functional-semantic categories, which leads to its complicated and ramified field structure with diffuse and peripheral zones. Discussion: The studying of the widened structure of the functional-semantic field of definiteness/indefiniteness and organizing all possible (regular, typical, occasional, etc. means of its expression is a perspective approach. It is important to study the category of definiteness/indefiniteness in different types of discourse to reveal the logic of its functioning.

  1. The receptive-expressive gap in the vocabulary of young second-language learners: Robustness and possible mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2012-01-01

    Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1) - English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in both Spanish and English. We found a small receptive-expressive gap in English but a large receptive-expressive gap in Spanish. We categorized chi...

  2. The Learning of Chinese Idiomatic Expressions as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yao, Jiayi

    2017-01-01

    Chinese idioms are mostly four-character phrases and are called Quadra-syllabic Idiomatic Expressions (QIEs). It has long been reported that learning of Chinese QIEs poses a great challenge for both young L1 speakers and adult L2 learners as the condensed form is often associated with complicated figurative meanings. The present study explored the…

  3. Do the early development of gestures and receptive and expressive language predict language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Lind, A; Matomäki, J; Haataja, L; Lapinleimu, H; Lehtonen, L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear what the predictive value of very early development of gestures and language is on later language ability in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤1500g) children. The aim of the present study was to analyse the predictive value of early gestures and a receptive lexicon measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3, as well as the predictive value of receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0 for language skills at 5;0 in VLBW children. The subjects were 29 VLBW children and 28 full-term children whose language development has been followed intensively between the ages of 0;9 and 2;0 using the Finnish version of the MacArthur Developmental Inventory and the Reynell Developmental Language Scales (RDLS III). At 5;0, five selected verbal subtests of the Nepsy II test and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were used to assess children's language skills. For the first time in VLBW children, the development of gestures measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3 was shown to correlate significantly and positively with language skills at 5;0. In addition, both receptive and expressive language ability measured at 2;0 correlated significantly and positively with later language skills in both groups. Moreover, according to the hierarchical regression analysis, the receptive language score of the RDLS III at 2;0 was a clear and significant predictor for language skills at 5;0 in both groups. The findings particularly underline the role of early receptive language as a significant predictor for later language ability in VLBW children. The results provide evidence for a continuity between early language development and later language skills. After reading this article, readers will understand the associations between the very early (≤2 years of age) development of gestures and language (i.e. early receptive lexicon, expressive lexicon at 2;0, receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0) and the language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born

  4. Learning physics concepts as a function of colloquial language usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Steven J.

    Data from two sections of college introductory, algebra-based physics courses (n1 = 139, n2 = 91) were collected using three separate instruments to investigate the relationships between reasoning ability, conceptual gain and colloquial language usage. To obtain a measure of reasoning ability, Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning Ability (TSR) was administered once near mid-term for each sample. The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was administered at the beginning and at the end of the term for pre- and post-test measures. Pre- and post-test data from the Mechanics Language Usage instrument were also collected in conjunction with FCI data collection at the beginning and end of the term. The MLU was developed specifically for this study prior to data collection, and results of a pilot test to establish validity and reliability are reported. T-tests were performed on the data collected to compare the means from each sample. In addition, correlations among the measures were investigated between the samples separately and combined. Results from these investigations served as justification for combining the samples into a single sample of 230 for performing further statistical analyses. The primary objective of this study was to determine if scientific reasoning ability (a function of developmental stage) and conceptual gains in Newtonian mechanics predict students' usages of "force" as measured by the MLU. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate these mediated relationships among TSR and FCI performance as a predictor of MLU performance. Statistically significant correlations and relationships existed among several of the measures, which are discussed at length in the body of the narrative. The findings of this research are that although there exists a discernable relationship between reasoning ability and conceptual change, more work needs to be done to establish improved quantitative measures of the role language usage has in developing understandings

  5. The Entropy of Words—Learnability and Expressivity across More than 1000 Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bentz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The choice associated with words is a fundamental property of natural languages. It lies at the heart of quantitative linguistics, computational linguistics and language sciences more generally. Information theory gives us tools at hand to measure precisely the average amount of choice associated with words: the word entropy. Here, we use three parallel corpora, encompassing ca. 450 million words in 1916 texts and 1259 languages, to tackle some of the major conceptual and practical problems of word entropy estimation: dependence on text size, register, style and estimation method, as well as non-independence of words in co-text. We present two main findings: Firstly, word entropies display relatively narrow, unimodal distributions. There is no language in our sample with a unigram entropy of less than six bits/word. We argue that this is in line with information-theoretic models of communication. Languages are held in a narrow range by two fundamental pressures: word learnability and word expressivity, with a potential bias towards expressivity. Secondly, there is a strong linear relationship between unigram entropies and entropy rates. The entropy difference between words with and without co-textual information is narrowly distributed around ca. three bits/word. In other words, knowing the preceding text reduces the uncertainty of words by roughly the same amount across languages of the world.

  6. The relationships between Japanese interpersonal conflict styles and their language expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriizumi, Satoshi; Takai, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of interpersonal conflict management styles on language expressions and the differences in expressions in same-sex relational categories based on specific in-group-out-group classifications. Questionnaires were administered to 367 university students in Japan. After reading a scenario, participants reported on actual language use and gave ratings on an interpersonal conflict management scale. The results revealed that Japanese change their expressions, along with psychological styles, depending on the relational target. They also indicated psychological constructs were related to their equivalent expressions. The results suggested that future research should take into consideration the potential differences in behavior and interaction posture inherent in various relational and situational categories.

  7. Cognitive functions in preschool children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Katrin; Bastian, Laura; Rohrbach, Saskia; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea

    2016-07-01

    A growing body of research has focused on executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, results show limited convergence, particularly in preschool age. The current neuropsychological study compared performance of cognitive functions focused on executive components and working memory in preschool children with SLI to typically developing controls. Performance on the measures cognitive flexibility, inhibition, processing speed and phonological short-term memory was assessed. The monolingual, Caucasian study sample consisted of 30 children with SLI (Mage = 63.3 months, SD = 4.3 months) and 30 healthy controls (Mage = 62.2 months, SD = 3.7 months). Groups were matched for age and nonverbal IQ. Socioeconomic status of the participating families was included. Children with SLI had significantly poorer abilities of phonological short-term memory than matched controls. A tendency of poorer abilities in the SLI group was found for inhibition and processing speed. We confirmed phonological short-term memory to be a reliable marker of SLI in preschoolers. Our results do not give definite support for impaired executive function in SLI, possibly owing to limited sensitivity of test instruments in this age group. We argue for a standardization of executive function tests for research use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the tested functions was observed in both groups. However, in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits the degree of recovery of most language functions and some cognitive functions was higher. A significantly greater correlation was revealed within language and cognitive functions, as well as between language functions and other aspects of cognition in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits than in patients with aphasia following a stroke. Our results show that patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits have a different recovery pattern and a different pattern of correlation between language and cognitive functions compared to patients with aphasia following a stroke. (1) Better understanding of the differences in recovery of language and cognitive functions in patients who have suffered strokes and those who have experienced traumatic brain injury. (2) Better understanding of the relationship between language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. (3) Better understanding of the factors influencing recovery.

  9. A review of recommendations for sequencing receptive and expressive language instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We review recommendations for sequencing instruction in receptive and expressive language objectives in early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs. Several books recommend completing receptive protocols before introducing corresponding expressive protocols. However, this recommendation has little empirical support, and some evidence exists that the reverse sequence may be more efficient. Alternative recommendations include teaching receptive and expressive skills simultaneously (M. L. Sundberg & Partington, 1998) and building learning histories that lead to acquisition of receptive and expressive skills without direct instruction (Greer & Ross, 2008). Empirical support for these recommendations also is limited. Future research should assess the relative efficiency of receptive-before-expressive, expressive-before-receptive, and simultaneous training with children who have diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders. In addition, further evaluation is needed of the potential benefits of multiple-exemplar training and other variables that may influence the efficiency of receptive and expressive instruction.

  10. A Functional Approach to the Assessment of Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, Leon A.

    1969-01-01

    Argues for language tests based on a view of linguistic competence broad enough to recognize the importance of social-psychological factors in the use of language. Paper prepared for a conference on language testing at Idyllwild, California, November 7-8, 1968. (FWB)

  11. Indigenous Language Revitalization, Promotion, and Education: Function of Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Candace Kaleimamoowahinekapu

    2016-01-01

    Within the last two decades, there has been increased interest in how technology supports Indigenous language revitalization and reclamation efforts. This paper considers the effect technology has on Indigenous language learning and teaching, while conceptualizing how language educators, speakers, learners, and technology users holistically…

  12. Pragmatic functions of fuzzy language and translation in English advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾美林

    2017-01-01

    the application of fuzzy language in English advertisement is very broad, the application of fuzzy language can make advertising more attractive, so as to achieve the goal of advertising design companies.Paper discusses the application of fuzzy language and its translation, for the development of English advertising, creating a better path.

  13. Learning of Idiomatic Language Expressions in a Group Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Nelson, Keith E.; Khan, Kiren S.

    2013-01-01

    In typical development, children learn an extensive range of idioms and other figurative (non-literal) language expressions during childhood and adolescence. However, many children with autism fall far behind in their idiom comprehension and production and never fully reach adult levels. The current study measured the effectiveness of a group…

  14. Impact of Chromosome 4p- Syndrome on Communication and Expressive Language Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Althea T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of Chromosome 4p- syndrome on the communication and expressive language phenotype of a large cross-cultural population of children, adolescents, and adults. Method: A large-scale survey study was conducted and a descriptive research design was used to analyze quantitative and…

  15. Profiles of Receptive and Expressive Language Abilities in Boys with Comorbid Fragile X Syndrome and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Brown, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined receptive and expressive language profiles for a group of verbal male children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome along with varying degrees of autism symptoms. A categorical approach for assigning autism diagnostic classification, based on the combined use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised and the Autism…

  16. Overlap and Uniqueness: Linguistic Componential Traits Contributing to Expressive Skills in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Hye K.; O'Brien, Beth

    2018-01-01

    This study identified robust predictors of expressive skills in academic English as a foreign language. The participants were 92 Korean-speaking learners of English. The field test of the Pearson Test of English Academic was used as a secondary data analysis. Four communicative skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and six enabling…

  17. Children's Beliefs about Bilingualism and Language Use as Expressed in Child-Adult Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almér, Elin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe young children's beliefs about language and bilingualism as they are expressed in verbal utterances. The data is from Swedish-medium preschool units in three different sites in Finland. It was generated through ethnographic observations and recordings of the author's interactions with the children. The…

  18. Memory Functioning and Mental Verbs Acquisition in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George C.; Natsopoulos, Demetrios

    2011-01-01

    Memory and language operate in synergy. Recent literature stresses the importance of memory functioning in interpreting language deficits. Two groups of 50 children each, ages 8-12 were studied. The first group included children with specific language impairment, while the participants in the second group were typically developing children. The…

  19. The Development of Executive Function and Language Skills in the Early School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background: The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated…

  20. Uneven Expressive Language Development in Mandarin-Exposed Preschool Children with ASD: Comparing Vocabulary, Grammar, and the Decontextualized Use of Language via the PCDI-Toddler Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Naigles, Letitia R; Su, Lin-Yan

    2018-05-21

    Data from children with ASD who are learning Indo-European languages indicate that (a) they vary hugely in their expressive language skills and (b) their pragmatic/socially-based language is more impaired than their structural language. We investigate whether similar patterns of language development exist for Mandarin-exposed children with ASD. Parent report data of the Putonghua Communicative Development Inventory-Toddler Form were collected from 160 17-83-month-old children with ASD. These children with ASD demonstrated similar levels of variability as Western children with ASD. In particular, they could be divided into three distinct subgroups (high verbal, middle verbal, low verbal), all of which manifested relative strengths in lexical and grammatical language compared to pragmatic usage of decontextualized language.

  1. Social communication disorder outside autism? A diagnostic classification approach to delineating pragmatic language impairment, high functioning autism and specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Six to eleven year olds diagnosed with pragmatic language impairment (PLI), high functioning autism (HFA) or specific language impairment (SLI) were compared on measures of social interaction with peers (PI), restricted and repetitive behaviours/interests (RRBIs) and language ability. Odds ratios (OR) from a multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the importance of each measure to diagnostic grouping. MANOVA was used to investigate differences in subscale scores for the PI measure. Greater degrees of PI difficulties (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.05-1.41), RRBI (OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.06-1.42) and expressive language ability (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30) discriminated HFA from PLI. PLI was differentiated from SLI by elevated PI difficulties (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.96) and higher expressive language ability (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.77-0.98), but indistinguishable from SLI using RRBI (OR = 1.01, 95% CI=0.94-1.09). A significant effect of group on PI subscales was observed (θ = 1.38, F(4, 56) = 19.26, p communication disorder' in DSM-5. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  2. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  3. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  4. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Attention Problems and Expressive Language and Emerging Academic Skills in Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevenbergen, Andrea A.; Ryan, Meghan M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between attention problems and expressive language and academic readiness skills in preschool-aged children from middle-class families. Forty-three children (44% female) were assessed individually for expressive language skills and knowledge of basic academic concepts (e.g. colours, letters and numbers). The…

  5. Examining Preschool-Aged Dual Language Learners' Language Use: From a Functional Approach. WCER Working Paper No. 2016-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahyoung Alicia; Kondo, Akira; Castro, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increase in the number of preschool-aged dual language learners (DLLs), there is a need to understand their language development and how to better support them. Although DLLs' language development has traditionally been studied from a structuralist perspective, few have examined their language use from a functional approach, which…

  6. Children's Expressive Language Skills and Their Impact on the Relation between First-and Second-Language Phonological Awareness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the cross-language relations between the phonological awareness (PA) skills of preschool children learning more than one language are dependent upon their first-and second-language oral language skills. Four hundred sixty-six Spanish-speaking language minority children participated in this study.…

  7. A Systemic-Functional Analysis of English Language Learners' Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. DE OLIVEIRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a systemic-functional linguistic analysis of two writing samples of the University of California Analytical Writing Placement (AWP Examination written by English language learners (ELLs. The analysis shows the linguistic features utilized in the two writing samples, one that received a passing score and one that received a failing score. The article describes some of the grammatical resources which are functional for expository writing, which are divided under three main categories: textual, interpersonal, and ideational resources. Following this brief description is the analysis of both essays in terms of these resources.. The configuration of grammatical features used in the essays make up the detached style of essay 1 and the more personal style of essay 2. These grammatical features include the textual resources of thematic choices and development, clause-combining strategies (connectors, and lexical cohesion; interpersonal resources of interpersonal metaphors of modality; and ideational resources of nominalization and abstractions as ideational metaphors. Implications for educational practice and recommendations for educators based on the analysis are provided.

  8. Effective intervention for expressive grammar in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Lock, Karen M; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment. Thirty-four 5-year-old children attending a specialized school for children with language impairment participated in the study. Nineteen children received treatment for expressive grammar (experimental group) and 15 children received a control treatment. Treatment consisted of weekly 1-h sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting for 8 weeks. Techniques included direct instruction, focused stimulation, recasting and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. There was a significant difference in grammatical performance pre- and post-treatment for children who received grammar treatment (Cohen's d = 1.24), but not for a group of children who received a control treatment. Further, no difference in performance was found in the equivalent time period prior to treatment, nor for an untreated target. Treatment success was more pronounced in children without articulation difficulties which interfered with their ability to produce the grammatical targets (Cohen's d = 1.66). Individual analyses indicated the treatment effect was significant for the majority of children. Individually targeted intervention delivered in small groups in a classroom setting was effective in improving production of expressive grammatical targets in 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  9. GSFC Systems Test and Operation Language (STOL) functional requirements and language description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, R.; Hall, G.; Mcguire, J.; Merwarth, P.; Mocarsky, W.; Truszkowski, W.; Villasenor, A.; Brosi, F.; Burch, P.; Carey, D.

    1978-01-01

    The Systems Tests and Operation Language (STOL) provides the means for user communication with payloads, applications programs, and other ground system elements. It is a systems operation language that enables an operator or user to communicate a command to a computer system. The system interprets each high level language directive from the user and performs the indicated action, such as executing a program, printing out a snapshot, or sending a payload command. This document presents the following: (1) required language features and implementation considerations; (2) basic capabilities; (3) telemetry, command, and input/output directives; (4) procedure definition and control; (5) listing, extension, and STOL nucleus capabilities.

  10. Surgery-Independent Language Function Decline in Patients Undergoing Awake Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Sela, Gal; Yanakee, Ranin; Ram, Zvi; Grossman, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Despite selection process before awake-craniotomy, some patients experience an unexpected decline in language functions in the operating room (OR), compared with their baseline evaluation, which may impair their functional monitoring. To investigate this phenomenon we prospectively compared language function the day before surgery and on entrance to the OR. Data were collected prospectively from consecutive patients undergoing awake-craniotomy with intraoperative cortical mapping for resection of gliomas affecting language areas. Language functions of 79 patients were evaluated and compared 1-2 days before surgery and after entering the OR. Changes in functional linguistic performance were analyzed with respect to demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics. There was a significant decline in language function, beyond sedation effect, after entering the OR, (from median/interquartile range: 0.94/0.72-0.98 to median/interquartile range: 0.86/0.51-0.94; Z = -7.19, P awake-craniotomy may experience a substantial decline in language functioning after entering the OR. Tumor grade and the presence of preoperative language deficits were significant risk factors for this phenomenon, suggesting a possible relation between cognitive reserve, psychobehavioral coping abilities and histologic features of a tumor involving language areas. Capturing and identifying this unique population of patients who are prone to experience such language decline may improve our ability in the future to select patients eligible for awake-craniotomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was e...

  12. Language of Uncertainty: the Expression of Decisional Conflict Related to Skin Cancer Prevention Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; James, Vaughan S

    2017-09-01

    User-generated information on the Internet provides opportunities for the monitoring of health information consumer attitudes. For example, information about cancer prevention may cause decisional conflict. Yet posts and conversations shared by health information consumers online are often not readily actionable for interpretation and decision-making due to their unstandardized format. This study extends prior research on the use of natural language as a predictor of consumer attitudes and provides a link to decision-making by evaluating the predictive role of uncertainty indicators expressed in natural language. Analyzed data included free-text comments and structured scale responses related to information about skin cancer prevention options. The study identified natural language indicators of uncertainty and showed that it can serve as a predictor of decisional conflict. The natural indicators of uncertainty reported here can facilitate the monitoring of health consumer perceptions about cancer prevention recommendations and inform education and communication campaign planning and evaluation.

  13. Bilingualism alters brain functional connectivity between "control" regions and "language" regions: Evidence from bimodal bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zou, Lijuan; Yan, Xin; Liu, Lanfang; Feng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Ruiming; Guo, Taomei; Ding, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that bilingualism induces both structural and functional neuroplasticity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the left caudate nucleus (LCN), both of which are associated with cognitive control. Since these "control" regions should work together with other language regions during language processing, we hypothesized that bilingualism may also alter the functional interaction between the dACC/LCN and language regions. Here we tested this hypothesis by exploring the functional connectivity (FC) in bimodal bilinguals and monolinguals using functional MRI when they either performed a picture naming task with spoken language or were in resting state. We found that for bimodal bilinguals who use spoken and sign languages, the FC of the dACC with regions involved in spoken language (e.g. the left superior temporal gyrus) was stronger in performing the task, but weaker in the resting state as compared to monolinguals. For the LCN, its intrinsic FC with sign language regions including the left inferior temporo-occipital part and right inferior and superior parietal lobules was increased in the bilinguals. These results demonstrate that bilingual experience may alter the brain functional interaction between "control" regions and "language" regions. For different control regions, the FC alters in different ways. The findings also deepen our understanding of the functional roles of the dACC and LCN in language processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in platelet functional parameters and CD62 P expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To investigate the changes in platelet functional parameters and CD62 P expression in liver cirrhosis as a possible .... bleeding and non-bleeding group with hepatic cirrhosis (±s). Group ... the body's coagulate function requirement.

  15. A Resource-Oriented Functional Approach to English Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia

    2018-01-01

    This article reports on a case study that investigates the learning preferences and strategies of Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL) in Canadian school settings. It focuses on the interaction between second language (L2) learning methods that the students have adopted from their previous learning experience in China and…

  16. Language: Functionalism versus Authenticity | McGuire | Indo-Pacific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the syntactic and grammatical perspective, which predominates in the educational context, presents language as an institutionalized, authoritarian and self-contained system, Saussurean linguistics provides a view of language as a complex, self-contained, technical system, as such reflecting the nature of modern ...

  17. From the Left to the Right: How the Brain Compensates Progressive Loss of Language Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Alexander; Habedank, Birgit; Herholz, Karl; Kessler, Josef; Winhuisen, Lutz; Haupt, Walter F.; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In normal right-handed subjects language production usually is a function of the left brain hemisphere. Patients with aphasia following brain damage to the left hemisphere have a considerable potential to compensate for the loss of this function. Sometimes, but not always, areas of the right hemisphere which are homologous to language areas of the…

  18. Aberrant functional connectivity between motor and language networks in rolandic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, René M H; Overvliet, Geke M; Jansen, Jacobus F A; van der Kruijs, Sylvie J M; Vles, Johannes S H; Ebus, Saskia C M; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton J A; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

    2013-12-01

    Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is an idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy with a well-established neuropsychological profile of language impairment. The aim of this study is to provide a functional correlate that links rolandic (sensorimotor) pathology to language problems using functional MRI. Twenty-three children with RE (8-14 years old) and 21 matched controls underwent extensive language assessment (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals). fMRI was performed at rest and using word generation, reading, and finger tapping paradigms. Since no activation group differences were found, regions of interest (ROIs) were defined at pooled (patients and controls combined) activation maxima and in contralateral homotopic cortex, and used to assess language lateralization as well as for a resting-state connectivity analysis. Furthermore, the association between connection strength and language performance was investigated. Reduced language performance was found in the children with RE. Bilateral activation was found for both language tasks with some predominance of the left hemisphere in both groups. Compared to controls, patient connectivity was decreased between the left sensorimotor area and right inferior frontal gyrus (planguage scores in the patient group (r=0.49, p=0.02), but not in the controls. Language laterality analysis revealed bilateral language representation in the age range under study (8-14 years). As a consequence, the connection of reduced functional connectivity we found represents an impaired interplay between motor and language networks, and aberrant functional connectivity associated with poorer language performance. These findings provide a first neuronal correlate in terms of aberrant resting-state functional connectivity for language impairment in RE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Expressive means of language in modern advertisement (based on the analyses of advertisements in weekly issue “Purse of Advertisements”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmakina Natalya Alekseyevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the usage of expressive means of language in advertisements. The peculiarity of modern usage of expressive means of language in Krasnoyarsk press advertisements is stated.

  20. Human brain mapping of language-related function on 1.5T magnetic resonance system: focused on motor language function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hee Young; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Taemin; Piao, Xiang Hao; Kim, Jae Soo; Lee, Gyung Kyu; Park, Il Soon; Park, Ji Hoon; Kang, Su Jin; You, Jin Jong; Chung, Sung Hoon

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of functional MR imaging of motor language function and its usefulness in the determination of hemispheric language dominance. In order to activate the motor center of language, six subjects ( 5 right-handed, 1 left-handed: 3 males: 3 females) generated words. They were requested to do this silently, without physical articulation, in response to English letters presented visually. Gradient-echo images (TR/TE/flip angle, 80/60/40 deg; 64 x 128 matrix; 10 mm thickness) were obtained in three axial planes including the inferior frontal gyrus. Functional maps were created by the postprocessing of gradient-echo images, including subtraction and statistics. Areas of activation were topographically analyzed and numbers of activated pixels in each region were compared between right and left sides. The reproducibility of functional maps was tested by repetition of functional imaging in the same subjects. Our results suggest that functional MR imaging can depict the activation of motor language function in the brain and can be used a useful non-invasive method for determining the hemispheric dominance of language. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  1. Hemispheric language dominance measured by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and postoperative course of language function in brain tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ille, Sebastian; Kulchytska, Nataliia; Sollmann, Nico; Wittig, Regina; Beurskens, Eva; Butenschoen, Vicki M; Ringel, Florian; Vajkoczy, Peter; Meyer, Bernhard; Picht, Thomas; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-10-01

    The resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions harbors the risk of postoperative aphasia. Because it is known that language function can shift between hemispheres in brain tumor patients, the preoperative knowledge of the patient's language dominance could be helpful. We therefore investigated the hemispheric language dominance by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and surgery-related deficits of language function. We pooled the bicentric language mapping data of 80 patients undergoing the resection of left-sided perisylvian brain lesions in our two university neurosurgical departments. We calculated error rates (ERs; ER = errors per stimulations) for both hemispheres and defined the hemispheric dominance ratio (HDR) as the quotient of the left- and right-sided ER (HDR >1= left dominant; HDR right dominant). The course of the patient's language function was evaluated and correlated with the preoperative HDR. Only three of 80 patients (4%) presented with permanent surgery-related aphasia and 24 patients (30%) with transient surgery-related aphasia. The mean HDR (± standard deviation) of patients with new aphasia after five days was significantly higher (1.68±1.07) than the HDR of patients with no new language deficit (1.37±1.08) (p=0.0482). With a predefined cut-off value of 0.5 for HDR, we achieved a sensitivity for predicting new aphasia of 100%. A higher preoperative HDR significantly correlates with an increased risk for transient aphasia. Moreover, the intensive preoperative workup in this study led to a considerably low rate of permanent aphasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Response inhibition is modulated by functional cerebral asymmetries for facial expression perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of executive functions is critically modulated by information processing in earlier cognitive stages. For example, initial processing of verbal stimuli in the language-dominant left-hemisphere leads to more efficient response inhibition than initial processing of verbal stimuli in the non-dominant right hemisphere. However, it is unclear whether this organizational principle is specific for the language system, or a general principle that also applies to other types of lateralized cognition. To answer this question, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of early attentional processes, facial expression perception and response inhibition during tachistoscopic presentation of facial ‘Go’ and ‘Nogo’ stimuli in the left and the right visual field. Participants committed fewer false alarms after Nogo-stimulus presentation in the left compared to the right visual field. This right-hemispheric asymmetry on the behavioral level was also reflected in the neurophysiological correlates of face perception, specifically in a right-sided asymmetry in the N170 amplitude. Moreover, the right-hemispheric dominance for facial expression processing also affected event-related potentials typically related to response inhibition, namely the Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3. These findings show that an effect of hemispheric asymmetries in early information processing on the efficacy of higher cognitive functions is not limited to left-hemispheric language functions, but can be generalized to predominantly right-hemispheric functions.

  3. GELLO: an object-oriented query and expression language for clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Margarita; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Boxwala, Aziz A; Greenes, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    GELLO is a purpose-specific, object-oriented (OO) query and expression language. GELLO is the result of a concerted effort of the Decision Systems Group (DSG) working with the HL7 Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee (CDSTC) to provide the HL7 community with a common format for data encoding and manipulation. GELLO will soon be submitted for ballot to the HL7 CDSTC for consideration as a standard.

  4. Awake Craniotomy in Arteriovenous Malformation Surgery: The Usefulness of Cortical and Subcortical Mapping of Language Function in Selected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Alexander J; Schaffer, Sarah G; Nardi, Dominic J; Chalif, David J; Katz, Jeffery; Dehdashti, Amir R

    2015-11-01

    Awake craniotomy for removal of intra-axial lesions is a well-established procedure. Few studies, however, have investigated the usefulness of this approach for resection of arteriovenous malformations adjacent to eloquent language areas. We demonstrate our experience by using cortical stimulation mapping and report for the first time on the usefulness of subcortical stimulation with interrogation of language function during resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) located near language zones. Patients undergoing awake craniotomy for AVMs located in language zones and at least 5 mm away from the closest functional magnetic resonance imaging activation were analyzed. During surgery, cortical bipolar stimulation at 50 Hz, with an intensity of 2 mA, increased to a maximum of 10 mA was performed in the region around the AVM before claiming it negative for language function. In positive language site, the area was restimulated 3 times to confirm the functional deficit. The AVM resection was started based on cortical mapping findings. Further subcortical stimulation performed in concert with speech interrogation by the neuropsychologist continued at key points throughout the resection as feasible. The usefulness of cortical and subcortical stimulation in addition to patient outcomes was analyzed. Between March 2009 and September 2014, 42 brain AVM resections were performed. Four patients with left-sided language zone AVMs underwent awake craniotomy. The AVM locations were fronto-opercular in 2 patients and posterior temporal in 2. The AVM Spetzler-Martin grades were II (2 patients) and III (2 patients). In 1 patient, complete speech arrest was noticed during mapping of the peri-malformation zone, which was not breached during resection. In a second patient who initially demonstrated negative cortical mapping, a speech deficit was noticed during resection and subcortical stimulation. This guided the approach to protect and avoid the sensitive zone. This patient

  5. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding.

  6. Accuracy of Presurgical Functional MR Imaging for Language Mapping of Brain Tumors: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Noll, Kyle R; Johnson, Jason M; Prabhu, Sujit S; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Yen-Chu; Lee, Jiann-Der; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Hazle, John D; Schomer, Donald F; Liu, Ho-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To compare functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for language mapping (hereafter, language functional MR imaging) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) in patients with brain tumors and to assess factors associated with its accuracy. Materials and Methods PubMed/MEDLINE and related databases were searched for research articles published between January 2000 and September 2016. Findings were pooled by using bivariate random-effects and hierarchic summary receiver operating characteristic curve models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate whether publication year, functional MR imaging paradigm, magnetic field strength, statistical threshold, and analysis software affected classification accuracy. Results Ten articles with a total of 214 patients were included in the analysis. On a per-patient basis, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of functional MR imaging was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14%, 78%) and 80% (95% CI: 54%, 93%), respectively. On a per-tag basis (ie, each DCS stimulation site or "tag" was considered a separate data point across all patients), the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 67% (95% CI: 51%, 80%) and 55% (95% CI: 25%, 82%), respectively. The per-tag analysis showed significantly higher sensitivity for studies with shorter functional MR imaging session times (P = .03) and relaxed statistical threshold (P = .05). Significantly higher specificity was found when expressive language task (P = .02), longer functional MR imaging session times (P functional MR imaging when compared with intraoperative DCS, and the included studies displayed significant methodologic heterogeneity. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  7. Preschool outcomes following prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure: differences in language and behavior, but not cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katrina C; Smith, Alicia K; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A

    2016-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is associated with language and behavioral outcomes in preschool-aged children, while accounting for confounds such as concomitant exposures and maternal mental illness. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study of mental illness in pregnancy was conducted at a university-based women's mental health clinic (April 2010-November 2012). A sample of 178 mother-child dyads participated in a laboratory visit at preschool age (2.5-5.5 years). The majority of women (87%) received psychotropic medication during pregnancy. Psychiatric status (based on DSM-IV), other medication use, and substance use were serially assessed and tested as confounds. Primary outcome measures included standardized measures of expressive language and cognitive function and mother and alternate caregiver ratings of child behavior problems, including the Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression analyses revealed that, after controlling for relevant covariates, expressive language scores from the Test of Early Language Development, 3rd edition, were negatively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = -0.15, t = -2.41), while the PDD behavioral problems subscales completed by alternate caregivers and mothers were positively associated with prenatal SRI exposure (β = 0.17, t = 2.01; β = 0.16, t = 2.00, respectively). Cognitive function, measured using the Differential Ability Scales, 2nd edition, was not associated with any medication exposures. The current data suggest a small but significant association between prenatal SRI exposure and preschool outcomes, including expressive language and behavior problems. These data corroborate data from recent, population-based studies, although overall, published findings are mixed. Replication and identification of moderating risk factors are needed to understand potential clinical implications.

  8. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  9. What can atypical language hemispheric specialization tell us about cognitive functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Van der Haegen, Lise

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have made substantial progress in understanding the interactions between cognitive functions, from language to cognitive control, attention, and memory. However, dissociating these functions has been hampered by the close proximity of regions involved, as in the case in the prefrontal and parietal cortex. In this article, we review a series of studies that investigated the relationship between language and other cognitive functions in an alternative way - by examining their functional (co-)lateralization. We argue that research on the hemispheric lateralization of language and its link with handedness can offer an appropriate starting-point to shed light on the relationships between different functions. Besides functional interactions, anatomical asymmetries in non-human primates and those underlying language in humans can provide unique information about cortical organization. Finally, some open questions and criteria are raised for an ideal theoretical model of the cortex based on hemispheric specialization.

  10. Resting-State Functional MR Imaging for Determining Language Laterality in Intractable Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSalvo, Matthew N; Tanaka, Naoaki; Douw, Linda; Leveroni, Catherine L; Buchbinder, Bradley R; Greve, Douglas N; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Purpose To measure the accuracy of resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in determining hemispheric language dominance in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsies against the results of an intracarotid amobarbital procedure (IAP). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and all subjects gave signed informed consent. Data in 23 patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy were retrospectively analyzed. All 23 patients were candidates for epilepsy surgery and underwent both IAP and resting-state functional MR imaging as part of presurgical evaluation. Language dominance was determined from functional MR imaging data by calculating a laterality index (LI) after using independent component analysis. The accuracy of this method was assessed against that of IAP by using a variety of thresholds. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using leave-one-out cross validation. Spatial maps of language components were qualitatively compared among each hemispheric language dominance group. Results Measurement of hemispheric language dominance with resting-state functional MR imaging was highly concordant with IAP results, with up to 96% (22 of 23) accuracy, 96% (22 of 23) sensitivity, and 96% (22 of 23) specificity. Composite language component maps in patients with typical language laterality consistently included classic language areas such as the inferior frontal gyrus, the posterior superior temporal gyrus, and the inferior parietal lobule, while those of patients with atypical language laterality also included non-classical language areas such as the superior and middle frontal gyri, the insula, and the occipital cortex. Conclusion Resting-state functional MR imaging can be used to measure language laterality in patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  11. Spoken language and everyday functioning in 5-year-old children using hearing aids or cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Yc; Button, Laura; Seeto, Mark; Zhang, Vicky; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise; Marnane, Vivienne

    2017-09-12

    This study investigated the factors influencing 5-year language, speech and everyday functioning of children with congenital hearing loss. Standardised tests including PLS-4, PPVT-4 and DEAP were directly administered to children. Parent reports on language (CDI) and everyday functioning (PEACH) were collected. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the influence of a range of demographic variables on outcomes. Participants were 339 children enrolled in the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. Children's average receptive and expressive language scores were approximately 1 SD below the mean of typically developing children, and scores on speech production and everyday functioning were more than 1 SD below. Regression models accounted for 70-23% of variance in scores across different tests. Earlier CI switch-on and higher non-verbal ability were associated with better outcomes in most domains. Earlier HA fitting and use of oral communication were associated with better outcomes on directly administered language assessments. Severity of hearing loss and maternal education influenced outcomes of children with HAs. The presence of additional disabilities affected outcomes of children with CIs. The findings provide strong evidence for the benefits of early HA fitting and early CI for improving children's outcomes.

  12. Family Ratings of Communication Largely Reflect Expressive Language and Conversation-Level Ability in People With Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucetola, Robert; Tabor Connor, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Family ratings of communication and social interactions represent an important source of information about people with aphasia. Because of the reliance on family/partner ratings as an outcome measure in many aphasia treatment studies and in the clinic, there is a great need for the validation of commonly used family/partner rating measures, and a better understanding of predictors of family ratings of communication. The communication ability of 130 individuals with aphasia due to neurologic illness was rated by family members/partners on the Communicative Effectiveness Index (CETI; Lomas et al., 1989). Information on aphasia severity, mood, quality of life, nonverbal cognitive functioning, and various demographic factors was collected. Principal component analysis confirmed a 2-factor model best represents the relationships among CETI rating items, and this model largely consists of a conversation-level ability factor. Family ratings were largely predicted by the patient's expressive (not receptive) language but also patient self-perceived quality of communication life. Family/partners typically rate the effectiveness of communication based largely on expressive language, despite the fact that other aspects of the aphasia (e.g., listening comprehension) are as important for everyday communication.

  13. Language and functionality of post-stroke adults: evaluation based on International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Tereza Maynard; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-03-09

    Cerebrovascular accident is an important Public Health problem because of the high rates of mortality and sequelae such as language disorders. The conceptual health changes have led to the incorporation of functional and social aspects in the assessments as proposed by the World Health Organization in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The purpose was to evaluate and classify language aspects, functionality and participation of post-stroke individuals based on the concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and characterize the sociodemographic profile of participants. Data collection was carried out through the application of a clinical instrument to evaluate language, participation and functionality in fifty individuals based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The age of the participants varied between 32 and 88 years, and the majority were elderly men. Among body functions, the participants reported more difficulties in "memory functions". As for activity and participation, more difficulties were reported in "recreation and leisure". As for environmental factors, the component "healthcare professionals" was indicated as a facilitator by the majority of participants. The results show the impact of language difficulties in the lives of post-stroke adults and reinforce the applicability of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as an important complementary tool for assessing language, functionality and participation in a comprehensive and humane approach, towards the improvement of health assistance in ambulatory care.

  14. Receptive and expressive language performance in children with and without Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamônica, Dionísia Aparecida Cusin; Silva-Mori, Mariana Jales Felix da; Ribeiro, Camila da Costa; Maximino, Luciana Paula

    2016-01-01

    To compare the performance in the abilities of receptive and expressive language of children with cleft lip and palate with that of children without cleft lip and palate with typical 12 to 36-month chronological development. The sample consisted of 60 children aged 12 and 36 months: 30 with cleft lip and palate diagnosis and 30 without cleft lip and palate diagnosis with typical development. The groups were paired according to gender, age (in months), and socioeconomic level. The procedures consisted of analysis of medical records, anamnesis with family members, and valuation of the Early Language Milestone Scale (ELMS). The chart analysis showed 63.34% of the children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, 16.66% with bilateral incisive transforamen cleft, and 20% with post-foramen cleft. Children with cleft lip and palate underwent surgeries (lip repair and/or palatoplasty) at the recommended ages and participated in early intervention programs; 40% presented recurrent otitis history, and 50% attended schools. Statistical analysis included the use of the Mann Whitney test with significance level of p cleft lip and palate showed statistically significant low performance in receptive and expressive language compared with children without cleft lip and palate.

  15. The development of executive function and language skills in the early school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Debbie; Thompson, Paul; Nash, Hannah M; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2016-02-01

    The developmental relationships between executive functions (EF) and early language skills are unclear. This study explores the longitudinal relationships between children's early EF and language skills in a sample of children with a wide range of language abilities including children at risk of dyslexia. In addition, we investigated whether these skills independently predict children's attention/behaviour skills. Data are presented from 243 children at four time points. Children were selected for being at risk of reading difficulties either because of a family history of dyslexia (FR; N = 90) or because of concerns regarding their language development (LI; N = 79) or as typically developing controls (TD; N = 74). The children completed tasks to assess their executive function and language skills at ages 4, 5 and 6 years. At 6 (T4) and 7 years (T5) parents and teachers rated the children's attention/behaviour skills. There was a strong concurrent relationship between language and EF at each assessment. Longitudinal analyses indicated a considerable degree of stability in children's language and EF skills: the influence of language on later EF skills (and vice versa) was weak and not significant in the current sample. Children's EF, but not language, skills at T3 predicted attention/behaviour ratings at T4/T5. There is a strong concurrent association between language and EF skills during the preschool and early school years, when children with language impairment show persistent EF deficits. Latent variables measuring language and EF show high longitudinal stability with little evidence of significant or strong reciprocal influences between these constructs. EF, but not language, skills predict later ratings of children's attention and behaviour. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  16. Aberrant Topologies and Reconfiguration Pattern of Functional Brain Network in Children with Second Language Reading Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…

  17. Functional Domains of the Quechua Language in Peru: Issues of Status Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the status of Quechua in Peru and how it has affected language maintenance efforts; discusses the functional domains served by Quechua, relating them to Peruvian language policies; notes the lack of grassroots efforts by indigenous people in Peru; and suggests possible measures to improve its status, noting predictions of the future of…

  18. Nonverbal Executive Function Is Mediated by Language: A Study of Deaf and Hearing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Nicola; Jones, Anna; Marshall, Chloe; Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Morgan, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that language and executive function (EF) are strongly associated. Indeed, the two are difficult to separate, and it is particularly difficult to determine whether one skill is more dependent on the other. Deafness provides a unique opportunity to disentangle these skills because in this case, language difficulties have a…

  19. Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

  20. Association between Speech-Language, General Cognitive Functioning and Behaviour Problems in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, N. F.; Giacheti, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. Methods: The…

  1. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  2. Effects of the teach-model-coach-review instructional approach on caregiver use of language support strategies and children's expressive language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y; Kaiser, Ann P; Wolfe, Cathy E; Bryant, Julie D; Spidalieri, Alexandria M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline study. Children were between 24 and 42 months of age and had language impairment. Interventionists used the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach to teach caregivers to use matched turns, expansions, time delays, and milieu teaching prompts during 24 individualized clinic sessions. Caregiver use of each EMT language support strategy and child use of communication targets were the dependent variables. The caregivers demonstrated increases in their use of each EMT language support strategy after instruction. Generalization and maintenance of strategy use to the home was limited, indicating that teaching across routines is necessary to achieve maximal outcomes. All children demonstrated gains in their use of communication targets and in their performance on norm-referenced measures of language. The results indicate that the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach resulted in increased use of EMT language support strategies by caregivers. Caregiver use of these strategies was associated with positive changes in child language skills.

  3. Seeing conflict and engaging control: Experience with contrastive language benefits executive function in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebel, Sabine; Zelazo, Philip David

    2016-12-01

    Engaging executive function often requires overriding a prepotent response in favor of a conflicting but adaptive one. Language may play a key role in this ability by supporting integrated representations of conflicting rules. We tested whether experience with contrastive language that could support such representations benefits executive function in 3-year-old children. Children who received brief experience with language highlighting contrast between objects, attributes, and actions showed greater executive function on two of three 'conflict' executive function tasks than children who received experience with contrasting stimuli only and children who read storybooks with the experimenter, controlling for baseline executive function. Experience with contrasting stimuli did not benefit executive function relative to reading books with the experimenter, indicating experience with contrastive language, rather than experience with contrast generally, was key. Experience with contrastive language also boosted spontaneous attention to contrast, consistent with improvements in representing contrast. These findings indicate a role for language in executive function that is consistent with the Cognitive Complexity and Control theory's key claim that coordinating conflicting rules is critical to overcoming perseveration, and suggest new ideas for testing theories of executive function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  5. Inferring gene expression dynamics via functional regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Temporal gene expression profiles characterize the time-dynamics of expression of specific genes and are increasingly collected in current gene expression experiments. In the analysis of experiments where gene expression is obtained over the life cycle, it is of interest to relate temporal patterns of gene expression associated with different developmental stages to each other to study patterns of long-term developmental gene regulation. We use tools from functional data analysis to study dynamic changes by relating temporal gene expression profiles of different developmental stages to each other. Results We demonstrate that functional regression methodology can pinpoint relationships that exist between temporary gene expression profiles for different life cycle phases and incorporates dimension reduction as needed for these high-dimensional data. By applying these tools, gene expression profiles for pupa and adult phases are found to be strongly related to the profiles of the same genes obtained during the embryo phase. Moreover, one can distinguish between gene groups that exhibit relationships with positive and others with negative associations between later life and embryonal expression profiles. Specifically, we find a positive relationship in expression for muscle development related genes, and a negative relationship for strictly maternal genes for Drosophila, using temporal gene expression profiles. Conclusion Our findings point to specific reactivation patterns of gene expression during the Drosophila life cycle which differ in characteristic ways between various gene groups. Functional regression emerges as a useful tool for relating gene expression patterns from different developmental stages, and avoids the problems with large numbers of parameters and multiple testing that affect alternative approaches.

  6. The functions of word duplication in Indonesian languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonda, J.

    1949-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, which is not intended to give an exhaustive collection of word-types, the author tries to review and to systematize a number of the most characteristic meanings of duplication (and reduplication) in Indonesian languages and to look more closely into some aspects of these

  7. The promotional functionality of evaluative language in tourism discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mocini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the use of evaluation in a corpus of British tourist brochures produced by tour operators specializing in the promotion of Italy. The theoretical framework is the Appraisal System developed mainly by White (1998, 2001 and Martin (2000 in order to study the discourse functions of evaluative resources. The creators of brochures resort mainly to two categories of Appraisal. The first concerns the expression of emotions (Affect, both in an implicit and explicit way, while the second category (Appreciation includes aesthetic assessments. Evaluation can be amplified by several linguistic devices which either sharpen the margins of an experiential category or intensify the meaning of a word, like those lexical items which include an assessment of intensity as part of their semantic load. The iteration of evalua­tive meanings constructs a prosody, bringing an emotional and aesthetic colour to the whole text which in­volves the reader and increases the perceived value of a tourist destination.

  8. The effect of fMRI task combinations on determining the hemispheric dominance of language functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niskanen, Eini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Applied Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Villberg, Ville; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Nissi, Mikko; Ranta-aho, Perttu; Karjalainen, Pasi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Applied Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Saeisaenen, Laura; Mervaala, Esa [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kaelviaeinen, Reetta [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish the most suitable combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language tasks for clinical use in determining language dominance and to define the variability in laterality index (LI) and activation power between different combinations of language tasks. Activation patterns of different fMRI analyses of five language tasks (word generation, responsive naming, letter task, sentence comprehension, and word pair) were defined for 20 healthy volunteers (16 right-handed). LIs and sums of T values were calculated for each task separately and for four combinations of tasks in predefined regions of interest. Variability in terms of activation power and lateralization was defined in each analysis. In addition, the visual assessment of lateralization of language functions based on the individual fMRI activation maps was conducted by an experienced neuroradiologist. A combination analysis of word generation, responsive naming, and sentence comprehension was the most suitable in terms of activation power, robustness to detect essential language areas, and scanning time. In general, combination analyses of the tasks provided higher overall activation levels than single tasks and reduced the number of outlier voxels disturbing the calculation of LI. A combination of auditory and visually presented tasks that activate different aspects of language functions with sufficient activation power may be a useful task battery for determining language dominance in patients. (orig.)

  9. The effect of fMRI task combinations on determining the hemispheric dominance of language functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niskanen, Eini; Koenoenen, Mervi; Villberg, Ville; Aeikiae, Marja; Nissi, Mikko; Ranta-aho, Perttu; Karjalainen, Pasi; Saeisaenen, Laura; Mervaala, Esa; Kaelviaeinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the most suitable combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language tasks for clinical use in determining language dominance and to define the variability in laterality index (LI) and activation power between different combinations of language tasks. Activation patterns of different fMRI analyses of five language tasks (word generation, responsive naming, letter task, sentence comprehension, and word pair) were defined for 20 healthy volunteers (16 right-handed). LIs and sums of T values were calculated for each task separately and for four combinations of tasks in predefined regions of interest. Variability in terms of activation power and lateralization was defined in each analysis. In addition, the visual assessment of lateralization of language functions based on the individual fMRI activation maps was conducted by an experienced neuroradiologist. A combination analysis of word generation, responsive naming, and sentence comprehension was the most suitable in terms of activation power, robustness to detect essential language areas, and scanning time. In general, combination analyses of the tasks provided higher overall activation levels than single tasks and reduced the number of outlier voxels disturbing the calculation of LI. A combination of auditory and visually presented tasks that activate different aspects of language functions with sufficient activation power may be a useful task battery for determining language dominance in patients. (orig.)

  10. The effect of fMRI task combinations on determining the hemispheric dominance of language functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Villberg, Ville; Nissi, Mikko; Ranta-Aho, Perttu; Säisänen, Laura; Karjalainen, Pasi; Aikiä, Marja; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Mervaala, Esa; Vanninen, Ritva

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish the most suitable combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) language tasks for clinical use in determining language dominance and to define the variability in laterality index (LI) and activation power between different combinations of language tasks. Activation patterns of different fMRI analyses of five language tasks (word generation, responsive naming, letter task, sentence comprehension, and word pair) were defined for 20 healthy volunteers (16 right-handed). LIs and sums of T values were calculated for each task separately and for four combinations of tasks in predefined regions of interest. Variability in terms of activation power and lateralization was defined in each analysis. In addition, the visual assessment of lateralization of language functions based on the individual fMRI activation maps was conducted by an experienced neuroradiologist. A combination analysis of word generation, responsive naming, and sentence comprehension was the most suitable in terms of activation power, robustness to detect essential language areas, and scanning time. In general, combination analyses of the tasks provided higher overall activation levels than single tasks and reduced the number of outlier voxels disturbing the calculation of LI. A combination of auditory and visually presented tasks that activate different aspects of language functions with sufficient activation power may be a useful task battery for determining language dominance in patients.

  11. FUNCTIONAL AND SEMANTIC PROPERTIES OF LOANWORDS IN THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE (BASED ON HYPERTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikov Vladimir Borisovich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author studies functional and semantic properties of foreign-language nouns revealed in the form of the oral written language in computer-mediated communication, taking into account the debatability of issues about the borders of a loanword's notion, about the reasons of penetration of foreign-language words into the Russian language and classification of loanwords, which are used in linguistic literature. The actual material (500 foreign-language nouns was selected by the method of continuous sampling of the online texts posted in social networks, news portals and various forums. It is established that the loanwords used in hypertexts reflect the updating of lexical means by generating the words that refer to the new and current phenomena; penetrate into the Russian language along with the borrowing of thing or notion; generate parallels to the existing names (at this, the ability of forming doublet reflection is eliminated by means of semantic and stylistic differentiation of units – a borrowed one and an existing in the language of the recipient. The analysis of lexical content of loanwords revealed that the most numerous LSG are Technology LSG that unites the names of technical devices; Art and Evaluation LSGs. It is proved in the article that foreign-language nouns are used in hypertexts for communicative, nominative, emotive, and metalinguistic functions. However, such lexemes do not participate in the implementation of regulatory and phatic functions.

  12. Cortical activity in the left and right hemispheres during language-related brain functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Larsen, B

    1980-01-01

    of cortical activity seen during various language functions, emphasizing the practically symmetrical involvement in both hemispheres. A case of auditive agnosia (with complete cortical word deafness but preserved pure tone thresholds) is presented. The patient's normal speech constitutes evidence...

  13. LANGUAGE FORM AND FUNCTION OF CARETAKERS FOUND IN NANNY MCPHEE AND THE BIG BANG MOVIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Putri Kusuma Andani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the form and the function of caretaker speech which is found in caretaker’s utterance in Nanny McPhee and The Big Bang Movie. The objectives of this study are (1 to describe the type of language form of the caretaker and (2 to describe the type of language function of the caretaker found in Nanny McPhee and The Big Bang Movie. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative research. The data of this research are the utterance from the caretaker found in manuscript of Nanny McPhee and The Big Bang Movie. The data collection technique is documentation. The technique of analyzing data are descriptive qualitative. The writer uses the theories from Frank (1972 to analyze the type of language form, and M.A.K. Halliday (1977 to analyze the type of language function. The result of this study shows that (1 there are four types of word: noun, verb, adjective, and adverb; three types of phrase: noun phrase, verb phrase, and adverb phrase; and two types of sentence categorized into two. The first category is based on type, namely: declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentence; the second one by number of full predication, namely: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentence. (2 The writer found 6 types of language function, they are: regulatory function, instrumental function, representational function, personal function, interactional function, and imaginative function.

  14. Language Expression Means of the Conceptual Category "Relation" with Derivative Prepositions in Modern English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Kameneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the revealing of the essence of language and cognitive processes behind the secondary nomination of expression of the conceptual category of «attitude» by derivative prepositions in modern English. The study addresses the issue of formation of prepositions in the diachronic aspect, as well as their status in the general classification of parts of speech in modern linguistics, deals with the phenomenon of secondary nomination, described by semantic features data implying the method of cognitive modeling, namely propositional modeling method.

  15. Validation of a Russian-language version of the Foot Functional Index (FFI) questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Orlova; A. V. Surnov; D. E. Karateev; V. N. Amirdzhanova

    2016-01-01

    The Foot Functional Index (FFI) questionnaire most completely reflects the functional status of patients with joint diseases of the feet.Objective: to study the psychometric properties of a Russian-language version of the FFI questionnaire.Patients and methods. The reliability, sensitivity, and validity of the Russian-language version of the FFI questionnaire were assessed in 55 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The investigators checked the reliability by assessing the internal consis...

  16. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  17. Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: anatomical changes in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Legault, Jennifer; Litcofsky, Kaitlyn A

    2014-09-01

    The brain has an extraordinary ability to functionally and physically change or reconfigure its structure in response to environmental stimulus, cognitive demand, or behavioral experience. This property, known as neuroplasticity, has been examined extensively in many domains. But how does neuroplasticity occur in the brain as a function of an individual's experience with a second language? It is not until recently that we have gained some understanding of this question by examining the anatomical changes as well as functional neural patterns that are induced by the learning and use of multiple languages. In this article we review emerging evidence regarding how structural neuroplasticity occurs in the brain as a result of one's bilingual experience. Our review aims at identifying the processes and mechanisms that drive experience-dependent anatomical changes, and integrating structural imaging evidence with current knowledge of functional neural plasticity of language and other cognitive skills. The evidence reviewed so far portrays a picture that is highly consistent with structural neuroplasticity observed for other domains: second language experience-induced brain changes, including increased gray matter (GM) density and white matter (WM) integrity, can be found in children, young adults, and the elderly; can occur rapidly with short-term language learning or training; and are sensitive to age, age of acquisition, proficiency or performance level, language-specific characteristics, and individual differences. We conclude with a theoretical perspective on neuroplasticity in language and bilingualism, and point to future directions for research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal communicative functions and mind-mindedness at 16 months as predictors of children's internal and non-internal language at 20 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Colonnesi, Cristina

    2018-02-01

    The effects of Communicative functions and Mind-Mindedness on children's language development have been typically investigated in separate studies. The present longitudinal research was therefore designed to yield new insight into the simultaneous impact of these two dimensions of maternal responsiveness on the acquisition of expressive language skills in a sample of 25 mother-child dyads. The frequencies of five communicative functions (Tutorial, Didactic, Conversational, Control and Asynchronous) and two types of mind-related comments (attuned vs. non-attuned) were assessed from a 15-min play session at 16 months. Children's expressive language was examined at both 16 months (number of word types and tokens produced, and number of words attributed to the child in the Questionnaire for Communication and Early Language development) and 20 months (number of internal and non-internal words attributed to the child in the Italian version of the Mac Arthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory). The main finding was that mothers' use of attuned mind-related comments at 16 months predicted internal state language at 20 months, above and beyond the effects of CFs and children's linguistic ability at 16 months; in addition, mothers' Tutorial function at 16 months marginally predicted non-internal state language at 20 months, after controlling for MM and children's linguistic ability at 16 months. These results suggest that different expressions of maternal responsiveness influence distinct aspects of children's expressive language in the second year of life, although the effects of MM appear to be more robust. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of a training programme stimulating language functions on Alzheimer-type dementia and maintenance of language skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Potemkowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In dementia of the Alzheimer’s type, memory and language impairments coexist, occur early and aggravate with time. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of our proprietary language function stimulating programme on cognitive functions and the maintenance of language skills in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer-type dementia as well as to evaluate the programme’s effectiveness depending on patients’ age, sex, education, severity of dementia and level of motivation. The intervention group (54 patients and the control group (34 patients were divided into subgroups according to the severity of dementia (mild/moderate. Tests such as the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clock-Drawing Test, the Boston Naming Test and picture description were performed at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. In the course of 1 year, the Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the intervention group improved on average by 0.87 points, whilst in the control group they declined by 1.32 points over the same period of time. Statistically significant differences in the Clock-Drawing Test were found at 6 and 12 months, with the mean score differing by 0.98 and 1.35 points respectively across the groups. The score difference in the Boston Naming Test grew gradually. At 3 months it was 3.67 points, amounting to as much as 7.96 points at 12 months. For the picture description task, the mean scores at 12 months increased by 1.18 points in the intervention group in the mild dementia subgroup and by 0.66 points in the moderate dementia subgroup. In the control group, the scores decreased. The use of our proprietary training programme, specially designed to stimulate language functions in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer-type dementia, facilitates the maintenance of general cognitive function and improvement of language skills, and its effectiveness increases with the patient’s motivation. This confirms the importance of supplementing non

  20. Energy expressions in density-functional theory using line integrals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R.; Baerends, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we will address the question of how to obtain energies from functionals when only the functional derivative is given. It is shown that one can obtain explicit expressions for the exchange-correlation energy from approximate exchange-correlation potentials using line integrals along

  1. Language and pragmatic functions in school-age children on the autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, C; Ehlers, S; Nydén, A; Johansson, M; Gillberg, C

    1996-01-01

    This study examined group differences in language and pragmatic functions across sex-, age- and IQ-matched samples of Asperger syndrome (N = 22), high-functioning autism (N = 11), deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) (N = 11), and speech and language disorder (SLD) (N = 11) groups. The purpose was to explore possible differentiating features in the fields of vocabulary, comprehension and pragmatics and, in addition, to determine whether Asperger syndrome could be reliably separated from high-functioning autism on these variables. The findings suggest that Asperger syndrome may be associated with higher full-scale and verbal IQ than high-functioning autism; Asperger syndrome may not be associated with better pragmatic skills (as defined in this context) than high-functioning autism; language comprehension may not clearly separate Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism once the effects of very low IQ are partialled out; both DAMP and SLD can be distinctly separated from Asperger syndrome and autism.

  2. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of Holistic Multidimensional Treatment Model (Hojjati Model on Receptive and Expressive Language Skills in Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hojjati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism as part of the category called Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, is caused by disorders in brain and nervous network and characterized by defect in social behavior, language and cognition. This study aimed to investigate receptive and expressive language performance and the severity of the disorder in 30 children with autism aged 2-8 years who speak in Persian language. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study 30 children with autism were selected using random sampling method. The study tools included "The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS", and "Newsha Developmental Scale (NDS" for assessing the receptive - expressive language skills. In order to assess the level of language impairment in subjects, the participants were divided into 5 groups with 6 people (considering the speaking ability including sign language and speech, with equal number of boys and girls (3 girls and 3 boys in each group. All of these children were evaluated by pediatric psychiatry, pediatric neurologist and pediatrician and were assessed according to the criteria for autism based on the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V. Eventually, the data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean (standard deviation and scores of receptive – expressive language skills in autistic subjects in each of the groups (P

  4. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 boys and 47 girls who had all the specific criteria for normality were randomly selected from several preschools in Shiraz, Iran. During the first stage of testing, test of language development (TOLD was administered to investigate language development of participants; later, the social skills rating system (SSRS including the teachers' and parents' forms were completed by the parents and teachers of participants. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients.Results: The correlations between expressive language and dimensions of social skills were significant (p<0.001, but teachers' form had a greater correlation with language development (p=0.031. Besides, Pearson's correlations between teachers' and parents' forms was not significant (p=0.27.Conclusion: According to our results, expressive language develops along with social skills development. On the other hand, these results are based on the differences between home and educational environment in social skills achievements of children. These findings are to be considered to provide crucial training in both environments for the children to improve the development of their expressive language.

  5. Design principles and issues of rights expression languages for digital rights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin

    2005-07-01

    Digital rights management (DRM) provides a unified approach to specifying, interpreting, enforcing and managing digital rights throughout the entire life cycle of digital assets. Using a declarative rights expression language (REL) for specifying rights and conditions in the form of licenses, as opposite to some other approaches (such as data structures and imperative languages), has been considered and adopted as a superior technology for implementing effective, interoperable and scalable DRM systems. This paper discusses some principles and issues for designing RELs, based on the experiences of developing a family of REL"s (DPRL, XrML 1.x, XrML 2.0 and MPEG REL). It starts with an overview of a family tree of the past and current REL"s, and their development history, followed by an analysis of their data models and a comparison with access-control oriented models. It then presents a number of primary design principles such as syntactic and semantic un-ambiguity, system interoperability, expressiveness in supporting business models and future extensibility, and discusses a number of key design issues such as maintaining stateful information, multi-tier issuance of rights, meta rights, identification of individual and aggregate objects, late-binding of to-beidentified entities, as well as some advanced ones on revocation and delegation of rights. The paper concludes with some remarks on REL profiling and extension for specific application domains.

  6. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  7. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children's cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.

  8. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Bosma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF. In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children’s cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.

  9. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children’s cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable. PMID:28900405

  10. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F

    2015-03-01

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left hemisphere is linked to inter-hemispheric reorganization. Based on literature, we hypothesized that reorganization would induce changes in the spatial pattern of activation specifically in tumour homologue brain areas in the healthy right hemisphere. An experimental group (EG) of 14 patients with a glioma in the left hemisphere near language related brain areas, and a control group of 6 patients with a glioma in the right, non-language dominant hemisphere were scanned before and after resection. In addition, an age and gender matched second control group of 18 healthy volunteers was scanned twice. A verb generation task was used to map language related areas and a novel technique was used for data analysis. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that functional recovery following surgery of low-grade gliomas cannot be linked to functional reorganization in language homologue brain areas in the healthy, right hemisphere. Although elevated changes in the activation pattern were found in patients after surgery, these were largest in brain areas in proximity to the surgical resection, and were very similar to the spatial pattern of the brain shift following surgery. This suggests that the apparent perilesional functional reorganization is mostly caused by the brain shift as a consequence of surgery. Perilesional functional reorganization can however not be excluded. The study suggests that language recovery after transient post-surgical language deficits involves recovery of functioning of the presurgical language system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stably Expressed Genes Involved in Basic Cellular Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Wang

    Full Text Available Stably Expressed Genes (SEGs whose expression varies within a narrow range may be involved in core cellular processes necessary for basic functions. To identify such genes, we re-analyzed existing RNA-Seq gene expression profiles across 11 organs at 4 developmental stages (from immature to old age in both sexes of F344 rats (n = 4/group; 320 samples. Expression changes (calculated as the maximum expression / minimum expression for each gene of >19000 genes across organs, ages, and sexes ranged from 2.35 to >109-fold, with a median of 165-fold. The expression of 278 SEGs was found to vary ≤4-fold and these genes were significantly involved in protein catabolism (proteasome and ubiquitination, RNA transport, protein processing, and the spliceosome. Such stability of expression was further validated in human samples where the expression variability of the homologous human SEGs was significantly lower than that of other genes in the human genome. It was also found that the homologous human SEGs were generally less subject to non-synonymous mutation than other genes, as would be expected of stably expressed genes. We also found that knockout of SEG homologs in mouse models was more likely to cause complete preweaning lethality than non-SEG homologs, corroborating the fundamental roles played by SEGs in biological development. Such stably expressed genes and pathways across life-stages suggest that tight control of these processes is important in basic cellular functions and that perturbation by endogenous (e.g., genetics or exogenous agents (e.g., drugs, environmental factors may cause serious adverse effects.

  12. The role of social cognition and prosocial behaviour in relation to the socio-emotional functioning of primary aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, Ioanna; Dockrell, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    Children with language impairments often experience difficulties with their socio-emotional functioning and poorly developed prosocial behaviour. However, the nature of the association between language impairment and difficulties with socio-emotional functioning remains unclear. The social cognition skills of a group of primary-aged children (6-11 years old) with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) were examined in relation to their teachers' ratings of socio-emotional functioning. Forty-two children with SLI were individually matched with 42 children for chronological age and non-verbal cognitive ability, and 42 children for receptive language ability. The children all attended mainstream primary schools or one Language Unit. Four aspects of social cognition were directly assessed: emotion identification, emotion labelling, inferring the causes of emotions, and knowledge of conflict resolution strategies. The children's socio-emotional functioning was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a standardised measure, completed by their teachers. Associations between children's performance on tasks of social cognition and children's socio-emotional functioning were explored. Significant group differences were found for all social cognition tasks. The SLI group was rated to experience significantly more problems with socio-emotional functioning by their teachers than both control groups, indicating problems with all aspects of socio-emotional functioning. Social cognition and prosocial behaviour, but not language ability, predicted teacher-rated behavioural, emotional and social difficulties for the SLI group. The results challenge current understanding of socio-emotional functioning in children with SLI by pointing to the crucial role of social cognition and prosocial behaviour. Factors other than expressive and receptive language play a role in the socio-emotional functioning of children with SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Learning a Foreign Language: A New Path to Enhancement of Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi Javan, Sara; Ghonsooly, Behzad

    2018-02-01

    The complicated cognitive processes involved in natural (primary) bilingualism lead to significant cognitive development. Executive functions as a fundamental component of human cognition are deemed to be affected by language learning. To date, a large number of studies have investigated how natural (primary) bilingualism influences executive functions; however, the way acquired (secondary) bilingualism manipulates executive functions is poorly understood. To fill this gap, controlling for age, gender, IQ, and socio-economic status, the researchers compared 60 advanced learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to 60 beginners on measures of executive functions involving Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and Wechsler's digit span tasks. The results suggested that mastering English as a foreign language causes considerable enhancement in two components of executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility and working memory. However, no significant difference was observed in inhibitory control between the advanced EFL learners and beginners.

  14. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eRosslau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  15. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  16. Correlations of cerebral blood flow with language function in aphasic patients following cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Nagata, Ken; Uemura, Kazuo [Research Inst. for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    To elucidate the participation of the brain regions in language function, cerebral blood flow (CBF) which were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) were compared with the language scores based on the standard language test for aphasics in 97 right-handed patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction. PET studies were performed on 71.4{+-}107.3 days after onset. By the linear regression analysis, the aphasic scores were correlated with the regional CBF from 55 brain regions. CBF from the left frontal, left temporal, and left parietal lobes significantly correlated with language scores of auditory comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, calculation, and repetition. Highly significant correlation was obtained from the left posterior inferior frontal, superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri. CBF from the right inferior frontal, right superior temporal, right parahippocampal and right anterior cingulate gyri also correlated with the auditory comprehension, speaking and reading. Accordingly, in addition to the classical language areas which play an essential roles in language function, the extensive areas in the left hemisphere and some part of the right hemisphere may be related to the language processing and recovery from aphasia. (author)

  17. Correlations of cerebral blood flow with language function in aphasic patients following cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Eriko; Nagata, Ken; Uemura, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the participation of the brain regions in language function, cerebral blood flow (CBF) which were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) were compared with the language scores based on the standard language test for aphasics in 97 right-handed patients with aphasia due to cerebral infarction. PET studies were performed on 71.4±107.3 days after onset. By the linear regression analysis, the aphasic scores were correlated with the regional CBF from 55 brain regions. CBF from the left frontal, left temporal, and left parietal lobes significantly correlated with language scores of auditory comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, calculation, and repetition. Highly significant correlation was obtained from the left posterior inferior frontal, superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri. CBF from the right inferior frontal, right superior temporal, right parahippocampal and right anterior cingulate gyri also correlated with the auditory comprehension, speaking and reading. Accordingly, in addition to the classical language areas which play an essential roles in language function, the extensive areas in the left hemisphere and some part of the right hemisphere may be related to the language processing and recovery from aphasia. (author)

  18. LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF STUDENT TOWARD RIGHT HEMISPHER BRAIN FUNCTION : A Neuropragmatic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Handoko, Handoko; Sastra, Gusdi; Revita, Ike

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that the right hemisphere is contributed to language processing, especially in macro level, including macrostructure or discourse processing. This research is aimed at evaluating the students’ ability in language processing concerning macrostructure and the right hemispher brain function. This research is based on Dharmaperwira-prins method “Right Hemisphere Communication Assessment” (Pemeriksaan Komunikasi Hemisfer Kanan/PKHK). Research on students’ ability in macrostructur...

  19. The effect of differential listening experience on the development of expressive and receptive language in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Christi; Zettler-Greeley, Cynthia; Godar, Shelly P; Ellis-Weismer, Susan; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that children who are deaf and use cochlear implants (CIs) can communicate effectively using spoken language. Research has reported that age of implantation and length of experience with the CI play an important role in a predicting a child's linguistic development. In recent years, the increase in the number of children receiving bilateral CIs (BiCIs) has led to interest in new variables that may also influence the development of hearing, speech, and language abilities, such as length of bilateral listening experience and the length of time between the implantation of the two CIs. One goal of the present study was to determine how a cohort of children with BiCIs performed on standardized measures of language and nonverbal cognition. This study examined the relationship between performance on language and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) tests and the ages at implantation of the first CI and second CI. This study also examined whether early bilateral activation is related to better language scores. Children with BiCIs (n = 39; ages 4 to 9 years) were tested on two standardized measures, the Test of Language Development and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised, to evaluate their expressive/receptive language skills and nonverbal IQ/memory. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to evaluate whether BiCI hearing experience predicts language performance. While large intersubject variability existed, on average, almost all the children with BiCIs scored within or above normal limits on measures of nonverbal cognition. Expressive and receptive language scores were highly variable, less likely to be above the normative mean, and did not correlate with Length of first CI Use, defined as length of auditory experience with one cochlear implant, or Length of second CI Use, defined as length of auditory experience with two cochlear implants. All children in the present study had BiCIs. Most IQ scores were either at or above that

  20. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Vahab; Sima Shahim; Mohammad Majid Oryadizanjani; Salime Jafari; Maryam Faham

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 ...

  1. Description and status update on GELLO: a proposed standardized object-oriented expression language for clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Margarita; Boxwala, Aziz A; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Greenes, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    A major obstacle to sharing computable clinical knowledge is the lack of a common language for specifying expressions and criteria. Such a language could be used to specify decision criteria, formulae, and constraints on data and action. Al-though the Arden Syntax addresses this problem for clinical rules, its generalization to HL7's object-oriented data model is limited. The GELLO Expression language is an object-oriented language used for expressing logical conditions and computations in the GLIF3 (GuideLine Interchange Format, v. 3) guideline modeling language. It has been further developed under the auspices of the HL7 Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee, as a proposed HL7 standard., GELLO is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL), because it is vendor-independent, object-oriented, and side-effect-free. GELLO expects an object-oriented data model. Although choice of model is arbitrary, standardization is facilitated by ensuring that the data model is compatible with the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM).

  2. Automated discovery of functional generality of human gene expression programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K Gerber

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-kappaB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal

  3. Mapping Language Function in the Brain: A Review of the Recent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafton, Robert E.; Kido, Elissa

    2000-01-01

    Considers the potential importance of brain study for composition instruction, briefly describes functional imaging techniques, and reviews the findings of recent brain-mapping studies investigating the neurocognitive systems involved in language function. Presents a review of the recent literature and considers the possible implications of this…

  4. Language and Psychosocial Functioning among Deaf Learners with and without Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Machmer, Elizabeth; Spencer, Linda J.; Borgna, Georgianna; Durkin, Andreana; Convertino, Carol

    2018-01-01

    Various studies have examined psychosocial functioning and language abilities among deaf children with and without cochlear implants (CIs). Few, however, have explored how relations among those abilities might change with age and setting. Most relevant studies also have failed to consider that psychosocial functioning among both CI users and…

  5. The Functional Programming Language R and the Paradigm of Dynamic Scientific Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trancón y Widemann, B.; Bolz, C.F.; Grelck, C.; Loidl, H.-W.; Peña, R.

    2013-01-01

    R is an environment and functional programming language for statistical data analysis and visualization. Largely unknown to the functional programming community, it is popular and influential in many empirical sciences. Due to its integrated combination of dynamic and reflective scripting on one

  6. Specific Language Impairment and Executive Functioning: Parent and Teacher Ratings of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.; Schechtman, Calli J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The current study used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function--Preschool Version (BRIEF-P; Gioia, Espy, & Isquith, 2003), a rating scale designed to investigate executive behaviors in everyday activities, to examine the executive functioning of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) relative to their…

  7. Early expressive and receptive language trajectories in high-risk infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Longard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aims In response to limited research on early language development in infants at high risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, the current prospective study examined early expressive and receptive language trajectories in familial high-risk (HR infants who were and were not later diagnosed with ASD (HR-ASD and HR-N, respectively, and low-risk (LR controls with no family history of ASD. Methods Participants were 523 children (371 HR siblings, 56% boys; 152 LR controls, 52% boys followed from age 6 or 12 months to 36 months. Based on independent, best-estimate clinical diagnoses at 36 months, HR participants were classified as HR-ASD (n = 94; 69% boys, or HR-N (n = 277; 52% boys; the sample also included 152 LR controls (52% boys. Expressive and receptive language trajectories were examined based on corresponding domain standard scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning ( MSEL at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. In the combined sample of HR and LR infants, semi-parametric group-based modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories in MSEL standard scores. Results A 3-group solution provided optimal fit to variation in both expressive and receptive language, with the following patterns of scores: (1 inclining from average to above average, (2 stable-average, and (3 declining from average to well below average. For both expressive and receptive language, membership in these trajectories was related to 3-year diagnostic outcomes. Conclusions Although HR-ASD, HR-N, and LR control infants were in each trajectory group, membership in the declining trajectory (expressive and/or receptive was associated with an ASD diagnosis. Implications Evidence of declining trajectories in either expressive or receptive language may be a risk marker for ASD in a high-risk sample.

  8. Executive Function Predicts Artificial Language Learning in Children and Adults

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    Kapa, Leah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has established an executive function advantage among bilinguals as compared to monolingual peers. These non-linguistic cognitive advantages are largely assumed to result from the experience of managing two linguistic systems. However, the possibility remains that the relationship between bilingualism and executive function is…

  9. The identification of functional motifs in temporal gene expression analysis

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    Michael G. Surette

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of transcription factor binding sites is essential to the understanding of the regulation of gene expression and the reconstruction of genetic regulatory networks. The in silico identification of cis-regulatory motifs is challenging due to sequence variability and lack of sufficient data to generate consensus motifs that are of quantitative or even qualitative predictive value. To determine functional motifs in gene expression, we propose a strategy to adopt false discovery rate (FDR and estimate motif effects to evaluate combinatorial analysis of motif candidates and temporal gene expression data. The method decreases the number of predicted motifs, which can then be confirmed by genetic analysis. To assess the method we used simulated motif/expression data to evaluate parameters. We applied this approach to experimental data for a group of iron responsive genes in Salmonella typhimurium 14028S. The method identified known and potentially new ferric-uptake regulator (Fur binding sites. In addition, we identified uncharacterized functional motif candidates that correlated with specific patterns of expression. A SAS code for the simulation and analysis gene expression data is available from the first author upon request.

  10. Functional deficit in the medial prefrontal cortex during a language comprehension task in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Dollfus, Sonia; Razafimandimby, Annick; Maiza, Olivier; Lebain, Pierrick; Brazo, Perrine; Beaucousin, Virginie; Lecardeur, Laurent; Delamillieure, Pascal; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2008-02-01

    We and others have observed that patients with schizophrenia commonly presented a reduced left recruitment in language semantic brain regions. However, most studies include patients with leftward and rightward lateralizations for language. We investigated whether a cohort comprised purely of patients with typical lateralization (leftward) presented a reduced left recruitment in semantic regions during a language comprehension task. The goal was to reduce the inter-subject variability and thus improve the resolution for studying functional abnormalities in the language network. Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) were matched with healthy subjects in age, sex, level of education and handedness. All patients exhibited leftward lateralization for language. Functional MRI was performed as subjects listened to a story comprising characters and social interactions. Functional MRI signal variations were analyzed individually and compared among groups. Although no differences were observed in the recruitment of the semantic language network, patients with schizophrenia presented significantly lower signal variations compared to controls in the medial part of the left superior frontal gyrus (MF1) (x=-6, y=58, z=20; Z(score)=5.6; pTheory of Mind (ToM) network. Only 5 of the 23 patients (21.7%) and 21 of the 23 (91.3%) control subjects demonstrated a positive signal variation in this area. A left functional deficit was observed in a core region of the ToM network in patients with schizophrenia and typical lateralizations for language. This functional defect could represent a neural basis for impaired social interaction and communication in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency: late onset of movement disorder and preserved expressive language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Declan J; Ryan, Stephanie; Salomons, Gajja; Jakobs, Cornelis; Monavari, Ahmad; King, Mary D

    2009-05-01

    Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a disorder of creatine biosynthesis, characterized by early-onset learning disability and epilepsy in most affected children. Severe expressive language delay is a constant feature even in the mildest clinical phenotypes.We report the clinical, biochemical, imaging, and treatment data of two female siblings (18y and 13y) with an unusual phenotype of GAMT deficiency. The oldest sibling had subacute onset of a movement disorder at age 17 years, later than has been previously reported. The younger sibling had better language skills than previously described in this disorder. After treatment with creatine, arginine restriction and ornithine-supplemented diet, seizure severity and movement disorder were reduced but cognition did not improve. This report confirms that GAMT deficiency, a heterogeneous, potentially treatable disorder, detected by increased levels of guanidinoacetate in body fluids (e.g. plasma or urine) or by an abnormal creatine peak on magnetic resonance spectroscopy, should be considered in patients of any age with unexplained, apparently static learning disability and epilepsy.

  12. Cardiac vagal regulation in infancy predicts executive function and social competence in preschool: Indirect effects through language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, Margaret; Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha A

    2018-05-21

    Parasympathetic nervous system functioning in infancy may serve a foundational role in the development of cognitive and socioemotional skills (Calkins, 2007). In this study (N = 297), we investigated the potential indirect effects of cardiac vagal regulation in infancy on children's executive functioning and social competence in preschool via expressive and receptive language in toddlerhood. Vagal regulation was assessed at 10 months during two attention conditions (social, nonsocial) via task-related changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). A path analysis revealed that decreased RSA from baseline in the nonsocial condition and increased RSA in the social condition were related to larger vocabularies in toddlerhood. Additionally, children's vocabulary sizes were positively related to their executive function and social competence in preschool. Indirect effects from vagal regulation in both contexts to both 4-year outcomes were significant, suggesting that early advances in language may represent a mechanism through which biological functioning in infancy impacts social and cognitive functioning in childhood. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functions of Expressions of Futurality in Professional Economic Texts

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    Mikuláš Martin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this corpus-based study is to identify the functions that selected expressions of futurality can express in professional economic texts. The classification of functions is established on the corpus of seven economic books. Excerpted instances of futural constructions are analysed with respect to textual and interpersonal functions as defined by Halliday. Futurality is interpreted broadly to include all lexical and grammatical means referring to the future. This approach makes it also possible to analyse futurality as a means of text coherence. Hence the core grammatical means are interpreted along with co-occurring lexical means under the two categories of functions to provide a comprehensive model of text coherence with regard to futurality. Frequency analysis shows that core futural expressions are not distributed equally throughout the corpus. While some expressions (e.g., will and the present simple tense dominate, others prove to be rather insignificant (e.g., be on the point/verge of, the present progressive tense. In addition, both lexical and grammatical constructions regularly co-occur in clusters, contributing to the coherence of the economic texts.

  14. Functional features of gene expression profiles differentiating gastrointestinal stromal tumours according to KIT mutations and expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, Jerzy; Dobosz, Anna Jerzak Vel; Jarosz, Dorota; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Polkowski, Marcin; Paziewska, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Magdalena; Goryca, Krzysztof; Rubel, Tymon; Kokoszyñska, Katarzyna; Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a heterogeneous group of tumours of mesenchymal origin characterized by gain-of-function mutations in KIT or PDGFRA of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family. Although mutations in either receptor are thought to drive an early oncogenic event through similar pathways, two previous studies reported the mutation-specific gene expression profiles. However, their further conclusions were rather discordant. To clarify the molecular characteristics of differentially expressed genes according to GIST receptor mutations, we combined microarray-based analysis with detailed functional annotations. Total RNA was isolated from 29 frozen gastric GISTs and processed for hybridization on GENECHIP ® HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays (Affymetrix). KIT and PDGFRA were analyzed by sequencing, while related mRNA levels were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Fifteen and eleven tumours possessed mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, respectively; no mutation was found in three tumours. Gene expression analysis identified no discriminative profiles associated with clinical or pathological parameters, even though expression of hundreds of genes differentiated tumour receptor mutation and expression status. Functional features of genes differentially expressed between the two groups of GISTs suggested alterations in angiogenesis and G-protein-related and calcium signalling. Our study has identified novel molecular elements likely to be involved in receptor-dependent GIST development and allowed confirmation of previously published results. These elements may be potential therapeutic targets and novel markers of KIT mutation status

  15. Elucidating gene function and function evolution through comparison of co-expression networks in plants

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    Marek eMutwil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of gene expression data has shown that transcriptionally coordinated (co-expressed genes are often functionally related, enabling scientists to use expression data in gene function prediction. This Focused Review discusses our original paper (Large-scale co-expression approach to dissect secondary cell wall formation across plant species, Frontiers in Plant Science 2:23. In this paper we applied cross-species analysis to co-expression networks of genes involved in cellulose biosynthesis. We show that the co-expression networks from different species are highly similar, indicating that whole biological pathways are conserved across species. This finding has two important implications. First, the analysis can transfer gene function annotation from well-studied plants, such as Arabidopsis, to other, uncharacterized plant species. As the analysis finds genes that have similar sequence and similar expression pattern across different organisms, functionally equivalent genes can be identified. Second, since co-expression analyses are often noisy, a comparative analysis should have higher performance, as parts of co-expression networks that are conserved are more likely to be functionally relevant. In this Focused Review, we outline the comparative analysis done in the original paper and comment on the recent advances and approaches that allow comparative analyses of co-function networks. We hypothesize that, in comparison to simple co-expression analysis, comparative analysis would yield more accurate gene function predictions. Finally, by combining comparative analysis with genomic information of green plants, we propose a possible composition of cellulose biosynthesis machinery during earlier stages of plant evolution.

  16. Functional english grammar, an introduction for second language teachers Functional english grammar, an introduction for second language teachers

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    Pappenheim Murcia Ruth

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este libro, perteneciente a la serie Cambridge Language Education, editada por Jack C. Richards, proporciona un acceso claro y útil a la gramática funcional de M. A. K. Hallíday, la cual gira alrededor de los significados experiencial, interpersonal y textual del lenguaje. Este eje teórico permite abordar la gramática como un recurso para la creación de significados en el discurso oral y escrito. De esta forma se pretende proporcionar una aproximación a la lengua inglesa en uso, lo cual es considerado por el autor del libro como una aproximación indispensable para la enseñanza del inglés, puesto que permite emprender esta actividad desde una perspectiva comunicativa.

  17. [Dissociations between music and language functions after cerebral resection: A new case of amusia without aphasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, I; Belleville, S; Fontaine, S

    1997-12-01

    We present the neuropsychological study of a patient, I.R., who sustained bilateral damage to the temporal lobes and to the right frontal lobe as a result of successive brain surgeries that occurred ten years earlier. The patient is 40 years old and right-handed; she had no special training in music or in language, representing, therefore, the large majority of listeners. Her performance is compared to that of four neurologically intact subjects who are closely matched in terms of education, sex and age. In the present study, we report I.R.'s performance on various tests aiming at assessing her general cognitive functioning with a particular focus on auditory aspects. The results show that, despite extensive damage to her auditory cortex, I.R.'s speech abilities are essentially intact (see Tables 1 and 2). The only impairments that are detected in the language domain are related to a short-term memory deficit, to some abnormal sensitivity to retroactive interference in long-term memory (see Table 3) and to articulation. These difficulties do not, however, affect linguistic communication, which is obviously undisturbed I.R. is not aphasic). Similarly, I.R. does not experience any difficulty in the recognition and memorization of familiar sounds such as animal cries, traffic noises and the like (see Tables 5 and 7). In contrast, I.R. is severely impaired in most musical abilities: She can no longer discriminate nor identify melodies that were once highly familiar to her; she can no longer discriminate nor memorize novel melodies (see Table 4). Her pattern of musical losses is compatible with a basic and severe perceptual deficit that compromises access to and registration in memory systems. The observation that the auditory impairment affects music and spares language and environmental sounds refers to a neuropsychological condition that is known as music agnosia. I.R. represents, to our knowledge, the fourth case of music agnosia available in the literature (Peretz

  18. Zeta Function Expression of Spin Partition Functions on Thermal AdS3

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    Floyd L.Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We find a Selberg zeta function expression of certain one-loop spin partition functions on three-dimensional thermal anti-de Sitter space. Of particular interest is the partition function of higher spin fermionic particles. We also set up, in the presence of spin, a Patterson-type formula involving the logarithmic derivative of zeta.

  19. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  20. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isesaki, Gunma (Japan); Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-03-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  1. Computational principles of syntax in the regions specialized for language: integrating theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shinri; Fukui, Naoki; Sakai, Kuniyoshi L

    2013-01-01

    The nature of computational principles of syntax remains to be elucidated. One promising approach to this problem would be to construct formal and abstract linguistic models that parametrically predict the activation modulations in the regions specialized for linguistic processes. In this article, we review recent advances in theoretical linguistics and functional neuroimaging in the following respects. First, we introduce the two fundamental linguistic operations: Merge (which combines two words or phrases to form a larger structure) and Search (which searches and establishes a syntactic relation of two words or phrases). We also illustrate certain universal properties of human language, and present hypotheses regarding how sentence structures are processed in the brain. Hypothesis I is that the Degree of Merger (DoM), i.e., the maximum depth of merged subtrees within a given domain, is a key computational concept to properly measure the complexity of tree structures. Hypothesis II is that the basic frame of the syntactic structure of a given linguistic expression is determined essentially by functional elements, which trigger Merge and Search. We then present our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, demonstrating that the DoM is indeed a key syntactic factor that accounts for syntax-selective activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Hypothesis III is that the DoM domain changes dynamically in accordance with iterative Merge applications, the Search distances, and/or task requirements. We confirm that the DoM accounts for activations in various sentence types. Hypothesis III successfully explains activation differences between object- and subject-relative clauses, as well as activations during explicit syntactic judgment tasks. A future research on the computational principles of syntax will further deepen our understanding of uniquely human mental faculties.

  2. Age of acquisition effects on the functional organization of language in the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Rachel I; Chen, Jen-Kai; Witcher, Pamela; Klein, Denise

    2011-10-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we neuroimaged deaf adults as they performed two linguistic tasks with sentences in American Sign Language, grammatical judgment and phonemic-hand judgment. Participants' age-onset of sign language acquisition ranged from birth to 14 years; length of sign language experience was substantial and did not vary in relation to age of acquisition. For both tasks, a more left lateralized pattern of activation was observed, with activity for grammatical judgment being more anterior than that observed for phonemic-hand judgment, which was more posterior by comparison. Age of acquisition was linearly and negatively related to activation levels in anterior language regions and positively related to activation levels in posterior visual regions for both tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple Functional Variants in cis Modulate PDYN Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Silverman, Jesse S; Haygood, Ralph; Reininga, Jennifer M; Rockman, Matthew V; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding genetic variation and its functional consequences within cis-regulatory regions remains an important challenge in human genetics and evolution. Here, we present a fine-scale functional analysis of segregating variation within the cis-regulatory region of prodynorphin, a gene that encodes an endogenous opioid precursor with roles in cognition and disease. In order to characterize the functional consequences of segregating variation in cis in a region under balancing selection in different human populations, we examined associations between specific polymorphisms and gene expression in vivo and in vitro. We identified five polymorphisms within the 5' flanking region that affect transcript abundance: a 68-bp repeat recognized in prior studies, as well as two microsatellites and two single nucleotide polymorphisms not previously implicated as functional variants. The impact of these variants on transcription differs by brain region, sex, and cell type, implying interactions between cis genotype and the differentiated state of cells. The effects of individual variants on expression level are not additive in some combinations, implying epistatic interactions between nearby variants. These data reveal an unexpectedly complex relationship between segregating genetic variation and its expression-trait consequences and highlights the importance of close functional scrutiny of natural genetic variation within even relatively well-studied cis-regulatory regions.

  4. Effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jun; Kim, Moon Yeon; Choi, Yoon Mi; Song, Mi Kyoung

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of topiramate on language functions in newly diagnosed pediatric epileptic patients. Thirty-eight newly diagnosed epileptic patients were assessed using standard language tests. Data were collected before and after beginning topiramate during which time a monotherapy treatment regimen was maintained. Language tests included the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities, a Korean version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test. We used language tests in the Korean version because all the patients were spoken Korean exclusively in their families. All the language parameters of Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities worsened after initiation of topiramate (determine cause, 13.2 ± 4.8 to 11.2 ± 4.3; problem solving, 14.8 ± 6.0 to 12.8 ± 5.0; predicting, 9.8 ± 3.6 to 8.8 ± 4.6). Patients given topiramate exhibited a shortened mean length of utterance in words during response (determine cause, 4.8 ± 0.9 to 4.3 ± 0.7; making inference, 4.5 ± 0.8 to 4.1 ± 1.1; predicting, 5.2 ± 1.0 to 4.7 ± 0.6; P language of patients after taking topiramate (95.4 ± 20.4 to 100.8 ± 19.1). Our data suggest that topiramate may have negative effects on problem-solving abilities in children. We recommend performing language tests should be considered in children being treated with topiramate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional and anatomical correlates of word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in sign language

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    Tomoo eInubushi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In both vocal and sign languages, we can distinguish word-, sentence-, and discourse-level integration in terms of hierarchical processes, which integrate various elements into another higher level of constructs. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry to test three language tasks in Japanese Sign Language (JSL: word-level (Word, sentence-level (Sent, and discourse-level (Disc decision tasks. We analyzed cortical activity and gray matter volumes of Deaf signers, and clarified three major points. First, we found that the activated regions in the frontal language areas gradually expanded in the dorso-ventral axis, corresponding to a difference in linguistic units for the three tasks. Moreover, the activations in each region of the frontal language areas were incrementally modulated with the level of linguistic integration. These dual mechanisms of the frontal language areas may reflect a basic organization principle of hierarchically integrating linguistic information. Secondly, activations in the lateral premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus were left-lateralized. Direct comparisons among the language tasks exhibited more focal activation in these regions, suggesting their functional localization. Thirdly, we found significantly positive correlations between individual task performances and gray matter volumes in localized regions, even when the ages of acquisition of JSL and Japanese were factored out. More specifically, correlations with the performances of the Word and Sent tasks were found in the left precentral/postcentral gyrus and insula, respectively, while correlations with those of the Disc task were found in the left ventral inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. The unification of functional and anatomical studies would thus be fruitful for understanding human language systems from the aspects of both universality and individuality.

  6. Functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine hemispheric language dominance prior to carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, M; Wieberdink, R G; Bakker, S L M; Dippel, D W J

    2011-04-01

    We describe a left-handed patient with transient aphasia and bilateral carotid stenosis. Computed tomography (CT) arteriography showed a 90% stenosis of the right and 30% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery. Head CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed no recent ischemic changes. As only the symptomatic side would require surgical intervention, and because hemispheric dominance for language in left-handed patients may be either left or right sided, a preoperative assessment of hemispheric dominance was required. We used functional MRI to determine hemispheric dominance for language and hence to establish the indication for carotid endarterectomy surgery. Functional MRI demonstrated right hemispheric dominance for language and right-sided carotid endarterectomy was performed. We propose that the clinical use of functional MRI as a noninvasive imaging technique for the assessment of hemispheric language dominance may be extended to the assessment of hemispheric language dominance prior to carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  7. Primary motor cortex functionally contributes to language comprehension: An online rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Nikola; Feurra, Matteo; Shpektor, Anna; Myachykov, Andriy; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-02-01

    Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal. Here, we assessed the role of motor areas in linguistic processing by investigating the responses of 28 healthy volunteers to different word types in semantic and lexical decision tasks, following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex. We found that early rTMS (delivered within 200ms of word onset) produces a left-lateralised and meaning-specific change in reaction speed, slowing down behavioural responses to action-related words, and facilitating abstract words - an effect present only during semantic, but not lexical, decision. We interpret these data in light of action-perception theory of language, bolstering the claim that motor cortical areas play a functional role in language comprehension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Body as Language and Expression of the Indigenous Australian Cultural Identity

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    Dolors Soriano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.

  9. Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Language Preoperative Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Deprez, Sabine; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald; Castro, São L.; Sunaert, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a well-known non-invasive technique for the study of brain function. One of its most common clinical applications is preoperative language mapping, essential for the preservation of function in neurosurgical patients. Typically, fMRI is used to track task-related activity, but poor task performance and movement artifacts can be critical limitations in clinical settings. Recent advances in resting-state protocols open new possibilities for pre-surgical mapping of language potentially overcoming these limitations. To test the feasibility of using resting-state fMRI instead of conventional active task-based protocols, we compared results from fifteen patients with brain lesions while performing a verb-to-noun generation task and while at rest. Task-activity was measured using a general linear model analysis and independent component analysis (ICA). Resting-state networks were extracted using ICA and further classified in two ways: manually by an expert and by using an automated template matching procedure. The results revealed that the automated classification procedure correctly identified language networks as compared to the expert manual classification. We found a good overlay between task-related activity and resting-state language maps, particularly within the language regions of interest. Furthermore, resting-state language maps were as sensitive as task-related maps, and had higher specificity. Our findings suggest that resting-state protocols may be suitable to map language networks in a quick and clinically efficient way. PMID:26869899

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Expressive-Language Outcomes among Late Talkers

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    Fisher, Evelyn L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the literature on predictors of outcomes among late talkers using systematic review and meta-analysis methods. We sought to answer the question: What factors predict preschool-age expressive-language outcomes among late-talking toddlers? Method: We entered carefully selected search terms into the…

  11. Divergence of Verbal Expression and Embodied Knowledge: Evidence from Speech and Gesture in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julia L.; Alibali, Martha W.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the extent to which children with specific language impairment (SLI) with severe phonological working memory deficits express knowledge uniquely in gesture as compared to speech. Using a paradigm in which gesture-speech relationships have been studied extensively, children with SLI and conversation judgment-matched, typically developing…

  12. Effects of Sampling Context on Spontaneous Expressive Language in Males with Fragile X Syndrome or Down Syndrome

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    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Brown, W. Ted

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the impact of sampling context on multiple aspects of expressive language in male participants with fragile X syndrome in comparison to male participants with Down syndrome or typical development. Method: Participants with fragile X syndrome (n = 27), ages 10-17 years, were matched groupwise on…

  13. Theory of Mind and social functioning in schizophrenia: correlation with figurative language abnormalities, clinical symptoms and general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovan, Cristiano; Gava, Laura; Campeol, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Over past few decades, studies displayed Theory of Mind (ToM) as a system, including cognitive and affective features, rather than an unitary process. Within domains defining social cognition, ToM stands for the best predictor of poor social functioning in schizophrenia. The current study aimed to explore competence in ToM tasks, in metaphorical and idiomatic language identification tasks and in a conversational rules observance test, as well as relationship with social functioning, in a group of outpatients suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS.: 30 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 24 healthy subjects have been recruited. Both groups underwent TIB as premorbid IQ evaluation, PANSS, Theory of Mind Picture Sequencing Task, a metaphors and idiomatic expressions comprehension test and a conversational test. Social functioning was assessed with PSP. Results.Mean values of premorbid IQ showed no significant difference between patients and control group. In ToM and pragmatic competence tasks, differences between groups resulted in high significance, due to patients' lower performance. A correlation between metaphors and idiomatic expressions comprehension and second order false beliefs was detected. PSP showed a correlation with PANSS and cognitive-ToM, whereas leaving aside affective-ToM. Results showed how people affected with schizophrenia, in stable clinical condition, do have clear impairments in ToM and figurative language comprehension assignments. In our theoretical framework, correlation arisen between cognitive-ToM, pragmatic deficits, clinical status and social functioning level suggests usefulness of rehabilitative interventions to recover metacognitive functions and pragmatic abilities, in order to reduce social disability in schizophrenia.

  14. Expression of relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions under which relativistic amplitudes may be expressed in terms of the wave functions are analyzed within the framework of the invariant diagram technique which appears on formulation of field theory on the light front. The amplitudes depend on the 4-vector ω which defines the surface of the light front. A rule is formulated for the determination of those values of the 4-vector ω for which the diagram contribution, which cannot be expressed in terms of the wave functions, is minimum. The present investigation is equivalent to a study of the dependence of the amplitudes of the old fashioned perburbation theory in the infinite momentum depending on the direction of the infinite momentum

  15. Russian Language Development Assessment as a Standardized Technique for Assessing Communicative Function in Children Aged 3–9 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Russian Language Development Assessment, a standardized individual diagnostic tool for children aged from 3 to 9 that helps to assess the following components of a child’s communicative function: passive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, knowledge of semantic constructs with logical, temporal and spatial relations, passive perception and active use of syntactic and morphological features of words in a sentence, active and passive phonological awareness, active and passive knowledge of syntactic structures and categories. The article provides descriptions of content and diagnostic procedures for all 7 subtests included in the assessment (Passive Vocabulary, Active Vocabulary, Linguistic Operators, Sentence structure, Word Structure, Phonology, Sentence Repetition. Basing on the data collected in the study that involved 86 first- graders of a Moscow school, the article analyzes the internal consistency and construct validity of each subtest of the technique. It concludes that the Russian Language Development Assessment technique can be of much use both in terms of diagnostic purposes and in supporting children with ASD taking into account the lack of standardized tools for language and speech development assessment in Russian and the importance of this measure in general.

  16. Expression and function of endogenous retroviruses in the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Although the expression of endogenous retroviruses in the placenta of numerous species was observed a long time ago, their physiological function during gestation was demonstrated only very recently. Expression of retroviral envelope proteins, also called syncytins, in the placenta allows generation of the multinuclear syncytiotrophoblast as an outer cellular layer of the placenta by fusion of the trophoblast cells. This fusion process is crucial for the development of the placenta and for successful pregnancy. It is still unclear whether the immunosuppressive properties of the transmembrane envelope protein of the endogenous retroviruses expressed in the placenta contribute to immunosuppression to prevent the rejection of the semiallotransplant embryo. The presence of placenta cells expressing retroviral envelope proteins surrounded by immune cells deep in the maternal tissue supports an immunosuppressive function. It is important to emphasize that during evolution different species utilized ('enslaved') different endogenous retroviruses and that two or more endogenous retroviruses are involved in placentogenesis in each species. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Assessment of language lateralization with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagierska-Barwinska, A.; Goraj, B.

    2004-01-01

    fMRI offers powerful methods to delineate which brain regions are engaged in language processing in the intact brain. Until now hemisphere dominance for language has been usually assessed by means of the intraoperative methods: the Wada test or electrocortical stimulation mapping. Recently functional MRI becomes the valuable method in determining hemisphere dominance for language. fMRI study was proved to be concordant with invasive measures. fMRI was carried out in 30 healthy selected participants (15 females: 10 strongly right-handed and 5 strongly left-handed; 15 males: 10 strongly right-handed and 5 strongly left-handed). The subject's handedness was assessed by standardized psychological tests inter alia the 'lateralization inventory'. Two different language tasks were used: a verb generation task and a phonological task. Subjects were scanned,while performing experimental block. The block contained alternately 8 active (language task) and 8 control conditions. Statistical analysis of evoked blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD) responses, measured with echo planar imagining (1.5 T) were used. During a verb generation task in strongly right or left handed subjects the inferior frontal region was activated on the side opposite to the subject's handedness determined by the psychological test. Our fMRI studies demonstrated no gender effects on brain during these language tasks. Our study suggests that fMRI is a good device for the study of the language organization. The advantage of fMRI is its capacity for exact localization of activated areas. fMRI together with adequate neurolinguistic test could be promising routine preoperative tool in identification hemisphere dominance for language. These results encourage to further investigation for evaluating correlation in patients with brain injuries. (author)

  18. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  19. Sleep Disturbance and Expressive Language Development in Preschool-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Tooley, Ursula; Demara, Bianca; Nyhuis, Casandra; Anand, Payal; Spanò, Goffredina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including…

  20. Expression of fully functional tetrameric human hemoglobin in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, S.J.; Looker, D.L.; Roehrich, J.M.; Cozart, P.E.; Durfee, S.L.; Tedesco, J.L.; Stetler, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis genes encoding the human α- and β-globin polypeptides have been expressed from a single operon in Escherichia coli. The α- and β-globin polypeptides associate into soluble tetramers, incorporate heme, and accumulate to >5% of the total cellular protein. Purified recombinant hemoglobin has the correct stoichiometry of α- and β-globin chains and contains a full complement of heme. Each globin chain also contains an additional methionine as an extension to the amino terminus. The recombinant hemoglobin has a C 4 reversed-phase HPLC profile essentially identical to that of human hemoglobin A 0 and comigrates with hemoglobin A 0 on SDS/PAGE. The visible spectrum and oxygen affinity are similar to that of native human hemoglobin A 0 . The authors have also expressed the α- and β-globin genes separately and found that the expression of the α-globin gene alone results in a marked decrease in the accumulation of α-globin in the cell. Separate expression of the β-globin gene results in high levels of insoluble β-globin. These observations suggest that the presence of α- and β-globin in the same cell stabilizes α-globin and aids the correct folding of β-globin. This system provides a simple method for expressing large quantities of recombinant hemoglobin and allows facile manipulation of the genes encoding hemoglobin to produce functionally altered forms of this protein

  1. Expression and function of scleraxis in the developing auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe F Mann

    Full Text Available A study of genes expressed in the developing inner ear identified the bHLH transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx in the developing cochlea. Previous work has demonstrated an essential role for Scx in the differentiation and development of tendons, ligaments and cells of chondrogenic lineage. Expression in the cochlea has been shown previously, however the functional role for Scx in the cochlea is unknown. Using a Scx-GFP reporter mouse line we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of Scx expression in the developing cochlea between embryonic day 13.5 and postnatal day 25. Embryonically, Scx is expressed broadly throughout the cochlear duct and surrounding mesenchyme and at postnatal ages becomes restricted to the inner hair cells and the interdental cells of the spiral limbus. Deletion of Scx results in hearing impairment indicated by elevated auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds and diminished distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE amplitudes, across a range of frequencies. No changes in either gross cochlear morphology or expression of the Scx target genes Col2A, Bmp4 or Sox9 were observed in Scx(-/- mutants, suggesting that the auditory defects observed in these animals may be a result of unidentified Scx-dependent processes within the cochlea.

  2. Proportional and functional analogical reasoning in normal and language-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, M A; Erskine, B J; Freed, D B

    1988-11-01

    Teachers often use analogies in classroom settings to clarify new concepts for their students. However, analogies may inadvertently confuse the youngster who has difficulty identifying the one-to-one comparisons underlying them. Although analogical reasoning has been studied extensively in normal children, no information was available concerning this construct in children having a specific language impairment. Thus, it was unknown to what extent they might be deficient in analogical reasoning. Therefore, in the present study, 20 children ages 6-8 years (mean age = 7:6) having normal nonverbal intelligence but deficits in language comprehension were administered tasks of verbal and perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and a problem-solving task of functional analogical reasoning. Compared to a normal-language control group matched on the basis of chronological age and sex, the language-impaired group was deficient in all three tasks of analogical reasoning. However, when the factor of nonverbal intelligence was controlled statistically, the differences between the groups on each of the tasks were removed. Additional findings were that verbal proportional analogical reasoning was significantly correlated to perceptual proportional analogical reasoning and to functional analogical reasoning. Implications for assessment and intervention with young school-age language-impaired children are discussed.

  3. Novelty, Challenge, and Practice: The Impact of Intensive Language Learning on Attentional Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Thomas H; Long, Madeleine R; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; Sorace, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the impact of a short intensive language course on attentional functions. We examined 33 participants of a one-week Scottish Gaelic course and compared them to 34 controls: 16 active controls who participated in courses of comparable duration and intensity but not involving foreign language learning and 18 passive controls who followed their usual routines. Participants completed auditory tests of attentional inhibition and switching. There was no difference between the groups in any measures at the beginning of the course. At the end of the course, a significant improvement in attention switching was observed in the language group (p language participants (n = 17) were retested nine months after their course. All those who practiced Gaelic 5 hours or more per week improved from their baseline performance. In contrast, those who practiced 4 hours or fewer showed an inconsistent pattern: some improved while others stayed the same or deteriorated. Our results suggest that even a short period of intensive language learning can modulate attentional functions and that all age groups can benefit from this effect. Moreover, these short-term effects can be maintained through continuous practice.

  4. The Resource constrained shortest path problem implemented in a lazy functional language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Glaser, Hugh

    The resource constrained shortest path problem is an NP-hard problem for which many ingenious algorithms have been developed. These algorithms are usually implemented in Fortran or another imperative programming language. We have implemented some of the simpler algorithms in a lazy functional

  5. Working Memory Functioning in Children with Learning Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…

  6. Syntactic Complexity Metrics and the Readability of Programs in a Functional Computer Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Engel, F.L.; Bouwhuis, D.G.; Bosser, T.; d'Ydewalle, G.

    This article reports on the defintion and the measutement of the software complexity metrics of Halstead and McCabe for programs written in the functional programming language Miranda. An automated measurement of these metrics is described. In a case study, the correlation is established between the

  7. Dummy Auxiliaries in the Second Language Acquisition of Moroccan Learners of Dutch: Form and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Craats, Ineke; van Hout, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an interlanguage in which Moroccan learners of Dutch use non-thematic verbs in combination with thematic verbs that can be inflected as well. These non-thematic verbs are real dummy auxiliaries because they are deprived of semantic content and primarily have a syntactic function. Whereas in earlier second language (L2) research…

  8. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    stronger functional connectivity in blind participants between the visual ROIs and areas implicated in language and tactile (Braille) processing such as the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), thalamus, supramarginal gyrus and cerebellum. The observed group differences underscore the extent of the cross...

  9. The Relationship between Executive Functions and Language Abilities in Children: A Latent Variables Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Park, Ji Sook; Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to outline the latent variables approach for measuring nonverbal executive function (EF) skills in school-age children, and to examine the relationship between nonverbal EF skills and language performance in this age group. Method: Seventy-one typically developing children, ages 8 through 11, participated in the study. Three EF…

  10. Learning a Foreign Language: A New Path to Enhancement of Cognitive Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoghi Javan, Sara; Ghonsooly, Behzad

    2018-01-01

    The complicated cognitive processes involved in natural (primary) bilingualism lead to significant cognitive development. Executive functions as a fundamental component of human cognition are deemed to be affected by language learning. To date, a large number of studies have investigated how natural (primary) bilingualism influences executive…

  11. A Functional Specification for a Programming Language for Computer Aided Learning Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    In 1972 there were at least six different course authoring languages in use in Canada with little exchange of course materials between Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) centers. In order to improve facilities for producing "transportable" computer based course materials, a working panel undertook the definition of functional requirements of a user…

  12. Schizotypal Personality Traits and Atypical Lateralization in Motor and Language Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tomohisa; Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Atypical cerebral lateralization in motor and language functions in regard to schizotypal personality traits in healthy populations, as well as among schizophrenic patients, has attracted attention because these traits may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Although the relationship between handedness and schizotypal personality has been…

  13. Functional MRI assessment of hemispheric language dominance with using a lexical decision task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Park, Eui Dong; You, Jin Jong; Na, Dong Gyu; Kim, Sam Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    We wanted to compare the fMRIs (functional magnetic resonance images) obtained during a lexical decision task and also during a word generation task, and we wanted to evaluate the usefulness of using a lexical decision task for the visualization of the brain language area and for the determination of language dominance. Sixteen patients (9 women and 7 men) who had had undergone the Wada test were included in our study. All the patients were left dominant for language, as tested for on the Wada test. The functional maps of the brain language area were obtained in all the subjects during the performance of a lexical decision task and also during the performance of a word generation task. The MR examinations were performed with a 1.5 T scanner and with using the EPI BOLD technique. We used the SPM program for the postprocessing of the images. The threshold for significance was set at ρ <0.001 or ρ <0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in each hemispheric region (the whole hemisphere, the frontal lobe and the temporoparietal lobe), and the hemispheric language dominance was assessed by the lateralization index; the results were then compared with those results of the Wada test. The differences for the lateralization of the language area were analyzed with regard to the stimulation tasks and the regions used for the calculation of the lateralization indices. The number of activated pixels during the lexical decision task was significantly smaller than that of the word generation task. The language dominance based on the activated signals in each hemisphere, was consistent with the results of the Wada test for the word generation tasks in all the subjects. On the lexical decision task, the language dominance, as determined by the activated signals in each hemisphere and the temporoparietal lobe, correlated for 94% of the patients. The mean values of the lateralization index for the lexical decision task were higher than those

  14. Functional MRI assessment of hemispheric language dominance with using a lexical decision task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Choi, Dae Seob; Cho, Jae Min; Park, Eui Dong; You, Jin Jong [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Na, Dong Gyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam Soo [Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sang Hoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We wanted to compare the fMRIs (functional magnetic resonance images) obtained during a lexical decision task and also during a word generation task, and we wanted to evaluate the usefulness of using a lexical decision task for the visualization of the brain language area and for the determination of language dominance. Sixteen patients (9 women and 7 men) who had had undergone the Wada test were included in our study. All the patients were left dominant for language, as tested for on the Wada test. The functional maps of the brain language area were obtained in all the subjects during the performance of a lexical decision task and also during the performance of a word generation task. The MR examinations were performed with a 1.5 T scanner and with using the EPI BOLD technique. We used the SPM program for the postprocessing of the images. The threshold for significance was set at {rho} <0.001 or {rho} <0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in each hemispheric region (the whole hemisphere, the frontal lobe and the temporoparietal lobe), and the hemispheric language dominance was assessed by the lateralization index; the results were then compared with those results of the Wada test. The differences for the lateralization of the language area were analyzed with regard to the stimulation tasks and the regions used for the calculation of the lateralization indices. The number of activated pixels during the lexical decision task was significantly smaller than that of the word generation task. The language dominance based on the activated signals in each hemisphere, was consistent with the results of the Wada test for the word generation tasks in all the subjects. On the lexical decision task, the language dominance, as determined by the activated signals in each hemisphere and the temporoparietal lobe, correlated for 94% of the patients. The mean values of the lateralization index for the lexical decision task were higher than

  15. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun

    1992-01-01

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test

  16. Wada test for evaluation of language and memory function in medically intractable epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Kook; Chung, Tae Sub; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Kim, Eun Kyung; Lee, Byung In; Huh, Kyun [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-05-15

    The Wada test was performed for lateralization of language and memory function, using intracarotid injection of Sodium Amytal. But the internal carotid artery (ICA) Wada test has some limitations for testing memory function. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test has been designed to modify the ICA Wada test for testing memory function selectively. In our study, 10 patients out of 12 patients with intractable seizure underwent only the ICA Wada test and the other 2 patients underwent both the ICA and the selective PCA Wada test. In all 12 patients undergoing the ICA Wada test, we successfully localized speech and language dominance. Four of 12 patients who underwent the ICA Wada test for evaluation of memory function displayed superior memory functions in one hemisphere, but the other hemisphere also significantly contributed to memory. The selective PCA Wada test, performed in 2 patients, showed successful results of memory function test in both patients. Four of 12 patients underwent temporal lobectomy and there was no major post-operative language or memory deficits. We concluded that the ICA and PCA Wada tests are useful for preoperative evaluation of medically intractable epilepsy, and the PCA Wada test is valuable in memory evaluation in some patients who have high risk of postoperative global amnesia after temporal lobectomy following equivocal results of memory function by the ICA Wada test.

  17. A quick aphasia battery for efficient, reliable, and multidimensional assessment of language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Eriksson, Dana K; Schneck, Sarah M; Lucanie, Jillian M

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a quick aphasia battery (QAB) that aims to provide a reliable and multidimensional assessment of language function in about a quarter of an hour, bridging the gap between comprehensive batteries that are time-consuming to administer, and rapid screening instruments that provide limited detail regarding individual profiles of deficits. The QAB is made up of eight subtests, each comprising sets of items that probe different language domains, vary in difficulty, and are scored with a graded system to maximize the informativeness of each item. From the eight subtests, eight summary measures are derived, which constitute a multidimensional profile of language function, quantifying strengths and weaknesses across core language domains. The QAB was administered to 28 individuals with acute stroke and aphasia, 25 individuals with acute stroke but no aphasia, 16 individuals with chronic post-stroke aphasia, and 14 healthy controls. The patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia were tested 3 times each and scored independently by 2 raters to establish test-retest and inter-rater reliability. The Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) was also administered to these patients to assess concurrent validity. We found that all QAB summary measures were sensitive to aphasic deficits in the two groups with aphasia. All measures showed good or excellent test-retest reliability (overall summary measure: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.98), and excellent inter-rater reliability (overall summary measure: ICC = 0.99). Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of aphasia (relative to clinical impression) were 0.91 and 0.95 respectively. All QAB measures were highly correlated with corresponding WAB measures where available. Individual patients showed distinct profiles of spared and impaired function across different language domains. In sum, the QAB efficiently and reliably characterized individual profiles of language deficits.

  18. Correlation between language function and the left arcuate fasciculus detected by diffusion tensor imaging tractography after brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Masashi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Disturbance of the arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere is thought to be associated with language-processing disorders, including conduction aphasia. Although the arcuate fasciculus can be visualized in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, its involvement in functional processes associated with language has not been shown dynamically using DTI tractography. In the present study, to clarify the participation of the arcuate fasciculus in language functions, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography were evaluated chronologically in relation to postoperative changes in language function after brain tumor surgery. Preoperative and postoperative arcuate fasciculus area and language function were examined in 7 right-handed patients with a brain tumor in the left hemisphere located in proximity to part of the arcuate fasciculus. The arcuate fasciculus was depicted, and its area was calculated using DTI tractography. Language functions were measured using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). After tumor resection, visualization of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in 5 of the 7 patients, and the total WAB score improved in 6 of the 7 patients. The relative ratio of postoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus to preoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in association with an improvement in postoperative language function (p = 0.0039). The role of the left arcuate fasciculus in language functions can be evaluated chronologically in vivo by DTI tractography after brain tumor surgery. Because increased postoperative visualization of the fasciculus was significantly associated with postoperative improvement in language functions, the arcuate fasciculus may play an important role in language function, as previously thought. In addition, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography could represent a predicting factor for postoperative language

  19. The contribution of early language development to children's emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years: an analysis of data from the Children in Focus sample from the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Judy; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Peters, Tim J; Roulstone, Susan

    2015-01-01

    An association between children's early language development and their emotional and behavioural functioning is reported in the literature. The nature of the association remains unclear and it has not been established if such an association is found in a population-based cohort in addition to clinical populations. This study examines the reported association between language development and emotional and behavioural functioning in a population-based cohort. Data from 1,314 children in the Children in Focus (CiF) sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were analysed. Regression models identified the extent to which early language ability at 2 years of age and later language ability at 4 years of age is associated with emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years while accounting for biological and social risk and adjusting for age and performance intelligence (PIQ). A series of univariable and multivariable analyses identified a strong influence of biological risk, social risk and early and later language ability to emotional and behavioural functioning. Interestingly, social risk dropped out of the multivariate analyses when age and PIQ were controlled for. Early expressive vocabulary at 2 years and receptive language at 4 years made a strong contribution to emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years in addition to biological risk. The final model accounted for 11.6% of the variance in emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years. The study identified that early language ability at 2 years, specifically expressive vocabulary and later receptive language at 4 years both made a moderate, but important contribution to emotional and behavioural functioning at 6 years of age. Although children's language development is important in understanding children's emotional and behavioural functioning, the study shows that it is one of many developmental factors involved. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and

  20. 'What is it?' A functional MRI and SPECT study of ictal speech in a second language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, V.; Chauvire, V.; Baulac, M.; Cohen, L.; Delmaire, Ch.; Lehericy, St.; Habert, M.O.; Footnick, R.; Pallier, Ch.; Baulac, M.; Cohen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal networks involved in second language (L2) processing vary between normal subjects. Patients with epilepsy may have ictal speech automatisms in their second language. To delineate the brain systems involved in L2 ictal speech, we combined functional MRI during bilingual tasks and ictal - inter-ictal single-photon emission computed tomography in a patient who presented L2 ictal speech productions. These analyses showed that the networks activated by the seizure and those activated by L2 processing intersected in the right hippocampus. These results may provide some insights both into the pathophysiology of ictal speech and into the brain organization for L2. (authors)

  1. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  2. Domain-oriented functional analysis based on expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-regulation of genes may imply involvement in similar biological processes or related function. Many clusters of co-regulated genes have been identified using microarray experiments. In this study, we examined co-regulated gene families using large-scale cDNA microarray experiments on the human transcriptome. Results We present a simple model, which, for each probe pair, distills expression changes into binary digits and summarizes the expression of multiple members of a gene family as the Family Regulation Ratio. The set of Family Regulation Ratios for each protein family across multiple experiments is called a Family Regulation Profile. We analyzed these Family Regulation Profiles using Pearson Correlation Coefficients and derived a network diagram portraying relationships between the Family Regulation Profiles of gene families that are well represented on the microarrays. Our strategy was cross-validated with two randomly chosen data subsets and was proven to be a reliable approach. Conclusion This work will help us to understand and identify the functional relationships between gene families and the regulatory pathways in which each family is involved. Concepts presented here may be useful for objective clustering of protein functions and deriving a comprehensive protein interaction map. Functional genomic approaches such as this may also be applicable to the elucidation of complex genetic regulatory networks.

  3. Functional modules by relating protein interaction networks and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Sabine; Mewes, H W

    2003-11-01

    Genes and proteins are organized on the basis of their particular mutual relations or according to their interactions in cellular and genetic networks. These include metabolic or signaling pathways and protein interaction, regulatory or co-expression networks. Integrating the information from the different types of networks may lead to the notion of a functional network and functional modules. To find these modules, we propose a new technique which is based on collective, multi-body correlations in a genetic network. We calculated the correlation strength of a group of genes (e.g. in the co-expression network) which were identified as members of a module in a different network (e.g. in the protein interaction network) and estimated the probability that this correlation strength was found by chance. Groups of genes with a significant correlation strength in different networks have a high probability that they perform the same function. Here, we propose evaluating the multi-body correlations by applying the superparamagnetic approach. We compare our method to the presently applied mean Pearson correlations and show that our method is more sensitive in revealing functional relationships.

  4. SystemVerilog assertions and functional coverage guide to language, methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Ashok B

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on, application-oriented guide to the language and methodology of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SytemVerilog Functional Coverage.  Readers will benefit from the step-by-step approach to functional hardware verification, which will enable them to uncover hidden and hard to find bugs, point directly to the source of the bug, provide for a clean and easy way to model complex timing checks and objectively answer the question 'have we functionally verified everything'.  Written by a professional end-user of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SystemVerilog Functional Co

  5. Foundamentation of to didactic strategy for oral expression ability development in english language in students of Culture Physics Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Margarita Martínez-Hernández

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to favour the development of the oral expression ability in English language in the students of Physical Culture career of “Nancy Uranga Romagoza” Faculty drove to base a didactic strategy centred in the developer learning. The proposal is sustained in the developer didactic conception for the teaching of foreign languages, elaborated by the Dr. C. Arturo Pulido Díaz from the University of Pedagogic Sciences “Rafael María de Mendive of Pinar del Río, which takes its bases from the sciences of the education.

  6. Speech and Language Development after Infant Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Betsy P.; Singer, Lynn T.

    1990-01-01

    When assessed for speech/language development, 31 children (age 1-12) fitted with endotracheal tubes for more than 3 months beginning by age 13 months showed overall language functioning within normal limits and commensurate with cognitive ability. However, a pattern of expressive language disability was noted in the oldest group. (Author/JDD)

  7. Expression and Functional Studies on the Noncoding RNA, PRINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Széll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PRINS, a noncoding RNA identified earlier by our research group, contributes to psoriasis susceptibility and cellular stress response. We have now studied the cellular and histological distribution of PRINS by using in situ hybridization and demonstrated variable expressions in different human tissues and a consistent staining pattern in epidermal keratinocytes and in vitro cultured keratinocytes. To identify the cellular function(s of PRINS, we searched for a direct interacting partner(s of this stress-induced molecule. In HaCaT and NHEK cell lysates, the protein proved to be nucleophosmin (NPM protein as a potential physical interactor with PRINS. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed an elevated expression of NPM in the dividing cells of the basal layers of psoriatic involved skin samples as compared with healthy and psoriatic uninvolved samples. Others have previously shown that NPM is a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar phosphoprotein which shuttles to the nucleoplasm after UV-B irradiation in fibroblasts and cancer cells. We detected a similar translocation of NPM in UV-B-irradiated cultured keratinocytes. The gene-specific silencing of PRINS resulted in the retention of NPM in the nucleolus of UV-B-irradiated keratinocytes; suggesting that PRINS may play a role in the NPM-mediated cellular stress response in the skin.

  8. Investigating language lateralization during phonological and semantic fluency tasks using functional transcranial Doppler sonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production. PMID:24875468

  9. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions

  10. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors) and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Matrix Organization and Adhesion. Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data. PMID:12356337

  11. Expression profiling of human renal carcinomas with functional taxonomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madore Steven J

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular characterization has contributed to the understanding of the inception, progression, treatment and prognosis of cancer. Nucleic acid array-based technologies extend molecular characterization of tumors to thousands of gene products. To effectively discriminate between tumor sub-types, reliable laboratory techniques and analytic methods are required. Results We derived mRNA expression profiles from 21 human tissue samples (eight normal kidneys and 13 kidney tumors and two pooled samples using the Affymetrix GeneChip platform. A panel of ten clustering algorithms combined with four data pre-processing methods identified a consensus cluster dendrogram in 18 of 40 analyses and of these 16 used a logarithmic transformation. Within the consensus dendrogram the expression profiles of the samples grouped according to tissue type; clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas displayed distinctly different gene expression patterns. By using a rigorous statistical selection based method we identified 355 genes that showed significant (p Conclusions Affymetrix GeneChip profiling differentiated clear cell and chromophobe carcinomas from one another and from normal kidney cortex. Clustering methods that used logarithmic transformation of data sets produced dendrograms consistent with the sample biology. Functional taxonomy provided a practical approach to the interpretation of gene expression data.

  12. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition and Operator Functional State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanson, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of human error in safety-critical occupations remains a major challenge to mission success despite increasing automation in control processes. Although various methods have been proposed to prevent incidences of human error, none of these have been developed to employ the detection and regulation of Operator Functional State (OFS), or the optimal condition of the operator while performing a task, in work environments due to drawbacks such as obtrusiveness and impracticality. A video-based system with the ability to infer an individual's emotional state from facial feature patterning mitigates some of the problems associated with other methods of detecting OFS, like obtrusiveness and impracticality in integration with the mission environment. This paper explores the utility of facial expression recognition as a technology for inferring OFS by first expounding on the intricacies of OFS and the scientific background behind emotion and its relationship with an individual's state. Then, descriptions of the feedback loop and the emotion protocols proposed for the facial recognition program are explained. A basic version of the facial expression recognition program uses Haar classifiers and OpenCV libraries to automatically locate key facial landmarks during a live video stream. Various methods of creating facial expression recognition software are reviewed to guide future extensions of the program. The paper concludes with an examination of the steps necessary in the research of emotion and recommendations for the creation of an automatic facial expression recognition program for use in real-time, safety-critical missions.

  13. The perception and expression of verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourieh Ahadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Most of the researches are about bilingual children with specific language impairment and importance of it in recognition and treatment. This study aimed to assess verb morphology in bilinguals with specific language impairment (SLI and compare them with normal bilinguals.Methods: Six bilingual (Azeri and Persian children with specific language impairment at the age of 7-8 years were collected from clinics of Tehran, Iran. They were evaluated about verb morphology using narrative speech and specific language impairment test and then, compared with six age-matched and six other language-matched children as control group. Children with specific language impairment were diagnosed by exhibiting a significant delay (more than one year in language that can not be explained by intelligence deficits, hearing loss or visual impairment. We used Man-Whitney test for comparing the groups.Results: Bilingual children with specific language impairment had delay in comparison with their age-matched group in subject-verb agreement (p=0.020 and articulating tense morphemes (p=0.019. They also had meaningful delay in using proper tense of verbs (past, present, and future in comparison with language-matched control group (p=0.029.Conclusion: Comparison of typical development of bilingual children and bilinguals with specific language impairment shows that verb morphology is a good clinical marker for diagnosing and treatment of these children.

  14. Graph theoretical analysis of functional network for comprehension of sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanfang; Yan, Xin; Liu, Jin; Xia, Mingrui; Lu, Chunming; Emmorey, Karen; Chu, Mingyuan; Ding, Guosheng

    2017-09-15

    Signed languages are natural human languages using the visual-motor modality. Previous neuroimaging studies based on univariate activation analysis show that a widely overlapped cortical network is recruited regardless whether the sign language is comprehended (for signers) or not (for non-signers). Here we move beyond previous studies by examining whether the functional connectivity profiles and the underlying organizational structure of the overlapped neural network may differ between signers and non-signers when watching sign language. Using graph theoretical analysis (GTA) and fMRI, we compared the large-scale functional network organization in hearing signers with non-signers during the observation of sentences in Chinese Sign Language. We found that signed sentences elicited highly similar cortical activations in the two groups of participants, with slightly larger responses within the left frontal and left temporal gyrus in signers than in non-signers. Crucially, further GTA revealed substantial group differences in the topologies of this activation network. Globally, the network engaged by signers showed higher local efficiency (t (24) =2.379, p=0.026), small-worldness (t (24) =2.604, p=0.016) and modularity (t (24) =3.513, p=0.002), and exhibited different modular structures, compared to the network engaged by non-signers. Locally, the left ventral pars opercularis served as a network hub in the signer group but not in the non-signer group. These findings suggest that, despite overlap in cortical activation, the neural substrates underlying sign language comprehension are distinguishable at the network level from those for the processing of gestural action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Does language affect personality perception? A functional approach to testing the Whorfian hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Ng, Jacky C K

    2014-04-01

    Whether language shapes cognition has long been a controversial issue. The present research adopts a functional approach to examining the effects of language use on personality perception and dialectical thinking. We propose that language use activates corresponding cultural mindsets, which in turn influence social perception, thinking, and behavior. Four studies recruited Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 129 in Study 1, 229 in Study 2, 68 in Study 3, 106 in Study 4) and used within-subjects and between-subjects design, written and behavioral reports, and self- and other perceptions. The four studies converged to show that Chinese-English bilinguals exhibit higher dialectical thinking and more variations in self- and observer ratings of personality when using the Chinese language than when using English. Furthermore, dialectical thinking predicted more self- and other-perceived variations in personality and behavior across bilingual contexts. These results highlight the important role of culture in understanding the relations between language and cognition, and attest to the malleability of personality perception and dialectical thinking within and across individuals in response to culture-related linguistic cues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Aerobic Exercise Improves Mood, Cognition, and Language Function in Parkinson's Disease: Results of a Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Hazamy, Audrey A; Wilson, Jonathan P; Bowers, Dawn; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of non-motor deficits that can affect mood, cognition, and language, and many of these issues are unresponsive to pharmacological intervention. Aerobic exercise can improve mood and cognition in healthy older adults, although only a few studies have examined exercise effects on these domains in PD. The current study assesses the effects of aerobic exercise on aspects of cognition, mood, and language production in people with PD. This study compares the effects of aerobic exercise to stretch-balance training and a no-contact control group in participants with idiopathic PD. The aerobic and stretch-balance groups trained three times a week for 16 weeks, while controls continued normal activities. Outcome measures included disease severity, mood, cognition (speed of processing, memory, and executive function), and language production (picture descriptions). Cognition and language were assessed in single and dual task conditions. Depressive symptoms increased only in the control group (pimproved in the aerobic exercise group only in the single task (p=.007) and declined in controls in the dual task. Completeness of picture descriptions improved significantly more in the aerobic group than in the stretch-balance group (pexercise is a viable intervention for PD that can be protective against increased depressive symptoms, and can improve several non-motor domains, including executive dysfunction and related aspects of language production. (JINS, 2016, 22, 878-889).

  17. Brain function differences in language processing in children and adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Diane L; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Mason, Robert A; Keller, Timothy A; Minshew, Nancy J; Just, Marcel Adam

    2013-08-01

    Comparison of brain function between children and adults with autism provides an understanding of the effects of the disorder and associated maturational differences on language processing. Functional imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) was used to examine brain activation and cortical synchronization during the processing of literal and ironic texts in 15 children with autism, 14 children with typical development, 13 adults with autism, and 12 adult controls. Both the children and adults with autism had lower functional connectivity (synchronization of brain activity among activated areas) than their age and ability comparison group in the left hemisphere language network during irony processing, and neither autism group had an increase in functional connectivity in response to increased task demands. Activation differences for the literal and irony conditions occurred in key language-processing regions (left middle temporal, left pars triangularis, left pars opercularis, left medial frontal, and right middle temporal). The children and adults with autism differed from each other in the use of some brain regions during the irony task, with the adults with autism having activation levels similar to those of the control groups. Overall, the children and adults with autism differed from the adult and child controls in (a) the degree of network coordination, (b) the distribution of the workload among member nodes, and (3) the dynamic recruitment of regions in response to text content. Moreover, the differences between the two autism age groups may be indicative of positive changes in the neural function related to language processing associated with maturation and/or educational experience. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells express a functional Ca+ -sensing receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra Romani, Roberto; Raqeeb, Abdul; Laforenza, Umberto; Scaffino, Manuela Federica; Moccia, Francesco; Avelino-Cruz, Josè Everardo; Oldani, Amanda; Coltrini, Daniela; Milesi, Veronica; Taglietti, Vanni; Tanzi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism whereby extracellular Ca(2+) exerts the endothelium-dependent control of vascular tone is still unclear. In this study, we assessed whether cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) express a functional extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) using a variety of techniques. CaSR mRNA was detected using RT-PCR, and CaSR protein was identified by immunocytochemical analysis. In order to assess the functionality of the receptor, CMEC were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorochrome, Fura-2/AM. A number of CaSR agonists, such as spermine, Gd(3+), La(3+) and neomycin, elicited a heterogeneous intracellular Ca(2+) signal, which was abolished by disruption of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) signaling and by depletion of intracellular stores with cyclopiazonic acid. The inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger upon substitution of extracellular Na(+) unmasked the Ca(2+) signal triggered by an increase in extracellular Ca(2+) levels. Finally, aromatic amino acids, which function as allosteric activators of CaSR, potentiated the Ca(2+) response to the CaSR agonist La(3+). These data provide evidence that CMEC express CaSR, which is able to respond to physiological agonists by mobilizing Ca(2+) from intracellular InsP(3)-sensitive stores. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Typological constraints in foreign language acquisition: the expression of motion by advanced Russian learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Iakovleva, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This study examines the impact of typological constraints on second language acquisition. It explores the hypothesis of a conceptual transfer from first to foreign language (L1 to L2). Based on Talmy’s (2000) distinction between Verb- and Satellite-framed languages, corpus-based analyses compare descriptions of voluntary motion events along three paths (up, down, across), elicited in a controlled situation from native speakers (Russian, English) and Russian learners at...

  20. Whole-brain functional connectivity during acquisition of novel grammar: Distinct functional networks depend on language learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes. These included the default mode, task-positive, working memory, visual, cerebellar and emotional networks. We further tested for differences within the components, representing individual differences between the High and Average LAA learners. We found high analytical abilities to be coupled with stronger contributions to the task-positive network from areas adjacent to bilateral Broca's region, stronger connectivity within the working memory network and within the emotional network. Average LAA participants displayed stronger engagement within the task-positive network from areas adjacent to the right-hemisphere homologue of Broca's region and typical to lower level processing (visual word recognition), and increased connectivity within the default mode network. The significance of each of the identified networks for the grammar learning process is presented next to a discussion on the established markers of inter-individual learners' differences. We conclude that in terms of functional connectivity, the engagement of brain's networks during grammar acquisition is coupled with one's language learning abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Expressive Language Development in 45 Cochlear Implanted Children Following 2 Years of Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Basir Hashemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Profound hearing loss encounters children with delay in speech and language. As it is known language acquisition in young deaf children is a lengthy process, but cochlear implanted children have better spoken language skills than if they had not received the device. According to the importance of cochlear implant in deaf child's language development, this study evaluates the effect of different variables on child's language performance. Methods: 45 cochlear implanted children were tested, all of whom had used the device for at least 2 years. In order to evaluate the children, the NEWSHA test which is fitted for Persian speaking children was performed and language development of the children was compared through stepwise discriminant analysis. Results: After evaluation of the effect of different variables like child's age of implantation, participating in rehabilitation classes, parent's cooperation and their level of education, we came to a conclusion that the child's age of implantation and rehabilitation program significantly develop the child's language performance. Discussion: The value of cochlear implant in improvement of deaf children in speech, language perception, production and comprehension is confirmed by different studies which have been done on cochlear implanted children. Also, the present study indicates that language development in cochlear implanted children is highly related to their age of implantation and rehabilitation program.

  2. Determination of hemispheric language dominance using functional MRI : comparison of visual and auditory stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ic Ryung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Lee, Jae Mun [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae [The Catholic Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To assess the difference between auditory and visual stimuli when determining hemispheric language dominance by using functional MRI. In ten healthy adult volunteers (8 right-handed, 1 left-handed, 1 ambidextrous), motor language activation in axial slices of frontal lobe was mapped on a Simens 1.5T Vision Plus system using single-shot EPI. Series of 120 consecutive images per section were acquired during three cycles of task activation and rest. During each activation, a series of four syllables was delivered by means of both a visual and auditory method, and the volunteers were asked to mentally generate words starting with each syllable. In both in ferior frontal gyri and whole frontal lobes, lateralization indices were calculated from the activated pixels. We determined the language dominant hemisphere, and compared the results of the visual method and the auditory method. Seven right-handed persons were left-hemisphere dominant, and one left-handed and one ambidex-trous person were right-hemisphere dominant. Five of nine persons demonstrated larger lateralization indices with the auditory method than the visual method, while the remaining four showed larger lateralization indices with the visual method. No statistically significant difference was noted when comparing the results of the two methods(p>0.05). When determining hemispheric language dominance using functional MRI, the two methods are equally appropriate.

  3. Determination of hemispheric language dominance using functional MRI : comparison of visual and auditory stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ic Ryung; Ahn, Kook Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Tae

    1999-01-01

    To assess the difference between auditory and visual stimuli when determining hemispheric language dominance by using functional MRI. In ten healthy adult volunteers (8 right-handed, 1 left-handed, 1 ambidextrous), motor language activation in axial slices of frontal lobe was mapped on a Simens 1.5T Vision Plus system using single-shot EPI. Series of 120 consecutive images per section were acquired during three cycles of task activation and rest. During each activation, a series of four syllables was delivered by means of both a visual and auditory method, and the volunteers were asked to mentally generate words starting with each syllable. In both in ferior frontal gyri and whole frontal lobes, lateralization indices were calculated from the activated pixels. We determined the language dominant hemisphere, and compared the results of the visual method and the auditory method. Seven right-handed persons were left-hemisphere dominant, and one left-handed and one ambidex-trous person were right-hemisphere dominant. Five of nine persons demonstrated larger lateralization indices with the auditory method than the visual method, while the remaining four showed larger lateralization indices with the visual method. No statistically significant difference was noted when comparing the results of the two methods(p>0.05). When determining hemispheric language dominance using functional MRI, the two methods are equally appropriate

  4. Language lateralization by functional MRI : a comparison with wada test-preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    1999-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for the determination of language dominance and to assess differences in language lateralization according to activation task or activated area. Functional maps of the language area were obtained during word generation tasks(noun and verb) and a reading task in ten patients (9 right handed, 1 left handed) who had undergone the Wada test. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5T scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. The SPM program was employed for the postprocessing of images and the threshold for significance was set at p<0.001 or p<0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in three hemispheric regions (whole hemisphere, frontal lobe, and temporoparietal lobe), and the results were compared with those of Wada tests. The results for lateralization of language area were compared among stimulation tasks and regions and used for calculation of lateralization indices. During the Wada test, nine patients were left dominant and one patient was right dominant for language. Language dominance based on activated signals in each hemisphere was consistent with the results of the Wada test in 87.5% (verb and noun generation tasks) and 90% (reading task) of patients. Language dominance determined by activated signals in the frontal lobe was consistent in 87.5%, 75%, and 80% of patients in each stimulation task (verb generation, noun generation, and reading), respectively. The consistency rate of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was 87.5%, 87.5% and 80% of patients in each task. the mean value of the lateralization index, calculated on the basis of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was higher than that in the hemisphere or frontal lobe. The verb generation task showed a higher lateralization index than the noun generation or reading task. The lateralization index was higher in the verb generation task and in the region of the temporoparietal lobe than in

  5. Language lateralization by functional MRI : a comparison with wada test-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, Jae Wook; Na, Dong Gyu; Byun, Hong Sik

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for the determination of language dominance and to assess differences in language lateralization according to activation task or activated area. Functional maps of the language area were obtained during word generation tasks(noun and verb) and a reading task in ten patients (9 right handed, 1 left handed) who had undergone the Wada test. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5T scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. The SPM program was employed for the postprocessing of images and the threshold for significance was set at p<0.001 or p<0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in three hemispheric regions (whole hemisphere, frontal lobe, and temporoparietal lobe), and the results were compared with those of Wada tests. The results for lateralization of language area were compared among stimulation tasks and regions and used for calculation of lateralization indices. During the Wada test, nine patients were left dominant and one patient was right dominant for language. Language dominance based on activated signals in each hemisphere was consistent with the results of the Wada test in 87.5% (verb and noun generation tasks) and 90% (reading task) of patients. Language dominance determined by activated signals in the frontal lobe was consistent in 87.5%, 75%, and 80% of patients in each stimulation task (verb generation, noun generation, and reading), respectively. The consistency rate of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was 87.5%, 87.5% and 80% of patients in each task. the mean value of the lateralization index, calculated on the basis of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was higher than that in the hemisphere or frontal lobe. The verb generation task showed a higher lateralization index than the noun generation or reading task. The lateralization index was higher in the verb generation task and in the region of the temporoparietal lobe than in

  6. Systemic functional grammar in natural language generation linguistic description and computational representation

    CERN Document Server

    Teich, Elke

    1999-01-01

    This volume deals with the computational application of systemic functional grammar (SFG) for natural language generation. In particular, it describes the implementation of a fragment of the grammar of German in the computational framework of KOMET-PENMAN for multilingual generation. The text also presents a specification of explicit well-formedness constraints on syntagmatic structure which are defined in the form of typed feature structures. It thus achieves a model of systemic functional grammar that unites both the strengths of systemics, such as stratification, functional diversification

  7. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Vissers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM. In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.

  8. Functional connectivity in task-negative network of the Deaf: effects of sign language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Malaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies investigating cortical processing in Deaf signers suggest that life-long experience with sign language and/or auditory deprivation may alter the brain’s anatomical structure and the function of brain regions typically recruited for auditory processing (Emmorey et al., 2010; Pénicaud et al., 2013 inter alia. We report the first investigation of the task-negative network in Deaf signers and its functional connectivity—the temporal correlations among spatially remote neurophysiological events. We show that Deaf signers manifest increased functional connectivity between posterior cingulate/precuneus and left medial temporal gyrus (MTG, but also inferior parietal lobe and medial temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere- areas that have been found to show functional recruitment specifically during sign language processing. These findings suggest that the organization of the brain at the level of inter-network connectivity is likely affected by experience with processing visual language, although sensory deprivation could be another source of the difference. We hypothesize that connectivity alterations in the task negative network reflect predictive/automatized processing of the visual signal.

  9. Intra-operative multi-site stimulation: Expanding methodology for cortical brain mapping of language functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Gazit, Tomer; Korn, Akiva; Kirschner, Adi; Perry, Daniella; Hendler, Talma; Ram, Zvi

    2017-01-01

    Direct cortical stimulation (DCS) is considered the gold-standard for functional cortical mapping during awake surgery for brain tumor resection. DCS is performed by stimulating one local cortical area at a time. We present a feasibility study using an intra-operative technique aimed at improving our ability to map brain functions which rely on activity in distributed cortical regions. Following standard DCS, Multi-Site Stimulation (MSS) was performed in 15 patients by applying simultaneous cortical stimulations at multiple locations. Language functioning was chosen as a case-cognitive domain due to its relatively well-known cortical organization. MSS, performed at sites that did not produce disruption when applied in a single stimulation point, revealed additional language dysfunction in 73% of the patients. Functional regions identified by this technique were presumed to be significant to language circuitry and were spared during surgery. No new neurological deficits were observed in any of the patients following surgery. Though the neuro-electrical effects of MSS need further investigation, this feasibility study may provide a first step towards sophistication of intra-operative cortical mapping.

  10. Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription......-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N......-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression....

  11. Regulation and Functional Expression of Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase from Parsley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Edda; Logemann, Elke; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    A previously isolated parsley (Petroselinum crispum) cDNA with high sequence similarity to cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) cDNAs from several plant sources was expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) containing a plant NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and verified as encoding a functional C4H (CYP73A10). Low genomic complexity and the occurrence of a single type of cDNA suggest the existence of only one C4H gene in parsley. The encoded mRNA and protein, in contrast to those of a functionally related NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, were strictly coregulated with phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA and protein, respectively, as demonstrated by coinduction under various conditions and colocalization in situ in cross-sections from several different parsley tissues. These results support the hypothesis that the genes encoding the core reactions of phenylpropanoid metabolism form a tight regulatory unit. PMID:9880345

  12. Forms and Functions of Idiomatic Expressions in Conversational Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmale, Günter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a study of the conversational treatment of idiomatic expressions of German talk shows, the present treaty examines in which form and in which way idiomatic expressions are being employed and treated by participants in authentic conversations. Based on four conversational corpora from various domains seven different types of auto- and hetero-rephrasals and paraphrases are described. For each type general and specific functions are then analyzed. The article also deals with idiomatic expressions which remain untreated, i. e. where no subsequent activity might provide a clue as to the understanding of the idiom in question. The study thus concentrates on co(ntextual or semantic indicators which might facilitate the understanding and interpretation of untreated idioms. Finally the hypothesis is put forward that not the correct understanding of an idiom is decisive but rather the production of a next activity meeting the idiom producer's expectations. The idiom may even be misinterpreted as long as its host turn can be interpreted adequately in order to produce a conditionally relevant following turn.

  13. The social functions of the emotion of gratitude via expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoe, Sara B; Fredrickson, Barbara L; Gable, Shelly L

    2013-08-01

    Recent theory posits that the emotion of gratitude uniquely functions to build a high-quality relationship between a grateful person and the target of his or her gratitude, that is, the person who performed a kind action (Algoe et al., 2008). Therefore, gratitude is a prime candidate for testing the dyadic question of whether one person's grateful emotion has consequences for the other half of the relational unit, the person who is the target of that gratitude. The current study tests the critical hypothesis that being the target of gratitude forecasts one's relational growth with the person who expresses gratitude. The study employed a novel behavioral task in which members of romantic relationships expressed gratitude to one another in a laboratory paradigm. As predicted, the target's greater perceptions of the expresser's responsiveness after the interaction significantly predicted improvements in relationship quality over 6 months. These effects were independent from perceptions of responsiveness following two other types of relationally important and emotionally evocative social interactions in the lab, suggesting the unique weight that gratitude carries in cultivating social bonds. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Functional characterisation of filamentous actin probe expression in neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrujna Patel

    Full Text Available Genetically encoded filamentous actin probes, Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin, are used as tools to label the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence in several different cell types indicates that these probes can cause changes in filamentous actin dynamics, altering cell morphology and function. Although these probes are commonly used to visualise actin dynamics in neurons, their effects on axonal and dendritic morphology has not been systematically characterised. In this study, we quantitatively analysed the effect of Lifeact, Utrophin and F-tractin on neuronal morphogenesis in primary hippocampal neurons. Our data show that the expression of actin-tracking probes significantly impacts on axonal and dendrite growth these neurons. Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a pBABE promoter, caused a significant decrease in total axon length, while another Lifeact-GFP expression, under the control of a CAG promoter, decreased the length and complexity of dendritic trees. Utr261-EGFP resulted in increased dendritic branching but Utr230-EGFP only accumulated in cell soma, without labelling any neurites. Lifeact-7-mEGFP and F-tractin-EGFP in a pEGFP-C1 vector, under the control of a CMV promoter, caused only minor changes in neuronal morphology as detected by Sholl analysis. The results of this study demonstrate the effects that filamentous actin tracking probes can have on the axonal and dendritic compartments of neuronal cells and emphasise the care that must be taken when interpreting data from experiments using these probes.

  15. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of African American Preschool Children from Low-Income Families on Expressive Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Marley, Scott C.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine (a) the ability of two spontaneous language measures, mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and number of different words (NDW), to identify African American preschool children at low and high levels of language ability; (b) whether child chronological age was related to the performance of either…

  17. The E4 protein; structure, function and patterns of expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorbar, John, E-mail: jdoorba@nimr.mrc.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    The papillomavirus E4 open reading frame (ORF) is contained within the E2 ORF, with the primary E4 gene-product (E1{sup ∧}E4) being translated from a spliced mRNA that includes the E1 initiation codon and adjacent sequences. E4 is located centrally within the E2 gene, in a region that encodes the E2 protein′s flexible hinge domain. Although a number of minor E4 transcripts have been reported, it is the product of the abundant E1{sup ∧}E4 mRNA that has been most extensively analysed. During the papillomavirus life cycle, the E1{sup ∧}E4 gene products generally become detectable at the onset of vegetative viral genome amplification as the late stages of infection begin. E4 contributes to genome amplification success and virus synthesis, with its high level of expression suggesting additional roles in virus release and/or transmission. In general, E4 is easily visualised in biopsy material by immunostaining, and can be detected in lesions caused by diverse papillomavirus types, including those of dogs, rabbits and cattle as well as humans. The E4 protein can serve as a biomarker of active virus infection, and in the case of high-risk human types also disease severity. In some cutaneous lesions, E4 can be expressed at higher levels than the virion coat proteins, and can account for as much as 30% of total lesional protein content. The E4 proteins of the Beta, Gamma and Mu HPV types assemble into distinctive cytoplasmic, and sometimes nuclear, inclusion granules. In general, the E4 proteins are expressed before L2 and L1, with their structure and function being modified, first by kinases as the infected cell progresses through the S and G2 cell cycle phases, but also by proteases as the cell exits the cell cycle and undergoes true terminal differentiation. The kinases that regulate E4 also affect other viral proteins simultaneously, and include protein kinase A, Cyclin-dependent kinase, members of the MAP Kinase family and protein kinase C. For HPV16 E1{sup

  18. Functional Associations by Response Overlap (FARO), a functional genomics approach matching gene expression phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Mundy, J.; Willenbrock, Hanni

    2007-01-01

    The systematic comparison of transcriptional responses of organisms is a powerful tool in functional genomics. For example, mutants may be characterized by comparing their transcript profiles to those obtained in other experiments querying the effects on gene expression of many experimental facto...

  19. Executive Functions, Oral Language and Writing in Preschool Children: Development and Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Pazeto, Talita de Cassia Batista; Seabra, Alessandra Gotuzo; Dias, Natália Martins

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) and oral language (OL) are important for learning reading and writing (RW) and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increa...

  20. On the functional relationship between language and motor processing in typewriting: an EEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Scaltritti, Michele; Pinet, Svetlana; Longcamp, Marieke; Alario, F-Xavier

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The functional relationship between language and motor processing was investigated to elucidate whether it is better described in terms of a discrete or a continuous account of information flow. To this end, we recorded event-related potentials during a typewriting task that combined a semantic priming paradigm with a manipulation of response side (response initiated with right vs. left hand), and focused on the lateralised potentials indexing motor-response activation...

  1. Language comprehension and brain function in individuals with an optimal outcome from autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael C; Schultz, Robert T; Barton, Marianne; Kelley, Elizabeth; Naigles, Letitia; Orinstein, Alyssa; Troyb, Eva; Fein, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    Although Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is generally a lifelong disability, a minority of individuals with ASD overcome their symptoms to such a degree that they are generally indistinguishable from their typically-developing peers. That is, they have achieved an Optimal Outcome (OO). The question addressed by the current study is whether this normalized behavior reflects normalized brain functioning, or alternatively, the action of compensatory systems. Either possibility is plausible, as most participants with OO received years of intensive therapy that could alter brain networks to align with typical function or work around ASD-related neural dysfunction. Individuals ages 8 to 21 years with high-functioning ASD (n = 23), OO (n = 16), or typical development (TD; n = 20) completed a functional MRI scan while performing a sentence comprehension task. Results indicated similar activations in frontal and temporal regions (left middle frontal, left supramarginal, and right superior temporal gyri) and posterior cingulate in OO and ASD groups, where both differed from the TD group. Furthermore, the OO group showed heightened "compensatory" activation in numerous left- and right-lateralized regions (left precentral/postcentral gyri, right precentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, right supramarginal gyrus, left superior temporal/parahippocampal gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus) and cerebellum, relative to both ASD and TD groups. Behaviorally normalized language abilities in OO individuals appear to utilize atypical brain networks, with increased recruitment of language-specific as well as right homologue and other systems. Early intensive learning and experience may normalize behavioral language performance in OO, but some brain regions involved in language processing may continue to display characteristics that are more similar to ASD than typical development, while others show characteristics not like ASD or typical development.

  2. Language comprehension and brain function in individuals with an optimal outcome from autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge-Marie Eigsti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is generally a lifelong disability, a minority of individuals with ASD overcome their symptoms to such a degree that they are generally indistinguishable from their typically-developing peers. That is, they have achieved an Optimal Outcome (OO. The question addressed by the current study is whether this normalized behavior reflects normalized brain functioning, or alternatively, the action of compensatory systems. Either possibility is plausible, as most participants with OO received years of intensive therapy that could alter brain networks to align with typical function or work around ASD-related neural dysfunction. Individuals ages 8 to 21 years with high-functioning ASD (n = 23, OO (n = 16, or typical development (TD; n = 20 completed a functional MRI scan while performing a sentence comprehension task. Results indicated similar activations in frontal and temporal regions (left middle frontal, left supramarginal, and right superior temporal gyri and posterior cingulate in OO and ASD groups, where both differed from the TD group. Furthermore, the OO group showed heightened “compensatory” activation in numerous left- and right-lateralized regions (left precentral/postcentral gyri, right precentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, right supramarginal gyrus, left superior temporal/parahippocampal gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and cerebellum, relative to both ASD and TD groups. Behaviorally normalized language abilities in OO individuals appear to utilize atypical brain networks, with increased recruitment of language-specific as well as right homologue and other systems. Early intensive learning and experience may normalize behavioral language performance in OO, but some brain regions involved in language processing may continue to display characteristics that are more similar to ASD than typical development, while others show characteristics not like ASD or typical development.

  3. Angiopoietin-2 regulates gene expression in TIE2-expressing monocytes and augments their inherent proangiogenic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tal, Andrea O; Scholz, Alexander; De Palma, Michele; Patel, Sunil; Urbich, Carmen; Biswas, Subhra K; Murdoch, Craig; Plate, Karl H; Reiss, Yvonne; Lewis, Claire E

    2010-07-01

    TIE2-expressing monocytes/macrophages (TEM) are a highly proangiogenic subset of myeloid cells in tumors. Here, we show that circulating human TEMs are already preprogrammed in the circulation to be more angiogenic and express higher levels of such proangiogenic genes as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), VEGFA, COX-2, and WNT5A than TIE2(-) monocytes. Additionally, angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) markedly enhanced the proangiogenic activity of TEMs and increased their expression of two proangiogenic enzymes: thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and cathepsin B (CTSB). Three "alternatively activated" (or M2-like) macrophage markers were also upregulated by ANG-2 in TEMs: interleukin-10, mannose receptor (MRC1), and CCL17. To investigate the effects of ANG-2 on the phenotype and function of TEMs in tumors, we used a double-transgenic (DT) mouse model in which ANG-2 was specifically overexpressed by endothelial cells. Syngeneic tumors grown in these ANG-2 DT mice were more vascularized and contained greater numbers of TEMs than those in wild-type (WT) mice. In both tumor types, expression of MMP-9 and MRC1 was mainly restricted to tumor TEMs rather than TIE2(-) macrophages. Furthermore, tumor TEMs expressed higher levels of MRC1, TP, and CTSB in ANG-2 DT tumors than WT tumors. Taken together, our data show that although circulating TEMs are innately proangiogenic, exposure to tumor-derived ANG-2 stimulates these cells to exhibit a broader, tumor-promoting phenotype. As such, the ANG-2-TEM axis may represent a new target for antiangiogenic cancer therapies. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  4. Right Hemisphere Grey Matter Volume and Language Functions in Stroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Lukic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the right hemisphere (RH in recovery from aphasia is incompletely understood. The present study quantified RH grey matter (GM volume in individuals with chronic stroke-induced aphasia and cognitively healthy people using voxel-based morphometry. We compared group differences in GM volume in the entire RH and in RH regions-of-interest. Given that lesion site is a critical source of heterogeneity associated with poststroke language ability, we used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM to examine the relation between lesion site and language performance in the aphasic participants. Finally, using results derived from the VLSM as a covariate, we evaluated the relation between GM volume in the RH and language ability across domains, including comprehension and production processes both at the word and sentence levels and across spoken and written modalities. Between-subject comparisons showed that GM volume in the RH SMA was reduced in the aphasic group compared to the healthy controls. We also found that, for the aphasic group, increased RH volume in the MTG and the SMA was associated with better language comprehension and production scores, respectively. These data suggest that the RH may support functions previously performed by LH regions and have important implications for understanding poststroke reorganization.

  5. LANGUAGE COMPETENCE OF STUDENT TOWARD RIGHT HEMISPHER BRAIN FUNCTION : A Neuropragmatic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that the right hemisphere is contributed to language processing, especially in macro level, including macrostructure or discourse processing. This research is aimed at evaluating the students’ ability in language processing concerning macrostructure and the right hemispher brain function. This research is based on Dharmaperwira-prins method “Right Hemisphere Communication Assessment” (Pemeriksaan Komunikasi Hemisfer Kanan/PKHK. Research on students’ ability in macrostructure processing is important to conduct since students nowadays are regarded lack of ability in well being communication. The research is conducted toward 38 students of English Department of Andalas University. The data are taken by paper test which is designed to evaluate the students’ ability in macrostructure. The result of research shows that most students have problems in providing important information, adjective, and feeling. By this result, it can be assumed that the participants have problem in right hemisphere competence concerning to language processing. These problems evoke not by accident or lesion in right hemisphere, yet it is caused by brain development which is focused on left hemisphere only. Keyword: Right Hemisphere, Language Assessment, Lexical Semantic, Macrostructure, Pragmatic

  6. Effects of a language program in the social functioning of children at elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Carnio, Maria Silvia

    2017-10-23

    the purpose of this study was to describe a language stimulation program, including teacher training and practical activities in the classroom, and investigate the effectiveness of this action on the social functioning and behavioral problems of elementary school children. 136 children from six classrooms of a public school and their teachers participated in this research. Of these, half were given the language stimulation program: 16 hours of training for teachers and 9 meetings in the classroom with activities for students. The activities involved instruction for the use of language reflection and practice with the narrative structure. Teachers filled out questionnaires about the social skills and behavior problems of their students before and after the program. there was no statistically significant difference between the research groups pre- and post- program in terms of assertiveness/ social resourcefulness (1st and 5th grades) and cooperation/affection (1st and 3rd grades). In the research groups, children of the 3rd grade, different from the 1st and the 5th grade, showed more evolution in their self-control abilities, which may be related to the lower frequency of externalizing problems in this group. the language program had positive effects on social assertiveness/resourcefulness skills and social cooperation/affection.

  7. The Use of Arabic in Kuwaiti EFL Classrooms: An Exploratory Study on the Patterns and Functions of Language Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader Alghasab, Maha

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the functions and patterns of language choice in EFL classrooms in a Kuwaiti primary school. It applies the overall order model, specifically the medium of classroom interaction, to identify three patterns of language choice: an English monolingual medium, an Arabic monolingual medium and a bilingual…

  8. NCOG-06. Usability and validity of a phone battery to assess language functions in brain tumor patients undergoing awake surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, E. de; Piai, V.; Dronkers, N.F.; Berger, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A wake surgery in eloquent brain regions is performed to preserve language functions. Although in general no major permanent language deficits are found after awake brain surgery, clinically relevant impairments are detected (Satoer et al., 2014). Unfortunately, follow-up of tumor

  9. Language and communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis of caregiver completion of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The children were classified into three cognitive groups: (a) Normal intelligence; (b) Developmental delay; and (c) Intellectual disability. Autism symptom severity was measured by the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC), and adaptive functioning by the Daily Living Skills (DLS) and Socialization (Soc) subscales from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For each of five CDI variables (Phrases understood, Words understood, Words produced, Gestures and actions, and Language use), the contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability was examined. Cognition and age explained about half or more of the variance in the four verbal language CDI variables, but only about one fourth of the variance in the non-verbal communication variable Gestures and actions. Severity of autism symptoms and the two adaptive measures (DLS and Soc) each only accounted for a few percent more of the variance in the four CDI language variables; however, for Gestures and actions, an additional 11-21% of the variance was accounted for. In conclusion, for children with ASD, receptive and expressive language is mainly related to cognitive level, whereas non-verbal communication skills seem to also be related to severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Associations by Response Overlap (FARO, a functional genomics approach matching gene expression phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Bjørn Nielsen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The systematic comparison of transcriptional responses of organisms is a powerful tool in functional genomics. For example, mutants may be characterized by comparing their transcript profiles to those obtained in other experiments querying the effects on gene expression of many experimental factors including treatments, mutations and pathogen infections. Similarly, drugs may be discovered by the relationship between the transcript profiles effectuated or impacted by a candidate drug and by the target disease. The integration of such data enables systems biology to predict the interplay between experimental factors affecting a biological system. Unfortunately, direct comparisons of gene expression profiles obtained in independent, publicly available microarray experiments are typically compromised by substantial, experiment-specific biases. Here we suggest a novel yet conceptually simple approach for deriving 'Functional Association(s by Response Overlap' (FARO between microarray gene expression studies. The transcriptional response is defined by the set of differentially expressed genes independent from the magnitude or direction of the change. This approach overcomes the limited comparability between studies that is typical for methods that rely on correlation in gene expression. We apply FARO to a compendium of 242 diverse Arabidopsis microarray experimental factors, including phyto-hormones, stresses and pathogens, growth conditions/stages, tissue types and mutants. We also use FARO to confirm and further delineate the functions of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 in disease and stress responses. Furthermore, we find that a large, well-defined set of genes responds in opposing directions to different stress conditions and predict the effects of different stress combinations. This demonstrates the usefulness of our approach for exploiting public microarray data to derive biologically meaningful associations between experimental factors. Finally, our

  11. Functional imaging: monitoring heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weisheng; Reilly-Contag, Pamela; Stevenson, David K.; Contag, Christopher H.

    1999-07-01

    The regulation of genetic elements can be monitored in living animals using photoproteins as reporters. Heme oxygenase (HO) is the key catabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway. Here, HO expression serves as a model for in vivo functional imaging of transcriptional regulation of a clinically relevant gene. HO enzymatic activity is inhibited by heme analogs, metalloporphyrins, but many members of this family of compounds also activate transcription of the HO-1 promoter. The degree of transcriptional activation by twelve metalloporphyrins, differing at the central metal and porphyrin ring substituents, was evaluated in both NIH 3T3 stable lines and transgenic animals containing HO-1 promoter-luciferase gene fusions. In the correlative cell culture assays, the metalloporphyrins increased transcription form the full length HO promoter fusion to varying degrees, but none increased transcription from a truncated HO-1 promoter. These results suggested that one or both of the two distal enhancer elements located at -4 and -10 Kb upstream from transcriptional start are required for HO-1 induction by heme and its analogs. The full-length HO-1-luc fusion was then evaluated as a transgene in mice. It was possible to monitor the effects of the metalloporphyrins, SnMP and ZnPP, in living animals over time. This spatiotemporal analyses of gene expression in vivo implied that alterations in porphyrin ring substituents and the central metal may affect the extent of gene activation. These data further indicate that using photoprotein reporters, subtle differences in gene expression can be monitored in living animals.

  12. Brain functional plasticity associated with the emergence of expertise in extreme language control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Moser-Mercer, Barbara; Golestani, Narly

    2015-07-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to longitudinally examine brain plasticity arising from long-term, intensive simultaneous interpretation training. Simultaneous interpretation is a bilingual task with heavy executive control demands. We compared brain responses observed during simultaneous interpretation with those observed during simultaneous speech repetition (shadowing) in a group of trainee simultaneous interpreters, at the beginning and at the end of their professional training program. Age, sex and language-proficiency matched controls were scanned at similar intervals. Using multivariate pattern classification, we found distributed patterns of changes in functional responses from the first to second scan that distinguished the interpreters from the controls. We also found reduced recruitment of the right caudate nucleus during simultaneous interpretation as a result of training. Such practice-related change is consistent with decreased demands on multilingual language control as the task becomes more automatized with practice. These results demonstrate the impact of simultaneous interpretation training on the brain functional response in a cerebral structure that is not specifically linguistic, but that is known to be involved in learning, in motor control, and in a variety of domain-general executive functions. Along with results of recent studies showing functional and structural adaptations in the caudate nuclei of experts in a broad range of domains, our results underline the importance of this structure as a central node in expertise-related networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression and function of the human estrogen receptor in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.H.; Metzger, D.; Chambon, P.

    1988-01-01

    Gene expression in eukaryotes is regulated at many levels. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that the basic control mechanisms of transcription initiation have been conserved across the range of eukaryotes from yeast to man. In vertebrates, the nuclear receptors, whose activity is dependent on the binding of specific ligands, stimulate transcription by interacting with specific cis-acting sequences and display all of the hallmarks of inducible enhancer factors. Alignment of their amino acid sequences indicates that they are composed of a series of conserved domains. The domain structure of the human estrogen receptor (hER) is typical of receptor proteins. Region C, containing two putative zinc fingers, comprises the DNA-binding domain responsible for specific recognition of estrogen response elements (ERE). Region E contains the hormone-binding domain and domain(s) responsible for transcription activation. A mutant of the hER, called HE15, which lacks the hormone-binding domain, binds DNA in vivo and in vitro but activates transcription only poorly in a constitutive manner in vivo in HeLa cells. A series of studies have demonstrated that the hormone- and DNA-binding domains of the nuclear receptors function independently. Chimeric proteins consisting of the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4 coupled to the hormone-binding domains of either the hER or glucocorticoid receptor element (GRE) will stimulate transcription in HeLa cells when bound to a UAS. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the hER and other nuclear receptors, as well as GAL4 and GCN4 proteins of yeast, consist of discrete and separable DNA-binding and transcription-activation functions. To investigate these striking parallels further, the authors have expressed the hER in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and have analyzed its hormone- and DNA-binding properties in vitro and its ability to stimulate transcription in vivo

  14. Pinpointing the classifiers of English language writing ability: A discriminant function analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shams

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available     The major aim of this paper was to investigate the validity of language and intelligence factors for classifying Iranian English learners` writing performance. Iranian participants of the study took three tests for grammar, breadth, and depth of vocabulary, and two tests for verbal and narrative intelligence. They also produced a corpus of argumentative writings in answer to IELTS specimen. Several runs of discriminant function analyses were used to examine the classifying power of the five variables for discriminating between low and high ability L2 writers. The results revealed that among language factors, depth of vocabulary (collocational knowledge produces the best discriminant function. In general, narrative intelligence was found to be the most reliable predictor for membership in low or high groups. It was also found that, among the five sub-abilities of narrative intelligence, emplotment carries the highest classifying value. Finally, the applications and implications of the results for second language researchers, cognitive scientists, and applied linguists were discussed.Â

  15. Language processing and executive functions in early treated adults with phenylketonuria (PKU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Sara; Romani, Cristina; Geberhiwot, Tarekegn; MacDonald, Anita; Palermo, Liana

    We provide an in-depth analysis of language functions in early-treated adults with phenylketonuria (AwPKUs, N = 15-33), as compared to age- and education-matched controls (N = 24-32; N varying across tasks), through: a. narrative production (the Cinderella story), b. language pragmatics comprehension (humour, metaphors, inferred meaning), c. prosody discrimination d. lexical inhibitory control and planning (Blocked Cyclic Naming; Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Burgess & Shallice, 1997). AwPKUs exhibited intact basic language processing (lexical retrieval, phonology/articulation, sentence construction). Instead, deficits emerged in planning and reasoning abilities. Compared to controls, AwPKUs were: less informative in narrative production (lower rate of Correct Information Units); slower in metaphorical understanding and inferred meaning; less accurate in focused lexical-search (Hayling test). These results suggest that i) executive deficits in PKU cannot be explained by an accumulation of lower-order deficits and/or general speed impairments, ii) executive functions engage dedicated neurophysiological resources, rather than simply being an emergent property of lower-level systems.

  16. Language and motor function thresholds during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Vera, Alonso; Aungaroon, Gewalin; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    To examine current thresholds and their determinants for language and motor mapping with extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation (ECS). ECS electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine functional thresholds. Predictors of functional thresholds were found with multivariable analyses. In 122 patients (age 11.9±5.4years), average minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were 7.4 (± 3.0), 7.8 (± 3.0), and 7.4 (± 3.1) mA respectively. Average minimum, face, upper and lower extremity motor thresholds were 5.4 (± 2.8), 6.1 (± 2.8), 4.9 (± 2.3), and 5.3 (± 3.3) mA respectively. Functional and after-discharge (AD)/seizure thresholds were significantly related. Minimum, frontal, and temporal language thresholds were higher than AD thresholds at all ages. Minimum motor threshold was higher than minimum AD threshold up to 8.0years of age, face motor threshold was higher than frontal AD threshold up to 11.8years age, and lower subsequently. UE motor thresholds remained below frontal AD thresholds throughout the age range. Functional thresholds are frequently above AD thresholds in younger children. These findings raise concerns about safety and neurophysiologic validity of ECS mapping. Functional and AD/seizure thresholds relationships suggest individual differences in cortical excitability which cannot be explained by clinical variables. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Is functional MR imaging assessment of hemispheric language dominance as good as the Wada test?: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dym, R Joshua; Burns, Judah; Freeman, Katherine; Lipton, Michael L

    2011-11-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantitatively assess functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging lateralization of language function in comparison with the Wada test. This study was determined to be exempt from review by the institutional review board. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A structured Medline search was conducted to identify all studies that compared functional MR imaging with the Wada test for determining hemispheric language dominance prior to brain surgery. Studies meeting predetermined inclusion criteria were selected independently by two radiologists who also assessed their quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. Language dominance was classified as typical (left hemispheric language dominance) or atypical (right hemispheric language dominance or bilateral language representation) for each patient. A meta-analysis was then performed by using a bivariate random-effects model to derive estimates of sensitivity and specificity, with Wada as the standard of reference. Subgroup analyses were also performed to compare the different functional MR imaging techniques utilized by the studies. Twenty-three studies, comprising 442 patients, met inclusion criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of functional MR imaging for atypical language dominance (compared with the Wada test) were 83.5% (95% confidence interval: 80.2%, 86.7%) and 88.1% (95% confidence interval: 87.0%, 89.2%), respectively. Functional MR imaging provides an excellent, noninvasive alternative for language lateralization and should be considered for the initial preoperative assessment of hemispheric language dominance. Further research may help determine which functional MR methods are most accurate for specific patient populations. RSNA, 2011

  18. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing; Li Yongjie; Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng; Wang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  19. NEREC, an effective brain mapping protocol for combined language and long-term memory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Girard, Cléa; Cousin, Emilie; Vidal, Juan Ricardo; Pichat, Cédric; Kahane, Philippe; Baciu, Monica

    2015-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy can induce functional plasticity in temporoparietal networks involved in language and long-term memory processing. Previous studies in healthy subjects have revealed the relative difficulty for this network to respond effectively across different experimental designs, as compared to more reactive regions such as frontal lobes. For a protocol to be optimal for clinical use, it has to first show robust effects in a healthy cohort. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm entitled NEREC, which is able to reveal the robust participation of temporoparietal networks in a uniquely combined language and memory task, validated in an fMRI study with healthy subjects. Concretely, NEREC is composed of two runs: (a) an intermixed language-memory task (confrontation naming associated with encoding in nonverbal items, NE) to map language (i.e., word retrieval and lexico-semantic processes) combined with simultaneous long-term verbal memory encoding (NE items named but also explicitly memorized) and (b) a memory retrieval task of items encoded during NE (word recognition, REC) intermixed with new items. Word recognition is based on both perceptual-semantic familiarity (feeling of 'know') and accessing stored memory representations (remembering). In order to maximize the remembering and recruitment of medial temporal lobe structures, we increased REC difficulty by changing the modality of stimulus presentation (from nonverbal during NE to verbal during REC). We report that (a) temporoparietal activation during NE was attributable to both lexico-semantic (language) and memory (episodic encoding and semantic retrieval) processes; that (b) encoding activated the left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform, and bilateral inferior temporal gyri; and that (c) task recognition (recollection) activated the right hippocampus and bilateral but predominant left fusiform gyrus. The novelty of this protocol consists of (a) combining two tasks in one (language

  20. [Functional neuro-navigation and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging for the resection of gliomas involving eloquent language structures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-lei; Xu, Bai-nan; Wang, Fei; Meng, Xiang-hui; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Jin-li; Yu, Xin-guang; Zhou, Ding-biao

    2011-08-01

    To explore the clinical value of functional neuro-navigation and high-field-strength intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) for the resection of intracerebral gliomas involving eloquent language structures. From April 2009 to April 2010, 48 patients with intracerebral gliomas involving eloquent language structures, were operated with functional neuro-navigation and iMRI. Blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) was used to depict both Broca and Wernicke cortex, while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based fiber tracking was used to delineate arcuate fasciculus. The reconstructed language structures were integrated into a navigation system, so that intra-operative microscopic-based functional neuro-navigation could be achieved. iMRI was used to update the images for both language structures and residual tumors. All patients were evaluated for language function pre-operatively and post-operatively upon short-term and long-term follow-up. In all patients, functional neuro-navigation and iMRI were successfully achieved. In 38 cases (79.2%), gross total resection was accomplished, while in the rest 10 cases (20.8%), subtotal resection was achieved. Only 1 case (2.1%) developed long-term (more than 3 months) new language function deficits at post-operative follow-up. No peri-operative mortality was recorded. With functional neuro-navigation and iMRI, the eloquent structures for language can be precisely located, while the resection size can be accurately evaluated intra-operatively. This technique is safe and helpful for preservation of language function.

  1. Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Neil C.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...

  2. Sculpting ion channel functional expression with engineered ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Scott A; Morgenstern, Travis

    2017-01-01

    The functional repertoire of surface ion channels is sustained by dynamic processes of trafficking, sorting, and degradation. Dysregulation of these processes underlies diverse ion channelopathies including cardiac arrhythmias and cystic fibrosis. Ubiquitination powerfully regulates multiple steps in the channel lifecycle, yet basic mechanistic understanding is confounded by promiscuity among E3 ligase/substrate interactions and ubiquitin code complexity. Here we targeted the catalytic domain of E3 ligase, CHIP, to YFP-tagged KCNQ1 ± KCNE1 subunits with a GFP-nanobody to selectively manipulate this channel complex in heterologous cells and adult rat cardiomyocytes. Engineered CHIP enhanced KCNQ1 ubiquitination, eliminated KCNQ1 surface-density, and abolished reconstituted K+ currents without affecting protein expression. A chemo-genetic variation enabling chemical control of ubiquitination revealed KCNQ1 surface-density declined with a ~ 3.5 hr t1/2 by impaired forward trafficking. The results illustrate utility of engineered E3 ligases to elucidate mechanisms underlying ubiquitin regulation of membrane proteins, and to achieve effective post-translational functional knockdown of ion channels. PMID:29256394

  3. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Chantal N; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Vasić, Nada; Avrutin, Sergey; Blom, Elma

    2016-01-01

    When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever). Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition) task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally) significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand, use of textese does

  4. The Influence of Texting Language on Grammar and Executive Functions in Primary School Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal N van Dijk

    Full Text Available When sending text messages on their mobile phone to friends, children often use a special type of register, which is called textese. This register allows the omission of words and the use of textisms: instances of non-standard written language such as 4ever (forever. Previous studies have shown that textese has a positive effect on children's literacy abilities. In addition, it is possible that children's grammar system is affected by textese as well, as grammar rules are often transgressed in this register. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of textese influences children's grammar performance, and whether this effect is specific to grammar or language in general. Additionally, studies have not yet investigated the influence of textese on children's cognitive abilities. Consequently, the secondary aim of this study was to find out whether textese affects children's executive functions. To investigate this, 55 children between 10 and 13 years old were tested on a receptive vocabulary and grammar performance (sentence repetition task and various tasks measuring executive functioning. In addition, text messages were elicited and the number of omissions and textisms in children's messages were calculated. Regression analyses showed that omissions were a significant predictor of children's grammar performance after various other variables were controlled for: the more words children omitted in their text messages, the better their performance on the grammar task. Although textisms correlated (marginally significantly with vocabulary, grammar and selective attention scores and omissions marginally significantly with vocabulary scores, no other significant effects were obtained for measures of textese in the regression analyses: neither for the language outcomes, nor for the executive function tasks. Hence, our results show that textese is positively related to children's grammar performance. On the other hand

  5. Spaceflight effects on T lymphocyte distribution, function and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Luo-Owen, Xian; Rizvi, Asma; Chapes, Stephen K.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The immune system is highly sensitive to stressors present during spaceflight. The major emphasis of this study was on the T lymphocytes in C57BL/6NTac mice after return from a 13-day space shuttle mission (STS-118). Spleens and thymuses from flight animals (FLT) and ground controls similarly housed in animal enclosure modules (AEM) were evaluated within 3–6 h after landing. Phytohemagglutinin-induced splenocyte DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in FLT mice when based on both counts per minute and stimulation indexes (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry showed that CD3+ T and CD19+ B cell counts were low in spleens from the FLT group, whereas the number of NK1.1+ natural killer (NK) cells was increased (P < 0.01 for all three populations vs. AEM). The numerical changes resulted in a low percentage of T cells and high percentage of NK cells in FLT animals (P < 0.05). After activation of spleen cells with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, interleukin-2 (IL-2) was decreased, but IL-10, interferon-γ, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α were increased in FLT mice (P < 0.05). Analysis of cancer-related genes in the thymus showed that the expression of 30 of 84 genes was significantly affected by flight (P < 0.05). Genes that differed from AEM controls by at least 1.5-fold were Birc5, Figf, Grb2, and Tert (upregulated) and Fos, Ifnb1, Itgb3, Mmp9, Myc, Pdgfb, S100a4, Thbs, and Tnf (downregulated). Collectively, the data show that T cell distribution, function, and gene expression are significantly modified shortly after return from the spaceflight environment. PMID:18988762

  6. Effect of metabolic syndrome on mitsugumin 53 expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanley Ma

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia that increases the individual's likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases. Patients inflicted with metabolic disorders also suffer from tissue repair defect. Mitsugumin 53 (MG53 is a protein essential to cellular membrane repair. It facilitates the nucleation of intracellular vesicles to sites of membrane disruption to create repair patches, contributing to the regenerative capacity of skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues upon injury. Since individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome possess tissue regeneration deficiency and MG53 plays a crucial role in restoring membrane integrity, we studied MG53 activity in mice models exhibiting metabolic disorders induced by a 6 month high-fat diet (HFD feeding. Western blotting showed that MG53 expression is not altered within the skeletal and cardiac muscles of mice with metabolic syndrome. Rather, we found that MG53 levels in blood circulation were actually reduced. This data directly contradicts findings presented by Song et. al that indict MG53 as a causative factor for metabolic syndrome (Nature 494, 375-379. The diminished MG53 serum level observed may contribute to the inadequate tissue repair aptitude exhibited by diabetic patients. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses reveal that skeletal muscle fibers of mice with metabolic disorders experience localization of subcellular MG53 around mitochondria. This clustering may represent an adaptive response to oxidative stress resulting from HFD feeding and may implicate MG53 as a guardian to protect damaged mitochondria. Therapeutic approaches that elevate MG53 expression in serum circulation may be a novel method to treat the degenerative tissue repair function of diabetic patients.

  7. Effect of task-oriented activities on hand functions, cognitive functions and self-expression of elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Bo-Young; Bang, Yo-Soon; Hwang, Min-Ji; Oh, Eun-Ju

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates the effects of task-oriented activities on hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression of the elderly with dementia, and then identify the influencing factors on self-expression in sub-factors of dependent variables. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly persons were divided into two groups: intervention group (n=20) and control group (n=20). The interventions were applied to the subjects 3 times a week, 50 minutes per each time, for a total of five weeks. We measured the jamar hand dynamometer test for grip strength, the jamar hydraulic pinch gauge test for prehension test, nine-hole pegboard test for coordination test, and Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric Population for cognitive function, and self-expression rating scale for self-expression test. [Results] The task-oriented activities promoted hand function, cognitive function (visual perception, spatial perception, visuomotor organization, attention & concentration) and self-expression of the elderly with early dementia, and the factors influencing the self-expression were cognitive function (visual perception) and hand function (coordination). The study showed that the task-oriented program enabled self-expression by improving hand function and cognitive function. [Conclusion] This study suggested that there should be provided the task-oriented program for prevention and treatment of the elderly with early dementia in the clinical settings and it was considered that results have a value as basic data that can be verified relationship of hand function, cognitive function, and self-expression.

  8. Marginal Words--Sophisticated Attitudinal Meaning Making Resources in the Vietnamese Language: Implications for the Shaping of Vietnamese Teaching in the Australian Curriculum: Languages (Vietnamese)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Thu Thi Bich

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation is an important aspect in communication in any language as it not only functions to express language users' evaluative stance but also to construct and maintain relations between interactants. In the teaching of languages in addition to English, paying attention to evaluative language contributes to an understanding of the…

  9. Evaluating functional MRI procedures for assessing hemispheric language dominance in neurosurgical patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, M.V.; Watson, J.M.; Maccotta, L.; McDermott, K.B.; Buckner, R.L.; Gilliam, F.G.; Ojemann, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods of quantifying hemispheric language dominance (HLD) in neurosurgical patients are compared: (1) an average magnitudes (AM) method, which is a calculation of the average signal intensity variation in regions of interest for each patient that were predefined in a group analysis for each task, and (2) a lateralization indices (LI) method, which is based on the number of activated pixels in regions of interest predefined in each individual patient. Four language tasks [a living/nonliving (LNL) judgment, word stem completion (WSC), semantic associate (SA) and a phonological associate (PA) task] were compared with ''gold standard'' measures such as the Wada test or electrocortical stimulation. Results showed that the LI method was more accurate (73% agreement with gold standard methods) than the AM method (only 40% agreement) across tasks and subjects. Furthermore, by varying the threshold used for determining laterality, the ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict HLD was influenced for the AM method, whereas the LI method was relatively unaffected by changing the threshold. Using the LI method, the SA task was the most accurate for quantifying HLD (100% agreement with gold standard methods) with respect to the other three language tasks (80% accuracy for WSC, 65% for the LNL and 63% for phonological task). Depending on the method and the task, fMRI may be a promising tool for assessing HLD in neurosurgical patients. (orig.)

  10. Evaluating functional MRI procedures for assessing hemispheric language dominance in neurosurgical patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, M.V. [Pierre Mendes-France University, Laboratory of Psychology and Neurocognition, Grenoble (France); Watson, J.M.; Maccotta, L.; McDermott, K.B. [Washington University, Department of Psychology, St. Louis (United States); Buckner, R.L. [Washington University, Department of Psychology, St. Louis (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University, St. Louis (United States); Gilliam, F.G. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, St. Louis (United States); Ojemann, J.G. [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, St. Louis (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Two methods of quantifying hemispheric language dominance (HLD) in neurosurgical patients are compared: (1) an average magnitudes (AM) method, which is a calculation of the average signal intensity variation in regions of interest for each patient that were predefined in a group analysis for each task, and (2) a lateralization indices (LI) method, which is based on the number of activated pixels in regions of interest predefined in each individual patient. Four language tasks [a living/nonliving (LNL) judgment, word stem completion (WSC), semantic associate (SA) and a phonological associate (PA) task] were compared with ''gold standard'' measures such as the Wada test or electrocortical stimulation. Results showed that the LI method was more accurate (73% agreement with gold standard methods) than the AM method (only 40% agreement) across tasks and subjects. Furthermore, by varying the threshold used for determining laterality, the ability of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict HLD was influenced for the AM method, whereas the LI method was relatively unaffected by changing the threshold. Using the LI method, the SA task was the most accurate for quantifying HLD (100% agreement with gold standard methods) with respect to the other three language tasks (80% accuracy for WSC, 65% for the LNL and 63% for phonological task). Depending on the method and the task, fMRI may be a promising tool for assessing HLD in neurosurgical patients. (orig.)

  11. WCST and NEUPSILIN: relationships among executive functions, attention, memory and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Balem Yates

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between measures of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST and a brief battery of cognitive functions (NEUPSILIN with the goal of providing a better understanding of the association between executive processes and other functions. The sample included 39 people, from 14 to 61 years old, with an average education of 12.38 (SD = 3.65 years of study. The hypothesis that correlations would be moderate to strong between the measures of executive function, working memory, attention and prospective memory from NEUPSILIN and WCST scores was partially corroborated because the intensity of the correlations was below than the expected. Other correlations were also found between the WCST scores and tasks that assess semantic-episodic memory, oral language (inference processing and writing (reading components.

  12. Functional specialisation within the cortical language network: effects of cortical dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, R

    2007-01-01

    In the 1990's neuroanatomical models of language and semantic memory have been mainly based on functional neuroimaging studies of brain activity in healthy volunteers and correlational studies between structural lesions in patients and behavioral deficits. In this paper we present a novel approach where we test models that have been developed in healthy volunteers by means of functional imaging in patients in combination with behavioral studies. Study populations consist of patients with focal cortical stroke (n = 2), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 14) and primary progressive aphasia (n = 18). The experiments provide converging evidence that 1. the integrity of the right mid- and anterior fusiform gyrus is required for full and detailed retrieval of knowledge of visual attributes of concrete entities 2. the left posterior superior temporal sulcus is critically involved in lexical-semantic retrieval 3. the anterior temporal pole to the left functions as an associative structure that links the representations of meaning that are distribured over the cortical brain surface. Our experiments also provide us with new insight into the degradation and re-organisation of the language system in cortical neurodegenerative disease.

  13. Noninvasive determination of language dominance using functional MRI and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Takahiro; Kamada, Kyousuke; Saito, Nobuhito

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the language dominant hemisphere is important in cases necessary for partial encephalotomy due to epilepsy and tumor. Functional MRI (fMRI) essentially detects oxy-Hb/deoxy-Hb ratio in the brain region resulted from blood flow change and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), the Hb level change in the tissue, in which the image can be detected by light-receiving proves of NIR-light (780-1500 nm wavelength) irradiated and passed through the tissues. This paper describes the comparison of the two methods for determination of language dominance with reference to that identified by Wada test, a gold standard but inconvenient for both operators and patients. Subjects are 11 brain tumor and 11 epilepsy patients (M 10/F 12, av. age of 36.7 y, 19 right-handed), whose dominances are successfully determined previously by Wada test. fMRI is conducted with 3T machine (General Electric, USA) with phased-array coil in patients receiving various language tasks, and data are processed by Dr. View (Asahi Kasei) to calculate the laterality index for the dominance. NIRS is conducted with Hitachi-Medico ETG-4000 with 695 and 830 nm IR in patients receiving other different language tasks, on whose frontotemporal region of head surface 12-channel probes are equipped. Data are processed by the equipped software to calculate the difference of oxy-Hb change rates between the two hemispheres for the dominance determination. Consistency of fMRI in determining the dominance with Wada test is found 86.3% and of NIRS, 72.7%, which suggests the latter can be only supplementary to the former. However, NIRS is noted to be useful in atypical cases like those with right or bilateral dominance. (K.T.)

  14. Language function distribution in left-handers: A navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussis, Lorena; Sollmann, Nico; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that in left-handers, the right hemisphere (RH) is more involved in language function when compared to right-handed subjects. Since data on lesion-based approaches is lacking, we aimed to investigate language distribution of left-handers by repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, rTMS was applied to the left hemisphere (LH) and RH in 15 healthy left-handers during an object-naming task, and resulting naming errors were categorized. Then, we calculated error rates (ERs=number of errors per number of stimulations) for both hemispheres separately and defined a laterality score as the quotient of the LH ER - RH ER through the LH ER + RH ER (abbreviated as (L-R)/(L+R)). In this context, (L-R)/(L+R)>0 indicates that the LH is dominant, whereas (L-R)/(L+R)left-handers and right-handers (source data of another study) for all errors (mean 0.01±0.14 vs. 0.19±0.20, p=0.0019) and all errors without hesitation (mean -0.02±0.20 vs. 0.19±0.28, p=0.0051) was revealed, whereas the comparison for no responses did not show a significant difference (mean: -0.004±0.27 vs. 0.09±0.44, p=0.64). Accordingly, left-handers present a comparatively equal language distribution across both hemispheres with language dominance being nearly equally distributed between hemispheres in contrast to right-handers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Functional Languages and Declarative Programming to analyze ROOT data: LINQtoROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Modern high energy physics analysis is complex. It typically requires multiple passes over different datasets, and is often held together with a series of scripts and programs. For example, one has to first reweight the jet energy spectrum in Monte Carlo to match data before plots of any other jet related variable can be made. This requires a pass over the Monte Carlo and the Data to derive the reweighting, and then another pass over the Monte Carlo to plot the variables the analyser is really interested in. With most modern ROOT based tools this requires separate analysis loops for each pass, and script files to glue to the results of the two analysis loops together. A framework has been developed that uses the functional and declarative features of the C# language and its Language Integrated Query (LINQ) extensions to declare the analysis. The framework uses language tools to convert the analysis into C++ and runs ROOT or PROOF as a backend to get the results. This gives the analyser the full power of an object-oriented programming language to put together the analysis and at the same time the speed of C++ for the analysis loop. The tool allows one to incorporate C++ algorithms written for ROOT by others. A by-product of the design is the ability to cache results between runs, dramatically reducing the cost of adding one-more-plot and also to keep a complete record associated with each plot for data preservation reasons. The code is mature enough to have been used in ATLAS analyses. The package is open source and available on the open source site CodePlex.

  16. Analyzing functional, structural, and anatomical correlation of hemispheric language lateralization in healthy subjects using functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jija S; Kumari, Sheela R; Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Thomas, Bejoy; Radhkrishnan, Ashalatha; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion fiber tractography (DFT) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for lateralizing language in comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to noninvasively assess hemispheric language lateralization in normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the concordance of language lateralization obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VBM to fMRI, and thus to see whether there exists an anatomical correlate for language lateralization result obtained using fMRI. This is an advanced neuroimaging study conducted in normal healthy volunteers. Fifty-seven normal healthy subjects (39 males and 18 females; age range: 15-40 years) underwent language fMRI and 30 underwent direction DTI. fMRI language laterality index (LI), fiber tract asymmetry index (AI), and tract-based statistics of dorsal and ventral language pathways were calculated. The combined results were correlated with VBM-based volumetry of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), and insula for lateralization of language function. A linear regression analysis was done to study the correlation between fMRI, DTI, and VBM measurements. A good agreement was found between language fMRI LI and fiber tract AI, more specifically for arcuate fasciculus (ArcF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The study demonstrated significant correlations (P based statistics, and PT and HG volumetry for determining language lateralization. A strong one-to-one correlation between fMRI, laterality index, DTI tractography measures, and VBM-based volumetry measures for determining language lateralization exists.

  17. Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Röpke, C; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes, we examined whether human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) expressed HLA-DP molecules. We present evidence that TEC obtained from short time culture express low but significant levels of HLA-DP molecules. The expression of HLA-DP molecules was comparable to or higher than the expression...... of HLA-DP allospecific primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) CD4 T cell lines. IFN-gamma treatment strongly upregulated the HLA-DP allospecific PLT responses whereas other PLT responses remained largely unchanged. In conclusion, these data indicate that human thymus epithelial cells express significant levels...

  18. Is there a relationship between language switching and executive functions in bilingualism? Introducing a within-group analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eSoveri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested a bilingual advantage in executive functions, presumably due to bilinguals’ massive practice with language switching that requires executive resources, but the results are still somewhat controversial. Previous studies are also plagued by the inherent limitations of a natural groups design where the participant groups are bound to differ in many ways in addition to the variable used to classify them. In an attempt to introduce a complementary analysis approach, we employed multiple regression to study whether the performance of 30-75-year-old Finnish-Swedish bilinguals (n= 38 on tasks measuring different executive functions (inhibition, updating, and set shifting could be predicted by the frequency of language switches in everyday life (as measured by a language switching questionnaire, L2 age of acquisition, or by the self-estimated degree of use of both languages in everyday life. Most consistent effects were found for the set shifting task where a higher rate of everyday language switches was related to a smaller mixing cost in errors. Mixing cost is thought to reflect top-down management of competing task sets, thus resembling the bilingual situation where decisions of which language to use has to be made in each conversation. These findings provide additional support to the idea that some executive functions in bilinguals are affected by a lifelong experience in language switching and, perhaps even more importantly, suggest a complementary approach to the study of this issue.

  19. Functional expression of sodium-glucose transporters in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafoglio, Claudio; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Kepe, Vladimir; Liu, Jie; Ghezzi, Chiara; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Moatamed, Neda A.; Huang, Jiaoti; Koepsell, Hermann; Barrio, Jorge R.; Wright, Ernest M.

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is a major metabolic substrate required for cancer cell survival and growth. It is mainly imported into cells by facilitated glucose transporters (GLUTs). Here we demonstrate the importance of another glucose import system, the sodium-dependent glucose transporters (SGLTs), in pancreatic and prostate adenocarcinomas, and investigate their role in cancer cell survival. Three experimental approaches were used: (i) immunohistochemical mapping of SGLT1 and SGLT2 distribution in tumors; (ii) measurement of glucose uptake in fresh isolated tumors using an SGLT-specific radioactive glucose analog, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me4FDG), which is not transported by GLUTs; and (iii) measurement of in vivo SGLT activity in mouse models of pancreatic and prostate cancer using Me4FDG-PET imaging. We found that SGLT2 is functionally expressed in pancreatic and prostate adenocarcinomas, and provide evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors block glucose uptake and reduce tumor growth and survival in a xenograft model of pancreatic cancer. We suggest that Me4FDG-PET imaging may be used to diagnose and stage pancreatic and prostate cancers, and that SGLT2 inhibitors, currently in use for treating diabetes, may be useful for cancer therapy. PMID:26170283

  20. Functional characteristics of parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Marlene; Elgueta, Claudio

    2012-02-15

    Cortical neuronal network operations depend critically on the recruitment of GABAergic interneurons and the properties of their inhibitory output signals. Recent evidence indicates a marked difference in the signalling properties of two major types of perisomatic inhibitory interneurons, the parvalbumin- and the cholecystokinin-containing basket cells. Parvalbumin-expressing basket cells are rapidly recruited by excitatory synaptic inputs, generate high-frequency trains of action potentials, discharge single action potentials phase-locked to fast network oscillations and provide fast, stable and timed inhibitory output onto their target cells. In contrast, cholecystokinin-containing basket cells are recruited in a less reliable manner, discharge at moderate frequencies with single action potentials weakly coupled to the phases of fast network oscillations and generate an asynchronous, fluctuating and less timed inhibitory output. These signalling modes are based on cell type-dependent differences in the functional and plastic properties of excitatory input synapses, integrative qualities and in the kinetics and dynamics of inhibitory output synapses. Thus, the two perisomatic inhibitory interneuron types operate with different speed and precision and may therefore contribute differently to the operations of neuronal networks.

  1. Cloning and expression of recombinant, functional ricin B chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M.S.; Russell, D.W.; Uhr, J.W.; Vitetta, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The cDNA encoding the B chain of the plant toxin ricin has been cloned and expressed in monkey kidney COS-M6 cells. The recombinant B chain was detected by labeling the transfected cells with [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]-cysteine and demonstrating the secretion of a protein with a M/sub r/ of 30,000-32,000 that was not present in the medium of mock-transfected COS-M6 cells. This protein was specifically immunoprecipitated by an anti-ricin or anti-B-chain antibody and the amount of recombinant B chain secreted by the COS-M6 cells was determined by a radioimmunoassay. Virtually all of the recombinant B chain formed active ricin when mixed with native A chain; it could also bind to the galactose-containing glycoprotein asialofetuin as effectively as native B chain.These results indicate that the vast majority of recombinant B chains secreted into the medium of the COS-M6 cells retain biological function

  2. Applying an Integrative Framework of Executive Function to Preschoolers With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapa, Leah L; Plante, Elena; Doubleday, Kevin

    2017-08-16

    The first goal of this research was to compare verbal and nonverbal executive function abilities between preschoolers with and without specific language impairment (SLI). The second goal was to assess the group differences on 4 executive function components in order to determine if the components may be hierarchically related as suggested within a developmental integrative framework of executive function. This study included 26 4- and 5-year-olds diagnosed with SLI and 26 typically developing age- and sex-matched peers. Participants were tested on verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention, working memory, inhibition, and shifting. The SLI group performed worse compared with typically developing children on both verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention and working memory, the verbal inhibition task, and the nonverbal shifting task. Comparisons of standardized group differences between executive function measures revealed a linear increase with the following order: working memory, inhibition, shifting, and sustained selective attention. The pattern of results suggests that preschoolers with SLI have deficits in executive functioning compared with typical peers, and deficits are not limited to verbal tasks. A significant linear relationship between group differences across executive function components supports the possibility of a hierarchical relationship between executive function skills.

  3. Applying an Integrative Framework of Executive Function to Preschoolers With Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Doubleday, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The first goal of this research was to compare verbal and nonverbal executive function abilities between preschoolers with and without specific language impairment (SLI). The second goal was to assess the group differences on 4 executive function components in order to determine if the components may be hierarchically related as suggested within a developmental integrative framework of executive function. Method This study included 26 4- and 5-year-olds diagnosed with SLI and 26 typically developing age- and sex-matched peers. Participants were tested on verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention, working memory, inhibition, and shifting. Results The SLI group performed worse compared with typically developing children on both verbal and nonverbal measures of sustained selective attention and working memory, the verbal inhibition task, and the nonverbal shifting task. Comparisons of standardized group differences between executive function measures revealed a linear increase with the following order: working memory, inhibition, shifting, and sustained selective attention. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that preschoolers with SLI have deficits in executive functioning compared with typical peers, and deficits are not limited to verbal tasks. A significant linear relationship between group differences across executive function components supports the possibility of a hierarchical relationship between executive function skills. PMID:28724132

  4. Examining language functions: a reassessment of Bastian's contribution to aphasia assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Marjorie P

    2013-08-01

    Henry Charlton Bastian (1837-1915) developed his network model of language processing, modality deficits and correlated lesion localizations in the 1860s and was a leading clinical authority for over four decades. Although his ideas are little referenced today, having been overshadowed by his more eminent Queen Square colleague John Hughlings Jackson, his work on aphasia and paralysis was highly regarded by contemporaries. This paper traces Bastian's lasting but largely unattributed contribution to the development of standardized clinical assessment of language disorders. From 1867 onwards, Bastian trained generations of medical students in neurology. In his 1875 book On Paralysis there is evidence in his case descriptions that Bastian had already implemented a detailed set of procedures for examining aphasic patients. In 1886, Bastian published a 'Schema for the Examination of Aphasic and Amnesic Persons'. Bastian insisted on the utility of this battery for diagnosis, classification and lesion localization; he argued that its consistent use would allow the development of a patient corpus and the comparison of cases from other hospitals. In 1898 his Treatise on Aphasia included a list of 34 questions that were to be used to examine all patients to provide detailed and systematic evidence of spared and impaired abilities in all receptive and expressive modalities. Bastian's contribution to the development of standardized clinical aphasia assessment is reassessed through detailed analysis of his publications and those of his contemporaries as well as new material from archives and casebooks. This evidence demonstrates that his approach to diagnosis of language and other cognitive impairments has propagated through the decades. His legacy can be seen in the approach to standardized aphasia testing developed in the latter 20th century through to today.

  5. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Shantanu; Basu, Amrita; Kumaran, Senthil S; Khushu, Subash

    2010-01-01

    Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in normal human subjects. Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2*-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90°) with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s) with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2) with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG), superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG), anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001) revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar–occipital–fusiform–thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these areas facilitate language comprehension by activating a semantic

  6. Functional mapping of language networks in the normal brain using a word-association task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Shantanu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Language functions are known to be affected in diverse neurological conditions, including ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, and brain tumors. Because language networks are extensive, interpretation of functional data depends on the task completed during evaluation. Aim: The aim was to map the hemodynamic consequences of word association using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in normal human subjects. Materials and Methods: Ten healthy subjects underwent fMRI scanning with a postlexical access semantic association task vs lexical processing task. The fMRI protocol involved a T2FNx01-weighted gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI sequence (TR 4523 ms, TE 64 ms, flip angle 90º with alternate baseline and activation blocks. A total of 78 scans were taken (interscan interval = 3 s with a total imaging time of 587 s. Functional data were processed in Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM2 with 8-mm Gaussian kernel by convolving the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signal with an hemodynamic response function estimated by general linear method to generate SPM{t} and SPM{F} maps. Results: Single subject analysis of the functional data (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed extensive activation in the frontal lobes, with overlaps among middle frontal gyrus (MFG, superior, and inferior frontal gyri. BOLD activity was also found in the medial frontal gyrus, middle occipital gyrus (MOG, anterior fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules, and to a smaller extent, the thalamus and right anterior cerebellum. Group analysis (FWE-corrected, P≤0.001 revealed neural recruitment of bilateral lingual gyri, left MFG, bilateral MOG, left superior occipital gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, bilateral thalami, and right cerebellar areas. Conclusions: Group data analysis revealed a cerebellar-occipital-fusiform-thalamic network centered around bilateral lingual gyri for word association, thereby indicating how these

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging: lateralization and localization of language in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhoff, C.

    2000-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the localization and hemispheric dominance of language in 21 right-handed and 21 left-handed healthy volunteers by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: For language stimulation two tasks were used: phonological word generation, where subjects were asked to generate words starting with a given input letter (s, t, k), and a language perception and comprehension task requiring subjects to listen closely to the paragraph recall section of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) (1). In both tasks, 3 periods of activation were alternated with 3 rest periods of equal length. Activation were measured simultaneously in 15 horizontal slices using echoplanar imaging on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner. Activated pixels were counted and anatomical localization was determined by using the Talairach Atlas of the brain (2). The pixel count in defined regions of the cortex in each hemisphere was taken as indicating the degree of language activation and was correlated with three conventional neuropsychological lateralization tasks: handedness was determined by Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire (EHI) (3), manual dexterity was assessed by a pegboard test measuring the time to place all pegs for the right and left hand separately. A well-standardized dichotic listening paradigm using paired presentations of CV syllables was employed (4) in a non-forced condition to assess the (right or left ear) advantage indicating left or right hemisphere speech dominance. Results: Activation patterns differed significantly in both paradigms. Language comprehension caused maximum responses in temporal regions of both hemispheres, especially in the superior and the middle temporal gyrus. Independent from handedness, the language perception and comprehension paradigm exhibited bilateral activation predominantly. 52.4 % of right-handed subjects showed a bilateral activation pattern, whereas 33.3 % showed fMRI changes

  8. Meaning and Function of Dummy Auxiliaries in Adult Acquisition of Dutch as an Additional Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Manuela; van Hout, Roeland; van de Craats, Ineke

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of experimental data on language production and comprehension. These show that adult learners of Dutch as an additional language, with different language backgrounds, and a L2 proficiency below level A2 (Waystage) of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR; Council of Europe, 2001), use…

  9. A Pragmatic Study on the Functions of Vague Language in Commercial Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzhong, Zhu; Jingyi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Vagueness is one of the basic attributes of natural language. This is the same to advertising language. Vague language is a subject of increasing interest, and both foreign and domestic studies have attained success in it. Nevertheless, the study on the application of vague language in the context of English commercial advertising is relatively…

  10. Functional rearrangement of language areas in patients with tumors of the central nervous system using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kośla, Katarzyna; Pfajfer, Lucjan; Bryszewski, Bartosz; Jaskólski, Dariusz; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Majos, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reorganization of the language areas in patients with tumors located near speech centers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed prior to the surgical treatment of 11 right-handed patients with tumors located close to the Broca’s or Wernicke’s areas of the left hemisphere. The analysis included a record of the activity in four regions of interest (ROIs): Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, and their anatomic homologues in the right hemisphere. For each patient a regional lateralization index was calculated separately for Broca’s area versus its right-hemisphere homolog and Wernicke’s area versus its right-hemisphere homolog. The results were correlated with the histopathological type of the tumor and its size. Our fMRI examinations showed activation of the Broca’s area in the right hemisphere in 3/4 cases of low grade gliomas (LGG) localized in the left frontal lobe. In one case of the high grade glioma (HGG) only the left hemisphere Broca’s area was activated (LI=1). Activation in Wernicke’s area in both hemispheres was obtained irrespective of the size and histological type of the tumor. All tumors localized in the left temporal lobe were HGG. We obtained activation only in the right hemisphere Wernicke’s area in 4/5 of the cases. In 4/5 of the cases activation in Broca’s area was present- in 2 cases in the left hemisphere, in 1 case in the right hemisphere and in 1 case bilateral. The presence of a neoplastic lesion in close topographic relationship to language areas induces their functional reorganization. fMRI is an useful method for determination of language areas localization in pre-operative planning. HGG tumors localized near Wernicke’s area lead to transfer its function to the healthy hemisphere and/or to decreased activity in the affected hemisphere

  11. Stimulation of Executive Functions as Part of the Language Intervention Process in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Varanda, Cristina Andrade; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux

    2017-01-01

    Identifying effective methods for stimulating language and communication of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is fundamental to the effective use of available resources to support these children. This pilot study was designed to explore the potential benefits of a program of stimulation of executive functions (SEF) on the functional aspects of language and communication through the assessment of the functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance. Twenty children, aged 5-12 years, with a diagnosis of ASD participated in the study. Two stimulation programs were offered over a 10- to 12-week period as part of the regular services offered to these children through a University's speech and language therapy outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Children either received SEF intervention in their home implemented by their parent/s, with close monitoring by the speech-language pathologist (SLP) (group 1), or they received SEF by the SLP during regular speech-language therapy individual sessions (group 2). The findings suggested that there were differences between the children's pre- and posttest performance. Significantly different performances were observed in the areas of occupation of communication space, proportion of communicative interactivity, and social-cognitive performance. The inclusion of activities to stimulate executive function abilities in language intervention for children with ASD warrants further investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. SystemVerilog assertions and functional coverage guide to language, methodology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Ashok B

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on, application-oriented guide to the language and methodology of both SystemVerilog Assertions and SystemVerilog Functional Coverage. Readers will benefit from the step-by-step approach to functional hardware verification using SystemVerilog Assertions and Functional Coverage, which will enable them to uncover hidden and hard to find bugs, point directly to the source of the bug, provide for a clean and easy way to model complex timing checks and objectively answer the question ‘have we functionally verified everything’. Written by a professional end-user of ASIC/SoC/CPU and FPGA design and Verification, this book explains each concept with easy to understand examples, simulation logs and applications derived from real projects. Readers will be empowered to tackle the modeling of complex checkers for functional verification, thereby drastically reducing their time to design and debug. This updated second edition addresses the latest functional set released in IEEE-1800 (2012) L...

  13. Determination of hemispheric language dominance in the surgical epilepsy patient: diagnostic properties of functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Scott D; Hoerth, Matthew T; Zimmerman, Richard S; Shmookler, Aaron; Hoffman-Snyder, Charlene R; Wellik, Kay E; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Wingerchuk, Dean M

    2012-09-01

    Presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy typically includes assessment of cognitive and language functions. The reference standard for determination of hemispheric language dominance has been the intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) but functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used. To critically assess current evidence regarding the diagnostic properties of fMRI in comparison with the IAT for determination of hemispheric language dominance. The objective was addressed through the development of a structured critically appraised topic. This included a clinical scenario, structured question, literature search strategy, critical appraisal, results, evidence summary, commentary, and bottom-line conclusions. Participants included consultant and resident neurologists, a medical librarian, clinical epidemiologists, and content experts in the fields of epilepsy and neurosurgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis that compared the sensitivity and specificity of fMRI to IAT-determined language lateralization was selected for critical appraisal. The review included data from 23 articles (n=442); study methodology varied widely. fMRI was 83.5% sensitive and 88.1% specific for detection of hemispheric language dominance. There are insufficient data to support routine use of fMRI for the purpose of determining hemispheric language dominance in patients with intractable epilepsy. Larger, well-designed studies of fMRI for language and other cognitive outcomes as part of the presurgical and postsurgical evaluation of epilepsy patients are necessary.

  14. Executive and intellectual functioning in school-aged children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Marika A; Nieminen, Pirkko E; Helminen, Mika T; Kleemola, Leenamaija

    2017-03-01

    Earlier research and clinical practice show that specific language impairment (SLI) is often associated with nonverbal cognitive deficits and weakened skills in executive functions (EFs). Executive deficits may have a remarkable influence on a child's everyday activities in the home and school environments. However, research information is still limited on EFs in school-aged children with SLI, mostly conducted among English- and Dutch-speaking children. To study whether there are differences in EFs between Finnish-speaking children with SLI and typically developing (TD) peers at school age. EFs are compared between the groups with and without controlling for nonverbal intelligence. Parents and teachers of children with SLI (n = 22) and age- and gender-matched TD peers (n = 22) completed The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions (BRIEF). The mean age of the children was 8,2 years. BRIEF ratings of parents and teachers were compared between the children with SLI and with TD peers by paired analysis using conditional logistic regression models with and without controlling for nonverbal IQ. Intellectual functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Children with SLI had weaker scores in all parent and teacher BRIEF scales compared with TD peers. Statistically significant differences between the groups were found in BRIEF scales Shift, Emotional Control, Initiate, Working Memory, Plan/Organize and Monitor. Differences between the groups were statistically significant also in intellectual functioning. On BRIEF scales some group differences remained statistically significant after controlling for nonverbal IQ. This study provides additional evidence that also Finnish-speaking school-aged children with SLI are at risk of having deficits in EFs in daily life. EFs have been proposed to have an impact on developmental outcomes later in life. In clinical practice it is important to pay attention to EFs in school-aged children with SLI

  15. Functional organization of the language network in three- and six-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissiennon, Kodjo; Friederici, Angela D; Brauer, Jens; Wu, Chiao-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The organization of the language network undergoes continuous changes during development as children learn to understand sentences. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral measures were utilized to investigate functional activation and functional connectivity (FC) in three-year-old (3yo) and six-year-old (6yo) children during sentence comprehension. Transitive German sentences varying the word order (subject-initial and object-initial) with case marking were presented auditorily. We selected children who were capable of processing the subject-initial sentences above chance level accuracy from each age group to ensure that we were tapping real comprehension. Both age groups showed a main effect of word order in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), with greater activation for object-initial compared to subject-initial sentences. However, age differences were observed in the FC between left pSTG and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). The 6yo group showed stronger FC between the left pSTG and Brodmann area (BA) 44 of the left IFG compared to the 3yo group. For the 3yo group, in turn, the FC between left pSTG and left BA 45 was stronger than with left BA 44. Our study demonstrates that while task-related activation was comparable, the small behavioral differences between age groups were reflected in the underlying functional organization revealing the ongoing development of the neural language network. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-surgical evaluation of the cerebral tumor in the left language related areas by functional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Zhitong; Ma Lin; Weng Xuchu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the application of combination of BOLD-fMRI and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in pre-operative evaluation of cerebral tumors located at the left language related areas. Methods: A non-vocal button pressing semantic judging paradigm was developed and validated in 10 right-handed volunteers at 3 T. After validation, this protocol combined with DTI were applied to 15 patients with left cerebral tumor prior to surgical resection, and 3 of them had aphasia. fMRI data analysis was on subject-specific basis by one-sampled t-test. The distance from the tumor to Broca area and pre-central 'hand-knot' area were measured separately. Functional language laterality index (LI) was calculated by taking out Broca area and Wernicke area. Three dimensional architecture of frontal lobe white matter fibers, especially arcuate fasciculus, were visualized using diffusion tensor tractography on Volume-one software. The images demonstrating relationship among tumor, language activation areas and white matter fibers were reviewed by neurosurgeons as part of pre-operative planning. One year after the operation, patients were followed up with MRI and language function test. Results: The non-vocal semantic judging paradigm successfully detect Broca area, Wernicke area and pre-central 'hand-knot' area. In 12 of 15 patients, the relationship of Broca area and pre-central motor area to the left brain tumor in language related areas was identified, which make the pre-operative neurosurgical plan applicable to minimize the disruption of language and motor. 8 patients had the left language dominant hemisphere, 3 patients with the right language dominant hemisphere and 1 patient with bilateral dominance. The other 3 patients' fMRI data were corrupted by patients' motion. Diffusion tensor images were corrupted by motion in 1 patient but demonstrated the impact of tumor on left accouter fasciculus in 14 patients. Diffusion tensor tractography showed disruption of left

  17. MicroRNA-124-3p expression and its prospective functional pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma: A quantitative polymerase chain reaction, gene expression omnibus and bioinformatics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong-Quan; Yang, Xia; Liang, Liang; Chen, Gang; Ma, Jie

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to explore the potential clinical significance of microRNA (miR)-124-3p expression in the hepatocarcinogenesis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as well as the potential target genes of functional HCC pathways. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate the expression of miR-124-3p in 101 HCC and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. Additionally, the association between miR-124-3p expression and clinical parameters was also analyzed. Differentially expressed genes identified following miR-124-3p transfection, the prospective target genes predicted in silico and the key genes of HCC obtained from Natural Language Processing (NLP) were integrated to obtain potential target genes of miR-124-3p in HCC. Relevant signaling pathways were assessed with protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Protein Annotation Through Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) pathway enrichment analysis. miR-124-3p expression was significantly reduced in HCC tissues compared with expression in adjacent non-cancerous liver tissues. In HCC, miR-124-3p was demonstrated to be associated with clinical stage. The mean survival time of the low miR-124-3p expression group was reduced compared with that of the high expression group. A total of 132 genes overlapped from differentially expressed genes, miR-124-3p predicted target genes and NLP identified genes. PPI network construction revealed a total of 109 nodes and 386 edges, and 20 key genes were identified. The major enriched terms of three GO categories included regulation of cell proliferation, positive regulation of cellular biosynthetic processes, cell leading edge, cytosol and cell projection, protein kinase activity, transcription activator activity and enzyme binding. KEGG analysis revealed pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and non-small cell lung cancer as the

  18. Functional expression of rat VPAC1 receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.K.; Tams, J.W.; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1999-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide......G protein-coupled receptor; heterologous expression; membrane protein; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide; yeast mating factor-pre-pro *Ga-leader peptide...

  19. Cellular MYCro economics: Balancing MYC function with MYC expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, David

    2013-11-01

    The expression levels of the MYC oncoprotein have long been recognized to be associated with the outputs of major cellular processes including proliferation, cell growth, apoptosis, differentiation, and metabolism. Therefore, to understand how MYC operates, it is important to define quantitatively the relationship between MYC input and expression output for its targets as well as the higher-order relationships between the expression levels of subnetwork components and the flow of information and materials through those networks. Two different views of MYC are considered, first as a molecular microeconomic manager orchestrating specific positive and negative responses at individual promoters in collaboration with other transcription and chromatin components, and second, as a macroeconomic czar imposing an overarching rule onto all active genes. In either case, c-myc promoter output requires multiple inputs and exploits diverse mechanisms to tune expression to the appropriate levels relative to the thresholds of expression that separate health and disease.

  20. When words lead to solutions: executive function deficits in preschool children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roello, Mara; Ferretti, Maria Letizia; Colonnello, Valentina; Levi, Gabriel

    2015-02-01

    Several studies indicate that school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties with tasks that rely on executive functions. Whether executive function deficits in children with SLI emerge during preschool age remains unclear. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating executive function performances in two age groups of preschoolers with and without SLI. Children with SLI (N=60; young: 53.6±5.3 months; old: 65.4±3.8 months) and age-matched control children (N=58) were tested for problem-representation ability, using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST), rule-use skills, using a Stroop-like Day-Night test (D/N), and planning skills, using the Tower of London test (TOL). Older children performed better than younger children did across tasks. Children with SLI had poorer performance, compared to typically developing children, on measures of problem representation, planning skills, and use of rules. Our results clearly indicate that executive function impairment is evident during the preschool period. Although old children with SLI performed better than young children with SLI, their performances were still poor, compared to those of control peers. These findings suggest that children with SLI have altered executive functioning at 53.6 months. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Assessing and measuring language development in the child. The Reynell Scales in a Dutch language area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaerlaekens, A

    1995-01-01

    This article deals with the recent adaptation of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language. The existing language tests for the Dutch language are reviewed and the need to adapt a test for young children, measuring both receptive and expressive language development, is argued. The adaptation of the original Reynell Developmental Language Scales to the Dutch language is described. An extensive standardisation was carried out with 1,288 Dutch-speaking children, carefully selected geographically and according to socio-economic status. The psychodiagnostic results of the standardisation are discussed. As a result there are now norms for children between 2 and 5 years, both for receptive and expressive language development. The adaptation of the original Reynell Scales to Dutch functions under the new name RTOS (Reynell Taalontwikkelingsschalen).

  2. Chronotype Modulates Language Processing-Related Cerebral Activity during Functional MRI (fMRI.

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    Jessica Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Based on individual daily physiological cycles, humans can be classified as early (EC, late (LC and intermediate (IC chronotypes. Recent studies have verified that chronotype-specificity relates to performance on cognitive tasks: participants perform more efficiently when tested in the chronotype-specific optimal time of day than when tested in their non-optimal time. Surprisingly, imaging studies focussing on the underlying neural mechanisms of potential chronotype-specificities are sparse. Moreover, chronotype-specific alterations of language-related semantic processing have been neglected so far.16 male, healthy ECs, 16 ICs and 16 LCs participated in a fast event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI paradigm probing semantic priming. Subjects read two subsequently presented words (prime, target and were requested to determine whether the target word was an existing word or a non-word. Subjects were tested during their individual evening hours when homeostatic sleep pressure and circadian alertness levels are high to ensure equal entrainment.Chronotype-specificity is associated with task-performance and brain activation. First, ECs exhibited slower reaction times than LCs. Second, ECs showed attenuated BOLD responses in several language-related brain areas, e.g. in the left postcentral gyrus, left and right precentral gyrus and in the right superior frontal gyrus. Additionally, increased BOLD responses were revealed for LCs as compared to ICs in task-related areas, e.g. in the right inferior parietal lobule and in the right postcentral gyrus.These findings reveal that even basic language processes are associated with chronotype-specific neuronal mechanisms. Consequently, results might change the way we schedule patient evaluations and/or healthy subjects in e.g. experimental research and adding "chronotype" as a statistical covariate.

  3. Differential Item Functioning (DIF) among Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners (ELLs) in State Science Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, Maria O.

    Psychometricians and test developers evaluate standardized tests for potential bias against groups of test-takers by using differential item functioning (DIF). English language learners (ELLs) are a diverse group of students whose native language is not English. While they are still learning the English language, they must take their standardized tests for their school subjects, including science, in English. In this study, linguistic complexity was examined as a possible source of DIF that may result in test scores that confound science knowledge with a lack of English proficiency among ELLs. Two years of fifth-grade state science tests were analyzed for evidence of DIF using two DIF methods, Simultaneous Item Bias Test (SIBTest) and logistic regression. The tests presented a unique challenge in that the test items were grouped together into testlets---groups of items referring to a scientific scenario to measure knowledge of different science content or skills. Very large samples of 10, 256 students in 2006 and 13,571 students in 2007 were examined. Half of each sample was composed of Spanish-speaking ELLs; the balance was comprised of native English speakers. The two DIF methods were in agreement about the items that favored non-ELLs and the items that favored ELLs. Logistic regression effect sizes were all negligible, while SIBTest flagged items with low to high DIF. A decrease in socioeconomic status and Spanish-speaking ELL diversity may have led to inconsistent SIBTest effect sizes for items used in both testing years. The DIF results for the testlets suggested that ELLs lacked sufficient opportunity to learn science content. The DIF results further suggest that those constructed response test items requiring the student to draw a conclusion about a scientific investigation or to plan a new investigation tended to favor ELLs.

  4. Are Women More Emotionally Skilled When It Comes to Expression of Emotions in the Foreign Language? Gender, Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits in Relation to Emotional Expression in the L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanska-Ponikwia, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the link between gender, emotional intelligence (EI), personality traits and self-reported emotional expression in the second language (L2). Data analysis suggests that gender might not influence self-perceived emotional expression in the L2, as the results of the t-test show that both males and females declare…

  5. Teaching a Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays to Reject: Direct and Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian A.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Brucker, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    We used functional communication training to teach Bob, a 10-year-old student with autism and severe language delays, to reject items by touching an icon. Our initial assessment revealed that Bob's behaviours serving a rejecting function consisted of pushing away, yelling, bear hugging-grabbing, and leaving. We used prompting, differential…

  6. Expression and functional role of sprouty-2 in breast morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valgardur; Ingthorsson, Saevar; Hilmarsdottir, Bylgja; Gustafsdottir, Sigrun M; Franzdottir, Sigridur Rut; Arason, Ari Jon; Steingrimsson, Eirikur; Magnusson, Magnus K; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a mechanism used by many species for organogenesis and tissue maintenance. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the sprouty protein family are believed to be critical regulators of branching morphogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Sprouty-2 (SPRY2) in the mammary gland and study its role in branching morphogenesis. Human breast epithelial cells, breast tissue and mouse mammary glands were used for expression studies using immunoblotting, real rime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of SPRY2 in the breast epithelial stem cell line D492 was done by lentiviral transduction of shRNA constructs targeting SPRY2. Three dimensional culture of D492 with or without endothelial cells was done in reconstituted basement membrane matrix. We show that in the human breast, SPRY2 is predominantly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of both ducts and lobuli. In the mouse mammary gland, SPRY2 expression is low or absent in the virgin state, while in the pregnant mammary gland SPRY2 is expressed at branching epithelial buds with increased expression during lactation. This expression pattern is closely associated with the activation of the EGFR pathway. Using D492 which generates branching structures in three-dimensional (3D) culture, we show that SPRY2 expression is low during initiation of branching with subsequent increase throughout the branching process. Immunostaining locates expression of phosphorylated SPRY2 and EGFR at the tip of lobular-like, branching ends. SPRY2 knockdown (KD) resulted in increased migration, increased pERK and larger and more complex branching structures indicating a loss of negative feedback control during branching morphogenesis. In D492 co-cultures with endothelial cells, D492 SPRY2 KD generates spindle-like colonies that bear hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data indicate that SPRY2 is an important regulator of

  7. Expression and functional role of sprouty-2 in breast morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valgardur Sigurdsson

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis is a mechanism used by many species for organogenesis and tissue maintenance. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and the sprouty protein family are believed to be critical regulators of branching morphogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Sprouty-2 (SPRY2 in the mammary gland and study its role in branching morphogenesis. Human breast epithelial cells, breast tissue and mouse mammary glands were used for expression studies using immunoblotting, real rime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Knockdown of SPRY2 in the breast epithelial stem cell line D492 was done by lentiviral transduction of shRNA constructs targeting SPRY2. Three dimensional culture of D492 with or without endothelial cells was done in reconstituted basement membrane matrix. We show that in the human breast, SPRY2 is predominantly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of both ducts and lobuli. In the mouse mammary gland, SPRY2 expression is low or absent in the virgin state, while in the pregnant mammary gland SPRY2 is expressed at branching epithelial buds with increased expression during lactation. This expression pattern is closely associated with the activation of the EGFR pathway. Using D492 which generates branching structures in three-dimensional (3D culture, we show that SPRY2 expression is low during initiation of branching with subsequent increase throughout the branching process. Immunostaining locates expression of phosphorylated SPRY2 and EGFR at the tip of lobular-like, branching ends. SPRY2 knockdown (KD resulted in increased migration, increased pERK and larger and more complex branching structures indicating a loss of negative feedback control during branching morphogenesis. In D492 co-cultures with endothelial cells, D492 SPRY2 KD generates spindle-like colonies that bear hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data indicate that SPRY2 is an

  8. Expression of anger as a function of assertiveness and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M A; Biaggio, M K

    1981-01-01

    Examined differences between asserters and nonasserters and between the sexes on anger expression. Thirty-seven male and 53 female college students were administered the College Self-Expression Scale, the Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory, and the Anger Self-Report. As hypothesized, asserters and males expressed more anger and aggression, and nonasserters experienced more covert anger. The clinical/treatment implications of these findings were discussed. A finding discrepant with previous research and the present researchers' expectations, that men scored higher than women on guilt and condemnation of anger, was thought to reflect this study's sample rather than an actual population difference.

  9. Validation of a Russian-language version of the Foot Functional Index (FFI questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Orlova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Foot Functional Index (FFI questionnaire most completely reflects the functional status of patients with joint diseases of the feet.Objective: to study the psychometric properties of a Russian-language version of the FFI questionnaire.Patients and methods. The reliability, sensitivity, and validity of the Russian-language version of the FFI questionnaire were assessed in 55 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The investigators checked the reliability by assessing the internal consistency (calculating Cronbach's alpha and reproducibility by a test-retest analysis. The criterion validity was evaluated by correlation analysis using HAQ, RAPID3, and pain visual analogue scale (VAS scores. The sensitivity of FFI was studied by comparing its dynamics with RAPID3 changes during treatment.Results. Evaluating the internal consistency yielded a high Cronbach's alpha (0.78. The test-retest analysis demonstrated a significant correlation (0.83 between the results of primary and secondary testing. Assessing the criterion validity showed a high or near-high relationship to the scores of RAPID3 (0.78, HAQ (0.69, and pain VAS (0.76. The group of patients who were observed to have a decrease in disease activity according to RAPID3 from a high (16.2±4.1 to moderate (10.5±5.2 degree displayed a more marked reduction in FFI (ΔFFI = 20.5±2.3 than the group that did not exhibit significant changes in disease activity (ΔFFI = 6.9±3.4.Conclusion. FFI is a reliable, valid, and sensitive tool to evaluate the functional status of patients with foot diseases in RA.

  10. A functional MRI study of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong, E-mail: yuaihong163@tom.com [Department of Radiology, the 4th Medical College of Peking University, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Wang Xiaoyi; Xu Guoqing [Beijing Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing 100875 (China); Li Yongjie [Beijing Institute of Functional Neurosurgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Qin Wen; Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China); Wang, Yuping [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormality of language networks in left medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) using fMRI. Materials and methods: Eight patients with left MTLE and 15 healthy subjects were evaluated. An auditory semantic judgment (AJ) paradigm was used. The fMRI data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by AFNI (analysis of functional neuroimages) to generate the activation map. Results: Behavioral data showed that the reaction time of the left MTLE patients was significantly longer than that of controls on the AJ task (t = -3.396, P < 0.05). The left MTLE patients also exhibited diffusively decreased activation in the AJ task. Right hemisphere dominance of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was demonstrated in left MTLE patients. Conclusions: Long-term activation of spikes in left MTLE patients results in language impairment, which is associated with an abnormality of the brain neural network.

  11. Medial olivocochlear function in children with poor speech-in-noise performance and language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Mamede Carvallo, Renata Mota; Schochat, Eliane

    2017-05-01

    Contralateral masking of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions is a phenomenon that suggests an inhibitory effect of the olivocochlear efferent auditory pathway. Many studies have been inconclusive in demonstrating a clear connection between this system and a behavioral speech-in-noise listening skill. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of a medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent in children with poor speech-in-noise (PSIN) performance and children with language impairment and PSIN (SLI + PSIN). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) with and without contralateral white noise were tested in 52 children (between 6 and 12 years). These children were arranged in three groups: typical development (TD) (n = 25), PSIN (n = 14) and SLI + PSI (n = 13). PSIN and SLI + PSI groups presented reduced otoacoustic emission suppression in comparison with the TD group. Our finding suggests differences in MOC function among children with typical development and children with poor SIN and language problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of language on functional capacity assessment in middle-aged and older US Latinos with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2014-08-15

    The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. The effect of language on functional capacity assessment in middle-aged and older US Latinos with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Eneritz; Burton, Cynthia Z.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Latino population is steadily increasing, prompting a need for cross-cultural outcome measures in schizophrenia research. This study examined the contribution of language to functional assessment in middle-aged Latino patients with schizophrenia by comparing 29 monolingual Spanish-speakers, 29 Latino English-speakers, and 29 non-Latino English-speakers who were matched on relevant demographic variables and who completed cognitive and functional assessments in their native language. There were no statistically significant differences between groups on the four everyday functioning variables (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment [UPSA], Social Skills Performance Assessment [SSPA], Medication Management Ability Assessment [MMAA], and the Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF]). The results support the cross-linguistic and cross-cultural acceptability of these functional assessment instruments. It appears that demographic variables other than language (e.g., age, education) better explain differences in functional assessment among ethnically diverse subpopulations. Considering the influence of these other factors in addition to language on functional assessments will help ensure that measures can be appropriately interpreted among the diverse residents of the United States. PMID:24751379

  14. The effect of aided language stimulation on vocabulary acquisition in children with little or no functional speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Shakila; Alant, Erna

    2009-02-01

    To describe the nature and frequency of the aided language stimulation program and determine the effects of a 3-week-long aided language stimulation program on the vocabulary acquisition skills of children with little or no functional speech (LNFS). Four children participated in this single-subject, multiple-probe study across activities. The aided language stimulation program comprised 3 activities: arts and crafts, food preparation, and story time activity. Each activity was repeated over the duration of 5 subsequent sessions. Eight target vocabulary items were taught within each activity. The acquisition of all 24 target items was probed throughout the duration of the 3-week intervention period. The frequency and nature of the aided language stimulation provided met the criterion of being used 70% of the time and providing aided language stimulation with an 80:20 ratio of statements to questions. The results indicated that all 4 participants acquired the target vocabulary items. There were, however, variations in the rate of acquisition. This study explores the impact of aided language stimulation on vocabulary acquisition in children. The most important clinical implication of this study is that a 3-week intervention program in aided language stimulation was sufficient to facilitate the comprehension of at least 24 vocabulary items in 4 children with LNFS.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE DATA OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE FUNCTIONAL POWER IN IRELAND AND NORTHERN IRELAND

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    Gataullina, K.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The globalization processes put a number of regional languages on the verge of extinction, therefore, they have raised awareness of protecting and maintaining the minority languages among a great number of foreign and Russian scholars. The paper deals with Irish that is under protection of the European Charter for regional and Minority Languages in UK and is an official language of Ireland. The research is aimed at comparing the Irish language position in both regions: Ireland and Northern Ireland. Reviewing the quantitative data in the regions under the study allows us to see clearly the language situation, monitor development, and relying on the achieved results, assess the current state and predict the future of Irish in both regions. The research results are considered to be of practical use for further language planning, improving the efficiency of language policies.

  16. Age-Dependent Effects of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met Polymorphism on Language Function in Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Toyota, Tomoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mazuka, Reiko; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    The genetic basis controlling language development remains elusive. Previous studies of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype and cognition have focused on prefrontally guided executive functions involving dopamine. However, COMT may further influence posterior cortical regions implicated in language perception. We investigated whether COMT influences language ability and cortical language processing involving the posterior language regions in 246 children aged 6-10 years. We assessed language ability using a language test and cortical responses recorded during language processing using a word repetition task and functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The COMT genotype had significant effects on language performance and processing. Importantly, Met carriers outperformed Val homozygotes in language ability during the early elementary school years (6-8 years), whereas Val homozygotes exhibited significant language development during the later elementary school years. Both genotype groups exhibited equal language performance at approximately 10 years of age. Val homozygotes exhibited significantly less cortical activation compared with Met carriers during word processing, particularly at older ages. These findings regarding dopamine transmission efficacy may be explained by a hypothetical inverted U-shaped curve. Our findings indicate that the effects of the COMT genotype on language ability and cortical language processing may change in a narrow age window of 6-10 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of als Functional Rating Scale-Revised in Portuguese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Keyte; Pereira, Cecília; Pavan, Karina; Valério, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is the cross-cultural, as well as to validate in Portuguese language the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised (ALSFRS-R). We performed a prospective study of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) clinically defined. The scale, after obtaining the final version in Portuguese, was administered in 22 individuals and three weeks after re-applied. There were no significant differences between the application and reapplication of the scale (p=0.069). The linear regression and internal consistency measured by Pearson correlation and alpha Conbrach were significant with r=0.975 e alpha=0.934. The reliability test-retest demonstrated by intraclass correlation coefficient was strong with ICC=0.975. Therefore, this version proved to be applicable, reliable and easy to be conducted in clinical practice and research.

  18. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

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    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter (Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)), e-mail: maria.engstrom@liu.se; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Logopedics, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden)); Antepohl, Wolfram (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine/Rehabilitation, Linkoeping Univ., Linkoeping (Sweden))

    2010-07-15

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  19. Clinical fMRI of language function in aphasic patients: Reading paradigm successful, while word generation paradigm fails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Maria; Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Ragnehed, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Marie; Crone, Marie; Antepohl, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Background: In fMRI examinations, it is very important to select appropriate paradigms assessing the brain function of interest. In addition, the patients' ability to perform the required cognitive tasks during fMRI must be taken into account. Purpose: To evaluate two language paradigms, word generation and sentence reading for their usefulness in examinations of aphasic patients and to make suggestions for improvements of clinical fMRI. Material and Methods: Five patients with aphasia after stroke or trauma sequelae were examined by fMRI. The patients' language ability was screened by neurolinguistic tests and elementary pre-fMRI language tests. Results: The sentence-reading paradigm succeeded to elicit adequate language-related activation in perilesional areas whereas the word generation paradigm failed. These findings were consistent with results on the behavioral tests in that all patients showed very poor performance in phonemic fluency, but scored well above mean at a reading comprehension task. Conclusion: The sentence-reading paradigm is appropriate to assess language function in this patient group, while the word-generation paradigm seems to be inadequate. In addition, it is crucial to use elementary pre-fMRI language tests to guide the fMRI paradigm decision.

  20. Adult Immigrants' Media Usage and Its Function in Host Language Training Opportunities: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Media promotes to what extent immigrants learn the host language and cultural values. Consequently, the overall aim of this paper is to identify predictors among adult immigrants in language training and its effect on host language training. The participants (n = 186)-- many of them refugees--were recruited purposefully for the study from one…

  1. Content-Based Language Teaching with Functional Grammar in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleppegrell, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Today many second language (L2) teachers work with school-aged learners who need to be supported in their language development at the same time they learn school subjects. Applied linguists and researchers in second language acquisition (SLA) have much to contribute to those teachers, but to do so in more powerful ways calls for an orientation…

  2. ACTOR`S EXPRESSIVENESS: PHYSICAL ACTION AS A LANGUAGE OF ARCHETYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATEREVA IRINA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the main element of the nonverbal expressiveness of the actor. Th e nonpsychological theatre of Europe in the second half of the 20th century was looking for the actor`s possibility of physical action for revealing the archetypal image of the character. Expressing the meanings similar among themselves in diff erent Nations, they connect the actors and spectators at the level of feelings, of the subconscious. Destroying the barriers in people’s minds which divides them into Europeans and Asians, or French and Germans, they are understandable to any audience regardless of their cultural or linguistic affiliation.

  3. Functional changes in people with different hearing status and experiences of using Chinese sign language: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Xia, Shuang; Zhao, Fei; Qi, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess functional changes in the cerebral cortex in people with different sign language experience and hearing status whilst observing and imitating Chinese Sign Language (CSL) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 50 participants took part in the study, and were divided into four groups according to their hearing status and experience of using sign language: prelingual deafness signer group (PDS), normal hearing non-signer group (HnS), native signer group with normal hearing (HNS), and acquired signer group with normal hearing (HLS). fMRI images were scanned from all subjects when they performed block-designed tasks that involved observing and imitating sign language stimuli. Nine activation areas were found in response to undertaking either observation or imitation CSL tasks and three activated areas were found only when undertaking the imitation task. Of those, the PDS group had significantly greater activation areas in terms of the cluster size of the activated voxels in the bilateral superior parietal lobule, cuneate lobe and lingual gyrus in response to undertaking either the observation or the imitation CSL task than the HnS, HNS and HLS groups. The PDS group also showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus which was also found in the HNS or the HLS groups but not in the HnS group. This indicates that deaf signers have better sign language proficiency, because they engage more actively with the phonetic and semantic elements. In addition, the activations of the bilateral superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule were only found in the PDS group and HNS group, and not in the other two groups, which indicates that the area for sign language processing appears to be sensitive to the age of language acquisition. After reading this article, readers will be able to: discuss the relationship between sign language and its neural mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  4. Sectional microprocessor based microcomputer and its application to express analysis using interactive language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, I.; Leveleki, L.; Salai, M.; Turani, D.

    1984-01-01

    Sectional microprocessor TPA-L/128H based mini-computer being a part of the TPA-8 computer family is developed. A substantial increase of the computer operation rate is attained at the expense of microprogram monitoring. The central processor is constructed on the base of the AM2900 sectional microprocessor elements. The TPA-L/128H computer is program compatible with TPA-8 computer, perfectly equipped with software: high level languages as well as OS/L, COS/H, RTS/H, PAL/128, WPS, TEASYS-8 and IL 128 ensuring statistical data processing, physical experiments automation and interactive experimental data processing. The real time basis problems and CAMAC devices monitoring are efficiently solved

  5. Taking your own path: Individual differences in executive function and language processing skills in child learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kristina; Pozzan, Lucia; Trueswell, John C

    2016-01-01

    Children as old as 5 or 6 years display selective difficulties in revising initial interpretive commitments, as indicated by both online and offline measures of sentence comprehension. It is likely, however, that individual children differ in how well they can recover from misinterpretations and in the age at which they become adult-like in these abilities. To better understand the cognitive functions that support sentence processing and revision, the current work investigated how individual differences in children's ability to interpret temporarily ambiguous sentences relate to individual differences in other linguistic and domain-general cognitive abilities. Children were tested over 2 days on a battery of executive function, working memory, and language comprehension tasks. Performance on these tasks was then used to predict online and offline measures of children's ability to revise initial misinterpretations of temporarily ambiguous sentences. We found two measures of children's cognitive flexibility to be related to their ambiguity resolution abilities. These results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that the ability to revise initial interpretive commitments is supported by domain-general executive function abilities, which are highly variable and not fully developed in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Functional Principle in Gramatica limbii române (Grammar of the Romanian Language – GALR

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    Simona Redeş

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to be a brief presentation of the main approaches of functionalism in Western linguistics and how these concepts and principles are reflected into Romanian linguistics, especially since the new Grammar of the Romanian Language, edition 2005. We insist here on the new taxonomy in classes of words and on the functional-syntactic organization which implies some distinctions between the specific functions of words.

  7. Towards precise classification of cancers based on robust gene functional expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jing

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of robust and efficient methods for analyzing and interpreting high dimension gene expression profiles continues to be a focus in computational biology. The accumulated experiment evidence supports the assumption that genes express and perform their functions in modular fashions in cells. Therefore, there is an open space for development of the timely and relevant computational algorithms that use robust functional expression profiles towards precise classification of complex human diseases at the modular level. Results Inspired by the insight that genes act as a module to carry out a highly integrated cellular function, we thus define a low dimension functional expression profile for data reduction. After annotating each individual gene to functional categories defined in a proper gene function classification system such as Gene Ontology applied in this study, we identify those functional categories enriched with differentially expressed genes. For each functional category or functional module, we compute a summary measure (s for the raw expression values of the annotated genes to capture the overall activity level of the module. In this way, we can treat the gene expressions within a functional module as an integrative data point to replace the multiple values of individual genes. We compare the classification performance of decision trees based on functional expression profiles with the conventional gene expression profiles using four publicly available datasets, which indicates that precise classification of tumour types and improved interpretation can be achieved with the reduced functional expression profiles. Conclusion This modular approach is demonstrated to be a powerful alternative approach to analyzing high dimension microarray data and is robust to high measurement noise and intrinsic biological variance inherent in microarray data. Furthermore, efficient integration with current biological knowledge

  8. Beneficial Effects of Palmitoylethanolamide on Expressive Language, Cognition, and Behaviors in Autism: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Antonucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autism spectrum disorders are defined by behavioral and language atypias. Growing body of evidence indicates inflammatory mediators may contribute to the condition. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA is naturally occurring and has been available as a nonprescription medical food supplement in Europe since 2008. PEA has been tested in thousands of human subjects without any noted significant side effects. Here we report the first cases of the administration of PEA to two children with autism. Case Presentations. The first 13-year-old male child (Subject 1 presented with a total IgE of 572 IU/mL (nl < 200 and with low mature CD57+ natural killer cell counts (32 cells/µL; nl = 60–300 cells/µL and with significant eczema and allergic stigmata. Expressive language, as measured by mean length of utterance, and overall autism severity as measured by the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Second Edition, improved significantly. Atopic symptoms diminished. No side effects were reported. The second male child, age 15 (Subject 2, also displayed noticeable and rapid improvements in cognitive, behaviors, and sociability. Conclusion. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for autism condition. Palmitoylethanolamide could be an effective treatment for autism syndrome. We propose appropriate double-blind clinical trials to further explore palmitoylethanolamide efficacy and safety.

  9. Preterm birth enhances the contribution of mothers' mind-mindedness to infants' expressive language development: A longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Alessandro; Coppola, Gabrielle; Fasolo, Mirco; Cassibba, Rosalinda

    2017-11-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness has been shown to be a powerful predictor of many developmental outcomes and to buffer the impact of psychosocial risk conditions, but no study has investigated whether this parental feature might support child development in the presence of biological risk, such as preterm birth. The present study addresses this gap, by investigating whether early maternal mind-mindedness contributes to the growth of a child's linguistic abilities in the following two years of life, and if the contribution of this maternal feature might be stronger in the presence of preterm birth. Forty mother-child dyads (twenty with a preterm infant) were followed longitudinally, with maternal mind-mindedness assessed at 14 months of age and child's expressive linguistic abilities at 24 and 36 months through observational measures. Multilevel models showed that linguistic abilities increased from 24 to 36 months of age, but that this increase was stronger in full-term infants. Maternal mind-mindedness also contributed to this growth, playing a stronger role in preterm infants than in full-term infants. Altogether, these findings contribute more deeply to the understanding of language development in preterm infants and of the joint contribution made by biological risk and environmental factors; from a practical standpoint, they suggest the importance of addressing mother's mind-mindedness in order to support child's language development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bidirectionality in Self-Regulation and Expressive Vocabulary: Comparisons between Monolingual and Dual Language Learners in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Natalie L.; Maier, Michelle F.; Palacios, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Significant differences in language and self-regulation skills exist among children when they enter formal schooling. Contributing to these language differences is a growing population of dual language learners (DLLs) in the United States. Given evidence linking self-regulatory processes and language development, this study explored bidirectional…

  11. Impact of cognitive function and dysarthria on spoken language and perceived speech severity in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenaughty, Lynda

    Purpose: The current study sought to investigate the separate effects of dysarthria and cognitive status on global speech timing, speech hesitation, and linguistic complexity characteristics and how these speech behaviors impose on listener impressions for three connected speech tasks presumed to differ in cognitive-linguistic demand for four carefully defined speaker groups; 1) MS with cognitive deficits (MSCI), 2) MS with clinically diagnosed dysarthria and intact cognition (MSDYS), 3) MS without dysarthria or cognitive deficits (MS), and 4) healthy talkers (CON). The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language production and perceptual variables for speakers with cognitive deficits was also explored. Methods: 48 speakers, including 36 individuals reporting a neurological diagnosis of MS and 12 healthy talkers participated. The three MS groups and control group each contained 12 speakers (8 women and 4 men). Cognitive function was quantified using standard clinical tests of memory, information processing speed, and executive function. A standard z-score of ≤ -1.50 indicated deficits in a given cognitive domain. Three certified speech-language pathologists determined the clinical diagnosis of dysarthria for speakers with MS. Experimental speech tasks of interest included audio-recordings of an oral reading of the Grandfather passage and two spontaneous speech samples in the form of Familiar and Unfamiliar descriptive discourse. Various measures of spoken language were of interest. Suprasegmental acoustic measures included speech and articulatory rate. Linguistic speech hesitation measures included pause frequency (i.e., silent and filled pauses), mean silent pause duration, grammatical appropriateness of pauses, and interjection frequency. For the two discourse samples, three standard measures of language complexity were obtained including subordination index, inter-sentence cohesion adequacy, and lexical diversity. Ten listeners

  12. Cloning, expression and functional analysis of MAP30 from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... gene was cloned and expressed and the induction of the recombinant MAP30 protein on .... RNA reverse transcription was carried out by RevertAidTM First ... volume of Premix Ex Taq™ (Takara Bio Inc, Japan), PCR cycling.

  13. Expression, production and renaturation of a functional single-chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The single-chain variable antibody fragment (scFv) against human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was expressed at a high level in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. We attempted to refold the scFv by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC), dialysis and dilution. The results show that the column ...

  14. Selective left, right and bilateral stimulation of subthalamic nuclei in Parkinson's disease: differential effects on motor, speech and language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Geralyn M; Hosey, Lara A; Bradberry, Trent J; Stager, Sheila V; Lee, Li-Ching; Pawha, Rajesh; Lyons, Kelly E; Metman, Leo Verhagen; Braun, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus improves the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but may produce a worsening of speech and language performance at rates and amplitudes typically selected in clinical practice. The possibility that these dissociated effects might be modulated by selective stimulation of left and right STN has never been systematically investigated. To address this issue, we analyzed motor, speech and language functions of 12 patients implanted with bilateral stimulators configured for optimal motor responses. Behavioral responses were quantified under four stimulator conditions: bilateral DBS, right-only DBS, left-only DBS and no DBS. Under bilateral and left-only DBS conditions, our results exhibited a significant improvement in motor symptoms but worsening of speech and language. These findings contribute to the growing body of literature demonstrating that bilateral STN DBS compromises speech and language function and suggests that these negative effects may be principally due to left-sided stimulation. These findings may have practical clinical consequences, suggesting that clinicians might optimize motor, speech and language functions by carefully adjusting left- and right-sided stimulation parameters.

  15. Developing A Method of Learning English Speaking Skills Based on the Language Functions Used in the Food and Beverage Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denok Lestari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyse language functions in  English, specifically those which are used in the context of Food and Beverage Service. The findings of the analysis related to the language functions are then applied in a teaching method which is designed to improve the students’ abilities in speaking English. There are two novelties in this research. The first one is  the theory of language functions which is reconstructed in accordance with the Food and Beverage Service context. Those language functions are: permisive (to soften utterances, to avoid repetition, and  to adjust intonation; interactive (to greet, to have small talks, and farewell; informative (to introduce, to show, to state, to explain, to ask, to agree, to reject, and to confirm; persuasive (to offer, to promise, to suggest, and to persuade; directive (to tell, to order, and to request; indicative (to praise, to complain, to thank, and to apologize. The second  novelty which is more practical is the design  of the ASRI method which consists of four basic components, namely: Aims (the purpose in communicating; Sequence (the operational procedure in handling guests in the restaurant; Role play (the simmulation activities in language learning; and Interaction (the interactive communications between participants. The method of ASRI with the application of the language functions in its ABCD procedure, namely Acquire, Brainstorm, Chance and Develop is proven to be effective in improving the students’ abilities in speaking English, specifically in the context of  Food and Beverage Service.

  16. Performance analysis of CRF-based learning for processing WoT application requests expressed in natural language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of a CRF-based learning method for identifying necessary Web of Things (WoT) application components that would satisfy the users' requests issued in natural language. For instance, a user request such as "archive all sports breaking news" can be satisfied by composing a WoT application that consists of ESPN breaking news service and Dropbox as a storage service. We built an engine that can identify the necessary application components by recognizing a main act (MA) or named entities (NEs) from a given request. We trained this engine with the descriptions of WoT applications (called recipes) that were collected from IFTTT WoT platform. IFTTT hosts over 300 WoT entities that offer thousands of functions referred to as triggers and actions. There are more than 270,000 publicly-available recipes composed with those functions by real users. Therefore, the set of these recipes is well-qualified for the training of our MA and NE recognition engine. We share our unique experience of generating the training and test set from these recipe descriptions and assess the performance of the CRF-based language method. Based on the performance evaluation, we introduce further research directions.

  17. BioCreative V track 4: a shared task for the extraction of causal network information using the Biological Expression Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Ellendorff, Tilia Renate; Madan, Sumit; Clematide, Simon; van der Lek, Adrian; Mevissen, Theo; Fluck, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Automatic extraction of biological network information is one of the most desired and most complex tasks in biological and medical text mining. Track 4 at BioCreative V attempts to approach this complexity using fragments of large-scale manually curated biological networks, represented in Biological Expression Language (BEL), as training and test data. BEL is an advanced knowledge representation format which has been designed to be both human readable and machine processable. The specific goal of track 4 was to evaluate text mining systems capable of automatically constructing BEL statements from given evidence text, and of retrieving evidence text for given BEL statements. Given the complexity of the task, we designed an evaluation methodology which gives credit to partially correct statements. We identified various levels of information expressed by BEL statements, such as entities, functions, relations, and introduced an evaluation framework which rewards systems capable of delivering useful BEL fragments at each of these levels. The aim of this evaluation method is to help identify the characteristics of the systems which, if combined, would be most useful for achieving the overall goal of automatically constructing causal biological networks from text. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Annotating function to differentially expressed LincRNAs in myelodysplastic syndrome using a network-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keqin; Beck, Dominik; Thoms, Julie A I; Liu, Liang; Zhao, Weiling; Pimanda, John E; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2017-09-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of diverse biological functions. The number of newly identified lncRNAs has increased dramatically in recent years but their expression and function have not yet been described from most diseases. To elucidate lncRNA function in human disease, we have developed a novel network based method (NLCFA) integrating correlations between lncRNA, protein coding genes and noncoding miRNAs. We have also integrated target gene associations and protein-protein interactions and designed our model to provide information on the combined influence of mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs on cellular signal transduction networks. We have generated lncRNA expression profiles from the CD34+ haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from patients with Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and healthy donors. We report, for the first time, aberrantly expressed lncRNAs in MDS and further prioritize biologically relevant lncRNAs using the NLCFA. Taken together, our data suggests that aberrant levels of specific lncRNAs are intimately involved in network modules that control multiple cancer-associated signalling pathways and cellular processes. Importantly, our method can be applied to prioritize aberrantly expressed lncRNAs for functional validation in other diseases and biological contexts. The method is implemented in R language and Matlab. xizhou@wakehealth.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Measuring Second Language Proficiency with EEG Synchronization: How Functional Cortical Networks and Hemispheric Involvement Differ as a Function of Proficiency Level in Second Language Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Susanne; Pereda, Ernesto; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether university-based high-level foreign language and linguistic training can influence brain activation and whether different L2 proficiency groups have different brain activation in terms of lateralization and hemispheric involvement. The traditional and prevailing theory of hemispheric involvement in…

  20. Closed-form expressions for time-frequency operations involving Hermite functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korevaar, C.W.; Oude Alink, M.S.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    The product, convolution, correlation, Wigner distribution function (WDF) and ambiguity function (AF) of two Hermite functions of arbitrary order n and m are derived and expressed as a bounded, weighted sum of n+m Hermite functions. It was already known that these mathematical operations performed

  1. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his...... operational semantics can be expressed as a reduction semantics: for deterministic languages, a reduction semantics is a structural operational semantics in continuation style, where the reduction context is a defunctionalized continuation. As the defunctionalized counterpart of the continuation of a one...

  2. Collectivity, Distributivity, and the Interpretation of Plural Numerical Expressions in Child and Adult Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrett, Kristen; Musolino, Julien

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing plural numerical expressions (e.g., two boys ) can give rise to two interpretations (collective and distributive), arising from the fact that their representation admits of a part-whole structure. We present the results of a series of experiments designed to explore children's understanding of this distinction and its implications for the acquisition of linguistic expressions with number words. We show that preschoolers access both interpretations, indicating that they have the requisite linguistic and conceptual machinery to generate the corresponding representations. Furthermore, they can shift their interpretation in response to structural and lexical manipulations. However, they are not fully adult-like: unlike adults, they are drawn to the distributive interpretation, and are not yet aware of the lexical semantics of each and together , which should favor one or another interpretation. This research bridges a gap between a well-established body of work in cognitive psychology on the acquisition of number words and more recent work investigating children's knowledge of the syntactic and semantic properties of sentences featuring numerical expressions.

  3. Speech–Language Pathology Evaluation and Management of Hyperkinetic Disorders Affecting Speech and Swallowing Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Barkmeier-Kraemer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperkinetic dysarthria is characterized by abnormal involuntary movements affecting respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory structures impacting speech and deglutition. Speech–language pathologists (SLPs play an important role in the evaluation and management of dysarthria and dysphagia. This review describes the standard clinical evaluation and treatment approaches by SLPs for addressing impaired speech and deglutition in specific hyperkinetic dysarthria populations.Methods: A literature review was conducted using the data sources of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms included 1 hyperkinetic dysarthria, essential voice tremor, voice tremor, vocal tremor, spasmodic dysphonia, spastic dysphonia, oromandibular dystonia, Meige syndrome, orofacial, cervical dystonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, chorea, Huntington’s Disease, myoclonus; and evaluation/treatment terms: 2 Speech–Language Pathology, Speech Pathology, Evaluation, Assessment, Dysphagia, Swallowing, Treatment, Management, and diagnosis.Results: The standard SLP clinical speech and swallowing evaluation of chorea/Huntington’s disease, myoclonus, focal and segmental dystonia, and essential vocal tremor typically includes 1 case history; 2 examination of the tone, symmetry, and sensorimotor function of the speech structures during non-speech, speech and swallowing relevant activities (i.e., cranial nerve assessment; 3 evaluation of speech characteristics; and 4 patient self-report of the impact of their disorder on activities of daily living. SLP management of individuals with hyperkinetic dysarthria includes behavioral and compensatory strategies for addressing compromised speech and intelligibility. Swallowing disorders are managed based on individual symptoms and the underlying pathophysiology determined during evaluation.Discussion: SLPs play an important role in contributing to the differential diagnosis and management of impaired speech and

  4. Speech–Language Pathology Evaluation and Management of Hyperkinetic Disorders Affecting Speech and Swallowing Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M.; Clark, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hyperkinetic dysarthria is characterized by abnormal involuntary movements affecting respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory structures impacting speech and deglutition. Speech–language pathologists (SLPs) play an important role in the evaluation and management of dysarthria and dysphagia. This review describes the standard clinical evaluation and treatment approaches by SLPs for addressing impaired speech and deglutition in specific hyperkinetic dysarthria populations. Methods A literature review was conducted using the data sources of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. Search terms included 1) hyperkinetic dysarthria, essential voice tremor, voice tremor, vocal tremor, spasmodic dysphonia, spastic dysphonia, oromandibular dystonia, Meige syndrome, orofacial, cervical dystonia, dystonia, dyskinesia, chorea, Huntington’s Disease, myoclonus; and evaluation/treatment terms: 2) Speech–Language Pathology, Speech Pathology, Evaluation, Assessment, Dysphagia, Swallowing, Treatment, Management, and diagnosis. Results The standard SLP clinical speech and swallowing evaluation of chorea/Huntington’s disease, myoclonus, focal and segmental dystonia, and essential vocal tremor typically includes 1) case history; 2) examination of the tone, symmetry, and sensorimotor function of the speech structures during non-speech, speech and swallowing relevant activities (i.e., cranial nerve assessment); 3) evaluation of speech characteristics; and 4) patient self-report of the impact of their disorder on activities of daily living. SLP management of individuals with hyperkinetic dysarthria includes behavioral and compensatory strategies for addressing compromised speech and intelligibility. Swallowing disorders are managed based on individual symptoms and the underlying pathophysiology determined during evaluation. Discussion SLPs play an important role in contributing to the differential diagnosis and management of impaired speech and deglutition

  5. Schizophrenia, culture and neuropsychology: sensory deficits, language impairments and social functioning in Chinese-speaking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Chen, S; Chen, C-M; Khan, F; Forchelli, G; Javitt, D C

    2012-07-01

    While 20% of schizophrenia patients worldwide speak tonal languages (e.g. Mandarin), studies are limited to Western-language patients. Western-language patients show tonal deficits that are related to impaired emotional processing of speech. However, language processing is minimally affected. In contrast, in Mandarin, syllables are voiced in one of four tones, with word meaning varying accordingly. We hypothesized that Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients would show impairments in underlying basic auditory processing that, unlike in Western groups, would relate to deficits in word recognition and social outcomes. Altogether, 22 Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients and 44 matched healthy participants were recruited from New York City. The auditory tasks were: (1) tone matching; (2) distorted tunes; (3) Chinese word discrimination; (4) Chinese word identification. Social outcomes were measured by marital status, employment and most recent employment status. Patients showed deficits in tone-matching, distorted tunes, word discrimination and word identification versus controls (all pneuropsychology and language among Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients. As predicted, patients were highly impaired in both tone and auditory word processing, with these two measures significantly correlated. Tonally impaired patients showed significantly worse employment-status function than tonally intact patients, suggesting a link between sensory impairment and employment status outcome. While neuropsychological deficits appear similar cross-culturally, their consequences may be language- and culture-dependent.

  6. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  7. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-10-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups. Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach. Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution. Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made. Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing. Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  8. Brief Report: Anomalous Neural Deactivations and Functional Connectivity during Receptive Language in Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Functional MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karten, Ariel; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-01-01

    Neural mechanisms that underlie language disability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with reduced excitatory processes observed as positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses. However, negative BOLD responses (NBR) associated with language and inhibitory processes have been less studied in ASD. In this study,…

  9. Utility and Limitations of Using Gene Expression Data to Identify Functional Associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra Uygun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene co-expression has been widely used to hypothesize gene function through guilt-by association. However, it is not clear to what degree co-expression is informative, whether it can be applied to genes involved in different biological processes, and how the type of dataset impacts inferences about gene functions. Here our goal is to assess the utility and limitations of using co-expression as a criterion to recover functional associations between genes. By determining the percentage of gene pairs in a metabolic pathway with significant expression correlation, we found that many genes in the same pathway do not have similar transcript profiles and the choice of dataset, annotation quality, gene function, expression similarity measure, and clustering approach significantly impacts the ability to recover functional associations between genes using Arabidopsis thaliana as an example. Some datasets are more informative in capturing coordinated expression profiles and larger data sets are not always better. In addition, to recover the maximum number of known pathways and identify candidate genes with similar functions, it is important to explore rather exhaustively multiple dataset combinations, similarity measures, clustering algorithms and parameters. Finally, we validated the biological relevance of co-expression cluster memberships with an independent phenomics dataset and found that genes that consistently cluster with leucine degradation genes tend to have similar leucine levels in mutants. This study provides a framework for obtaining gene functional associations by maximizing the information that can be obtained from gene expression datasets.

  10. Diffusion tensor tractography of language functional areas and fiber pathways in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xuejin; Dai Jianping; Chen Hongyan; Gao Peiyi; Ai Lin; Tian Shengyong; Pang Ruilin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the fiber pathways of Broca area to the other functional brain areas with diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking. Methods: Conventionality MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tracking were performed using 3.0 T MRI in 20 healthy person. The fiber bundles and tracts were analyzed in Broca area and contralateral normal area. Results: The left-side fiber bundles were 428 and the right-side were 416 in B45 area, there were no statistically significant differences between both sides (t=0.216, P>0.05). The left-side fiber bundles were 432 and the right-side were 344 in B44 area,there were statistically significant (t=2.314, P 0.05). Differences of the arcuate fascicule between both sides were not statistically significant (t=-0.465, P>0.05), the mean FA on the left was higher than the right (t=1.912, P<0.05). DTI and fiber tracking exhibited that the fiber bundles from Broca area were distributed superoanteriorly to the lateral foreside of the frontal lobe, lateroinferiorly to the occipital lobe through external capsule, and went down through globus pallidus and internal capsule. Conclusion: The fiber tracts bewteen Broca area and other brain areas were the fundamental structures for performing language function of the human brain. (authors)

  11. What People Tweet: A Methodological Approach to Exploring Language Functions in Content from Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Valeria González Cogliano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodological approach to explore the functions of the contents published by Twitter users, using as a theoretical foundation the model of Jakobson. Once the analytical tool was designed, it was validated with a case study. As an example of its applicability, the content published by the most active users in the following and follower section of a personal Twitter account were analyzed. Eleven thousand two hundred tweets were analyzed. From that analysis, some treats are proposed that could serve later to generate profiles. These profiles could illustrate, in what way Twitter users publish their content to inform, to brag, to judge or simply to play with language. The results explore the possibility of by means of function analysis and construction of users profiles, it might be plausible to reflect on the nature of 2.0 communication and its effcts on our interactions with one another.

  12. Multivariate Pattern Classification of Facial Expressions Based on Large-Scale Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin; Liu, Baolin; Li, Xianglin; Wang, Peiyuan

    2018-01-01

    It is an important question how human beings achieve efficient recognition of others' facial expressions in cognitive neuroscience, and it has been identified that specific cortical regions show preferential activation to facial expressions in previous studies. However, the potential contributions of the connectivity patterns in the processing of facial expressions remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study explored whether facial expressions could be decoded from the functional connectivity (FC) patterns using multivariate pattern analysis combined with machine learning algorithms (fcMVPA). We employed a block design experiment and collected neural activities while participants viewed facial expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness, and surprise). Both static and dynamic expression stimuli were included in our study. A behavioral experiment after scanning confirmed the validity of the facial stimuli presented during the fMRI experiment with classification accuracies and emotional intensities. We obtained whole-brain FC patterns for each facial expression and found that both static and dynamic facial expressions could be successfully decoded from the FC patterns. Moreover, we identified the expression-discriminative networks for the static and dynamic facial expressions, which span beyond the conventional face-selective areas. Overall, these results reveal that large-scale FC patterns may also contain rich expression information to accurately decode facial expressions, suggesting a novel mechanism, which includes general interactions between distributed brain regions, and that contributes to the human facial expression recognition.

  13. [An investigation of the imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder and their association with receptive-expressive language development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Figen; Ökçün Akçamuş, Meral Çilem

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, and age-matched typically developing children and children with developmental delay, as well as to examine the association between imitation skills, and receptive and expressive language development in children with autism spectrum disorder. Imitation skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (n=18), and age-matched children with developmental delay (n=15) and typically developing children (n= 16) were assessed using the Motor Imitation Scale and Imitation Battery, and the differences in mean imitation scores between the groups were examined. Receptive language and expressive language development in the children with autism spectrum disorder were assessed using the Turkish Communicative Development Inventory (TCDI), and their association with imitation scores was explored. The children with autism spectrum disorder had significantly lower imitation scores than the children with developmental delay and typically developing children; however, there wasn't a significant difference in imitation scores between the children with developmental delay and typically developing children. A significant association between imitation scores, and receptive and expressive language development was observed in the children with autism spectrum disorder. The present findings indicate that deficient imitation skills are a distinctive feature of children with autism spectrum disorder and that imitation skills play a crucial role in children's language development.

  14. Use of prosody and information structure in high functioning adults with Autism in relation to language ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie R DePape

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal prosody is a striking feature of the speech of those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, but previous reports suggest large variability among those with ASD. Here we show that part of this heterogeneity can be explained by level of language functioning. We recorded semi-spontaneous but controlled conversations in adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder and measured features related to pitch and duration to determine (1 general use of prosodic features, (2 prosodic use in relation to marking information structure, specifically, the emphasis of new information in a sentence (focus as opposed to information already given in the conversational context (topic, and (3 the relation between prosodic use and level of language function. We found that, compared to typical adults, those with ASD with high language functioning generally used a larger pitch range than controls but did not mark information structure, whereas those with moderate language functioning generally used a smaller pitch range than controls but marked information structure appropriately to a large extent. Both impaired general prosodic use and impaired marking of information structure would be expected to seriously impact social communication and thereby lead to increased difficulty in personal domains, such as making and keeping friendships, and in professional domains, such as competing for employment opportunities.

  15. Stimulus-Dominance Effects and Lateral Asymmetries for Language in Normal Subjects and in Patients with a Single Functional Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Marirosa; Marano, Elena; Viti, Marzia

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of language laterality by the dichotic fused-words test may be impaired by interference effects revealed by the dominant report of one member of the stimuli-pair. Stimulus-dominance and ear asymmetry were evaluated in normal population (48 subjects of both sex and handedness) and in 2 patients with a single functional hemisphere.…

  16. Specific Language Impairment and High Functioning Autism : Evidence for Distinct Etiologies and for Modularity of Grammar and Pragmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, A.; Schaeffer, J.C.; Perkins, L.; Dudley, R.; Gerard, J.; Hitczenko, K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether grammar and pragmatics are separate linguistic components, and whether children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) have similar or distinct etiologies. A group of 27 children with HFA aged 6-14, age and gender

  17. Article choice in children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; de Haan, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the choice between a definite and an indefinite article by children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). We carried out an elicited production task with 16 Dutch-speaking non-grammatically impaired children with HFA aged 6-13,

  18. Compiling the functional data-parallel language SaC for Microgrids of Self-Adaptive Virtual Processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grelck, C.; Herhut, S.; Jesshope, C.; Joslin, C.; Lankamp, M.; Scholz, S.-B.; Shafarenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results from compiling the high-level, functional and data-parallel programming language SaC into a novel multi-core design: Microgrids of Self-Adaptive Virtual Processors (SVPs). The side-effect free nature of SaC in conjunction with its data-parallel foundation make it an

  19. Elicited Imitation: A Vehicle for Assessing the Language Functioning Level of Echolalic Autistic Children. Final Report 53.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Gudrun

    The booklet discusses and reports on a study of elicited imitation as a vehicle for assessing the language-functioning level of echolalic autistic children. An historical overview is presented of the diagnosis of early infantile autism. The question of whether or not early infantile autism is a distinct syndrome is addressed. The theoretical and…

  20. Linguistic and Cognitive Abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment as Compared to Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Jeannette

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27 age-matched children with HFA, and a control group…

  1. Linguistic and other cognitive abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment as compared to children with High-Functioning Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27

  2. Right hemispheric language dominance in a right-handed male with a right frontal tumor shown by functional transcranial Doppler sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, A; Preibisch, C; Sure, U; Knake, S; Heinze, S; Krakow, K; Rosenow, F; Hamer, H M

    2006-02-01

    A 38-year-old, right-handed man with late-onset right frontal epilepsy due to a ganglioglioma and atypical right hemispheric language dominance is described. Language dominance was investigated with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD), and language localization with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During a word generation task, fTCD showed atypical right hemispheric language dominance, which was confirmed by fMRI using a semantic word comparison and a word stem completion task. This information helped to guide the resective procedure, which left the patient seizure-free and did not induce new deficits. Functional TCD appears to be a useful and reliable screening tool for determining hemispheric language dominance, even in patients with atypical language representation. Functional MRI may be used to confirm fTCD results and further localize eloquent cortex.

  3. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  4. Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-06-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

  5. Using conceptual metaphor and functional grammar to explore how language used in physics affects student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Etkina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists’ language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor. We hypothesize that students categorize concepts into ontological categories based on the grammatical structure of physicists’ language. We also hypothesize that students overextend and misapply conceptual metaphors in physicists’ speech and writing. Using our theory, we will show how, in some cases, we can explain student difficulties in quantum mechanics as difficulties with language.

  6. The Function of Language in Characterization: Dialectal Speech in the Animated Film Chicken Little

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Cupar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of language varieties by the main character in the animated film Chicken Little in English and Slovene. Both versions of the film are dubbed by professional actors and are aimed at a young target audience, children. The main intention of the article is to analyze the characteristics of Chicken Little’s speech in both languages, to compare the differences in the use of language varieties, and to evaluate the consequences of shifts in language use on the character and the story in the target language. The analysis is based on a transcript of the speech and enables comparison on four different levels: phonetics, morphology, syntax and vocabulary. The main focus is on the analysis of speech in the target language: Maribor regional colloquial language, with influence from the dialectal speech of Ruše. The main conditions influencing the use of certain language varieties are taken into consideration: the characteristics of the dubbing process, specifics of the target audience, and prevailing norms related to the use of language on television.

  7. Fuzzy Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahonis, George

    The theory of fuzzy recognizable languages over bounded distributive lattices is presented as a paradigm of recognizable formal power series. Due to the idempotency properties of bounded distributive lattices, the equality of fuzzy recognizable languages is decidable, the determinization of multi-valued automata is effective, and a pumping lemma exists. Fuzzy recognizable languages over finite and infinite words are expressively equivalent to sentences of the multi-valued monadic second-order logic. Fuzzy recognizability over bounded ℓ-monoids and residuated lattices is briefly reported. The chapter concludes with two applications of fuzzy recognizable languages to real world problems in medicine.

  8. Expression and function of survivin in canine osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeneman, Jenette K; Ehrhart, E J; Eickhoff, Jens C; Charles, J B; Powers, Barbara E; Thamm, Douglas H

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma has a high mortality rate and remains in need of more effective therapeutic approaches. Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis family member protein that blocks apoptosis and drives proliferation in human cancer cells where it is commonly elevated. In this study, we illustrate the superiority of a canine osteosarcoma model as a translational tool for evaluating survivin-directed therapies, owing to the striking similarities in gross and microscopic appearance, biologic behavior, gene expression, and signaling pathway alterations. Elevated survivin expression in primary canine osteosarcoma tissue correlated with increased histologic grade and mitotic index and a decreased disease-free interval (DFI). Survivin attenuation in canine osteosarcoma cells inhibited cell-cycle progression, increased apoptosis, mitotic arrest, and chemosensitivity, and cooperated with chemotherapy to significantly improve in vivo tumor control. Our findings illustrate the utility of a canine system to more accurately model human osteosarcoma and strongly suggest that survivin-directed therapies might be highly effective in its treatment. ©2011 AACR.

  9. Reliability of the Dutch-language version of the Communication Function Classification System and its association with language comprehension and method of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Zwart, Karlijn E; Geytenbeek, Joke J; de Kleijn, Maaike; Oostrom, Kim J; Gorter, Jan Willem; Hidecker, Mary Jo Cooley; Vermeulen, R Jeroen

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the intra- and interrater reliability of the Dutch-language version of the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS-NL) and to investigate the association between the CFCS level and (1) spoken language comprehension and (2) preferred method of communication in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were 93 children with CP (50 males, 43 females; mean age 7y, SD 2y 6mo, range 2y 9mo-12y 10mo; unilateral spastic [n=22], bilateral spastic [n=51], dyskinetic [n=15], ataxic [n=3], not specified [n=2]; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I [n=16], II [n=14], III, [n=7], IV [n=24], V [n=31], unknown [n=1]), recruited from rehabilitation centres throughout the Netherlands. Because some centres only contributed to part of the study, different numbers of participants are presented for different aspects of the study. Parents and speech and language therapists (SLTs) classified the communication level using the CFCS. Kappa was used to determine the intra- and interrater reliability. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between CFCS level and spoken language comprehension, and Fisher's exact test was used to examine the association between the CFCS level and method of communication. Interrater reliability of the CFCS-NL between parents and SLTs was fair (r=0.54), between SLTs good (r=0.78), and the intrarater (SLT) reliability very good (r=0.85). The association between the CFCS and spoken language comprehension was strong for SLTs (r=0.63) and moderate for parents (r=0.51). There was a statistically significant difference between the CFCS level and the preferred method of communication of the child (pcommunication in children with CP. Preferably, professionals should classify the child's CFCS level in collaboration with the parents to acquire the most comprehensive information about the everyday communication of the child in various situations both with familiar and

  10. Families' perception of children / adolescents with language impairment through the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF-CY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroschi, Daniele Theodoro; Zanolli, Maria de Lurdes; Chun, Regina Yu Shon

    2017-05-22

    To investigate the perception of family members regarding linguistic conditions and social participation of children and adolescents with speech and language impairments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). Quali-quantitative approach research, in which a survey of medical records of 24 children/adolescents undergoing speech-language therapy and interviews with their family members was conducted. A descriptive analysis of the participants' profiles was performed, followed by a categorization of responses using the ICF-CY. All family members mentioned various aspects of speech/language categorized by the ICF-CY. Initially, they approached it as an organic issue, categorized under the component of Body Functions and Structures. Most reported different repercussions of the speech-language impairments on the domains, such as dealing with stress and speaking, qualified from mild to severe. Participants reported Environmental Factors categorized as facilitators in the immediate family's attitudes and as barriers in the social attitudes. These findings, according to the use of the ICF-CY, demonstrate that the children/adolescents' speech-language impairments, from the families' perception, are primarily understood in the body dimension. However, guided by a broader approach to health, the findings in the Activities and Participation and Environmental Factors demonstrate a broader understanding of the participants of the speech-language impairments. The results corroborate the importance of using the ICF-CY as a health care analysis tool, by incorporating functionality and participation aspects and providing subsidies for the construction of unique therapeutic projects in a broader approach to the health of the group studied.

  11. LEXICAL UNITS STARTING WITH THE LETTERS «Б» AND «B» MATCHING IN THE PLANE OF EXPRESSION (BASED ON THE RUSSIAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Maria A. Ankudinova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to lexical units starting with the letters «б» and «b» matching in the plane of expression, based on the Russian and English languages. Lexical units were chosen by the random sampling method, were classified and analyzed, based on their spelling and pronunciation.

  12. Genome-wide identification, functional analysis and expression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuyou Fu

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... Key words: ABC transporter, potato, pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR), RNA-seq. INTRODUCTION ..... of relative transcript accumulation of each of 55 PDR genes as determined by RNA-seq analysis are presented as a heatmap, with ... specificities provide clues to the endogenous function of the individual ...

  13. Expression and functional analysis of apoptosis-related gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... conducted a molecular cloning and functional analysis to study a specific silkworm gene BmICAD related to apoptosis. .... blocking with 5% non-fat milk for 1 h at room temperature, the .... requirements for all next experiments.

  14. Study of liver function and expression of some detoxification genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmad Ali Badr

    2015-10-19

    Oct 19, 2015 ... In this study we investigate the effect(s) of MTBE on liver function indices and ... Methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline oxygenate, is added to ..... ether (MTBE) in CD-1 mice and F-344 rats. J Appl Toxicol.

  15. 'What is it?' A functional MRI and SPECT study of ictal speech in a second language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, V.; Chauvire, V.; Baulac, M.; Cohen, L. [Department of Neurology, AP-HP, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, IFR 70, Paris (France); Delmaire, Ch.; Lehericy, St. [Department of Neuroradiology, AP-HP, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, IFR 70, Paris (France); Habert, M.O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, AP-HP, Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, IFR 70, Paris (France); Footnick, R.; Pallier, Ch. [INSERM, U562, CEA/DSV, IFR 49, Orsay (France); Baulac, M.; Cohen, L. [Universite Paris VI, Faculte Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Neuronal networks involved in second language (L2) processing vary between normal subjects. Patients with epilepsy may have ictal speech automatisms in their second language. To delineate the brain systems involved in L2 ictal speech, we combined functional MRI during bilingual tasks and ictal - inter-ictal single-photon emission computed tomography in a patient who presented L2 ictal speech productions. These analyses showed that the networks activated by the seizure and those activated by L2 processing intersected in the right hippocampus. These results may provide some insights both into the pathophysiology of ictal speech and into the brain organization for L2. (authors)

  16. Beyond Language: Metaphor as an Expressive Resource in the Song of Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio R. Ruiz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of this paper is the old debate on which kind of interpretation is more appropriate for the Song of Songs, namely, literal or allegorical, and to what extent. Treating the poem as a literary work and letting it speak for itself, metaphor emerges as the main expressive resource referring to a multi-dimensional reality. The analysis of metaphor in the Song of Songs, based on selected samples, reveals highly developed metaphoric speech in the poem, with images accumulating and interacting in multiple, concurrent and mutually enriching levels of meaning. Behind this complex intertwining of metaphors there emerges the main referent for the book as a whole. Metaphor, then, appears as a particularly adequate means of articulating both anthropological and theological discourse.Key words: Song of Songs, Metaphor, Love.

  17. Functional expression and evaluation of heterologous phosphoketolases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Alexandra; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoketolases catalyze an energy-and redox-independent cleavage of certain sugar phosphates. Hereby, the two-carbon (C2) compound acetyl-phosphate is formed, which enzymatically can be converted into acetyl-CoA-a key precursor in central carbon metabolism. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does...... not demonstrate efficient phosphoketolase activity naturally. In this study, we aimed to compare and identify efficient heterologous phosphoketolase enzyme candidates that in yeast have the potential to reduce carbon loss compared to the native acetyl-CoA producing pathway by redirecting carbon flux directly from...... C5 and C6 sugars towards C2-synthesis. Nine phosphoketolase candidates were expressed in S. cerevisiae of which seven produced significant amounts of acetyl-phosphate after provision of sugar phosphate substrates in vitro. The candidates showed differing substrate specificities, and some...

  18. Computational analysis and functional expression of ancestral copepod luciferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yasuhiro; Noda-Ogura, Akiko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Gojobori, Takashi; Shigeri, Yasushi

    2013-10-10

    We recently reported the cDNA sequences of 11 copepod luciferases from the superfamily Augaptiloidea in the order Calanoida. They were classified into two groups, Metridinidae and Heterorhabdidae/Lucicutiidae families, by phylogenetic analyses. To elucidate the evolutionary processes, we have now further isolated 12 copepod luciferases from Augaptiloidea species (Metridia asymmetrica, Metridia curticauda, Pleuromamma scutullata, Pleuromamma xiphias, Lucicutia ovaliformis and Heterorhabdus tanneri). Codon-based synonymous/nonsynonymous tests of positive selection for 25 identified copepod luciferases suggested that positive Darwinian selection operated in the evolution of Heterorhabdidae luciferases, whereas two types of Metridinidae luciferases had diversified via neutral mechanism. By in silico analysis of the decoded amino acid sequences of 25 copepod luciferases, we inferred two protein sequences as ancestral copepod luciferases. They were expressed in HEK293 cells where they exhibited notable luciferase activity both in intracellular lysates and cultured media, indicating that the luciferase activity was established before evolutionary diversification of these copepod species. © 2013.

  19. Efficacy of the Direct Instruction Language for Learning (DI-LL) Program to Promote Expressive and Receptive Language in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Evaluator on PLP & CGI 1-3 Train staff on DOSL 1-3 Purchase child materials ( toys , stickers) 1-3 Purchase testing materials 1-3 Purchase DI-LL...been developed to address language delay including intensive treatment using applied behavior analysis (ABA). Although often effective for severe...to severe. Many interventions have been developed to address language delay including intensive treatment using applied behavior analysis (ABA

  20. Functional expression of an ajmaline pathway-specific esterase from Rauvolfia in a novel plant-virus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Martin; Woll, Jörn; Giritch, Anatoli; Genady, Ezzat; Ma, Xueyan; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2005-11-01

    Acetylajmalan esterase (AAE) plays an essential role in the late stage of ajmaline biosynthesis. Based on the partial peptide sequences of AAE isolated and purified from Rauvolfia cell suspensions, a full-length AAE cDNA clone was isolated. The amino acid sequence of AAE has the highest level of identity of 40% to putative lipases known from the Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. Based on the primary structure AAE is a new member of the GDSL lipase superfamily. The expression in Escherichia coli failed although a wide range of conditions were tested. With a novel virus-based plant expression system, it was possible to express AAE functionally in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana Domin. An extraordinarily high enzyme activity was detected in the Nicotiana tissue, which exceeded that in Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz cell suspension cultures about 20-fold. This expression allowed molecular analysis of AAE for the first time and increased the number of functionally expressed alkaloid genes from Rauvolfia now to eight, and the number of ajmaline pathway-specific cDNAs to a total of six.

  1. Intraoperative Mapping of Expressive Language Cortex Using Passive Real-Time Electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-26

    fMRI1. Introduction Precise localization of eloquent cortex facilitates optimal surgical outcomes in patients with tumors, epileptogenic foci, or vascular ... vascularized malignant tumors can alter cerebrovascular hemodynam- ics and BOLD patterns; hence, they may not accurately reflect eloquent cortical function...that of radiation necrosis potentiated by chemotherapy (that afflicts 2.5–5% of patients [53])? Our patient had undergone formal neuropsychiatric

  2. Literary Discussions and Advanced-Superior Speaking Functions in the Undergraduate Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darhower, Mark

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, researchers of foreign language pedagogy have become increasingly interested in the "language-literature divide" (Donato and Brooks 2004). The purpose of the current study is to contribute to this growing body of research by investigating the extent to which whole class discussions in three third-year…

  3. The Functional Organisation of the Fronto-Temporal Language System: Evidence from Syntactic and Semantic Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Longe, Olivia A.; Randall, Billi; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2010-01-01

    Spoken language comprehension is known to involve a large left-dominant network of fronto-temporal brain regions, but there is still little consensus about how the syntactic and semantic aspects of language are processed within this network. In an fMRI study, volunteers heard spoken sentences that contained either syntactic or semantic ambiguities…

  4. Using Conceptual Metaphor and Functional Grammar to Explore How Language Used in Physics Affects Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, David T.; Etkina, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces a theory about the role of language in learning physics. The theory is developed in the context of physics students and physicists talking and writing about the subject of quantum mechanics. We found that physicists' language encodes different varieties of analogical models through the use of grammar and conceptual metaphor.…

  5. Orthographic Transparency Modulates the Functional Asymmetry in the Fusiform Cortex: An Artificial Language Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Qinghua; Zhang, Mingxia; Xue, Feng; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The laterality difference in the occipitotemporal region between Chinese (bilaterality) and alphabetic languages (left laterality) has been attributed to their difference in visual appearance. However, these languages also differ in orthographic transparency. To disentangle the effect of orthographic transparency from visual appearance, we trained…

  6. Tense Marking and Spontaneous Speech Measures in Spanish Specific Language Impairment: A Discriminant Function Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, John; Baron, Alisa; Vega-Mendoza, Mariana; De la Mora, Juliana; Cantu-Sanchez, Myriam; Flores, Blanca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the proposal that the tense deficit that has been demonstrated for children with specific language impairment (SLI) in other languages is also found in child Spanish and that low performance on tense-related measures can distinguish Spanish-speaking children with SLI from those without. Method: The authors evaluated evidence from…

  7. Specific Cognitive Antecedents of Structures and Functions Involved in Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerk, Ernst L.

    1973-01-01

    The antecedents of verbal behavior, together with the teaching skills of the adult linguistic community, probably constitute all the necessary bases for language acquisition. As they seemed to be sufficient for the explanation of all the known phenomena, an assumption of an innate linguistic language acquisition device was rejected as superfluous.…

  8. Sex differences in handedness, asymmetry of the Planum Temporale and functional language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, Iris E.; Aleman, Andre; Somers, Metten; Boks, Marco P.; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have investigated sex differences in language lateralization. Despite the large number of investigations, controversy about the presence of sex differences in lateralization remains. This study aims to provide a complete overview of sex differences in several reflections of language

  9. Function, Type, and Distribution of Teacher Questions in Dual-Language Preschool Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gort, Mileidis; Pontier, Ryan W.; Sembiante, Sabrina F.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the nature and distribution of dual-language preschool teachers' questions across parallel Spanish- and English-medium read-aloud activities. The notions of comprehensible input (Krashen, 1985) and language output (Swain, 1985), along with a reciprocal interaction model of teaching (Cummins, 2000), guided our…

  10. Comparative functional expression of nAChR subtypes in rodent DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J; Hone, Arik J; Memon, Tosifa; Bossi, Simon; Smith, Thomas E; McIntosh, J Michael; Olivera, Baldomero M; Teichert, Russell W

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in heterogeneous populations of dissociated rat and mouse lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons by calcium imaging. By this experimental approach, it is possible to investigate the functional expression of multiple receptor and ion-channel subtypes across more than 100 neuronal and glial cells simultaneously. Based on nAChR expression, DRG neurons could be divided into four subclasses: (1) neurons that express predominantly α3β4 and α6β4 nAChRs; (2) neurons that express predominantly α7 nAChRs; (3) neurons that express a combination of α3β4/α6β4 and α7 nAChRs; and (4) neurons that do not express nAChRs. In this comparative study, the same four neuronal subclasses were observed in mouse and rat DRG. However, the expression frequency differed between species: substantially more rat DRG neurons were in the first three subclasses than mouse DRG neurons, at all developmental time points tested in our study. Approximately 70-80% of rat DRG neurons expressed functional nAChRs, in contrast to only ~15-30% of mouse DRG neurons. Our study also demonstrated functional coupling between nAChRs, voltage-gated calcium channels, and mitochondrial Ca(2) (+) transport in discrete subsets of DRG neurons. In contrast to the expression of nAChRs in DRG neurons, we demonstrated that a subset of non-neuronal DRG cells expressed muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and not nAChRs. The general approach to comparative cellular neurobiology outlined in this paper has the potential to better integrate molecular and systems neuroscience by uncovering the spectrum of neuronal subclasses present in a given cell population and the functionally integrated signaling components expressed in each subclass.

  11. Finding One's Path into Another Language: On the Expression of Boundary Crossing by English Learners of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Henriette; Hickmann, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Languages vary considerably in how they represent motion. One major source of variation (Talmy, 2000) depends on whether linguistic systems lexicalize path in the verb (verb-framed languages) or in satellites (satellite-framed languages). This typological difference involves more than different verb types in that it also affects elements outside…

  12. Executive functions, oral language and writing in preschool children: Development and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita de Cassia Batista Pazeto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Executive functions (EF and oral language (OL are important for learning reading and writing (RW and for the development of other skills in preschool. The study investigated the progression and the relationships between the performances in these competences in pre-schoolers. Participants were 90 children, mean age 4.91 years, students from Kindergarten years I and II of a private school in SP, assessed, individually, with a battery with nine instruments for EF, OL, and RW. There was increase of the performances as a result of educational level for all OL and RW measures, but only for attention in the field of EF. Significant correlations were found between the measurements assessing the same cognitive domain, as well as inter-domain, although portraying a different pattern. The results indicate that OL and RW seem to develop rapidly in the course of preschool, while the EF have slower development. The fields of OL and RW, EF and RW are more interdependent, and EF and OL are relatively independent.

  13. Language-related differential item functioning between English and German PROMIS Depression items is negligible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, H Felix; Wahl, Inka; Nolte, Sandra; Liegl, Gregor; Brähler, Elmar; Löwe, Bernd; Rose, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    To investigate differential item functioning (DIF) of PROMIS Depression items between US and German samples we compared data from the US PROMIS calibration sample (n = 780), a German general population survey (n = 2,500) and a German clinical sample (n = 621). DIF was assessed in an ordinal logistic regression framework, with 0.02 as criterion for R 2 -change and 0.096 for Raju's non-compensatory DIF. Item parameters were initially fixed to the PROMIS Depression metric; we used plausible values to account for uncertainty in depression estimates. Only four items showed DIF. Accounting for DIF led to negligible effects for the full item bank as well as a post hoc simulated computer-adaptive test (German general population sample was considerably lower compared to the US reference value of 50. Overall, we found little evidence for language DIF between US and German samples, which could be addressed by either replacing the DIF items by items not showing DIF or by scoring the short form in German samples with the corrected item parameters reported. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.; James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm 3 ) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm 3 ) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  15. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu [Government Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra, Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [SCTIMST, Department of Imaging Science and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm{sup 3}) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm{sup 3}) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  16. A Natural Language Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Sodiya, Adesina Simon

    2007-01-01

    Natural languages are the latest generation of programming languages, which require processing real human natural expressions. Over the years, several groups or researchers have trying to develop widely accepted natural language languages based on artificial intelligence (AI). But no true natural language has been developed. The goal of this work is to design a natural language preprocessing architecture that identifies and accepts programming instructions or sentences in their natural forms ...

  17. AKIP1 expression modulates mitochondrial function in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Yu

    Full Text Available A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1 is a molecular regulator of protein kinase A and nuclear factor kappa B signalling. Recent evidence suggests AKIP1 is increased in response to cardiac stress, modulates acute ischemic stress response, and is localized to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. The mitochondrial function of AKIP1 is, however, still elusive. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial function of AKIP1 in a neonatal cardiomyocyte model of phenylephrine (PE-induced hypertrophy. Using a seahorse flux analyzer we show that PE stimulated the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR in cardiomyocytes. This was partially dependent on PE mediated AKIP1 induction, since silencing of AKIP1 attenuated the increase in OCR. Interestingly, AKIP1 overexpression alone was sufficient to stimulate mitochondrial OCR and in particular ATP-linked OCR. This was also true when pyruvate was used as a substrate, indicating that it was independent of glycolytic flux. The increase in OCR was independent of mitochondrial biogenesis, changes in ETC density or altered mitochondrial membrane potential. In fact, the respiratory flux was elevated per amount of ETC, possibly through enhanced ETC coupling. Furthermore, overexpression of AKIP1 reduced and silencing of AKIP1 increased mitochondrial superoxide production, suggesting that AKIP1 modulates the efficiency of electron flux through the ETC. Together, this suggests that AKIP1 overexpression improves mitochondrial function to enhance respiration without excess superoxide generation, thereby implicating a role for AKIP1 in mitochondrial stress adaptation. Upregulation of AKIP1 during different forms of cardiac stress may therefore be an adaptive mechanism to protect the heart.

  18. Functional clustering of time series gene expression data by Granger causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A common approach for time series gene expression data analysis includes the clustering of genes with similar expression patterns throughout time. Clustered gene expression profiles point to the joint contribution of groups of genes to a particular cellular process. However, since genes belong to intricate networks, other features, besides comparable expression patterns, should provide additional information for the identification of functionally similar genes. Results In this study we perform gene clustering through the identification of Granger causality between and within sets of time series gene expression data. Granger causality is based on the idea that the cause of an event cannot come after its consequence. Conclusions This kind of analysis can be used as a complementary approach for functional clustering, wherein genes would be clustered not solely based on their expression similarity but on their topological proximity built according to the intensity of Granger causality among them. PMID:23107425

  19. The use of language to express thermal sensation suggests heat acclimatization by Indonesian people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochihara, Yutaka; Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Bakri, Ilham; Parsons, Ken

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether there is evidence of heat acclimatization in the words used to express thermal sensation. A total of 458 urban Japanese and 601 Indonesians participated in a questionnaire. In addition, in a preliminary survey, 39 native English speakers in the UK participated. Our results showed that (1) for Indonesians, the closest thermal descriptor of a feeling of thermal comfort was `cool' (75%) followed by `slightly cool' (7%), `slightly cold' (5%) and `cold' (5%), while Japanese responses were distributed uniformly among descriptors `cool', `slightly cool', `neither', `slightly warm', and `warm'; (2) the closest thermal descriptors of a feeling of discomfort for Indonesians were less affected by individual thermal susceptibility (vulnerability) than those for Japanese; (3) in the cases where `cool' and `slightly cold' were imagined in the mind, the descriptors were cognized as a thermal comfortable feeling by 97% and 57% of Indonesians, respectively; (4) the most frequently voted choice endorsing hot weather was `higher than 32°C' for Indonesians and `higher than 29°C' for Japanese respondents; for cold weather, `lower than 15°C' for Japanese and `lower than 20°C' for Indonesians. In summary, the descriptor `cool' in Indonesians connotes a thermally comfortable feeling, but the inter-zone between hot and cold weather that was judged in the mind showed a upward shift when compared to that of Japanese. It is suggested that linguistic heat acclimatization exists on a cognitive level for Indonesians and is preserved in the words of thermal descriptors.

  20. THE COGNITIVE FUNCTION OF THE LANGUAGE AS A NEUTRALIZER OF INTERLINGUAL ASYMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Tazretovna Kalabekova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an attempt to show that the comparative-typological researches, conducted in the framework of closely related languages and at the level of unrelated langua-ges, reveal the irrefutable fact that, first of all, the system features of a single natural language lie in the basis of all the differences (lexical, semantic and syntactic. The neutralizer of the interlingual asymmetry that inevitably appears between the compared linguistic systems becomes a cognitive approach to language learning. It may be illustrated by some discrepancies between the French