WorldWideScience

Sample records for expression program underlying

  1. Activity-Dependent NPAS4 Expression and the Regulation of Gene Programs Underlying Plasticity in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Maya-Vetencourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of the brain to change functionally in response to sensory experience is most active during early stages of development but it decreases later in life when major alterations of neuronal network structures no longer take place in response to experience. This view has been recently challenged by experimental strategies based on the enhancement of environmental stimulation levels, genetic manipulations, and pharmacological treatments, which all have demonstrated that the adult brain retains a degree of plasticity that allows for a rewiring of neuronal circuitries over the entire life course. A hot spot in the field of neuronal plasticity centres on gene programs that underlie plastic phenomena in adulthood. Here, I discuss the role of the recently discovered neuronal-specific and activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 as a critical mediator of plasticity in the nervous system. A better understanding of how modifications in the connectivity of neuronal networks occur may shed light on the treatment of pathological conditions such as brain damage or disease in adult life, some of which were once considered untreatable.

  2. 75 FR 473 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Community Express Pilot Program in its current form through December 31, 2010. Based upon the...

  3. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of short-term extension and termination of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice announces the termination of the Community Express Pilot Program following a...

  4. Deriving Trading Rules Using Gene Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian VISOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents how buy and sell trading rules are generated using gene expression programming with special setup. Market concepts are presented and market analysis is discussed with emphasis on technical analysis and quantitative methods. The use of genetic algorithms in deriving trading rules is presented. Gene expression programming is applied in a form where multiple types of operators and operands are used. This gives birth to multiple gene contexts and references between genes in order to keep the linear structure of the gene expression programming chromosome. The setup of multiple gene contexts is presented. The case study shows how to use the proposed gene setup to derive trading rules encoded by Boolean expressions, using a dataset with the reference exchange rates between the Euro and the Romanian leu. The conclusions highlight the positive results obtained in deriving useful trading rules.

  5. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  6. Peak flood estimation using gene expression programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorn, Conrad R.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2015-12-01

    As a case study for the Auckland Region of New Zealand, this paper investigates the potential use of gene-expression programming (GEP) in predicting specific return period events in comparison to the established and widely used Regional Flood Estimation (RFE) method. Initially calibrated to 14 gauged sites, the GEP derived model was further validated to 10 and 100 year flood events with a relative errors of 29% and 18%, respectively. This is compared to the RFE method providing 48% and 44% errors for the same flood events. While the effectiveness of GEP in predicting specific return period events is made apparent, it is argued that the derived equations should be used in conjunction with those existing methodologies rather than as a replacement.

  7. Automated discovery of functional generality of human gene expression programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K Gerber

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-kappaB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal

  8. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  9. 20 CFR 701.401 - Coverage under state compensation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coverage under state compensation programs...; DEFINITIONS AND USE OF TERMS Coverage Under State Compensation Programs § 701.401 Coverage under state compensation programs. (a) Exclusions from the definition of “employee” under § 701.301(a)(12), and the...

  10. Emotion Unchained: Facial Expression Modulates Gaze Cueing under Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchinenda, Anna; Petrucci, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Direction of eye gaze cues spatial attention, and typically this cueing effect is not modulated by the expression of a face unless top-down processes are explicitly or implicitly involved. To investigate the role of cognitive control on gaze cueing by emotional faces, participants performed a gaze cueing task with happy, angry, or neutral faces under high (i.e., counting backward by 7) or low cognitive load (i.e., counting forward by 2). Results show that high cognitive load enhances gaze cueing effects for angry facial expressions. In addition, cognitive load reduces gaze cueing for neutral faces, whereas happy facial expressions and gaze affected object preferences regardless of load. This evidence clearly indicates a differential role of cognitive control in processing gaze direction and facial expression, suggesting that under typical conditions, when we shift attention based on social cues from another person, cognitive control processes are used to reduce interference from emotional information.

  11. Gene expression programming for power system static security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: static security, gene expression programming, probabilistic neural network ... Hence digital computers are usually installed in operations control centers to gather ...... power system protection, and applications of AI in power systems.

  12. Multiobjective optimization in Gene Expression Programming for Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Siddharth; Dabhi, Vipul

    2013-01-01

    The processes occurring in climatic change evolution and their variations play a major role in environmental engineering. Different techniques are used to model the relationship between temperatures, dew point and relative humidity. Gene expression programming is capable of modelling complex realities with great accuracy, allowing, at the same time, the extraction of knowledge from the evolved models compared to other learning algorithms. This research aims to use Gene Expression Programming ...

  13. CRISPR Perturbation of Gene Expression Alters Bacterial Fitness under Stress and Reveals Underlying Epistatic Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoupal, Peter B; Erickson, Keesha E; Escalas-Bordoy, Antoni; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2017-01-20

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance has engendered an impending global health crisis that necessitates a greater understanding of how resistance emerges. The impact of nongenetic factors and how they influence the evolution of resistance is a largely unexplored area of research. Here we present a novel application of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for investigating how gene expression governs the adaptive pathways available to bacteria during the evolution of resistance. We examine the impact of gene expression changes on bacterial adaptation by constructing a library of deactivated CRISPR-Cas9 synthetic devices to tune the expression of a set of stress-response genes in Escherichia coli. We show that artificially inducing perturbations in gene expression imparts significant synthetic control over fitness and growth during stress exposure. We present evidence that these impacts are reversible; strains with synthetically perturbed gene expression regained wild-type growth phenotypes upon stress removal, while maintaining divergent growth characteristics under stress. Furthermore, we demonstrate a prevailing trend toward negative epistatic interactions when multiple gene perturbations are combined simultaneously, thereby posing an intrinsic constraint on gene expression underlying adaptive trajectories. Together, these results emphasize how CRISPR-Cas9 can be employed to engineer gene expression changes that shape bacterial adaptation, and present a novel approach to synthetically control the evolution of antimicrobial resistance.

  14. Low-dose radiation suppresses Pokemon expression under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Whan; Yu, Kweon; Shin, Kee-Sun; Kwon, Kisang; Hwang, Tae-Sik; Kwon, O-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Our previous data demonstrated that CoCl2-induced hypoxia controls endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated and other intracellular factors. One of them, the transcription factor Pokemon, was differentially regulated by low-dose radiation (LDR). There are limited data regarding how this transcription factor is involved in expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) under hypoxic conditions. The purpose of this study was to obtain clues on how Pokemon is involved in the UPR. Pokemon was selected as a differentially expressed gene under hypoxic conditions; however, its regulation was clearly repressed by LDR. It was also demonstrated that both expression of ER chaperones and ER stress sensors were affected by hypoxic conditions, and the same results were obtained when cells in which Pokemon was up- or down-regulated were used. The current state of UPR and LDR research associated with the Pokemon pathway offers an important opportunity to understand the oncogenesis, senescence, and differentiation of cells, as well as to facilitate introduction of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.

  15. Underlying chemistry research for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Sagert, N.H.; Shoesmith, D.W.; Taylor, P.

    1984-04-01

    This document reviews the underlying chemistry research part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, carried out in the Research Chemistry Branch. This research is concerned with developing the basic chemical knowledge and under-standing required in other parts of the Program. There are four areas of underlying research: Waste Form Chemistry, Solute and Solution Chemistry, Rock-Water-Waste Interactions, and Abatement and Monitoring of Gas-Phase Radionuclides

  16. On the Expressive Power of Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank D.

    2002-01-01

    The tcc paradigm is a formalism for timed concurrent constraint programming. Several tcc languages differing in their way of expressing infinite behavior have been proposed in the literature. In this paper we study the expressive power of some of these languages. In particular, we show that: (1......) recursive procedures with parameters can be encoded into parameterless recursive procedures with dynamic scoping, and viceversa. (2) replication can be encoded into parameterless recursive procedures with static scoping, and viceversa. (3) the languages from (1) are strictly more expressive than...

  17. Expression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity hexose transporter STP13 correlates with programmed cell death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Morten Helge Hauberg; Nour-Eldin, Hussam H; Brodersen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GFP expression only in the vascular tissue in emerging petals under non-stressed conditions. Quantitative PCR and the pSTP13-GFP plants show induction of STP13 in programmed cell death (PCD) obtained by treatments with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1 and the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. A role for STP...

  18. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS...

  19. Evolution of the Air Toxics under the Big Sky Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Nancy; Vanek, Diana; Hester, Carolyn; Holian, Andrij; Ward, Tony; Adams, Earle; Knuth, Randy

    2011-01-01

    As a yearlong exploration of air quality and its relation to respiratory health, the "Air Toxics Under the Big Sky" program offers opportunities for students to learn and apply science process skills through self-designed inquiry-based research projects conducted within their communities. The program follows a systematic scope and sequence…

  20. Rubisco activity and gene expression of tropical tree species under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Young

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Proteomics analysis associated with gene expression of plants reveal .... Consequently, Rubisco enzyme plays a role in assi- milating into ... technique for examining gene expression encoded at the. mRNA level .... Ammonia.

  1. 3D Facial Landmarking under Expression, Pose, and Occlusion Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dibeklioğ lu; A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); L. Akarun

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomatic localization of 3D facial features is important for face recognition, tracking, modeling and expression analysis. Methods developed for 2D images were shown to have problems working across databases acquired with different illumination conditions. Expression variations, pose

  2. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  3. Quality Assurance Plans under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Assurance Plan or (QAP) is a voluntary program where independent third-parties may audit and verify that RINs have been properly generated and are valid for compliance purposes. RINs verified under a QAP may be purchased by regulated parties.

  4. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program (1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The summary reports of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1992 are included. In this report, 104 summaries of researches using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and 9 summaries of the researches using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) are collected. (J.P.N.)

  5. Alternative Renewable Biomass Tracking Program Document under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The approval letters that EPA approves a company's biomass tracking program meeting all the requirements outlined in 40 CFR part 80.1454, including elements determined necessary to achieve the level of quality assurance required under the regulation list.

  6. Is expressive timing relational invariant under tempo transformation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study is concerned with examining the relation between tempo and expressive timing in music performance. This was investigated by asking listeners (N = 307) to distinguish between an original recording and a tempo-transformed version in a musical genre of their preference (jazz or

  7. Cloning and mRNA expression pattern analysis under low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research cloned endochitinase-antifreeze protein precursor (EAPP) gene of Dong-mu 70 rye (Secale cereale) by designing special primers according to Genbank's EAPP gene sequence, and analyzing the influence of low temperature stress on the expression of mRNA with RT-PCR. The results indicated that the ...

  8. Sufficiency and Duality for Multiobjective Programming under New Invexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of multiobjective programming problems including inequality constraints is considered. To this aim, some new concepts of generalized F,P-type I and F,P-type II functions are introduced in the differentiable assumption by using the sublinear function F. These new functions are used to establish and prove the sufficient optimality conditions for weak efficiency or efficiency of the multiobjective programming problems. Moreover, two kinds of dual models are formulated. The weak dual, strong dual, and strict converse dual results are obtained under the aforesaid functions.

  9. Differential Gene Expression of Longan Under Simulated Acid Rain Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Pan, Tengfei; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2017-05-01

    Differential gene expression profile was studied in Dimocarpus longan Lour. in response to treatments of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 3.5, and a control (pH 5.6) using differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR). Results showed that mRNA differential display conditions were optimized to find an expressed sequence tag (EST) related with acid rain stress. The potential encoding products had 80% similarity with a transcription initiation factor IIF of Gossypium raimondii and 81% similarity with a protein product of Theobroma cacao. This fragment is the transcription factor activated by second messenger substances in longan leaves after signal perception of acid rain.

  10. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Trichoderma afroharzianum LTR-2 under oxalic acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuping; Wu, Xiaoqing; Ren, He; Zhou, Fangyuan; Zhou, Hongzi; Zhang, Xinjian; Yang, Hetong

    2017-10-01

    An appropriate reference gene is required to get reliable results from gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). In order to identify stable and reliable reference genes in Trichoderma afroharzianum under oxalic acid (OA) stress, six commonly used housekeeping genes, i.e., elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, α-tubulin, actin, from the effective biocontrol isolate T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 were tested for their expression during growth in liquid culture amended with OA. Four in silico programs (comparative ΔCt, NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper) were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of six candidate reference genes. The elongation factor 1 gene EF-1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and was used as the normalizer to quantify the expression level of the oxalate decarboxylase coding gene OXDC in T. afroharzianum strain LTR-2 under OA stress. The result showed that the expression of OXDC was significantly up-regulated as expected. This study provides an effective method to quantify expression changes of target genes in T. afroharzianum under OA stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. System for face recognition under expression variations of neutral-sampled individuals using recognized expression warping and a virtual expression-face database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petpairote, Chayanut; Madarasmi, Suthep; Chamnongthai, Kosin

    2018-01-01

    The practical identification of individuals using facial recognition techniques requires the matching of faces with specific expressions to faces from a neutral face database. A method for facial recognition under varied expressions against neutral face samples of individuals via recognition of expression warping and the use of a virtual expression-face database is proposed. In this method, facial expressions are recognized and the input expression faces are classified into facial expression groups. To aid facial recognition, the virtual expression-face database is sorted into average facial-expression shapes and by coarse- and fine-featured facial textures. Wrinkle information is also employed in classification by using a process of masking to adjust input faces to match the expression-face database. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method using the CMU multi-PIE, Cohn-Kanade, and AR expression-face databases, and we find that it provides significantly improved results in terms of face recognition accuracy compared to conventional methods and is acceptable for facial recognition under expression variation.

  12. Are facial expressions of emotion produced by categorical affect programs or dynamically driven by appraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Klaus R; Ellgring, Heiner

    2007-02-01

    The different assumptions made by discrete and componential emotion theories about the nature of the facial expression of emotion and the underlying mechanisms are reviewed. Explicit and implicit predictions are derived from each model. It is argued that experimental expression-production paradigms rather than recognition studies are required to critically test these differential predictions. Data from a large-scale actor portrayal study are reported to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The frequencies with which 12 professional actors use major facial muscle actions individually and in combination to express 14 major emotions show little evidence for emotion-specific prototypical affect programs. Rather, the results encourage empirical investigation of componential emotion model predictions of dynamic configurations of appraisal-driven adaptive facial actions. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  14. Freedom of expression in Azerbaijan under test : challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Madatli, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the ground-breaking judgment in Fatullayev v Azerbaijan in which the European Court ordered the immediate release of imprisoned journalist Eynulla Fatullayev, but who at the time of going to press nevertheless remained in custody. Fatullayev was the founder and chief editor of two newspapers in Azerbaijan well known for their harsh criticism of the Azerbaijani Government. This judgment is of great importance for Azerbaijan as it addresses topical issues under Art.10 ECH...

  15. 48 CFR 227.7204 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovative Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovative Research Program. 227.7204 Section 227.7204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... under the Small Business Innovative Research Program. When contracting under the Small Business Innovative Research Program, follow the procedures at 227-7104. ...

  16. Induction of a program gene expression during osteoblast differentiation with strontium ranelate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lingling; Zaidi, Samir; Peng Yuanzhen; Zhou Hang; Moonga, Baljit S.; Blesius, Alexia; Dupin-Roger, Isabelle; Zaidi, Mone; Sun Li

    2007-01-01

    Strontium ranelate, a new agent for the treatment of osteoporosis, has been shown stimulate bone formation in various experimental models. This study examines the effect of strontium ranelate on gene expression in osteoblasts, as well as the formation of mineralized (von Kossa-positive) colony-forming unit-osteoblasts (CFU-obs). Bone marrow-derived stromal cells cultured for 21 days under differentiating conditions, when exposed to strontium ranelate, displayed a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the expression of the master gene, Runx2, as well as bone sialoprotein (BSP), but interestingly without effects on osteocalcin. This was associated with a significant increase in the formation of CFU-obs at day 21 of culture. In U-33 pre-osteoblastic cells, strontium ranelate significantly enhanced the expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin, but not BSP. Late, more mature osteoblastic OB-6 cells showed significant elevations in BSP and osteocalcin, but with only minimal effects on Runx2. In conclusion, strontium ranelate stimulates osteoblast differentiation, but the induction of the program of gene expression appears to be cell type-specific. The increased osteoblastic differentiation is the likely basis underlying the therapeutic bone-forming actions of strontium ranelate

  17. Inexact Multistage Stochastic Chance Constrained Programming Model for Water Resources Management under Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to formulate water allocation schemes under uncertainties in the water resources management systems, an inexact multistage stochastic chance constrained programming (IMSCCP model is proposed. The model integrates stochastic chance constrained programming, multistage stochastic programming, and inexact stochastic programming within a general optimization framework to handle the uncertainties occurring in both constraints and objective. These uncertainties are expressed as probability distributions, interval with multiply distributed stochastic boundaries, dynamic features of the long-term water allocation plans, and so on. Compared with the existing inexact multistage stochastic programming, the IMSCCP can be used to assess more system risks and handle more complicated uncertainties in water resources management systems. The IMSCCP model is applied to a hypothetical case study of water resources management. In order to construct an approximate solution for the model, a hybrid algorithm, which incorporates stochastic simulation, back propagation neural network, and genetic algorithm, is proposed. The results show that the optimal value represents the maximal net system benefit achieved with a given confidence level under chance constraints, and the solutions provide optimal water allocation schemes to multiple users over a multiperiod planning horizon.

  18. Utilization program of HANARO under IMF situation in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Oong; Kuk, Il Hiun; Chae, Sung Ki; Sohn, Jae Min

    1999-01-01

    Some of utilization facilities in HANARO are still being installed and among them CNS and FTL are yet in the design stage. This kind of situation in HANARO was mainly caused by the shortage of total budget of the reactor project during the period of reactor construction (1985 ∼ 1994). Installation of remaining utilization facilities to be equipped after HANARO construction had to rely on the resources of the long-term nuclear R and D program. The program commenced in 1992 with the 10-year implementation plan. It stipulates to be revised every 5 years in order to reflect changing national and international nuclear circumstances. The original nuclear R and D program (1992 ∼ 2001) set up in 1992 was amended in 1997 to establish nuclear policy infrastructure and to strengthen technological self-reliance in nuclear power. In this amended long-term nuclear R and D program (1997 ∼ 2006), full scope of utilization facility in HANARO was accommodated. However, economical difficulty befell to Korea from the end of 1997 and every social structure in Korea had to be reshaped with top priority of productivity base. Every industrial sector was desperately striving to cope with the financial difficulty by utilizing maximum production efficiency and by minimizing other functions or activities, which are not directly related to production activity. Even though nationwide endeavor strenuously to get over the economical difficulty, the government had to be supported from IMF (International Monetary Fund). Under the IMF situation in Korea, the nuclear R and D program must be adjusted due to cut-down of research fund from the government. Consequently utilization facility of HANARO is to be evaluated based on the users' program and their requirements. According to the evaluation results from the users' conditions, among the HANARO utilization facilities the first priority is pointed to be RI production facility, the second is to be neutron scattering facility, the third to be fuel

  19. Differential gene expression underlying ovarian phenotype determination in honey bee, Apis mellifera L., caste development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Denyse Cavalcante; Humann, Fernanda Carvalho; Barchuk, Angel Roberto; Abraham, Kuruvilla Joseph; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    Adult honey bee queens and workers drastically differ in ovary size. This adult ovary phenotype difference becomes established during the final larval instar, when massive programmed cell death leads to the degeneration of 95-99% of the ovariole anlagen in workers. The higher juvenile hormone (JH) levels in queen larvae protect the ovaries against such degeneration. To gain insights into the molecular architecture underlying this divergence critical for adult caste fate and worker sterility, we performed a microarray analysis on fourth and early fifth instar queen and worker ovaries. For the fourth instar we found nine differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with log 2 FC > 1.0, but this number increased to 56 in early fifth-instar ovaries. We selected 15 DEGs for quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. Nine differed significantly by the variables caste and/or development. Interestingly, genes with enzyme functions were higher expressed in workers, while those related to transcription and signaling had higher transcript levels in queens. For the RT-qPCR confirmed genes we analyzed their response to JH. This revealed a significant up-regulation for two genes, a short chain dehydrogenase reductase (sdr) and a heat shock protein 90 (hsp90). Five other genes, including hsp60 and hexamerin 70b (hex70b), were significantly down-regulated by JH. The sdr gene had previously come up as differentially expressed in other transcriptome analyses on honey bee larvae and heat shock proteins are frequently involved in insect hormone responses, this making them interesting candidates for further functional assays. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. 26 CFR 1.127-1 - Amounts received under a qualified educational assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee under a qualified educational assistance program described in § 1.127-2, or (2) The value of... Income § 1.127-1 Amounts received under a qualified educational assistance program. (a) Exclusion from.... (c) Amounts received under a nonqualified program. Any amount received under an educational...

  1. The expression of GFP under the control of fibroin promotor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). The expression vector (pGFP-N2/Fib) was constructed by use of replacing the CMV promoter with the fibroin promoter. The results of visual screening under a fluorescent inverted microscope and Western blot analysis indicated that the GFP gene was expressed in ...

  2. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report is published any time by summarizing in the form of an interim report the data required for research and experiment such as the results of the functional test on various experimental facilities, the test results of the products manufactured for trial, the state of radiation control and waste management, and the report of study meetings in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, the conspicuous results obtained halfway in research, new techniques, discussion on other papers and reports and others. In this report, the gists of 71 papers on the research activities under visiting research program performed in the second half of 1984 are collected, and the subject number, the title of research reporters, and the summary of report for each research are given. (Kako, I.)

  3. Identifying Regulatory Patterns at the 3'end Regions of Over-expressed and Under-expressed Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Othoum, Ghofran K

    2013-05-01

    Promoters, neighboring regulatory regions and those extending further upstream of the 5’end of genes, are considered one of the main components affecting the expression status of genes in a specific phenotype. More recently research by Chen et al. (2006, 2012) and Mapendano et al. (2010) demonstrated that the 3’end regulatory regions of genes also influence gene expression. However, the association between the regulatory regions surrounding 3’end of genes and their over- or under-expression status in a particular phenotype has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to ascertain if regulatory regions surrounding the 3’end of genes contain sufficient regulatory information to correlate genes with their expression status in a particular phenotype. Over- and under-expressed ovarian cancer (OC) genes were used as a model. Exploratory analysis of the 3’end regions were performed by transforming the annotated regions using principal component analysis (PCA), followed by clustering the transformed data thereby achieving a clear separation of genes with different expression status. Additionally, several classification algorithms such as Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were tested with different parameter settings to analyze the discriminatory capacity of the 3’end regions of genes related to their gene expression status. The best performance was achieved using the SVM classification model with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 98.4%, sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 92.5%. For gene expression status for newly available instances, based on information derived from the 3’end regions, an SVM predictive model was developed with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 67.0%, sensitivity of 73.2% and specificity of 61.0%. Moreover, building an SVM with polynomial kernel model to PCA transformed data yielded an accuracy of 83.1%, sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 74.8% using

  4. Identifying Regulatory Patterns at the 3'end Regions of Over-expressed and Under-expressed Genes

    KAUST Repository

    Othoum, Ghofran K

    2013-01-01

    Promoters, neighboring regulatory regions and those extending further upstream of the 5’end of genes, are considered one of the main components affecting the expression status of genes in a specific phenotype. More recently research by Chen et al. (2006, 2012) and Mapendano et al. (2010) demonstrated that the 3’end regulatory regions of genes also influence gene expression. However, the association between the regulatory regions surrounding 3’end of genes and their over- or under-expression status in a particular phenotype has not been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to ascertain if regulatory regions surrounding the 3’end of genes contain sufficient regulatory information to correlate genes with their expression status in a particular phenotype. Over- and under-expressed ovarian cancer (OC) genes were used as a model. Exploratory analysis of the 3’end regions were performed by transforming the annotated regions using principal component analysis (PCA), followed by clustering the transformed data thereby achieving a clear separation of genes with different expression status. Additionally, several classification algorithms such as Naïve Bayes, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were tested with different parameter settings to analyze the discriminatory capacity of the 3’end regions of genes related to their gene expression status. The best performance was achieved using the SVM classification model with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 98.4%, sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 92.5%. For gene expression status for newly available instances, based on information derived from the 3’end regions, an SVM predictive model was developed with 10-fold cross-validation that yielded an accuracy of 67.0%, sensitivity of 73.2% and specificity of 61.0%. Moreover, building an SVM with polynomial kernel model to PCA transformed data yielded an accuracy of 83.1%, sensitivity of 92.5% and specificity of 74.8% using

  5. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report contains summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995 carried out in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University in 1995. As cooperative activities of KUR, 9 projects and 91 ordinary researches are described in their summaries, with 10 ordinary researches in KUCA cooperative activities. Titles of the 9 projects are development of biological effect analysis of monochromatic neutron spectrum field, study on optimization of bottle condition in ultra cold neutron fission experiment, feature improvement of KUR-ISOL and nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear physics using it, fundamental study on development of new compound for thermal neutron trapping therapy and expansion of its adopting illness, study on properties of synthetic metal using nuclear procedure, neutron diffraction of magnetic substances under the extreme conditions (high pressure, high magnetic field), study on movement in environment of harmful substances, fundamental study on radiation protection against controllable radiation in KUR, and dynamic property study of metal materials using low speed neutron scattering method. (G.K.)

  6. Identification of differentially expressed genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under saline-alkaline stress by digital gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Huang, Wengong; Chen, Hongyu; Wu, Guangwen; Yuan, Hongmei; Song, Xixia; Kang, Qinghua; Zhao, Dongsheng; Jiang, Weidong; Liu, Yan; Wu, Jianzhong; Cheng, Lili; Yao, Yubo; Guan, Fengzhi

    2014-10-01

    The salinization and alkalization of soil are widespread environmental problems, and alkaline salt stress is more destructive than neutral salt stress. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to saline-alkaline stress has become a major challenge. However, little attention has been paid to the mechanism of plant alkaline salt tolerance. In this study, gene expression profiling of flax was analyzed under alkaline-salt stress (AS2), neutral salt stress (NSS) and alkaline stress (AS) by digital gene expression. Three-week-old flax seedlings were placed in 25 mM Na2CO3 (pH11.6) (AS2), 50mM NaCl (NSS) and NaOH (pH11.6) (AS) for 18 h. There were 7736, 1566 and 454 differentially expressed genes in AS2, NSS and AS compared to CK, respectively. The GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that photosynthesis was particularly affected in AS2, carbohydrate metabolism was particularly affected in NSS, and the response to biotic stimulus was particularly affected in AS. We also analyzed the expression pattern of five categories of genes including transcription factors, signaling transduction proteins, phytohormones, reactive oxygen species proteins and transporters under these three stresses. Some key regulatory gene families involved in abiotic stress, such as WRKY, MAPKKK, ABA, PrxR and ion channels, were differentially expressed. Compared with NSS and AS, AS2 triggered more differentially expressed genes and special pathways, indicating that the mechanism of AS2 was more complex than NSS and AS. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first transcriptome analysis of flax in response to saline-alkaline stress. These data indicate that common and diverse features of saline-alkaline stress provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of plant saline-alkaline tolerance and offer a number of candidate genes as potential markers of tolerance to saline-alkaline stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. MicroRNA expression analysis in the cellulosic biofuel crop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum under abiotic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiling Sun

    Full Text Available Switchgrass has increasingly been recognized as a dedicated biofuel crop for its broad adaptation to marginal lands and high biomass. However, little is known about the basic biology and the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in switchgrass, particularly under stress conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of salt and drought stress on switchgrass germination, growth and the expression of small regulatory RNAs. The results indicate that salt stress had a gradual but significant negative effect on switchgrass growth and development. The germination rate was significantly decreased from 82% for control to 36% under 1% NaCl treatment. However, drought stress had little effect on the germination rate but had a significant effect on the growth of switchgrass under the severest salinity stress. Both salt and drought stresses altered the expression pattern of miRNAs in a dose-dependent manner. However, each miRNA responded to drought stress in a different pattern. Salt and drought stress changed the expression level of miRNAs mainly from 0.9-fold up-regulation to 0.7-fold down-regulation. miRNAs were less sensitive to drought treatment than salinity treatment, as evidenced by the narrow fold change in expression levels. Although the range of change in expression level of miRNAs was similar under salt and drought stress, no miRNAs displayed significant change in expression level under all tested salt conditions. Two miRNAs, miR156 and miR162, showed significantly change in expression level under high drought stress. This suggests that miR156 and miR162 may attribute to the adaption of switchgrass to drought stress and are good candidates for improving switchgrass as a biofuel crop by transgenic technology.

  8. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Express Type 1 Fimbriae Only in Surface Adherent Populations Under Physiological Growth Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Kristian; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Khandige, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    were correlated with the ability to adhere to and invade cultured human bladder cells. RESULTS:  Although inactive during planktonic growth in urine, T1F expression occurs when UPEC settles on and infects bladder epithelial cells or colonizes catheters. As a result, UPEC in these sessile populations...... with increased expression during surface growth adaptation and infection of uroepithelial cells. This leads to separation of UPEC into low-expression planktonic populations and high-expression sessile populations....... enhances bladder cell adhesion and invasion potential. Only T1F-negative UPEC are subsequently released to the urine, thus limiting T1F expression to surface-associated UPEC alone. CONCLUSION:  Our results demonstrate that T1F expression is strictly regulated under physiological growth conditions...

  9. 24 CFR 200.936 - Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel type room heaters and fireplace... Supplementary specific procedural requirements under HUD building products certification program for solid fuel... fireplace stoves certified under the HUD Building Products Certification Program shall be designed...

  10. 5 CFR 330.504 - Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under Part-time Direct Hire Program. 330.504 Section 330.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... To Protect Competitive Principles § 330.504 Special restrictions after appointment under Part-time Direct Hire Program. (a) A person hired under the Part-time Direct Hire Program may not be changed to...

  11. Constraint Logic Programming for Resolution of Relative Time Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Translating time expression into absolute time points or durations is a challenge for natural languages processing such as text mining and text understanding in general. We present a constraint logic language CLP(Time) tailored to text usages concerned with time and calendar. It provides a simple...... and flexible formalism to express relationships between different time expressions in a text, thereby giving a recipe for resolving them into absolute time. A constraint solver is developed which, as opposed to some earlier approaches, is independent of the order in which temporal information is introduced...

  12. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Technical Report of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, is published any time as a prompt report as occasion requires. In this report, the title, names of reporters and summary of each of 53 researches which were carried out under the visiting research program in the first half of 1983 are given. The titles are, for example, a mechanism for the anodic oxidation of GaAs, gamma-gamma perturbed angular correlation study of relaxation phenomena, the studies on the genesis of volcanic rocks by partition of trace elements, neutron activation analysis of geochemical standard rock samples, studies on the changes of elements in the fur of rats with various disease, neutron activation analysis on glacier ice strata and glaciegla lake sediments in Nepal Himalayas, low temperature irradiation effects on bcc metals, organ and its subcellular distribution of manganese ion in animals, structure analysis of orthorhombic BaTiO 3 by profile analysis method, regional distribution of Mn, Zn and Cu in human brain, neutron diffraction study of Mn-Ni alloy, structural change of KCoF 3 in the vicinity of the critical region, activation analysis of trace elements in tumor tissues (thyroid) and so on. (Kako, I.)

  13. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program (1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Now the summary report of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1991 has been put in order and published. As compared with the past reports, in the report of this year, pages increased and the style changed, but this is due to the change of the method of adopting researches to that throughout one year from fiscal year 1991. So far one page was allotted to every subject, but this limit was relaxed according to the contents. This style is not yet fixed. As well known, discussion is going on about the way the research reactor and the Research Reactor Institute should be. As for this summary report, in order to receive the international evaluation, it was decided to publish the report in English from fiscal year 1992, and the Progress Report on the research by the Institute personnel is included in it. In this report, 98 summaries of the researches using the KUR and 15 summaries of the researches using the KUCA are collected. One summary which was not reported in fiscal year 1990 is added. (K.I.)

  14. Osteogenic gene expression of murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells under cyclic tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C T; Chen, C C; Cheong, U-I; Liu, S L; Huang, T H

    2014-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can promote cell proliferation. The remodeling ability of the tension side of orthodontic teeth affects post-orthodontic stability. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the osteogenic effects of LLLT on osteoblast-like cells treated with a simulated tension system that provides a mechanical tension regimen. Murine osteoblastic (MC3T3-E1) cells were cultured in a Flexcell strain unit with programmed loads of 12% elongation at a frequency of 0.5 Hz for 24 and 48 h. The cultured cells were treated with a low-level diode laser using powers of 5 J and 10 J. The proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells was determined using the Alamar Blue assay. The expression of osteogenic genes (type I collagen (Col-1), osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin (OC), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL), bone morphologic protein (BMP-2), and bone morphologic protein (BMP-4)) in MC3T3-E1 cells was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. The proliferation rate of tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells under 5 J and 10 J LLLT increased compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Prominent mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells was visible using a von Kossa stain in the 5 J LLLT group. Osteogenic genes (Col-1, OC, OPG and BMP-2) were significantly expressed in the MC3T3-E1 cells treated with 5 J and 10 J LLLT (p < 0.05). LLLT in tension-cultured MC3T3-E1 cells showed synergistic osteogenic effects, including increases in cell proliferation and Col-1, OPN, OC, OPG and BMP-2 gene expression. LLLT might be beneficial for bone remodeling on the tension side of orthodontics. (paper)

  15. A Recourse-Based Type-2 Fuzzy Programming Method for Water Pollution Control under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a recourse-based type-2 fuzzy programming (RTFP method is developed for supporting water pollution control of basin systems under uncertainty. The RTFP method incorporates type-2 fuzzy programming (TFP within a two-stage stochastic programming with recourse (TSP framework to handle uncertainties expressed as type-2 fuzzy sets (i.e., a fuzzy set in which the membership function is also fuzzy and probability distributions, as well as to reflect the trade-offs between conflicting economic benefits and penalties due to violated policies. The RTFP method is then applied to a real case of water pollution control in the Heshui River Basin (a rural area of China, where chemical oxygen demand (COD, total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, and soil loss are selected as major indicators to identify the water pollution control strategies. Solutions of optimal production plans of economic activities under each probabilistic pollutant discharge allowance level and membership grades are obtained. The results are helpful for the authorities in exploring the trade-off between economic objective and pollutant discharge decision-making based on river water pollution control.

  16. The Optimization of Passengers’ Travel Time under Express-Slow Mode Based on Suburban Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The suburban line connects the suburbs and the city centre; it is of huge advantage to attempt the express-slow mode. The passengers’ average travel time is the key factor to reflect the level of rail transport services, especially under the express-slow mode. So it is important to study the passengers’ average travel time under express-slow, which can get benefit on the optimization of operation scheme. First analyze the main factor that affects passengers’ travel time and then mine the dynamic interactive relationship among the factors. Second, a new passengers’ travel time evolution algorithm is proposed after studying the stop schedule and the proportion of express/slow train, and then membrane computing theory algorithm is introduced to solve the model. Finally, Shanghai Metro Line 22 is set as an example to apply the optimization model to calculate the total passengers’ travel time; the result shows that the total average travel time under the express-slow mode can save 1 minute and 38 seconds; the social influence and value of it are very huge. The proposed calculation model is of great help for the decision of stop schedule and provides theoretical and methodological support to determine the proportion of express/slow trains, improves the service level, and enriches and complements the rail transit operation scheme optimization theory system.

  17. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  18. Calcium affecting protein expression in longan under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tengfei; Li, Yongyu; Ma, Cuilan; Qiu, Dongliang

    2015-08-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) of uniform one-aged seedlings grown in pots were selected to study specific proteins expressed in leaves under simulated acid rain (SiAR) stress and exogenous Ca(2+) regulation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results showed that there was a protein band specifically expressed under SiAR of pH 2.5 stress for 15 days with its molecular weight of about 23 kD. A 17 kD protein band specifically expressed after SiAR stress 5 days. Compared with pH 2.5, the pH 3.5 of SiAR made a less influence to protein expression. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that six new specific proteins including C4 (20.2 kD pI 6.0), F (24 kD pI 6.35), B3 (22.3 kD pI 6.35), B4 (23.5 kD pI 6.5), C5 (21.8 kD pI 5.6), and C6 (20.2 kD pI 5.6) specifically expressed. C4 always expressed during SiAR stress. F expressed under the stress of pH 2.5 for 15 days and expressed in all pH SiAR stress for 20 days. The expression of proteins including B3, C5, and C6 was related to pH value and stress intensity of SiAR. The expression of B4 resulted from synergistic effects of SiAR and Ca. The expression of G1 (Mr 19.3 kD, pI 4.5), G2 (Mr 17.8 kD, pI 4.65), G3 (Mr 16.6 kD, pI 4.6), and G4 (Mr 14.7 kD, pI 4.4) enhanced under the treatment of 5 mM ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and 2 mM chlorpromazine (CPZ). These proteins showed antagonistic effects and might be relative to the Ca-calmodulin (Ca-CaM) system of longan in response to SiAR stress.

  19. Maternal programming of defensive responses through sustained effects on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tie-Yuan; Bagot, Rose; Parent, Carine; Nesbitt, Cathy; Bredy, Timothy W; Caldji, Christian; Fish, Eric; Anisman, Hymie; Szyf, Moshe; Meaney, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    There are profound maternal effects on individual differences in defensive responses and reproductive strategies in species ranging literally from plants to insects to birds. Maternal effects commonly reflect the quality of the environment and are most likely mediated by the quality of the maternal provision (egg, propagule, etc.), which in turn determines growth rates and adult phenotype. In this paper we review data from the rat that suggest comparable forms of maternal effects on defensive responses stress, which are mediated by the effects of variations in maternal behavior on gene expression. Under conditions of environmental adversity maternal effects enhance the capacity for defensive responses in the offspring. In mammals, these effects appear to 'program' emotional, cognitive and endocrine systems towards increased sensitivity to adversity. In environments with an increased level of adversity, such effects can be considered adaptive, enhancing the probability of offspring survival to sexual maturity; the cost is that of an increased risk for multiple forms of pathology in later life.

  20. Gene expression analysis of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites under drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upama Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the limiting environmental factors that affect crop production worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanism of drought stress is the key to developing drought tolerant crop. In this experiment we performed expression profiling of tomato plants under water deficit conditions using microarray technology. The data set we generated (available in the NCBI/GEO database under GSE22304 has been analyzed to identify genes that are involved in the regulation of tomato's responses to drought.

  1. Placental growth factor expression is reversed by antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ai-Yi; Bai, Yu-Jing; Zhao, Min; Yu, Wen-Zhen; Huang, Lv-Zhen; Li, Xiao-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials have revealed that the antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies are effective in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). But the low level of VEGF was necessary as a survival signal in healthy conditions, and endogenous placental growth factor (PIGF) is redundant for development. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the PIGF expression under hypoxia as well as the influence of anti-VEGF therapy on PIGF. CoCl2-induced hypoxic human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used for an in vitro study, and oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mice models were used for an in vivo study. The expression patterns of PIGF under hypoxic conditions and the influence of anti-VEGF therapy on PIGF were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). The retinal avascular areas and neovascularization (NV) areas of anti-VEGF, anti-PIGF and combination treatments were calculated. Retina PIGF concentration was evaluated by ELISA after treatment. The vasoactive effects of exogenous PIGF on HUVECs were investigated by proliferation and migration studies. PIGF mRNA expression was reduced by hypoxia in OIR mice, in HUVECs under hypoxia and anti-VEGF treatment. However, PIGF expression was reversed by anti-VEGF therapy in the OIR model and in HUVECs under hypoxia. Exogenous PIGF significantly inhibited HUVECs proliferation and migration under normal conditions, but it stimulated cell proliferation and migration under hypoxia. Anti-PIGF treatment was effective for neovascular tufts in OIR mice (P<0.05). The finding that PIGF expression is iatrogenically up-regulated by anti-VEGF therapy provides a consideration to combine it with anti-PIGF therapy.

  2. 25 CFR 170.803 - What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM BIA Road Maintenance § 170.803 What facilities are eligible under the BIA Road Maintenance Program? (a) The following public transportation facilities are eligible for maintenance under the BIA Road Maintenance Program: (1) BIA transportation facilities listed in...

  3. EXPRESSION OF CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE (CDPK GENES IN VITIS AMURENSIS UNDER ABIOTIC STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubrovina A.S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses, such as extreme temperatures, soil salinity, or water deficit, are one of the major limiting factors of crop productivity worldwide. Examination of molecular and genetic mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance in plants is of great interest to plant biologists. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, which are the most important Ca2+ sensors in plants, are known to play one of the key roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. CDPK is a multigene family of enzymes. Analysis of CDPK gene expression under various abiotic stress conditions would help identify those CDPKs that might play important roles in plant adaptation to abiotic stress. We focused on studying CDPK gene expression under osmotic, water deficit, and temperature stress conditions in a wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rurp., which is native to the Russian Far East and is known to possess high adaptive potential and high level of resistance against adverse environmental conditions. Healthy V. amurensis cuttings (excised young stems with one healthy leaf were used for the treatments. For the non-stress treatment, we placed the cuttings in distilled water for 12 h at room temperature. For the water-deficit stress, detached cuttings were laid on a paper towel for 12 h at room temperature. For osmotic stress treatments, the cuttings were placed in 0.4 М NaCl and 0.4 М mannitol solutions for 12 h at room temperature. To examine temperature stress tolerance, the V. amurensis cuttings were placed in a growth chamber at +10oC and +37oC for 12 h. The total expression of VaCDPK genes was examined by semiquantitative RT-PCR with degenerate primers designed to the CDPK kinase domain. The total level of CDPK gene expression increased under salt and decreased under low temperature stress conditions. We sequenced 300 clones of the amplified part of different CDPK transcripts obtained from the analyzed cDNA probes. Analysis of the cDNA sequences identified 8 different

  4. Heat shock protein Hsp90-2 expression in the Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeko, Liudmyla

    Heat shock proteins 90 kDa (Hsp90) are abundant under normal conditions and induced by stress. This family is distinguished from other chaperones in that most of its substrates are signal transduction proteins. Previously, we determined some time-dependent increase in the Hsp90 level in pea seedlings in response to simulated microgravity that indicated a stress-reaction. However, expression of the individual members of the Hsp90 family have specific pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations in the gene expression pattern of cytosolic Hsp90-2 in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under 2D-clinorotation. To obtain detailed expression pattern of the HSP90-2 genes we used seeds that provides a resource of loss-of-function mutations gene expression patterns via translational fusions with the reporter gene, GUS (a line N 166718, NASC). There were two variants of the experiment: 1) seedlings grew under clinorotation for 10, 12, 14 d; 2) seedlings grew in the stationary conditions for 10 d followed by clinorotation for 3 h -at 22o C and 16h light cycle. The seedlings grown in the stationary conditions were used as a control. GUS staining showed that HSP90-2 expression was regulated during seedling development and affected by clinorotation in the heterozygous mutant plants. In the homozygous for the mutation plants, HSP90-2 expression was stable during seedling development and not affected by clinorotation. GUS staining was observed in cotyledons, leaves and hypocotyls of the seedlings (especially intense in vascular bundles), indicating intensive cellular processes with participation of this chaperone. Possible pathways of influence of clinorotation on HSP90-2 expression are discussed.

  5. Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice describes how registrants can obtain EPA approval of label language indicating that all ingredients in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the USDA National Organic Program Rule.

  6. Renewable Fuel Pathways II Final Rule to Identify Additional Fuel Pathways under Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final rule describes EPA’s evaluation of biofuels derived from biogas fuel pathways under the RFS program and other minor amendments related to survey requirements associated with ULSD program and misfueling mitigation regulations for E15.

  7. Quantitative gene expression underlying 18f-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Bodil E.; Binderup, Tina; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose analogue 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used in oncologic imaging. This study examines the molecular mechanism underlying the detection of colon cancer (CC) by FDG-PET. Methods: Pre-operative PET/CT scans and tissue samples....... Mean gene expression levels of GLUT1, HK2, ki67, HIF1α, VEGF and CaIX, but not HK1, were significantly higher in primary tumours than in surrounding normal colonic mucosa. Linear regressions pairing tumour SUVmax with gene expression levels showed significant correlations between SUVmax and HK2, ki67...

  8. Cross-cultural differences and similarities underlying other-race effects for facial identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqian; Andrews, Timothy J; Jenkins, Rob; Young, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual advantages for own-race compared to other-race faces have been demonstrated for the recognition of facial identity and expression. However, these effects have not been investigated in the same study with measures that can determine the extent of cross-cultural agreement as well as differences. To address this issue, we used a photo sorting task in which Chinese and Caucasian participants were asked to sort photographs of Chinese or Caucasian faces by identity or by expression. This paradigm matched the task demands of identity and expression recognition and avoided constrained forced-choice or verbal labelling requirements. Other-race effects of comparable magnitude were found across the identity and expression tasks. Caucasian participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Chinese than Caucasian faces, while Chinese participants made more confusion errors for the identities and expressions of Caucasian than Chinese faces. However, analyses of the patterns of responses across groups of participants revealed a considerable amount of underlying cross-cultural agreement. These findings suggest that widely repeated claims that members of other cultures "all look the same" overstate the cultural differences.

  9. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Low-Income Adolescents Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expression in low-income adolescents, an understudied population. One hundred and seventy nine adolescents (aged 14-17) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Trained coders rated adolescents' expressions of happiness, sadness, anxiety, shame/embarrassment, anger, and contempt during the TSST using a micro-analytic coding system. Analyses showed that, consistent with gender roles, girls expressed higher levels of happiness and shame than boys; however, contrary to traditional gender roles, girls showed higher levels of contempt than boys. Also, in contrast to cultural stereotypes, there were no differences in anger between boys and girls. Findings suggest gender-role inconsistent displays of externalizing emotions in low-income adolescents under acute stress, and may reflect different emotion socialization experiences in this group.

  10. A neural network underlying intentional emotional facial expression in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Gola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional facial expression of emotion is critical to healthy social interactions. Patients with neurodegenerative disease, particularly those with right temporal or prefrontal atrophy, show dramatic socioemotional impairment. This was an exploratory study examining the neural and behavioral correlates of intentional facial expression of emotion in neurodegenerative disease patients and healthy controls. One hundred and thirty three participants (45 Alzheimer's disease, 16 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, 8 non-fluent primary progressive aphasia, 10 progressive supranuclear palsy, 11 right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, 9 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia patients and 34 healthy controls were video recorded while imitating static images of emotional faces and producing emotional expressions based on verbal command; the accuracy of their expression was rated by blinded raters. Participants also underwent face-to-face socioemotional testing and informants described participants' typical socioemotional behavior. Patients' performance on emotion expression tasks was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM across the entire sample. We found that intentional emotional imitation scores were related to fundamental socioemotional deficits; patients with known socioemotional deficits performed worse than controls on intentional emotion imitation; and intentional emotional expression predicted caregiver ratings of empathy and interpersonal warmth. Whole brain VBMs revealed a rightward cortical atrophy pattern homologous to the left lateralized speech production network was associated with intentional emotional imitation deficits. Results point to a possible neural mechanisms underlying complex socioemotional communication deficits in neurodegenerative disease patients.

  11. 76 FR 22412 - Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5514-C-02] Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Requests for Expressions of Interests To Administer Pilot Contact Information Correction AGENCY... published a notice announcing HUD's proposal to conduct a Fellowship Placement Pilot (fellowship program...

  12. Contribution to computer aided design of digital circuits - Minimization of alphanumeric expressions - Program CHOPIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanca, Ernest

    1974-10-01

    Alpha-numeric boolean expressions, written in the form of sums of products and/or products of sums with many brackets, may be minimized in two steps: syntaxic recognition analysis using precedence operator grammar, syntaxic reduction analysis. These two phases of execution and the different programs of the corresponding machine algorithm are described. Examples of minimization of alpha-numeric boolean expressions written with the help of brackets, utilisation note of the program CHOPIN and theoretical considerations related to language, grammar, precedence operator grammar, sequential systems, boolean sets, boolean representations and treatments of boolean expressions, boolean matrices and their use in grammar theory, are discussed and described. (author) [fr

  13. The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) Program: Underlying Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulden, Walter T.

    2010-01-01

    The Behavior Intervention Support Team (BIST) is a proactive school-wide behavior management plan for all students, emphasizing schools partnering with students and parents through caring relationships and high expectations. The BIST program is well-grounded in behavioral theory and combines strength-based and resiliency principles within the…

  14. A Computer Program to Evaluate Timber Production Investments Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. Schweitzer

    1968-01-01

    A computer program has been written in Fortran IV to calculate probability distributions of present worths of investments in timber production. Inputs can include both point and probabilistic estimates of future costs, prices, and yields. Distributions of rates of return can also be constructed.

  15. Risk Management Programs under Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Guidance for Implementing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

  16. 48 CFR 819.7111 - Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mentor-Protégé Program. 819.7111 Section 819.7111 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7111 Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program. (a) A mentor or protégé may voluntarily withdraw from the...

  17. Facial expressions of emotion (KDEF): identification under different display-duration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Participants judged which of seven facial expressions (neutrality, happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, fear, and disgust) were displayed by a set of 280 faces corresponding to 20 female and 20 male models of the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database (Lundqvist, Flykt, & Ohman, 1998). Each face was presented under free-viewing conditions (to 63 participants) and also for 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 msec (to 160 participants), to examine identification thresholds. Measures of identification accuracy, types of errors, and reaction times were obtained for each expression. In general, happy faces were identified more accurately, earlier, and faster than other faces, whereas judgments of fearful faces were the least accurate, the latest, and the slowest. Norms for each face and expression regarding level of identification accuracy, errors, and reaction times may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  18. Planning under uncertainty solving large-scale stochastic linear programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infanger, G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Operations Research]|[Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft

    1992-12-01

    For many practical problems, solutions obtained from deterministic models are unsatisfactory because they fail to hedge against certain contingencies that may occur in the future. Stochastic models address this shortcoming, but up to recently seemed to be intractable due to their size. Recent advances both in solution algorithms and in computer technology now allow us to solve important and general classes of practical stochastic problems. We show how large-scale stochastic linear programs can be efficiently solved by combining classical decomposition and Monte Carlo (importance) sampling techniques. We discuss the methodology for solving two-stage stochastic linear programs with recourse, present numerical results of large problems with numerous stochastic parameters, show how to efficiently implement the methodology on a parallel multi-computer and derive the theory for solving a general class of multi-stage problems with dependency of the stochastic parameters within a stage and between different stages.

  19. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year

  20. Development of Virtual Environment under Member State Support Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Byungmarn; Lee, Nayoung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Member State Support Program (MSSP) is comprised of various programs such as development of safeguards approach, training, information analysis and so on. Each support programs would be evaluated biennially through coordinators' meeting. IAEA publish 'Development and Implementation Support Programme for Nuclear Verification' so that the member state can review it. In the program, IAEA specify the need to develop the virtual reality based training tools. The objective of this project is to develop comprehensive training software dedicated to verification activities in the field based on the virtual environment. The training for the IAEA inspector is indispensable to maintain or improve their verification capability and to be prepared for the inspection of the complicated facilities. However, the grabbing of the available facility is not easy due to following limitations such as security, confidentiality, interference of the commercial operation and so on. Therefore, the virtual environment, which can replace a real facility, is required for the IAEA training. The objective of this software is to support the IAEA's verification capability. It is useful for the trainer and trainee to better understand how nuclear materials are processed in the fuel fabrication facility and what kind safeguards approaches are needed at each process before inspections. The final product will be integrated in the IAEA safeguards training courses to improve the efficiency of the safeguards training. Also we are going to make a decision if additional projects such as CANDU fuel parts or other facilities depending on evaluation results at the IAEA training course will be held on Korea in this year.

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis and the Expression of Disease-Resistant Genes in Oryza meyeriana under Native Condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin He

    Full Text Available Oryza meyeriana (O. meyeriana, with a GG genome type (2n = 24, accumulated plentiful excellent characteristics with respect to resistance to many diseases such as rice shade and blast, even immunity to bacterial blight. It is very important to know if the diseases-resistant genes exist and express in this wild rice under native conditions. However, limited genomic or transcriptomic data of O. meyeriana are currently available. In this study, we present the first comprehensive characterization of the O. meyeriana transcriptome using RNA-seq and obtained 185,323 contigs with an average length of 1,692 bp and an N50 of 2,391 bp. Through differential expression analysis, it was found that there were most tissue-specifically expressed genes in roots, and next to stems and leaves. By similarity search against protein databases, 146,450 had at least a significant alignment to existed gene models. Comparison with the Oryza sativa (japonica-type Nipponbare and indica-type 93-11 genomes revealed that 13% of the O. meyeriana contigs had not been detected in O. sativa. Many diseases-resistant genes, such as bacterial blight resistant, blast resistant, rust resistant, fusarium resistant, cyst nematode resistant and downy mildew gene, were mined from the transcriptomic database. There are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes (Xa1 and Xa26 differentially or specifically expressed in O. meyeriana. The 4 Xa1 contigs were all only expressed in root, while three of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression level in leaves, two of Xa26 contigs have the highest expression profile in stems and one of Xa26 contigs was expressed dominantly in roots. The transcriptomic database of O. meyeriana has been constructed and many diseases-resistant genes were found to express under native condition, which provides a foundation for future discovery of a number of novel genes and provides a basis for studying the molecular mechanisms associated with disease

  2. Facial expression: An under-utilised tool for the assessment of welfare in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descovich, Kris A; Wathan, Jennifer; Leach, Matthew C; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; Flecknell, Paul; Farningham, David; Vick, Sarah-Jane

    2017-01-01

    Animal welfare is a key issue for industries that use or impact upon animals. The accurate identification of welfare states is particularly relevant to the field of bioscience, where the 3Rs framework encourages refinement of experimental procedures involving animal models. The assessment and improvement of welfare states in animals depends on reliable and valid measurement tools. Behavioral measures (activity, attention, posture and vocalization) are frequently used because they are immediate and non-invasive, however no single indicator can yield a complete picture of the internal state of an animal. Facial expressions are extensively studied in humans as a measure of psychological and emotional experiences but are infrequently used in animal studies, with the exception of emerging research on pain behavior. In this review, we discuss current evidence for facial representations of underlying affective states, and how communicative or functional expressions can be useful within welfare assessments. Validated tools for measuring facial movement are outlined, and the potential of expressions as honest signals is discussed, alongside other challenges and limitations to facial expression measurement within the context of animal welfare. We conclude that facial expression determination in animals is a useful but underutilized measure that complements existing tools in the assessment of welfare.

  3. Increased MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients and under intermittent hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Pang; Chen, Ning-Hung; Lin, Yuling; Ko, Wen-Shan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S

    2016-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to be a risk factor of coronary artery disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as a critical factor for monocyte infiltration, is known to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSA, on the MCP-1 expression of monocytes. Peripheral blood was sampled from 61 adults enrolled for suspected OSA. RNA was prepared from the isolated monocytes for the analysis of MCP-1. The effect of in vitro intermittent hypoxia on the regulation and function of MCP-1 was investigated on THP-1 monocytic cells and human monocytes. The mRNA and secreted protein levels were investigated by RT/real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Monocytic MCP-1 gene expression was found to be increased significantly in severe OSA patients. In vitro intermittent hypoxia was demonstrated to increase the mRNA and protein expression levels of MCP-1 dose- and time-dependently in THP-1 monocytic cells. The MCP-1 mRNA expression in monocytes isolated from OSA patient was induced to a much higher level compared to that from normal control. Pre-treatment with inhibitor for p42/44 MAPK or p38 MAPK suppressed the activation of MCP-1 expression by intermittent hypoxia. This is the first study to demonstrate the increase of MCP-1 gene expression in monocytes of severe OSA patients. In addition, monocytic MCP-1 gene expression can be induced under intermittent hypoxia.

  4. 77 FR 17143 - Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Medicare and Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 431, 435 and 457 Medicaid Program; Eligibility Changes Under... for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 431, 435, and 457 [CMS-2349-F] RIN 0938-AQ62 Medicaid Program; Eligiblity Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid...

  5. 77 FR 47913 - The National Center for Mobility Management Under FTA's National Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... Management Under FTA's National Research Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), as the primary staff agency to the Federal... transportation service delivery. FTA, under its National Research Program, plans to fund a National Center for...

  6. 34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of problems may be researched under the... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND... Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program? Problems...

  7. 75 FR 72682 - Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... members not in a present duty status. This authority includes payment for health care services in private... 0790-AI52 Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special... assigns responsibilities for health care eligibility under the Secretarial Designee Program. It also...

  8. Retrieval under stress decreases the long-term expression of a human declarative memory via reconsolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, Pablo Nicolás Fernández; Ojea, Alejandro; Ojea, Ignacio; Molina, Victor Alejandro; Zorrilla-Zubilete, María Aurelia; Delorenzi, Alejandro

    2017-07-01

    Acute stress impairs memory retrieval of several types of memories. An increase in glucocorticoids, several minutes after stressful events, is described as essential to the impairing retrieval-effects of stressors. Moreover, memory retrieval under stress can have long-term consequences. Through what process does the reactivated memory under stress, despite the disrupting retrieval effects, modify long-term memories? The reconsolidation hypothesis proposes that a previously consolidated memory reactivated by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization) during which it is transiently sensitive to modulation, followed by a re-stabilization phase. However, previous studies show that the expression of memories during reminder sessions is not a condition to trigger the reconsolidation process since unexpressed memories can be reactivated and labilized. Here we evaluate whether it is possible to reactivate-labilize a memory under the impairing-effects of a mild stressor. We used a paradigm of human declarative memory whose reminder structure allows us to differentiate between a reactivated-labile memory state and a reactivated but non-labile state. Subjects memorized a list of five cue-syllables associated with their respective response-syllables. Seventy-two hours later, results showed that the retrieval of the paired-associate memory was impaired when tested 20min after a mild stressor (cold pressor stress (CPS)) administration, coincident with cortisol levels increase. Then, we investigated the long-term effects of CPS administration prior to the reminder session. Under conditions where the reminder initiates the reconsolidation process, CPS impaired the long-term memory expression tested 24h later. In contrast, CPS did not show effects when administered before a reminder session that does not trigger reconsolidation. Results showed that memory reactivation-labilization occurs even when retrieval was impaired. Memory reactivation under stress could hinder

  9. 40 CFR 80.395 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.395 Section 80.395 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.395 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline sulfur program? (a) Persons liable for...

  10. 40 CFR 80.1015 - Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1015 Section 80.1015 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1015 Who is liable for violations under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Persons liable for...

  11. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall: (a...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall: (a...

  13. 40 CFR 80.810 - Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.810 Section 80.810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics General Information § 80.810 Who shall register with EPA under the gasoline toxics program? (a) Refiners and importers...

  14. Efficiency of Decoupled Farm Programs under Distortionary Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    GianCarlo Moschini; Paolo Sckokai

    1994-01-01

    When lump-sum taxation is not feasible, decoupled transfers to farmers (which require raising government revenue) will entail welfare loss somewhere in the economy. Assuming the government's objective is to assure a given welfare level for farmers, we show that when decoupling is possible, free trade is always superior to some tariff protection for a small country, even under Distortionary taxation. As expected, for a large country there is scope for an optimal tariff policy that improves the...

  15. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) under edaphic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Alexey A; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Krasnov, George S; Koroban, Nadezhda V; Speranskaya, Anna S; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Muravenko, Olga V; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Melnikova, Nataliya V

    2016-11-16

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1) is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N), phosphate deficient (P), and nutrient excess (NPK) conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil. Besides, we have not identified any mRNA, which could be

  16. Gene expression profiling of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. under edaphic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Dmitriev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L. is widely used for production of textile, food, chemical and pharmaceutical products. However, various stresses decrease flax production. Search for genes, which are involved in stress response, is necessary for breeding of adaptive cultivars. Imbalanced concentration of nutrient elements in soil decrease flax yields and also results in heritable changes in some flax lines. The appearance of Linum Insertion Sequence 1 (LIS-1 is the most studied modification. However, LIS-1 function is still unclear. Results High-throughput sequencing of transcriptome of flax plants grown under normal (N, phosphate deficient (P, and nutrient excess (NPK conditions was carried out using Illumina platform. The assembly of transcriptome was performed, and a total of 34924, 33797, and 33698 unique transcripts for N, P, and NPK sequencing libraries were identified, respectively. We have not revealed any LIS-1 derived mRNA in our sequencing data. The analysis of high-throughput sequencing data allowed us to identify genes with potentially differential expression under imbalanced nutrition. For further investigation with qPCR, 15 genes were chosen and their expression levels were evaluated in the extended sampling of 31 flax plants. Significant expression alterations were revealed for genes encoding WRKY and JAZ protein families under P and NPK conditions. Moreover, the alterations of WRKY family genes differed depending on LIS-1 presence in flax plant genome. Besides, we revealed slight and LIS-1 independent mRNA level changes of KRP2 and ING1 genes, which are adjacent to LIS-1, under nutrition stress. Conclusions Differentially expressed genes were identified in flax plants, which were grown under phosphate deficiency and excess nutrition, on the basis of high-throughput sequencing and qPCR data. We showed that WRKY and JAS gene families participate in flax response to imbalanced nutrient content in soil

  17. Over-expression of Trxo1 increases the viability of tobacco BY-2 cells under H2O2 treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Locato, Vittoria; Camejo, Daymi; Schiermeyer, Andreas; De Gara, Laura; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide, play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and in the induction of plant defence responses during stress adaptation, as well as in plant cell death. The antioxidant system is responsible for controlling ROS levels in these processes but redox homeostasis is also a key factor in plant cell metabolism under normal and stress situations. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are ubiquitous small proteins found in different cell compartments, including mitochondria and nuclei (Trxo1), and are involved in the regulation of target proteins through reduction of disulphide bonds, although their role under oxidative stress has been less well studied. This study describes over-expression of a Trxo1 for the first time, using a cell-culture model subjected to an oxidative treatment provoked by H2O2. Control and over-expressing PsTrxo1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells were treated with 35 mm H2O2 and the effects were analysed by studying the growth dynamics of the cultures together with oxidative stress parameters, as well as several components of the antioxidant systems involved in the metabolism of H2O2. Analysis of different hallmarks of programmed cell death was also carried out. Over-expression of PsTrxo1 caused significant differences in the response of TBY-2 cells to high concentrations of H2O2, namely higher and maintained viability in over-expressing cells, whilst the control line presented a severe decrease in viability and marked indications of oxidative stress, with generalized cell death after 3 d of treatment. In over-expressing cells, an increase in catalase activity, decreases in H2O2 and nitric oxide contents and maintenance of the glutathione redox state were observed. A decreased content of endogenous H2O2 may be responsible in part for the delayed cell death found in over-expressing cells, in which changes in oxidative parameters and antioxidants were less extended after the oxidative

  18. Programmed Cell Death Ligand 1 Expression in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas: A Clinicopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, Azusa; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takashima, Yasuo; Takeya, Hiroto; Homma, Jumpei; Fukai, Junya; Iwadate, Yasuo; Kajiwara, Koji; Ishizawa, Shin; Hondoh, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Ryuya

    2017-10-01

    Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) have been shown to predict response to PD-L1/PD-1-targeted therapy. We analyzed PD-L1 expression in primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs). PD-L1 protein and mRNA expression were evaluated in 64 PCNSL tissue samples. IFN-γ, IL-10, CD4, and CD8 mRNA expression was also evaluated. PD-L1 protein was detected in tumor cells in 2 (4.1%) cases and in tumor microenvironments in 25 (52%) cases. PD-L1 mRNA positively correlated with IFN-γ (p=0.0024) and CD4 (p=0.0005) mRNA expression. IFN-γ mRNA positively correlated with CD8 mRNA expression (p=0.0001). Furthermore, tumor cell PD-L1 expression correlated positively with overall survival (p=0.0177), whereas microenvironmental PD-L1 expression exhibited an insignificant negative trend with overall survival (p=0.188). PD-L1 was expressed on both tumor and/or tumor-infiltrating immune cells in PCNSL. The biological roles of this marker warrant further investigation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  20. Changes in gene expression and catalase activity in Oryza sativa L. under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vighi, I L; Benitez, L C; do Amaral, M N; Auler, P A; Moraes, G P; Rodrigues, G S; da Maia, L C; Pinto, L S; Braga, E J B

    2016-11-03

    Different rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes were subjected to high salinity and low temperature (150 mM NaCl and 13°C, respectively) for 0, 6, 24, 48, or 72 h. We evaluated the simultaneous expression of the genes OsCATA, OsCATB, and OsCATC, correlated gene expression with enzyme activity, and verified the regulation of these genes through identification of cis-elements in the promoter region. The hydrogen peroxide content increased in a tolerant genotype and decreased in a sensitive genotype under both stress conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the tolerant genotype when exposed to cold, and in the sensitive genotype when exposed to high salinity. Catalase activity significantly increased in both genotypes when subjected to 13°C. In the tolerant genotype, OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to high salinity and cold, while in the sensitive genotype, OsCATA and OsCATC responded positively to saline stress, as did OsCATA and OsCATB to low temperature. Cis-element analysis identified different regulatory sequences in the catalase promoter region of each genotype. The sensitive genotype maintained a better balance between hydrogen oxyacid levels, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation under low temperature than the resistant genotype. OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive in the salt-tolerant genotype to cold, OsCATA and OsCATC were the most responsive to saline stress, and OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to chilling stress in the sensitive genotype. There were positive correlations between catalase activity and OsCATB expression in the tolerant genotype under saline stress and in the sensitive genotype under cold stress.

  1. Rice sHsp genes: genomic organization and expression profiling under stress and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover Anil

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps constitute an important component in the heat shock response of all living systems. Among the various plant Hsps (i.e. Hsp100, Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20, Hsp20 or small Hsps (sHsps are expressed in maximal amounts under high temperature stress. The characteristic feature of the sHsps is the presence of α-crystallin domain (ACD at the C-terminus. sHsps cooperate with Hsp100/Hsp70 and co-chaperones in ATP-dependent manner in preventing aggregation of cellular proteins and in their subsequent refolding. Database search was performed to investigate the sHsp gene family across rice genome sequence followed by comprehensive expression analysis of these genes. Results We identified 40 α-crystallin domain containing genes in rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 23 out of these 40 genes constitute sHsps. The additional 17 genes containing ACD clustered with Acd proteins of Arabidopsis. Detailed scrutiny of 23 sHsp sequences enabled us to categorize these proteins in a revised scheme of classification constituting of 16 cytoplasmic/nuclear, 2 ER, 3 mitochondrial, 1 plastid and 1 peroxisomal genes. In the new classification proposed herein nucleo-cytoplasmic class of sHsps with 9 subfamilies is more complex in rice than in Arabidopsis. Strikingly, 17 of 23 rice sHsp genes were noted to be intronless. Expression analysis based on microarray and RT-PCR showed that 19 sHsp genes were upregulated by high temperature stress. Besides heat stress, expression of sHsp genes was up or downregulated by other abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition to stress regulation, various sHsp genes were differentially upregulated at different developmental stages of the rice plant. Majority of sHsp genes were expressed in seed. Conclusion We identified twenty three sHsp genes and seventeen Acd genes in rice. Three nucleocytoplasmic sHsp genes were found only in monocots. Analysis of expression profiling of sHsp genes revealed

  2. 48 CFR 719.273-9 - Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Mentor-Protégé Program. 719.273-9 Section 719.273-9 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR... Development (USAID) Mentor-Protégé Program 719.273-9 Obligations under the Mentor-Protégé Program. (a) A Mentor or Protégé may voluntarily withdraw from the Program. However, in no event shall such withdrawal...

  3. Glucose metabolism in pigs expressing human genes under an insulin promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijkstrom, Martin; Bottino, Rita; Iwase, Hayoto; Hara, Hidetaka; Ekser, Burcin; van der Windt, Dirk; Long, Cassandra; Toledo, Frederico G S; Phelps, Carol J; Trucco, Massimo; Cooper, David K C; Ayares, David

    2015-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine islets can reverse diabetes in non-human primates. The remaining hurdles for clinical application include safe and effective T-cell-directed immunosuppression, but protection against the innate immune system and coagulation dysfunction may be more difficult to achieve. Islet-targeted genetic manipulation of islet-source pigs represents a powerful tool to protect against graft loss. However, whether these genetic alterations would impair islet function is unknown. On a background of α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO)/human (h)CD46, additional genes (hCD39, human tissue factor pathway inhibitor, porcine CTLA4-Ig) were inserted in different combinations under an insulin promoter to promote expression in islets (confirmed by immunofluorescence). Seven pigs were tested for baseline and glucose/arginine-challenged levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon. This preliminary study did not show definite evidence of β-cell deficiencies, even when three transgenes were expressed under the insulin promoter. Of seven animals, all were normoglycemic at fasting, and five of seven had normal glucose disposal rates after challenge. All animals exhibited insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon responses to both glucose and arginine challenge; however, significant interindividual variation was observed. Multiple islet-targeted transgenic expression was not associated with an overtly detrimental effect on islet function, suggesting that complex genetic constructs designed for islet protection warrants further testing in islet xenotransplantation models. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okinaga, S; Takahashi, K; Takeda, K; Yoshizawa, M; Fujita, H; Sasaki, H; Shibahara, S

    1996-06-15

    Heme oxygenase-1 is an essential enzyme in heme catabolism, and its human gene promoter contains a putative heat shock element (HHO-HSE). This study was designed to analyze the regulation of human heme oxygenase-1 gene expression under thermal stress. The amounts of heme oxygenase-1 protein were not increased by heat shock (incubation at 42 degrees C) in human alveolar macrophages and in a human erythroblastic cell line, YN-1-0-A, whereas heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was noticeably induced. However, heat shock factor does bind in vitro to HHO-HSE and the synthetic HHO-HSE by itself is sufficient to confer the increase in the transient expression of a reporter gene upon heat shock. The deletion of the sequence, located downstream from HHO-HSE, resulted in the activation of a reporter gene by heat shock. These results suggest that HHO-HSE is potentially functional but is repressed in vivo. Interestingly, heat shock abolished the remarkable increase in the levels of heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in YN-1-0-A cells treated with hemin or cadmium, in which HSP70 mRNA was noticeably induced. Furthermore, transient expression assays showed that heat shock inhibits the cadmium-mediated activation of the heme oxygenase-1 promoter, whereas the HSP70 gene promoter was activated upon heat shock. Such regulation of heme oxygenase-1 under thermal stress may be of physiologic significance in erythroid cells.

  5. Flowchart Programs, Regular Expressions, and Decidability of Polynomial Growth-Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir M. Ben-Amram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method for inferring complexity properties for a class of programs in the form of flowcharts annotated with loop information. Specifically, our method can (soundly and completely decide if computed values are polynomially bounded as a function of the input; and similarly for the running time. Such complexity properties are undecidable for a Turing-complete programming language, and a common work-around in program analysis is to settle for sound but incomplete solutions. In contrast, we consider a class of programs that is Turing-incomplete, but strong enough to include several challenges for this kind of analysis. For a related language that has well-structured syntax, similar to Meyer and Ritchie's LOOP programs, the problem has been previously proved to be decidable. The analysis relied on the compositionality of programs, hence the challenge in obtaining similar results for flowchart programs with arbitrary control-flow graphs. Our answer to the challenge is twofold: first, we propose a class of loop-annotated flowcharts, which is more general than the class of flowcharts that directly represent structured programs; secondly, we present a technique to reuse the ideas from the work on tructured programs and apply them to such flowcharts. The technique is inspired by the classic translation of non-deterministic automata to regular expressions, but we obviate the exponential cost of constructing such an expression, obtaining a polynomial-time analysis. These ideas may well be applicable to other analysis problems.

  6. Mangiferin ameliorates insulin resistance by inhibiting inflammation and regulatiing adipokine expression in adipocytes under hypoxic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Qiang; Xu, Jing-Hua; Yan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Bao-Lin; Liu, Kang; Huang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Adipose tissue hypoxia has been recognized as the initiation of insulin resistance syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mangiferin on the insulin signaling pathway and explore whether mangiferin could ameliorate insulin resistance caused by hypoxia in adipose tissue. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated under normal and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Protein expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines and HIF-1-dependent genes were tested by ELISA and q-PCR, respectively. The glucose uptake was detected by fluorescence microscopy. HIF-1α was abundantly expressed during 8 h of hypoxic incubation. Inflammatory reaction was activated by up-regulated NF-κB phosphorylation and released cytokines like IL-6 and TNF-α. Glucose uptake was inhibited and insulin signaling pathway was damaged as well. Mangiferin substantially inhibited the expression of HIF-1α. Lactate acid and lipolysis, products released by glycometabolism and lipolysis, were also inhibited. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and the damaged insulin signaling pathway was restored to proper functional level. The glucose uptake of hypoxic adipocytes was promoted and the dysfunction of adipocytes was relieved. These results showed that mangiferin could not only improve the damaged insulin signaling pathway in hypoxic adipocytes, but also ameliorate inflammatory reaction and insulin resistance caused by hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Maprotiline treatment differentially influences cardiac β-adrenoreceptors expression under normal and stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Spasojevic

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in cardiac function were observed in antidepressants treated patients and published in several clinical reports. These detected changes could be either a consequence of the treatment or of depression itself, which has already been proved to be a risk factor in heart diseases. In order to determine a possible influence of chronic treatment with norepinephrinergic reuptake inhibitor, maprotiline, on the heart, we investigated gene expression of cardiac β-adrenoceptors both in controls and in animals with signs of depression. The rats were divided into two groups, unstressed controls and those exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS. The groups were further divided into two subgroups, one receiving daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (sterile water and another one maprotiline (10 mg/kg for four weeks. Tissue samples were collected after the last application. Gene expression of cardiac β1- and β2-adrenoceptor was determined using Real-time RT-PCR analysis. Our results show that in control animals expression of both adrenoreceptors was decreased in the right atria after 4 weeks of maprotiline application. Contrary, the same treatment led to a significant increase in expression of cardiac β1-adrenoceptor in the stressed rats, with no change in the characteristics of β2-adrenoceptor. Our findings might reflect the that molecular mechanisms are underlying factors involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases linked with antidepressant treatment.

  8. Relationship between fumonisin production and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Francesca; Iversen, Anita; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is the main source of fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that can contaminate maize-based food and feed and cause diseases in humans and animals. The study of the effect of different environmental conditions on toxin production should provide information that can be used to develop strategies to minimize the risk. This study analysed the effect of temperature (15°C-35°C), water activity (a(w): 0.999-0.93), salinity (0-125 g l(-1) NaCl) and pH (5-8) on the growth and production of fumonisins B(1) (FB1), B(2) (FB2) and B(3) (FB3) and the expression of FUM1 and FUM21 in F. verticillioides. The highest growth rate was measured at 25°C, a(w) of 0.998-0.99 and 0-25 g l(-1) of NaCl. Optimal conditions for fumonisin production were 30°C, a(w) of 0.99, 25 g l(-1) of NaCl and pH 5; nevertheless, the strain showed a good adaptability and was able to produce moderate levels of fumonisins under a wide range of conditions. Gene expression mirrored fumonisin production profile under all conditions with the exception of temperature: FUM1 and FUM21 expression was highest at 15°C, while maximum fumonisin production was at 30°C. These data indicate that a post-transcriptional regulation mechanism could account for the different optimal temperatures for FUM gene expression and fumonisin production.

  9. Study of patient satisfaction and self-expressed problems after emergency caesarean delivery under subarachnoid block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Hemanth Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Subarachnoid block is one of the common modes of anaesthesia opted for emergency caesarean section, if the maternal and foetal conditions are favourable. Various factors influence the quality of care administered during the procedure. This questionnaire based study was undertaken to look for self-expressed problems in peri-operative period in patients undergoing emergency caesarean surgery under subarachnoid block. Methods: All the parturients who underwent emergency caesarean section under subarachnoid block during 6 months period were distributed a questionnaire in post-operative period. They were encouraged to fill and return the form within 15 days. Patient satisfaction and the self-expressed problems were analysed at the end of 6 months. Results: One hundred and seventy five out of 220 parturients responded. 58.3% of them said that they were explained about the anaesthesia prior to surgery and 85.3% overall remained anxious. With people around them, 93.1% of them felt comfortable and 91.4% expressed that they were made comfortable inside the theatre. The self-expressed problems were shivering (43.4%, breathlessness (21.7%, pain (20%, post-operative headache (15.4% and backache (19.4%. Parturients who heard their babies cry was 85.1%. After their babies were shown after delivery, 77.1% mothers slept well; 86.9% fed their babies within 4 h of delivery. Conclusion: Pre-operative communication in emergency caesarean section by health personnel did not reduce the anxiety level, which shows that communication was ineffective. Intra-operative psychological support like making the patient comfortable, showing baby to mother and early breast feeding improve bonding between child and mother and essentially contribute to patient satisfaction.

  10. Regulation of Banana Phytoene Synthase (MaPSY) Expression, Characterization and Their Modulation under Various Abiotic Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Navneet; Pandey, Ashutosh; Shivani; Kumar, Prateek; Pandey, Pankaj; Kesarwani, Atul K.; Mantri, Shrikant S.; Awasthi, Praveen; Tiwari, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY) is a key regulatory enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants. The present study examines the role of PSY in carotenogenesis and stress management in banana. Germplasm screening of 10 Indian cultivars showed that Nendran (3011.94 μg/100 g dry weight) and Rasthali (105.35 μg/100 g dry weight) contained the highest and lowest amounts of β-carotene, respectively in ripe fruit-pulp. Nendran ripe pulp also showed significantly higher antioxidant activity as compared to Rasthali. Meta-analysis of three banana PSY genes (MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3) was performed to identify their structural features, subcellular, and chromosomal localization in banana genome. The distinct expression patterns of MaPSY1, MaPSY2, and MaPSY3 genes were observed in various tissues, and fruit developmental stages of these two contrasting cultivars, suggesting differential regulation of the banana PSY genes. A positive correlation was observed between the expression of MaPSY1 and β-carotene accumulation in the ripe fruit-peel and pulp of Nendran. The presence of stress responsive cis-regulatory motifs in promoter region of MaPSY genes were correlated with the expression pattern during various stress (abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and dark) treatments. The positive modulation of MaPSY1 noticed under abiotic stresses suggested its role in plant physiological functions and defense response. The amino acid sequence analysis of the PSY proteins in contrasting cultivars revealed that all PSY comprises conserved domains related to enzyme activity. Bacterial complementation assay has validated the functional activity of six PSY proteins and among them PSY1 of Nendran (Nen-PSY1) gave the highest activity. These data provide new insights into the regulation of PSY expression in banana by developmental and stress related signals that can be explored in the banana improvement programs. PMID:28421096

  11. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The book carries a large number of summary studies made by using the Research Reactor (KUR) or the Critical Assembly (KUCA). These studies include low temperature irradiation effect on iron-alloy and ceramics, study on the influence of the neutron irradiation on the low temperature strength of various welded joint of dissimilar materials, effects of neutron irradiation on superconducting properties under stress in superconducting wires, neutron activation analysis and photo-emission phenomena from gamma-ray irradiated rock-forming minerals, study of irradiation effects in non-metallic conductors, distribution and mobility of ions of metal elements in stem, activation analysis of high purity metals, Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of superionic conductor, neutron spectrometry with CR-39 track detector, geochemical study on trace element abundances in island arc igneous rocks, experiment for measurement of neutron flux distribution in a tight pitch-lattice with a dy-wir, reactor rate distribution measurement of tight pitch lattice core with internal blanket, measurement of the foil reaction rates in a critical core, and many more. (N.K.)

  12. Localization and expression of MreB in Vibrio parahaemolyticus under different stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shen-Wen; Chen, Shau-Yan; Wong, Hin-chung

    2008-11-01

    MreB, the homolog of eukaryotic actin, may play a vital role when prokaryotes cope with stress by altering their spatial organization, including their morphology, subcellular architecture, and localization of macromolecules. This study investigates the behavior of MreB in Vibrio parahaemolyticus under various stresses. The behavior of MreB was probed using a yellow fluorescent protein-MreB conjugate in merodiploid strain SC9. Under normal growth conditions, MreB formed helical filaments in exponential-phase cells. The shape of starved or stationary-phase cells changed from rods to small spheroids. The cells differentiated into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state with small spherical cells via a "swelling-waning" process. In all cases, drastic remodeling of the MreB cytoskeleton was observed. MreB helices typically were loosened and fragmented into short filaments, arcs, and spots in bacteria under these stresses. The disintegrated MreB exhibited a strong tendency to attach to the cytoplasmic membrane. The expression of mreB generally declined in bacteria in the stationary phase and under starvation but was upregulated during the initial periods of cold shock and VBNC state differentiation and decreased afterwards. Our findings demonstrated the behavior of MreB in the morphological changes of V. parahaemolyticus under intrinsic or extrinsic stresses and may have important implications for studying the cellular stress response and aging.

  13. A Seasonal Time-Series Model Based on Gene Expression Programming for Predicting Financial Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsue Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of financial distress prediction plays an important and challenging research topic in the financial field. Currently, there have been many methods for predicting firm bankruptcy and financial crisis, including the artificial intelligence and the traditional statistical methods, and the past studies have shown that the prediction result of the artificial intelligence method is better than the traditional statistical method. Financial statements are quarterly reports; hence, the financial crisis of companies is seasonal time-series data, and the attribute data affecting the financial distress of companies is nonlinear and nonstationary time-series data with fluctuations. Therefore, this study employed the nonlinear attribute selection method to build a nonlinear financial distress prediction model: that is, this paper proposed a novel seasonal time-series gene expression programming model for predicting the financial distress of companies. The proposed model has several advantages including the following: (i the proposed model is different from the previous models lacking the concept of time series; (ii the proposed integrated attribute selection method can find the core attributes and reduce high dimensional data; and (iii the proposed model can generate the rules and mathematical formulas of financial distress for providing references to the investors and decision makers. The result shows that the proposed method is better than the listing classifiers under three criteria; hence, the proposed model has competitive advantages in predicting the financial distress of companies.

  14. A Seasonal Time-Series Model Based on Gene Expression Programming for Predicting Financial Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The issue of financial distress prediction plays an important and challenging research topic in the financial field. Currently, there have been many methods for predicting firm bankruptcy and financial crisis, including the artificial intelligence and the traditional statistical methods, and the past studies have shown that the prediction result of the artificial intelligence method is better than the traditional statistical method. Financial statements are quarterly reports; hence, the financial crisis of companies is seasonal time-series data, and the attribute data affecting the financial distress of companies is nonlinear and nonstationary time-series data with fluctuations. Therefore, this study employed the nonlinear attribute selection method to build a nonlinear financial distress prediction model: that is, this paper proposed a novel seasonal time-series gene expression programming model for predicting the financial distress of companies. The proposed model has several advantages including the following: (i) the proposed model is different from the previous models lacking the concept of time series; (ii) the proposed integrated attribute selection method can find the core attributes and reduce high dimensional data; and (iii) the proposed model can generate the rules and mathematical formulas of financial distress for providing references to the investors and decision makers. The result shows that the proposed method is better than the listing classifiers under three criteria; hence, the proposed model has competitive advantages in predicting the financial distress of companies. PMID:29765399

  15. A Seasonal Time-Series Model Based on Gene Expression Programming for Predicting Financial Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Hsue; Chan, Chia-Pang; Yang, Jun-He

    2018-01-01

    The issue of financial distress prediction plays an important and challenging research topic in the financial field. Currently, there have been many methods for predicting firm bankruptcy and financial crisis, including the artificial intelligence and the traditional statistical methods, and the past studies have shown that the prediction result of the artificial intelligence method is better than the traditional statistical method. Financial statements are quarterly reports; hence, the financial crisis of companies is seasonal time-series data, and the attribute data affecting the financial distress of companies is nonlinear and nonstationary time-series data with fluctuations. Therefore, this study employed the nonlinear attribute selection method to build a nonlinear financial distress prediction model: that is, this paper proposed a novel seasonal time-series gene expression programming model for predicting the financial distress of companies. The proposed model has several advantages including the following: (i) the proposed model is different from the previous models lacking the concept of time series; (ii) the proposed integrated attribute selection method can find the core attributes and reduce high dimensional data; and (iii) the proposed model can generate the rules and mathematical formulas of financial distress for providing references to the investors and decision makers. The result shows that the proposed method is better than the listing classifiers under three criteria; hence, the proposed model has competitive advantages in predicting the financial distress of companies.

  16. Effect of glucocorticoids on melatonin receptor expression under T-cell activated immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauschanova, P.; Georgiev, G.; Manchev, S.; Konakchieva, R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the stress response in rats under conditions of T-cell antigen-activated immune function and to investigate the specific melatonin (MEL) receptor binding in primary and secondary immune tissue of rats employing 2-( 125 I)-iodo melatonin autoradiography and in vitro ligand binding assay. The study revealed that melatonin receptor binding was specifically expressed in discrete areas of the lymphoid sheath of the spleen and in a network of interdigitating cells of the experimental rats. Demonstration of the modulation of MEL receptor binding in the course of a primary immune response under hypercorticalemic conditions indicate that the pineal hormone might interfere in the processes of glucocorticoid-dependent immune competency. (authors)

  17. AMPK is involved in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets under a low glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Tajima

    Full Text Available The precise role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, a target of metformin, in pancreatic β cells remains controversial, even though metformin was recently shown to enhance the expression of incretin receptors (GLP-1 and GIP receptors in pancreatic β cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of AMPK in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets. The phosphorylation of AMPK in the mouse islets was decreased by increasing glucose concentrations. We showed the expression of incretin receptors in bell-shaped response to glucose. Expression of the incretin receptors in the isolated islets showed higher levels under a medium glucose concentration (11.1 mM than that under a low glucose concentration (2.8 mM, but was suppressed under a high glucose concentration (22.2 mM. Both treatment with an AMPK inhibitor and DN-AMPK expression produced a significant increase of the incretin receptors expression under a low glucose concentration. By contrast, in hyperglycemic db/db islets, the enhancing effect of the AMPK inhibitor on the expression of incretin receptors was diminished under a low glucose concentration. Taken together, AMPK is involved in the regulation of incretin receptors expression in pancreatic islets under a low glucose concentration.

  18. Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Fibroblast Cells under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Mizuno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, resonant coupling wireless power transfer (WPT technology has been attracting attention and has been widely researched for practical use. Moreover, dosimetric evaluation has also been discussed to evaluate the potential health risks of the electromagnetic field from this WPT technology based on the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines. However, there has not been much experimental evaluation of the potential health risks of this WPT technology. In this study, to evaluate whether magnetic resonant coupling WPT induces cellular stress, we focused on heat shock proteins (Hsps and determined the expression level of Hsps 27, 70 and 90 in WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells using a western blotting method. The expression level of Hsps under conditions of magnetic resonant coupling WPT for 24 h was not significantly different compared with control cells, although the expression level of Hsps for cells exposed to heat stress conditions was significantly increased. These results suggested that exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT did not cause detectable cell stress.

  19. The expression of heat shock proteins 70 and 90 in pea seedlings under simulated microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozeko, L.

    Microgravity is an abnormal and so stress factor for plants. Expression of known stress-related genes is appeared to implicate in the cell response to different kinds of stress. Heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 are present in plant cells under the normal growth conditions and their quantity increases during stress. The effect of simulated microgravity on expression of HSP70 and HSP90 was studied in etiolated Pisum sativum seedlings grown on the horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) from seed germination for 3 days. Seedlings were also subjected to two other types of stressors: vertical clinorotatoin (2 rpm) and 2 h temperature elevation (40°C). HSPs' level was measured by ELISA. The quantity of both HSPs increased more than in three times in the seedlings on the horizontal clinostat in comparison with the stationary 1 g control. Vertical clinorotation also increased HSPs' level but less at about 20% than horizontal one. These effects were comparable with the influence of temperature elevation. The data presented suggest that simulated microgravity upregulate HSP70 and HSP90 expression. The increased HSPs' level might evidence the important functional role of these proteins in plant adaptation to microgravity. We are currently investigating the contribution of constitutive or inducible forms of the HSPs in this stress response.

  20. The neural dynamics underlying the interpersonal effects of emotional expression on decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuhai; Zheng, Tingting; Han, Lingzi; Chang, Yingchao; Luo, Yangmei

    2017-04-20

    Although numerous studies explore the effects of emotion on decision-making, the existing research has mainly focused on the influence of intrapersonal emotions, leaving the influence of one person's emotions on another's decisions underestimated. To specify how interpersonal emotions shape decision-making and delineate the underlying neural dynamics involved, the present study examined brain responses to utilitarian feedback combined with angry or happy faces in competitive and cooperative contexts. Behavioral results showed that participants responded slower following losses than wins when competitors express happiness but responded faster following losses than wins when cooperators express anger. Importantly, angry faces in competitive context reversed the differentiation pattern of feedback-related negativity (FRN) between losses and wins and diminished the difference between losses and wins on both P300 and theta power, but only diminished the difference on FRN between losses and wins in cooperative context. However, when partner displays happiness, losses versus wins elicited larger FRN and theta power in competitive context but smaller P300 in both contexts. These results suggest that interpersonal emotions shape decisions during both automatic motivational salience valuation (FRN) and conscious cognitive appraisal (P300) stages of processing, in which different emotional expressions exert interpersonal influence through different routes.

  1. An intelligent tutor to learn the evaluation of microcontroller I/O programming expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Hugo; Heeren, B.J.; Keuning, H.W.; Jeuring, J.T.

    2017-01-01

    Embedded systems engineers need to learn how I/O programming expressions for microcontrollers evaluate. We designed, implemented, and tested an intelligent tutoring system prototype for learning such evaluations. The Microcontroller Knowledge (MicK) tutor guides a student step-by-step towards a

  2. Gene Expression Patterns Underlying the Reinstatement of Plasticity in the Adult Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Tiraboschi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is highly sensitive to experience during early postnatal life, but this phase of heightened plasticity decreases with age. Recent studies have demonstrated that developmental-like plasticity can be reactivated in the visual cortex of adult animals through environmental or pharmacological manipulations. These findings provide a unique opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of adult plasticity. Here we used the monocular deprivation paradigm to investigate large-scale gene expression patterns underlying the reinstatement of plasticity produced by fluoxetine in the adult rat visual cortex. We found changes, confirmed with RT-PCRs, in gene expression in different biological themes, such as chromatin structure remodelling, transcription factors, molecules involved in synaptic plasticity, extracellular matrix, and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Our findings reveal a key role for several molecules such as the metalloproteases Mmp2 and Mmp9 or the glycoprotein Reelin and open up new insights into the mechanisms underlying the reopening of the critical periods in the adult brain.

  3. Relation Between Motility, Accelerated Aging and Gene Expression in Selected Drosophila Strains under Hypergravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Paloma; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Medina, F. Javier; Herranz, Raúl

    2013-02-01

    Motility and aging in Drosophila have proven to be highly modified under altered gravity conditions (both in space and ground simulation facilities). In order to find out how closely connected they are, five strains with altered geotactic response or survival rates were selected and exposed to an altered gravity environment of 2 g. By analysing the different motile and behavioural patterns and the median survival rates, we show that altered gravity leads to changes in motility, which will have a negative impact on the flies' survival. Previous results show a differential gene expression between sessile samples and adults and confirm that environmentally-conditioned behavioural patterns constrain flies' gene expression and life span. Therefore, hypergravity is considered an environmental stress factor and strains that do not respond to this new environment experience an increment in motility, which is the major cause for the observed increased mortality also under microgravity conditions. The neutral-geotaxis selected strain (strain M) showed the most severe phenotype, unable to respond to variations in the gravitational field. Alternatively, the opposite phenotype was observed in positive-geotaxis and long-life selected flies (strains B and L, respectively), suggesting that these populations are less sensitive to alterations in the gravitational load. We conclude that the behavioural response has a greater contribution to aging than the modified energy consumption in altered gravity environments.

  4. The Freedom of the Judge to Express his Personal Opinions and Convictions under the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Dijkstra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.

  5. Facial expression recognition under partial occlusion based on fusion of global and local features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Xia, Chen; Hu, Min; Ren, Fuji

    2018-04-01

    Facial expression recognition under partial occlusion is a challenging research. This paper proposes a novel framework for facial expression recognition under occlusion by fusing the global and local features. In global aspect, first, information entropy are employed to locate the occluded region. Second, principal Component Analysis (PCA) method is adopted to reconstruct the occlusion region of image. After that, a replace strategy is applied to reconstruct image by replacing the occluded region with the corresponding region of the best matched image in training set, Pyramid Weber Local Descriptor (PWLD) feature is then extracted. At last, the outputs of SVM are fitted to the probabilities of the target class by using sigmoid function. For the local aspect, an overlapping block-based method is adopted to extract WLD features, and each block is weighted adaptively by information entropy, Chi-square distance and similar block summation methods are then applied to obtain the probabilities which emotion belongs to. Finally, fusion at the decision level is employed for the data fusion of the global and local features based on Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. Experimental results on the Cohn-Kanade and JAFFE databases demonstrate the effectiveness and fault tolerance of this method.

  6. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The Intelligent Control and Autonomy Branch (ICA) at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced controls and health management technologies that will help meet the goals of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Programs. These efforts are primarily under the various projects under the Advanced Air Vehicles Program (AAVP), Airspace Operations and Safety Program (AOSP) and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Program (TAC). The ICA Branch is focused on advancing the state-of-the-art of aero-engine control and diagnostics technologies to help improve aviation safety, increase efficiency, and enable operation with reduced emissions. This paper describes the various ICA research efforts under the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs with a summary of motivation, background, technical approach, and recent accomplishments for each of the research tasks.

  7. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qing [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Xiaomei [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wang Xiaoyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Engineering Research Center of Seawater Utilization Technology, Ministry of Education, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yang Hongsheng, E-mail: hshyang@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7th Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071 (China); Liu Baozhong, E-mail: bzliu@ms.qdio.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 {mu}g L{sup -1}). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  8. Analysis of metallotionein expression and antioxidant enzyme activities in Meretrix meretrix larvae under sublethal cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Wang Xiaomei; Wang Xiaoyu; Yang Hongsheng; Liu Baozhong

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of metallothioneins (MTs) and antioxidant enzymes in cadmium (Cd) tolerance in Meretrix meretrix larvae, a new MT (designated MmMT) gene was identified and cloned from M. meretrix. The full-length cDNA of MmMT consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 231 bp encoding a protein of 76 amino acids, with 21 cysteine residues and a conserved structural pattern Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-Tyr-Gly-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-x(3)-Cys-x-Cys-Lys at the C-terminus. The deduced amino acid sequence of MmMT showed about 57-84% identity with previously published MT sequences of mussels and oysters. Real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression level of MmMT mRNA at different M. meretrix larval stages under Cd exposure (25 μg L -1 ). Results showed that Cd could induce the expression of MmMT mRNA in the larvae, and the expression level increased 5.04-fold and 3.99-fold in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers, respectively. Immunolocalization of MmMT in the stressed larvae revealed that MmMT was synthesized in almost all of the soft parts at the trochophore and postlarva stages, whereas it was only synthesized in the velum and epidermis at the D-shaped larva and pediveliger stages. The activities of three antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), also were measured in larvae at different developmental stages. Increased enzymatic activities were detected mainly in D-shaped larvae and pediveligers under Cd stress, suggesting that these enzymes respond synchronously with MT. Our results indicate that MmMT and antioxidant enzymes played important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. meretrix larvae.

  9. 76 FR 71993 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Claims Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Claims Management Program AGENCY: Transportation... Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management... the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register...

  10. Global gene expression under nitrogen starvation in Xylella fastidiosa: contribution of the σ54 regulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva Neto José F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylella fastidiosa, a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium, grows in the xylem of several plants causing diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis. As the xylem sap contains low concentrations of amino acids and other compounds, X. fastidiosa needs to cope with nitrogen limitation in its natural habitat. Results In this work, we performed a whole-genome microarray analysis of the X. fastidiosa nitrogen starvation response. A time course experiment (2, 8 and 12 hours of cultures grown in defined medium under nitrogen starvation revealed many differentially expressed genes, such as those related to transport, nitrogen assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, transcriptional regulation, and many genes encoding hypothetical proteins. In addition, a decrease in the expression levels of many genes involved in carbon metabolism and energy generation pathways was also observed. Comparison of gene expression profiles between the wild type strain and the rpoN null mutant allowed the identification of genes directly or indirectly induced by nitrogen starvation in a σ54-dependent manner. A more complete picture of the σ54 regulon was achieved by combining the transcriptome data with an in silico search for potential σ54-dependent promoters, using a position weight matrix approach. One of these σ54-predicted binding sites, located upstream of the glnA gene (encoding glutamine synthetase, was validated by primer extension assays, confirming that this gene has a σ54-dependent promoter. Conclusions Together, these results show that nitrogen starvation causes intense changes in the X. fastidiosa transcriptome and some of these differentially expressed genes belong to the σ54 regulon.

  11. Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu; Ichihara, Chihiro; Shiroya, Seiji; Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaboration

  12. How Neoliberal Imperialism is Expressed by Programming Strategies of Phoenix TV: A Critical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Xie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This project is a case study of Phoenix Television, which is a Hong Kong-based satellite TV network broadcasting to the global Chinese-speaking community, primarily to the mainland of China. In the theoretical framework of media imperialism and neoliberal imperialism, this study focuses on the programming strategies of Phoenix TV and examines how the global trend of neoliberalism, the Chinese government’s tight control of the media, and the sophisticated ownership of Phoenix TV intertwined to influence on its programming. The analysis of the format, content, naming, and scheduling reveals that US-inspired neoliberalism is expressed in the network’s programming strategies. This expression, in fact, is the balance that Phoenix found between the tension of global and Chinese interests, the tension between revenue making and public service, and the tension between Party-control and profit seeking.

  13. Steady-state and dynamic gene expression programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in response to variation in environmental nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Miller, Darach; Athanasiadou, Rodoniki; Brandt, Nathan; Abdul-Rahman, Farah; Neymotin, Benjamin; Hashimoto, Tatsu; Bahmani, Tayebeh; Gresham, David

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth rate is regulated in response to the abundance and molecular form of essential nutrients. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), the molecular form of environmental nitrogen is a major determinant of cell growth rate, supporting growth rates that vary at least threefold. Transcriptional control of nitrogen use is mediated in large part by nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR), which results in the repression of specific transcripts in the presence of a preferred nitrogen source that supports a fast growth rate, such as glutamine, that are otherwise expressed in the presence of a nonpreferred nitrogen source, such as proline, which supports a slower growth rate. Differential expression of the NCR regulon and additional nitrogen-responsive genes results in >500 transcripts that are differentially expressed in cells growing in the presence of different nitrogen sources in batch cultures. Here we find that in growth rate–controlled cultures using nitrogen-limited chemostats, gene expression programs are strikingly similar regardless of nitrogen source. NCR expression is derepressed in all nitrogen-limiting chemostat conditions regardless of nitrogen source, and in these conditions, only 34 transcripts exhibit nitrogen source–specific differential gene expression. Addition of either the preferred nitrogen source, glutamine, or the nonpreferred nitrogen source, proline, to cells growing in nitrogen-limited chemostats results in rapid, dose-dependent repression of the NCR regulon. Using a novel means of computational normalization to compare global gene expression programs in steady-state and dynamic conditions, we find evidence that the addition of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited cells results in the transient overproduction of transcripts required for protein translation. Simultaneously, we find that that accelerated mRNA degradation underlies the rapid clearing of a subset of transcripts, which is most pronounced for the highly expressed NCR

  14. 34 CFR 660.2 - Who is eligible to apply for grants under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to apply for grants under this program? 660.2 Section 660.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM...

  15. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...-04] RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of funding availability; Date... on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project...

  16. Methods of Software Quality Assurance under a Nuclear Quality Assurance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Young Jun; Cha, Kyung Ho; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a substantial implementation of a software quality assurance under a nuclear quality assurance program. The relationship of the responsibility between a top-level nuclear quality assurance program such as ASME/NQA-1 and its lower level software quality assurance is described. Software quality assurance activities and software quality assurance procedures during the software development life cycle are also described

  17. 76 FR 74849 - Fund Availability Under the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... programs under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f) ( http://www.huduser...: Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program Office, National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans, 4100... funding per state. See Section E of this Notice for maximum allowable grant amounts. FOR FURTHER...

  18. 75 FR 79087 - Fund Availability Under the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... (HUD) for programs under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437f) ( http... Veteran Families Program Office, National Center on Homelessness Among Veterans, 4100 Chester Avenue... the Final Rule, an eligible entity may submit only one application per State. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  19. 44 CFR 79.7 - Offers and appeals under the SRL program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program FLOOD MITIGATION GRANTS § 79.7 Offers and appeals under the SRL program. (a) Consultation. States and communities... mitigation activity. These consultations shall be initiated in the early stages of the project development...

  20. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7104 Contracts under the Small Business...

  1. 75 FR 52976 - Issuance of Revised Users' Manual for Commission Mediation Program for Investigations Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Issuance of Revised Users' Manual for Commission Mediation Program... 65615 (Nov. 8, 2008). The Commission has determined to issue a revised Users' Manual for its program for the mediation of investigations under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930. The revised Users' Manual...

  2. NEARSOL - a simple program to model actinide speciation and solubility under waste disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, S.J.; Pryke, D.C.

    1986-05-01

    A simple program, NearSol, has been written in Fortran 77 on the Harwell Central Computer to model the aqueous speciation and solubility of actinides under near-field conditions for disposal using a simple thermodynamic approach. The methodology and running of the program are described together with a worked example. (author)

  3. Epstein-Barr virus growth/latency III program alters cellular microRNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Jennifer E.; Fewell, Claire; Yin, Qinyan; McBride, Jane; Wang Xia; Lin Zhen

    2008-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with lymphoid and epithelial cancers. Initial EBV infection alters lymphocyte gene expression, inducing cellular proliferation and differentiation as the virus transitions through consecutive latency transcription programs. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of signaling pathways and are implicated in carcinogenesis. The extent to which EBV exploits cellular miRNAs is unknown. Using micro-array analysis and quantitative PCR, we demonstrate differential expression of cellular miRNAs in type III versus type I EBV latency including elevated expression of miR-21, miR-23a, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-34a, miR-146a and b, and miR-155. In contrast, miR-28 expression was found to be lower in type III latency. The EBV-mediated regulation of cellular miRNAs may contribute to EBV signaling and associated cancers

  4. 75 FR 18138 - Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Component members not in a present duty status. This authority includes payment for health care services in... 0790-AI52] Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special... establish policies and assign responsibilities for health care eligibility under the Secretarial Designee...

  5. Do heart failure disease management programs make financial sense under a bundled payment system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Reed, Shelby D; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D

    2011-05-01

    Policy makers have proposed bundling payments for all heart failure (HF) care within 30 days of an HF hospitalization in an effort to reduce costs. Disease management (DM) programs can reduce costly HF readmissions but have not been economically attractive for caregivers under existing fee-for-service payment. Whether a bundled payment approach can address the negative financial impact of DM programs is unknown. Our study determined the cost-neutral point for the typical DM program and examined whether published HF DM programs can be cost saving under bundled payment programs. We used a decision analytic model using data from retrospective cohort studies, meta-analyses, 5 randomized trials evaluating DM programs, and inpatient claims for all Medicare beneficiaries discharged with an HF diagnosis from 2001 to 2004. We determined the costs of DM programs and inpatient care over 30 and 180 days. With a baseline readmission rate of 22.9%, the average cost for readmissions over 30 days was $2,272 per patient. Under base-case assumptions, a DM program that reduced readmissions by 21% would need to cost $477 per patient to be cost neutral. Among evaluated published DM programs, 2 of the 5 would increase provider costs (+$15 to $283 per patient), whereas 3 programs would be cost saving (-$241 to $347 per patient). If bundled payments were broadened to include care over 180 days, then program saving estimates would increase, ranging from $419 to $1,706 per patient. Proposed bundled payments for HF admissions provide hospitals with a potential financial incentive to implement DM programs that efficiently reduce readmissions. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of fatty acid synthesis genes and fatty acid accumulation in haematococcus pluvialis under different stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Anping

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuel has been the focus of intensive global research over the past few years. The development of 4th generation biofuel production (algae-to-biofuels based on metabolic engineering of algae is still in its infancy, one of the main barriers is our lacking of understanding of microalgal growth, metabolism and biofuel production. Although fatty acid (FA biosynthesis pathway genes have been all cloned and biosynthesis pathway was built up in some higher plants, the molecular mechanism for its regulation in microalgae is far away from elucidation. Results We cloned main key genes for FA biosynthesis in Haematococcus pluvialis, a green microalga as a potential biodiesel feedstock, and investigated the correlations between their expression alternation and FA composition and content detected by GC-MS under different stress treatments, such as nitrogen depletion, salinity, high or low temperature. Our results showed that high temperature, high salinity, and nitrogen depletion treatments played significant roles in promoting microalgal FA synthesis, while FA qualities were not changed much. Correlation analysis showed that acyl carrier protein (ACP, 3-ketoacyl-ACP-synthase (KAS, and acyl-ACP thioesterase (FATA gene expression had significant correlations with monounsaturated FA (MUFA synthesis and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA synthesis. Conclusions We proposed that ACP, KAS, and FATA in H. pluvialis may play an important role in FA synthesis and may be rate limiting genes, which probably could be modified for the further study of metabolic engineering to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

  7. Genomewide Expression and Functional Interactions of Genes under Drought Stress in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A genomewide transcriptome assay of two subtropical genotypes of maize was used to observe the expression of genes at seedling stage of drought stress. The number of genes expressed differentially was greater in HKI1532 (a drought tolerant genotype than in PC3 (a drought sensitive genotype, indicating primary differences at the transcriptional level in stress tolerance. The global coexpression networks of the two genotypes differed significantly with respect to the number of modules and the coexpression pattern within the modules. A total of 174 drought-responsive genes were selected from HKI1532, and their coexpression network revealed key correlations between different adaptive pathways, each cluster of the network representing a specific biological function. Transcription factors related to ABA-dependent stomatal closure, signalling, and phosphoprotein cascades work in concert to compensate for reduced photosynthesis. Under stress, water balance was maintained by coexpression of the genes involved in osmotic adjustments and transporter proteins. Metabolism was maintained by the coexpression of genes involved in cell wall modification and protein and lipid metabolism. The interaction of genes involved in crucial biological functions during stress was identified and the results will be useful in targeting important gene interactions to understand drought tolerance in greater detail.

  8. Expression Changes in Metal-Resistance Genes in Microbacterium liquefaciens Under Nickel and Vanadium Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros-Romero, Grisel; Wrosek-Cabrera, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Pless, Reynaldo C; Rivas-Castillo, A M; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2017-07-01

    Microbacterium liquefaciens MNSH2-PHGII-2 is a nickel-vanadium-resistant bacterium isolated from mine tailings located in Guanajuato, Mexico. In PHGII liquid media, M. liquefaciens has the ability to remove 29.5 ppm of Ni and 168.3 ppm of V. The present study reports, for the first time in M. liquefaciens, the presence of the genes nccA (Ni-Co-Cd resistance), hant (high-affinity nickel transporter), smtA, a metal-binding protein gene, and VAN2 (V resistance), which showed an increased expression under exposure to 200 ppm of Ni and 200 ppm of V during the logarithmic growth phase of the microorganism in PHGII liquid media. Data about the expression profile of genes conferring metal resistance to M. liquefaciens can improve the knowledge of those mechanisms involved in the processes of Ni-V resistance and probably in Ni-V removal processes. Based on our data, we can suggest that M. liquefaciens has the potential to be used in the biological treatment of toxic wastes with high Ni and V content.

  9. Characterization of barley Prp1 gene and its expression during seed development and under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Tao; Ma, Jian; Wei, Yu-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2011-10-01

    The pre-mRNA processing (Prp1) gene encodes a spliceosomal protein. It was firstly identified in fission yeast and plays a regular role during spliceosome activation and cell cycle. Plant Prp1 genes have only been identified from rice, Sorghum and Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we reported the identification and isolation of a novel Prp1 gene from barley, and further explored its expressional pattern by using real-time quantitative RTPCR, promoter prediction and analysis of microarray data. The putative barley Prp1 protein has a similar primary structure features to those of other known Prp1 protein in this family. The results of amino acid comparison indicated that Prp1 protein of barley and other plant species has a highly conserved 30 termnal region while their 50 sequences greatly varied. The results of expressional analysis revealed that the expression level of barley Prp1 gene is always stable in different vegetative tissues, except it is up-regulated at the mid- and late stages of seed development or under the condition of cold stress. This kind of expressional pattern for barley Prp1 is also supported by our results of comparison of microarray data from barley, rice and Arabidopsis. For the molecular mechanism of its expressional pattern, we conclude that the expression of Prp1 gene may be up-regulated by the increase of pre-mRNAs and not be constitutive or ubiquitous.

  10. Identification and Expression Profiling of the Auxin Response Factors in Dendrobium officinale under Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Yuan, Ye; Fu, Di; Shen, Chenjia; Yang, Yanjun

    2017-05-04

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental stresses by binding specifically to the auxin response element in the promoters of target genes. Using our latest public Dendrobium transcriptomes, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 14 DnARF genes were performed. Three selected DnARFs , including DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 , were confirmed to be nuclear proteins according to their transient expression in epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Furthermore, the transcription activation abilities of DnARF1 , DnARF4 , and DnARF6 were tested in a yeast system. Our data showed that DnARF6 is a transcriptional activator in Dendrobium officinale . To uncover the basic information of DnARF gene responses to abiotic stresses, we analyzed their expression patterns under various hormones and abiotic treatments. Based on our data, several hormones and significant stress responsive DnARF genes have been identified. Since auxin and ARF genes have been identified in many plant species, our data is imperative to reveal the function of ARF mediated auxin signaling in the adaptation to the challenging Dendrobium environment.

  11. Programmed Death-ligand 1 Expression in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Stephanie L; Liu, Tzu-Ying; Udager, Aaron M; Weizer, Alon Z; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Siddiqui, Javed; Cao, Xuhong; Fields, Kristina; Abugharib, Ahmed E; Soliman, Moaaz; Hafez, Khaled S; Miller, David; Lee, Cheryl T; Alva, Ajjai; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Morgan, Todd M; Spratt, Daniel E; Jiang, Hui; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-10-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Upper tract (renal pelvis and ureter) urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) account for approximately 5% of UCs but a significant subset are invasive and associated with poor clinical outcomes. To evaluate programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in UTUC. UTUC cases from 1997-2016 were retrospectively identified from the surgical pathology database at a single large academic institution. The cohort included 149 cases: 27 low-grade and 24 high-grade pathologic T (pT)a, 29 pT1, 23 pT2, 38 pT3, and eight pT4. PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on representative whole tumor sections using anti-PD-L1 primary antibody clone 5H1. PD-L1 expression was evaluated using a previously established cut-off for positivity (≥ 5% membranous staining). Association between PD-L1 IHC expression and clinicopathologic parameters was examined with Fisher's exact test; the effect of PD-L1 expression on cancer-specific mortality was assessed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Approximately one-third (32.7%) of invasive primary UTUC and 23.5% of all primary UTUC (invasive and noninvasive tumors) demonstrated positive PD-L1 expression. Positive PD-L1 expression was associated with high histologic grade, high pathologic stage, and angiolymphatic invasion. Cancer-specific survival was not significantly associated with positive PD-L1 expression using a 5% cut-off. Study limitations include the retrospective nature and the fact that PD-L1 expression by IHC is an imperfect surrogate for response to therapy. Positive PD-L1 expression in approximately one-third of primary invasive UTUC and association with high-risk clinicopathologic features provide a rational basis for further investigation of PD-L1-based immunotherapeutics in these patients. Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is often associated with poor clinical outcome. While current treatment options for advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma are

  12. Summary of work completed under the Environmental and Dynamic Equipment Qualification research program (EDQP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; Bramwell, D.L.; Watkins, J.C.; DeWall, K.G.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the results of the main projects undertaken under the Environmental and Dynamic Equipment Qualification Research Program (EDQP) sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) under FIN A6322. Lasting from fiscal year 1983 to 1987, the program dealt with environmental and dynamic (including seismic) equipment qualification issues for mechanical and electromechanical components and systems used in nuclear power plants. The research results have since been used by both the NRC and industry. The program included seven major research projects that addressed the following issues: (a) containment purge and vent valves performing under design basis loss of coolant accident loads, (b) containment piping penetrations and isolation valves performing under seismic loadings and design basis and severe accident containment wall displacements, (c) shaft seals for primary coolant pumps performing under station blackout conditions, (d) electrical cabinet internals responding to in-structure generated motion (rattling), and (e) in situ piping and valves responding to seismic loadings. Another project investigating whether certain containment isolation valves will close under design basis conditions was also started under this program. This report includes eight main section, each of which provides a brief description of one of the projects, a summary of the findings, and an overview of the application of the results. A bibliography lists the journal articles, papers, and reports that document the research

  13. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  14. Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelin, Jenny; Susilo, Yusak Budi; Johler, Sophia

    2017-12-15

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. Consumption of enterotoxins preformed in food causes violent vomiting and can be fatal in children and the elderly. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, Staphylococcus aureus benefits from crucial competitive advantages in foods with high osmolarity or low pH. During recent years, the long-standing belief in the feasibility of assessing SFP risk based on colony-forming units of S. aureus present in food products has been disproven. Instead, researchers and food business operators are acutely aware of the imminent threat arising from unforeseeable enterotoxin production under stress conditions. This paradigm shift led to a variety of new publications enabling an improved understanding of enterotoxin expression under stress conditions encountered in food. The wealth of data provided by these studies is extremely diverse, as it is based on different methodological approaches, staphylococcal strains, stressors, and enterotoxins. Therefore, in this review, we aggregated and critically evaluated the complex findings of these studies, to provide readers with a current overview of the state of research in the field.

  15. Salmonella Modulates Metabolism During Growth under Conditions that Induce Expression of Virulence Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Mo; Schmidt, Brian; Kidwai, Afshan S.; Jones, Marcus B.; Deatherage, Brooke L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; McDermott, Jason E.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Peterson, Scott N.; Ansong, Charles; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-04-05

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a facultative pathogen that uses complex mechanisms to invade and proliferate within mammalian host cells. To investigate possible contributions of metabolic processes in S. Typhimurium grown under conditions known to induce expression of virulence genes, we used a metabolomics-driven systems biology approach coupled with genome scale modeling. First, we identified distinct metabolite profiles associated with bacteria grown in either rich or virulence-inducing media and report the most comprehensive coverage of the S. Typhimurium metabolome to date. Second, we applied an omics-informed genome scale modeling analysis of the functional consequences of adaptive alterations in S. Typhimurium metabolism during growth under our conditions. Excitingly, we observed possible sequestration of metabolites recently suggested to have immune modulating roles. Modeling efforts highlighted a decreased cellular capability to both produce and utilize intracellular amino acids during stationary phase culture in virulence conditions, despite significant abundance increases for these molecules as observed by our metabolomics measurements. Model-guided analysis suggested that alterations in metabolism prioritized other activities necessary for pathogenesis instead, such as lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.

  16. CD133 Modulate HIF-1α Expression under Hypoxia in EMT Phenotype Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki Maeda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although CD133 is a known representative cancer stem cell marker, its function in tumor aggressiveness under hypoxia is not fully known. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that CD133 regulates hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α expression with tumor migration. The CD133+ pancreatic cancer cell line, Capan1M9, was compared with the CD133− cell line, shCD133M9, under hypoxia. HIF-1α expression levels were compared by Western blot, HIF-1α nucleus translocation assay and real-time (RT-PCR. The hypoxia responsive element (HRE was observed by luciferase assay. The migration ability was analyzed by migration and wound healing assays. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT related genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. HIF-1α was highly expressed in Capan1M9 compared to shCD133M9 under hypoxia because of the high activation of HRE. Furthermore, the migration ability of Capan1M9 was higher than that of shCD133M9 under hypoxia, suggesting higher expression of EMT related genes in Capan1M9 compared to shCD133M9. Conclusion: HIF-1α expression under hypoxia in CD133+ pancreatic cancer cells correlated with tumor cell migration through EMT gene expression. Understanding the function of CD133 in cancer aggressiveness provides a novel therapeutic approach to eradicate pancreatic cancer stem cells.

  17. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka

    2015-11-24

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics are not well understood. SGE can increase the phenotypic variation and act as a load for individuals, if they are at the adaptive optimum in a stable environment. On the other hand, part of the phenotypic variation caused by SGE might become advantageous if individuals at the adaptive optimum become genetically less-adaptive, for example due to an environmental change. Furthermore, SGE of unimportant genes might have little or no fitness consequences. Thus, SGE can be advantageous, disadvantageous, or selectively neutral depending on its context. In addition, there might be a genetic basis that regulates magnitude of SGE, which is often referred to as “modifier genes,” but little is known about the conditions under which such an SGE-modifier gene evolves. In the present study, we conducted individual-based computer simulations to examine these conditions in a diploid model. In the simulations, we considered a single locus that determines organismal fitness for simplicity, and that SGE on the locus creates fitness variation in a stochastic manner. We also considered another locus that modifies the magnitude of SGE. Our results suggested that SGE was always deleterious in stable environments and increased the fixation probability of deleterious mutations in this model. Even under frequently changing environmental conditions, only very strong natural selection made SGE adaptive. These results suggest that the evolution of SGE-modifier genes requires strict balance among the strength of natural selection, magnitude of SGE, and frequency of environmental changes. However, the degree of dominance affected the condition under which SGE becomes advantageous, indicating a better opportunity for the evolution of SGE in different genetic

  18. Stunned Silence: Gene Expression Programs in Human Cells Infected with Monkeypox or Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubins, Kathleen H.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Relman, David A.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2011-01-01

    Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV), an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC), a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated) MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or poly (I-C) was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C) induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection. PMID:21267444

  19. Stunned silence: gene expression programs in human cells infected with monkeypox or vaccinia virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen H Rubins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poxviruses use an arsenal of molecular weapons to evade detection and disarm host immune responses. We used DNA microarrays to investigate the gene expression responses to infection by monkeypox virus (MPV, an emerging human pathogen, and Vaccinia virus (VAC, a widely used model and vaccine organism, in primary human macrophages, primary human fibroblasts and HeLa cells. Even as the overwhelmingly infected cells approached their demise, with extensive cytopathic changes, their gene expression programs appeared almost oblivious to poxvirus infection. Although killed (gamma-irradiated MPV potently induced a transcriptional program characteristic of the interferon response, no such response was observed during infection with either live MPV or VAC. Moreover, while the gene expression response of infected cells to stimulation with ionomycin plus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, or poly (I-C was largely unimpaired by infection with MPV, a cluster of pro-inflammatory genes were a notable exception. Poly(I-C induction of genes involved in alerting the innate immune system to the infectious threat, including TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha and beta, CCL5 and IL-6, were suppressed by infection with live MPV. Thus, MPV selectively inhibits expression of genes with critical roles in cell-signaling pathways that activate innate immune responses, as part of its strategy for stealthy infection.

  20. Gene expression promoted by the SV40 DNA targeting sequence and the hypoxia-responsive element under normoxia and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.B. Sacramento

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to find suitable DNA-targeting sequences (DTS for the construction of plasmid vectors to be used to treat ischemic diseases. The well-known Simian virus 40 nuclear DTS (SV40-DTS and hypoxia-responsive element (HRE sequences were used to construct plasmid vectors to express the human vascular endothelial growth factor gene (hVEGF. The rate of plasmid nuclear transport and consequent gene expression under normoxia (20% O2 and hypoxia (less than 5% O2 were determined. Plasmids containing the SV40-DTS or HRE sequences were constructed and used to transfect the A293T cell line (a human embryonic kidney cell line in vitro and mouse skeletal muscle cells in vivo. Plasmid transport to the nucleus was monitored by real-time PCR, and the expression level of the hVEGF gene was measured by ELISA. The in vitro nuclear transport efficiency of the SV40-DTS plasmid was about 50% lower under hypoxia, while the HRE plasmid was about 50% higher under hypoxia. Quantitation of reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo, under hypoxia and normoxia, confirmed that the SV40-DTS plasmid functioned better under normoxia, while the HRE plasmid was superior under hypoxia. These results indicate that the efficiency of gene expression by plasmids containing DNA binding sequences is affected by the concentration of oxygen in the medium.

  1. Altered patterns of gene expression underlying the enhanced immunogenicity of radiation-attenuated schistosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary P Dillon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosome cercariae only elicit high levels of protective immunity against a challenge infection if they are optimally attenuated by exposure to ionising radiation that truncates their migration in the lungs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the altered phenotype of the irradiated parasite that primes for protection have yet to be identified.We have used a custom microarray comprising probes derived from lung-stage parasites to compare patterns of gene expression in schistosomula derived from normal and irradiated cercariae. These were transformed in vitro and cultured for four, seven, and ten days to correspond in development to the priming parasites, before RNA extraction. At these late times after the radiation insult, transcript suppression was the principal feature of the irradiated larvae. Individual gene analysis revealed that only seven were significantly down-regulated in the irradiated versus normal larvae at the three time-points; notably, four of the protein products are present in the tegument or associated with its membranes, perhaps indicating a perturbed function. Grouping of transcripts using Gene Ontology (GO and subsequent Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA proved more informative in teasing out subtle differences. Deficiencies in signalling pathways involving G-protein-coupled receptors suggest the parasite is less able to sense its environment. Reduction of cytoskeleton transcripts could indicate compromised structure which, coupled with a paucity of neuroreceptor transcripts, may mean the parasite is also unable to respond correctly to external stimuli.The transcriptional differences observed are concordant with the known extended transit of attenuated parasites through skin-draining lymph nodes and the lungs: prolonged priming of the immune system by the parasite, rather than over-expression of novel antigens, could thus explain the efficacy of the irradiated vaccine.

  2. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daofeng; Su, Zhen; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2009-11-11

    Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  3. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiangli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. Description The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. Conclusion MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  4. Identification of differentially expressed genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) root under waterlogging stress by digital gene expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Xue-Wen; Lin, Xiao-Jian; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Xue-Hao

    2012-03-01

    High-throughput tag-sequencing (Tag-seq) analysis based on the Solexa Genome Analyzer platform was applied to analyze the gene expression profiling of cucumber plant at 5 time points over a 24h period of waterlogging treatment. Approximately 5.8 million total clean sequence tags per library were obtained with 143013 distinct clean tag sequences. Approximately 23.69%-29.61% of the distinct clean tags were mapped unambiguously to the unigene database, and 53.78%-60.66% of the distinct clean tags were mapped to the cucumber genome database. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed that most of the genes were down-regulated in the waterlogging stages, and the differentially expressed genes mainly linked to carbon metabolism, photosynthesis, reactive oxygen species generation/scavenging, and hormone synthesis/signaling. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction using nine genes independently verified the tag-mapped results. This present study reveals the comprehensive mechanisms of waterlogging-responsive transcription in cucumber. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulation of the control rod drop under seismic excitations. Experimental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudat, Th.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental program that will be performed at the end of 1998 at the CEA Saclay on a specially constructed analytical mock-up of a control rod. The purpose of these tests is to partially validate the current methodology of the drop time numerical calculations of a PWR (pressurized water reactor) control rod under seismic excitations. The French nuclear partners (EDF and FRAMATOME) are involved in this program. (author)

  6. Cellular variability of RpoS expression underlies subpopulation activation of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Conjugative transfer of the integrative and conjugative element ICEclc in the bacterium Pseudomonas knackmussii is the consequence of a bistable decision taken in some 3% of cells in a population during stationary phase. Here we study the possible control exerted by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS on the bistability decision. The gene for RpoS in P. knackmussii B13 was characterized, and a loss-of-function mutant was produced and complemented. We found that, in absence of RpoS, ICEclc transfer rates and activation of two key ICEclc promoters (P(int and P(inR decrease significantly in cells during stationary phase. Microarray and gene reporter analysis indicated that the most direct effect of RpoS is on P(inR, whereas one of the gene products from the P(inR-controlled operon (InrR transmits activation to P(int and other ICEclc core genes. Addition of a second rpoS copy under control of its native promoter resulted in an increase of the proportion of cells expressing the P(int and P(inR promoters to 18%. Strains in which rpoS was replaced by an rpoS-mcherry fusion showed high mCherry fluorescence of individual cells that had activated P(int and P(inR, whereas a double-copy rpoS-mcherry-containing strain displayed twice as much mCherry fluorescence. This suggested that high RpoS levels are a prerequisite for an individual cell to activate P(inR and thus ICEclc transfer. Double promoter-reporter fusions confirmed that expression of P(inR is dominated by extrinsic noise, such as being the result of cellular variability in RpoS. In contrast, expression from P(int is dominated by intrinsic noise, indicating it is specific to the ICEclc transmission cascade. Our results demonstrate how stochastic noise levels of global transcription factors can be transduced to a precise signaling cascade in a subpopulation of cells leading to ICE activation.

  7. The Gene Expression Program for the Formation of Wing Cuticle in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz F Sobala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cuticular exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods is a remarkably versatile material with a complex multilayer structure. We made use of the ability to isolate cuticle synthesizing cells in relatively pure form by dissecting pupal wings and we used RNAseq to identify genes expressed during the formation of the adult wing cuticle. We observed dramatic changes in gene expression during cuticle deposition, and combined with transmission electron microscopy, we were able to identify candidate genes for the deposition of the different cuticular layers. Among genes of interest that dramatically change their expression during the cuticle deposition program are ones that encode cuticle proteins, ZP domain proteins, cuticle modifying proteins and transcription factors, as well as genes of unknown function. A striking finding is that mutations in a number of genes that are expressed almost exclusively during the deposition of the envelope (the thin outermost layer that is deposited first result in gross defects in the procuticle (the thick chitinous layer that is deposited last. An attractive hypothesis to explain this is that the deposition of the different cuticle layers is not independent with the envelope instructing the formation of later layers. Alternatively, some of the genes expressed during the deposition of the envelope could form a platform that is essential for the deposition of all cuticle layers.

  8. Annual Program Progress Report under DOE/PHRI Cooperative Agreement: (July 1, 2001-June 30, 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palafox, Neal A., MD, MPH

    2002-07-31

    OAK B188 DOE/PHRI Special Medical Care Program in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI)Annual Program Progress Report. The DOE Marshall Islands Medical Program continued, in this it's 48th year, to provide medical surveillance for the exposed population from Rongelap and Utrik and the additional DOE patients. The program was inaugurated in 1954 by the Atomic Energy Commission following the exposure of Marshallese to fallout from a nuclear test (Castle Bravo) at Bikini Atoll. This year marks the fourth year in which the program has been carried out by PHRI under a cooperative agreement with DOE. The DOERHRI Special Medical Care Program, awarded the cooperative agreement on August 28, 1998, commenced its health care program on January 15, 1999, on Kwajalein and January 22, 1999, on Majuro. This report details the program for the July 1, 2001, through the June 30, 2002, period. The program provides year-round, on-site medical care to the DOE patient population residing in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and annual examinations to those patients living in Hawaii and on the Continental U.S.

  9. Integrated expression profiling and ChIP-seq analyses of the growth inhibition response program of the androgen receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biaoyang Lin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR plays important roles in the development of male phenotype and in different human diseases including prostate cancers. The AR can act either as a promoter or a tumor suppressor depending on cell types. The AR proliferative response program has been well studied, but its prohibitive response program has not yet been thoroughly studied.Previous studies found that PC3 cells expressing the wild-type AR inhibit growth and suppress invasion. We applied expression profiling to identify the response program of PC3 cells expressing the AR (PC3-AR under different growth conditions (i.e. with or without androgens and at different concentration of androgens and then applied the newly developed ChIP-seq technology to identify the AR binding regions in the PC3 cancer genome. A surprising finding was that the comparison of MOCK-transfected PC3 cells with AR-transfected cells identified 3,452 differentially expressed genes (two fold cutoff even without the addition of androgens (i.e. in ethanol control, suggesting that a ligand independent activation or extremely low-level androgen activation of the AR. ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 6,629 AR binding regions in the cancer genome of PC3 cells with an FDR (false discovery rate cut off of 0.05. About 22.4% (638 of 2,849 can be mapped to within 2 kb of the transcription start site (TSS. Three novel AR binding motifs were identified in the AR binding regions of PC3-AR cells, and two of them share a core consensus sequence CGAGCTCTTC, which together mapped to 27.3% of AR binding regions (1,808/6,629. In contrast, only about 2.9% (190/6,629 of AR binding sites contains the canonical AR matrix M00481, M00447 and M00962 (from the Transfac database, which is derived mostly from AR proliferative responsive genes in androgen dependent cells. In addition, we identified four top ranking co-occupancy transcription factors in the AR binding regions, which include TEF1 (Transcriptional enhancer factor

  10. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Maria C.; Nichitean, Alexandra M.; Dorus, Steve; Hall, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite (“seesaw”) transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome. PMID:29447162

  11. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Ow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite ("seesaw" transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome.

  12. Differential gene expression in Pyropia columbina (Bangiales, Rhodophyta under natural hydration and desiccation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretto Contreras-Porcia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In rocky shores, desiccation is triggered by daily tide changes, and experimental evidence suggests that local distribution of algal species across the intertidal rocky zone is related to their capacity to tolerate desiccation. In this context, the permanence of Pyropia columbina in the high intertidal rocky zone is explained by its exceptional physiological tolerance to desiccation. This study explored the metabolic pathways involved in tolerance to desiccation in the Chilean P. columbina, by characterizing its transcriptome under contrasting conditions of hydration. We obtained 1,410 ESTs from two subtracted cDNA libraries in naturally hydrated and desiccated fronds. Results indicate that transcriptome from both libraries contain transcripts from diverse metabolic pathways related to tolerance. Among the transcripts differentially expressed, 15% appears involved in protein synthesis, processing and degradation, 14.4% are related to photosynthesis and chloroplast, 13.1% to respiration and mitochondrial function (NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase proteins, 10.6% to cell wall metabolism, and 7.5% are involved in antioxidant activity, chaperone and defense factors (catalase, thioredoxin, heat shock proteins, cytochrome P450. Both libraries highlight the presence of genes/proteins never described before in algae. This information provides the first molecular work regarding desiccation tolerance in P. columbina, and helps, to some extent, explaining the classical patterns of ecological distribution described for algae across the intertidal zone.

  13. LHCSR Expression under HSP70/RBCS2 Promoter as a Strategy to Increase Productivity in Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Perozeni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are unicellular photosynthetic organisms considered as potential alternative sources for biomass, biofuels or high value products. However, limited biomass productivity is commonly experienced in their cultivating system despite their high potential. One of the reasons for this limitation is the high thermal dissipation of the light absorbed by the outer layers of the cultures exposed to high light caused by the activation of a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ. In the model organism for green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is triggered by pigment binding proteins called light-harvesting-complexes-stress-related (LHCSRs, which are over-accumulated in high light. It was recently reported that biomass productivity can be increased both in microalgae and higher plants by properly tuning NPQ induction. In this work increased light use efficiency is reported by introducing in C. reinhardtii a LHCSR3 gene under the control of Heat Shock Protein 70/RUBISCO small chain 2 promoter in a npq4 lhcsr1 background, a mutant strain knockout for all LHCSR genes. This complementation strategy leads to a low expression of LHCSR3, causing a strong reduction of NPQ induction but is still capable of protecting from photodamage at high irradiance, resulting in an improved photosynthetic efficiency and higher biomass accumulation.

  14. Relationship between fumonisin production and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, Francesca; Iversen, Anita; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is the main source of fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that can contaminate maize-based food and feed and cause diseases in humans and animals. The study of the effect of different environmental conditions on toxin production should provide information that can be used...... to develop strategies to minimize the risk. This study analysed the effect of temperature (15°C-35°C), water activity (aw: 0.999-0.93), salinity (0-125 g l-1 NaCl) and pH (5-8) on the growth and production of fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2) and B3 (FB3) and the expression of FUM1 and FUM21 in F....... verticillioides. The highest growth rate was measured at 25°C, aw of 0.998-0.99 and 0-25 g l-1 of NaCl. Optimal conditions for fumonisin production were 30°C, aw of 0.99, 25 g l-1 of NaCl and pH 5; nevertheless, the strain showed a good adaptability and was able to produce moderate levels of fumonisins under...

  15. LHCSR Expression under HSP70/RBCS2 Promoter as a Strategy to Increase Productivity in Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozeni, Federico; Stella, Giulio Rocco; Ballottari, Matteo

    2018-01-05

    Microalgae are unicellular photosynthetic organisms considered as potential alternative sources for biomass, biofuels or high value products. However, limited biomass productivity is commonly experienced in their cultivating system despite their high potential. One of the reasons for this limitation is the high thermal dissipation of the light absorbed by the outer layers of the cultures exposed to high light caused by the activation of a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In the model organism for green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii , NPQ is triggered by pigment binding proteins called light-harvesting-complexes-stress-related (LHCSRs), which are over-accumulated in high light. It was recently reported that biomass productivity can be increased both in microalgae and higher plants by properly tuning NPQ induction. In this work increased light use efficiency is reported by introducing in C. reinhardtii a LHCSR3 gene under the control of Heat Shock Protein 70 / RUBISCO small chain 2 promoter in a npq4 lhcsr1 background, a mutant strain knockout for all LHCSR genes. This complementation strategy leads to a low expression of LHCSR3 , causing a strong reduction of NPQ induction but is still capable of protecting from photodamage at high irradiance, resulting in an improved photosynthetic efficiency and higher biomass accumulation.

  16. The expression of superoxide dismutase in Mytilus coruscus under various stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiong; Bao, Miaomiao; Ge, Delong; Huo, Liping; Lv, Zhenming; Chi, Changfeng; Liao, Zhi; Liu, Huihui

    2017-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs), a by-product of antioxidative defence system, protects organisms for eliminating excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintaining the redox balance of immune system. The complete open reading frames (ORFs) of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD were identified from Mytilus coruscus (designated as McSOD and MnSOD) by homologous cloning. The sequence lengths were 474bp and 687bp, encoding 157 and 228 amino acids respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of McSOD and MnSOD shared high identities with Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD from other mollusca. The distributions of McSOD and MnSOD were detected in six tissues including adductor, hemocyte, gill, gonad, mantle and hepatopancreas, and the highest expressions were both in gills. The temporal expression of McSOD and MnSOD were up-regulated in gills under a variety of stress factors, including Vibrio parahemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ . After being challenged with V. Parahemolyticus, the expressions of McSOD and MnSOD were increased rapidly at the initial hours, reaching the peaks of 4.9-fold and 15.3-fold respectively, and got to the highest levels of 43.5-fold and 7.1-fold after being challenged with A. hydrophila. The highest point of McSOD mRNA appeared at 15 d after being exposed to copper (7-fold at 0.5 mg/L and 13.2-fold at 1.5 mg/L), except for 0.1 mg/L group of Cu 2+ maintaining to the normal level, but plumbum at 1 d (2.4-fold at 1.0 mg/L and 4.4-fold at 3.0 mg/L) and at 15 d (2.1-fold at 0.2 mg/L). The temporal expression peaks of MnSOD appeared differently after exposing to copper of various concentrations (0.1 mg/L at 10 d with 4.7-fold, 0.5 mg/L at 1 d with 17.9-fold and 1.5 mg/L at 3 d with 13.2-fold). Whereas in plumbum exposing treatments, the 3.0 mg/L group jumped to the peak at 1 d (18.2-fold), the 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L groups had little change and maintained at the normal level throughout the experiment. The results provided several new

  17. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qu

    Full Text Available One of the most common integrative medicine (IM modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  18. Logic programming to infer complex RNA expression patterns from RNA-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Tyler; Militello, Giuseppe; Ponomareva, Yuliya; John, David; Döring, Claudia; Dimmeler, Stefanie; Uchida, Shizuka

    2018-03-01

    To meet the increasing demand in the field, numerous long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) databases are available. Given many lncRNAs are specifically expressed in certain cell types and/or time-dependent manners, most lncRNA databases fall short of providing such profiles. We developed a strategy using logic programming to handle the complex organization of organs, their tissues and cell types as well as gender and developmental time points. To showcase this strategy, we introduce 'RenalDB' (http://renaldb.uni-frankfurt.de), a database providing expression profiles of RNAs in major organs focusing on kidney tissues and cells. RenalDB uses logic programming to describe complex anatomy, sample metadata and logical relationships defining expression, enrichment or specificity. We validated the content of RenalDB with biological experiments and functionally characterized two long intergenic noncoding RNAs: LOC440173 is important for cell growth or cell survival, whereas PAXIP1-AS1 is a regulator of cell death. We anticipate RenalDB will be used as a first step toward functional studies of lncRNAs in the kidney.

  19. Programming of adipose tissue miR-483-3p and GDF-3 expression by maternal diet in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferland-McCollough, D; Fernandez-Twinn, D S; Cannell, I G

    2012-01-01

    substantially modulates the capacity of adipocytes to differentiate and store lipids. We show that some of these effects are mediated by translational repression of growth/differentiation factor-3, a target of miR-483-3p. We propose that increased miR-483-3p expression in vivo, programmed by early......Nutrition during early mammalian development permanently influences health of the adult, including increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such programming are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that programmed changes in mi......RNA expression link early-life nutrition to long-term health. Specifically, we show that miR-483-3p is upregulated in adipose tissue from low-birth-weight adult humans and prediabetic adult rats exposed to suboptimal nutrition in early life. We demonstrate that manipulation of miR-483-3p levels in vitro...

  20. Expression stabilities of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR under different stress conditions in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Ma

    Full Text Available Due to its accuracy, sensitivity and high throughput, real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used in analysing gene expression. The quality of data from such analyses is affected by the quality of reference genes used. Expression stabilities for nine candidate reference genes widely used in soybean were evaluated under different stresses in this study. Our results showed that EF1A and ACT11 were the best under salinity stress, TUB4, TUA5 and EF1A were the best under drought stress, ACT11 and UKN2 were the best under dark treatment, and EF1B and UKN2 were the best under virus infection. EF1B and UKN2 were the top two genes which can be reliably used in all of the stress conditions assessed.

  1. 40 CFR 80.1142 - What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all of the following criteria: (i) The refiner produced gasoline at its refineries by processing crude... Standard § 80.1142 What are the provisions for small refiners under the RFS program? (a)(1) Gasoline produced by a refiner, or foreign refiner (as defined at § 80.1165(a)), is exempt from the renewable fuel...

  2. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Designated country means— (1) A World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (WTO GPA) country... another country, has been substantially transformed in a Free Trade Agreement country into a new and... Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements. 252.225-7045 Section 252.225-7045 Federal...

  3. 77 FR 66482 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2012 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  4. 75 FR 68001 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2010 under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  5. 78 FR 67200 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2013 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  6. 76 FR 68790 - Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Federal-State Unemployment Compensation Program: Certifications for 2011 Under the Federal Unemployment Tax Act AGENCY: Employment and Training... Federal Unemployment Tax Act, 26 U.S.C. 3301 et seq., thereby enabling employers who make contributions to...

  7. 78 FR 53423 - Notice of Funds Availability Under the Intermediary Relending Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... request the form. You may also write a letter containing all of the information requested in the form... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Notice of Funds Availability Under the Intermediary Relending Program AGENCIES: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  8. 34 CFR 658.2 - Who is eligible to apply for assistance under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to apply for assistance under this program? 658.2 Section 658.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES...

  9. Multimodal shipments under program on Russian-origin research reactor SFA return to Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, A.N.; Ivashchenko, A.A.; Kanashov, B.A.; Komarov, S.V.; Komarov, S.N.; Barinkov, O.P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes experience in preparation and organization of research reactor nuclear material import under the Program on Russian-Origin Highly Enriched Uranium Return to the Russian Federation. It also summarizes evolution of transport equipment, conveyances and routes and describes types of packages, their adaptation and certification, safety issues, peculiarities and prospective use of the packagings and conveyances. (author)

  10. 78 FR 32991 - Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Part 433 [CMS-2327-CN] RIN 0938-AR38 Medicaid Program; Increased Federal Medical Assistance Percentage Changes Under the Affordable Care Act of 2010; Correction AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS...

  11. 77 FR 56712 - Agency Information Collection (Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activities Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... Providers Grant and Per Diem Program) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Health Administration... Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503, (202) 395... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0554.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Homeless Providers...

  12. 40 CFR 35.6225 - Activities eligible for funding under Core Program Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under a Core Program Cooperative Agreement, activities must develop and maintain a recipient's abilities... safety plans, quality assurance project plans, and community relation plans); (2) Provisions for... staff to manage publicly-funded cleanups, oversee responsible party-lead cleanups, and provide clerical...

  13. 76 FR 70469 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Airspace Waiver Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: TSA Airspace Waiver Program AGENCY: Transportation Security... Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB... information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment...

  14. 12 CFR 370.6 - Assessments under the Debt Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.6 Assessments under the Debt Guarantee... participating entity shall ensure that funds in an amount at least equal to the amount of the assessment are... institution shall provide the necessary funds for payment of its assessments. (3) Failure to take all...

  15. 78 FR 45452 - Mailing of Tickets Under the Ticket To Work Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Security Online, at www.socialsecurity.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Congress established the Ticket... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 411 [Docket No. SSA-2011-0034] RIN 0960-AH34 Mailing of Tickets Under the Ticket To Work Program AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rule...

  16. 33 CFR 385.13 - Projects implemented under additional program authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Report is prepared and approved in accordance with § 385.26; and (3) Not exceed a total cost of... RESTORATION PLAN CERP Implementation Processes § 385.13 Projects implemented under additional program authority. (a) To expedite implementation of the Plan, the Corps of Engineers and non-Federal sponsors may...

  17. 20 CFR 411.245 - What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are a PM's responsibilities under the Ticket to Work program? 411.245 Section 411.245 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE... formats. For purposes of this section, accessible format means by media that is appropriate to a...

  18. Homotopy Method for a General Multiobjective Programming Problem under Generalized Quasinormal Cone Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined interior point homotopy continuation method is proposed for solving general multiobjective programming problem. We prove the existence and convergence of a smooth homotopy path from almost any interior initial interior point to a solution of the KKT system under some basic assumptions.

  19. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  20. 34 CFR 381.22 - How does the Secretary allocate funds under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROTECTION AND... Secretary pays directly to an eligible system that submits an application that meets the requirements of... eligible systems established under this program. (2) After the reservation required by paragraph (a)(1) of...

  1. Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics: A Collaborative Project Under Erasmus+ Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurlewicz, Agnieszka; Nunes, Claudia; Russo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics (MODCLIM) is a Strategic Partnership for the Development of Training Workshops and Modeling Clinic for Industrial Mathematics, funded through the European Commission under the Erasmus Plus Program, Key Action 2: Cooperation for innovation and the exchang...

  2. 34 CFR 403.70 - How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Leadership Activities? 403.70 Section 403.70 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.70 How must funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities? A State shall use funds reserved under section...

  3. DNAM-1 Expression Marks an Alternative Program of NK Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Martinet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells comprise a heterogeneous population of cells important for pathogen defense and cancer surveillance. However, the functional significance of this diversity is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate through transcriptional profiling and functional studies that the activating receptor DNAM-1 (CD226 identifies two distinct NK cell functional subsets: DNAM-1+ and DNAM-1− NK cells. DNAM-1+ NK cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines, have enhanced interleukin 15 signaling, and proliferate vigorously. By contrast, DNAM-1− NK cells that differentiate from DNAM-1+ NK cells have greater expression of NK-cell-receptor-related genes and are higher producers of MIP1 chemokines. Collectively, our data reveal the existence of a functional program of NK cell maturation marked by DNAM-1 expression.

  4. Duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Joan; McGilligan, Kathryn; Kelly, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Maternal employment has been one of the greatest barriers to breastfeeding. Women are increasingly solving this problem by expressing milk at work and taking it home to their infants. The objective was to determine duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program. Retrospective reviews were conducted on the lactation records of 462 women employed by 5 corporations in order to describe and characterize their experiences. The lactation program included the employees' choice of (a) a class on the benefits of breastfeeding; (b) services of a certified lactation consultant (CLC); and (c) private room in the workplace with equipment for pumping. Breastfeeding was initiated by 97.5% of the participants, with 57.8% continuing for at least 6 months. Of the 435 (94.2%) who returned to work after giving birth, 343 (78.9%) attempted pumping milk at work, and 336 (98%) were successful. They expressed milk in the workplace for a mean of 6.3 months (SD = 3.9, range 2 weeks to 21 months). The mean age of infants when the mothers stopped pumping at work was 9.1 months (SD = 4.1, range 1.9 to 25 months). Most of the women who pumped their milk at work were working full time (84.2%). The mean postnatal maternity leave was 2.8 months. The proportion of women who chose to pump at work was higher among women who were salaried than among those who were paid hourly wages (p < 0.01). Company-sponsored lactation programs can enable employed mothers to provide breast milk for their infants as long as they wish, thus helping the nation attain the Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% of mothers breastfeeding until their infants are 6-months-old.

  5. International program: Feasibility of the evacuation of high-level radioactive wastes under the ocean depths. (Seabed Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Seabed feasibility program is an international scientific program of research on the feasibility of the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into the geological formations making up the floor of the great abyssal plains of the oceans. Decided in 1977, the program is aimed at answering the three following questions: 1) are there potentially favourable sites. 2) is the disposal of wastes possible. 3) does the operation present safety guarantees. First initiated by four countries (USA, UK, Japan and France), the program sponsored by the OECD nuclear energy agency was gathering ten countries and the Commission of the European communities in 1988. The techniques of waste disposal by means of drilling in consolidated sediments and penetrators in loose sediments have been studied. The penetrator technique has been the most thoroughly studied, especially through in situ experiments in the Atlantic ocean. The various factors affecting safety have been studied and the radiological consequences of a burial operation assessed through models. It has been concluded that such an operation could be carried out technically under quite satisfying conditions [fr

  6. Green supplier development program selection using NGT and VIKOR under fuzzy environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Anjali; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Developing environmental performance of suppliers is critical for green supply chain management. Organizations are nowadays investing in various green supplier development programs to enhance their supplier performances. The decision to select the right program for green supplier development...... is often a challenging decision due to lack of prior experience, limited quantitative information, specific context of the organization, and varying supplier backgrounds. This paper addresses the problem of evaluating green supplier development programs and proposes a fuzzy NGT (Nominal Group Technique......)-VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) based solution approach. NGT is used to identify criteria for evaluating green supplier development programs. Fuzzy theory is used to address qualitative (linguistic) ratings for the alternatives and the selected criteria used under lack...

  7. Modelling of the Elasticity Modulus for Rock Using Genetic Expression Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Atici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rock engineering projects, statically determined parameters are more reflective of actual load conditions than dynamic parameters. This study reports a new and efficient approach to the formulation of the static modulus of elasticity Es applying gene expression programming (GEP with nondestructive testing (NDT methods. The results obtained using GEP are compared with the results of multivariable linear regression analysis (MRA, univariate nonlinear regression analysis (URA, and the dynamic elasticity modulus (Ed. The GEP model was found to produce the most accurate calculation of Es. The proposed approach is a simple, nondestructive, and practical way to determine Es for anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks.

  8. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated seedlings were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of more than 100 million reads were generated and de novo assembled into 98,180 unique transcripts which were further extensively annotated by comparing their sequencing to different protein databases. Biochemical pathways were predicted from these transcript sequences. Furthermore, we performed gene expression profiling analysis upon dehydration treatment in chrysanthemum and identified 8,558 dehydration-responsive unique transcripts, including 307 transcription factors and 229 protein kinases and many well-known stress responsive genes. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses showed that dehydration stress caused changes in hormone response, secondary and amino acid metabolism, and light and photoperiod response. These findings suggest that drought tolerance of chrysanthemum plants may be related to the regulation of hormone biosynthesis and signaling, reduction of oxidative damage, stabilization of cell proteins and structures, and maintenance of energy and carbon supply. Conclusions Our transcriptome sequences can provide a valuable resource for chrysanthemum breeding and research and novel insights into chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress and offer candidate genes or markers that can be used to guide future studies attempting to breed drought tolerant chrysanthemum cultivars. PMID:24074255

  9. A fuzzy chance-constrained programming model with type 1 and type 2 fuzzy sets for solid waste management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolin; Ma, Chi; Wan, Zhifang; Wang, Kewei

    2017-06-01

    Effective management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is critical for urban planning and development. This study aims to develop an integrated type 1 and type 2 fuzzy sets chance-constrained programming (ITFCCP) model for tackling regional MSW management problem under a fuzzy environment, where waste generation amounts are supposed to be type 2 fuzzy variables and treated capacities of facilities are assumed to be type 1 fuzzy variables. The evaluation and expression of uncertainty overcome the drawbacks in describing fuzzy possibility distributions as oversimplified forms. The fuzzy constraints are converted to their crisp equivalents through chance-constrained programming under the same or different confidence levels. Regional waste management of the City of Dalian, China, was used as a case study for demonstration. The solutions under various confidence levels reflect the trade-off between system economy and reliability. It is concluded that the ITFCCP model is capable of helping decision makers to generate reasonable waste-allocation alternatives under uncertainties.

  10. Gene expression programming for prediction of scour depth downstream of sills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azamathulla, H. Md.

    2012-08-01

    SummaryLocal scour is crucial in the degradation of river bed and the stability of grade control structures, stilling basins, aprons, ski-jump bucket spillways, bed sills, weirs, check dams, etc. This short communication presents gene-expression programming (GEP), which is an extension to genetic programming (GP), as an alternative approach to predict scour depth downstream of sills. Published data were compiled from the literature for the scour depth downstream of sills. The proposed GEP approach gives satisfactory results (R2 = 0.967 and RMSE = 0.088) compared to the existing predictors (Chinnarasri and Kositgittiwong, 2008) with R2 = 0.87 and RMSE = 2.452 for relative scour depth.

  11. Programming PLCS under EPICS at the SNS Project : Further Experiences in Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. A. Gurd; W. H. Strong; J. D. Creel

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source being built in Tennessee by a partnership of six national laboratories. The control system components for the SNS were produced by personnel at the collaborating laboratories, by vendors of the equipment, and by commercial contractors. A number of different approaches were used to provide the programming for both the programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and the input-output controllers (IOCs) which were all based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). For conventional facilities, both the PLCs and the IOCs were programmed under a commercial contract. The PLCs for the high power radio frequency system (HPRF) were programmed by the vendors of the equipment, while the IOCs were programmed by the collaborating laboratory. Finally, while the IOCs for the cryogenic systems were programmed at Oak Ridge, three different approaches were used to produce the PLC programming: some were programmed at Oak Ridge, some at TJNAF, and some at vendor sites. This paper discusses the status of the PLCs in the control system and the integration challenges encountered in the various approaches

  12. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  13. 34 CFR 403.161 - How must funds be used under the Comprehensive Career Guidance and Counseling Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidance and Counseling Programs? 403.161 Section 403.161 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... the Special Programs? Comprehensive Career Guidance and Counseling Programs § 403.161 How must funds be used under the Comprehensive Career Guidance and Counseling Programs? (a) A State shall use not...

  14. 20 CFR 627.220 - Coordination with programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. 627.220 Section 627.220 Employees' Benefits... of the Higher Education Act including the Pell grant program. (a) Coordination. Financial assistance programs under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA) (the Pell Grant program, the...

  15. Lipase expression in Pseudomonas alcaligenes is under the control of a two-component regulatory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzeslak, Joanna; Gerritse, Gijs; van Merkerk, Ronald; Cool, Robbert H.; Quax, Wim J.

    Preliminary observations in a large-scale fermentation process suggested that the lipase expression of Pseudomonas alcaligenes can be switched on by the addition of certain medium components, such as soybean oil. In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of induction of lipase expression, we have set

  16. The protection of artistic expression under article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    More than once, the European Court of Human Rights (hereafter: ECtHR) has attended to cases concerning novels, movies, paintings and other forms of artistic expression. The Court has tried to fit in artistic expression in its more general approach that often makes a decisive distinction between

  17. Expression of small heat shock proteins from pea seedlings under gravity altered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaev, Alexandr S.

    2005-08-01

    A goal of our study was to evaluate the stress gene expression in Pisum sativum seedlings exposed to altered gravity and temperature elevation. We investigate message for the two inducible forms of the cytosolic small heat shock proteins (sHsp), sHsp 17.7 and sHsp 18.1. Both proteins are able to enhance the refolding of chemically denatured proteins in an ATP- independent manner, in other words they can function as molecular chaperones. We studied sHsps expression in pea seedlings cells by Western blotting. Temperature elevation, as the positive control, significantly increased PsHsp 17.7 and PsHsp 18.1 expression. Expression of the housekeeping protein, actin was constant and comparable to unstressed controls for all treatments. We concluded that gravitational perturbations incurred by clinorotation did not change sHsp genes expression.

  18. Is a diabetes pay-for-performance program cost-effective under the National Health Insurance in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elise Chia-Hui; Pwu, Raoh-Fang; Chen, Duan-Rung; Yang, Ming-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In October 2001, a pay-for-performance (P4P) program for diabetes was implemented by the National Health Insurance (NHI), a single-payer program, in Taiwan. However, only limited information is available regarding the influence of this program on the patient's health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to estimate the costs and consequences of enrolling patients in the P4P program from a single-payer perspective. A retrospective observational study of 529 diabetic patients was conducted between 2004 and 2005. The data used in the study were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in Taiwan. Direct cost data were obtained from NHI claims data, which were linked to respondents in the NHIS using scrambled individual identification. The generic SF36 health instrument was employed to measure the quality-of-life-related health status and transformed into a utility index. Patients enrolled in the P4P program for at least 3 months were categorized as the P4P group. Following propensity score matching, 260 patients were included in the study. Outcomes included life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), diabetes-related medical costs, overall medical costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). A single-payer perspective was assumed, and costs were expressed in US dollars. Nonparametric bootstrapping was conducted to estimate confidence intervals for cost-effectiveness ratios. Following matching, no significant difference was noted between two groups with regard to the patients' age, gender, education, family income, smoking status, BMI, or whether insulin was used. The P4P group had an increase of 0.08 (95 % CI 0.077-0.080) in QALYs, and the additional diabetes-related medical cost was US$422.74 (95 % CI US$413.58-US$435.05), yielding an ICER of US$5413.93 (95 % CI US$5226.83-US$5562.97) per QALY gained. Our results provides decision makers with valuable information regarding the impact of the P4P program of diabetes care

  19. Fundamentals of successful monitoring, reporting, and verification under a cap-and-trade program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schakenbach; Robert Vollaro; Reynaldo Forte [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed and implemented the Acid Rain Program (ARP), and NOx Budget Trading Programs (NBTP) using several fundamental monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) elements: (1) compliance assurance through incentives and automatic penalties; (2) strong quality assurance (QA); (3) collaborative approach with a petition process; (4) standardized electronic reporting; (5) compliance flexibility for low-emitting sources; (6) complete emissions data record required; (7) centralized administration; (8) level playing field; (9) publicly available data; (10) performance-based approach; and (11) reducing conflicts of interest. Each of these elements is discussed in the context of the authors' experience under two U.S. cap-and-trade programs and their potential application to other cap and-trade programs. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget found that the Acid Rain Program has accounted for the largest quantified human health benefits of any federal regulatory program implemented in the last 10 yr, with annual benefits exceeding costs by {gt} 40 to 1. The authors believe that the elements described in this paper greatly contributed to this success. EPA has used the ARP fundamental elements as a model for other cap-and-trade programs, including the NBTP, which went into effect in 2003, and the recently published Clean Air Interstate Rule and Clean Air Mercury Rule. The authors believe that using these fundamental elements to develop and implement the MRV portion of their cap-and-trade programs has resulted in public confidence in the programs, highly accurate and complete emissions data, and a high compliance rate. 2 refs.

  20. Omega-3 intake in people with epilepsy under regular hemodialysis program: here to stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Alessandra Scorza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the many risk factors suggested for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP, higher frequency of seizures is a very consistent issue. Furthermore, it has been established that hemodialysis-associated seizure is a complication of the dialysis procedure. Thus, since a possible relation between cardiovascular abnormalities and SUDEP among patients with chronic renal insufficiency in regular hemodialysis program should not be neglected, we propose in this paper that omega-3 fatty acids offer opportunities for prevention of sudden cardiac death or improved treatment in people with epilepsy under the regular hemodialysis program.

  1. How powerful are summary-based methods for identifying expression-trait associations under different genetic architectures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veturi, Yogasudha; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2018-01-01

    Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have recently been employed as an approach that can draw upon the advantages of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression studies to identify genes associated with complex traits. Unlike standard GWAS, summary level data suffices for TWAS and offers improved statistical power. Two popular TWAS methods include either (a) imputing the cis genetic component of gene expression from smaller sized studies (using multi-SNP prediction or MP) into much larger effective sample sizes afforded by GWAS - TWAS-MP or (b) using summary-based Mendelian randomization - TWAS-SMR. Although these methods have been effective at detecting functional variants, it remains unclear how extensive variability in the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases impacts TWAS results. Our goal was to investigate the different scenarios under which these methods yielded enough power to detect significant expression-trait associations. In this study, we conducted extensive simulations based on 6000 randomly chosen, unrelated Caucasian males from Geisinger's MyCode population to compare the power to detect cis expression-trait associations (within 500 kb of a gene) using the above-described approaches. To test TWAS across varying genetic backgrounds we simulated gene expression and phenotype using different quantitative trait loci per gene and cis-expression /trait heritability under genetic models that differentiate the effect of causality from that of pleiotropy. For each gene, on a training set ranging from 100 to 1000 individuals, we either (a) estimated regression coefficients with gene expression as the response using five different methods: LASSO, elastic net, Bayesian LASSO, Bayesian spike-slab, and Bayesian ridge regression or (b) performed eQTL analysis. We then sampled with replacement 50,000, 150,000, and 300,000 individuals respectively from the testing set of the remaining 5000 individuals and conducted GWAS on each

  2. Artificial Neural Networks and Gene Expression Programing based age estimation using facial features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baddrud Z. Laskar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work is about estimating human age automatically through analysis of facial images. It has got a lot of real-world applications. Due to prompt advances in the fields of machine vision, facial image processing, and computer graphics, automatic age estimation via faces in computer is one of the dominant topics these days. This is due to widespread real-world applications, in areas of biometrics, security, surveillance, control, forensic art, entertainment, online customer management and support, along with cosmetology. As it is difficult to estimate the exact age, this system is to estimate a certain range of ages. Four sets of classifications have been used to differentiate a person’s data into one of the different age groups. The uniqueness about this study is the usage of two technologies i.e., Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Gene Expression Programing (GEP to estimate the age and then compare the results. New methodologies like Gene Expression Programing (GEP have been explored here and significant results were found. The dataset has been developed to provide more efficient results by superior preprocessing methods. This proposed approach has been developed, tested and trained using both the methods. A public data set was used to test the system, FG-NET. The quality of the proposed system for age estimation using facial features is shown by broad experiments on the available database of FG-NET.

  3. Closed-form Capacity Expressions for the α-μ Fading Channel with SC Diversity under Different Adaptive Transmission Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Refaat; Ismail, Mahmoud H.; Newagy, Fatma; Mourad, Heba M.

    2013-03-01

    Stemming from the fact that the α-μ fading distribution is one of the very general fading models used in the literature to describe the small scale fading phenomenon, in this paper, closed-form expressions for the Shannon capacity of the α-μ fading channel operating under four main adaptive transmission strategies are derived assuming integer values for μ. These expressions are derived for the case of no diversity as well as for selection combining diversity with independent and identically distributed branches. The obtained expressions reduce to those previously derived in the literature for the Weibull as well as the Rayleigh fading cases, which are both special cases of the α-μ channel. Numerical results are presented for the capacity under the four adaptive transmission strategies and the effect of the fading parameter as well as the number of diversity branches is studied.

  4. Sporulation and germination gene expression analysis of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in skim milk under heat and different intervention techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate how B. anthracis Stene spores survive in milk under heat (80 degree C, 10 minutes), pasteurization (72 degree C, 15 seconds) and pasteurization plus microfiltration, the expression levels of genes that related to sporulation and germination were tested using real-time PCR assays. Tw...

  5. Differential Expression of miRNAs in the Respiratory Tree of the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Under Hypoxia Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Da; Sun, Lina; Li, Xiaoni; Ru, Xiaoshang; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Libin; Xing, Lili; Yang, Hongsheng

    2017-11-06

    The sea cucumber, an important economic species, has encountered high mortality since 2013 in northern China because of seasonal environmental stress such as hypoxia, high temperature, and low salinity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in regulating gene expression in marine organisms in response to environmental change. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to investigate alterations in miRNA expression in the sea cucumber under different levels of dissolved oxygen (DO). Nine small RNA libraries were constructed from the sea cucumber respiratory trees. A total of 26 differentially expressed miRNAs, including 12 upregulated and 14 downregulated miRNAs, were observed in severe hypoxia (DO 2 mg/L) compared with mild hypoxia (DO 4 mg/L) and normoxic conditions (DO 8 mg/L). Twelve differentially expressed miRNAs were clustered in severe hypoxia. In addition, real-time PCR revealed that 14 randomly selected differentially expressed miRNAs showed significantly increased expressions in severe hypoxia and the expressions of nine miRNAs, including key miRNAs such as Aja-miR-1, Aja-miR-2008, and Aja-miR-184, were consistent with the sequencing results. Moreover, gene ontology and pathway analyses of putative target genes suggest that these miRNAs are important in redox, transport, transcription, and hydrolysis under hypoxia stress. Notably, novel-miR-1, novel-miR-2, and novel-miR-3 were specifically clustered and upregulated in severe hypoxia, which may provide new insights into novel "hypoxamiR" identification. These results will provide a basis for future studies of miRNA regulation and molecular adaptive mechanisms in sea cucumbers under hypoxia stress. Copyright © 2017 Huo et al.

  6. A Bi-Level Programming Model for the Railway Express Cargo Service Network Design Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boliang Lin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Service network design is fundamentally crucial for railway express cargo transportation. The main challenge is to strike a balance between two conflicting objectives: low network setup costs and high expected operational incomes. Different configurations of these objectives will have different impacts on the quality of freight transportation services. In this paper, a bi-level programming model for the railway express cargo service network design problem is proposed. The upper-level model forms the optimal decisions in terms of the service characteristics, and the low-level model selects the service arcs for each commodity. The rail express cargo is strictly subject to the service commitment, the capacity restriction, flow balance constraints, and logical relationship constraints among the decisions variables. Moreover, linearization techniques are used to convert the lower-level model to a linear one so that it can be directly solved by a standard optimization solver. Finally, a real-world case study based on the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway Line is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed solution approach.

  7. Clean energy technology transfer. A review of programs under the UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Benioff, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the experience and results of programs designed to operationalize the technology transfer provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These programs share a common goal of demonstrating modalities for developed country parties to fulfill their obligation under the UNFCCC to support technology transfer to developing country parties that facilitates their participation in global efforts to combat climate changes. Several related U.S. bilateral programs and programs supported by the Climate Technology Initiative, a multilateral effort on behalf of a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, are included in this review. The discussion highlights a number of common elements of the approaches of many of these programs as well as some differences. It presents case studies that focus on methods and results in China, Mexico, and Southern Africa, and catalogues and describes the implementation activities and results that these programs have achieved. It concludes by assessing the implications of this experience for the international community as it moves forward with the climate change technology transfer enterprise

  8. Enhanced Striatal β1-Adrenergic Receptor Expression Following Hormone Loss in Adulthood Is Programmed by Both Early Sexual Differentiation and Puberty: A Study of Humans and Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam N.; Westenbroek, Christel; Hedges, Valerie L.; Becker, Jill B.; Mermelstein, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    After reproductive senescence or gonadectomy, changes occur in neural gene expression, ultimately altering brain function. The endocrine mechanisms underlying these changes in gene expression beyond immediate hormone loss are poorly understood. To investigate this, we measured changes in gene expression the dorsal striatum, where 17β-estradiol modulates catecholamine signaling. In human caudate, quantitative PCR determined a significant elevation in β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) expression in menopausal females when compared with similarly aged males. No differences were detected in β2-adrenergic and D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expression. Consistent with humans, adult ovariectomized female rats exhibited a similar increase in β1AR expression when compared with gonadectomized males. No sex difference in β1AR expression was detected between intact adults, prepubertal juveniles, or adults gonadectomized before puberty, indicating the necessity of pubertal development and adult ovariectomy. Additionally, increased β1AR expression in adult ovariectomized females was not observed if animals were masculinized/defeminized with testosterone injections as neonates. To generate a model system for assessing functional impact, increased β1AR expression was induced in female-derived cultured striatal neurons via exposure to and then removal of hormone-containing serum. Increased β1AR action on cAMP formation, cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and gene expression was observed. This up-regulation of β1AR action was eliminated with 17β-estradiol addition to the media, directly implicating this hormone as a regulator of β1AR expression. Beyond having implications for the known sex differences in striatal function and pathologies, these data collectively demonstrate that critical periods early in life and at puberty program adult gene responsiveness to hormone loss after gonadectomy and potentially reproductive senescence. PMID:23533220

  9. An Individual-Based Diploid Model Predicts Limited Conditions Under Which Stochastic Gene Expression Becomes Advantageous

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Osada, Naoki; Araki, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest the existence of a stochasticity in gene expression (SGE) in many organisms, and its non-negligible effect on their phenotype and fitness. To date, however, how SGE affects the key parameters of population genetics

  10. Mechanisms underlying aberrant expression of miR-29c in uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tsai-Der; Khorram, Omid

    2016-01-01

    To determine the expression of miR-29c and its target genes in leiomyoma and the role of NF-κB, specific protein 1 (SP1), and DNA methylation in its regulation. Experimental study. Academic research laboratory. Women undergoing hysterectomy for leiomyoma. Over- and underexpression of miR-29c; blockade of transcription factors. MiR-29c and its target gene levels in leiomyoma and the effects of blockade of transcription factors on miR-29c expression. Leiomyoma as compared with myometrium expressed significantly lower levels of miR-29c, with an inverse relationship with expression of its targets, COL3A1 and DNMT3A. Gain of function of miR-29c inhibited the expression of COL3A1 and DNMT3A at protein and mRNA levels, secreted COL3A1, and rate of cell proliferation. Loss of function of miR-29c had the opposite effect. E2, P, and their combination inhibited miR-29c in leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (LSMC). Phosphorylated NF-κB (p65) and SP1 protein expression were significantly increased in leiomyoma. SiRNA knockdown of SP1 and DNMT3A or their specific inhibitors significantly increased the expression of miR-29c, accompanied by the inhibition of cellular and secreted COL3A1 in siRNA-treated cells. Knockdown of p65 also induced miR-29c expression but had no effect on COL3A1 expression. MiR-29c expression is suppressed in leiomyoma, resulting in an increase in expression of its targets COL3A1 and DNMT3A. The suppression of miR-29c in LSMC is primarily mediated by SP1, NF-κB signaling, and epigenetic modification. Collectively, these results indicate a significant role for miR-29c in leiomyoma pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a model for optimizing the life cycle cost of biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Multiple agriculture zones, multiple transportation modes for the transport of grain and biofuel, multiple biofuel plants, and multiple market centers were considered in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed model, and the results showed that the proposed model is feasible for designing biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental and radiological remediation under Canada's global partnership program 2004-11 - 59185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the '911' attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative in 2002 to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. This major international initiative addressed four priority areas: (1) Chemical Weapon Destruction (2) Nuclear powered submarine eliminations (3) Nuclear and radiological security; and (4) Employment for former weapon scientists. Additionally the initiative has addressed Biological Non- Proliferation. Canada's execution of all these program areas has resulted in substantial environmental benefits aside from the eradication and securing of WMMD. This paper reviews the environmental and radiological remediation achievements of the four primary Global Partnership program areas addressed under Canadian funding 2004 through 2011. (author)

  13. Expression profiles of sugarcane under drought conditions: Variation in gene regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Farias de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractDrought is a major factor in decreased sugarcane productivity because of the resulting morphophysiological effects that it causes. Gene expression studies that have examined the influence of water stress in sugarcane have yielded divergent results, indicating the absence of a fixed pattern of changes in gene expression. In this work, we investigated the expression profiles of 12 genes in the leaves of a drought-tolerant genotype (RB72910 of sugarcane and compared the results with those of other studies. The genotype was subjected to 80–100% water availability (control condition and 0–20% water availability (simulated drought. To analyze the physiological status, the SPAD index, Fv/Fm ratio, net photosynthesis (A, stomatal conductance (gs and stomatal transpiration (E were measured. Total RNA was extracted from leaves and the expression of SAMDC, ZmPIP2-1 protein, ZmTIP4-2 protein, WIP protein, LTP protein, histone H3, DNAj, ferredoxin I, β-tubulin, photosystem I, gene 1 and gene 2 was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR. Important differences in the expression profiles of these genes were observed when compared with other genotypes, suggesting that complex defense mechanisms are activated in response to water stress. However, there was no recognizable pattern for the changes in expression of the different proteins associated with tolerance to drought stress.

  14. A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming method for air quality management under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Yang, Z F; Sun, W

    2011-03-01

    A two-stage inexact joint-probabilistic programming (TIJP) method is developed for planning a regional air quality management system with multiple pollutants and multiple sources. The TIJP method incorporates the techniques of two-stage stochastic programming, joint-probabilistic constraint programming and interval mathematical programming, where uncertainties expressed as probability distributions and interval values can be addressed. Moreover, it can not only examine the risk of violating joint-probability constraints, but also account for economic penalties as corrective measures against any infeasibility. The developed TIJP method is applied to a case study of a regional air pollution control problem, where the air quality index (AQI) is introduced for evaluation of the integrated air quality management system associated with multiple pollutants. The joint-probability exists in the environmental constraints for AQI, such that individual probabilistic constraints for each pollutant can be efficiently incorporated within the TIJP model. The results indicate that useful solutions for air quality management practices have been generated; they can help decision makers to identify desired pollution abatement strategies with minimized system cost and maximized environmental efficiency. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inflammation promotes oral squamous carcinoma immune evasion via induced programmed death ligand-1 surface expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wanlu; Lu, Libing; Feng, Yun; Chen, Jiao; Li, Yan; Kong, Xiangli; Chen, Sixiu; Li, Xiaoyu; Chen, Qianming; Zhang, Ping

    2013-05-01

    The association between inflammation and cancer provides a new target for tumor biotherapy. The inflammatory cells and molecules within the tumor microenvironment have decisive dual roles in antitumor immunity and immune evasion. In the present study, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to simulate the tumor inflammatory microenvironment. The effect of immune cells and inflammatory cytokines on the surface expression of programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor immune evasion was investigated using flow cytometry (FCM) and an in vivo xenotransplantation model. Based on the data, PHA-activated, but not resting, immune cells were able to promote the surface expression of PD-L1 in Tca8113 oral squamous carcinoma cells via the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, but not by cell-cell contact. The majority of the inflammatory cytokines had no significant effect on the proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of the Tca8113 cells, although they each induced the expression of PD-L1 in a dose-dependent manner. In total, 99% of the Tca8113 cells expressed PD-L1 following treatment with the supernatant of PHA-stimulated PBMCs. The PHA-supernatant pretreated Tca8113 cells unusually induced Tca8113 antigen-specific CD8 + T cell apoptosis in vitro and the evasion of antigen-specific T cell attraction in a nude mouse tumor-bearing model. These results indicate a new mechanism for the promotion of tumor immune evasion by the tumor inflammatory microenvironment.

  16. Gene expression program of regeneration in Eisenia fetida: a transcriptomics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksheev Bhambri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Annelids form a connecting link between segmented and non-segmented organisms.  In other words, phylogenetically, the segmented body pattern starts from Annelida, a phylum that consists of thousands of species, including marine worms, freshwater leeches and earthworms that inhabit deep layers of soil to environmental niches in forests and cultivated land. We are using Eisenia fetida (Indian isolate a top dwelling, vermicomposting worm due to its ability to regenerate its posterior after damage, injury or complete removal. On average, Eisenia fetida has 100-110 segments. We separated the anterior (upto 55-60th segment and posterior of the worm, and allowed it to regenerate.  In this model, only the posterior could be regenerated after injury.  We isolated RNA from the regenerated tissue and the immediate adjacent old tissue at 15 days, 20 days and 30 days during regeneration. We carried out transcriptome sequencing and analysis. With the aim of identifying specific factors which promote nerve regeneration, we have annotated the differentially expressed genes. In all organisms which possess a segmented body, the expression pattern of the Hox cluster is conserved. Hox gene expression, a conserved developmental phenomenon in establishment of body plan has been studied by comparative genomics of other annelids like the marine worm Capitella telleta, the leech Helobdella robusta.  We have used a combination of high-throughput sequencing based techniques and validation through cell and molecular biology to identify key aspects of the gene expression program of regeneration in this worm. Besides the transcriptome, we have also done whole genome sequencing, miRnome and metagenome sequencing of this terrestrial annelid.

  17. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  18. The impact of transmission constraints on the emissions leakage under cap-and-trade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauma, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    Several regional cap-and-trade (C and T) programs are considered or implemented in the United States to control greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector. One concern is the possibility of emissions leakage due to a lack of coherence in the geographic scope of the regional electricity market and the C and T program. Leakage in the context of regulating CO 2 emissions is defined as the short-run displacement of CO 2 emissions from the capped region to other uncapped regions due to the imposition of a regional C and T scheme. However, the presence of transmission congestion could interact with regulations in an unanticipated way to determining whether leakage would occur and its magnitude if happens. In this paper, we use a two-node network to study the conditions under which the CO 2 leakage would happen in a radial network under a C and T program. These conditions are related to transmission capacity, merit order change, and relative production cost between capped and uncapped regions. Since CO 2 leakage would likely occur in a radial network during the time when there is surplus transmission capacity, if regional CO 2 policies could influence power grid management and operations decisions, then there might be space for a better multi-objective coordination. - Highlights: ► We study conditions under which the CO 2 leakage would happen under a C and T program. ► Conditions relate to transmission capacity, merit order change and production cost. ► Transmission congestion interacts with environmental regulations. ► CO 2 leakage would likely occur when there is surplus transmission capacity. ► Power grid management and operations decisions should be carefully scrutinized.

  19. Robust stochastic fuzzy possibilistic programming for environmental decision making under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Guo H.; Nie, Xianghui

    2009-01-01

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution is one of serious environmental issues, especially within an agricultural system. This study aims to propose a robust chance-constrained fuzzy possibilistic programming (RCFPP) model for water quality management within an agricultural system, where solutions for farming area, manure/fertilizer application amount, and livestock husbandry size under different scenarios are obtained and interpreted. Through improving upon the existing fuzzy possibilistic programming, fuzzy robust programming and chance-constrained programming approaches, the RCFPP can effectively reflect the complex system features under uncertainty, where implications of water quality/quantity restrictions for achieving regional economic development objectives are studied. By delimiting the uncertain decision space through dimensional enlargement of the original fuzzy constraints, the RCFPP enhances the robustness of the optimization processes and resulting solutions. The results of the case study indicate that useful information can be obtained through the proposed RCFPP model for providing feasible decision schemes for different agricultural activities under different scenarios (combinations of different p-necessity and p i levels). A p-necessity level represents the certainty or necessity degree of the imprecise objective function, while a p i level means the probabilities at which the constraints will be violated. A desire to acquire high agricultural income would decrease the certainty degree of the event that maximization of the objective be satisfied, and potentially violate water management standards; willingness to accept low agricultural income will run into the risk of potential system failure. The decision variables under combined p-necessity and p i levels were useful for the decision makers to justify and/or adjust the decision schemes for the agricultural activities through incorporation of their implicit knowledge. The results also suggest that

  20. Tilt stability in nonlinear programming under Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2013), s. 446-464 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : variational analysis * second-order theory * generalized differentiation * tilt stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/outrata-tilt stability in nonlinear programming under mangasarian-fromovitz constraint qualification.pdf

  1. Factors influencing success of metal to plastic conversion programs for under-hood applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, L.J. [Amoco Chemicals Polymers Business Group, Alpharetta, GA (United States); Desai, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares high performance engineering polymers available today for under-hood applications. It includes an example of an end cap showing value-added capabilities such as design for machining and assembly (DFMA), team approach and computer aided engineering being used for a most cost-effective custom molding solution. These techniques should be part of standard design procedure for conversion programs to cope with the challenges of today and tomorrow. (orig./HW)

  2. Stochastic–multiobjective market equilibrium analysis of a demand response program in energy market under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Lu, Su-Ying; Chen, Yen-Haw

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze the impact of a demand response program under uncertainty. • Stochastic Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated. • Case study of the Taiwanese electric power market is conducted. • Demand response decreases power price, generation, and emissions. • Demand uncertainty increases energy price and supply risk in the results. - Abstract: In the electricity market, demand response programs are designed to shift peak demand and enhance system reliability. A demand response program can reduce peak energy demand, power transmission congestion, or high energy-price conditions by changing consumption patterns. The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of a demand response program in the energy market, under demand uncertainty. A stochastic–multiobjective Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated to simulate demand response in an uncertain energy market. Then, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions and a linear complementarity problem are derived for the stochastic Nash–Cournot model. Accordingly, the linear complementarity problem is solved and its stochastic market equilibrium solution is determined by using a general algebraic modeling system. Additionally, the case of the Taiwanese electric power market is taken up here, and the results show that a demand response program is capable of reducing peak energy consumption, energy price, and carbon dioxide emissions. The results show that demand response program decreases electricity price by 2–10%, total electricity generation by 0.5–2%, and carbon dioxide emissions by 0.5–2.5% in the Taiwanese power market. In the simulation, demand uncertainty leads to an 2–7% increase in energy price and supply risk in the market. Additionally, tradeoffs between cost and carbon dioxide emissions are presented.

  3. Inexact nonlinear improved fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for irrigation water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    An inexact nonlinear mλ-measure fuzzy chance-constrained programming (INMFCCP) model is developed for irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. Techniques of inexact quadratic programming (IQP), mλ-measure, and fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP) are integrated into a general optimization framework. The INMFCCP model can deal with not only nonlinearities in the objective function, but also uncertainties presented as discrete intervals in the objective function, variables and left-hand side constraints and fuzziness in the right-hand side constraints. Moreover, this model improves upon the conventional fuzzy chance-constrained programming by introducing a linear combination of possibility measure and necessity measure with varying preference parameters. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then applied to a case study in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. An interval regression analysis method is used to obtain interval crop water production functions in the whole growth period under uncertainty. Therefore, more flexible solutions can be generated for optimal irrigation water allocation. The variation of results can be examined by giving different confidence levels and preference parameters. Besides, it can reflect interrelationships among system benefits, preference parameters, confidence levels and the corresponding risk levels. Comparison between interval crop water production functions and deterministic ones based on the developed INMFCCP model indicates that the former is capable of reflecting more complexities and uncertainties in practical application. These results can provide more reliable scientific basis for supporting irrigation water management in arid areas.

  4. [A hydroponic cultivation system for rapid high-yield transient protein expression in Nicotiana plants under laboratory conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianzhen; Mai, Rongjia; Yang, Zhixiao; Chen, Minfang; Yang, Tiezhao; Lai, Huafang; Yang, Peiliang; Chen, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    To develop a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system for rapid and high-yield transient expression of recombinant proteins under laboratory conditions. To establish the hydroponic cultivation system, several parameters were examined to define the optimal conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants. We used the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the geminiviral plant transient expression vector as the model protein/expression vector. We examined the impact of Nicotiana species, the density and time of Agrobacterium infiltration, and the post-infiltration growth period on the accumulation of GFP. The expression levels of GFP in Nicotiana leaves were then examined by Western blotting and ELISA. Our data indicated that a hydroponic Nicotiana cultivation system with a light intensity of 9000 LX/layer, a light cycle of 16 h day/8 h night, a temperature regime of 28 degrees celsius; day/21 degrees celsius; night, and a relative humidity of 80% could support the optimal plant growth and protein expression. After agroinfiltration with pBYGFPDsRed.R/LBA4404, high levels of GFP expression were observed in both N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants cultured with this hydroponic cultivation system. An optimal GFP expression was achieved in both Nicotiana species leaves 4 days after infiltration by Agrobacterium with an OD(600) of 0.8. At a given time point, the average biomass of N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) was significantly higher than that of N. benthamiana. The leaves from 6-week-old N. benthamiana plants and 5-week-old N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants could be the optimal material for agroinfiltration. We have established a hydroponic cultivation system that allows robust growth of N. benthamiana and N. tobaccum (cv. Yuyan No.5) plants and the optimal GFP expression in the artificial climate box.

  5. Genome-wide expression of transcriptomes and their co-expression pattern in subtropical maize (Zea mays L. under waterlogging stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu

    Full Text Available Waterlogging causes extensive damage to maize crops in tropical and subtropical regions. The identification of tolerance genes and their interactions at the molecular level will be helpful to engineer tolerant genotypes. A whole-genome transcriptome assay revealed the specific role of genes in response to waterlogging stress in susceptible and tolerant genotypes. Genes involved in the synthesis of ethylene and auxin, cell wall metabolism, activation of G-proteins and formation of aerenchyma and adventitious roots, were upregulated in the tolerant genotype. Many transcription factors, particularly ERFs, MYB, HSPs, MAPK, and LOB-domain protein were involved in regulation of these traits. Genes responsible for scavenging of ROS generated under stress were expressed along with those involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The physical locations of 21 genes expressed in the tolerant genotype were found to correspond with the marker intervals of known QTLs responsible for development of adaptive traits. Among the candidate genes, most showed synteny with genes of sorghum and foxtail millet. Co-expression analysis of 528 microarray samples including 16 samples from the present study generated seven functional modules each in the two genotypes, with differing characteristics. In the tolerant genotype, stress genes were co-expressed along with peroxidase and fermentation pathway genes.

  6. In-vivo expression profiling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections reveals niche-specific and strain-independent transcriptional programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bielecki

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a threatening, opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunocompromised individuals. The hallmark of P. aeruginosa virulence is its multi-factorial and combinatorial nature. It renders such bacteria infectious for many organisms and it is often resistant to antibiotics. To gain insights into the physiology of P. aeruginosa during infection, we assessed the transcriptional programs of three different P. aeruginosa strains directly after isolation from burn wounds of humans. We compared the programs to those of the same strains using two infection models: a plant model, which consisted of the infection of the midrib of lettuce leaves, and a murine tumor model, which was obtained by infection of mice with an induced tumor in the abdomen. All control conditions of P. aeruginosa cells growing in suspension and as a biofilm were added to the analysis. We found that these different P. aeruginosa strains express a pool of distinct genetic traits that are activated under particular infection conditions regardless of their genetic variability. The knowledge herein generated will advance our understanding of P. aeruginosa virulence and provide valuable cues for the definition of prospective targets to develop novel intervention strategies.

  7. Genome-wide identification of differentially expressed genes under water deficit stress in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wonkeun; Scheffler, Brian E; Bauer, Philip J; Campbell, B Todd

    2012-06-15

    Cotton is the world's primary fiber crop and is a major agricultural commodity in over 30 countries. Like many other global commodities, sustainable cotton production is challenged by restricted natural resources. In response to the anticipated increase of agricultural water demand, a major research direction involves developing crops that use less water or that use water more efficiently. In this study, our objective was to identify differentially expressed genes in response to water deficit stress in cotton. A global expression analysis using cDNA-Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism was conducted to compare root and leaf gene expression profiles from a putative drought resistant cotton cultivar grown under water deficit stressed and well watered field conditions. We identified a total of 519 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments. Of these, 147 transcript derived fragment sequences were functionally annotated according to their gene ontology. Nearly 70 percent of transcript derived fragments belonged to four major categories: 1) unclassified, 2) stress/defense, 3) metabolism, and 4) gene regulation. We found heat shock protein-related and reactive oxygen species-related transcript derived fragments to be among the major parts of functional pathways induced by water deficit stress. Also, twelve novel transcripts were identified as both water deficit responsive and cotton specific. A subset of differentially expressed transcript derived fragments was verified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Differential expression analysis also identified five pairs of duplicated transcript derived fragments in which four pairs responded differentially between each of their two homologues under water deficit stress. In this study, we detected differentially expressed transcript derived fragments from water deficit stressed root and leaf tissues in tetraploid cotton and provided their gene ontology, functional/biological distribution, and

  8. Gene expression profiling analysis of CRTC1-MAML2 fusion oncogene-induced transcriptional program in human mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Jian-Liang; Chen, Zirong; Griffin, James D.; Wu, Lizi

    2015-01-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) arises from multiple organs and accounts for the most common types of salivary gland malignancies. Currently, patients with unresectable and metastatic MEC have poor long-term clinical outcomes and no targeted therapies are available. The majority of MEC tumors contain a t(11;19) chromosomal translocation that fuses two genes, CRTC1 and MAML2, to generate the chimeric protein CRTC1-MAML2. CRTC1-MAML2 displays transforming activity in vitro and is required for human MEC cell growth and survival, partially due to its ability to constitutively activate CREB-mediated transcription. Consequently, CRTC1-MAML2 is implicated as a major etiologic molecular event and a therapeutic target for MEC. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRTC1-MAML2 oncogenic action in MEC have not yet been systematically analyzed. Elucidation of the CRTC1-MAML2-regulated transcriptional program and its underlying mechanisms will provide important insights into MEC pathogenesis that are essential for the development of targeted therapeutics. Transcriptional profiling was performed on human MEC cells with the depletion of endogenous CRTC1-MAML2 fusion or its interacting partner CREB via shRNA-mediated gene knockdown. A subset of target genes was validated via real-time RT-PCR assays. CRTC1-MAML2-perturbed molecular pathways in MEC were identified through pathway analyses. Finally, comparative analysis of CRTC1-MAML2-regulated and CREB-regulated transcriptional profiles was carried out to assess the contribution of CREB in mediating CRTC1-MAML2-induced transcription. A total of 808 differentially expressed genes were identified in human MEC cells after CRTC1-MAML2 knockdown and a subset of known and novel fusion target genes was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Pathway Analysis revealed that CRTC1-MAML2-regulated genes were associated with network functions that are important for cell growth, proliferation, survival, migration, and metabolism. Comparison of CRTC

  9. An interval-based possibilistic programming method for waste management with cost minimization and environmental-impact abatement under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y P; Huang, G H

    2010-09-15

    Considerable public concerns have been raised in the past decades since a large amount of pollutant emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal of processes pose risks on surrounding environment and human health. Moreover, in MSW management, various uncertainties exist in the related costs, impact factors and objectives, which can affect the optimization processes and the decision schemes generated. In this study, an interval-based possibilistic programming (IBPP) method is developed for planning the MSW management with minimized system cost and environmental impact under uncertainty. The developed method can deal with uncertainties expressed as interval values and fuzzy sets in the left- and right-hand sides of constraints and objective function. An interactive algorithm is provided for solving the IBPP problem, which does not lead to more complicated intermediate submodels and has a relatively low computational requirement. The developed model is applied to a case study of planning a MSW management system, where mixed integer linear programming (MILP) technique is introduced into the IBPP framework to facilitate dynamic analysis for decisions of timing, sizing and siting in terms of capacity expansion for waste-management facilities. Three cases based on different waste-management policies are examined. The results obtained indicate that inclusion of environmental impacts in the optimization model can change the traditional waste-allocation pattern merely based on the economic-oriented planning approach. The results obtained can help identify desired alternatives for managing MSW, which has advantages in providing compromised schemes under an integrated consideration of economic efficiency and environmental impact under uncertainty. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Helper-dependent adenovirus achieve more efficient and persistent liver transgene expression in non-human primates under immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzu, C; Melero, I; Hervás-Stubbs, S; Sampedro, A; Mancheño, U; Morales-Kastresana, A; Serrano-Mendioroz, I; de Salamanca, R E; Benito, A; Fontanellas, A

    2015-11-01

    Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDA) vectors constitute excellent gene therapy tools for metabolic liver diseases. We have previously shown that an HDA vector encoding human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) corrects acute intermittent porphyria mice. Now, six non-human primates were injected in the left hepatic lobe with the PBGD-encoding HDA vector to study levels and persistence of transgene expression. Intrahepatic administration of 5 × 10(12) viral particles kg(-1) (10(10) infective units kg(-1)) of HDA only resulted in transient (≈14 weeks) transgene expression in one out of three individuals. In contrast, a more prolonged 90-day immunosuppressive regimen (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, rituximab and steroids) extended meaningful transgene expression for over 76 weeks in two out of two cases. Transgene expression under immunosuppression (IS) reached maximum levels 6 weeks after HDA administration and gradually declined reaching a stable plateau within the therapeutic range for acute porphyria. The non-injected liver lobes also expressed the transgene because of vector circulation. IS controlled anticapsid T-cell responses and decreased the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Re-administration of HDA-hPBGD at week +78 achieved therapeutically meaningful transgene expression only in those animals receiving IS again at the time of this second vector exposure. Overall, immunity against adenoviral capsids poses serious hurdles for long-term HDA-mediated liver transduction, which can be partially circumvented by pharmacological IS.

  11. ins-7 Gene expression is partially regulated by the DAF-16/IIS signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans under celecoxib intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqing Zheng

    Full Text Available DAF-16 target genes are employed as reporters of the insulin/IGF-1 like signal pathway (IIS, and this is notably true when Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans is used to study the action of anti-aging compounds on IIS activity. However, some of these genes may not be specific to DAF-16, even if their expression levels are altered when DAF-16 is activated. Celecoxib was reported to extend the lifespan of C. elegans through activation of DAF-16. Our results confirmed the function of celecoxib on aging; however, we found that the expression of ins-7, a DAF-16 target gene, was abnormally regulated by celecoxib. ins-7 plays an important role in regulating aging, and its expression is suppressed in C. elegans when DAF-16 is activated. However, we found that celecoxib upregulated the expression of ins-7 in contrast to its role in DAF-16 activation. Our subsequent analysis indicated that the expression level of ins-7 in C. elegans was negatively regulated by DAF-16 activity. Additionally, its expression was also positively regulated by DAF-16-independent mechanisms, at least following external pharmacological intervention. Our study suggests that ins-7 is not a specific target gene of DAF-16, and should not be chosen as a reporter for IIS activity. This conclusion is important in the study of INSs on aging in C. elegans, especially under the circumstance of drug intervention.

  12. ins-7 Gene expression is partially regulated by the DAF-16/IIS signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans under celecoxib intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shanqing; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao; Qu, Zhi; Liu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    DAF-16 target genes are employed as reporters of the insulin/IGF-1 like signal pathway (IIS), and this is notably true when Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is used to study the action of anti-aging compounds on IIS activity. However, some of these genes may not be specific to DAF-16, even if their expression levels are altered when DAF-16 is activated. Celecoxib was reported to extend the lifespan of C. elegans through activation of DAF-16. Our results confirmed the function of celecoxib on aging; however, we found that the expression of ins-7, a DAF-16 target gene, was abnormally regulated by celecoxib. ins-7 plays an important role in regulating aging, and its expression is suppressed in C. elegans when DAF-16 is activated. However, we found that celecoxib upregulated the expression of ins-7 in contrast to its role in DAF-16 activation. Our subsequent analysis indicated that the expression level of ins-7 in C. elegans was negatively regulated by DAF-16 activity. Additionally, its expression was also positively regulated by DAF-16-independent mechanisms, at least following external pharmacological intervention. Our study suggests that ins-7 is not a specific target gene of DAF-16, and should not be chosen as a reporter for IIS activity. This conclusion is important in the study of INSs on aging in C. elegans, especially under the circumstance of drug intervention.

  13. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  14. Transcriptional profiling of cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense highlights gene expression signatures underlying trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naessens Jan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT caused by tsetse fly-transmitted protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma is a major constraint on livestock and agricultural production in Africa and is among the top ten global cattle diseases impacting on the poor. Here we show that a functional genomics approach can be used to identify temporal changes in host peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC gene expression due to disease progression. We also show that major gene expression differences exist between cattle from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible breeds. Using bovine long oligonucleotide microarrays and real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR validation we analysed PBMC gene expression in naïve trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle experimentally challenged with Trypanosoma congolense across a 34-day infection time course. Results Trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle displayed a rapid and distinct transcriptional response to infection, with a ten-fold higher number of genes differentially expressed at day 14 post-infection compared to trypanosusceptible Boran cattle. These analyses identified coordinated temporal gene expression changes for both breeds in response to trypanosome infection. In addition, a panel of genes were identified that showed pronounced differences in gene expression between the two breeds, which may underlie the phenomena of trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility. Gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrate that the products of these genes may contribute to increased mitochondrial mRNA translational efficiency, a more pronounced B cell response, an elevated activation status and a heightened response to stress in trypanotolerant cattle. Conclusion This study has revealed an extensive and diverse range of cellular processes that are altered temporally in response to trypanosome infection in African cattle. Results indicate that the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle respond more rapidly and with a

  15. Mechanisms underlying differential expression of interleukin-8 in breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Ariane; Jolivel, Valérie; Durand, Sébastien; Kersual, Nathalie; Chalbos, Dany; Chavey, Carine; Vignon, Françoise; Lazennec, Gwendal

    2004-01-01

    We have recently reported that Interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression was inversely correlated to estrogen-receptor (ER)-status and was overexpressed in invasive breast cancer cells. In the present study, we show that IL-8 overexpression in breast cancer cells involves a higher transcriptional activity of IL-8 gene promoter. Cloning of IL-8 promoter from MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells expressing high and low levels of IL-8, respectively, shows the integrity of the promoter in both cell lines. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the promoter demonstrate that NF-κB and AP-1 and to a lesser extent C/EBP binding sites play a crucial role in the control of IL-8 promoter activity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Knock-down of NF-κB and AP-1 activities by adenovirus-mediated expression of a NF-κB super-repressor and RNA interference, respectively, decreased IL-8 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. On the contrary, restoration of Fra-1, Fra-2, c-Jun, p50, p65, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ expression levels in MCF-7 cells led to a promoter activity comparable to that observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data constitute the first extensive study of IL-8 gene overexpression in breast cancer cells and suggest that the high expression of IL-8 in invasive cancer cells requires a complex cooperation between NF-κB, AP-1 and C/EBP transcription factors. PMID:15208657

  16. Modulation of neural circuits underlying temporal production by facial expressions of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballotta, Daniela; Lui, Fausta; Porro, Carlo Adolfo; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Benuzzi, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study. Subjects were asked to perform a temporal production task and a concurrent gender discrimination task, while viewing faces of unknown people with either pain-related or neutral expressions. Behavioural data showed temporal underestimation (i.e., longer produced intervals) during implicit pain expression processing; this was accompanied by increased activity of right middle temporal gyrus, a region known to be active during the perception of emotional and painful faces. Psycho-Physiological Interaction analyses showed that: 1) the activity of middle temporal gyrus was positively related to that of areas previously reported to play a role in timing: left primary motor cortex, middle cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, right anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum and basal ganglia; 2) the functional connectivity of supplementary motor area with several frontal regions, anterior cingulate cortex and right angular gyrus was correlated to the produced interval during painful expression processing. Our data support the hypothesis that observing emotional expressions distorts subjective time perception through the interaction of the neural network subserving processing of facial expressions with the brain network involved in timing. Within this frame, middle temporal gyrus appears to be the key region of the interplay between the two neural systems.

  17. Modulation of neural circuits underlying temporal production by facial expressions of pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ballotta

    Full Text Available According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study. Subjects were asked to perform a temporal production task and a concurrent gender discrimination task, while viewing faces of unknown people with either pain-related or neutral expressions. Behavioural data showed temporal underestimation (i.e., longer produced intervals during implicit pain expression processing; this was accompanied by increased activity of right middle temporal gyrus, a region known to be active during the perception of emotional and painful faces. Psycho-Physiological Interaction analyses showed that: 1 the activity of middle temporal gyrus was positively related to that of areas previously reported to play a role in timing: left primary motor cortex, middle cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, right anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum and basal ganglia; 2 the functional connectivity of supplementary motor area with several frontal regions, anterior cingulate cortex and right angular gyrus was correlated to the produced interval during painful expression processing. Our data support the hypothesis that observing emotional expressions distorts subjective time perception through the interaction of the neural network subserving processing of facial expressions with the brain network involved in timing. Within this frame, middle temporal gyrus appears to be the key region of the interplay between the two neural systems.

  18. Modulation of neural circuits underlying temporal production by facial expressions of pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Fausta; Porro, Carlo Adolfo; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Benuzzi, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirty healthy volunteers took part in the study. Subjects were asked to perform a temporal production task and a concurrent gender discrimination task, while viewing faces of unknown people with either pain-related or neutral expressions. Behavioural data showed temporal underestimation (i.e., longer produced intervals) during implicit pain expression processing; this was accompanied by increased activity of right middle temporal gyrus, a region known to be active during the perception of emotional and painful faces. Psycho-Physiological Interaction analyses showed that: 1) the activity of middle temporal gyrus was positively related to that of areas previously reported to play a role in timing: left primary motor cortex, middle cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, right anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral cerebellum and basal ganglia; 2) the functional connectivity of supplementary motor area with several frontal regions, anterior cingulate cortex and right angular gyrus was correlated to the produced interval during painful expression processing. Our data support the hypothesis that observing emotional expressions distorts subjective time perception through the interaction of the neural network subserving processing of facial expressions with the brain network involved in timing. Within this frame, middle temporal gyrus appears to be the key region of the interplay between the two neural systems. PMID:29447256

  19. Expression of novel rice gibberellin 2-oxidase gene is under homeostatic regulation by biologically active gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Miho; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Saito, Tamio; Matsuoka, Makoto; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2003-04-01

    We have cloned two genes for gibberellin (GA) 2-oxidase from rice ( Oryza sativa L.). Expression of OsGA2ox2 was not observed. The other gene, OsGA2ox3, was expressed in every tissue examined and was enhanced by the application of biologically active GA. Recombinant OsGA2ox3 protein catalyzed the metabolism of GA(1) to GA(8) and GA(20) to GA(29)-catabolite. These results indicate that OsGA2ox3 is involved in the homeostatic regulation of the endogenous level of biologically active GA in rice.

  20. Selection of relatively exact reference genes for gene expression studies in goosegrass (Eleusine indica) under herbicide stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingchao; Huang, Zhaofeng; Huang, Hongjuan; Wei, Shouhui; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Cuilan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Chaoxian

    2017-04-21

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) is one of the most serious annual grassy weeds worldwide, and its evolved herbicide-resistant populations are more difficult to control. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a common technique for investigating the resistance mechanism; however, there is as yet no report on the systematic selection of stable reference genes for goosegrass. This study proposed to test the expression stability of 9 candidate reference genes in goosegrass in different tissues and developmental stages and under stress from three types of herbicide. The results show that for different developmental stages and organs (control), eukaryotic initiation factor 4 A (eIF-4) is the most stable reference gene. Chloroplast acetolactate synthase (ALS) is the most stable reference gene under glyphosate stress. Under glufosinate stress, eIF-4 is the best reference gene. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE) is the most stable reference gene under quizalofop-p-ethyl stress. The gene eIF-4 is the recommended reference gene for goosegrass under the stress of all three herbicides. Moreover, pairwise analysis showed that seven reference genes were sufficient to normalize the gene expression data under three herbicides treatment. This study provides a list of reliable reference genes for transcript normalization in goosegrass, which will facilitate resistance mechanism studies in this weed species.

  1. Identification of Appropriate Reference Genes for Normalization of miRNA Expression in Grafted Watermelon Plants under Different Nutrient Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifang; Deng, Qin; Shi, Pibiao; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy. The purpose of this study was to select appropriate reference genes in scion (watermelon) and rootstocks (squash and bottle gourd) of grafted watermelon plants under normal growth conditions and nutrient stresses (nitrogen and phosphorus starvation). Under nutrient starvation, geNorm identified miR167c and miR167f as two most stable genes in both watermelon leaves and squash roots. miR166b was recommended by both geNorm and NormFinder as the best reference in bottle gourd roots under nutrient limitation. Expression of a new Cucurbitaceae miRNA, miR85, was used to validate the reliability of candidate reference genes under nutrient starvation. Moreover, by comparing several target genes expression in qRT-PCR analysis with those in RNA-seq data, miR166b and miR167c were proved to be the most suitable reference genes to normalize miRNA expression under normal growth condition in scion and rootstock tissues, respectively. This study represents the first comprehensive survey of the stability of miRNA reference genes in Cucurbitaceae and provides valuable information for investigating more accurate miRNA expression involving grafted watermelon plants.

  2. Use of Gene Expression Programming in regionalization of flow duration curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shamseldin, Asaad Y.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a recently introduced artificial intelligence technique known as Gene Expression Programming (GEP) has been employed to perform symbolic regression for developing a parametric scheme of flow duration curve (FDC) regionalization, to relate selected FDC characteristics to catchment characteristics. Stream flow records of selected catchments located in the Auckland Region of New Zealand were used. FDCs of the selected catchments were normalised by dividing the ordinates by their median value. Input for the symbolic regression analysis using GEP was (a) selected characteristics of normalised FDCs; and (b) 26 catchment characteristics related to climate, morphology, soil properties and land cover properties obtained using the observed data and GIS analysis. Our study showed that application of this artificial intelligence technique expedites the selection of a set of the most relevant independent variables out of a large set, because these are automatically selected through the GEP process. Values of the FDC characteristics obtained from the developed relationships have high correlations with the observed values.

  3. Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress Programs Expression of Genes Involved in Appetite Control and Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, E. L.; Al-Shayeb, B.; Baer, L. A.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress in the womb shapes neurobiological and physiological outcomes of offspring in later life, including body weight regulation and metabolic profiles. Our previous work utilizing a centrifugation-induced hyper-gravity demonstrated significantly increased (8-15%) body mass in male, but not female, rats exposed throughout gestation to chronic 2-g from conception to birth. We reported a similar outcome in adult offspring exposed throughout gestation to Unpredictable Variable Prenatal Stress (UVPS). Here we examine gene expression changes and the plasma of animals treated with our UVPS model to identify a potential role for prenatal stress in this hypergravity programming effect. Specifically we focused on appetite control and energy expenditure pathways in prenatally stressed adult (90-day-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats.

  4. Parallelizing Gene Expression Programming Algorithm in Enabling Large-Scale Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiong Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most effective function mining algorithms, Gene Expression Programming (GEP algorithm has been widely used in classification, pattern recognition, prediction, and other research fields. Based on the self-evolution, GEP is able to mine an optimal function for dealing with further complicated tasks. However, in big data researches, GEP encounters low efficiency issue due to its long time mining processes. To improve the efficiency of GEP in big data researches especially for processing large-scale classification tasks, this paper presents a parallelized GEP algorithm using MapReduce computing model. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is scalable and efficient for processing large-scale classification tasks.

  5. Expression of annexin and Annexin-mRNA in rat brain under influence of steroid drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voermans, PH; Go, KG; ter Horst, GJ; Ruiters, MHJ; Solito, E; Parente, L; James, HE; Marshall, LF; Reulen, HJ; Baethmann, A; Marmarou, A; Ito, U; Hoff, JT; Kuroiwa, T; Czernicki, Z

    1997-01-01

    Brain tissue of rats pretreated with methylprednisolone or with the 21-aminosteroid U74389F, and that of untreated control rats, was assessed for the expression of Annexin-l (Anx-1) and the transcription of its mRNA. For this purpose Anx-1 cDNA was amplified and simultaneously a T7-RNA-polymerase

  6. Digital Gene Expression Profiling Analysis of Aged Mice under Moxibustion Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is closely connected with death, progressive physiological decline, and increased risk of diseases, such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, heart disease, hypertension, and neurodegenerative diseases. It is reported that moxibustion can treat more than 300 kinds of diseases including aging related problems and can improve immune function and physiological functions. The digital gene expression profiling of aged mice with or without moxibustion treatment was investigated and the mechanisms of moxibustion in aged mice were speculated by gene ontology and pathway analysis in the study. Almost 145 million raw reads were obtained by digital gene expression analysis and about 140 million (96.55% were clean reads. Five differentially expressed genes with an adjusted P value 1 were identified between the control and moxibustion groups. They were Gm6563, Gm8116, Rps26-ps1, Nat8f4, and Igkv3-12. Gene ontology analysis was carried out by the GOseq R package and functional annotations of the differentially expressed genes related to translation, mRNA export from nucleus, mRNA transport, nuclear body, acetyltransferase activity, and so on. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database was used for pathway analysis and ribosome was the most significantly enriched pathway term.

  7. Expression of of VP60 gene from RHDV YL strain under control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zdx

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... So far, several plant species suitable for the expression of recombinant proteins with ... plant transfer vector including the VP60 gene driven by .... VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. J. Virol. 73(5): ...

  8. 75 FR 54898 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Part C funds under The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care...

  9. 34 CFR 661.2 - Who is eligible to apply for a grant under the Business and International Education Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 661.2 Who is eligible to apply for a grant under the Business and... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a grant under the Business and International Education Program? 661.2 Section 661.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...

  10. 34 CFR 379.11 - What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional types of project activities may be... EDUCATION PROJECTS WITH INDUSTRY What Kinds of Activities Does the Department of Education Assist Under This Program? § 379.11 What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program? The...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are supportable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and...

  13. 45 CFR 287.125 - What supportive and job retention services may be provided under the NEW Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What supportive and job retention services may be provided under the NEW Program? 287.125 Section 287.125 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Operations § 287.125 What supportive and job retention services may be provided under the NEW Program? The...

  14. Expression analysis of HSP70 in the testis of Octopus tankahkeei under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ling-Li; Han, Ying-Li; Sheng, Zhang; Du, Chen; Wang, You-Fa; Zhu, Jun-Quan

    2015-09-01

    The gene encoding heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was identified in Octopus tankahkeei by homologous cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA (2471 bp) consists of a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (89 bp), a 3'-UTR (426 bp), and an open reading frame (1956 bp) that encodes 651 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 71.8 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.34. Based on the amino acid sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment, this cDNA is a member of cytoplasmic hsp70 subfamily of the hsp70 family and was designated as ot-hsp70. Tissue expression analysis showed that HSP70 expression is highest in the testes when all examined organs were compared. Immunohistochemistry analysis, together with hematoxylin-eosin staining, revealed that the HSP70 protein was expressed in all spermatogenic cells, but not in fibroblasts. In addition, O. tankahkeei were heat challenged by exposure to 32 °C seawater for 2 h, then returned to 13 °C for various recovery time (0-24 h). Relative expression of ot-hsp70 mRNA in the testes was measured at different time points post-challenge by quantitative real-time PCR. A clear time-dependent mRNA expression of ot-hsp70 after thermal stress indicates that the HSP70 gene is inducible. Ultrastructural changes of the heat-stressed testis were observed by transmission electron microscopy. We suggest that HSP70 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and testis protection against thermal stress in O. tankahkeei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 76 FR 30951 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Funds for the Tutwiler Clinic. SUMMARY: HRSA will award non-competitively Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C funds to the Tutwiler Clinic, Tutwiler, Mississippi, to support...

  16. 78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS... HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C funds award...

  17. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  18. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Part C...

  19. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY...: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive Award To... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  20. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan White...

  1. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (Part C) Early Intervention Services One-Time... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide one-time noncompetitive Part C...

  2. Maternal obesity programs mitochondrial and lipid metabolism gene expression in infant umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S M R; Isganaitis, E; Matthews, T J; Hughes, K; Daher, G; Dreyfuss, J M; da Silva, G A P; Patti, M-E

    2016-11-01

    Maternal obesity increases risk for childhood obesity, but molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from infants of overweight and obese mothers would harbor transcriptional patterns reflecting offspring obesity risk. In this observational cohort study, we recruited 13 lean (pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) obese ('ov-ob', BMI⩾25.0 kg m -2 ) women. We isolated primary HUVEC, and analyzed both gene expression (Primeview, Affymetrix) and cord blood levels of hormones and adipokines. A total of 142 transcripts were differentially expressed in HUVEC from infants of overweight-obese mothers (false discovery rate, FDRmaternal BMI (FDRmaternal obesity, we analyzed the cord blood lipidome and noted significant increases in the levels of total free fatty acids (lean: 95.5±37.1 μg ml -1 , ov-ob: 124.1±46.0 μg ml -1 , P=0.049), palmitate (lean: 34.5±12.7 μg ml -1 , ov-ob: 46.3±18.4 μg ml -1 , P=0.03) and stearate (lean: 20.8±8.2 μg ml -1 , ov-ob: 29.7±17.2 μg ml -1 , P=0.04), in infants of overweight-obese mothers. Prenatal exposure to maternal obesity alters HUVEC expression of genes involved in mitochondrial and lipid metabolism, potentially reflecting developmentally programmed differences in oxidative and lipid metabolism.

  3. Identification, Expression Analysis, and Target Prediction of Flax Genotroph MicroRNAs Under Normal and Nutrient Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Koroban, Nadezhda V.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Krasnov, George S.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Klimina, Kseniya M.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Muravenko, Olga V.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important plant valuable for industry. Some flax lines can undergo heritable phenotypic and genotypic changes (LIS-1 insertion being the most common) in response to nutrient stress and are called plastic lines. Offspring of plastic lines, which stably inherit the changes, are called genotrophs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a crucial regulatory mechanism of gene expression. They have previously been assumed to take part in nutrient stress response and can, therefore, participate in genotroph formation. In the present study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) extracted from flax plants grown under normal, phosphate deficient and nutrient excess conditions to identify miRNAs and evaluate their expression. Our analysis revealed expression of 96 conserved miRNAs from 21 families in flax. Moreover, 475 novel potential miRNAs were identified for the first time, and their targets were predicted. However, none of the identified miRNAs were transcribed from LIS-1. Expression of seven miRNAs (miR168, miR169, miR395, miR398, miR399, miR408, and lus-miR-N1) with up- or down-regulation under nutrient stress (on the basis of high-throughput sequencing data) was evaluated on extended sampling using qPCR. Reference gene search identified ETIF3H and ETIF3E genes as most suitable for this purpose. Down-regulation of novel potential lus-miR-N1 and up-regulation of conserved miR399 were revealed under the phosphate deficient conditions. In addition, the negative correlation of expression of lus-miR-N1 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 gene, as well as, miR399 and its predicted target, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 gene, was observed. Thus, in our study, miRNAs expressed in flax plastic lines and genotrophs were identified and their expression and expression of their targets was evaluated using high-throughput sequencing and qPCR for the first time. These data provide new insights

  4. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Methods Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. Results During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%, and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Conclusion Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  5. Utilisation of podiatry services in Australia under the Medicare Enhanced Primary Care program, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B

    2009-10-30

    In 2004, as an extension of the Enhanced Primary Care (EPC) program, the Australian Government introduced a policy of providing Medicare rebates for allied health services provided to patients with chronic or complex health conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of podiatry services provided under this scheme between 2004 and 2008. Data pertaining to the Medicare item 10962 for the calendar years 2004-2008 were extracted from the Australian Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) database and cross-tabulated by sex and age. Descriptive analyses were undertaken to assess sex and age differences in the number of consultations provided and to assess for temporal trends over the five-year assessment period. The total cost to Medicare over this period was also determined. During the 2004-2008 period, a total of 1,338,044 EPC consultations were provided by podiatrists in Australia. Females exhibited higher utilisation than males (63 versus 37%), and those aged over 65 years accounted for 75% of consultations. There was a marked increase in the number of consultations provided from 2004 to 2008, and the total cost of providing EPC podiatry services during this period was $62.9 M. Podiatry services have been extensively utilised under the EPC program by primary care patients, particularly older women, and the number of services provided has increased dramatically between 2004 and 2008. Further research is required to determine whether the EPC program enhances clinical outcomes compared to standard practice.

  6. Stochastic goal programming based groundwater remediation management under human-health-risk uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Fan, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an integrated optimal groundwater remediation design approach. • The approach can address stochasticity in carcinogenic risks. • Goal programming is used to make the system approaching to ideal operation and remediation effects. • The uncertainty in slope factor is evaluated under different confidence levels. • Optimal strategies are obtained to support remediation design under uncertainty. - Abstract: An optimal design approach for groundwater remediation is developed through incorporating numerical simulation, health risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and nonlinear optimization within a general framework. Stochastic analysis and goal programming are introduced into the framework to handle uncertainties in real-world groundwater remediation systems. Carcinogenic risks associated with remediation actions are further evaluated at four confidence levels. The differences between ideal and predicted constraints are minimized by goal programming. The approach is then applied to a contaminated site in western Canada for creating a set of optimal remediation strategies. Results from the case study indicate that factors including environmental standards, health risks and technical requirements mutually affected and restricted themselves. Stochastic uncertainty existed in the entire process of remediation optimization, which should to be taken into consideration in groundwater remediation design

  7. Potential mechanisms underlying estrogen-induced expression of the molluscan estrogen receptor (ER) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Thi Kim Anh [School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Vinh University, 182 Le Duan St., Vinh City, Nghe An (Viet Nam); MacFarlane, Geoff R. [School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Kong, Richard Yuen Chong [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); O’Connor, Wayne A. [New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Port Stephens Fisheries Institute, Taylors Beach, NSW 2316 (Australia); Yu, Richard Man Kit, E-mail: Richard.Yu@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environmental and Life Sciences, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • This is the first report on the putative promoter sequence of a molluscan ER gene. • The gene promoter contains putative binding sites for direct and indirect interaction with ER. • E2 upregulates ER gene expression in the ovary in vitro and in vivo. • E2-induced gene expression may require a novel ligand-dependent receptor. • The ER proximal promoter is hypomethylated regardless of gene expression levels. - Abstract: In vertebrates, estrogens and estrogen mimicking chemicals modulate gene expression mainly through a genomic pathway mediated by the estrogen receptors (ERs). Although the existence of an ER orthologue in the mollusc genome has been known for some time, its role in estrogen signalling has yet to be deciphered. This is largely due to its constitutive (ligand-independent) activation and a limited mechanistic understanding of its regulation. To fill this knowledge gap, we cloned and characterised an ER cDNA (sgER) and the 5′-flanking region of the gene from the Sydney rock oyster Saccostrea glomerata. The sgER cDNA is predicted to encode a 477-amino acid protein that contains a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD) typically conserved among both vertebrate and invertebrate ERs. A comparison of the sgER LBD sequence with those of other ligand-dependent ERs revealed that the sgER LBD is variable at several conserved residues known to be critical for ligand binding and receptor activation. Ligand binding assays using fluorescent-labelled E2 and purified sgER protein confirmed that sgER is devoid of estrogen binding. In silico analysis of the sgER 5′-flanking sequence indicated the presence of three putative estrogen responsive element (ERE) half-sites and several putative sites for ER-interacting transcription factors, suggesting that the sgER promoter may be autoregulated by its own gene product. sgER mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in adult oyster tissues, with the highest expression found in the ovary

  8. Multi-Year Program under Budget Constraints Using Multi-Criteria Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Adiguna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road investment appraisal requires joint consideration of multiple criteria which are related to engineering, economic, social and environmental impacts. The investment consideration could be based on the economic analysis but however for some factors, such as environmental, social, and political, are difficult to quantify in monetary term. The multi-criteria analysis is the alternative tool which caters the requirements of the issues above. The research, which is based on 102 class D and class E paved road sections in Kenya, is about to optimize road network investment under budget constraints by applying a multi-criteria analysis (MCA method and compare it with the conventional economic analysis. The MCA is developed from hierarchy structure which is considered as the analytical framework. The framework is based on selected criteria and weights which are assigned from Kenya road policy. The HDM-4 software is applied as decision-making tool to obtain the best investment alternatives and road work programs from both MCA and economic analysis. The road work programs will be the results from the analysis using both MCA and economic analysis within HDM-4 software to see the difference and compare the results between both programs. The results from MCA show 51 road sections need periodic work, which is overlay or resealing. Meanwhile, 51 others need rehabilitation or reconstruction. The five years road work program which based on economic analysis result shows that it costs almost Kenyan Shilling (KES 130 billion to maintain the class D and E paved road in Kenya. Meanwhile, the MCA only requires KES 59.5 billion for 5 years program. These results show huge margin between two analyses and somehow MCA result provides more efficient work program compared to economic analysis.

  9. Role of the placenta in fetal programming: underlying mechanisms and potential interventional approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2007-07-01

    Adverse influences during fetal life alter the structure and function of distinct cells, organ systems or homoeostatic pathways, thereby 'programming' the individual for an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes in adult life. Fetal programming can be caused by a number of different perturbations in the maternal compartment, such as altered maternal nutrition and reduced utero-placental blood flow; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully established. Perturbations in the maternal environment must be transmitted across the placenta in order to affect the fetus. Here, we review recent insights into how the placenta responds to changes in the maternal environment and discuss possible mechanisms by which the placenta mediates fetal programming. In IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) pregnancies, the increased placental vascular resistance subjects the fetal heart to increased work load, representing a possible direct link between altered placental structure and fetal programming of cardiovascular disease. A decreased activity of placental 11beta-HSD-2 (type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) activity can increase fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which programmes the fetus for later hypertension and metabolic disease. The placenta appears to function as a nutrient sensor regulating nutrient transport according to the ability of the maternal supply line to deliver nutrients. By directly regulating fetal nutrient supply and fetal growth, the placenta plays a central role in fetal programming. Furthermore, perturbations in the maternal compartment may affect the methylation status of placental genes and increase placental oxidative/nitrative stress, resulting in changes in placental function. Intervention strategies targeting the placenta in order to prevent or alleviate altered fetal growth and/or fetal programming include altering placental growth and nutrient transport by maternally administered IGFs (insulin

  10. CNS development under altered gravity: cerebellar glial and neuronal protein expression in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Li, G.-H.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity, specifically in relation to the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously employed a hypergravity paradigm to assess the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum [Exp. Biol. Med. 226 (2000) 790]. The present study addresses the molecular mechanisms involved in the cerebellar response to hypergravity. Specifically, the study focuses on the expression of selected glial and neuronal cerebellar proteins in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5 G) from embryonic day (E)11 to postnatal day (P)6 or P9 (the time of maximal cerebellar changes) comparing them against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative Western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using quantitative PCR. Densitometric analysis of Western blots suggested a reduction in glial (glial acidic protein, GFAP) and neuronal (neuronal cell adhesion moiecule, NCAM-L1, synaptophysin) proteins, but the changes in individual cerebellar proteins in hypergravity-exposed neonates appeared both age- and gender-specific. RNA analysis suggested a reduction in GFAP and synaptophysin mRNAs on P6. These data suggest that exposure to hypergravity may interfere with the expression of selected cerebellar proteins. These changes in protein expression may be involved in mediating the effect of hypergravity on the developing rat cerebellum.

  11. Local expression of vaginal Th1 and Th2 cytokines in murine vaginal candidiasis under different immunity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjuan; Li, Shaohua; Wu, Yan; Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Jiawen

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the expression of vaginal Th1 and Th2 cytokines in rats with experimental vaginal candidiasis under different immune conditions, ICR murine vaginal candidiasis model was established and immno-suppressed murine models of vaginal cadidiasis were established in estrogen-treated mice. Non-estrogen-treated mice were used as controls. The mRNA level of Th1 (IL-2)/Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-beta1) cytokines in murine vaginal tissues was determined by RT-PCR. The cykotine in local tissues was increased to different extent under normal immune condition. IL-2 mRNA was increased during early stage of infection, while IL-10 was increased transiently during late stage of infection. TGF-beta1 production was found to be increased persistently. At same time, the expression of IL-2 mRNA was suppressed in immno-suppressed group, and the level of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta1 were higher than the normal immunity group to different degree during infection. The high level of IL-2 mRNA during early stage of infection was associated with clearance of mucosal Candidia albicans (C. albicans), and its expression suppressed leading to decreased clearance of mucosal C. albican in immuno-suppression. The over-expression of IL-4 and IL-10 could significantly enhance the susceptibility to C. albicans infection in mice.

  12. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yang

    Full Text Available Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41 was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  13. Stability of multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems under fuzziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo-Sinna Mahmoud A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems under fuzzy environment. In the proposed method, tentative solutions are obtained and evaluated by using the partial information on preference of the decision-makers at each level. The existing results concerning the qualitative analysis of some basic notions in parametric linear programming problems are reformulated to study the stability of multi-objective bi-level linear programming problems. An algorithm for obtaining any subset of the parametric space, which has the same corresponding Pareto optimal solution, is presented. Also, this paper established the model for the supply-demand interaction in the age of electronic commerce (EC. First of all, the study uses the individual objectives of both parties as the foundation of the supply-demand interaction. Subsequently, it divides the interaction, in the age of electronic commerce, into the following two classifications: (i Market transactions, with the primary focus on the supply demand relationship in the marketplace; and (ii Information service, with the primary focus on the provider and the user of information service. By applying the bi-level programming technique of interaction process, the study will develop an analytical process to explain how supply-demand interaction achieves a compromise or why the process fails. Finally, a numerical example of information service is provided for the sake of illustration.

  14. Optimization of axial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for BWR fuel under control rod programming, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hida, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Ritsuo

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for optimizing the axial enrichment and gadolinia distributions for the reload BWR fuel under control rod programming. The problem was to minimize the enrichment requirement subject to the criticality and axial power peaking constraints. The optimization technique was based on the successive linear programming method, each linear programming problem being solved by a goal programming algorithm. A rapid and practically accurate core neutronics model, named the modified one-dimensional core model, was developed to describe the batch-averaged burnup behavior of the reload fuel. A core burnup simulation algorithm, employing a burnup-power-void iteration, was also developed to calculate the rigorous equilibrium cycle performance. This method was applied to the optimization of axial two- and 24-region fuels for demonstrative purposes. The optimal solutions for both fuels have proved the optimality of what is called burnup shape optimization spectral shift. For the two-region fuel with a practical power peaking of 1.4, the enrichment distribution was nearly uniform, because a bottom-peaked burnup shape flattens the axial power shape. Optimization of the 24-region fuel has shown a potential improvement in BWR fuel cycle economics, which will guide future advancement in BWR fuel designs. (author)

  15. Investigation program on PWR-steel-containment behavior under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.; Eberle, F.; Goeller, B.; Gulden, W.; Kadlec, J.; Messemer, G.; Mueller, S.; Wolf, E.

    1983-10-01

    This report is a first documentation of the KfK/PNS activities and plans to investigate the behaviour of steel containments under accident conditions. The investigations will deal with a free standing spherical containment shell built for the latest type of a German pressurized water reactor. The diameter of the containment shell is 56 m. The minimum wall thickness is 38 mm. The material used is the ferritic steel 15MnNi63. According to the actual planning the program is concerned with four different problems which are beyond the common design and licensing practice: Containment behavior under quasi-static pressure increase up to containment failure. Containment behavior under high transient pressures. Containment oscillations due to earthquake loadings; consideration of shell imperfections. Containment buckling due to earthquake loadings. The investigation program consists of both theoretical and experimental activities including membrane tests allowing for very high plastic strains and oscillation tests with a thin-walled, high-accurate spherical shell. (orig.) [de

  16. Expression for the thermal H-mode energy confinement time under ELM-free conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryter, F.; Gruber, O.; Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; Menzler, H.P.; Wagner, F.; Schissel, D.P.; DeBoo, J.C.; Kaye, S.M.

    1992-07-01

    The design of future tokamaks, which are supposed to reach ignition with the H-mode, requires a reliable scaling expression for the H-mode energy confinement time. In the present work, an H-mode scaling expression for the thermal plasma energy confinement time has been developed by combining data from four existing divertor tokamaks, ASDEX, DIII-D, JET and PBX-M. The plasma conditions, which were as similar as possible to ensure a coherent set of data, were ELM-free deuterium discharges heated by deuterium neutral beam injection. By combining four tokamaks, the parametric dependence of the thermal energy confinement on the main plasma parameters, including the three main geometrical variables, was determined. (orig./WL)

  17. Evaluation of Reference Genes to Analyze Gene Expression in Silverside Odontesthes humensis Under Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony L. R. Silveira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Some mammalian reference genes, which are widely used to normalize the qRT-PCR, could not be used for this purpose due to its high expression variation. The normalization with false reference genes leads to misinterpretation of results. The silversides (Odontesthes spp. has been used as models for evolutionary, osmoregulatory and environmental pollution studies but, up to now, there are no studies about reference genes in any Odontesthes species. Furthermore, many studies on silversides have used reference genes without previous validations. Thus, present study aimed to was to clone and sequence potential reference genes, thereby identifying the best ones in Odontesthes humensis considering different tissues, ages and conditions. For this purpose, animals belonging to three ages (adults, juveniles, and immature were exposed to control, Roundup®, and seawater treatments for 24 h. Blood samples were subjected to flow-cytometry and other collected tissues to RNA extraction; cDNA synthesis; molecular cloning; DNA sequencing; and qRT-PCR. The candidate genes tested included 18s, actb, ef1a, eif3g, gapdh, h3a, atp1a, and tuba. Gene expression results were analyzed using five algorithms that ranked the candidate genes. The flow-cytometry data showed that the environmental challenges could trigger a systemic response in the treated fish. Even during this systemic physiological disorder, the consensus analysis of gene expression revealed h3a to be the most stable gene expression when only the treatments were considered. On the other hand, tuba was the least stable gene in the control and gapdh was the least stable in both Roundup® and seawater groups. In conclusion, the consensus analyses of different tissues, ages, and treatments groups revealed that h3a is the most stable gene whereas gapdh and tuba are the least stable genes, even being considered two constitutive genes.

  18. Gene expression profile of Bombyx mori hemocyte under the stress of destruxin A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Gong

    Full Text Available Destruxin A (DA is a cyclo-peptidic mycotoxin from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. To uncover potential genes associated with its molecular mechanisms, a digital gene expression (DGE profiling analysis was used to compare differentially expressed genes in the hemocytes of silkworm larvae treated with DA. Ten DGE libraries were constructed, sequenced, and assembled, and the unigenes with least 2.0-fold difference were further analyzed. The numbers of up-regulated genes were 10, 20, 18, 74 and 8, as well as the numbers of down-regulated genes were 0, 1, 8, 13 and 3 at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h post treatment, respectively. Totally, the expression of 132 genes were significantly changed, among them, 1, 3 and 12 genes were continually up-regulated at 4, 3 and 2 different time points, respectively, while 1 gene was either up or down-regulated continually at 2 different time points. Furthermore, 68 genes were assigned to one or multiple gene ontology (GO terms and 89 genes were assigned to specific Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG Orthology. In-depth analysis identified that these genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, cell apoptosis, and innate immune defense. Finally, twenty differentially expressed genes were randomly chosen and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Our studies provide insights into the toxic effect of this microbial insecticide on silkworm's hemocytes, and are helpful to better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of DA as a biological insecticide.

  19. Gene expression dynamics of pseudomonas putida KT2440 biofilms under water deprivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulez, Gamze; Dechesne, Arnaud; Workman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In soil, bacteria can form colonies that are exposed to changing hydration conditions, exerting a stress to which the bacteria should adjust. Some of the phenotypes associated with water deprivation, such as the production extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and the limitation of motility, have......DNA-microarray was used for gene expression profiling. The genes with log2-fold change >=1.5 and adjusted P-value...

  20. Modulation of neural circuits underlying temporal production by facial expressions of pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ballotta, Daniela; Lui, Fausta; Porro, Carlo Adolfo; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Benuzzi, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    According to the Scalar Expectancy Theory, humans are equipped with a biological internal clock, possibly modulated by attention and arousal. Both emotions and pain are arousing and can absorb attentional resources, thus causing distortions of temporal perception. The aims of the present single-event fMRI study were to investigate: a) whether observation of facial expressions of pain interferes with time production; and b) the neural network subserving this kind of temporal distortions. Thirt...

  1. HEINBE; the calculation program for helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Satoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Sato, Minoru

    1992-11-01

    HEINBE is a program on personal computer for calculating helium production in beryllium under neutron irradiation. The program can also calculate the tritium production in beryllium. Considering many nuclear reactions and their multi-step reactions, helium and tritium productions in beryllium materials irradiated at fusion reactor or fission reactor may be calculated with high accuracy. The calculation method, user's manual, calculated examples and comparison with experimental data were described. This report also describes a neutronics simulation method to generate additional data on swelling of beryllium, 3,000-15,000 appm helium range, for end-of-life of the proposed design for fusion blanket of the ITER. The calculation results indicate that helium production for beryllium sample doped lithium by 50 days irradiation in the fission reactor, such as the JMTR, could be achieved to 2,000-8,000 appm. (author)

  2. Estimation of Finite Population Mean in Multivariate Stratified Sampling under Cost Function Using Goal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atta Ullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical utilization of stratified random sampling scheme, the investigator meets a problem to select a sample that maximizes the precision of a finite population mean under cost constraint. An allocation of sample size becomes complicated when more than one characteristic is observed from each selected unit in a sample. In many real life situations, a linear cost function of a sample size nh is not a good approximation to actual cost of sample survey when traveling cost between selected units in a stratum is significant. In this paper, sample allocation problem in multivariate stratified random sampling with proposed cost function is formulated in integer nonlinear multiobjective mathematical programming. A solution procedure is proposed using extended lexicographic goal programming approach. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details and to compare the efficiency of proposed compromise allocation.

  3. Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 in Glomerular Endothelial Cells under Diabetic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Shunsuke; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Uchiyama, Takanobu; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic conditions promote glomerulosclerosis by mesangial cells but the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. The present study evaluated the expression of toll-like receptor 4 in glomerular endothelial cells in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse (ICR-STZ) and the type 2 diabetic KK/TaJcl mouse which were fed a high fat diet feed (KK/Ta-HF). In the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF almost glomeruli were immunostained with anti-TLR4 but there was no glomerulus immunostained by ani-TLR4 in the control ICR and KK/Ta. Laser-scanning confocal microscopy showed that the TLR4-positive region did not coincide with the podoplanin-positive region but coincide with the PECAM-1- and VE-cadherin-positive regions in the glomeruli of the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF. The in situ hybridization showed that almost signals for TLR4 mRNA were present in the glomerulus of the ICR-STZ and KK/Ta-HF to a stronger extent than in the control ICR and KK/Ta. These suggest that glomerular endothelial cells usually express the TLR4 gene and hyperglycemia in the diabetic condition induces the TLR4 protein expression in the glomerular capillary endothelial cells. Cytokine productions through the TLR signaling pathway in glomerular endothelial cells may allow mesangial cells to produce extracellular matrix proteins in the diabetic milieu

  4. Differential expression of EWI-2 in endometriosis, its functional role and underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tingting; Yang, Jing

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to investigate EWI-2 expression in endometrium tissues collected from women with endometriosis at mRNA and protein levels, to evaluate its potential as a biomarker for endometriosis and to study its functional role via possible regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Endometrium tissues were collected from patients with endometriosis and healthy individuals. EWI-2 mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) while EWI-2 protein levels were determined by western blotting. For functional studies, EWI-2 shRNA was transfected in endometrial epithelial cells and the in vitro migration and invasion assays were performed using the Transwell chambers. EWI-2 was significantly downregulated in tissues obtained from patients with endometriosis compared with healthy individuals (P endometriosis diagnosis was 0.8942 (P = 0.003), 0.9643 (P = 0.0001), 0.9912 (P endometriosis in matched comparisons of data originated from the proliferative, early, middle, and late secretory phases. Over the menstrual cycle, the expression of EWI-2 was significantly decreased in the eutopic tissues compared to the ectopic tissues. Further cellular and molecular analyses showed that EWI-2 inhibited cell migration and invasion via the Akt signaling. Our findings suggested that downregulation of EWI-2 may contribute to endometriosis physiopathology and potentiate EWI-2 as a valuable diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for endometriosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. The interplay between GRP78 expression and Akt activation in human colon cancer cells under celecoxib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaobo; Chang, Weilong; Du, Hansong; Bai, Jie; Sun, Zhenhai; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Guangsheng; Tao, Kaixiong; Long, Yueping

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported previously that celecoxib shows antitumor effects in many types of cancers. Here, we detected its effects on DLD-1 and SW480 (two human colon cancer cell lines) and investigated the dynamic relationship between the 78-kDa glucose-regulatory protein (GRP78) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Gene expression was detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis; the cytotoxicity was determined by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. First, the results showed that celecoxib induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found the celecoxib-triggered unfolded protein response and the bidirectional regulation of Akt activation in both cell lines. Inhibiting the Akt activation by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 markedly enhanced GRP78 expression. Besides, silencing the GRP78 expression regulated Akt activation in a time-dependent manner and increased the induction of the C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) as well as considerably promoted celecoxib-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that under the celecoxib treatment, GRP78 plays a protective role by modulating Akt activation and abrogating CHOP expression. However, Akt activation can provide a feedback loop to inhibit GRP78 expression. These studies can lead to novel therapeutic strategies for human colon cancer.

  6. Elsevier Trophoblast Research Award lecture: Molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells--focus on leptin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Y P; Maymó, J L; Pérez Pérez, A; Calvo, J C; Sánchez-Margalet, V; Varone, C L

    2012-02-01

    The steroid hormone 17β-estradiol is an estrogen that influences multiple aspects of placental function and fetal development in humans. During early pregnancy it plays a role in the regulation of blastocyst implantation, trophoblast differentiation and invasiveness, remodeling of uterine arteries, immunology and trophoblast production of hormones such as leptin. Estradiol exerts some effects through the action of classical estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, which act as ligand-activated transcription factors and regulate gene expression. In addition, estradiol can elicit rapid responses from membrane-associated receptors, like activation of protein-kinase pathways. Thus, the cellular effects of estradiol will depend on the specific receptors expressed and the integration of their signaling events. Leptin, the 16,000MW protein product of the obese gene, was originally considered an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. The leptin gene is expressed in placenta, where leptin promotes proliferation and survival of trophoblastic cells. Expression of leptin in placenta is highly regulated by key pregnancy molecules as hCG and estradiol. The aim of this paper is to review the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogen functions in trophoblastic cells; focusing on mechanisms involved in estradiol regulation of placental leptin expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ensuring childhood vaccination among slums dwellers under the National Immunization Program in India - Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev; Sahu, Damodar; Agrawal, Ashish; Vashi, Meeta Dhaval

    2018-04-04

    Almost, one third of the world's urban population resides in slums and the number would double by 2030. Slums denotes collection of people from various communities having a meagre income and living in unhygienic conditions thus making themselves most vulnerable for outbreaks of communicable diseases. India contributes substantially to the global disease burden and under-five mortality rates i.e. 20% attributable to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization plays a crucial role in combating high childhood mortality rates attributable to vaccine preventable diseases across the globe. This systematic review, provides insights on immunization status in slums, identifies various factors influencing it thus, exploring opportunities that may be available to improve vaccination coverage under the National Immunization Program. Taking into account the above aspects, a review of literature was undertaken in various databases that included studies published between 2006 and 2017. In India, ~33% of the urban population lives in slums with suboptimal vaccination coverage ranging from 14% to upto 90%. Few of the important causes for low coverage included socioeconomic factors such as poor community participation, lack of awareness, frequent migration, and loss of daily income. Hence, mere presence of vaccines in the National Immunization Program doesn't do the job, there is a definite unmet need to emphasize upon the importance of immunization among slums dwellers and take necessary steps. For instance, delivering immunization services at the doorstep (e.g. pulse polio program), community-based education, text messaging as reminders and incentivized immunization services are some of the opportunities that can be explored and implemented to improve immunization status in the slums. Thus, in addition to inclusion of more and more vaccines in the National Immunization Program, there is a definite need to focus on people living in high risk areas in order to improve coverage and

  8. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  9. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Prokaryotic expression of chicken interferon-γ fusion protein and its effect on expression of poultry heat shock protein 70 under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Yinglin; Qin, Feiyue; Guan, Xueting; Xu, Wei; Xu, Liangmei

    2017-06-01

    Interferons have attracted considerable attention due to their vital roles in the host immune response and low induction of antibiotic resistance. In this study, total RNA was extracted from spleen cells of chicken embryos inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine, and the full-length chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) gene was amplified by RT-PCR. The full complementary DNA sequence of the ChIFN-γ gene was 495 bp long and was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pProEX™HT b . The plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and the expression of ChIFN-γ was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot results showed the expressed fusion protein had a molecular weight of approximately 18 kDa and was recognized by an anti-His mAb. Moreover, ChIFN-γ was found to demonstrate anti-viral activity in vitro. To test the in vivo function of ChIFN-γ in broilers under heat stress, a total of 100 broilers were randomly assigned to either a control group or a treated group, in which they were hypodermically injected with recombinant ChIFN-γ. Results demonstrated ChIFN-γ affects the messenger RNA expression levels of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the heart and lung tissues, and decreases the concentration of HSP70 in serum. Therefore, we conclude recombinant ChIFN-γ can reduce heat stress to some extent in vivo. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Expression Among 700 Consecutive Endometrial Cancers: Strong Association With Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zaibo; Joehlin-Price, Amy S; Rhoades, Jennifer; Ayoola-Adeola, Martins; Miller, Karin; Parwani, Anil V; Backes, Floor J; Felix, Ashley S; Suarez, Adrian A

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in endometrial carcinoma (EC) and determine clinical and pathological associations. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 was performed on sections of a triple-core tissue microarray of 700 ECs. Positive PD-L1 expression, defined as 1% of cells staining positive, was evaluated in tumor and stromal compartments. Using age-adjusted logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between PD-L1 expression (overall and by staining compartment) with clinical and tumor characteristics. Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests were used to evaluate associations between PD-L1 expression and EC-specific survival. PD-L1 expression was observed in 100 cases (14.3%), including 27 (3.9%) with expression in tumor cells only, 35 (5.0%) with expression in both tumor cells and stroma, and 38 (5.4%) with expression in stroma only. Expression was observed in ECs of different histologic types. Tumors characterized by loss of mismatch repair proteins were significantly associated with tumoral PD-L1 expression (P < 0.0001), but not with stromal PD-L1 expression. Both tumoral and stromal PD-L1 expressions were associated with high-grade endometrioid histology, nonendometrioid histology, and lymphovascular space invasion. We observed no significant associations between PD-L1 expression and EC-specific survival. PD-L1 is expressed in a significant proportion of EC and is associated with mismatch repair deficiency, potentially representing a mechanism of tumor immune evasion and a therapeutic target in EC.

  12. Can We Efficiently Check Concurrent Programs Under Relaxed Memory Models in Maude?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrahman, Yehia Abd; Andric, Marina; Beggiato, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    to the state space explosion. Several techniques have been proposed to mitigate those problems so to make verification under relaxed memory models feasible. We discuss how to adopt some of those techniques in a Maude-based approach to language prototyping, and suggest the use of other techniques that have been......Relaxed memory models offer suitable abstractions of the actual optimizations offered by multi-core architectures and by compilers of concurrent programming languages. Using such abstractions for verification purposes is challenging in part due to their inherent non-determinism which contributes...

  13. Fundamental R and D program on water chemistry of supercritical pressure water under radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Wada, Yoichi; Yotsuyanagi, Tadasu

    2003-01-01

    In a supercritical water-cooled reactor, property of water changes significantly around the critical point. It is expected that irradiation and change of water property will affect the chemistry and material corrosion. Deep understanding of interactions between supercritical water and materials under irradiation is important. However, comprehensive data on radiolysis, kinetics, corrosion and thermodynamics have not been obtained due to the severe experimental condition. To get such data by experiments and computer simulations, a national program funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) has been started since December 2002. (author)

  14. Expression of the Aeluropus littoralis AlSAP Gene Enhances Rice Yield under Field Drought at the Reproductive Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaura Ghneim-Herrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the yields of Oryza sativa L. ‘Nipponbare’ rice lines expressing a gene encoding an A20/AN1 domain stress-associated protein, AlSAP, from the halophyte grass Aeluropus littoralis under the control of different promoters. Three independent field trials were conducted, with drought imposed at the reproductive stage. In all trials, the two transgenic lines, RN5 and RN6, consistently out-performed non-transgenic (NT and wild-type (WT controls, providing 50–90% increases in grain yield (GY. Enhancement of tillering and panicle fertility contributed to this improved GY under drought. In contrast with physiological records collected during previous greenhouse dry-down experiments, where drought was imposed at the early tillering stage, we did not observe significant differences in photosynthetic parameters, leaf water potential, or accumulation of antioxidants in flag leaves of AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at flowering. However, AlSAP expression alleviated leaf rolling and leaf drying induced by drought, resulting in increased accumulation of green biomass. Therefore, the observed enhanced performance of the AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at the reproductive stage can be tentatively ascribed to a primed status of the transgenic plants, resulting from a higher accumulation of biomass during vegetative growth, allowing reserve remobilization and maintenance of productive tillering and grain filling. Under irrigated conditions, the overall performance of AlSAP-lines was comparable with, or even significantly better than, the NT and WT controls. Thus, AlSAP expression inflicted no penalty on rice yields under optimal growth conditions. Our results support the use of AlSAP transgenics to reduce rice GY losses under drought conditions.

  15. Comparing cancer vs normal gene expression profiles identifies new disease entities and common transcriptional programs in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Jendholm, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression profiling has been used extensively to characterize cancer, identify novel subtypes, and improve patient stratification. However, it has largely failed to identify transcriptional programs that differ between cancer and corresponding normal cells and has not been efficient in iden......-karyotype AML, which allowed for the generation of a highly prognostic survival signature. Collectively, our CvN method holds great potential as a tool for the analysis of gene expression profiles of cancer patients....

  16. Transcriptional profiling of protein expression related genes of Pichia pastoris under simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    Full Text Available The physiological responses and transcription profiling of Pichia pastoris GS115 to simulated microgravity (SMG were substantially changed compared with normal gravity (NG control. We previously reported that the recombinant P. pastoris grew faster under SMG than NG during methanol induction phase and the efficiencies of recombinant enzyme production and secretion were enhanced under SMG, which was considered as the consequence of changed transcriptional levels of some key genes. In this work, transcriptiome profiling of P. pastoris cultured under SMG and NG conditions at exponential and stationary phases were determined using next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. Four categories of 141 genes function as methanol utilization, protein chaperone, RNA polymerase and protein transportation or secretion classified according to Gene Ontology (GO were chosen to be analyzed on the basis of NGS results. And 80 significantly changed genes were weighted and estimated by Cluster 3.0. It was found that most genes of methanol metabolism (85% of 20 genes and protein transportation or secretion (82.2% of 45 genes were significantly up-regulated under SMG. Furthermore the quantity and fold change of up-regulated genes in exponential phase of each category were higher than those of stationary phase. The results indicate that the up-regulated genes of methanol metabolism and protein transportation or secretion mainly contribute to enhanced production and secretion of the recombinant protein under SMG.

  17. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells in different physiological stages under Cordyceps sinensis treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yang Li

    Full Text Available Cordyceps sinensis (CS has been commonly used as herbal medicine and a health supplement in China for over two thousand years. Although previous studies have demonstrated that CS has benefits in immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, the precise mechanism by which CS affects immunomodulation is still unclear. In this study, we exploited duplicate sets of loop-design microarray experiments to examine two different batches of CS and analyze the effects of CS on dendritic cells (DCs, in different physiology stages: naïve stage and inflammatory stage. Immature DCs were treated with CS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, or LPS plus CS (LPS/CS for two days, and the gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays. The results of two loop-design microarray experiments showed good intersection rates. The expression level of common genes found in both loop-design microarray experiments was consistent, and the correlation coefficients (Rs, were higher than 0.96. Through intersection analysis of microarray results, we identified 295 intersecting significantly differentially expressed (SDE genes of the three different treatments (CS, LPS, and LPS/CS, which participated mainly in the adjustment of immune response and the regulation of cell proliferation and death. Genes regulated uniquely by CS treatment were significantly involved in the regulation of focal adhesion pathway, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, and hematopoietic cell lineage pathway. Unique LPS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus pathway, and complement and coagulation cascades pathway. Unique LPS/CS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These results could provide useful information in further study of the pharmacological mechanisms of CS. This study also demonstrates that with a rigorous experimental design, the biological effects

  18. Gene expression profiling of dendritic cells in different physiological stages under Cordyceps sinensis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Yang; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Wang, Shu-Chi; Cheng, Hung-Tsu; Chen, Chaang-Ray; Shu, Wun-Yi; Tsai, Min-Lung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chang, Cheng-Wei; Huang, Chao-Ying; Fang, Shih-Hua; Hsu, Ian C

    2012-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (CS) has been commonly used as herbal medicine and a health supplement in China for over two thousand years. Although previous studies have demonstrated that CS has benefits in immunoregulation and anti-inflammation, the precise mechanism by which CS affects immunomodulation is still unclear. In this study, we exploited duplicate sets of loop-design microarray experiments to examine two different batches of CS and analyze the effects of CS on dendritic cells (DCs), in different physiology stages: naïve stage and inflammatory stage. Immature DCs were treated with CS, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or LPS plus CS (LPS/CS) for two days, and the gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays. The results of two loop-design microarray experiments showed good intersection rates. The expression level of common genes found in both loop-design microarray experiments was consistent, and the correlation coefficients (Rs), were higher than 0.96. Through intersection analysis of microarray results, we identified 295 intersecting significantly differentially expressed (SDE) genes of the three different treatments (CS, LPS, and LPS/CS), which participated mainly in the adjustment of immune response and the regulation of cell proliferation and death. Genes regulated uniquely by CS treatment were significantly involved in the regulation of focal adhesion pathway, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, and hematopoietic cell lineage pathway. Unique LPS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, systemic lupus erythematosus pathway, and complement and coagulation cascades pathway. Unique LPS/CS regulated genes were significantly involved in the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation pathway. These results could provide useful information in further study of the pharmacological mechanisms of CS. This study also demonstrates that with a rigorous experimental design, the biological effects of a complex

  19. Alternative splicing and expression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) gene in osteoblasts under mechanical stretch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Chengyu; WANG Yuanliang; ZHANG Bingbing; TANG Liling; PAN Jun; LUO Yanfeng; JIANG Peng; LI Dajun

    2006-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) promotes osteoblasts differentiation and bone formation,and its expression is induced by mechanical stretch,thus IGF-1 has been considered an effector molecule that links mechanical stimulation and local tissue responses. In this study, a mechanical stretching device was designed to apply physiological level static or cyclic stretching stimulation to osteoblasts.Different isoforms of IGF-1 mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR from the cells using respective primers and these amplified products were sequenced. An isoform of IGF-1 splicing product was found to be selectively produced by osteoblasts under stretching stimulation. This IGF-1 isoform had identical sequence with the mechano growth factor (MGF) which was originally identified in muscle cells. Regulations of the expression of the liver-type IGF (L.IGF-1) and MGF in osteoblasts under stretch stimulation were further studied using semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Stretch stimulation was found to promot the expression of IGF-1 (L.IGF-1 and MGF), and for both isoforms expression was more effectively stimulated by cyclic stretch than static stretch. MGF was detected only in osteoblasts subjected to mechanical stretch,suggesting MGF was a stretch sensitive growth factor.Expression of MGF peaked earlier than that of L.IGF-1, which was similar to their regulation in muscie and suggested similar roles of MGF and L.IGF-1in bone as in muscle cells. The functions of MGF and L.IGF-1 in osteoblasts shall be established by further experimental studies.

  20. 48 CFR 3019.705 - Responsibilities for the contracting officer under the subcontracting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 3019.705...

  1. Relation between motility, accelerated aging and gene expression in selected Drosophila strains under hypergravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, P.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Javier Medina, F.; Herranz, R.

    2013-01-01

    Motility and aging in Drosophila have proven to be highly modified under altered gravity conditions (both in space and ground simulation facilities). In order to find out how closely connected they are, five strains with altered geotactic response or survival rates were selected and exposed to an

  2. Neonatal hyper- and hypothyroidism alter the myoglobin gene expression program in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, K de Picoli; Nunes, M T

    2014-08-01

    Myoglobin acts as an oxygen store and a reactive oxygen species acceptor in muscles. We examined myoglobin mRNA in rat cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles during the first 42 days of life and the impact of transient neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the myoglobin gene expression pattern. Cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles of Wistar rats at 7-42 days of life were quickly removed, and myoglobin mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis. Rats were treated with propylthiouracil (5-10 mg/100 g) and triiodothyronine (0.5-50 µg/100 g) for 5, 15, or 30 days after birth to induce hypo- and hyperthyroidism and euthanized either just after treatment or at 90 days. During postnatal (P) days 7-28, the ventricle myoglobin mRNA remained unchanged, but it gradually increased in skeletal muscle (12-fold). Triiodothyronine treatment, from days P0-P5, increased the skeletal muscle myoglobin mRNA 1.5- to 4.5-fold; a 2.5-fold increase was observed in ventricle muscle, but only when triiodothyronine treatment was extended to day P15. Conversely, hypothyroidism at P5 markedly decreased (60%) ventricular myoglobin mRNA. Moreover, transient hyperthyroidism in the neonatal period increased ventricle myoglobin mRNA (2-fold), and decreased heart rate (5%), fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30%) and body weight (20%) in adulthood. Transient hypothyroidism in the neonatal period also permanently decreased fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30%) and body weight (14%). These results indicated that changes in triiodothyronine supply in the neonatal period alter the myoglobin expression program in ventricle and skeletal muscle, leading to specific physiological repercussions and alterations in other parameters in adulthood.

  3. Neonatal hyper- and hypothyroidism alter the myoglobin gene expression program in adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picoli Souza, K. de; Nunes, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Myoglobin acts as an oxygen store and a reactive oxygen species acceptor in muscles. We examined myoglobin mRNA in rat cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles during the first 42 days of life and the impact of transient neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the myoglobin gene expression pattern. Cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles of Wistar rats at 7-42 days of life were quickly removed, and myoglobin mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis. Rats were treated with propylthiouracil (5-10 mg/100 g) and triiodothyronine (0.5-50 µg/100 g) for 5, 15, or 30 days after birth to induce hypo- and hyperthyroidism and euthanized either just after treatment or at 90 days. During postnatal (P) days 7-28, the ventricle myoglobin mRNA remained unchanged, but it gradually increased in skeletal muscle (12-fold). Triiodothyronine treatment, from days P0-P5, increased the skeletal muscle myoglobin mRNA 1.5- to 4.5-fold; a 2.5-fold increase was observed in ventricle muscle, but only when triiodothyronine treatment was extended to day P15. Conversely, hypothyroidism at P5 markedly decreased (60%) ventricular myoglobin mRNA. Moreover, transient hyperthyroidism in the neonatal period increased ventricle myoglobin mRNA (2-fold), and decreased heart rate (5%), fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30%) and body weight (20%) in adulthood. Transient hypothyroidism in the neonatal period also permanently decreased fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30%) and body weight (14%). These results indicated that changes in triiodothyronine supply in the neonatal period alter the myoglobin expression program in ventricle and skeletal muscle, leading to specific physiological repercussions and alterations in other parameters in adulthood

  4. Neonatal hyper- and hypothyroidism alter the myoglobin gene expression program in adulthood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picoli Souza, K. de [Faculdade de Ciências Biológicas e Ambientais, Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, Dourados, MS (Brazil); Nunes, M.T. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-24

    Myoglobin acts as an oxygen store and a reactive oxygen species acceptor in muscles. We examined myoglobin mRNA in rat cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles during the first 42 days of life and the impact of transient neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the myoglobin gene expression pattern. Cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles of Wistar rats at 7-42 days of life were quickly removed, and myoglobin mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis. Rats were treated with propylthiouracil (5-10 mg/100 g) and triiodothyronine (0.5-50 µg/100 g) for 5, 15, or 30 days after birth to induce hypo- and hyperthyroidism and euthanized either just after treatment or at 90 days. During postnatal (P) days 7-28, the ventricle myoglobin mRNA remained unchanged, but it gradually increased in skeletal muscle (12-fold). Triiodothyronine treatment, from days P0-P5, increased the skeletal muscle myoglobin mRNA 1.5- to 4.5-fold; a 2.5-fold increase was observed in ventricle muscle, but only when triiodothyronine treatment was extended to day P15. Conversely, hypothyroidism at P5 markedly decreased (60%) ventricular myoglobin mRNA. Moreover, transient hyperthyroidism in the neonatal period increased ventricle myoglobin mRNA (2-fold), and decreased heart rate (5%), fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30%) and body weight (20%) in adulthood. Transient hypothyroidism in the neonatal period also permanently decreased fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30%) and body weight (14%). These results indicated that changes in triiodothyronine supply in the neonatal period alter the myoglobin expression program in ventricle and skeletal muscle, leading to specific physiological repercussions and alterations in other parameters in adulthood.

  5. Neonatal hyper- and hypothyroidism alter the myoglobin gene expression program in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. de Picoli Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Myoglobin acts as an oxygen store and a reactive oxygen species acceptor in muscles. We examined myoglobin mRNA in rat cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles during the first 42 days of life and the impact of transient neonatal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the myoglobin gene expression pattern. Cardiac ventricle and skeletal muscles of Wistar rats at 7-42 days of life were quickly removed, and myoglobin mRNA was determined by Northern blot analysis. Rats were treated with propylthiouracil (5-10 mg/100 g and triiodothyronine (0.5-50 µg/100 g for 5, 15, or 30 days after birth to induce hypo- and hyperthyroidism and euthanized either just after treatment or at 90 days. During postnatal (P days 7-28, the ventricle myoglobin mRNA remained unchanged, but it gradually increased in skeletal muscle (12-fold. Triiodothyronine treatment, from days P0-P5, increased the skeletal muscle myoglobin mRNA 1.5- to 4.5-fold; a 2.5-fold increase was observed in ventricle muscle, but only when triiodothyronine treatment was extended to day P15. Conversely, hypothyroidism at P5 markedly decreased (60% ventricular myoglobin mRNA. Moreover, transient hyperthyroidism in the neonatal period increased ventricle myoglobin mRNA (2-fold, and decreased heart rate (5%, fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30% and body weight (20% in adulthood. Transient hypothyroidism in the neonatal period also permanently decreased fast muscle myoglobin mRNA (30% and body weight (14%. These results indicated that changes in triiodothyronine supply in the neonatal period alter the myoglobin expression program in ventricle and skeletal muscle, leading to specific physiological repercussions and alterations in other parameters in adulthood.

  6. Genome-wide discovery of putative sRNAs in Paracoccus denitrificans expressed under nitrous oxide emitting conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Gaimster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is a stable, ozone depleting greenhouse gas. Emissions of N2O into the atmosphere continue to rise, primarily due to the use of nitrogen-containing fertilizers by soil denitrifying microbes. It is clear more effective mitigation strategies are required to reduce emissions. One way to help develop future mitigation strategies is to address the currently poor understanding of transcriptional regulation of the enzymes used to produce and consume N2O. With this ultimate aim in mind we performed RNA-seq on a model soil denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, cultured anaerobically under high N2O and low N2O emitting conditions, and aerobically under zero N2O emitting conditions to identify small RNAs (sRNAs with potential regulatory functions transcribed under these conditions. sRNAs are short (∼40–500 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that regulate a wide range of activities in many bacteria. 167 sRNAs were identified throughout the P. denitrificans genome which are either present in intergenic regions or located antisense to ORFs. Furthermore, many of these sRNAs are differentially expressed under high N2O and low N2O emitting conditions respectively, suggesting they may play a role in production or reduction of N2O. Expression of 16 of these sRNAs have been confirmed by RT-PCR. 90% of the sRNAs are predicted to form secondary structures. Predicted targets include transporters and a number of transcriptional regulators. A number of sRNAs were conserved in other members of the α-proteobacteria. Better understanding of the sRNA factors which contribute to expression of the machinery required to reduce N2O will, in turn, help to inform strategies for mitigation of N2O emissions.

  7. Prioritized expression of BTN2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pronounced translation repression induced by severe ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukina Yamauchi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Severe ethanol stress (>9% ethanol, v/v as well as glucose deprivation rapidly induces a pronounced repression of overall protein synthesis in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, transcriptional activation in yeast cells under severe ethanol stress does not always indicate the production of expected protein levels. Messenger RNAs of genes containing heat shock elements can be intensively translated under glucose deprivation, suggesting that some mRNAs are preferentially translated even under severe ethanol stress. In the present study, we tried to identify the mRNA that can be preferentially translated under severe ethanol stress. BTN2 encodes a v-SNARE binding protein, and its null mutant shows hypersensitivity to ethanol. We found that BTN2 mRNA was efficiently translated under severe ethanol stress but not under mild ethanol stress. Moreover, the increased Btn2 protein levels caused by severe ethanol stress were smoothly decreased with the elimination of ethanol stress. These findings suggested that severe ethanol stress extensively induced BTN2 expression. Further, the BTN2 promoter induced protein synthesis of non-native genes such as CUR1, GIC2, and YUR1 in the presence of high ethanol concentrations, indicating that this promoter overcame severe ethanol stress-induced translation repression. Thus, our findings provide an important clue about yeast response to severe ethanol stress and suggest that the BTN2 promoter can be used to improve the efficiency of ethanol production and stress tolerance of yeast cells by modifying gene expression in the presence of high ethanol concentration.

  8. Expression and function of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in human melanoma under non-hypoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Sandeep S

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α protein is rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. When oxygen tensions fall HIF-1α protein stabilizes and transactivates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. We have examined the normoxic expression of HIF-1α RNA and protein in normal human melanocytes and a series of human melanoma cell lines isolated from radial growth phase (RGP, vertical growth phase (VGP and metastatic (MET melanomas. Results HIF-1α mRNA and protein was increased in RGP vs melanocytes, VGP vs RGP and MET vs VGP melanoma cell lines. We also detected expression of a HIF-1α mRNA splice variant that lacks part of the oxygen-dependent regulation domain in WM1366 and WM9 melanoma cells. Over-expression of HIF-1α and its splice variant in the RGP cell line SbCl2 resulted in a small increase in soft agar colony formation and a large increase in matrigel invasion relative to control transfected cells. Knockdown of HIF-1α expression by siRNA in the MET WM9 melanoma cell line resulted in a large decrease in both soft agar colony formation and matrigel invasion relative to cells treated with non-specific siRNA. There is a high level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in WM9 cells, indicating an activated Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Treatment of WM9 cells with 30 μM U0126 MEK inhibitor, decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and resulted in a decrease in HIF-1α expression. However, a 24 h treatment with 10 μM U0126 totally eliminated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of MEK siRNA did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Conclusion We speculate that metabolic products of U0126 decrease HIF-1alpha expression through "off target" effects. Overall our data suggest that increased HIF-1α expression under normoxic conditions contributes to some of the malignant phenotypes exhibited by human melanoma cells. The expanded role of HIF-1α in melanoma biology increases

  9. Genome-wide identification of VQ motif-containing proteins and their expression profiles under abiotic stresses in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin eSong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available VQ motif-containing proteins play crucial roles in abiotic stress responses in plants. Recent studies have shown that some VQ proteins physically interact with WRKY transcription factors to activate downstream genes. In the present study, we identified and characterized genes encoding VQ motif-containing proteins using the most recent version of the maize genome sequence. In total, 61VQ genes were identified. In a cluster analysis, these genes clustered into nine groups together with their homologous genes in rice and Arabidopsis. Most of the VQ genes (57 out of 61 numbers identified in maize were found to be single-copy genes. Analyses of RNA-seq data obtained using seedlings under long-term drought treatment showed that the expression levels of most ZmVQ genes (41 out of 61 members changed during the drought stress response. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that most of the ZmVQ genes were responsive to NaCl treatment. Also, approximately half of the ZmVQ genes were co-expressed with ZmWRKY genes. The identification of these VQ genes in the maize genome and knowledge of their expression profiles under drought and osmotic stresses will provide a solid foundation for exploring their specific functions in the abiotic stress responses of maize.

  10. Expression Patterns of ERF Genes Underlying Abiotic Stresses in Di-Haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengji Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 176 ERF genes from Populus were identified by bioinformatics analysis, 13 of these in di-haploid Populus simonii × P. nigra were investigate by real-time RT-PCR, the results demonstrated that 13 ERF genes were highly responsive to salt stress, drought stress and ABA treatment, and all were expressed in root, stem, and leaf tissues, whereas their expression levels were markedly different in the various tissues. In roots, PthERF99, 110, 119, and 168 were primarily downregulated under drought and ABA treatment but were specifically upregulated under high salt condition. Interestingly, in poplar stems, all ERF genes showed the similar trends in expression in response to NaCl stress, drought stress, and ABA treatment, indicating that they may not play either specific or unique roles in stems in abiotic stress responses. In poplar leaves, PthERF168 was highly induced by ABA treatment, but was suppressed by high salinity and drought stresses, implying that PthERF168 participated in the ABA signaling pathway. The results of this study indicated that ERF genes could play essential but distinct roles in various plant tissues in response to different environment cues and hormonal treatment.

  11. Kaempferol inhibited VEGF and PGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis of HRECs under diabetic-like environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X H; Zhao, C; Peng, Q; Xie, P; Liu, Q H

    2017-03-02

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common and specific microvascular complications of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol and explore its underlying molecular mechanisms. The mRNA expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PGF) and the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF were measured by qTR-PCR and ELISA assay, respectively. Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) proliferation, migration, and sprouting were measured by CCK-8 and transwell, scratching wound, and tube formation assays, respectively. Protein levels were determined by western blot. High glucose (25 mM) increased the mRNA expression levels of VEGF and PGF as well as the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF in HRECs, which can be antagonized by kaempferol (25 µM). Kaempferol (5-25 µM) significantly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, migration distance and sprouting of HRECs under high glucose condition. The anti-angiogenic effect of kaempferol was mediated via downregulating the expression of PI3K and inhibiting the activation of Erk1/2, Src, and Akt1. This study indicates that kaempferol suppressed angiogenesis of HRECs via targeting VEGF and PGF to inhibit the activation of Src-Akt1-Erk1/2 signaling pathway. The results suggest that kaempferol may be a potential drug for better management of DR.

  12. Expression of an Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulphurase gene in soybean enhances drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiachang; Zhang, Juan; Hao, Ling; Hua, Jinping; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-08-01

    LOS5/ABA3 gene encoding molybdenum cofactor sulphurase is involved in aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity in Arabidopsis, which indirectly regulates ABA biosynthesis and increased stress tolerance. Here, we used a constitutive super promoter to drive LOS5/ABA3 overexpression in soybean (Glycine max L.) to enhance drought tolerance in growth chamber and field conditions. Expression of LOS5/ABA3 was up-regulated by drought stress, which led to increasing AO activity and then a notable increase in ABA accumulation. Transgenic soybean under drought stress had reduced water loss by decreased stomatal aperture size and transpiration rate, which alleviated leaf wilting and maintained higher relative water content. Exposed to drought stress, transgenic soybean exhibited reduced cell membrane damage by reducing electrolyte leakage and production of malondialdehyde and promoting proline accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, overexpression of LOS5/ABA3 enhanced expression of stress-up-regulated genes. Furthermore, the seed yield of transgenic plants is at least 21% higher than that of wide-type plants under drought stress conditions in the field. These data suggest that overexpression of LOS5/ABA3 could improve drought tolerance in transgenic soybean via enhanced ABA accumulation, which could activate expression of stress-up-regulated genes and cause a series of physiological and biochemical resistant responses. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dimensions of assertiveness: factors underlying the college self-expression scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, D A; Jaffe, Y

    1978-02-01

    A total of 447 Israeli students, both males and females, from four educational institutions were administered the College Self-expression Scale, a measure of assertiveness. The obtained responses were factor analyzed using the principal axis solution and the varimax rotation method. The results showed four main factors which included 43 of the 50 items of the original scale. These factors were identified as the willingness to take risks in interpersonal interactions, the ability to communicate feelings, setting rules and rectifying injustices, and the presence or absence of a tendency to invoke a self-punitive attitude. The findings were interpreted as adding support to the validity of the scale as a measure of assertiveness.

  14. EGCG evokes Nrf2 nuclear translocation and dampens PTP1B expression to ameliorate metabolic misalignment under insulin resistance condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yashi; Zhang, Wentong; Tian, Haoyu; Li, Runnan; Huang, Shuxian; Li, Xingyu; Qi, Guoyuan; Liu, Xuebo

    2018-03-01

    As a major nutraceutical component of green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has attracted interest from scientists due to its well-documented antioxidant and antiobesity bioactivities. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of EGCG on metabolic misalignment and in balancing the redox status in mice liver and HepG2 cells under insulin resistance condition. Our results indicated that EGCG accelerates the glucose uptake and evokes IRS-1/Akt/GLUT2 signaling pathway via dampening the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Consistently, ectopic expression of PTP1B by Ad-PTP1B substantially impaired EGCG-elicited IRS-1/Akt/GLUT2 signaling pathway. Moreover, EGCG co-treatment stimulated nuclear translocation of Nrf2 by provoking P13K/AKT signaling pathway and thus modulated the downstream expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO-1 in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, knockdown Nrf2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) notably enhanced the expression of PTP1B and blunt EGCG-stimulated glucose uptake. Consistent with these results, in vivo study revealed that EGCG supplement significantly ameliorated high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)-triggered insulin resistance and oxidative stress by up-regulating the IRS-1/AKT and Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathways. Administration of an appropriate chemopreventive agent, such as EGCG, could potentially serve as an additional therapeutic intervention in the arsenal against obesity.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in the Gills of Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirak Kumar Barman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is an economically important species. It is a euryhaline shrimp, surviving in wide-range salinity conditions. A change in gene expression has been suggested as an important component for stress management. To better understand the osmoregulatory mechanisms mediated by the gill, a subtractive and suppressive hybridization (SSH tool was used to identify expressed transcripts linked to adaptations in saline water. A total of 117 transcripts represented potentially expressed under salinity conditions. BLAST analysis identified 22% as known genes, 9% as uncharacterized showing homologous to unannotated ESTs, and 69% as unknown sequences. All the identified known genes representing broad spectrum of biological pathways were particularly linked to stress tolerance including salinity tolerance. Expression analysis of 10 known genes and 7 unknown/uncharacterized genes suggested their upregulation in the gills of prawn exposed to saline water as compared to control indicating that these are likely to be associated with salinity acclimation. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE was used for obtaining full-length cDNA of MRSW-40 clone that was highly upregulated during salt exposure. The sequenced ESTs presented here will have potential implications for future understanding about salinity acclimation and/or tolerance of the prawn.

  16. Key KdSOC1 gene expression profiles during plantlet morphogenesis under hormone, photoperiod, and drought treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Zhu, C; Zeng, H M

    2016-02-11

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana utilizes plantlet formation between its zigzag leaf margins as its method of asexual reproduction. In this study, K. daigremontiana SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (KdSOC1), a key intermediate in the transition from vegetative to asexual growth, was cloned. Furthermore, its expression profiles during plantlet formation under different environmental and hormone induction conditions were analyzed. The full-KdSOC1 cDNA sequence length was 1410 bp with 70% shared homology with Carya cathayensis SOC1. The conserved domain search of KdSOC1 showed the absence of I and C domains, which might indicate novel biological functions in K. daigremontiana. The full-KdSOC1 promoter sequence was 1401 bp long and contained multiple-hormone-responsive cis-acting elements. Hormone induction assays showed that gibberellins and salicylic acid mainly regulated KdSOC1 expression. The swift change from low to high KdSOC1 expression levels during long-day induction was accompanied by the rapid emergence of plantlets. Drought stress stimulated KdSOC1 expression in leaves both with and without plantlet formation. Together, the results suggested that KdSOC1 was closely involved in environmental stimulation signal perception and the transduction of K. daigremontiana plantlet formation. Therefore, future identification of KdSOC1 functions might reveal key information that will help elucidate the transition network between embryogenesis and organogenesis during plantlet formation.

  17. Differential co-expression and regulation analyses reveal different mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder and subsyndromal symptomatic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Yang, Jing; Chen, Jin; Wu, Qingyuan; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Shao, Weihua; Mu, Jun; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yongtao; Li, Zhiwei; Xie, Peng

    2015-04-03

    Recent depression research has revealed a growing awareness of how to best classify depression into depressive subtypes. Appropriately subtyping depression can lead to identification of subtypes that are more responsive to current pharmacological treatment and aid in separating out depressed patients in which current antidepressants are not particularly effective. Differential co-expression analysis (DCEA) and differential regulation analysis (DRA) were applied to compare the transcriptomic profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with two depressive subtypes: major depressive disorder (MDD) and subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD). Six differentially regulated genes (DRGs) (FOSL1, SRF, JUN, TFAP4, SOX9, and HLF) and 16 transcription factor-to-target differentially co-expressed gene links or pairs (TF2target DCLs) appear to be the key differential factors in MDD; in contrast, one DRG (PATZ1) and eight TF2target DCLs appear to be the key differential factors in SSD. There was no overlap between the MDD target genes and SSD target genes. Venlafaxine (Efexor™, Effexor™) appears to have a significant effect on the gene expression profile of MDD patients but no significant effect on the gene expression profile of SSD patients. DCEA and DRA revealed no apparent similarities between the differential regulatory processes underlying MDD and SSD. This bioinformatic analysis may provide novel insights that can support future antidepressant R&D efforts.

  18. Potential mechanisms underlying response to effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil from gene expression profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Fátima N; Becker, Jörg D; Viegas, Cristina A

    2014-06-11

    Pyrimethanil is a fungicide mostly applied in vineyards. When misused, residue levels detected in grape must or in the environment may be of concern. The present work aimed to analyze mechanisms underlying response to deleterious effects of pyrimethanil in the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pyrimethanil concentration-dependent effects at phenotypic (inhibition of growth) and transcriptomic levels were examined. For transcriptional profiling, analysis focused on two sublethal exposure conditions that inhibited yeast growth by 20% or 50% compared with control cells not exposed to the fungicide. Gene expression modifications increased with the magnitude of growth inhibition, in numbers and fold-change of differentially expressed genes and in diversity of over-represented functional categories. These included mostly biosynthesis of arginine and sulfur amino acids metabolism, as well as energy conservation, antioxidant response, and multidrug transport. Several pyrimethanil-responsive genes encoded proteins sharing significant homology with proteins from phytopathogenic fungi and ecologically relevant higher eukaryotes.

  19. Long-term persistence of functional thymic epithelial progenitor cells in vivo under conditions of low FOXN1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; Nowell, Craig S; Ulyanchenko, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    does not require FOXN1. Here, we have used a revertible severely hypomorphic allele of Foxn1, Foxn1R, to test the stability of the common TEPC in vivo. By reactivating Foxn1 expression postnatally in Foxn1R/- mice we demonstrate that functional TEPCs can persist in the thymic rudiment until at least 6...... months of age, and retain the potential to give rise to both cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs). These data demonstrate that the TEPC-state is remarkably stable in vivo under conditions of low Foxn1 expression, suggesting that manipulation of FOXN1 activity may prove...... a valuable method for long term maintenance of TEPC in vitro....

  20. An efficient model for auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma based on gene expression programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Jiasheng; Gao, Chunming; Liu, Chuanmiao; Xu, Kuihua

    2018-03-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The early diagnosis of HCC is greatly helpful to achieve long-term disease-free survival. However, HCC is usually difficult to be diagnosed at an early stage. The aim of this study was to create the prediction model to diagnose HCC based on gene expression programming (GEP). GEP is an evolutionary algorithm and a domain-independent problem-solving technique. Clinical data show that six serum biomarkers, including gamma-glutamyl transferase, C-reaction protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein, carbohydrate antigen 153, and carbohydrate antigen 199, are related to HCC characteristics. In this study, the prediction of HCC was made based on these six biomarkers (195 HCC patients and 215 non-HCC controls) by setting up optimal joint models with GEP. The GEP model discriminated 353 out of 410 subjects, representing a determination coefficient of 86.28% (283/328) and 85.37% (70/82) for training and test sets, respectively. Compared to the results from the support vector machine, the artificial neural network, and the multilayer perceptron, GEP showed a better outcome. The results suggested that GEP modeling was a promising and excellent tool in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, and it could be widely used in HCC auxiliary diagnosis. Graphical abstract The process to establish an efficient model for auxiliary diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up-regulated by both GA and seed

  2. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed germination is a complex multi-stage developmental process, and mainly accomplished through concerted activities of many gene products and biological pathways that are often subjected to strict developmental regulation. Gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA are two key phytohormones regulating seed germination and seedling growth. However, transcriptional regulatory networks underlying seed germination and its associated biological pathways are largely unknown. Results The studies examined transcriptomes of barley representing six distinct and well characterized germination stages and revealed that the transcriptional regulatory program underlying barley germination was composed of early, late, and post-germination phases. Each phase was accompanied with transcriptional up-regulation of distinct biological pathways. Cell wall synthesis and regulatory components including transcription factors, signaling and post-translational modification components were specifically and transiently up-regulated in early germination phase while histone families and many metabolic pathways were up-regulated in late germination phase. Photosynthesis and seed reserve mobilization pathways were up-regulated in post-germination phase. However, stress related pathways and seed storage proteins were suppressed through the entire course of germination. A set of genes were transiently up-regulated within three hours of imbibition, and might play roles in initiating biological pathways involved in seed germination. However, highly abundant transcripts in dry barley and Arabidopsis seeds were significantly conserved. Comparison with transcriptomes of barley aleurone in response to GA and ABA identified three sets of germination responsive genes that were regulated coordinately by GA, antagonistically by ABA, and coordinately by GA but antagonistically by ABA. Major CHO metabolism, cell wall degradation and protein degradation pathways were up

  3. Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach to induce gene-expression in human THP-1 macrophages under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Laura; Alvarado-Vázquez, Abigail; Ferreira, David Wilson; Paige, Candler A; Ulecia-Morón, Cristina; Hill, Bailey; Caesar, Marina; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Macrophages orchestrate the initiation and resolution of inflammation by producing pro- and anti-inflammatory products. An imbalance in these mediators may originate from a deficient or excessive immune response. Therefore, macrophages are valid therapeutic targets to restore homeostasis under inflammatory conditions. We hypothesize that a specific mannosylated nanoparticle effectively induces gene expression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions without undesirable immunogenic responses. THP-1 macrophages were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5μg/mL). Polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles grafted with a mannose receptor ligand (Man-PEI) were used as a gene delivery method. Nanoparticle toxicity, Man-PEI cellular uptake rate and gene induction efficiency (GFP, CD14 or CD68) were studied. Potential immunogenic responses were evaluated by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. Man-PEI did not produce cytotoxicity, and it was effectively up-taken by THP-1 macrophages (69%). This approach produced a significant expression of GFP (mRNA and protein), CD14 and CD68 (mRNA), and transiently and mildly reduced IL-6 and IL-10 levels in LPS-challenged macrophages. Our results indicate that Man-PEI is suitable for inducing an efficient gene overexpression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions with limited immunogenic responses. Our promising results set the foundation to test this technology to induce functional anti-inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression and Role of the BDNF Receptor-TrkB in Rat Adrenal Gland under Acute Immobilization Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Shiiki, Naoto; Sato, Chikatoshi; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported that plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was maximally elevated following a 60-min period of acute immobilization stress and that salivary glands were the main source of plasma BDNF under this stress condition. However, the expression pattern of the BDNF receptor, Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), under this condition has yet to be determined. We therefore investigated the effect of this stress on the expression level of TrkB in various rat organs using real-time PCR. No significant differences were found between controls and 60 min-stressed rats with respect to TrkB level in various organs. Only adrenal glands showed significantly increased TrkB mRNA levels after 60 min of stress. TrkB mRNA and protein were observed to localize in chromaffin cells. In addition, we investigated whether BDNF-TrkB interaction influences the release of stress hormones from PC12 cells, derived from chromaffin cells. Truncated receptor, TrkB-T1, was identified in PC12 cells using RT-PCR. Exposure of PC12 cells to BDNF induced the release of catecholamine. This BDNF-evoked release was totally blocked by administration of the K252a in which an inhibitor of Trk receptors. Thus, BDNF-TrkB interactions may modulate catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells under acute stress conditions

  5. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  6. Listing of engineering research contract reports under the DREAM, AERD and ERDAF programs of the Research Branch, 1973-1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, B A; Thuns, A; Feldman, M

    1988-01-01

    To supplement in-house investigations, Agriculture Canada contracted out research in a number of programs including three which supported engineering work. This document lists the contracts awarded under the programs and provides reference citations of the contract reports. Reports are grouped by file number, scientific authority, author or contractor, and subject, and a subject index is also included. The three programs are: Development, Research and Evaluation in Agricultural Mechanization (DREAM), Agricultural Engineering Research and Development Program (AERD), and Energy Research and Development in Agriculture and Food (ERDAF). AERD, which replaced DREAM, has been terminated, but the ERDAF program is still continuing as of the date of this document.

  7. Research on radionuclide migration under subsurface geochemical conditions. JAERI/AECL Phase II Collaborative Program Year 1 (joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    A radionuclide migration experiment program for fractured rocks was performed under the JAERI/AECL Phase-II Collaborative Program on research and development in radioactive waste management. The program started in the fiscal year 1993, as a five-year program consists of Quarried block radionuclide migration program, Speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, Isotopic hydrogeology and Groundwater flow model development. During the first year of the program (Program Year 1: March 18, 1994 - September 30, 1994), a plan was developed to take out granite blocks containing part of natural water-bearing fracture from the wall of the experimental gallery at the depth of 240 m, and literature reviews were done in the area of the speciation of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater, isotopic hydrogeology and the groundwater flow model development to proceed further work for the Program Year 2. (author)

  8. The Temporal Program of Peripheral Blood Gene Expression in the Response of Nonhuman Primates to Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-28

    the family Filoviridae. The EBOV genus consists of four distinct species: Ivory Coast Ebola virus, Reston Ebola virus, Sudan Ebola virus, and Zaire...S, Liu CL, Belcher CE, Botstein D, Staudt LM, Brown PO, Relman DA: Stereotyped and specific gene expression programs in human innate immune responses

  9. Waste management under multiple complexities: Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Lv Ying; Li Gongchen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming is proposed. ► It’s the first application to waste management under multiple complexities. ► It tackles nonlinear economies-of-scale effects in interval-parameter constraints. ► It estimates costs more accurately than the linear-regression-based model. ► Uncertainties are decreased and more satisfactory interval solutions are obtained. - Abstract: To tackle nonlinear economies-of-scale (EOS) effects in interval-parameter constraints for a representative waste management problem, an inexact piecewise-linearization-based fuzzy flexible programming (IPFP) model is developed. In IPFP, interval parameters for waste amounts and transportation/operation costs can be quantified; aspiration levels for net system costs, as well as tolerance intervals for both capacities of waste treatment facilities and waste generation rates can be reflected; and the nonlinear EOS effects transformed from objective function to constraints can be approximated. An interactive algorithm is proposed for solving the IPFP model, which in nature is an interval-parameter mixed-integer quadratically constrained programming model. To demonstrate the IPFP’s advantages, two alternative models are developed to compare their performances. One is a conventional linear-regression-based inexact fuzzy programming model (IPFP2) and the other is an IPFP model with all right-hand-sides of fussy constraints being the corresponding interval numbers (IPFP3). The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP2 indicate that the optimized waste amounts would have the similar patterns in both models. However, when dealing with EOS effects in constraints, the IPFP2 may underestimate the net system costs while the IPFP can estimate the costs more accurately. The comparison results between IPFP and IPFP3 indicate that their solutions would be significantly different. The decreased system uncertainties in IPFP’s solutions demonstrate

  10. Expression and subcellular localization of p70S6 kinase under heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usenko V. S.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The PI3K/PDK/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway is primary associated with the activation of insulin receptors and is important for cardiomyocytes survival. p70S6K is a key regulator of the speed and efficiency of protein biosynthesis within the cell. Recently the pro-apoptotic protein BAD has been identified as a new target for р70S6K1. BAD is inactivated in normal cardiomyocytes by р70S6K1 phosphorylation which prevents the cardiomyocytes apoptosis. Aim. To study possible changes in р70S6K1 expression and/or cellular localization at heart failure progression – in DCM- affected human myocardia and murine hearts with experimental DCM-like pathology. Methods. Western-blot analysis and immunohystochemistry. Results. The substantial decrease in р70S6K1 level was observed at the final stage of pathology progression and in the dynamics of DCM pathogenesis as well. For the first time relocalization of the protein to the connective tissue was shown according to the Western-blot results. Conclusions. The data obtained allow us to understand a possible role of р70S6K1 in the regulation of stress-induced apoptotic signaling in cardiomyocytes.

  11. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in shoots of Salicornia europaea under different salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Fan, Pengxiang; Song, Hongmiao; Chen, Xianyang; Li, Xiaofang; Li, Yinxin

    2009-07-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits agriculture productivity worldwide. Salicornia europaea is a succulent annual euhalophyte and one of the most salt tolerant plant species. The elucidation of its salt tolerance mechanism is of significance for generating salt-tolerant crops. In this study, we provided high resolution of proteome reference maps of S. europaea shoot and obtained evidence on the salt tolerance mechanism by analyzing the proteomic responses of this plant to high salinity. Our results demonstrated significant variations existed in 196 out of 1880 protein spots detected on CBB stained 2-DE gels. Of these, 111 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Among them, the majority was energy production and conversion related proteins, followed by photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism associated enzymes. Analysis of protein expression patters revealed that energy production and ion homeostasis associated proteins played important roles for this plant salt tolerance ability. Hierarchical clustering results revealed many proteins were involved in S. europaea salt tolerance mechanism as a dynamic network. Finally, based on our proteomic results, we brought forward a possible schematic representation of mechanism associated with the systematic salt tolerance phenotype in S. europaea.

  12. Mechanism Governing Human Kappa-Opioid Receptor Expression under Desferrioxamine-Induced Hypoxic Mimic Condition in Neuronal NMB Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Babcock

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular adaptation to hypoxia is a protective mechanism for neurons and relevant to cancer. Treatment with desferrioxamine (DFO to induce hypoxia reduced the viability of human neuronal NMB cells. Surviving/attached cells exhibited profound increases of expression of the human kappa-opioid receptor (hKOR and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α. The functional relationship between hKOR and HIF-1α was investigated using RT-PCR, Western blot, luciferase reporter, mutagenesis, siRNA and receptor-ligand binding assays. In surviving neurons, DFO increased HIF-1α expression and its amount in the nucleus. DFO also dramatically increased hKOR expression. Two (designated as HIFC and D out of four potential HIF response elements of the hKOR gene (HIFA–D synergistically mediated the DFO response. Mutation of both elements completely abolished the DFO-induced effect. The CD11 plasmid (containing HIFC and D with an 11 bp spacing produced greater augmentation than that of the CD17 plasmid (HIFC and D with a 17 bp-spacing, suggesting that a proper topological interaction of these elements synergistically enhanced the promoter activity. HIF-1α siRNA knocked down the increase of endogenous HIF-1α messages and diminished the DFO-induced increase of hKOR expression. Increased hKOR expression resulted in the up-regulation of hKOR protein. In conclusion, the adaptation of neuronal hKOR under hypoxia was governed by HIF-1, revealing a new mechanism of hKOR regulation.

  13. Increased seroreactivity to glioma-expressed antigen 2 in brain tumor patients under radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Heisel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgery and radiation are the mainstays of therapy for human gliomas that are the most common primary brain tumors. Most recently, cell culture and animal studies provided the first convincing evidence that radiation not only eliminates tumor cells, but also modulates the immune response and likely improves anti-tumor immunotherapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present an in vivo study that analyzes the effects of radiation on the immune response in tumor patients. As readout system, we utilized the reactivity of glioma patients' sera against antigen GLEA2 as the most frequent antigen immunogenic in glioblastoma patients. We established an ELISA assay to analyze reactivity of 24 glioblastoma patients over a period of several months. As control we used 30 sera from healthy donors as well as 30 sera from lung cancer patients. We compared the course of GLEA2 seroreactivity at different times prior, during and after radiation. The GLEA2 seroreactivity was increased by the time of surgery, decreased after surgery, increased again under radiation, and slightly decreased after radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide in vivo evidence for an increased antibody response against tumor antigens under radiation. Antigens that become immunogenic with an increased antibody response as result of radiation can serve as ideal targets for immunotherapy of human tumors.

  14. Gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in rice plants, cv. BRS AG, under saline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossatto, Tatiana; do Amaral, Marcelo Nogueira; Benitez, Letícia Carvalho; Vighi, Isabel Lopes; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel; de Magalhães Júnior, Ariano Martins; Maia, Mara Andrade Colares; da Silva Pinto, Luciano

    2017-10-01

    The rice cultivar ( Oryza sativa L.) BRS AG, developed by Embrapa Clima Temperado, is the first cultivar designed for purposes other than human consumption. It may be used in ethanol production and animal feed. Different abiotic stresses negatively affect plant growth. Soil salinity is responsible for a serious reduction in productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the gene expression and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, APX and GR) and identify their functions in controlling ROS levels in rice plants, cultivar BRS AG, after a saline stress period. The plants were grown in vitro with two NaCl concentrations (0 and 136 mM), collected at 10, 15 and 20 days of cultivation. The results indicated that the activity of the enzymes evaluated promotes protection against oxidative stress. Although, there was an increase of reactive oxygen species, there was no increase in MDA levels. Regarding genes encoding isoforms of antioxidant enzymes, it was observed that OsSOD3 - CU/Zn , OsSOD2 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Cu/Zn , OsSOD4 - Cu/Zn , OsSODCc1 - Cu/Zn , OsSOD - Fe , OsAPX1 , OsCATB and OsGR2 were the most responsive. The increase in the transcription of all genes among evaluated isoforms, except for OsAPX6 , which remained stable, contributed to the increase or the maintenance of enzyme activity. Thus, it is possible to infer that the cv. BRS AG has defense mechanisms against salt stress.

  15. 77 FR 57096 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary adult HIV medical care, adult... Medical Center managed the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program through a contractual agreement with the...

  16. 75 FR 73110 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services.../AIDS Program, Part C funds for the Louisiana State University, Health Sciences Center, Viral Disease... HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health care, outpatient mental...

  17. 38 CFR 21.21 - Election of benefits under education programs administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 21.21 Election of benefits under education programs administered by the Department of Veterans... education programs administered by VA must make an election of benefits between chapter 31 and any other VA... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Election of benefits...

  18. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian child...

  19. Plant collecting program in Southeast Asia under the sponsorship of the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) (1986-1991)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soejarto, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Under the funding from the United States National Cancer Institute (NCI)¹, a program was undertaken to collect plant samples in Southeast Asia to be tested for their cancer- and AIDS-arresting properties, for the period of September 1, 1986 through August 31, 1991. The program was implemented with

  20. 75 FR 36426 - Legislative Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public Health Service Act....) 111-148. Section 5202 of the ACA changes the Nursing Student Loan (NSL) program by: (1) Increasing the... degree in nursing. Below are details on how the ACA changes Sections 836(a), 836(b)(1), and 836(b)(3) of...

  1. 75 FR 36099 - Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health Service Act AGENCY... changes Section 723 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regarding administration of the PCL program...

  2. 49 CFR 17.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 17.6 Section 17.6 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.6 What...

  3. 40 CFR 122.31 - As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ELIMINATION SYSTEM Permit Application and Special NPDES Program Requirements § 122.31 As a Tribe, what is my... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false As a Tribe, what is my role under the NPDES storm water program? 122.31 Section 122.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. Study of the Insurance Premium Charged to Borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    Insurance premiums being charged to borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program were studied to determine if the rate exceeded the rate necessary to protect the reserves of the insurer. Attention was directed to whether historical changes in the GSL program have affected insurance premiums. Guaranty agency's sources and uses of funds…

  5. Efficient implementation of real-time programs under the VAX/VMS operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques for writing efficient real-time programs under the VAX/VMS oprating system are presented. Basic operations are presented for executing at real-time priority and for avoiding needlless processing delays. A highly efficient technique for accessing physical devices by mapping to the input/output space and accessing the device registrs directly is described. To illustrate the application of the technique, examples are included of different uses of the technique on three devices in the Langley Avionics Integration Research Lab (AIRLAB): the KW11-K dual programmable real-time clock, the Parallel Communications Link (PCL11-B) communication system, and the Datacom Synchronization Network. Timing data are included to demonstrate the performance improvements realized with these applications of the technique.

  6. Apparatus for dynamic measurement of gases released from materials heated under programmed temperature-time control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, J.W.; Abernathey, R.M.

    1982-04-01

    This apparatus, a prototype of one being constructed for hotcell examination of irradiated nuclear materials, measures dynamic release rates and integrated volumes of individual gases from materials heated under controlled temperature-time programs. It consists of an inductively heated vacuum furnace connected to a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A computerized control system with data acquisition provides scanning rates down to 1s and on-line tabular and graphic displays. Heating rates are up to 1300 0 C/min to a maximum temperature of 2000 0 C. The measurement range is about 10 -6 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for H 2 , CH 4 , H 2 O, N 2 , and CO and 10 -8 to 10 -2 torr-liter/s for He, Kr, and Xe. Applications are described for measurements of Kr and Xe in mixed oxide fuel, various gases in UO 2 pellets, and He in 238 PuO 2 power and heat sources

  7. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Pricing Weather Derivatives under Issuer Default Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Karl Härdle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weather derivatives are contingent claims with payoff based on a pre-specified weather index. Firms exposed to weather risk can transfer it to financial markets via weather derivatives. We develop a utility-based model for pricing baskets of weather derivatives under default risk on the issuer side in over-the-counter markets. In our model, agents maximise the expected utility of their terminal wealth, while they dynamically rebalance their weather portfolios over a finite investment horizon. Using dynamic programming approach, we obtain semi-closed forms for the equilibrium prices of weather derivatives and for the optimal strategies of the agents. We give an example on how to price rainfall derivatives on selected stations in China in the universe of a financial investor and a weather exposed crop insurer.

  8. Building Capacity in Using Earth Observations Under the GOFC-GOLD and TAT Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) is a coordinated international effort to provide ongoing space-based and in-situ observations of forests and other vegetation cover. The main goal of GOFC/GOLD is to support a forum for international information exchange, observation and data coordination, and a framework for establishing the necessary long-term monitoring systems. GOFC-GOLD has two Implementation Teams: Land Cover Characteristics and Change, and Fire Monitoring and Mapping. Additionally, it includes two working groups: the Working Group on Biomass Monitoring and the Working group on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD), the latter being aligned with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Regional networks are an integral part of the GOFC-GOLD program, with some networks fully developed and some still emerging. GOFC-GOLD provides training workshops to build capacity in the regions. Capacity building in using Earth Observation techniques and applications is also promoted by cooperation of NASA and ESA under the Trans-Atlantic Training (TAT) program. The main objective of TAT is training of early career scientists and students in East European and Baltic countries emphasizing outstanding technical issues in remote sensing of land-cover/land-use change and ecosystems processes. TAT promotes data sharing and advanced research methods and technologies through series of training sessions. Three TAT sessions have been held until now, each session consisting of 5-10 tutors and about 30 early career scientists and students from Eastern Europe. The sessions include lectures on remote sensing covering the full solar spectrum and hands-on practice. The experience obtained in capacity building activities under GOFC-GOLD and TAT will be shared with the audience.

  9. Impacts of alternative allowance allocation methods under a cap-and-trade program in power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; He Pan; Zhang Bing; Bi Jun

    2012-01-01

    Emission trading is considered to be a cost-effective environmental economic instrument for pollution control. However, the policy design of an emission trading program has a decisive impact on its performance. Allowance allocation is one of the most important policy design issues in emission trading, not only for equity but also for policy performance. In this research, an artificial market for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission trading was constructed by applying an agent-based model. The performance of the Jiangsu SO 2 emission trading market was examined under different allowance allocation methods and transaction costs. The results showed that the market efficiency of emission trading would be affected by the allocation methods when the transaction costs are positive. The auction allowance allocation method was more efficient and had the lowest total emission control costs than the other three allocation methods examined. However, the use of this method will require that power plants pay for all of their allowance, and doing so will increase the production costs of power plants. On the other hand, output-based allowance allocation is the second best method. - Highlights: ► The impact of allowance allocation methods is examined for a cap-and-trade program. ► The market efficiency would be distinct when the transaction costs are positive. ► The auction method would have lowest total emission control costs.

  10. Two-stage stochastic programming model for the regional-scale electricity planning under demand uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua; Hsu, Yu-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Traditional electricity supply planning models regard the electricity demand as a deterministic parameter and require the total power output to satisfy the aggregate electricity demand. But in today's world, the electric system planners are facing tremendously complex environments full of uncertainties, where electricity demand is a key source of uncertainty. In addition, electricity demand patterns are considerably different for different regions. This paper developed a multi-region optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming framework to incorporate the demand uncertainty. Furthermore, the decision tree method and Monte Carlo simulation approach are integrated into the model to simplify electricity demands in the form of nodes and determine the values and probabilities. The proposed model was successfully applied to a real case study (i.e. Taiwan's electricity sector) to show its applicability. Detail simulation results were presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. Finally, the long-term electricity development roadmap at a regional level could be provided on the basis of our simulation results. - Highlights: • A multi-region, two-stage stochastic programming model has been developed. • The decision tree and Monte Carlo simulation are integrated into the framework. • Taiwan's electricity sector is used to illustrate the applicability of the model. • The results under deterministic and stochastic cases are shown for comparison. • Optimal portfolios of regional generation technologies can be identified.

  11. JAERI R & D on accelerator-based transmutation under OMEGA program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takizuka, T.; Nishida, T.; Mizumoto, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The overview of the Japanese long-term research and development program on nuclide partitioning and transmutation, called {open_quotes}OMEGA,{close_quotes} is presented. Under this national program, major R&D activities are being carried out at JAERI, PNC, and CRIEPI. Accelerator-based transmutation study at JAERI is focused on a dedicated transmutor with a subcritical actinide-fueled subcritical core coupled with a spallation target driven by a high intensity proton accelerator. Two types of system concept, solid system and molten-salt system, are discussed. The solid system consists of sodium-cooled tungsten target and metallic actinide fuel. The molten-salt system is fueled with molten actinide chloride that acts also as a target material. The proposed plant transmutes about 250 kg of minor actinide per year, and generates enough electricity to power its own accelerator. JAERI is proposing the development of an intense proton linear accelerator ETA with 1.5 GeV-10 mA beam for engineering tests of accelerator-based transmutation. Recent achievements in the accelerator development are described.

  12. Female Drosophila melanogaster gene expression and mate choice: the X chromosome harbours candidate genes underlying sexual isolation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I Bailey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of female choice mechanisms favouring males of their own kind is considered a crucial step during the early stages of speciation. However, although the genomics of mate choice may influence both the likelihood and speed of speciation, the identity and location of genes underlying assortative mating remain largely unknown.We used mate choice experiments and gene expression analysis of female Drosophila melanogaster to examine three key components influencing speciation. We show that the 1,498 genes in Zimbabwean female D. melanogaster whose expression levels differ when mating with more (Zimbabwean versus less (Cosmopolitan strain preferred males include many with high expression in the central nervous system and ovaries, are disproportionately X-linked and form a number of clusters with low recombination distance. Significant involvement of the brain and ovaries is consistent with the action of a combination of pre- and postcopulatory female choice mechanisms, while sex linkage and clustering of genes lead to high potential evolutionary rate and sheltering against the homogenizing effects of gene exchange between populations.Taken together our results imply favourable genomic conditions for the evolution of reproductive isolation through mate choice in Zimbabwean D. melanogaster and suggest that mate choice may, in general, act as an even more important engine of speciation than previously realized.

  13. 75 FR 30106 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for Insurers Compensated Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Recordkeeping Requirements for... Budget. The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office within the Department of the Treasury is soliciting... original and two copies) to: Terrorism Risk Insurance Program, Public Comment Record, Suite 2100...

  14. Exploring the outcomes of a novel computer-assisted treatment program targeting expressive-grammar deficits in preschoolers with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla N; Warr-Leeper, Genese; Thomas-Stonell, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The impact of a newly designed computer-assisted treatment (C-AT) program, My Sentence Builder, for the remediation of expressive-grammar deficits in children with specific language impairment (SLI) was explored. This program was specifically designed with features to directly address expressive-grammar difficulties, thought to be associated with hypothesized deficits in verbal working memory (VWM). Thirty-four preschoolers with deficits in expressive-grammar morphology participated. Using the randomization procedure of consecutive sampling, participants were recruited. Twenty-two participants were consecutively assigned to one of two treatment groups, C-AT or non C-AT (nC-AT). The nC-AT utilized conventional language stimulation procedures containing features which have been traditionally used to address expressive-grammar deficits. A group of equivalent children awaiting treatment and chosen from the same sample of children as the treatment participants served as a control group. Blind assessments of outcomes were completed pre-, post-, and 3-months post-treatment in a formal and informal context. C-AT and nC-AT participants significantly outperformed controls pre-to-post to 3-months post-treatment in both assessment contexts. No significant differences in treatment gains were found between C-AT and nC-AT. Results suggested that treatments designed to directly address expressive-grammar deficits were better than no treatment for preschool SLI. Further, use of a C-AT program may be another feasible treatment method for this disorder population. As a result of this activity, the reader will recognize that: (1) expressive-grammar treatment is better than no treatment for immediate and continued language growth, (2) use of a C-AT program containing specific features designed to directly address expressive-grammar deficits is another viable, but not necessarily a better treatment option for the remediation of expressive-grammar deficits in preschool children with SLI

  15. Assessment of programmed death-ligand 1 expression and tumor-associated immune cells in pediatric cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majzner, Robbie G; Simon, Jason S; Grosso, Joseph F; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce R; Santi, Mariarita; Merchant, Melinda S; Geoerger, Birgit; Hezam, Imene; Marty, Virginie; Vielh, Phillippe; Daugaard, Mads; Sorensen, Poul H; Mackall, Crystal L; Maris, John M

    2017-10-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling in the tumor microenvironment dampens immune responses to cancer, and blocking this axis induces antitumor effects in several malignancies. Clinical studies of PD-1 blockade are only now being initiated in pediatric patients, and little is known regarding programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in common childhood cancers. The authors characterized PD-L1 expression and tumor-associated immune cells (TAICs) (lymphocytes and macrophages) in common pediatric cancers. Whole slide sections and tissue microarrays were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 expression and for the presence of TAICs. TAICs were also screened for PD-L1 expression. Thirty-nine of 451 evaluable tumors (9%) expressed PD-L1 in at least 1% of tumor cells. The highest frequency histotypes comprised Burkitt lymphoma (80%; 8 of 10 tumors), glioblastoma multiforme (36%; 5 of 14 tumors), and neuroblastoma (14%; 17 of 118 tumors). PD-L1 staining was associated with inferior survival among patients with neuroblastoma (P = .004). Seventy-four percent of tumors contained lymphocytes and/or macrophages. Macrophages were significantly more likely to be identified in PD-L1-positive versus PD-L1-negative tumors (P cancers exhibit PD-L1 expression, whereas a much larger fraction demonstrates infiltration with tumor-associated lymphocytes. PD-L1 expression may be a biomarker for poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Further preclinical and clinical investigation will define the predictive nature of PD-L1 expression in childhood cancers both at diagnosis and after exposure to chemoradiotherapy. Cancer 2017;123:3807-3815. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Reverse engineering model structures for soil and ecosystem respiration: the potential of gene expression programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ilie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate model representation of land–atmosphere carbon fluxes is essential for climate projections. However, the exact responses of carbon cycle processes to climatic drivers often remain uncertain. Presently, knowledge derived from experiments, complemented by a steadily evolving body of mechanistic theory, provides the main basis for developing such models. The strongly increasing availability of measurements may facilitate new ways of identifying suitable model structures using machine learning. Here, we explore the potential of gene expression programming (GEP to derive relevant model formulations based solely on the signals present in data by automatically applying various mathematical transformations to potential predictors and repeatedly evolving the resulting model structures. In contrast to most other machine learning regression techniques, the GEP approach generates readable models that allow for prediction and possibly for interpretation. Our study is based on two cases: artificially generated data and real observations. Simulations based on artificial data show that GEP is successful in identifying prescribed functions, with the prediction capacity of the models comparable to four state-of-the-art machine learning methods (random forests, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and kernel ridge regressions. Based on real observations we explore the responses of the different components of terrestrial respiration at an oak forest in south-eastern England. We find that the GEP-retrieved models are often better in prediction than some established respiration models. Based on their structures, we find previously unconsidered exponential dependencies of respiration on seasonal ecosystem carbon assimilation and water dynamics. We noticed that the GEP models are only partly portable across respiration components, the identification of a general terrestrial respiration model possibly prevented by equifinality issues. Overall

  17. Reverse engineering model structures for soil and ecosystem respiration: the potential of gene expression programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Iulia; Dittrich, Peter; Carvalhais, Nuno; Jung, Martin; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Migliavacca, Mirco; Morison, James I. L.; Sippel, Sebastian; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wilkinson, Matthew; Mahecha, Miguel D.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate model representation of land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is essential for climate projections. However, the exact responses of carbon cycle processes to climatic drivers often remain uncertain. Presently, knowledge derived from experiments, complemented by a steadily evolving body of mechanistic theory, provides the main basis for developing such models. The strongly increasing availability of measurements may facilitate new ways of identifying suitable model structures using machine learning. Here, we explore the potential of gene expression programming (GEP) to derive relevant model formulations based solely on the signals present in data by automatically applying various mathematical transformations to potential predictors and repeatedly evolving the resulting model structures. In contrast to most other machine learning regression techniques, the GEP approach generates readable models that allow for prediction and possibly for interpretation. Our study is based on two cases: artificially generated data and real observations. Simulations based on artificial data show that GEP is successful in identifying prescribed functions, with the prediction capacity of the models comparable to four state-of-the-art machine learning methods (random forests, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and kernel ridge regressions). Based on real observations we explore the responses of the different components of terrestrial respiration at an oak forest in south-eastern England. We find that the GEP-retrieved models are often better in prediction than some established respiration models. Based on their structures, we find previously unconsidered exponential dependencies of respiration on seasonal ecosystem carbon assimilation and water dynamics. We noticed that the GEP models are only partly portable across respiration components, the identification of a general terrestrial respiration model possibly prevented by equifinality issues. Overall, GEP is a promising

  18. The gene expression program of prostate fibroblast senescence modulates neoplastic epithelial cell proliferation through paracrine mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavik, Claes; Coleman, Ilsa; Dean, James P; Knudsen, Beatrice; Plymate, Steven; Nelson, Peter S

    2006-01-15

    The greatest risk factor for developing carcinoma of the prostate is advanced age. Potential molecular and physiologic contributors to the frequency of cancer occurrence in older individuals include the accumulation of somatic mutations through defects in genome maintenance, epigenetic gene silencing, oxidative stress, loss of immune surveillance, telomere dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and alterations in tissue microenvironment. In this context, the process of prostate carcinogenesis can be influenced through interactions between intrinsic cellular alterations and the extrinsic microenvironment and macroenvironment, both of which change substantially as a consequence of aging. In this study, we sought to characterize the molecular alterations that occur during the process of prostate fibroblast senescence to identify factors in the aged tissue microenvironment capable of promoting the proliferation and potentially the neoplastic progression of prostate epithelium. We evaluated three mechanisms leading to cell senescence: oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. We identified a consistent program of gene expression that includes a subset of paracrine factors capable of influencing adjacent prostate epithelial growth. Both direct coculture and conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, 3-fold and 2-fold, respectively. The paracrine-acting proteins fibroblast growth factor 7, hepatocyte growth factor, and amphiregulin (AREG) were elevated in the extracellular environment of senescent prostate fibroblasts. Exogenous AREG alone stimulated prostate epithelial cell growth, and neutralizing antibodies and small interfering RNA targeting AREG attenuated, but did not completely abrogate the growth-promoting effects of senescent fibroblast conditioned medium. These results support the concept that aging-related changes in the prostate microenvironment may contribute to the progression of prostate

  19. trieFinder: an efficient program for annotating Digital Gene Expression (DGE) tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; LaFave, Matthew C; Liang, Jin; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Burgess, Shawn M

    2014-10-13

    Quantification of a transcriptional profile is a useful way to evaluate the activity of a cell at a given point in time. Although RNA-Seq has revolutionized transcriptional profiling, the costs of RNA-Seq are still significantly higher than microarrays, and often the depth of data delivered from RNA-Seq is in excess of what is needed for simple transcript quantification. Digital Gene Expression (DGE) is a cost-effective, sequence-based approach for simple transcript quantification: by sequencing one read per molecule of RNA, this technique can be used to efficiently count transcripts while obviating the need for transcript-length normalization and reducing the total numbers of reads necessary for accurate quantification. Here, we present trieFinder, a program specifically designed to rapidly map, parse, and annotate DGE tags of various lengths against cDNA and/or genomic sequence databases. The trieFinder algorithm maps DGE tags in a two-step process. First, it scans FASTA files of RefSeq, UniGene, and genomic DNA sequences to create a database of all tags that can be derived from a predefined restriction site. Next, it compares the experimental DGE tags to this tag database, taking advantage of the fact that the tags are stored as a prefix tree, or "trie", which allows for linear-time searches for exact matches. DGE tags with mismatches are analyzed by recursive calls in the data structure. We find that, in terms of alignment speed, the mapping functionality of trieFinder compares favorably with Bowtie. trieFinder can quickly provide the user an annotation of the DGE tags from three sources simultaneously, simplifying transcript quantification and novel transcript detection, delivering the data in a simple parsed format, obviating the need to post-process the alignment results. trieFinder is available at http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/software/trieFinder/.

  20. Intracellular Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Underlying 17beta-Estradiol-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression in Human Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Xiong, Wenqian; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Hengwei; Li, Na; Du, Yu; Liu, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling is necessary for ectopic endometrium implantation. Many studies have shown an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the ectopic endometrium of endometriosis. However, the signaling pathways and cellular effects related to this process remain incompletely elucidated. The objective of our study was to investigate the association between MMP9 and the Wnt signaling pathway under the regulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in endometrial stromal cells. We found that MMP9 was elevated in tissues from women with endometriosis compared with normal women. Furthermore, MMP9 and beta-catenin increased concurrently in a time- and dose-dependent manner after E2 treatment. To clarify the relationship between MMP9 and beta-catenin, we performed luciferase promoter reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. A beta-catenin/TCF3/LEF1 complex bound to a specific site on the MMP9 promoter that promoted MMP9 gene and protein expression. The promotion of MMP9 by the Wnt signaling pathway under the regulation of E2 may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Survey of ABC transporter and metallothionein genes expressions in tall fescue inoculated with Funneliformis intraradices under Nickel toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massomeh Rafiei-Demneh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In plants, there are complex network of transport, chelation, and sequestration processes that functions in maintaining concentrations of essential metal ions in different cellular compartments, thus minimizing the damage caused by entry of non-essential metal ions into the cytosol. In the presence of toxic ones, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi are able to alleviate metal toxicity in the plant. In this study the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Funneliformis intraradices on growth, Nickel tolerance, and ABC transporter and metallothionein expression in leaves and roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea plants cultivated in Ni polluted soil were evaluated. The fungi infected (M+ and uninfected (M- fescue plants were cultivated in soil under different Ni concentrations (0, 30, 90 and 180 ppm for 3 months. Results demonstrated the positive effect of fungi colonization on the increase in growth and reduction in Ni uptake (90 and 180 ppm and Ni translocation from roots to shoot of tall fescue under Ni stress. The results also demonstrated that the level of ABC transporterand metallothionein transcripts accumulation in roots was considerably higher for both M- and M+ plants compared to the control. Also, M+ plants showed less ABC and MET expression compared to the M- plants. These results demonstrated the importance of mycorrhizal colonization of F. intraradices in reduction of Ni transport from root to shoot of tall fescue which alleviates Ni-induced stress.

  2. Effects of Metabolic Programming on Juvenile Play Behavior and Gene Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehar, Harleen; Ma, Irene; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2016-01-01

    Early developmental processes, such as metabolic programming, can provide cues to an organism, which allow it to make modifications that are predicted to be beneficial for survival. Similarly, social play has a multifaceted role in promoting survival and fitness of animals. Play is a complex behavior that is greatly influenced by motivational and reward circuits, as well as the energy reserves and metabolism of an organism. This study examined the association between metabolic programming and juvenile play behavior in an effort to further elucidate insight into the consequences that early adaptions have on developmental trajectories. The study also examined changes in expression of four genes (Drd2, IGF1, Opa1, and OxyR) in the prefrontal cortex known to play significant roles in reward, bioenergetics, and social-emotional functioning. Using four distinct variations in developmental programming (high-fat diet, caloric restriction, exercise, or high-fat diet combined with exercise), we found that dietary programming (high-fat diet vs. caloric restriction) had the greatest impact on play behavior and gene expression. However, exercise also induced changes in both measures. This study demonstrates that metabolic programming can alter neural circuits and bioenergetics involved in play behavior, thus providing new insights into mechanisms that allow programming to influence the evolutionary success of an organism. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. 48 CFR 2019.705 - Responsibilities of the contracting officer under the subcontracting assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Subcontracting With Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 2019.705...

  4. 48 CFR 319.705 - Responsibilities of the Contracting Officer under the subcontracting assistance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Subcontracting With Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 319.705...

  5. [Effect of resveratrol on expression of TLR4 and inflammatory factors in gingival epithelial cells under high glucose environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jia-Shu; Jiang, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Yan; Zhen, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Through a study of the molecular mechanism of the effect of resveratrol(RSV) on expression of TLR4 and inflammatory factors in gingival epithelial cells under high glucose environment, the therapeutic effect and molecular mechanism of resveratrol on periodontitis in patients with diabetes mellitus was investigated. Gingival epithelial cells were cultured in vitro; according to the way of action, the cultured cells were divided into control group, high glucose group(HG) and HG+RSV group. The mRNA expression of TLR4 was detected by PCR; The third generation of gingival epithelial cells were pre-treated with or without RSV for 24 h under high glucose conditions, and subsequently treated with LPS at 100 ng/mL for 2 h. ELISA was used to detect the secretion of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF- alpha; the activation of TLR4 downstream signaling molecules NF-κB p65, p38 MAPK, and STAT3 was determined by Western blot. SPSS17.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RSV could reverse the increase of TLR4 level in gingival epithelial cells in high glucose medium.LPS markedly increased the expression and secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in GECs cultured in high glucose medium, which was partly blocked in the presence of RSV. Furthermore, Western blot results showed that RSV significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of TLR4 downstream factors NF-κB p65, p38MAPK, and STAT3. RSV reduces inflammatory cytokine secretion in gingival epithelial cells, through negative regulation of TLR4 signaling pathway.

  6. 24 CFR 1000.110 - Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program? 1000.110 Section 1000.110 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.110 Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families...

  7. 78 FR 44580 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  8. 75 FR 41510 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by...). The interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period...

  9. 78 FR 4427 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  10. 75 FR 5339 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  11. 77 FR 4359 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by...). The interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period...

  12. 76 FR 4127 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  13. 76 FR 47225 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  14. 77 FR 42754 - Mortgage and Loan Insurance Programs Under the National Housing Act-Debenture Interest Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Programs Under the National Housing Act--Debenture Interest Rates AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary... in the interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by... interest rate for debentures issued under section 221(g)(4) of the Act during the 6-month period beginning...

  15. 34 CFR 403.111 - How must funds be used under the Secondary School Vocational Education Program and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION... under that award to improve vocational education programs. (2) Projects assisted with funds awarded... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must funds be used under the Secondary School...

  16. Processes underlying the nutritional programming of embryonic development by iron deficiency in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Poor iron status is a global health issue, affecting two thirds of the world population to some degree. It is a particular problem among pregnant women, in both developed and developing countries. Feeding pregnant rats a diet deficient in iron is associated with both hypertension and reduced nephron endowment in adult male offspring. However, the mechanistic pathway leading from iron deficiency to fetal kidney development remains elusive. This study aimed to establish the underlying processes associated with iron deficiency by assessing gene and protein expression changes in the rat embryo, focussing on the responses occurring at the time of the nutritional insult. Analysis of microarray data showed that iron deficiency in utero resulted in the significant up-regulation of 979 genes and down-regulation of 1545 genes in male rat embryos (d13. Affected processes associated with these genes included the initiation of mitosis, BAD-mediated apoptosis, the assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes and WNT signalling. Proteomic analyses highlighted 7 proteins demonstrating significant up-regulation with iron deficiency and the down-regulation of 11 proteins. The main functions of these key proteins included cell proliferation, protein transport and folding, cytoskeletal remodelling and the proteasome complex. In line with our recent work, which identified the perturbation of the proteasome complex as a generalised response to in utero malnutrition, we propose that iron deficiency alone leads to a more specific failure in correct protein folding and transport. Such an imbalance in this delicate quality-control system can lead to cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore these findings offer an insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of the embryo during conditions of poor iron status, and its health in adult life.

  17. Functional Expression of Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (B7-H1 by Immune Cells and Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Gibbons Johnson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The programmed death-1 (PD-1 and its ligand PD-L1 (B7-H1 signaling pathway has been the focus of much enthusiasm in the fields of tumor immunology and oncology with recent FDA approval of the anti-PD-1 antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab and the anti-PD-L1 antibodies durvalumab, atezolimuab, and avelumab. These therapies, referred to here as PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapies, are designed to block the interaction between PD-L1, expressed by tumor cells, and PD-1, expressed by tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells, leading to enhanced antitumor CD8+ T cell responses and tumor regression. The influence of PD-L1 expressed by tumor cells on antitumor CD8+ T cell responses is well characterized, but the impact of PD-L1 expressed by immune cells has not been well defined for antitumor CD8+ T cell responses. Although PD-L1 expression by tumor cells has been used as a biomarker in selection of patients for PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapies, patients whose tumor cells lack PD-L1 expression often respond positively to PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade therapies. This suggests that PD-L1 expressed by non-malignant cells may also contribute to antitumor immunity. Here, we review the functions of PD-L1 expressed by immune cells in the context of CD8+ T cell priming, contraction, and differentiation into memory populations, as well as the role of PD-L1 expressed by tumor cells in regulating antitumor CD8+ T cell responses.

  18. Isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene expression in relation to patulin production by Penicillium expansum under different temperature and atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, N; Vlaemynck, G; Van Pamel, E; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Van Coillie, E

    2016-03-02

    Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production occur mainly at post-harvest stage during the long-term storage of apples. Low temperature in combination with reduced oxygen concentrations is commonly applied as a control strategy to extend apple shelf life and supply the market throughout the year. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of temperature and atmosphere on expression of the idh gene in relation to the patulin production by P. expansum. The idh gene encodes the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase enzyme, a key enzyme in the patulin biosynthesis pathway. First, a reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) method was optimized to measure accurately the P. expansum idh mRNA levels relative to the mRNA levels of three reference genes (18S, β-tubulin, calmodulin), taking into account important parameters such as PCR inhibition and multiple reference gene stability. Subsequently, two P. expansum field isolates and one reference strain were grown on apple puree agar medium (APAM) under three conditions of temperature and atmosphere: 20 °C - air, 4 °C - air and 4 °C - controlled atmosphere (CA; 3% O2). When P. expansum strains reached a 0.5 and 2.0 cm colony diameter, idh expression and patulin concentrations were determined by means of the developed RT-qPCR and an HPLC-UV method, respectively. The in vitro study showed a clear reduction in patulin production and down-regulation of the idh gene expression when P. expansum was grown under 4 °C - CA. The results suggest that stress (low temperature and oxygen level) caused a delay of the fungal metabolism rather than a complete inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. A good correlation was found between the idh expression and patulin production, corroborating that temperature and atmosphere affected patulin production by acting at the transcriptional level of the idh gene. Finally, a reliable RT-qPCR can be considered as an alternative tool to investigate the effect of control strategies on the toxin formation in

  19. [Expressed Emotions, Burden and Family Functioning in Schizophrenic and Bipolar I Patients of a Multimodal Intervention Program: PRISMA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos

    Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yajun; Mao, Shaoshuai; Gao, Yulong; Zhu, Liying; Wu, Daoming; Cui, Yixin; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related QTL regions

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajun He

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related

  2. The SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.): Gene cloning and expression analyses under sulfate starvation and abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qin; Wang, Meiping; Xia, Zongliang

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient required for plant growth, development and stress responses. The family of sulfate transporters (SULTRs) mediates the uptake and translocation of sulfate in higher plants. However, basic knowledge of the SULTR gene family in maize (Zea mays L.) is scarce. In this study, a genome-wide bioinformatic analysis of SULTR genes in maize was conducted, and the developmental expression patterns of the genes and their responses to sulfate starvation and abiotic stress were further investigated. The ZmSULTR family includes eight putative members in the maize genome and is clustered into four groups in the phylogenetic tree. These genes displayed differential expression patterns in various organs of maize. For example, expression of ZmSULTR1;1 and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in roots, and transcript levels of ZmSULTR3;1 and ZmSULTR3;3 were high in shoots. Expression of ZmSULTR1;2, ZmSULTR2;1, ZmSULTR3;3, and ZmSULTR4;1 was high in flowers. Also, these eight genes showed differential responses to sulfate deprivation in roots and shoots of maize seedlings. Transcript levels of ZmSULTR1;1, ZmSULTR1;2, and ZmSULTR3;4 were significantly increased in roots during 12-day-sulfate starvation stress, while ZmSULTR3;3 and ZmSULTR3;5 only showed an early response pattern in shoots. In addition, dynamic transcriptional changes determined via qPCR revealed differential expression profiles of these eight ZmSULTR genes in response to environmental stresses such as salt, drought, and heat stresses. Notably, all the genes, except for ZmSULTR3;3, were induced by drought and heat stresses. However, a few genes were induced by salt stress. Physiological determination showed that two important thiol-containing compounds, cysteine and glutathione, increased significantly under these abiotic stresses. The results suggest that members of the SULTR family might function in adaptations to sulfur deficiency stress and adverse growing environments. This study will lay a

  3. Tissue factor-expressing tumor cells can bind to immobilized recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor under static and shear conditions in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara P Y Che

    Full Text Available Mammary tumors and malignant breast cancer cell lines over-express the coagulation factor, tissue factor (TF. High expression of TF is associated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI, the endogenous inhibitor of TF, is constitutively expressed on the endothelium. We hypothesized that TF-expressing tumor cells can bind to immobilized recombinant TFPI, leading to arrest of the tumor cells under shear in vitro. We evaluated the adhesion of breast cancer cells to immobilized TFPI under static and shear conditions (0.35 - 1.3 dyn/cm2. We found that high-TF-expressing breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 (with a TF density of 460,000/cell, but not low TF-expressing MCF-7 (with a TF density of 1,400/cell, adhered to recombinant TFPI, under static and shear conditions. Adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to TFPI required activated factor VII (FVIIa, but not FX, and was inhibited by a factor VIIa-blocking anti-TF antibody. Under shear, adhesion to TFPI was dependent on the TFPI-coating concentration, FVIIa concentration and shear stress, with no observed adhesion at shear stresses greater than 1.0 dyn/cm2. This is the first study showing that TF-expressing tumor cells can be captured by immobilized TFPI, a ligand constitutively expressed on the endothelium, under low shear in vitro. Based on our results, we hypothesize that TFPI could be a novel ligand mediating the arrest of TF-expressing tumor cells in high TFPI-expressing vessels under conditions of low shear during metastasis.

  4. The histone demethylase Kdm6b regulates a mature gene expression program in differentiating cerebellar granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayatunge, Ranjula; Liu, Fang; Shpargel, Karl B; Wayne, Nicole J; Chan, Urann; Boua, Jane-Valeriane; Magnuson, Terry; West, Anne E

    2018-03-01

    The histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Kdm6b (Jmjd3) can promote cellular differentiation, however its physiological functions in neurons remain to be fully determined. We studied the expression and function of Kdm6b in differentiating granule neurons of the developing postnatal mouse cerebellum. At postnatal day 7, Kdm6b is expressed throughout the layers of the developing cerebellar cortex, but its expression is upregulated in newborn cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Atoh1-Cre mediated conditional knockout of Kdm6b in CGN precursors either alone or in combination with Kdm6a did not disturb the gross morphological development of the cerebellum. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Kdm6b in cultured CGN precursors did not alter the induced expression of early neuronal marker genes upon cell cycle exit. By contrast, knockdown of Kdm6b significantly impaired the induction of a mature neuronal gene expression program, which includes gene products required for functional synapse maturation. Loss of Kdm6b also impaired the ability of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) to induce expression of Grin2c and Tiam1 in maturing CGNs. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unknown role for Kdm6b in the postmitotic stages of CGN maturation and suggest that Kdm6b may work, at least in part, by a transcriptional mechanism that promotes gene sensitivity to regulation by BDNF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, P.; Walke, J. [National Resources Development Council, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  6. The WRKY transcription factors in the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca: Identification and expression analysis under biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Hu, Yang; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Feng-Li; Feng, Jia-Yue

    2016-08-01

    WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and in plant growth and development. To date, little is known about the WRKY gene family in strawberry. In this study, we identified 62 WRKY genes (FvWRKYs) in the wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14) accession Heilongjiang-3. According to the phylogenetic analysis and structural features, these identified strawberry FvWRKY genes were classified into three main groups. In addition, eight FvWRKY-GFP fusion proteins showed distinct subcellular localizations in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 62 FvWRKY genes in 'Heilongjiang-3' under various conditions, including biotic stress (Podosphaera aphanis), abiotic stresses (drought, salt, cold, and heat), and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid). The expression levels of 33 FvWRKY genes were upregulated, while 12 FvWRKY genes were downregulated during powdery mildew infection. FvWRKY genes responded to drought and salt treatment to a greater extent than to temperature stress. Expression profiles derived from quantitative real-time PCR suggested that 11 FvWRKY genes responded dramatically to various stimuli at the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Interaction networks revealed that the crucial pathways controlled by WRKY proteins may be involved in the differential response to biotic stress. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for future studies of the genetic modification of WRKY genes for pathogen resistance and stress tolerance in strawberry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of salinity on gene expression, morphological and biochemical characteristics of stevia rebaudiana Bertoni under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, F; Nokhasi, F; Ghaheri, M; Kahrizi, D; Beheshti Ale Agha, A; Ghorbani, T; Kazemi, E; Ansarypour, Z

    2017-08-15

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a famous medicinal plant for its low calorific value compounds which are named steviol glycosides (SGs) and they are 150-300 times sweeter than sugar. Among various SGs, stevioside and rebaudioside A considered to be the main sweetening compounds.  Soil salinity is one of the most essential stress in the world. Salinity affects the survival and yield of crops. In current study the effects of salinity and osmotic stress caused by different concentration of NaCl (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mM) on morphological traits, genes expressionand amount of both stevioside and rebaudioside Aunder in vitro conditions has been investigated. The morphological traits such as bud numbers, root numbers, shoot length (after 15 and 30 days) were evaluated. With increasing salinity, the values of all studied morphological traits decreased. To investigation of UGT74G1 and UGT76G1 genes expression that are involved in the synthesis of SGs, RT-PCR was done and there were significant differences between all media. The highest expression of both genes was observed in plantlets grown on MS media (with NaCl-free). Also, the lowest amounts of gene expression of the both genes were seen in MS+ 60 mM NaCl. Based on HPLC results, the highest amount of both stevioside and rebaudioside A were observed in plantlets grown in MS media (with NaCl-free). Finally, it can be concluded that stevia can survive under salt stress, but it has the best performance in the lower salinity.

  8. Gene expression and localization of two types of AQP5 in Xenopus tropicalis under hydration and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yuki; Sano, Takahiro; Tsuchiya, Nobuhito; Okada, Reiko; Mochida, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-07-01

    Two types of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) genes (aqp-xt5a and aqp-xt5b) were identified in the genome of Xenopus tropicalis by synteny comparison and molecular phylogenetic analysis. When the frogs were in water, AQP-xt5a mRNA was expressed in the skin and urinary bladder. The expression of AQP-xt5a mRNA was significantly increased in dehydrated frogs. AQP-xt5b mRNA was also detected in the skin and increased in response to dehydration. Additionally, AQP-xt5b mRNA began to be slightly expressed in the lung and stomach after dehydration. For the pelvic skin of hydrated frogs, immunofluorescence staining localized AQP-xt5a and AQP-xt5b to the cytoplasm of secretory cells of the granular glands and the apical plasma membrane of secretory cells of the small granular glands, respectively. After dehydration, the locations of both AQPs in their respective glands did not change, but AQP-xt5a was visualized in the cytoplasm of secretory cells of the small granular glands. For the urinary bladder, AQP-xt5a was observed in the apical plasma membrane and cytoplasm of a number of granular cells under normal hydration. After dehydration, AQP-xt5a was found in the apical membrane and cytoplasm of most granular cells. Injection of vasotocin into hydrated frogs did not induce these changes in the localization of AQP-xt5a in the small granular glands and urinary bladder, however. The results suggest that AQP-xt5a might be involved in water reabsorption from the urinary bladder during dehydration, whereas AQP-xt5b might play a role in water secretion from the small granular gland. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. The role of express submission to jurisdiction under the Brussels I Regulation, Brussels I (Recast) and the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    LL.M. (International Commercial Law) This essay seeks to look at the role of express submission to jurisdictjon under the Brussels I Regulation,lthe Brussels I (recast) Regulation2 and the Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements.3 The express submission to jurisdiction under the three instruments mentioned in the previous sentence refers to the situation in which parties to an international commercial contract include in their contract a court of their choice to govern any disputes ...

  10. Characterization of WRKY transcription factors in Solanum lycopersicum reveals collinearity and their expression patterns under cold treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Yang, Yang; Liu, Can; Zheng, Yanyan; Xu, Mingshuang; Wu, Na; Sheng, Jiping; Shen, Lin

    2015-08-28

    WRKY transcription factors play an important role in cold defense of plants. However, little information is available about the cold-responsive WRKYs in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). In the present study, a complete characterization of this gene family was described. Eighty WRKY genes in the tomato genome were identified. Almost all WRKY genes contain putative stress-responsive cis-elements in their promoter regions. Segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the SlWRKY gene family. Transcriptional analysis revealed notable differential expression in tomato tissues and expression patterns under cold stress, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Ten WRKYs in tomato were strongly induced more than 2-fold during cold stress. These genes represented candidate genes for future functional analysis of WRKYs involved in the cold-related signal pathways. Our data provide valuable information about tomato WRKY proteins and form a foundation for future studies of these proteins, especially for those that play an important role in response to cold stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Y. Iskusnykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters, content of lipoperoxidation products, and changes of glutathione peroxidase (GP, EC 1.11.1.9 and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 activities at rats liver injury, after 12, 36, 70, 96, 110, and 125 hours & tetrachloromethane administration have been investigated. The histological examination of the liver sections of rats showed that prominent hepatocytes with marked vacuolisation and inflammatory cells which were arranged around the necrotic tissue are more at 96 h after exposure to CCl4. Moreover maximum increase in GR and GP activities, 2.1 and 2.5 times, respectively, was observed at 96 h after exposure to CCl4, what coincided with the maximum of free radical oxidation processes. Using a combination of reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, expression of the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes (Gpx1 and Gsr was analyzed by the determination of their respective mRNAs in the rat liver tissue under toxic hepatitis conditions. The analyses of Gpx1 and Gsr expression revealed that the transcript levels increased in 2.5- and 3.0-folds, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that the amounts of hepatic Gpx1 and Gsr proteins increased considerably after CCl4 administration. It can be proposed that the overexpression of these enzymes could be a mechanism of enhancement of hepatocytes tolerance to oxidative stress.

  12. Microcystin Biosynthesis and mcyA Expression in Geographically Distinct Microcystis Strains under Different Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Boron Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Roles of nutrients and other environmental variables in development of cyanobacterial bloom and its toxicity are complex and not well understood. We have monitored the photoautotrophic growth, total microcystin concentration, and microcystins synthetase gene (mcyA expression in lab-grown strains of Microcystis NIES 843 (reference strain, KW (Wangsong Reservoir, South Korea, and Durgakund (Varanasi, India under different nutrient regimes (nitrogen, phosphorus, and boron. Higher level of nitrogen and boron resulted in increased growth (avg. 5 and 6.5 Chl a mg/L, resp., total microcystin concentrations (avg. 1.185 and 7.153 mg/L, resp., and mcyA transcript but its expression was not directly correlated with total microcystin concentrations in the target strains. Interestingly, Durgakund strain had much lower microcystin content and lacked microcystin-YR variant over NIES 843 and KW. It is inferred that microcystin concentration and its variants are strain specific. We have also examined the heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacterial bloom in Durgakund Pond and Wangsong Reservoir which were found to be enriched in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria and that could influence the bloom dynamics.

  13. Expression profiling of a genetic animal model of depression reveals novel molecular pathways underlying depressive-like behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Blaveri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Flinders model is a validated genetic rat model of depression that exhibits a number of behavioural, neurochemical and pharmacological features consistent with those observed in human depression.In this study we have used genome-wide microarray expression profiling of the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex of Flinders Depression Sensitive (FSL and control Flinders Depression Resistant (FRL lines to understand molecular basis for the differences between the two lines. We profiled two independent cohorts of Flinders animals derived from the same colony six months apart, each cohort statistically powered to allow independent as well as combined analysis. Using this approach, we were able to validate using real-time-PCR a core set of gene expression differences that showed statistical significance in each of the temporally distinct cohorts, representing consistently maintained features of the model. Small but statistically significant increases were confirmed for cholinergic (chrm2, chrna7 and serotonergic receptors (Htr1a, Htr2a in FSL rats consistent with known neurochemical changes in the model. Much larger gene changes were validated in a number of novel genes as exemplified by TMEM176A, which showed 35-fold enrichment in the cortex and 30-fold enrichment in hippocampus of FRL animals relative to FSL.These data provide significant insights into the molecular differences underlying the Flinders model, and have potential relevance to broader depression research.

  14. Stable expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in cultured preadipocytes impairs adipogenesis program independently of endogenous prostanoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Chowdhury, Abu Asad; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Nishimura, Kohji [Department of Molecular and Functional Genomics, Center for Integrated Research in Science, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Jisaka, Mitsuo; Nagaya, Tsutomu [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Shono, Fumiaki [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 180 Yamashiro-cho, Tokushima-shi, Tokushima 770-8514 (Japan); Yokota, Kazushige, E-mail: yokotaka@life.shimane-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu-cho, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expressed preferentially in adipocytes is responsible for the synthesis of PGD{sub 2} and its non-enzymatic dehydration products, PGJ{sub 2} series, serving as pro-adipogenic factors. However, the role of L-PGDS in the regulation of adipogenesis is complex because of the occurrence of several derivatives from PGD{sub 2} and their distinct receptor subtypes as well as other functions such as a transporter of lipophilic molecules. To manipulate the expression levels of L-PGDS in cultured adipocytes, cultured preadipogenic 3T3-L1 cells were transfected stably with a mammalian expression vector having cDNA encoding murine L-PGDS oriented in the sense direction. The isolated cloned stable transfectants with L-PGDS expressed higher levels of the transcript and protein levels of L-PGDS, and synthesized PGD{sub 2} from exogenous arachidonic acid at significantly higher levels. By contrast, the synthesis of PGE{sub 2} remained unchanged, indicating no influence on the reactions of cyclooxygenase (COX) and PGE synthase. Furthermore, the ability of those transfectants to synthesize {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2} increased more greatly during the maturation phase. The sustained expression of L-PGDS in cultured stable transfectants hampered the storage of fats during the maturation phase of adipocytes, which was accompanied by the reduced gene expression of adipocyte-specific markers reflecting the down-regulation of the adipogenesis program. The suppressed adipogenesis was not rescued by either exogenous aspirin or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists including troglitazone and {Delta}{sup 12}-PGJ{sub 2}. Taken together, the results indicate the negative regulation of the adipogenesis program by the enhanced expression of L-PGDS through a cellular mechanism involving the interference of the PPAR{gamma} signaling pathway without the contribution of endogenous pro-adipogenic prostanoids

  15. Chemotherapy appointment scheduling under uncertainty using mean-risk stochastic integer programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Michelle; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2018-03-01

    Oncology clinics are often burdened with scheduling large volumes of cancer patients for chemotherapy treatments under limited resources such as the number of nurses and chairs. These cancer patients require a series of appointments over several weeks or months and the timing of these appointments is critical to the treatment's effectiveness. Additionally, the appointment duration, the acuity levels of each appointment, and the availability of clinic nurses are uncertain. The timing constraints, stochastic parameters, rising treatment costs, and increased demand of outpatient oncology clinic services motivate the need for efficient appointment schedules and clinic operations. In this paper, we develop three mean-risk stochastic integer programming (SIP) models, referred to as SIP-CHEMO, for the problem of scheduling individual chemotherapy patient appointments and resources. These mean-risk models are presented and an algorithm is devised to improve computational speed. Computational results were conducted using a simulation model and results indicate that the risk-averse SIP-CHEMO model with the expected excess mean-risk measure can decrease patient waiting times and nurse overtime when compared to deterministic scheduling algorithms by 42 % and 27 %, respectively.

  16. Models of psychological service provision under Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Kohn, Fay; Morley, Belinda; Blashki, Grant; Naccarella, Lucio

    2006-08-01

    The Access to Allied Psychological Services component of Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program enables eligible general practitioners to refer consumers to allied health professionals for affordable, evidence-based mental health care, via 108 projects conducted by Divisions of General Practice. The current study profiled the models of service delivery across these projects, and examined whether particular models were associated with differential levels of access to services. We found: 76% of projects were retaining their allied health professionals under contract, 28% via direct employment, and 7% some other way; Allied health professionals were providing services from GPs' rooms in 63% of projects, from their own rooms in 63%, from a third location in 42%; and The referral mechanism of choice was direct referral in 51% of projects, a voucher system in 27%, a brokerage system in 24%, and a register system in 25%. Many of these models were being used in combination. No model was predictive of differential levels of access, suggesting that the approach of adapting models to the local context is proving successful.

  17. Relative Affordability of Health Insurance Premiums under CHIP Expansion Programs and the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Laugesen, Miriam J; Yesus, Ambeshie; Escarce, José J

    2011-10-01

    Affordability is integral to the success of health care reforms aimed at ensuring universal access to health insurance coverage, and affordability determinations have major policy and practical consequences. This article describes factors that influenced the determination of affordability benchmarks and premium-contribution requirements for Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expansions in three states that sought to universalize access to coverage for youth. It also compares subsidy levels developed in these states to the premium subsidy schedule under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for health insurance plans purchased through an exchange. We find sizeable variability in premium-contribution requirements for children's coverage as a percentage of family income across the three states and in the progressivity and regressivity of the premium-contribution schedules developed. These findings underscore the ambiguity and subjectivity of affordability standards. Further, our analyses suggest that while the ACA increases the affordability of family coverage for families with incomes below 400 percent of the federal poverty level, the evolution of CHIP over the next five to ten years will continue to have significant implications for low-income families.

  18. Nogo-A couples with Apg-1 through interaction and co-ordinate expression under hypoxic and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Florian; Stanika, Ruslan I; Sarg, Bettina; Offterdinger, Martin; Hess, Daniel; Obermair, Gerald J; Lindner, Herbert; Bandtlow, Christine E; Hengst, Ludger; Schweigreiter, Rüdiger

    2013-10-15

    Nogo-A is the largest isoform of the Nogo/RTN4 (reticulon 4) proteins and has been characterized as a major myelin-associated inhibitor of regenerative nerve growth in the adult CNS (central nervous system). Apart from the myelin sheath, Nogo-A is expressed at high levels in principal neurons of the CNS. The specificity of Nogo-A resides in its central domain, NiG. We identified Apg-1, a member of the stress-induced Hsp110 (heat-shock protein of 110 kDa) family, as a novel interactor of NiG/Nogo-A. The interaction is selective because Apg-1 interacts with Nogo-A/RTN4-A, but not with RTN1-A, the closest paralogue of Nogo-A. Conversely, Nogo-A binds to Apg-1, but not to Apg-2 or Hsp105, two other members of the Hsp110 family. We characterized the Nogo-A-Apg-1 interaction by affinity precipitation, co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay, using primary hippocampal neurons derived from Nogo-deficient mice. Under conditions of hypoxic and oxidative stress we found that Nogo-A and Apg-1 were tightly co-regulated in hippocampal neurons. Although both proteins were up-regulated under hypoxic conditions, their expression levels were reduced upon the addition of hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, we suggest that Nogo-A is closely involved in the neuronal response to hypoxic and oxidative stress, an observation that may be of relevance not only in stroke-induced ischaemia, but also in neuroblastoma formation.

  19. High Frequency of Programmed Death-ligand 1 Expression in Emphysematous Bullae-associated Lung Adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Gouji; Takada, Kazuki; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Kozuma, Yuka; Matsubara, Taichi; Haratake, Naoki; Takamori, Shinkichi; Akamine, Takaki; Katsura, Masakazu; Shoji, Fumihiro; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2017-09-01

    Emphysematous bullae (EB) are known to be associated with a high incidence of lung cancer; however, the reason for this has yet to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to clarify the prevalence of programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 369 patients with resected lung adenocarcinoma whose preoperative computed tomography findings were available for the examination of EB were analyzed for PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry and evaluated to determine the association between PD-L1 expression and EB-related adenocarcinomas. Among 369 patients, EB and cancer adjoining EB (Ca-ADJ) were identified in 81 (22.0%) and 50 (13.6%) patients, respectively. EB and Ca-ADJ were significantly associated with male gender, a smoking habit, a decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second, a relatively higher tumor grade, advanced T status and stage, the presence of pleural and vessel invasion, invasive pathologic subtypes, and wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor. Seventy patients (19.0%) were positive for PD-L1 expression, whereas the remaining 299 patients (81.0%) were negative. Thirty-six (44.4%) and 29 (58.0%) of 81 and 50 patients with EB and Ca-ADJ, respectively, were positive for PD-L1 expression, which was shown to be significant by the Fisher exact test (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively). Among the 81 lung adenocarcinomas with EB, Ca-ADJ was significantly associated with PD-L1 expression (P = .021). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of Ca-ADJ was found to be an independent predictor of PD-L1 expression. EB-associated lung adenocarcinomas express PD-L1 protein more frequently than those without EB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Flowchart Programs, Regular Expressions, and Decidability of Polynomial Growth-Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Amram, Amir M.; Pineles, Aviad

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method for inferring complexity properties for a class of programs in the form of flowcharts annotated with loop information. Specifically, our method can (soundly and completely) decide if computed values are polynomially bounded as a function of the input; and similarly for the running time. Such complexity properties are undecidable for a Turing-complete programming language, and a common work-around in program analysis is to settle for sound but incomplete solutions. In ...

  1. Modulation of expression of Programmed Death-1 by administration of probiotic Dahi in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod K; Kumar, Manoj; Nagpal, Ravinder; Yamashiro, Yuichiro; Marotta, Francesco

    2013-09-01

    Interaction of probiotic bacteria with the host immune system elicits beneficial immune modulating effects. Although, there are many published studies on interaction of probiotics with immune system focusing on activation of immune system by bacterial cell wall through the engagement of Toll-like receptor family; very few studies have focused on molecules involved in the T-cell activation, and not much work has been executed to study the correlation of probiotics and programmed death-1 in colorectal carcinogenesis in animal models. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the effect of probiotic Dahi on expression of programmed death (PD-1) in colorectum of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine treated Wistar rats. DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 168 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to seven groups, each group having twenty-four animals. The rats were euthanized at the 8th, 16th and 32nd week of the experiment and examined for the expression of PD-1 in colorectal tissues by immunohistochemical staining. Expression of PD-1 was observed in colorectal tissues of normal and DMH-treated rats. Feeding rats with probiotic Dahi or the treatment with piroxicam decreased the expression of PD-1 in DMH-induced colorectal mucosa, and the combined treatment with probiotic Dahi and piroxicam was significantly more effective in reducing the expression of PD-1. PD-1 expressed independent of carcinogen administration in normal colonic mucosa and may play a role in modulation of immune response in DMH-induced colorectal carcinogenesis. The present study suggests that probiotic Dahi can be used as an effective chemopreventive agent in the management of colorectal cancer.

  2. Clinical Use of Programmed Cell Death-1 and Its Ligand Expression as Discriminatory and Predictive Markers in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Jayanta; Dai, Wei; Aziz, Nor Haslinda Abd; Teo, Pei Yun; Wahba, John; Phelps, David L; Maine, Christian J; Whilding, Lynsey M; Dina, Roberto; Trevisan, Giorgia; Flower, Kirsty J; George, Andrew J T; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf

    2017-07-01

    Purpose: We aimed to establish whether programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, in ovarian cancer tumor tissue and blood, could be used as biomarkers for discrimination of tumor histology and prognosis of ovarian cancer. Experimental Design: Immune cells were separated from blood, ascites, and tumor tissue obtained from women with suspected ovarian cancer and studied for the differential expression of possible immune biomarkers using flow cytometry. PD-L1 expression on tumor-associated inflammatory cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was measured using sandwich ELISA. The relationships among immune markers were explored using hierarchical cluster analyses. Results: Biomarkers from the discovery cohort that associated with PD-L1 + cells were found. PD-L1 + CD14 + cells and PD-L1 + CD11c + cells in the monocyte gate showed a distinct expression pattern when comparing benign tumors and epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs)-confirmed in the validation cohort. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed PD-L1 + and PD-L1 + CD14 + cells in the monocyte gate performed better than the well-established tumor marker CA-125 alone. Plasma soluble PD-L1 was elevated in patients with EOC compared with healthy women and patients with benign ovarian tumors. Low total PD-1 + expression on lymphocytes was associated with improved survival. Conclusions: Differential expression of immunological markers relating to the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in blood can be used as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in EOC. These data have implications for the development and trial of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); 3453-60. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Influence of simulated microgravity on clock genes expression rhythmicity and underlying blood circulating miRNAs-mRNA co-expression regulatory mechanism in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ke; Qu, Lina

    67 genes at ZT14. (d) Effects of light on mRNA expression. To evaluate the light effecting on genes expression in SCN, the cDNA microarrays in SCN at ZT2 and ZT14 were tested. 21 genes were over expression and 12 genes were down regulation ZT14 compared with ZT2 in WT. The number of altered genes in clock-/- mice was 67. (e) Direct interaction between altered miRNAs and mRNAs. To identify the interaction between regulatory miRNAs and altered mRNAs in the absence of clock, we predicted the target genes of miRNAs by TargetScan. The genes both the target genes of miRNAs and altered in cDNA microarray were unravelled. The exploration of functional interaction between miRNAs and clock genes mRNA is ongoing. Conclusion: Taken together, these results indicate that ground-based simulated weightlessness could alter the molecular biological rhythm patterns, which may preliminarily present the biological regulatory mechanism of circadian rhythm systems under spaceflight-related gravity. The potential underlying functional miRNAs could serve as targets to interfere with for interaction between central and peripheral circadian organs under simulated microgravity. This preliminary study may facilitate the exploration of circadian rhythm characteristics in space and the detailed process of signal transduction and circadian gene regulation. Key words: circadian rhythms, tail-suspension, simulated microgravity, clock genes, miRNAs Acknowledgments: This study was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant NO. 2011CB707704) and the Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Space Medicine Fundamentals and Application, China Astronaut Research and Training Center (Grant NO. SMFA13B02, SMFA09A06 and SMFA12B05).

  4. Pair Programming: Under What Conditions Is It Advantageous for Middle School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; Campe, Shannon; Ortiz, Eloy

    2014-01-01

    Pair programming is a strategy that grew out of industry and has shown promise for performance and retention in computer programming courses at universities and in industry. In this study, we examine whether pair programming is effective in K-12, what it is effective for, and how partners influence each other. We collected the data from 320 middle…

  5. 77 FR 3784 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... program which provides full marketing, media, public information, and program strategy support to the... Wear, Vessel Safety Check Program (VSC), Boating Safety Education Courses, Propeller Strike Avoidance, Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Awareness and Education, and other recreational boating safety issues on an as...

  6. Jasmonic acid Modulates the Physio-Biochemical Attributes, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Gene Expression in Glycine max under Nickel Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetika eSirhindi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we evaluated the effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in soybean (Glycine max L. plants subjected to nickel (Ni stress. Ni stress decreases the shoot and root length and chlorophyll content by 37.23%, 38.31% and 39.21% respectively over the control. However, application of JA was found to improve the chlorophyll content and growth of Ni-stressed seedlings in terms of root and shoot length. Plants supplemented with Jasmonate restores the chlorophyll fluorescence, which was disturbed by Ni stress. The present study demonstrated increase in proline, glycinebetaine, total protein and total soluble sugar (TSS by 33.09%, 51.26%, 22.58% and 49.15% respectively under Ni toxicity as compared to control. Supplementation of JA to Ni stressed plants further enhanced the above parameters. Ni stress increases hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by 68.49%, lipid peroxidation (MDA by 50.57% and NADPH oxidase by 50.92% over the control. Supplementation of JA minimizes the accumulation of H2O2, MDA and NADPH oxidase, which helps in stabilization of biomolecules. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX increases by 40.04%, 28.22%, 48.53% and 56.79% respectively over the control in Ni treated seedlings and further enhancement in the antioxidant activity was observed by the application of JA. Ni treated soybean seedlings showed increase in expression of Fe-SOD by 77.62%, CAT by 15.25%, POD by 58.33% and APX by 80.58% over the control. Nevertheless, application of JA further enhanced the expression of the above genes in the present study. Our results signified that Ni stress caused negative impacts on soybean seedlings, but, co-application of JA facilitate the seedlings to combat the detrimental effects of Ni through enhanced osmolytes and osmoprotectants, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression.

  7. LIBERDADE DE EXPRESSÃO E PROGRAMAS HUMORÍSTICOS / FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND HUMOR PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cláudio Rodrigues Alves

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution enshrines the free expression of thought, which is the expression free from any type of seal, guaranteeing freedom of thought and opinion. Freedom of expression denotes that the individual do not need to worry about the evaluative content of his thought or opinion. This study aims to investigate the subjective censorship of political correctness in the free expression of comedy shows. Based on the decision of the study case that granted the right of the comedian Rafinha Bastos to reproduce his show The art of the insult was bounded on the literature in legislation, case law, doctrine and newspaper articles on the subject with specific analysis of the case Charlie Hebdo. The main findings were that humor tends to be censored when the subject of the jokes are the sensitive minorities, due to the recent wave of political correctness that came up with the financial rise of black Americans and gay people from the 60’s, which, when moving on to attend restaurants or places that were privileges of high society, caused some social unrest. Upon investigation, it appears that the differences between people from different regions of the world is what makes the culturally rich society and should not be ignored but exalted, and as it limits freedom of expression, creativity is over, thoughts and expressions are muzzled and the cultural content of the information society is mitigated.

  8. Project selection problem under uncertainty: An application of utility theory and chance constrained programming to a real case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosnavi Atashgah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting from a pool of interdependent projects under certainty, when faced with resource constraints, has been studied well in the literature of project selection problem. After briefly reviewing and discussing popular modeling approaches for dealing with uncertainty, this paper proposes an approach based on chance constrained programming and utility theory for a certain range of problems and under some practical assumptions. Expected Utility Programming, as the proposed modeling approach, will be compared with other well-known methods and its meaningfulness and usefulness will be illustrated via two numerical examples and one real case.

  9. Fetal growth restriction and the programming of heart growth and cardiac insulin-like growth factor 2 expression in the lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kimberley C W; Zhang, Lei; McMillen, I Caroline; Botting, Kimberley J; Duffield, Jaime A; Zhang, Song; Suter, Catherine M; Brooks, Doug A; Morrison, Janna L

    2011-10-01

    Reduced growth in fetal life together with accelerated growth in childhood, results in a ~50% greater risk of coronary heart disease in adult life. It is unclear why changes in patterns of body and heart growth in early life can lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. We aimed to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factors in heart growth in the growth-restricted fetus and lamb. Hearts were collected from control and placentally restricted (PR) fetuses at 137-144 days gestation and from average (ABW) and low (LBW) birth weight lambs at 21 days of age. We quantified cardiac mRNA expression of IGF-1, IGF-2 and their receptors, IGF-1R and IGF-2R, using real-time RT-PCR and protein expression of IGF-1R and IGF-2R using Western blotting. Combined bisulphite restriction analysis was used to assess DNA methylation in the differentially methylated region (DMR) of the IGF-2/H19 locus and of the IGF-2R gene. In PR fetal sheep, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R mRNA expression was increased in the heart compared to controls. LBW lambs had a greater left ventricle weight relative to body weight as well as increased IGF-2 and IGF-2R mRNA expression in the heart, when compared to ABW lambs. No changes in the percentage of methylation of the DMRs of IGF-2/H19 or IGF-2R were found between PR and LBW when compared to their respective controls. In conclusion, a programmed increased in cardiac gene expression of IGF-2 and IGF-2R may represent an adaptive response to reduced substrate supply (e.g. glucose and/or oxygen) in order to maintain heart growth and may be the underlying cause for increased ventricular hypertrophy and the associated susceptibility of cardiomyocytes to ischaemic damage later in life.

  10. HSPB8 and the Cochaperone BAG3 Are Highly Expressed During the Synthetic Phase of Rat Myometrium Programming During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Noelle M; Wareham, Angela; White, Bryan G; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; Landry, Jacques; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-05-01

    The small heat shock protein (HSP) B family of proteins are a group of molecular chaperones that enable tissues to adapt to changes in their local environments during differentiation, stress, or disease conditions. The objective of this research was to characterize the expression of HSPB8 and its cochaperone Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) in nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant rat myometrium during myometrial programming. Rat myometrium was collected from NP and pregnant rats as well as 1 day postpartum (PP) and samples prepared for immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis. Immunoblot analysis determined that HSPB8 protein expression was significantly elevated at Day (D) 15, D17, and D19 compared to expression at NP and D6, while BAG3 expression was significantly elevated at D15 compared to NP, and D17 compared to NP, D6, D23, and PP time points (P BAG3 were predominantly localized to myometrial cells throughout pregnancy, with intense cytoplasmic HSPB8 and BAG3 detection on D15 and D17 in both longitudinal and circular muscle layers. Immunoblot analysis of HSPB8 and BAG3 protein expression in myometrium from unilateral pregnancies also revealed that expression of both proteins was significantly increased at D15 in gravid compared to nongravid horns. Thus, HSPB8 and BAG3 are highly expressed during the synthetic phase of myometrial differentiation marked by initiation of uterine distension and myometrial hypertrophy. HSPB8 and BAG3 could be regulators of the protein quality control required for this process. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. Carbon Sequestration Potential in Stands under the Grain for Green Program in Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangang Chen

    Full Text Available The Grain for Green Program (GGP is the largest afforestation and reforestation project in China in the early part of this century. To assess carbon sequestration in stands under the GGP in Southwest China, the carbon stocks and their annual changes in the GGP stands in the region were estimated based on the following information: (1 collected data on the annually planted area of each tree species under the GGP in Southwest China from 1999 to 2010; (2 development of empirical growth curves and corresponding carbon estimation models for each species growing in the GPP stands; and (3 parameters associated with the stands such as wood density, biomass expansion factor, carbon fraction and the change rate of soil organic carbon content. Two forest management scenarios were examined: scenario A, with no harvesting, and scenario B, with logging at the customary rotation followed by replanting. The results showed that by the years 2020, 2030, 2040, 2050 and 2060, the expected carbon storage of the GGP stands in Southwest China is 139.58 TgC, 177.50-207.55 TgC, 196.86-259.65 TgC, 240.45-290.62 TgC and 203.22-310.03 TgC (T = 1012, respectively. For the same years, the expected annual change in carbon stocks is 7.96 TgCyr-1, -7.95-5.95 TgCyr-1, -0.10-4.67 TgCyr-1, 4.31-2.24 TgCyr-1 and -0.02-1.75 TgCyr-1, respectively. This indicates that the stands significantly contribute to forest carbon sinks in this region. In 2060, the estimated carbon stocks in the seven major species of GGP stands in Southwest China are 4.16-13.01 TgC for Pinus armandii, 6.30-15.01 TgC for Pinus massoniana, 11.51-13.44 TgC for Cryptomeria fortunei, 15.94-24.13 TgC for Cunninghamia lanceolata, 28.05 TgC for Cupressus spp., 5.32-15.63 TgC for Populus deltoides and 5.87-14.09 TgC for Eucalyptus spp. The carbon stocks in these seven species account for 36.8%-41.4% of the total carbon stocks in all GGP stands over the next 50 years.

  12. Air Breathing Propulsion Controls and Diagnostics Research at NASA Glenn Under NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  13. Glucocorticoid effects on the programming of AT1b angiotensin receptor gene methylation and expression in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bogdarina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse events in pregnancy may 'programme' offspring for the later development of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Previously, using a rodent model of programmed hypertension we have demonstrated the role of the renin-angiotensin system in this process. More recently we showed that a maternal low protein diet resulted in undermethylation of the At1b angiotensin receptor promoter and the early overexpression of this gene in the adrenal of offspring. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that maternal glucocorticoid modulates this effect on fetal DNA methylation and gene expression. We investigated whether treatment of rat dams with the 11beta-hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone, could prevent the epigenetic and gene expression changes we observed. Offspring of mothers subjected to a low protein diet in pregnancy showed reduced adrenal Agtr1b methylation and increased adrenal gene expression as we observed previously. Treatment of mothers with metyrapone for the first 14 days of pregnancy reversed these changes and prevented the appearance of hypertension in the offspring at 4 weeks of age. As a control for non-specific effects of programmed hypertension we studied offspring of mothers treated with dexamethasone from day 15 of pregnancy and showed that, whilst they had raised blood pressure, they failed to show any evidence of Agtr1b methylation or increase in gene expression. We conclude that maternal glucocorticoid in early pregnancy may induce changes in methylation and expression of the Agtr1b gene as these are clearly reversed by an 11 beta-hydroxylase inhibitor. However in later pregnancy a converse effect with dexamethasone could not be demonstrated and this may reflect either an alternative mechanism of this glucocorticoid or a stage-specific influence.

  14. Tightly Controlled Expression of bHLH142 Is Essential for Timely Tapetal Programmed Cell Death and Pollen Development in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee-Suak Ko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Male sterility is important for hybrid seed production. Pollen development is regulated by a complex network. We previously showed that knockout of bHLH142 in rice (Oryza sativa causes pollen sterility by interrupting tapetal programmed cell death (PCD and bHLH142 coordinates with TDR to modulate the expression of EAT1. In this study, we demonstrated that overexpression of bHLH142 (OE142 under the control of the ubiquitin promoter also leads to male sterility in rice by triggering the premature onset of PCD. Protein of bHLH142 was found to accumulate specifically in the OE142 anthers. Overexpression of bHLH142 induced early expression of several key regulatory transcription factors in pollen development. In particular, the upregulation of EAT1 at the early stage of pollen development promoted premature PCD in the OE142 anthers, while its downregulation at the late stage impaired pollen development by suppressing genes involved in pollen wall biosynthesis, ROS scavenging and PCD. Collectively, these events led to male sterility in OE142. Analyses of related mutants further revealed the hierarchy of the pollen development regulatory gene network. Thus, the findings of this study advance our understanding of the central role played by bHLH142 in the regulatory network leading to pollen development in rice and how overexpression of its expression affects pollen development. Exploitation of this novel functionality of bHLH142 may confer a big advantage to hybrid seed production.

  15. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (F v /F m ) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  16. 34 CFR 371.10 - What types of projects are authorized under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION VOCATIONAL... programs for American Indians with disabilities who reside on Federal or State reservations. (Authority...

  17. 75 FR 65049 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Omnibus Household Survey Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    .... OMB Control Number: 2139-0012. Affected Public: The target population for the OHS Program is the non... for dealing with congestion; Telecommuting information; Commuting costs; Availability of...

  18. 38 CFR 21.5741 - Eligibility under more than one program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Educational Assistance Test Program...) Title II of the Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952, (iii) The War Orphans' Educational...

  19. Enhancing the Careers of Under-Represented Junior Faculty in Biomedical Research: The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva K; Liu, Li; Jeffe, Donna B; Jobe, Jared B; Boutjdir, Mohamed; Pace, Betty S; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2014-01-01

    The Summer Institute Program to Increase Diversity (SIPID) in Health-Related Research is a career advancement opportunity sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Three mentored programs address difficulties experienced by junior investigators in establishing independent research careers and academic advancement. Aims are to increase the number of faculty from under-represented minority groups who successfully compete for external research funding. Data were collected using a centralized data-entry system from three Summer Institutes. Outcomes include mentees' satisfaction rating about the program, grant and publications productivity and specific comments. Fifty-eight junior faculty mentees (38% male) noticeably improved their rates of preparing/submitting grant applications and publications, with a 18-23% increase in confidence levels in planning and conducting research. According to survey comments, the training received in grantsmanship skills and one-on-one mentoring were the most valuable program components. The SIPID mentoring program was highly valued by the junior faculty mentees. The program will continue in 2011-2014 as PRIDE (PRogram to Increase Diversity among individuals Engaged in health-related research). Long-term follow-up of current mentees will be indexed at five years post training (2013). In summary, these mentoring programs hope to continue increasing the diversity of the next generation of scientists in biomedical research.

  20. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  1. 75 FR 5603 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of noncompetitive award of Part C funds for Saint Michael's Medical...

  2. 75 FR 28263 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, including primary medical care, laboratory testing, oral health... continue providing services after March 31, 2010. HRSA's HIV/AIDS Bureau identified the Rural Health Group...

  3. 28 CFR 30.6 - What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures apply to the selection of programs and activities under these regulations? 30.6 Section 30.6 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... consult with local elected officials. (b) Each state that adopts a process shall notify the Attorney...

  4. 20 CFR 669.680 - What activities and services may be provided under the MSFW youth program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under the MSFW youth program? 669.680 Section 669.680 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... provide activities and services to MSFW youth that include: (1) Intensive services and training services... interpersonal skills development; (3) Community service projects; (4) Small business development technical...

  5. 34 CFR 692.111 - For what purposes may a State use its payment under the GAP Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aid programs; (v) An explanation that in order to be eligible for a LEAP Grant under GAP, at a minimum...-participating institution of higher education in the State of the student's residence or an out-of-state... an institution that is a partner in the partnership of the State of the student's residence, files a...

  6. 13 CFR 119.11 - What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) A research proposal indicating the thesis, method(s), scope, duration, and implementation plans... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program? 119.11 Section 119.11 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  7. 34 CFR 403.150 - What activities does the Secretary support under the Consumer and Homemaking Education Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAM What Kinds of Activities Does the...; (ix) Conserving limited resources; (x) Understanding the impact of new technology on life and work... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does the Secretary support under the...

  8. 34 CFR 426.5 - What activities does the Secretary fund under the Program for Model Consumer and Homemaking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the impact of new technology on life and work; (k) Applying consumer and homemaking education skills... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities does the Secretary fund under the Program for Model Consumer and Homemaking Education Projects? 426.5 Section 426.5 Education Regulations of...

  9. One size fits all? : optimization of rainbow trout breeding program under diverse preferences and genotype-by-environment interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.

    2013-01-01

    Global fish breeders distribute improved animal material to several continents to be farmed under diverse environments, and for very different market conditions. When establishing a global breeding program, there is a need to assess whether or not a single breeding objective satisfies the

  10. 24 CFR 1000.160 - Are non-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are non-dwelling structures...-dwelling structures developed, acquired or assisted under the IHBG program subject to limitations on cost or design standards? Yes. Non-dwelling structures must be of a design, size and with features or...

  11. Knockdown of AMPKα decreases ATM expression and increases radiosensitivity under hypoxia and nutrient starvation in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Takuma; Urushihara, Yusuke; Shiga, Soichiro; Takeda, Kazuya; Jingu, Keiichi; Hosoi, Yoshio

    2018-01-22

    Presence of unperfused regions containing cells under hypoxia and nutrient starvation contributes to radioresistance in solid human tumors. It is well known that hypoxia causes cellular radioresistance, but little is known about the effects of nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity. We have reported that nutrient starvation induced decrease of mTORC1 activity and decrease of radiosensitivity in an SV40-transformed human fibroblast cell line, LM217, and that nutrient starvation induced increase of mTORC1 activity and increase of radiosensitivity in human liver cancer cell lines, HepG2 and HuH6 (Murata et al., BBRC 2015). Knockdown of mTOR using small interfering RNA (siRNA) for mTOR suppressed radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone in HepG2 cells, which suggests that mTORC1 pathway regulates radiosensitivity under nutrient starvation alone. In the present study, effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on radiosensitivity were investigated using the same cell lines. LM217 and HepG2 cells were used to examine the effects of hypoxia and nutrient starvation on cellular radiosensitivity, mTORC1 pathway including AMPK, ATM, and HIF-1α, which are known as regulators of mTORC1 activity, and glycogen storage, which is induced by HIF-1 and HIF-2 under hypoxia and promotes cell survival. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, AMPK activity and ATM expression were increased in LM217 cells and decreased in HepG2 cells compared with AMPK activity under nutrient starvation alone or ATM expression under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, radiosensitivity was decreased in LM217 cells and increased in HepG2 cells compared with radiosensitivity under hypoxia alone. Under hypoxia and nutrient starvation, knockdown of AMPK decreased ATM activity and increased radiation sensitivity in LM217 cells. In both cell lines, mTORC1 activity was decreased under hypoxia and nutrient starvation. Under hypoxia alone, knockdown of mTOR slightly increased ATM

  12. Mammary Specific Expression of Cre Recombinase Under the Control of an Endogenous MMTV LTR: A Conditional Knock-Out System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czarneski, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    .... The hypothesis of the project was to develop a novel breast cancer model using the tissue-specific expression of the Mtv-17 locus, which was previously shown by this lab to only be expressed in the mammary gland...

  13. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  14. 78 FR 59338 - Notice of Funds Availability Under the Rural Microentrepreneur Assistance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    .... Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination against its customers, employees, and applicants..., sexual orientation, or all or part of an individual's income is derived from any public assistance....) If you wish to file a Civil Rights program complaint of discrimination, complete the USDA Program...

  15. Diverse characteristics of wetlands restored under the Wetlands Reserve Program in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane De Steven; Joel M. Gramling

    2012-01-01

    The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) restores converted or degraded wetlands on private working lands; however, the nature and outcomes of such efforts are undocumented in the Southeastern U.S. Identification of wetland types is needed to assess the program's conservation benefits, because ecological functions differ with hydrogeomorphic (HGM) type. We reviewed...

  16. 34 CFR 661.10 - What activities does the Secretary assist under this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... development of new programs for nontraditional, mid-career, or part-time students; (b) Development of programs... education in international business activities; (h) Development of opportunities for business and other... community colleges, and at undergraduate and graduate schools of business; (d) Development of area studies...

  17. Learning Under the Tree : Evaluating Skillful Parenting Program in West Kenya ICS Full Evaluation Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Esch, R.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571502; de Haan, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074405624

    2016-01-01

    Summary The central purpose of this evaluation is to determine if and how the Skillful Parenting Program (SPP) effects the parenting of its participants. In addition, it aims to determine how the parenting program was adapted to the West Kenyan setting, and how the specific content and processes of

  18. A model for planning the chemical integrated system under uncertainty by the grey programming approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2013-01-01

    demand, and the production capacity have been considered as mutative variables, then an improved model in which some parameters are not constant has been developed and a new method to solve the grey linear programming has been proposed. In the grey programming model, the value of credibility can...

  19. Life cycle cost optimization of biofuel supply chains under uncertainties based on interval linear programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lu

    2015-01-01

    in this model, and the price of the resources, the yield of grain and the market demands were regarded as interval numbers instead of constants. An interval linear programming was developed, and a method for solving interval linear programming was presented. An illustrative case was studied by the proposed...

  20. 78 FR 18617 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... nationally for more real time accident information and to identify accidents that may involve regulatory non... associated lead and processing times resulting in a lag time between available funds and spending. The total... Factory Visit Program/Boat Testing Program, with an additional $857 for travel expenses. ($1,985,478).\\1...

  1. Some advances in fracture studies under the heavy-section steel technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.; Corwin, W.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bass, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results are summarized from HSST studies in three major areas that relate to assessing nuclear reactor pressure vessel integrity under pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) conditions: irradiation effects on the fracture properties of stainless steel cladding, crack run-arrest behavior under nonisothermal conditions, and fracture behavior of a thick-wall vessel under combined thermal and pressure loadings

  2. Gene Expression Programs in Response to Hypoxia: Cell Type Specificity and Prognostic Significance in Human Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inadequate oxygen (hypoxia triggers a multifaceted cellular response that has important roles in normal physiology and in many human diseases. A transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF, plays a central role in the hypoxia response; its activity is regulated by the oxygen-dependent degradation of the HIF-1alpha protein. Despite the ubiquity and importance of hypoxia responses, little is known about the variation in the global transcriptional response to hypoxia among different cell types or how this variation might relate to tissue- and cell-specific diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the temporal changes in global transcript levels in response to hypoxia in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, breast epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells with DNA microarrays. The extent of the transcriptional response to hypoxia was greatest in the renal tubule cells. This heightened response was associated with a uniquely high level of HIF-1alpha RNA in renal cells, and it could be diminished by reducing HIF-1alpha expression via RNA interference. A gene-expression signature of the hypoxia response, derived from our studies of cultured mammary and renal tubular epithelial cells, showed coordinated variation in several human cancers, and was a strong predictor of clinical outcomes in breast and ovarian cancers. In an analysis of a large, published gene-expression dataset from breast cancers, we found that the prognostic information in the hypoxia signature was virtually independent of that provided by the previously reported wound signature and more predictive of outcomes than any of the clinical parameters in current use. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptional response to hypoxia varies among human cells. Some of this variation is traceable to variation in expression of the HIF1A gene. A gene-expression signature of the cellular response to hypoxia is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis

  3. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. De novo transcriptome sequencing and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in dryoperis fragrans under temperature stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.Z.; Tong, W.S.; Gao, R.

    2016-01-01

    Dryopteris fragrans is a species of fern and contains flavonoids compounds with medicinal value. This study explain the temperature stress impact flavonoids synthesis in D. fragrans tissue culture seedlings under the low temperature at 4 degree C, high temperature at 35 degree C and moderate temperature at 25 degree C. By using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing, 80.9 million raw sequence reads were de novo assembled into 66,716 non-redundant unigenes. 38,486 unigenes (57.7%) were annotated for their function. 13,973 unigenes and 29,598 unigenes were allocated to gene ontology (GO) and clusters of orthologous group (COG), respectively. 18,989 sequences mapped to 118 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG), 204 genes were involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, regulation and transport. 25,292 and 16,817 unigenes exhibited marked differential expression in response to temperature shifts of 25 degree C to 4 degree C and 25 degree C to 35 degree C, respectively. 4CL and CHS genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were tested and suggested that they were responsible for biosynthesis of flavonoids. This study provides the first published data to describe the D. fragrans transcriptome and should accelerate understanding of flavonoids biosynthesis, regulation and transport mechanisms. Since most unigenes described here were successfully annotated, these results should facilitate future functional genomic understanding and research of D. fragrans. (author)

  5. High level expression of Glomerella cingulata cutinase in dense cultures of Pichia pastoris grown under fed-batch conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, W M K Wan; Bakar, S A; Bukhari, N A; Gaspar, S M; Othman, R; Nathan, S; Mahadi, N M; Jahim, J; Murad, A M A; Bakar, F D Abu

    2014-08-20

    A Pichia pastoris transformant carrying the cutinase cDNA of Glomerella cingulata was over-expressed in a 5L bioreactor (2.0L working volume) under fed-batch conditions. Bioreactor experiments rely on varying selected parameters in repeated rounds of optimisation: here these included duration of induction, pH and temperature. Highest cell densities (320gL(-1) wet cell weight) with a cutinase production of 3800mgL(-1) and an activity of 434UmL(-1) were achieved 24h after induction with methanol in basal salt medium (at pH 5 and 28°C). Characterisation of the cutinase showed that it was stable between pH 6 and pH 11, had an optimum pH of 8.0 and retained activity for 30min at 50°C (optimum temperature 25°C).The preferred substrates of G. cingulata cutinase were the medium- to long-chain ρ-nitrophenyl esters of ρ-nitrophenylcaprylate (C8), ρ-nitrophenyllaurate (C12) and ρ-nitrophenylmyristate (C14), with the highest catalytic efficiency, kcat/Km of 7.7±0.7mM(-1)s(-1) for ρ-nitrophenylcaprylate. Microscopic analyses showed that the G. cingulata cutinase was also capable of depolymerising the high molecular weight synthetic polyester, polyethylene terephthalate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gene expression in response to Cotton Leaf Curl Virus infection in Gossypium hirsutum under variable environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Iqra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton Leaf Curl Disease (CLCuD is one of the threatening constrains of cotton production in Pakistan for which no adequate remedy is available until now. Local variety of Gossypium hirsutum (FH-142 was grown in field and infected naturally by CLCuV under variable range of temperature and humidity. Plants showed thickening of veins in lower leaf surface at 34°C and 60% relative humidity at 15days post infection (dpi and curling of leaf margins at 33°C with 58% relative humidity at 30dpi. Remarkable leaf darkening was observed with reduced boll formation at 45dpi at 26°C and 41% relative humidity. Enation developed, severe thickening and curling of leaves intensified and plants showed dwarf growth at 60dpi at 24°C with 52% relative humidity. PCR amplification of Rep associated gene confirmed the presence of CLCuD-associated begomovirus in the infected samples. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification and differential expression of a number of pathogen stress responsive genes at different levels of temperature and humidity. This observation predicts that Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCuV interacts with several host genes that are upregulated to make plants susceptible or suppress other genes to overcome host defense responses.

  7. Secretome Analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae Under Submerged Conditions Using Bombyx mori Chrysalis to Induce Expression of Virulence-Related Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustiguel, Cynthia Barbosa; Rosa, José Cesar; Jorge, João Atílio; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-02-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used to control insect pests. This species is specialized for the secretion of an enzymatic complex consisting of proteases, lipases, and chitinases related to pathogenicity and virulence. In this context, the secretomes of strains IBCB 167 and IBCB 384 of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, grown under submerged fermentation in the presence of chrysalis as an inducer, were analyzed. Analysis of two-dimensional gels showed qualitative and quantitative differences between secreted proteins in both isolates. Around 102 protein spots were analyzed, and 76 % of the corresponding proteins identified by mass spectrometry were grouped into different classes (hydrolases, oxidases, reductases, isomerases, kinases, WSC domains, and hypothetical proteins). Thirty-three per cent of all the proteins analyzed were found to be common in both strains. Several virulence-related proteins were identified as proteases and mannosidases. Endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase expression was observed to be 10.14-fold higher for strain IBCB 384 than for strain IBCB 167, which may be an important contributor to the high virulence of IBCB 384 in Diatraea ssaccharalis. These results are important for elucidation of the host-pathogen relationship and the differences in virulence observed between the two strains.

  8. Reaching Non-Traditional and Under-Served Communities through Global Astronomy Month Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Global Astronomy Month (GAM), organized each year by Astronomers Without Borders (AWB), has become the world's largest annual celebration of astronomy. Launched as a follow-up to the unprecedented success of the 100 Hours of Astronomy Cornerstone Project of IYA2009, GAM quickly attracted not only traditional partners in astronomy and space science outreach, but also unusual partners from very different fields. GAM's third annual edition, GAM2012, included worldwide programs for the sight-impaired, astronomy in the arts, and other non-traditional programs. The special planetarium program, OPTICKS, combined elements such as Moonbounce (sending images to the Moon and back) and artistic elements in a unique presentation of the heavens. Programs were developed to present the heavens to the sight-impaired as well. The Cosmic Concert, in which a new musical piece is composed each year, combined with background images of celestial objects, and presented during GAM, has become an annual event. Several astronomy themed art video projects were presented online. AWB's Astropoetry Blog held a very successful contest during GAM2012 that attracted more than 70 entries from 17 countries. Students were engaged by participation in special GAM campaigns of the International Asteroid Search Campaign. AWB and GAM have both developed into platforms where innovative programs can develop, and interdisciplinary collaborations can flourish. As AWB's largest program, GAM brings the audience and resources that provide a boost for these new types of programs. Examples, lessons learned, new projects, and plans for the future of AWB and GAM will be presented.

  9. The Chromatin Remodeler BPTF Activates a Stemness Gene-Expression Program Essential for the Maintenance of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells are tightly regulated partly through configuration of chromatin structure by chromatin remodelers. Using knockout mice, we here demonstrate that bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF, a component of the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF chromatin-remodeling complex, is essential for maintaining the population size of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, including long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Bptf-deficient HSCs are defective in reconstituted hematopoiesis, and hematopoietic-specific knockout of Bptf caused profound defects including bone marrow failure and anemia. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed that BPTF loss caused downregulation of HSC-specific gene-expression programs, which contain several master transcription factors (Meis1, Pbx1, Mn1, and Lmo2 required for HSC maintenance and self-renewal. Furthermore, we show that BPTF potentiates the chromatin accessibility of key HSC “stemness” genes. These results demonstrate an essential requirement of the chromatin remodeler BPTF and NURF for activation of “stemness” gene-expression programs and proper function of adult HSCs. : Wang and colleagues show that a chromatin remodeler, BPTF, sustains appropriate functions of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs. BPTF loss causes bone marrow failure and anemia. The authors further define a BPTF-dependent gene-expression program in HSPCs, which contains key HSC stemness factors. These results demonstrate an essential requirement of the BPTF-associated chromatin remodelers for HSC functionality and adult hematopoiesis. Keywords: Bptf, hematopoietic stem cells, chromatin remodeler, Meis1, Pbx1, Mn1, DNA accessibility, NURF, AP1 complex

  10. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of expression stability of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae housekeeping genes during in vitro growth under iron-depleted conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K. K.; Boye, Mette

    2005-01-01

    up-regulation under iron-restricted conditions compared to bacteria grown in medium with sufficient iron. The observed expression patterns of the genes of interest were consistent with previous observations. This study therefore lends further support to the use of real-time quantitative RT...... controls, as such controls have not been defined yet for this bacterium. Bacterial gene expression was studied during in vitro exponential and early stationary growth in medium with and without sufficient iron, respectively. First, the stability of expression of five genes, the glyA, tpiA, pykA, rec......F, and rhoAP genes involved in basic housekeeping, was evaluated on the basis of the mean pairwise variation. All the housekeeping genes included were stably expressed under the conditions investigated and consequently were included in the normalization procedure. Next, the geometric mean of the internal...

  11. Developmental programming: gestational bisphenol-A treatment alters trajectory of fetal ovarian gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Luense, Lacey J; Christenson, Lane K; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2013-05-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a ubiquitous environmental endocrine disrupting chemical, is a component of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Because of its estrogenic properties, there is increasing concern relative to risks from exposures during critical periods of early organ differentiation. Prenatal BPA treatment in sheep results in low birth weight, hypergonadotropism, and ovarian cycle disruptions. This study tested the hypothesis that gestational exposure to bisphenol A, at an environmentally relevant dose, induces early perturbations in the ovarian transcriptome (mRNA and microRNA). Pregnant Suffolk ewes were treated with bisphenol A (0.5 mg/kg, sc, daily, produced ∼2.6 ng/mL of unconjugated BPA in umbilical arterial samples of BPA treated fetuses approaching median levels of BPA measured in maternal circulation) from days 30 to 90 of gestation. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes, steroid/gonadotropin receptors, key ovarian regulators, and microRNA biogenesis components were measured by RT-PCR using RNA derived from fetal ovaries collected on gestational days 65 and 90. An age-dependent effect was evident in most steroidogenic enzymes, steroid receptors, and key ovarian regulators. Prenatal BPA increased Cyp19 and 5α-reductase expression in day 65, but not day 90, ovaries. Fetal ovarian microRNA expression was altered by prenatal BPA with 45 down-regulated (>1.5-fold) at day 65 and 11 down-regulated at day 90 of gestation. These included microRNAs targeting Sry-related high-mobility-group box (SOX) family genes, kit ligand, and insulin-related genes. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure to BPA at an environmentally relevant dose alters fetal ovarian steroidogenic gene and microRNA expression of relevance to gonadal differentiation, folliculogenesis, and insulin homeostasis.

  12. TALE factors use two distinct functional modes to control an essential zebrafish gene expression program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladam, Franck; Stanney, William; Donaldson, Ian J; Yildiz, Ozge; Bobola, Nicoletta; Sagerström, Charles G

    2018-06-18

    TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN. At segmentation stages, GRN-associated TALE occupancy expands to include HEXA motifs near PBX:HOX sites. Hence, TALE factors control a key GRN, but utilize distinct DNA motifs and protein partners at different stages - a strategy that may also explain their oncogenic potential and may be employed by other broadly expressed TFs. © 2018, Ladam et al.

  13. 75 FR 78725 - Recreational Boating Safety Projects, Programs and Activities Funded Under Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ...: Funding was provided for this program which provides full marketing, media, public information, and... media and boating safety information at http://www.uscgboating.org for a worldwide audience. It covers a...

  14. 34 CFR 692.71 - What activities may be funded under the SLEAP Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... achievement; or (2) Wish to enter a program of study leading to a career in— (i) Information technology; (ii) Mathematics, computer science, or engineering; (iii) Teaching; or (iv) Other fields determined by the State to...

  15. 50 CFR 80.25 - Multiyear financing under the Dingell-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Johnson Sport Fish Restoration Act in two ways: (1) States may finance the entire cost of the acquisition... Program. (a) States may finance the acquisition of lands or interests in lands including water rights and...

  16. Differential effects of Pseudomonas mendocina and Glomus intraradices on lettuce plants physiological response and aquaporin PIP2 gene expression under elevated atmospheric CO2 and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Maria Del Mar; Kohler, Josef; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) can alleviate the effects of water stress in plants, but it is unknown whether these benefits can be maintained at elevated CO2. Therefore, we carried out a study where seedlings of Lactuca sativa were inoculated with the AM fungus (AMF) Glomus intraradices N.C. Schenk & G.S. Sm. or the PGPR Pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni and subjected to two levels of watering and two levels of atmospheric CO2 to ascertain their effects on plant physiological parameters and gene expression of one PIP aquaporin in roots. The inoculation with PGPR produced the greatest growth in lettuce plants under all assayed treatments as well as the highest foliar potassium concentration and leaf relative water content under elevated [CO2] and drought. However, under such conditions, the PIP2 gene expression remained almost unchanged. G. intraradices increased significantly the AMF colonization, foliar phosphorus concentration and leaf relative water content in plants grown under drought and elevated [CO2]. Under drought and elevated [CO2], the plants inoculated with G. intraradices showed enhanced expression of the PIP2 gene as compared to P. mendocina or control plants. Our results suggest that both microbial inoculation treatments could help to alleviate drought at elevated [CO2]. However, the PIP2 gene expression was increased only by the AMF but not by the PGPR under these conditions.

  17. Impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shoulin; Lu, Yongqing; Dai, Yang; Qian, Lei; Muhammad, Adnan Bodlah; Li, Teng; Wan, Guijun; Parajulee, Megha N.; Chen, Fajun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted great challenges of transgene silencing for transgenic plants facing climate change. In order to understand the impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of N-fertilizer supply, we investigated the biomass, exogenous Bt toxins, Bt-transgene expression and methylation status in Bt rice exposed to two levels of CO2 concentrations and nitrogen (N) supply (1/8, 1/4, 1/2...

  18. Cyltran: finite element programs for flow and mass transport under cylindrically symmetric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noy, D.J.

    1984-11-01

    A group of finite element programs are described which may be used for the analysis of complex single borehole hydraulic and tracer experiments in porous media. An outline is given of the theoretical development of the model and the computational procedures used. The equations are solved with the aid of routines specifically designed for efficient operation on vector processing machines. Finally, two simple examples of output generated by the programs are given. (author)

  19. Financial Management: Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    In a February 1, 2001 letter, you expressed concerns about repayments of federally guaranteed loans by borrowers under the Emergency Steel Loan Guarantee Program and the effect of the program on the U.S. steel industry...

  20. A mixed integer linear programming model to reconstruct phylogenies from single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes under the maximum parsimony criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    that these constraints can often lead to significant reductions in the gap between the optimal solution and its non-integral linear programming bound relative to the prior art as well as often substantially faster processing of moderately hard problem instances. Conclusion We provide an indication of the conditions under which such an optimal enumeration approach is likely to be feasible, suggesting that these strategies are usable for relatively large numbers of taxa, although with stricter limits on numbers of variable sites. The work thus provides methodology suitable for provably optimal solution of some harder instances that resist all prior approaches. PMID:23343437

  1. Seed maturation associated transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying genotypic difference in seed dormancy and size/weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yuji; Gao, Feng; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2017-09-16

    Maturation forms one of the critical seed developmental phases and it is characterized mainly by programmed cell death, dormancy and desiccation, however, the transcriptional programs and regulatory networks underlying acquisition of dormancy and deposition of storage reserves during the maturation phase of seed development are poorly understood in wheat. The present study performed comparative spatiotemporal transcriptomic analysis of seed maturation in two wheat genotypes with contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotype. The embryo and endosperm tissues of maturing seeds appeared to exhibit genotype-specific temporal shifts in gene expression profile that might contribute to the seed phenotypic variations. Functional annotations of gene clusters suggest that the two tissues exhibit distinct but genotypically overlapping molecular functions. Motif enrichment predicts genotypically distinct abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) regulated transcriptional networks contribute to the contrasting seed weight/size and dormancy phenotypes between the two genotypes. While other ABA responsive element (ABRE) motifs are enriched in both genotypes, the prevalence of G-box-like motif specifically in tissues of the dormant genotype suggests distinct ABA mediated transcriptional mechanisms control the establishment of dormancy during seed maturation. In agreement with this, the bZIP transcription factors that co-express with ABRE enriched embryonic genes differ with genotype. The enrichment of SITEIIATCYTC motif specifically in embryo clusters of maturing seeds irrespective of genotype predicts a tissue specific role for the respective TCP transcription factors with no or minimal contribution to the variations in seed dormancy. The results of this study advance our understanding of the seed maturation associated molecular mechanisms underlying variation in dormancy and weight/size in wheat seeds, which is a critical step towards the designing of molecular strategies

  2. 75 FR 3968 - Fund Availability Under the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Rico, and any territory or possession of the United States, are considered eligible entities under the... possession of the United States, to apply for funding under this NOFA to create transitional housing and... territory or possession of the United States, will be considered in the third funding priority as applicable...

  3. Experimental program on fuel rod behaviour under off-normal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Languille, A.; Cecchi, P.

    1985-01-01

    During LMFBR plant operation, fuel developments are primarily concerned with the fuel pin irradiation behaviour under steady-state conditions up to high burn-up levels. But additional studies under off-normal conditions are necessary in order to assess fuel pin performance and to define operational limits. (author)

  4. Sensitive detection of gene expression in mycobacteria under replicating and non-replicating conditions using optimized far-red reporters.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Carroll; Lise J Schreuder; Julian Muwanguzi-Karugaba; Siouxsie Wiles; Brian D Robertson; Jorge Ripoll; Theresa H Ward; Gregory J Bancroft; Ulrich E Schaible; Tanya Parish

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescent reporter proteins have proven useful for imaging techniques in many organisms. We constructed optimized expression systems for several fluorescent proteins from the far-red region of the spectrum and analyzed their utility in several mycobacterial species. Plasmids expressing variants of the Discosoma Red fluorescent protein (DsRed) from the Mycobacterium bovis hsp60 promoter were unstable; in contrast expression from the Mycobacterium smegmatis rpsA promoter was stable. In Mycoba...

  5. Expressing Coarse-Grain Dependencies Among Tasks in Shared Memory Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Karlsson, Sven; Madsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Designers of embedded systems face tight constraints on resources, response time and cost. The ability to analyze embedded systems is essential to timely delivery of new designs. Many analysis techniques model parallel programs as task graphs. Task graphs capture the worst-case execution times....... The overhead of verifying the correct use of the directives was measured on a set of benchmarks on two platforms. The overhead of runtime checks was found to be negligible in all instances....

  6. A Cas9-based toolkit to program gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apel, Amanda Reider; d'Espaux, Leo; Wehrs, Maren

    2017-01-01

    of these parts via a web-based tool, that automates the generation of DNA fragments for integration. Our system builds upon existing gene editing methods in the thoroughness with which the parts are standardized and characterized, the types and number of parts available and the ease with which our methodology...... can be used to perform genetic edits in yeast. We demonstrated the applicability of this toolkit by optimizing the expression of a challenging but industrially important enzyme, taxadiene synthase (TXS). This approach enabled us to diagnose an issue with TXS solubility, the resolution of which yielded...

  7. The Chromatin Remodeler BPTF Activates a Stemness Gene-Expression Program Essential for the Maintenance of Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bowen; Cai, Ling; Butler, Jason M; Chen, Dongliang; Lu, Xiongdong; Allison, David F; Lu, Rui; Rafii, Shahin; Parker, Joel S; Zheng, Deyou; Wang, Gang Greg

    2018-03-13

    Self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells are tightly regulated partly through configuration of chromatin structure by chromatin remodelers. Using knockout mice, we here demonstrate that bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF), a component of the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is essential for maintaining the population size of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), including long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Bptf-deficient HSCs are defective in reconstituted hematopoiesis, and hematopoietic-specific knockout of Bptf caused profound defects including bone marrow failure and anemia. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed that BPTF loss caused downregulation of HSC-specific gene-expression programs, which contain several master transcription factors (Meis1, Pbx1, Mn1, and Lmo2) required for HSC maintenance and self-renewal. Furthermore, we show that BPTF potentiates the chromatin accessibility of key HSC "stemness" genes. These results demonstrate an essential requirement of the chromatin remodeler BPTF and NURF for activation of "stemness" gene-expression programs and proper function of adult HSCs. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene expression and physiological changes of different populations of the long-lived bivalve Arctica islandica under low oxygen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva E R Philipp

    Full Text Available The bivalve Arctica islandica is extremely long lived (>400 years and can tolerate long periods of hypoxia and anoxia. European populations differ in maximum life spans (MLSP from 40 years in the Baltic to >400 years around Iceland. Characteristic behavior of A. islandica involves phases of metabolic rate depression (MRD during which the animals burry into the sediment for several days. During these phases the shell water oxygen concentrations reaches hypoxic to anoxic levels, which possibly support the long life span of some populations. We investigated gene regulation in A. islandica from a long-lived (MLSP 150 years German Bight population and the short-lived Baltic Sea population, experimentally exposed to different oxygen levels. A new A. islandica transcriptome enabled the identification of genes important during hypoxia/anoxia events and, more generally, gene mining for putative stress response and (anti- aging genes. Expression changes of a antioxidant defense: Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, manganese and copper-zinc Superoxide dismutase; b oxygen sensing and general stress response: Hypoxia inducible factor alpha, Prolyl hydroxylase and Heat-shock protein 70; and c anaerobic capacity: Malate dehydrogenase and Octopine dehydrogenase, related transcripts were investigated. Exposed to low oxygen, German Bight individuals suppressed transcription of all investigated genes, whereas Baltic Sea bivalves enhanced gene transcription under anoxic incubation (0 kPa and, further, decreased these transcription levels again during 6 h of re-oxygenation. Hypoxic and anoxic exposure and subsequent re-oxygenation in Baltic Sea animals did not lead to increased protein oxidation or induction of apoptosis, emphasizing considerable hypoxia/re-oxygenation tolerance in this species. The data suggest that the energy saving effect of MRD may not be an attribute of Baltic Sea A. islandica chronically exposed to high environmental variability (oxygenation

  9. Effects of Heat Acclimation on Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities, and Gene Expression in Orchardgrass under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xin Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the effects of heat acclimation on enzymatic activity, transcription levels, the photosynthesis processes associated with thermostability in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L..The stomatal conductance (Gs, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, and transpiration rates (Tr of both heat-acclimated (HA and non-acclimated (NA plants were drastically reduced during heat treatment [using a 5-day heat stress treatment (38/30 °C ‒ day/night followed by a 3-day recovery under control conditions (25/20 °C ‒ day/night, in order to consolidate the second cycle was permitted]. Water use efficiency increased more steeply in the HA (4.9 times versus the NA (1.8 times plants, and the intercellular CO2 concentration decreased gently in NA (10.9% and HA (25.3% plants after 20 d of treatments compared to 0 days’. Furthermore, heat-acclimated plants were able to maintain significant activity levels of superoxide disumutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, guaiacol peroxidase (POD, and transcription levels of genes encoding these enzymes; in addition, HA plants displayed lower malondialdehyde content and lower electrolyte leakage than NA plants. These results suggest that maintenance of activity and transcription levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as photosynthesis are associated with variable thermostability in HA and NA plants. This likely occurs through cellular membrane stabilization and improvements in water use efficiency in the photosynthetic process during heat stress. The association between antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression, both of which may vary with genetic variation in heat tolerance, is important to further understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to heat tolerance.

  10. Microcomputer based program for predicting heat transfer under reactor accident conditions. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Wong, Y.L.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-07-01

    A microcomputer based program called Heat Transfer Prediction Software (HTPS) has been developed. It calculates the heat transfer for the tube and bundle geometries for steady state and transient conditions. This program is capable of providing the best estimated of the hot pin temperatures during slow transients for 37- and 28-element CANDU type fuel bundles. The program is designed for an IBM-PC AT/XT (or IBM-PC compatible computer) equipped with a Math Co-processor. The following input parameters are required: pressure, mass flux, hydraulic diameter, and quality. For the steady state case, the critical heat flux (CHF), the critical heat flux temperature, the minimum film boiling temperature, and the minimum film boiling heat flux are the primary outputs. With either the surface heat flux or wall temperature specified, the program determines the heat transfer regime and calculates the surface heat flux, wall temperatures and heat transfer coefficient. For the slow transient case, the pressure, mass flux, quality, and volumetric heat generation rate are the time dependent input parameters required to calculate the hot pin sheath temperatures and surface heat fluxes. A simple routine for generating properties has been developed for light water to support the above program. It contains correlations that have been verified for pressures ranging from 0.6kPa to 30 MPa, and temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celcius. The thermodynamic and transport properties that can be generated from this routine are: density, specific volume, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, conductivity, viscosity, surface tension and Prandtl number for saturated liquid, saturated vapour, subcooled liquid for superheated vapour. A software for predicting flow regime has also been developed. It determines the flow pattern at specific flow conditions, and provides a correction factor for calculating the CHF during partially stratified horizontal flow. The technical bases for the program and its

  11. Microcomputer based program for predicting heat transfer under reactor accident conditions. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.C.; Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Wong, Y.L.; Nguyen, C.

    1987-07-01

    A microcomputer based program called Heat Transfer Prediction Software (HTPS) has been developed. It calculates the heat transfer for tube and bundle geometries for steady state and transient conditions. This program is capable of providing the best estimated of the hot pin temperatures during slow transients for 37- and 28-element CANDU type fuel bundles. The program is designed for an IBM-PC AT/XT (or IBM-PC compatible computer) equipped with a Math Co-processor. The following input parameters are required: pressure, mass flux, hydraulic diameter, and quality. For the steady state case, the critical heat flux (CHF), the critical heat flux temperature, the minimum film boiling temperature, and the minimum film boiling heat flux are the primary outputs. With either the surface heat flux or wall temperature specified, the program determines the heat transfer regime and calculates the surface heat flux, wall temperature and heat transfer coefficient. For the slow transient case, the pressure, mass flux, quality, and volumetric heat generation rate are the time dependent input parameters are required to calculate the hot pin sheath temperatures and surface heat fluxes. A simple routine for generating properties has been developed for light water to support the above program. It contains correlations that have been verified for pressures ranging from 0.6kPa to 30 MPa, and temperatures up to 1100 degrees Celcius. The thermodynamic and transport properties that can be generated from this routine are: density, specific volume, enthalpy, specific heat capacity, conductivity, viscosity, surface tension and Prandtle number for saturated liquid, saturated vapour, subcooled liquid of superheated vapour. A software for predicting flow regime has also been developed. It determines the flow pattern at specific flow conditions, and provides a correction factor for calculating the CHF during partially stratified horizontal flow. The technical bases for the program and its structure

  12. What is fetal programming?: a lifetime health is under the control of in utero health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Young Ju

    2017-11-01

    The "Barker hypothesis" postulates that a number of organ structures and associated functions undergo programming during embryonic and fetal life, which determines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that carry into adulthood. Hence, any stimulus or insult at a critical period of embryonic and fetal development can result in developmental adaptations that produce permanent structural, physiological and metabolic changes, thereby predisposing an individual to cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine disease in adult life. This article will provide evidence linking these diseases to fetal undernutrition and an overview of previous studies in this area as well as current advances in understanding the mechanism and the role of the placenta in fetal programming.

  13. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Nicolas, E-mail: simplissimus@gmx.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Goeke, Friederike, E-mail: Friederike.goeke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Pathology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Splittstoesser, Vera, E-mail: Veri.sp@web.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte, E-mail: Lankatbu@staff.uni-marburg.de [Department of Internal Medicine, Philipps-University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Mueller, Stefan C., E-mail: Stefan.mueller@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Ellinger, Joerg, E-mail: Joerg.ellinger@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Urology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  14. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Nicolas; Göke, Friederike; Splittstößer, Vera; Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte; Müller, Stefan C.; Ellinger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. ► We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. ► We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2–T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  15. Intersection of FOXO- and RUNX1-mediated gene expression programs in single breast epithelial cells during morphogenesis and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Brugge, Joan S; Janes, Kevin A

    2011-10-04

    Gene expression networks are complicated by the assortment of regulatory factors that bind DNA and modulate transcription combinatorially. Single-cell measurements can reveal biological mechanisms hidden by population averages, but their value has not been fully explored in the context of mRNA regulation. Here, we adapted a single-cell expression profiling technique to examine the gene expression program downstream of Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors during 3D breast epithelial acinar morphogenesis. By analyzing patterns of mRNA fluctuations among individual matrix-attached epithelial cells, we found that a subset of FOXO target genes was jointly regulated by the transcription factor Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1). Knockdown of RUNX1 causes hyperproliferation and abnormal morphogenesis, both of which require normal FOXO function. Down-regulating RUNX1 and FOXOs simultaneously causes widespread oxidative stress, which arrests proliferation and restores normal acinar morphology. In hormone-negative breast cancers lacking human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification, we find that RUNX1 down-regulation is strongly associated with up-regulation of FOXO1, which may be required to support growth of RUNX1-negative tumors. The coordinate function of these two tumor suppressors may provide a failsafe mechanism that inhibits cancer progression.

  16. Fetal kidney programming by severe food restriction: effects on structure, hormonal receptor expression and urinary sodium excretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccari, Barbara; Mesquita, Flavia F; Gontijo, Jose A R; Boer, Patricia A

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigates, in 23-day-old and adult male rats, the effect of severe food restriction in utero on blood pressure (BP), and its association with nephron structure and function changes, angiotensin II (AT1R/AT2R), glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptor expression. The daily food supply to pregnant rats was measured and one group (n=15) received normal quantity of food (NF) while the other received 50% of that (FR50%) (n=15). Kidneys were processed to AT1R, AT2R, MR, and GR immunolocalization and for western blotting analysis. The renal function was estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances in 12-week-old offspring. By stereological analyses, FR50% offspring present a reduction of nephron numbers (35%) with unchanged renal volume. Expression of AT1R and AT2R was significantly decreased in FR50% while the expression of GR and MR increased in FR50%. We also verified a pronounced decrease in urinary sodium excretion accompanied by increased BP in 12-week-old FR50% offspring. The current data suggest that changes in renal function are conducive to excess sodium tubule reabsorption, and this might potentiate the programming of adult hypertension. It is plausible to arise in the current study an association between decreasing natriuresis, reciprocal changes in renal AngII and steroid receptors with the hypertension development found in FR50% compared with age-matched NF offspring. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Maternal blueberry diet programs Wnt-1-induced mammary tumor progression and gene expression in mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the well-accepted notion of peri-natal origins of adult diseases, the factors and regulatory mechanisms underlying breast cancer development at later adult life remains unclear. Diet is a highly modifiable determinant of breast cancer risk, and the effects of the in utero nutritional environ...

  18. Dynamics of cardiovascular parameters in combined aortic malformations under the influence of a physical therapy program during the rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhii Kalmykov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study hemodynamic parameters and the reaction of the cardiovascular system to the dosed physical load of patients combined aortic defect with heart failure of the I degree under the influence of the complex physical therapy program developed by us during the rehabilitation process. Material & Methods: the study involved 26 middle-aged men with a diagnosis: combined aortic valve disease, HF I st. Result: dynamics of functional parameters of the cardiovascular system of patients under the influence of the physical therapy program is analyzed. Conclusion: the combination of morning hygienic gymnastics, therapeutic gymnastics, independent activities and dosed walking with a therapeutic massage contributes to the normalization of vascular tone, motor-vascular reflexes and blood pressure, increasing the tolerance of the cardiovascular system to physical activity.

  19. 40 CFR 80.610 - What acts are prohibited under the diesel fuel sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel... supply, store or transport motor vehicle diesel fuel, NRLM diesel fuel, ECA marine fuel or heating oil... transport any diesel fuel for use in motor vehicle or nonroad engines that contains greater than 0.10...

  20. 77 FR 4564 - Request for Information Regarding the Reinsurance Program Under the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...? 12. What COIs could arise for such potential subcontractors? Data Collection 13. Describe current... comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp- in clock is available... reinsurance program. Section 1321(c)(1) of the Affordable Care Act directs the Secretary to take such actions...