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Sample records for expressing glial cells

  1. Protein kinase A and Epac activation by cAMP regulates the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in glial cells

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    Sugimoto Naotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP controls differentiation in several types of cells during brain development. However, the molecular mechanism of cAMP-controlled differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated the role of protein kinase A (PKA and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac on cAMP-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte marker, in cultured glial cells. B92 glial cells were treated with cAMP-elevating drugs, an activator of adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase inhibitor and a ß adrenal receptor agonist. These cAMP-elevating agents induced dramatic morphological changes and expression of GFAP. A cAMP analog, 8-Br-cAMP, which activates Epac as well as PKA, induced GFAP expression and morphological changes, while another cAMP analog, 8-CPT-cAMP, which activates Epac with greater efficacy when compared to PKA, induced GFAP expression but very weak morphological changes. Most importantly, the treatment with a PKA inhibitor partially reduced cAMP-induced GFAP expression. Taken together, these results indicate that cAMP-elevating drugs lead to the induction of GFAP via PKA and/or Epac activation in B92 glial cells.

  2. Age-Related Changes in the Expression of the Circadian Clock Protein PERIOD in Drosophila Glial Cells

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    Dani M. Long

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks consist of molecular negative feedback loops that coordinate physiological, neurological, and behavioral variables into “circa” 24-h rhythms. Rhythms in behavioral and other circadian outputs tend to weaken during aging, as evident in progressive disruptions of sleep-wake cycles in aging organisms. However, less is known about the molecular changes in the expression of clock genes and proteins that may lead to the weakening of circadian outputs. Western blot studies have demonstrated that the expression of the core clock protein PERIOD (PER declines in the heads of aged Drosophila melanogaster flies. This age-related decline in PER does not occur in the central pacemaker neurons but has been demonstrated so far in retinal photoreceptors. Besides photoreceptors, clock proteins are also expressed in fly glia, which play important roles in neuronal homeostasis and are further categorized into subtypes based on morphology and function. While previous studies of mammalian glial cells have demonstrated the presence of functional clocks in astrocytes and microglia, it is not known which glial cell types in Drosophila express clock proteins and how their expression may change in aged individuals. Here, we conducted immunocytochemistry experiments to identify which glial subtypes express PER protein suggestive of functional circadian clocks. Glial cell subtypes that showed night-time accumulation and day-time absence in PER consistent with oscillations reported in the pacemaker neurons were selected to compare the level of PER protein between young and old flies. Our data demonstrate that some glial subtypes show rhythmic PER expression and the relative PER levels become dampened with advanced age. Identification of glial cell types that display age-related dampening of PER levels may help to understand the cellular changes that contribute to the loss of homeostasis in the aging brain.

  3. Post-proliferative immature radial glial cells female-specifically express aromatase in the medaka optic tectum.

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    Akio Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Aromatase, the key enzyme responsible for estrogen biosynthesis, is present in the brain of all vertebrates. Much evidence has accumulated that aromatase is highly and exclusively expressed in proliferating mature radial glial cells in the brain of teleost fish even in adulthood, unlike in other vertebrates. However, the physiological significance of this expression remains unknown. We recently found that aromatase is female-specifically expressed in the optic tectum of adult medaka fish. In the present study, we demonstrated that, contrary to the accepted view of the teleost brain, female-specific aromatase-expressing cells in the medaka optic tectum represent a transient subset of post-proliferative immature radial glial cells in the neural stem cell lineage. This finding led us to hypothesize that female-specific aromatase expression and consequent estrogen production causes some sex difference in the life cycle of tectal cells. As expected, the female tectum exhibited higher expression of genes indicative of cell proliferation and radial glial maturation and lower expression of an anti-apoptotic gene than did the male tectum, suggesting a female-biased acceleration of the cell life cycle. Complicating the interpretation of this result, however, is the additional observation that estrogen administration masculinized the expression of these genes in the optic tectum, while simultaneously stimulating aromatase expression. Taken together, these results provide evidence that a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells female-specifically express aromatase in the optic tectum and suggest that this aromatase expression and resultant estrogen synthesis have an impact on the life cycle of tectal cells, whether stimulatory or inhibitory.

  4. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Taro; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling

  5. Sox2 promotes survival of satellite glial cells in vitro

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    Koike, Taro, E-mail: koiket@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Wakabayashi, Taketoshi; Mori, Tetsuji; Hirahara, Yukie; Yamada, Hisao

    2015-08-14

    Sox2 is a transcriptional factor expressed in neural stem cells. It is known that Sox2 regulates cell differentiation, proliferation and survival of the neural stem cells. Our previous study showed that Sox2 is expressed in all satellite glial cells of the adult rat dorsal root ganglion. In this study, to examine the role of Sox2 in satellite glial cells, we establish a satellite glial cell-enriched culture system. Our culture method succeeded in harvesting satellite glial cells with the somata of neurons in the dorsal root ganglion. Using this culture system, Sox2 was downregulated by siRNA against Sox2. The knockdown of Sox2 downregulated ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA at 2 and 4 days after siRNA treatment. MAPK phosphorylation, downstream of ErbB, was also inhibited by Sox2 knockdown. Because ErbB2 and ErbB3 are receptors that support the survival of glial cells in the peripheral nervous system, apoptotic cells were also counted. TUNEL-positive cells increased at 5 days after siRNA treatment. These results suggest that Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through the MAPK pathway via ErbB receptors. - Highlights: • We established satellite glial cell culture system. • Function of Sox2 in satellite glial cell was examined using siRNA. • Sox2 knockdown downregulated expression level of ErbB2 and ErbB3 mRNA. • Sox2 knockdown increased apoptotic satellite glial cell. • Sox2 promotes satellite glial cell survival through ErbB signaling.

  6. TDP-43 causes differential pathology in neuronal versus glial cells in the mouse brain.

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    Yan, Sen; Wang, Chuan-En; Wei, Wenjie; Gaertig, Marta A; Lai, Liangxue; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2014-05-15

    Mutations in TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although recent studies have revealed that mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells is toxic, how mutant TDP-43 causes primarily neuronal degeneration in an age-dependent manner remains unclear. Using adeno-associated virus (AAV) that expresses mutant TDP-43 (M337V) ubiquitously, we found that mutant TDP-43 accumulates preferentially in neuronal cells in the postnatal mouse brain. We then ubiquitously or selectively expressed mutant TDP-43 in neuronal and glial cells in the striatum of adult mouse brains via stereotaxic injection of AAV vectors and found that it also preferentially accumulates in neuronal cells. Expression of mutant TDP-43 in neurons in the striatum causes more severe degeneration, earlier death and more robust symptoms in mice than expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells; however, aging increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells, and expression of mutant TDP-43 in older mice caused earlier onset of phenotypes and more severe neuropathology than that in younger mice. Although expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells via stereotaxic injection does not lead to robust neurological phenotypes, systemic inhibition of the proteasome activity via MG132 in postnatal mice could exacerbate glial TDP-43-mediated toxicity and cause mice to die earlier. Consistently, this inhibition increases the expression of mutant TDP-43 in glial cells in mouse brains. Thus, the differential accumulation of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal versus glial cells contributes to the preferential toxicity of mutant TDP-43 in neuronal cells and age-dependent pathology.

  7. Several synthetic progestins disrupt the glial cell specific-brain aromatase expression in developing zebra fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Garoche, Clémentine; Hinfray, Nathalie; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Boujrad, Noureddine; Pakdel, Farzad; Kah, Olivier; Brion, François

    2016-01-01

    The effects of some progestins on fish reproduction have been recently reported revealing the hazard of this class of steroidal pharmaceuticals. However, their effects at the central nervous system level have been poorly studied until now. Notwithstanding, progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. Herein, we investigated the effects of a large set of synthetic ligands of the nuclear progesterone receptor on the glial-specific expression of the zebrafish brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) using zebrafish mechanism-based assays. Progesterone and 24 progestins were first screened on transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryos. We showed that progesterone, dydrogesterone, drospirenone and all the progesterone-derived progestins had no effect on GFP expression. Conversely, all progestins derived from 19-nortesterone induced GFP in a concentration-dependent manner with EC 50 ranging from the low nM range to hundreds nM. The 19-nortestosterone derived progestins levonorgestrel (LNG) and norethindrone (NET) were further tested in a radial glial cell context using U251-MG cells co-transfected with zebrafish ER subtypes (zfERα, zfERβ1 or zfERβ2) and cyp19a1b promoter linked to luciferase. Progesterone had no effect on luciferase activity while NET and LNG induced luciferase activity that was blocked by ICI 182,780. Zebrafish-ERs competition assays showed that NET and LNG were unable to bind to ERs, suggesting that the effects of these compounds on cyp19a1b require metabolic activation prior to elicit estrogenic activity. Overall, we demonstrate that 19-nortestosterone derived progestins elicit estrogenic activity by inducing cyp19a1b expression in radial glial cells. Given the crucial role of radial glial cells and neuro-estrogens in early development of brain, the consequences of exposure of fish to these compounds require further investigation. - Highlights: • P4 + 24 progestins

  8. Several synthetic progestins disrupt the glial cell specific-brain aromatase expression in developing zebra fish

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    Cano-Nicolau, Joel [Team NEED, Institut de recherche en Santé Environnement et Travail (Irset), INSERM U1085, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, SFR Biosit, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Garoche, Clémentine; Hinfray, Nathalie [Unité d' Ecotoxicologie in vitro et in vivo , Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pellegrini, Elisabeth [Team NEED, Institut de recherche en Santé Environnement et Travail (Irset), INSERM U1085, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, SFR Biosit, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Boujrad, Noureddine; Pakdel, Farzad [TREK, Institut de recherche en Santé Environnement et Travail (Irset), INSERM U1085, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, SFR Biosit, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Kah, Olivier, E-mail: oliver.kah@univ-rennes1.fr [Team NEED, Institut de recherche en Santé Environnement et Travail (Irset), INSERM U1085, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, SFR Biosit, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Brion, François, E-mail: francois.brion@ineris.fr [Unité d' Ecotoxicologie in vitro et in vivo , Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2016-08-15

    The effects of some progestins on fish reproduction have been recently reported revealing the hazard of this class of steroidal pharmaceuticals. However, their effects at the central nervous system level have been poorly studied until now. Notwithstanding, progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. Herein, we investigated the effects of a large set of synthetic ligands of the nuclear progesterone receptor on the glial-specific expression of the zebrafish brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) using zebrafish mechanism-based assays. Progesterone and 24 progestins were first screened on transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryos. We showed that progesterone, dydrogesterone, drospirenone and all the progesterone-derived progestins had no effect on GFP expression. Conversely, all progestins derived from 19-nortesterone induced GFP in a concentration-dependent manner with EC{sub 50} ranging from the low nM range to hundreds nM. The 19-nortestosterone derived progestins levonorgestrel (LNG) and norethindrone (NET) were further tested in a radial glial cell context using U251-MG cells co-transfected with zebrafish ER subtypes (zfERα, zfERβ1 or zfERβ2) and cyp19a1b promoter linked to luciferase. Progesterone had no effect on luciferase activity while NET and LNG induced luciferase activity that was blocked by ICI 182,780. Zebrafish-ERs competition assays showed that NET and LNG were unable to bind to ERs, suggesting that the effects of these compounds on cyp19a1b require metabolic activation prior to elicit estrogenic activity. Overall, we demonstrate that 19-nortestosterone derived progestins elicit estrogenic activity by inducing cyp19a1b expression in radial glial cells. Given the crucial role of radial glial cells and neuro-estrogens in early development of brain, the consequences of exposure of fish to these compounds require further investigation. - Highlights: • P4 + 24

  9. Dopamine D1 receptor activation regulates the expression of the estrogen synthesis gene aromatase B in radial glial cell

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    Lei eXing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGCs are abundant stem-like non-neuronal progenitors that are important for adult neurogenesis and brain repair, yet little is known about their regulation by neurotransmitters. Here we provide evidence for neuronal-glial interactions via a novel role for dopamine to stimulate RGC function. Goldfish were chosen as the model organism due to the abundance of RGCs and regenerative abilities of the adult central nervous system. A close anatomical relationship was observed between tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cell bodies and axons and dopamine-D1 receptor expressing RGCs along the ventricular surface of telencephalon, a site of active neurogenesis. A primary cell culture model was established and immunofluorescence analysis indicates that in vitro RGCs from female goldfish retain their major characteristics in vivo, including expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and brain lipid binding protein. The estrogen synthesis enzyme aromatase B is exclusively found in RGCs, but this is lost as cells differentiate to neurons and other glial types in adult teleost brain. Pharmacological experiments using the cultured RGCs established that specific activation of dopamine D1 receptors up-regulates aromatase B mRNA through a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent molecular mechanism. These data indicate that dopamine enhances the steroidogenic function of this neuronal progenitor cell.

  10. NMDA Receptors in Glial Cells: Pending Questions.

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    Dzamba, David; Honsa, Pavel; Anderova, Miroslava

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type are involved in many cognitive processes, including behavior, learning and synaptic plasticity. For a long time NMDA receptors were thought to be the privileged domain of neurons; however, discoveries of the last 25 years have demonstrated their active role in glial cells as well. Despite the large number of studies in the field, there are many unresolved questions connected with NMDA receptors in glia that are still a matter of debate. The main objective of this review is to shed light on these controversies by summarizing results from all relevant works concerning astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and polydendrocytes (also known as NG2 glial cells) in experimental animals, further extended by studies performed on human glia. The results are divided according to the study approach to enable a better comparison of how findings obtained at the mRNA level correspond with protein expression or functionality. Furthermore, special attention is focused on the NMDA receptor subunits present in the particular glial cell types, which give them special characteristics different from those of neurons - for example, the absence of Mg(2+) block and decreased Ca(2+) permeability. Since glial cells are implicated in important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the central nervous system (CNS), the last part of this review provides an overview of glial NMDA receptors with respect to ischemic brain injury.

  11. Macrophage-Mediated Glial Cell Elimination in the Postnatal Mouse Cochlea

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    LaShardai N. Brown

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing relies on the transmission of auditory information from sensory hair cells (HCs to the brain through the auditory nerve. This relay of information requires HCs to be innervated by spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs in an exclusive manner and SGNs to be ensheathed by myelinating and non-myelinating glial cells. In the developing auditory nerve, mistargeted SGN axons are retracted or pruned and excessive cells are cleared in a process referred to as nerve refinement. Whether auditory glial cells are eliminated during auditory nerve refinement is unknown. Using early postnatal mice of either sex, we show that glial cell numbers decrease after the first postnatal week, corresponding temporally with nerve refinement in the developing auditory nerve. Additionally, expression of immune-related genes was upregulated and macrophage numbers increase in a manner coinciding with the reduction of glial cell numbers. Transient depletion of macrophages during early auditory nerve development, using transgenic CD11bDTR/EGFP mice, resulted in the appearance of excessive glial cells. Macrophage depletion caused abnormalities in myelin formation and transient edema of the stria vascularis. Macrophage-depleted mice also showed auditory function impairment that partially recovered in adulthood. These findings demonstrate that macrophages contribute to the regulation of glial cell number during postnatal development of the cochlea and that glial cells play a critical role in hearing onset and auditory nerve maturation.

  12. A dual role for microglia in promoting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP expression in glial cells in response to neuroinflammatory stimuli

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    Milner Richard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By neutralizing the effect of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs play a critical role in maintaining tissue proteolysis in balance. As the major reactive glial cell types in the central nervous system (CNS, microglia and astrocytes play fundamental roles in mediating tissue breakdown and repair. As such, it is important to define the TIMP expression profile in these cells, as well as the mechanisms of regulation by neuroinflammatory stimuli. Methods Primary mixed glial cultures (MGC, pure microglia, and pure astrocytes were used in this study. To study astrocytes, we employed a recently described pure astrocyte culture system, which has the major advantage of totally lacking microglia. The three different types of culture were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or individual cytokines, and cell culture supernatants assayed for TIMP-1 or TIMP-2 protein expression by western blot. Results LPS induced TIMP-1 expression in MGC, but not in pure astrocyte or microglial cultures. When pure astrocytes were treated with the cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF or TGF-β1, only IL-1β induced TIMP-1 expression. Significantly, astrocyte TIMP-1 expression was restored in LPS-treated astrocyte cultures after the addition of microglia, or conditioned medium taken from LPS-activated microglia (MG-CM. Furthermore, this effect was lost after depletion of IL-1β from MG-CM. By contrast, TIMP-2 was constitutively expressed by astrocytes, whereas microglia expressed TIMP-2 only after exposure to serum. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate an important concept in glial interactions, by showing that microglia play a central role in regulating glial cell expression of TIMPs, and identify microglial IL-1β as playing a key role in mediating microglial-astrocyte communication.

  13. Primary culture of glial cells from mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion: a valuable tool for studying glial cell biology.

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    de Almeida-Leite, Camila Megale; Arantes, Rosa Maria Esteves

    2010-12-15

    Central nervous system glial cells as astrocytes and microglia have been investigated in vitro and many intracellular pathways have been clarified upon various stimuli. Peripheral glial cells, however, are not as deeply investigated in vitro despite its importance role in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Based on our previous experience of culturing neuronal cells, our objective was to standardize and morphologically characterize a primary culture of mouse superior cervical ganglion glial cells in order to obtain a useful tool to study peripheral glial cell biology. Superior cervical ganglia from neonatal C57BL6 mice were enzymatically and mechanically dissociated and cells were plated on diluted Matrigel coated wells in a final concentration of 10,000cells/well. Five to 8 days post plating, glial cell cultures were fixed for morphological and immunocytochemical characterization. Glial cells showed a flat and irregular shape, two or three long cytoplasm processes, and round, oval or long shaped nuclei, with regular outline. Cell proliferation and mitosis were detected both qualitative and quantitatively. Glial cells were able to maintain their phenotype in our culture model including immunoreactivity against glial cell marker GFAP. This is the first description of immunocytochemical characterization of mouse sympathetic cervical ganglion glial cells in primary culture. This work discusses the uses and limitations of our model as a tool to study many aspects of peripheral glial cell biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunohistochemical demonstration of glial markers in retinoblastomas

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    Schrøder, H D

    1987-01-01

    Twenty retinoblastomas were studied immunohistochemically in order to visualize glial cells. In the retina, the glial cells in the ganglion cell layer and the Müller cells were GFAP positive, while only the glial cells of the ganglion cell layer expressed S-100 reactivity. In the tumours S-100/GFAP...... cells reactive for both S-100 and GFAP were demonstrated. The latter findings may represent differentiation in a glial direction in the more mature parts of retinoblastoma....

  15. The glia doctrine: addressing the role of glial cells in healthy brain ageing.

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    Nagelhus, Erlend A; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Bergersen, Linda H; Bjaalie, Jan G; Eriksson, Jens; Gundersen, Vidar; Leergaard, Trygve B; Morth, J Preben; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Torp, Reidun; Walhovd, Kristine B; Tønjum, Tone

    2013-10-01

    Glial cells in their plurality pervade the human brain and impact on brain structure and function. A principal component of the emerging glial doctrine is the hypothesis that astrocytes, the most abundant type of glial cells, trigger major molecular processes leading to brain ageing. Astrocyte biology has been examined using molecular, biochemical and structural methods, as well as 3D brain imaging in live animals and humans. Exosomes are extracelluar membrane vesicles that facilitate communication between glia, and have significant potential for biomarker discovery and drug delivery. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may indirectly influence the structure and function of membrane proteins expressed in glial cells and predispose specific cell subgroups to degeneration. Physical exercise may reduce or retard age-related brain deterioration by a mechanism involving neuro-glial processes. It is most likely that additional information about the distribution, structure and function of glial cells will yield novel insight into human brain ageing. Systematic studies of glia and their functions are expected to eventually lead to earlier detection of ageing-related brain dysfunction and to interventions that could delay, reduce or prevent brain dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. LPS-induced expression of a novel chemokine receptor (L-CCR) in mouse glial cells in vitro and in vivo

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    Zuurman, MW; Heeroma, J; Brouwer, N; Boddeke, HWGM; Biber, K

    There is increasing evidence that chemokines, specialized regulators of the peripheral immune system, are also involved in the physiology and pathology of the CNS. It is known that glial cells (astrocytes and microglia) express various chemokine receptors like CCR1, -3, -5, and CXCR4. We have

  17. The multifaceted effects of agmatine on functional recovery after spinal cord injury through Modulations of BMP-2/4/7 expressions in neurons and glial cells.

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    Yu Mi Park

    Full Text Available Presently, few treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI are available and none have facilitated neural regeneration and/or significant functional improvement. Agmatine (Agm, a guanidinium compound formed from decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator and been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system injury models including SCI. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the multifaceted effects of Agm on functional recovery and remyelinating events following SCI. Compression SCI in mice was produced by placing a 15 g/mm(2 weight for 1 min at thoracic vertebra (Th 9 segment. Mice that received an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of Agm (100 mg/kg/day within 1 hour after SCI until 35 days showed improvement in locomotor recovery and bladder function. Emphasis was made on the analysis of remyelination events, neuronal cell preservation and ablation of glial scar area following SCI. Agm treatment significantly inhibited the demyelination events, neuronal loss and glial scar around the lesion site. In light of recent findings that expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are modulated in the neuronal and glial cell population after SCI, we hypothesized whether Agm could modulate BMP- 2/4/7 expressions in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and play key role in promoting the neuronal and glial cell survival in the injured spinal cord. The results from computer assisted stereological toolbox analysis (CAST demonstrate that Agm treatment dramatically increased BMP- 2/7 expressions in neurons and oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, BMP- 4 expressions were significantly decreased in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes around the lesion site. Together, our results reveal that Agm treatment improved neurological and histological outcomes, induced oligodendrogenesis, protected neurons, and decreased glial scar formation through modulating the BMP- 2/4/7 expressions following

  18. The Multifaceted Effects of Agmatine on Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury through Modulations of BMP-2/4/7 Expressions in Neurons and Glial Cells

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    Park, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Taek; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Seo, Su Kyoung; Park, Seung Hwa; Kim, Jae Hwan; Yenari, Midori A.; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong Eun

    2013-01-01

    Presently, few treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI) are available and none have facilitated neural regeneration and/or significant functional improvement. Agmatine (Agm), a guanidinium compound formed from decarboxylation of L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase, is a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator and been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system injury models including SCI. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the multifaceted effects of Agm on functional recovery and remyelinating events following SCI. Compression SCI in mice was produced by placing a 15 g/mm2 weight for 1 min at thoracic vertebra (Th) 9 segment. Mice that received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Agm (100 mg/kg/day) within 1 hour after SCI until 35 days showed improvement in locomotor recovery and bladder function. Emphasis was made on the analysis of remyelination events, neuronal cell preservation and ablation of glial scar area following SCI. Agm treatment significantly inhibited the demyelination events, neuronal loss and glial scar around the lesion site. In light of recent findings that expressions of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are modulated in the neuronal and glial cell population after SCI, we hypothesized whether Agm could modulate BMP- 2/4/7 expressions in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and play key role in promoting the neuronal and glial cell survival in the injured spinal cord. The results from computer assisted stereological toolbox analysis (CAST) demonstrate that Agm treatment dramatically increased BMP- 2/7 expressions in neurons and oligodendrocytes. On the other hand, BMP- 4 expressions were significantly decreased in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes around the lesion site. Together, our results reveal that Agm treatment improved neurological and histological outcomes, induced oligodendrogenesis, protected neurons, and decreased glial scar formation through modulating the BMP- 2/4/7 expressions following SCI. PMID

  19. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - An Introduction to Glial Cells. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Yasmin Khan. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 4-10 ...

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in the nuclear compartment of neurons and glial cells in aging and stroke.

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    Pirici, Daniel; Pirici, Ionica; Mogoanta, Laurentiu; Margaritescu, Otilia; Tudorica, Valerica; Margaritescu, Claudiu; Ion, Daniela A; Simionescu, Cristiana; Coconu, Marieta

    2012-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are well-recognized denominators for extracellular matrix remodeling in the pathology of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Recent data on non-nervous system tissue showed intracellular and even intranuclear localizations for different MMPs, and together with this, a plethora of new functions have been proposed for these intracellular active enzymes, but are mostly related to apoptosis induction and malign transformation. In neurons and glial cells, on human tissue, animal models and cell cultures, different active MMPs have been also proven to be located in the intra-cytoplasmic or intra-nuclear compartments, with no clear-cut function. In the present study we show for the first time on human tissue the nuclear expression of MMP-9, mainly in neurons and to a lesser extent in astrocytes. We have studied ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients, as well as aged control patients. Age and ischemic suffering seemed to be the best predictors for an elevated MMP-9 nuclear expression, and there was no evidence of a clear-cut extracellular proteolytic activity for this compartment, as revealed by intact vascular basement membranes and assessment of vascular densities. More, the majority of the cells expressing MMP-9 in the nuclear compartment also co-expressed activated-caspase 3, indicating a possible link between nuclear MMP-9 localization and apoptosis in neuronal and glial cells following an ischemic or hemorrhagic event. These results, besides showing for the first time the nuclear localization of MMP-9 on a large series of human stroke and aged brain tissues, raise new questions regarding the unknown spectrum of the functions MMPs in human CNS pathology. © 2011 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Neural Mobilization Treatment Decreases Glial Cells and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression in the Central Nervous System in Rats with Neuropathic Pain Induced by CCI in Rats

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    Aline Carolina Giardini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glial cells are implicated in the development of chronic pain and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF released from activated microglia contributes to the nociceptive transmission. Neural mobilization (NM technique is a method clinically effective in reducing pain sensitivity. Here we examined the involvement of glial cells and BDNF expression in the thalamus and midbrain after NM treatment in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI. CCI was induced and rats were subsequently submitted to 10 sessions of NM, every other day, beginning 14 days after CCI. Thalamus and midbrain were analyzed for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, microglial cell OX-42, and BDNF using Immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays. Results. Thalamus and midbrain of CCI group showed increases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF expression compared with control group and, in contrast, showed decreases in GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF after NM when compared with CCI group. The decreased immunoreactivity for GFAP, OX-42, and BDNF in ventral posterolateral nucleus in thalamus and the periaqueductal gray in midbrain was shown by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions. These findings may improve the knowledge about the involvement of astrocytes, microglia, and BDNF in the chronic pain and show that NM treatment, which alleviates neuropathic pain, affects glial cells and BDNF expression.

  2. c-erbA and v-erbA modulate growth and gene expression of a mouse glial precursor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, T; Llanos, S; López-Barahona, M; Pérez-Aranda, A; Rodríguez-Peña, A; Bernal, J; Höhne, A; Seliger, B; Muñoz, A

    1994-07-01

    The c-erbA alpha protooncogene coding for the thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR alpha 1) and the viral, mutated v-erbA oncogene were expressed in an immortal mouse glial cell line (B3.1) using retroviral vectors. c-erbA alpha expression led to a decrease in cell proliferation in high and low serum conditions, both in the presence and in the absence of T3. In serum-free medium, c-erbA-expressing cells (B3.1 + TR alpha 1) were completely arrested, whereas cells expressing v-erbA (B3.1 + v-erbA) showed a higher DNA synthesis rate than normal B3.1 cells. Although proliferation of all three cell types was stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor, differences were also observed in the response to these agents. B3.1 + TR alpha 1 cells were more sensitive to platelet-derived growth factor than B3.1 and B3.1 + v-erbA cells. In contrast, B3.1 cells responded to basic fibroblast growth factor better than B3.1 + TR alpha 1 or B3.1 + v-erbA cells. Insulin-like growth factor I potentiated the action of platelet-derived growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Again, different responses to treatment with insulin-like growth factor I alone were observed; B3.1 + TR alpha 1 cells did not respond to it, whereas B3.1 + v-erbA cells showed a dramatic stimulation by this agent. Interestingly, in the presence of T3, the blockade in B3.1 + TR alpha 1 cell proliferation was accompanied by the down-regulation of the typical astrocytic genes, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin. These hormone effects were not found in v-erbA-expressing cells. In addition, v-erbA inhibited the basal expression of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase gene, an oligodendrocytic marker.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The role of glial cells in neuronal acetylcholine synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents data on the role of glial cells in neuronal ACh synthesis. It is noted that central neurons fare better in cultures when in contact with non-neuronal cells, and especially glial cells. Since neither the fate of the Ch released from the glial cells nor the role of the contact between glial cells and neurons has yet been elucidated, the author investigates these phenomena. Glial cells from 14-day-old chickbrain were cultured for 14 days. ( 14 C) - choline incorporated into lipids, phosphocholine, betaine and ACh, as well as the free ( 14 C) -choline, were determined in the pure glial cell cultures after 24 h, and in the combined cultures after 7 days. The ( 14 C) - choline influx into the incubation medium and the uptake by the neurons were measured. Results are presented

  4. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  5. The Comparative Utility of Viromer RED and Lipofectamine for Transient Gene Introduction into Glial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheendra Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of genes into glial cells for mechanistic studies of cell function and as a therapeutic for gene delivery is an expanding field. Though viral vector based systems do exhibit good delivery efficiency and long-term production of the transgene, the need for transient gene expression, broad and rapid gene setup methodologies, and safety concerns regarding in vivo application still incentivize research into the use of nonviral gene delivery methods. In the current study, aviral gene delivery vectors based upon cationic lipid (Lipofectamine 3000 lipoplex or polyethylenimine (Viromer RED polyplex technologies were examined in cell lines and primary glial cells for their transfection efficiencies, gene expression levels, and toxicity. The transfection efficiencies of polyplex and lipoplex agents were found to be comparable in a limited, yet similar, transfection setting, with or without serum across a number of cell types. However, differential effects on cell-specific transgene expression and reduced viability with cargo loaded polyplex were observed. Overall, our data suggests that polyplex technology could perform comparably to the market dominant lipoplex technology in transfecting various cells lines including glial cells but also stress a need for further refinement of polyplex reagents to minimize their effects on cell viability.

  6. Gemfibrozil, a Lipid-lowering Drug, Induces Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-01-01

    Glial inflammation is an important feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a crucial role in inhibiting cytokine signaling and inflammatory gene expression in various cell types, including glial cells. However, mechanisms by which SOCS genes could be up-regulated are poorly understood. This study underlines the importance of gemfibrozil, a Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drug, in up-regulating the expression of SOCS3 in glial cells. Gemfibrozil increased the expression of Socs3 mRNA and protein in mouse astroglia and microglia in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, gemfibrozil induced the activation of type IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and AKT. Accordingly, inhibition of PI 3-kinase and AKT by chemical inhibitors abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that gemfibrozil induced the activation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) via the PI 3-kinase-AKT pathway and that siRNA knockdown of KLF4 abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Gemfibrozil also induced the recruitment of KLF4 to the distal, but not proximal, KLF4-binding site of the Socs3 promoter. This study delineates a novel property of gemfibrozil in up-regulating SOCS3 in glial cells via PI 3-kinase-AKT-mediated activation of KLF4 and suggests that gemfibrozil may find therapeutic application in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22685291

  7. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kudret Sariyer

    Full Text Available PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV, which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs. We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF. SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen.Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins.Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral reactivation leading to

  8. Spinal NF-κB and chemokine ligand 5 expression during spinal glial cell activation in a neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NF-κB pathway and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5 are involved in pain modulation; however, the precise mechanisms of their interactions in chronic neuropathic pain have yet to be established. METHODS: The present study examined the roles of spinal NF-κB and CCL5 in a neuropathic pain model after chronic constriction injury (CCI surgery. CCI-induced pain facilitation was evaluated using the Plantar and von Frey tests. The changes in NF-κB and CCL5 expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Spinal NF-κB and CCL5 expression increased after CCI surgery. Repeated intrathecal infusions of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor decreased CCL5 expression, inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and attenuated CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of a CCL5-neutralizing antibody attenuated CCI-induced pain facilitation and also suppressed spinal glial cell activation after CCI surgery. However, the CCL5-neutralizing antibody did not affect NF-κB expression. Furthermore, selective glial inhibitors, minocycline and fluorocitrate, attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal CCL5. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of spinal CCL5 expression may provide a new method to prevent and treat nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

  9. Photodynamic damage of glial cells in crayfish ventral nerve cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, M. S.; Duz, E.; Uzdensky, A. B.

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising method for treatment of brain tumors, the most of which are of glial origin. In the present work we studied PDT-mediated injury of glial cells in nerve tissue, specifically, in abdominal connectives in the crayfish ventral nerve cord. The preparation was photosensitized with alumophthalocyanine Photosens and irradiated 30 min with the diode laser (670 nm, 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2). After following incubation in the darkness during 1- 10 hours it was fluorochromed with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to reveal nuclei of living, necrotic and apoptotic cells. The chain-like location of the glial nuclei allowed visualization of those enveloping giant axons and blood vessels. The level of glial necrosis in control preparations was about 2-5 %. Apoptosis was not observed in control preparations. PDT significantly increased necrosis of glial cells to 52 or 67 % just after irradiation with 0.1 or 0.15 W/cm2, respectively. Apoptosis of glial cells was observed only at 10 hours after light exposure. Upper layers of the glial envelope of the connectives were injured stronger comparing to deep ones: the level of glial necrosis decreased from 100 to 30 % upon moving from the connective surface to the plane of the giant axon inside the connective. Survival of glial cells was also high in the vicinity of blood vessels. One can suggest that giant axons and blood vessels protect neighboring glial cells from photodynamic damage. The mechanism of such protective action remains to be elucidated.

  10. Radiation adaptive response for the growth of cultured glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, S.; Miura, Y.; Kano, M.; Toda, T.; Urano, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: To examine the molecular mechanism of radiation adaptive response (RAR) for the growth of cultured glial cells and to investigate the influence of aging on the response, glial cells were cultured from young and aged rats (1 month and 24 months old). RAR for the growth of glial cells conditioned with a low dose of X-rays and subsequently exposed to a high dose of X-rays was examined for cell number and BrdU incorporation. Involvement of the subcellular signaling pathway factors in RAR was investigated using their inhibitors, activators and mutated glial cells. RAR was observed in cells cultured from young rats, but was not in cells from aged rats. The inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) suppressed RAR. The activators of PKC instead of low dose irradiation also caused RAR. Moreover, glial cells cultured from severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mice (CB-17 scid) and ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) cells from AT patients showed no RAR. These results indicated that PKC, ATM, DNAPK and/or PI3K were involved in RAR for growth and BrdU incorporation of cultured glial cells and RAR decreased with aging. Proteomics data of glial cells exposed to severe stress of H 2 O 2 or X-rays also will be presented in the conference since little or no difference has not been observed with slight stress yet

  11. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  12. The saucor, a new stereological tool for analysing the spatial distributions of cells, exemplified by human neocortical neurons and glial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Anette K; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Gardi, Jonathan Eyal

    2011-01-01

    The 3D spatial arrangement of particles or cells, for example glial cells, with respect to other particles or cells, for example neurons, can be characterized by the radial number density function, which expresses the number density of so-called ‘secondary’ particles as a function of their distance...... formulae based on the Horvitz–Thompson theorem are derived for both isotropic uniform random and vertical uniform random designs. The method is illustrated with an example where the radial number density of neurons and glial cells around neurons in the human neocortex is estimated using thick vertical...... sections for light microscopy. The results indicate that the glial cells are clustered around the neurons and the neurons have a tendency towards repulsion from each other....

  13. The saucor, a new stereological tool for analysing the spatial distributions of cells, exemplified by human neocortical neurons and glial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stark, Anette K.; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Gardi, Jonathan Eyal

    The three dimensional spatial arrangement of particles or cells, for example glial cells, with respect to other particles or cells, for example neurons, can be characterized by the radial number density function, which expresses the number density of so called “secondary” particles as a function....... Estimation formulae based on the Horvitz-Thompson theorem are derived for both IUR and VUR designs. The method is illustrated with an example where the radial number density of neurons and glial cells around neurons in the human neocortex is estimated using thick vertical sections for light microscopy....... The results indicate that the glial cells are clustered around the neurons and the neurons have a tendency towards repulsion from each other....

  14. Direct Regulation of Aromatase B Expression by 17β-Estradiol and Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist in Adult Radial Glial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lei; Esau, Crystal; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450arom (cyp19) is the only enzyme that has the ability to convert androgens into estrogens. Estrogens, which are produced locally in the vertebrate brain play many fundamental roles in neuroendocrine functions, reproductive functions, socio-sexual behaviors, and neurogenesis. Radial glial cells (RGCs) are neuronal progenitor cells that are abundant in fish brains and are the exclusive site of aromatase B expression and neuroestrogen synthesis. Using a novel in vitro RGC...

  15. Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of neuronal signalling is the increased concentration of K(+) in the extracellular space. The K(+) concentration is restored to its original basal level primarily by uptake into nearby glial cells. The molecular mechanisms by which K(+) is transferred from the extracellular...... space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...

  16. Neuron-Derived ADAM10 Production Stimulates Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Cleavage of E-Cadherin in Satellite Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ouyang, Qing; Chen, Cheng-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Li, Xiang-Nan; Xiang, Zheng-Hua; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2017-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the potential involvement of metalloproteinase family proteins in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Using the spinal nerve ligation model, we investigated whether ADAM10 proteins participate in pain regulation. By implementing invitro methods, we produced a purified culture of satellite glial cells to study the underlying mechanisms of ADAM10 in regulating neuropathic pain. Results showed that the ADAM10 protein was expressed in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, and expression was upregulated following spinal nerve ligation surgery invivo. Intrathecal administration of GI254023X, an ADAM10 selective inhibitor, to the rats one to three days after spinal nerve ligation surgery attenuated the spinal nerve ligation-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of ADAM10 recombinant protein simulated pain behavior in normal rats to a similar extent as those treated by spinal nerve ligation surgery. These results raised a question about the relative contribution of ADAM10 in pain regulation. Further results showed that ADAM10 might act by cleaving E-cadherin, which is mainly expressed in satellite glial cells. GI254023X reversed spinal nerve ligation-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and activation of cyclooxygenase 2 after spinal nerve ligation. β-catenin, which creates a complex with E-cadherin in the membranes of satellite glial cells, was also downregulated by spinal nerve ligation surgery in satellite glial cells. Finally, knockdown expression of β-catenin by lentiviral infection in purified satellite glial cells increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Our findings indicate that neuron-derived ADAM10 production stimulates peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain by cleaving E-cadherin in satellite glial cells. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect by lentiviral-mediated overexpression of IL-10 or IL-1 receptor antagonist in rat glial cells and macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, N.M.; Mercier, D.; Drukarch, B.; Breve, J.J.P.; Poole, S.; Binnekade, R.; Bol, J.G.J.M.; Blits, B.; Verhaagen, J.; van Dam, A.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroinflammation, as defined by activation of local glial cells and production of various inflammatory mediators, is an important feature of many neurological disorders. Expression of pro-inflammatory mediators produced by glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) is considered to contribute

  18. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... genetic editing of pluripotent stem cells. Yet these challenges notwithstanding, the promise of glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood myelin disorders offers hope to the many victims of this otherwise largely untreatable class of disease....... and astrocytes are the major affected cell populations, and are either structurally impaired or metabolically compromised through cell-intrinsic pathology, or are the victims of mis-accumulated toxic byproducts of metabolic derangement. In either case, glial cell replacement using implanted tissue or pluripotent...

  19. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvig, D P; Pakkenberg, H; Stark, A K; Pakkenberg, B

    2008-11-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males, a difference of 24% with a high biological variance. These numbers can serve as reference values in quantitative studies of the human neocortex.

  20. Enteric nervous system specific deletion of Foxd3 disrupts glial cell differentiation and activates compensatory enteric progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Nathan A; Plank, Jennifer L; LeGrone, Alison W; Frist, Audrey Y; Zhu, Lei; Shin, Myung K; Southard-Smith, E Michelle; Labosky, Patricia A

    2012-03-15

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the coordinated migration, expansion and differentiation of vagal and sacral neural crest progenitor cells. During development, vagal neural crest cells enter the foregut and migrate in a rostro-to-caudal direction, colonizing the entire gastrointestinal tract and generating the majority of the ENS. Sacral neural crest contributes to a subset of enteric ganglia in the hindgut, colonizing the colon in a caudal-to-rostral wave. During this process, enteric neural crest-derived progenitors (ENPs) self-renew and begin expressing markers of neural and glial lineages as they populate the intestine. Our earlier work demonstrated that the transcription factor Foxd3 is required early in neural crest-derived progenitors for self-renewal, multipotency and establishment of multiple neural crest-derived cells and structures including the ENS. Here, we describe Foxd3 expression within the fetal and postnatal intestine: Foxd3 was strongly expressed in ENPs as they colonize the gastrointestinal tract and was progressively restricted to enteric glial cells. Using a novel Ednrb-iCre transgene to delete Foxd3 after vagal neural crest cells migrate into the midgut, we demonstrated a late temporal requirement for Foxd3 during ENS development. Lineage labeling of Ednrb-iCre expressing cells in Foxd3 mutant embryos revealed a reduction of ENPs throughout the gut and loss of Ednrb-iCre lineage cells in the distal colon. Although mutant mice were viable, defects in patterning and distribution of ENPs were associated with reduced proliferation and severe reduction of glial cells derived from the Ednrb-iCre lineage. Analyses of ENS-lineage and differentiation in mutant embryos suggested activation of a compensatory population of Foxd3-positive ENPs that did not express the Ednrb-iCre transgene. Our findings highlight the crucial roles played by Foxd3 during ENS development including progenitor proliferation, neural patterning, and glial

  1. Poly-thymidine oligonucleotides mediate activation of murine glial cells primarily through TLR7, not TLR8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Du

    Full Text Available The functional role of murine TLR8 in the inflammatory response of the central nervous system (CNS remains unclear. Murine TLR8 does not appear to respond to human TLR7/8 agonists, due to a five amino acid deletion in the ectodomain. However, recent studies have suggested that murine TLR8 may be stimulated by alternate ligands, which include vaccinia virus DNA, phosphothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs or the combination of phosphothioate poly-thymidine oligonucleotides (pT-ODNs with TLR7/8 agonists. In the current study, we analyzed the ability of pT-ODNs to induce activation of murine glial cells in the presence or absence of TLR7/8 agonists. We found that TLR7/8 agonists induced the expression of glial cell activation markers and induced the production of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in mixed glial cultures. In contrast, pT-ODNs alone induced only low level expression of two cytokines, CCL2 and CXCL10. The combination of pT-ODNs along with TLR7/8 agonists induced a synergistic response with substantially higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared to CL075. This enhancement was not due to cellular uptake of the agonist, indicating that the pT-ODN enhancement of cytokine responses was due to effects on an intracellular process. Interestingly, this response was also not due to synergistic stimulation of both TLR7 and TLR8, as the loss of TLR7 abolished the activation of glial cells and cytokine production. Thus, pT-ODNs act in synergy with TLR7/8 agonists to induce strong TLR7-dependent cytokine production in glial cells, suggesting that the combination of pT-ODNs with TLR7 agonists may be a useful mechanism to induce pronounced glial activation in the CNS.

  2. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor restores erectile function after cavernous nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Florian; Buchner, Alexander; Schlenker, Boris; Gratzke, Christian; Arndt, Christian; Stief, Christian; Weidner, Norbert; Matiasek, Kaspar

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the time-course of functional recovery after cavernous nerve injury using glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell-seeded silicon tubes. Sections of the cavernous nerves were excised bilaterally (5 mm), followed by immediate bilateral surgical repair. A total of 20 study nerves per group were reconstructed by interposition of empty silicon tubes and silicon tubes seeded with either glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing or green fluorescent protein-expressing Schwann cells. Control groups were either sham-operated or received bilateral nerve transection without nerve reconstruction. Erectile function was evaluated by relaparotomy, electrical nerve stimulation and intracavernous pressure recording after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks. The animals underwent re-exploration only once, and were killed afterwards. The nerve grafts were investigated for the maturation state of regenerating nerve fibers and the fascular composition. Recovery of erectile function took at least 4 weeks in the current model. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced Schwann cell grafts restored erectile function better than green fluorescent protein-transduced controls and unseeded conduits. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts promoted an intact erectile response (4/4) at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks that was overall significantly superior to negative controls (P cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-transduced grafts compared with negative controls (P = 0.018) and unseeded tubes (P = 0.034). Return of function was associated with the electron microscopic evidence of preganglionic myelinated nerve fibers and postganglionic unmyelinated axons. Schwann cell-mediated delivery of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor presents a viable approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction after cavernous nerve injury. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  3. Chemokine expression by glial cells directs leukocytes to sites of axonal injury in the CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia A; Kuziel, William A; Rivest, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Innate responses in the CNS are critical to first line defense against infection and injury. Leukocytes migrate to inflammatory sites in response to chemokines. We studied leukocyte migration and glial chemokine expression within the denervated hippocampus in response to axonal injury caused by e...

  4. [Activity of glial cells in trigeminal nervous system in rats with experimental pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bin; Liu, Na; Liu, Hongchen

    2014-04-29

    To observe the activity change of astrocyte in related nucleus caused by acute pulpitis in rats. Rat acute pulpitis model was induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). And, according to processing time, a total of 30 rats were divided into 5 groups of control, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were employed to detect the dynamic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve (Vc). The relative gray value of ipsilateral Vc GFAP expression in experimental groups was 153 ± 11 at 12 h. And it significantly increased versus the control group (100 ± 4)(P pulpitis model, activated glial cells are probably involved in the processes of pulpitis and hyperalgesia.

  5. Neuroinflammation induces glial aromatase expression in the uninjured songbird brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saldanha Colin J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogens from peripheral sources as well as central aromatization are neuroprotective in the vertebrate brain. Under normal conditions, aromatase is only expressed in neurons, however following anoxic/ischemic or mechanical brain injury; aromatase is also found in astroglia. This increased glial aromatization and the consequent estrogen synthesis is neuroprotective and may promote neuronal survival and repair. While the effects of estradiol on neuroprotection are well studied, what induces glial aromatase expression remains unknown. Methods Adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata were given a penetrating injury to the entopallium. At several timepoints later, expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using immunohisotchemistry. A second set of zebra birds were exposed to phytohemagglutinin (PHA, an inflammatory agent, directly on the dorsal surface of the telencephalon without creating a penetrating injury. Expression of aromatase, IL-1β-like, and IL-6-like were examined using both quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to examine mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry to determine cellular expression. Statistical significance was determined using t-test or one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey Kramers post hoc test. Results Following injury in the zebra finch brain, cytokine expression occurs prior to aromatase expression. This temporal pattern suggests that cytokines may induce aromatase expression in the damaged zebra finch brain. Furthermore, evoking a neuroinflammatory response characterized by an increase in cytokine expression in the uninjured brain is sufficient to induce glial aromatase expression. Conclusions These studies are among the first to examine a neuroinflammatory response in the songbird brain following mechanical brain injury and to describe a novel neuroimmune signal to initiate aromatase expression in glia.

  6. Analysis of gene expression in a human-derived glial cell line exposed to 2.45 GHz continuous radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tomonori; Narita, Eijiro; Miyakoshi, Junji; Kiyokawa, Tomoko; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Taki, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones has aroused public concern regarding the potential health risks of radiofrequency (RF) fields. We investigated the effects of exposure to RF fields (2.45 GHz, continuous wave) at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 5, and 10 W/kg for 1, 4, and 24 h on gene expression in a normal human glial cell line, SVGp12, using DNA microarray. Microarray analysis revealed 23 assigned gene spots and 5 non-assigned gene spots as prospective altered gene spots. Twenty-two genes out of the 23 assigned gene spots were further analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to validate the results of microarray, and no significant alterations in gene expression were observed. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found no evidence that exposure to RF fields affected gene expression in SVGp12 cells. (author)

  7. Temporal profiles of age-dependent changes in cytokine mRNA expression and glial cell activation after status epilepticus in postnatal rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvelä, Juha T; Lopez-Picon, Francisco R; Plysjuk, Anna; Ruohonen, Saku; Holopainen, Irma E

    2011-04-08

    Status epilepticus (SE) is proposed to lead to an age-dependent acute activation of a repertoire of inflammatory processes, which may contribute to neuronal damage in the hippocampus. The extent and temporal profiles of activation of these processes are well known in the adult brain, but less so in the developing brain. We have now further elucidated to what extent inflammation is activated by SE by investigating the acute expression of several cytokines and subacute glial reactivity in the postnatal rat hippocampus. SE was induced by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of kainic acid (KA) in 9- and 21-day-old (P9 and P21) rats. The mRNA expression of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) were measured from 4 h up to 3 days after KA injection with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). IL-1β protein expression was studied with ELISA, GFAP expression with western blotting, and microglial and astrocyte morphology with immunohistochemistry 3 days after SE. SE increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-10 mRNA in hippocampus of both P9 and P21 rats, their induction being more rapid and pronounced in P21 than in P9 rats. MMP-9 expression was augmented similarly in both age groups and GDNF expression augmented only in P21 rats, whereas neither IFN-γ nor TGF-β1 expression was induced in either age group. Microglia and astrocytes exhibited activated morphology in the hippocampus of P21 rats, but not in P9 rats 3 d after SE. Microglial activation was most pronounced in the CA1 region and also detected in the basomedial amygdala. Our results suggest that SE provokes an age-specific cytokine expression in the acute phase, and age-specific glial cell activation in the subacute phase as verified now in the postnatal rat hippocampus. In the juvenile hippocampus

  8. Neuronal and glial expression of inward rectifier potassium channel subunits Kir2.x in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yuzo; Yasaka, Toshiharu; Takano, Makoto; Ishihara, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Inward rectifier K(+) channels of the Kir2.x subfamily play important roles in controlling the neuronal excitability. Although their cellular localization in the brain has been extensively studied, only a few studies have examined their expression in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. In this study, immunohistochemical analyses of Kir2.1, Kir2.2, and Kir2.3 expression were performed in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord using bright-field and confocal microscopy. In DRG, most ganglionic neurons expressed Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3, whereas satellite glial cells chiefly expressed Kir2.3. In the spinal cord, Kir2.1, Kir2.2 and Kir2.3 were all expressed highly in the gray matter of dorsal and ventral horns and moderately in the white matter also. Within the gray matter, the expression was especially high in the substantia gelatinosa (lamina II). Confocal images obtained using markers for neuronal cells, NeuN, and astrocytes, Sox9, showed expression of all three Kir2 subunits in both neuronal somata and astrocytes in lamina I-III of the dorsal horn and the lateral spinal nucleus of the dorsolateral funiculus. Immunoreactive signals other than those in neuronal and glial somata were abundant in lamina I and II, which probably located mainly in nerve fibers or nerve terminals. Colocalization of Kir2.1 and 2.3 and that of Kir2.2 and 2.3 were present in neuronal and glial somata. In the ventral horn, motor neurons and interneurons were also immunoreactive with the three Kir2 subunits. Our study suggests that Kir2 channels composed of Kir2.1-2.3 subunits are expressed in neuronal and glial cells in the DRG and spinal cord, contributing to sensory transduction and motor control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Submucosal neurons and enteric glial cells expressing the P2X7 receptor in rat experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Marosti, Aline Rosa; Mendes, Cristina Eusébio; Palombit, Kelly; Castelucci, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis on the submucosal neurons and glial cells of the submucosal ganglia of rats. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS; colitis group) was administered in the colon to induce ulcerative colitis, and distal colons were collected after 24h. The colitis rats were compared with those in the sham and control groups. Double labelling of the P2X7 receptor with calbindin (marker for intrinsic primary afferent neurons, IPANs, submucosal plexus), calretinin (marker for secretory and vasodilator neurons of the submucosal plexus), HuC/D and S100β was performed in the submucosal plexus. The density (neurons per area) of submucosal neurons positive for the P2X7 receptor, calbindin, calretinin and HuC/D decreased by 21%, 34%, 8.2% and 28%, respectively, in the treated group. In addition, the density of enteric glial cells in the submucosal plexus decreased by 33%. The profile areas of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons decreased by 25%. Histological analysis revealed increased lamina propria and decreased collagen in the colitis group. This study demonstrated that ulcerative colitis affected secretory and vasodilatory neurons, IPANs and enteric glia of the submucosal plexus expressing the P2X7 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, induces suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in glial cells: implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arunava; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-08-03

    Glial inflammation is an important feature of several neurodegenerative disorders. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play a crucial role in inhibiting cytokine signaling and inflammatory gene expression in various cell types, including glial cells. However, mechanisms by which SOCS genes could be up-regulated are poorly understood. This study underlines the importance of gemfibrozil, a Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid-lowering drug, in up-regulating the expression of SOCS3 in glial cells. Gemfibrozil increased the expression of Socs3 mRNA and protein in mouse astroglia and microglia in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, gemfibrozil induced the activation of type IA phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and AKT. Accordingly, inhibition of PI 3-kinase and AKT by chemical inhibitors abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Furthermore, we demonstrated that gemfibrozil induced the activation of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) via the PI 3-kinase-AKT pathway and that siRNA knockdown of KLF4 abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of SOCS3. Gemfibrozil also induced the recruitment of KLF4 to the distal, but not proximal, KLF4-binding site of the Socs3 promoter. This study delineates a novel property of gemfibrozil in up-regulating SOCS3 in glial cells via PI 3-kinase-AKT-mediated activation of KLF4 and suggests that gemfibrozil may find therapeutic application in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Pathophysiology of NG2-glia:a ‘Chicken and Egg’ scenario of altered neurotransmission and disruption of NG2-glial cell function

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Andrea Domenico; De La Rocha, Irene Chacon; Neville, Rebekah; Butt, Arthur Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Classically, the central nervous system (CNS) was considered to contain neurons and three main types of glial cells - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Now, it has been clearly established that NG2-glia are a fourth glial cell type that are defined by their expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (Cspg4). NG2-glia are also known as oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and express the alpha receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgfra) as well as other oligod...

  12. Promotion of seminomatous tumors by targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in mouse testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, X.; de rooij, D. G.; Westerdahl, K.; Saarma, M.; Sariola, H.

    2001-01-01

    We show with transgenic mice that targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in undifferentiated spermatogonia promotes malignant testicular tumors, which express germ-cell markers. The tumors are invasive and contain aneuploid cells, but no distant metastases have

  13. Differentiation of a bipotential glial progenitor cell in a single cell microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, S; Raff, M C

    Although it is known that most cells of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) are derived from the neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube, the factors determining whether an individual neuroepithelial cell develops into a particular type of neurone or glial cell remain unknown. A promising model for studying this problem is the bipotential glial progenitor cell in the developing rat optic nerve; this cell differentiates into a particular type of astrocyte (a type-2 astrocyte) if cultured in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and into an oligodendrocyte if cultured in serum-free medium. As the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (0-2A) progenitor cell can differentiate along either glial pathway in neurone-free cultures, living axons clearly are not required for its differentiation, at least in vitro. However, the studies on 0-2A progenitor cells were carried out in bulk cultures of optic nerve, and so it was possible that other cell-cell interactions were required for differentiation in culture. We show here that 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate into type-2 astrocytes or oligodendrocytes when grown as isolated cells in microculture, indicating that differentiation along either glial pathway in vitro does not require signals from other CNS cells, apart from the signals provided by components of the culture medium. We also show that single 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate along either pathway without dividing, supporting our previous studies using 3H-thymidine and suggesting that DNA replication is not required for these cells to choose between the two differentiation programmes.

  14. Acute morphine activates satellite glial cells and up-regulates IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia in mice via matrix metalloprotease-9

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    Berta Temugin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of spinal cord glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes has been shown to regulate chronic opioid-induced antinociceptive tolerance and hyperalgesia, due to spinal up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 has been implicated in IL-1β activation in neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether acute opioid treatment can activate glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. We examined acute morphine-induced activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs and up-regulation of IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, and further investigated the involvement of MMP-9 in these opioid-induced peripheral changes. Results Subcutaneous morphine injection (10 mg/kg induced robust peripheral glial responses, as evidenced by increased GFAP expression in DRGs but not in spinal cords. The acute morphine-induced GFAP expression is transient, peaking at 2 h and declining after 3 h. Acute morphine treatment also increased IL-1β immunoreactivity in SGCs and IL-1β activation in DRGs. MMP-9 and GFAP are expressed in DRG neurons and SGCs, respectively. Confocal analysis revealed a close proximity of MMP-9 and GFAP immunostaining. Importantly, morphine-induced DRG up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation was abolished after Mmp9 deletion or naloxone pre-treatment. Finally, intrathecal injections of IL-1β-selective siRNA not only reduced DRG IL-1β expression but also prolonged acute morphine-induced analgesia. Conclusions Acute morphine induces opioid receptors- and MMP-9-dependent up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation in SGCs of DRGs. MMP-9 could mask and shorten morphine analgesia via peripheral neuron-glial interactions. Targeting peripheral glial activation might prolong acute opioid analgesia.

  15. Connexin43 Hemichannels in Satellite Glial Cells, Can They Influence Sensory Neuron Activity?

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    Mauricio A. Retamal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, we summarize the current insight on the role of Connexin- and Pannexin-based channels as modulators of sensory neurons. The somas of sensory neurons are located in sensory ganglia (i.e., trigeminal and nodose ganglia. It is well known that within sensory ganglia, sensory neurons do not form neither electrical nor chemical synapses. One of the reasons for this is that each soma is surrounded by glial cells, known as satellite glial cells (SGCs. Recent evidence shows that connexin43 (Cx43 hemichannels and probably pannexons located at SGCs have an important role in paracrine communication between glial cells and sensory neurons. This communication may be exerted via the release of bioactive molecules from SGCs and their subsequent action on receptors located at the soma of sensory neurons. The glio-neuronal communication seems to be relevant for the establishment of chronic pain, hyperalgesia and pathologies associated with tissue inflammation. Based on the current literature, it is possible to propose that Cx43 hemichannels expressed in SGCs could be a novel pharmacological target for treating chronic pain, which need to be directly evaluated in future studies.

  16. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nervous system and that glial cells were a mere glue holding neurons in place, Schleich ... fact that these cells did not show any electrical activity like neurons or muscles ... membrane potential higher than that of the surrounding neu- rons.

  17. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Natalie; Bihari, Ofer; Kanner, Sivan; Barzilai, Ari

    2016-06-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes). Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a "hostile" environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Connecting Malfunctioning Glial Cells and Brain Degenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Kaminsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR is a complex biological system activated by different types of DNA damage. Mutations in certain components of the DDR machinery can lead to genomic instability disorders that culminate in tissue degeneration, premature aging, and various types of cancers. Intriguingly, malfunctioning DDR plays a role in the etiology of late onset brain degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and Huntington’s diseases. For many years, brain degenerative disorders were thought to result from aberrant neural death. Here we discuss the evidence that supports our novel hypothesis that brain degenerative diseases involve dysfunction of glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Impairment in the functionality of glial cells results in pathological neuro-glial interactions that, in turn, generate a “hostile” environment that impairs the functionality of neuronal cells. These events can lead to systematic neural demise on a scale that appears to be proportional to the severity of the neurological deficit.

  19. Glial hemichannels and their involvement in aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Juan A; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Giaume, Christian; Sáez, Juan C

    2012-01-26

    During the last two decades, it became increasingly evident that glial cells accomplish a more important role in brain function than previously thought. Glial cells express pannexins and connexins, which are member subunits of two protein families that form membrane channels termed hemichannels. These channels communicate intra- and extracellular compartments and allow the release of autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules [e.g., adenosine triphosphate (ATP), glutamate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and prostaglandin E2] to the extracellular milieu, as well as the uptake of small molecules (e.g., glucose). An increasing body of evidence has situated glial hemichannels as potential regulators of the beginning and maintenance of homeostatic imbalances observed in diverse brain diseases. Here, we review and discuss the current evidence about the possible role of glial hemichannels on neurodegenerative diseases. A subthreshold pathological threatening condition leads to microglial activation, which keeps active defense and restores the normal function of the central nervous system. However, if the stimulus is deleterious, microglial cells and the endothelium become overactivated, both releasing bioactive molecules (e.g., glutamate, cytokines, prostaglandins, and ATP), which increase the activity of glial hemichannels, reducing the astroglial neuroprotective functions, and further reducing neuronal viability. Because ATP and glutamate are released via glial hemichannels in neurodegenerative conditions, it is expected that they contribute to neurotoxicity. More importantly, toxic molecules released via glial hemichannels could increase the Ca2+ entry in neurons also via neuronal hemichannels, leading to neuronal death. Therefore, blockade of hemichannels expressed by glial cells and/or neurons during neuroinflammation might prevent neurodegeneration.

  20. Distinct types of glial cells populate the Drosophila antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhaveri Dhanisha

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of nervous systems involves reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia. In the Drosophila olfactory system, peripheral glial cells arise from sensory lineages specified by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Atonal. These glia wrap around the developing olfactory axons early during development and pattern the three distinct fascicles as they exit the antenna. In the moth Manduca sexta, an additional set of central glia migrate to the base of the antennal nerve where axons sort to their glomerular targets. In this work, we have investigated whether similar types of cells exist in the Drosophila antenna. Results We have used different P(Gal4 lines to drive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in distinct populations of cells within the Drosophila antenna. Mz317::GFP, a marker for cell body and perineural glia, labels the majority of peripheral glia. An additional ~30 glial cells detected by GH146::GFP do not derive from any of the sensory lineages and appear to migrate into the antenna from the brain. Their appearance in the third antennal segment is regulated by normal function of the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor and small GTPases. We denote these distinct populations of cells as Mz317-glia and GH146-glia respectively. In the adult, processes of GH146-glial cells ensheath the olfactory receptor neurons directly, while those of the Mz317-glia form a peripheral layer. Ablation of GH146-glia does not result in any significant effects on the patterning of the olfactory receptor axons. Conclusion We have demonstrated the presence of at least two distinct populations of glial cells within the Drosophila antenna. GH146-glial cells originate in the brain and migrate to the antenna along the newly formed olfactory axons. The number of cells populating the third segment of the antenna is regulated by signaling through the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor. These glia share several features of the sorting

  1. The Purinergic System and Glial Cells: Emerging Costars in Nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Magni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that glial cells not only provide mechanical and trophic support to neurons but can directly contribute to neurotransmission, for example, by release and uptake of neurotransmitters and by secreting pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. This has greatly changed our attitude towards acute and chronic disorders, paving the way for new therapeutic approaches targeting activated glial cells to indirectly modulate and/or restore neuronal functions. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved in neuron-to-glia and glia-to-glia communication that can be pharmacologically targeted is therefore a mandatory step toward the success of this new healing strategy. This holds true also in the field of pain transmission, where the key involvement of astrocytes and microglia in the central nervous system and satellite glial cells in peripheral ganglia has been clearly demonstrated, and literally hundreds of signaling molecules have been identified. Here, we shall focus on one emerging signaling system involved in the cross talk between neurons and glial cells, the purinergic system, consisting of extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides and their membrane receptors. Specifically, we shall summarize existing evidence of novel “druggable” glial purinergic targets, which could help in the development of innovative analgesic approaches to chronic pain states.

  2. Honeybee retinal glial cells transform glucose and supply the neurons with metabolic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsacopoulos, M.; Evequoz-Mercier, V.; Perrottet, P.; Buchner, E.

    1988-01-01

    The retina of the honeybee drone is a nervous tissue in which glial cells and photoreceptor cells (sensory neurons) constitute two distinct metabolic compartments. Retinal slices incubated with 2-deoxy[ 3 H]glucose convert this glucose analogue to 2-deoxy[ 3 H]glucose 6-phosphate, but this conversion is made only in the glial cells. Hence, glycolysis occurs only in glial cells. In contrast, the neurons consume O 2 and this consumption is sustained by the hydrolysis of glycogen, which is contained in large amounts in the glia. During photostimulation the increased oxidative metabolism of the neurons is sustained by a higher supply of carbohydrates from the glia. This clear case of metabolic interaction between neurons and glial cells supports Golgi's original hypothesis, proposed nearly 100 years ago, about the nutritive function of glial cells in the nervous system

  3. Honeybee Retinal Glial Cells Transform Glucose and Supply the Neurons with Metabolic Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsacopoulos, M.; Evequoz-Mercier, V.; Perrottet, P.; Buchner, E.

    1988-11-01

    The retina of the honeybee drone is a nervous tissue in which glial cells and photoreceptor cells (sensory neurons) constitute two distinct metabolic compartments. Retinal slices incubated with 2-deoxy[3H]glucose convert this glucose analogue to 2-deoxy[3H]glucose 6-phosphate, but this conversion is made only in the glial cells. Hence, glycolysis occurs only in glial cells. In contrast, the neurons consume O2 and this consumption is sustained by the hydrolysis of glycogen, which is contained in large amounts in the glia. During photostimulation the increased oxidative metabolism of the neurons is sustained by a higher supply of carbohydrates from the glia. This clear case of metabolic interaction between neurons and glial cells supports Golgi's original hypothesis, proposed nearly 100 years ago, about the nutritive function of glial cells in the nervous system.

  4. Glucose transporter 1 and monocarboxylate transporters 1, 2, and 4 localization within the glial cells of shark blood-brain-barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Balmaceda-Aguilera

    Full Text Available Although previous studies showed that glucose is used to support the metabolic activity of the cartilaginous fish brain, the distribution and expression levels of glucose transporter (GLUT isoforms remained undetermined. Optic/ultrastructural immunohistochemistry approaches were used to determine the expression of GLUT1 in the glial blood-brain barrier (gBBB. GLUT1 was observed solely in glial cells; it was primarily located in end-feet processes of the gBBB. Western blot analysis showed a protein with a molecular mass of 50 kDa, and partial sequencing confirmed GLUT1 identity. Similar approaches were used to demonstrate increased GLUT1 polarization to both apical and basolateral membranes in choroid plexus epithelial cells. To explore monocarboxylate transporter (MCT involvement in shark brain metabolism, the expression of MCTs was analyzed. MCT1, 2 and 4 were expressed in endothelial cells; however, only MCT1 and MCT4 were present in glial cells. In neurons, MCT2 was localized at the cell membrane whereas MCT1 was detected within mitochondria. Previous studies demonstrated that hypoxia modified GLUT and MCT expression in mammalian brain cells, which was mediated by the transcription factor, hypoxia inducible factor-1. Similarly, we observed that hypoxia modified MCT1 cellular distribution and MCT4 expression in shark telencephalic area and brain stem, confirming the role of these transporters in hypoxia adaptation. Finally, using three-dimensional ultrastructural microscopy, the interaction between glial end-feet and leaky blood vessels of shark brain was assessed in the present study. These data suggested that the brains of shark may take up glucose from blood using a different mechanism than that used by mammalian brains, which may induce astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling and metabolic coupling as observed in mammalian brain. Our data suggested that the structural conditions and expression patterns of GLUT1, MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 in shark

  5. Peripheral Glial Cells in the Development of Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nádia Pereira; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Pallesen, Lone Tjener

    2018-01-01

    The global prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing, affecting more than half a billion individuals within the next few years. As diabetes negatively affects several physiological systems, this dramatic increase represents not only impaired quality of life on the individual level but also a huge socioeconomic challenge. One of the physiological consequences affecting up to half of diabetic patients is the progressive deterioration of the peripheral nervous system, resulting in spontaneous pain and eventually loss of sensory function, motor weakness, and organ dysfunctions. Despite intense research on the consequences of hyperglycemia on nerve functions, the biological mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy are still largely unknown, and treatment options lacking. Research has mainly focused directly on the neuronal component, presumably from the perspective that this is the functional signal-transmitting unit of the nerve. However, it is noteworthy that each single peripheral sensory neuron is intimately associated with numerous glial cells; the neuronal soma is completely enclosed by satellite glial cells and the length of the longest axons covered by at least 1,000 Schwann cells. The glial cells are vital for the neuron, but very little is still known about these cells in general and especially how they respond to diabetes in terms of altered neuronal support. We will discuss current knowledge of peripheral glial cells and argue that increased research in these cells is imperative for a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying diabetic neuropathy. PMID:29770116

  6. Understanding the NG2 glial scar after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber R Hackett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells, also known as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, are located throughout the central nervous system and serve as a pool of progenitors to differentiate into oligodendrocytes. In response to spinal cord injury, NG2 cells increase their proliferation and differentiation into remyelinating oligodendrocytes. While astrocytes are typically associated with being the major cell type in the glial scar, many NG2 cells also accumulate within the glial scar but their function remains poorly understood. Similar to astrocytes, these cells hypertrophy, upregulate expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, inhibit axon regeneration, contribute to the glial-fibrotic scar border, and some even differentiate into astrocytes. Whether NG2 cells also have a role in other astrocyte functions, such as preventing the spread of infiltrating leukocytes and expression of inflammatory cytokines, is not yet known. Thus, NG2 cells are not only important for remyelination after spinal cord injury, but are also a major component of the glial scar with functions that overlap with astrocytes in this region. In this review, we describe the signaling pathways important for the proliferation and differentiation of NG2 cells, as well as the role of NG2 cells in scar formation and tissue repair.

  7. Comparative study of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors of human and rat cortical glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demushkin, V.P.; Burbaeva, G.S.; Dzhaliashvili, T.A.; Plyashkevich, Y.G.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was a comparative studyof muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in human and rat glial cells. ( 3 H)Quinuclidinyl-benzylate (( 3 H)-QB), atropine, platiphylline, decamethonium, carbamylcholine, tubocurarine, and nicotine were used. The glial cell fraction was obtained from the cerebral cortex of rats weighing 130-140 g and from the frontal pole of the postmortem brain from men aged 60-70 years. The use of the method of radioimmune binding of ( 3 H)-QB with human and rat glial cell membranes demonstrated the presence of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in the glial cells

  8. Neurons and satellite glial cells in adult rat lumbar dorsal root ganglia express connexin 36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Armendariz, E Martha; Norcini, Monica; Hernández-Tellez, Beatriz; Castell-Rodríguez, Andrés; Coronel-Cruz, Cristina; Alquicira, Raquel Guerrero; Sideris, Alexandra; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that following peripheral nerve injury there was a downregulation of the gap junction protein connexin 36 (Cx36) in the spinal cord; however, it is not known whether Cx36 protein is expressed in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), nor if its levels are altered following peripheral nerve injuries. Here we address these aspects in the adult rat lumbar DRG. Cx36 mRNA was detected using qRT-PCR, and Cx36 protein was identified in DRG sections using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF). Double staining revealed that Cx36 co-localizes with both anti-β-III tubulin, a neuronal marker, and anti-glutamine synthetase, a satellite glial cell (SGC) marker. In neurons, Cx36 staining was mostly uniform in somata and fibers of all sizes and its intensity increased at the cell membranes. This labeling pattern was in contrast with Cx36 IF dots mainly found at junctional membranes in islet beta cells used as a control tissue. Co-staining with anti-Cx43 and anti-Cx36 showed that whereas mostly uniform staining of Cx36 was found throughout neurons and SGCs, Cx43 IF puncta were localized to SGCs. Cx36 mRNA was expressed in normal lumbar DRG, and it was significantly down-regulated in L4 DRG of rats that underwent sciatic nerve injury resulting in persistent hypersensitivity. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that neurons and SGCs express Cx36 protein in normal DRG, and suggested that perturbation of Cx36 levels may contribute to chronic neuropathic pain resulting from a peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Temporomandibular joint inflammation activates glial and immune cells in both the trigeminal ganglia and in the spinal trigeminal nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Luc

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glial cells have been shown to directly participate to the genesis and maintenance of chronic pain in both the sensory ganglia and the central nervous system (CNS. Indeed, glial cell activation has been reported in both the dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord following injury or inflammation of the sciatic nerve, but no data are currently available in animal models of trigeminal sensitization. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated glial cell activation in the trigeminal-spinal system following injection of the Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA into the temporomandibular joint, which generates inflammatory pain and trigeminal hypersensitivity. Results CFA-injected animals showed ipsilateral mechanical allodynia and temporomandibular joint edema, accompanied in the trigeminal ganglion by a strong increase in the number of GFAP-positive satellite glial cells encircling neurons and by the activation of resident macrophages. Seventy-two hours after CFA injection, activated microglial cells were observed in the ipsilateral trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and in the cervical dorsal horn, with a significant up-regulation of Iba1 immunoreactivity, but no signs of reactive astrogliosis were detected in the same areas. Since the purinergic system has been implicated in the activation of microglial cells during neuropathic pain, we have also evaluated the expression of the microglial-specific P2Y12 receptor subtype. No upregulation of this receptor was detected following induction of TMJ inflammation, suggesting that any possible role of P2Y12 in this paradigm of inflammatory pain does not involve changes in receptor expression. Conclusions Our data indicate that specific glial cell populations become activated in both the trigeminal ganglia and the CNS following induction of temporomandibular joint inflammation, and suggest that they might represent innovative targets for controlling pain during trigeminal nerve sensitization.

  10. The Drosophila blood-brain barrier: Development and function of a glial endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eLimmer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of neuronal function requires a well-balanced extracellular ion homeostasis and a steady supply with nutrients and metabolites. Therefore, all organisms equipped with a complex nervous system developed a so-called blood-brain barrier, protecting it from an uncontrolled entry of solutes, metabolites or pathogens. In higher vertebrates, this diffusion barrier is established by polarized endothelial cells that form extensive tight junctions, whereas in lower vertebrates and invertebrates the blood-brain barrier is exclusively formed by glial cells. Here, we review the development and function of the glial blood-brain barrier of Drosophila melanogaster. In the Drosophila nervous system, at least seven morphologically distinct glial cell classes can be distinguished. Two of these glial classes form the blood-brain barrier. Perineurial glial cells participate in nutrient uptake and establish a first diffusion barrier. The subperineurial glial cells form septate junctions, which block paracellular diffusion and thus seal the nervous system from the hemolymph. We summarize the molecular basis of septate junction formation and address the different transport systems expressed by the blood-brain barrier forming glial cells.

  11. The Drosophila blood-brain barrier: development and function of a glial endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Stefanie; Weiler, Astrid; Volkenhoff, Anne; Babatz, Felix; Klämbt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of neuronal function requires a well-balanced extracellular ion homeostasis and a steady supply with nutrients and metabolites. Therefore, all organisms equipped with a complex nervous system developed a so-called blood-brain barrier, protecting it from an uncontrolled entry of solutes, metabolites or pathogens. In higher vertebrates, this diffusion barrier is established by polarized endothelial cells that form extensive tight junctions, whereas in lower vertebrates and invertebrates the blood-brain barrier is exclusively formed by glial cells. Here, we review the development and function of the glial blood-brain barrier of Drosophila melanogaster. In the Drosophila nervous system, at least seven morphologically distinct glial cell classes can be distinguished. Two of these glial classes form the blood-brain barrier. Perineurial glial cells participate in nutrient uptake and establish a first diffusion barrier. The subperineurial glial (SPG) cells form septate junctions, which block paracellular diffusion and thus seal the nervous system from the hemolymph. We summarize the molecular basis of septate junction formation and address the different transport systems expressed by the blood-brain barrier forming glial cells.

  12. Ghrelin is involved in the paracrine communication between neurons and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avau, B; De Smet, B; Thijs, T; Geuzens, A; Tack, J; Vanden Berghe, P; Depoortere, I

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally active orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that activates vagal afferents to stimulate food intake and to accelerate gastric emptying. Vagal sensory neurons within the nodose ganglia are surrounded by glial cells, which are able to receive and transmit chemical signals. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin activates or influences the interaction between both types of cells. The effect of ghrelin was compared with that of leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Cultures of rat nodose ganglia were characterized by immunohistochemistry and the functional effects of peptides, neurotransmitters, and pharmacological blockers were measured by Ca(2+) imaging using Fluo-4-AM as an indicator. Neurons responded to KCl and were immunoreactive for PGP-9.5 whereas glial cells responded to lysophosphatidic acid and had the typical SOX-10-positive nuclear staining. Neurons were only responsive to CCK (31 ± 5%) whereas glial cells responded equally to the applied stimuli: ghrelin (27 ± 2%), leptin (21 ± 2%), and CCK (30 ± 2%). In contrast, neurons stained more intensively for the ghrelin receptor than glial cells. ATP induced [Ca(2+) ]i rises in 90% of the neurons whereas ACh and the NO donor, SIN-1, mainly induced [Ca(2+) ]i changes in glial cells (41 and 51%, respectively). The percentage of ghrelin-responsive glial cells was not affected by pretreatment with suramin, atropine, hexamethonium or 1400 W, but was reduced by l-NAME and by tetrodotoxin. Neurons were shown to be immunoreactive for neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS). Our data show that ghrelin induces Ca(2+) signaling in glial cells of the nodose ganglion via the release of NO originating from the neurons. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Glial cell activity is maintained during prolonged inflammatory challenge in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, B.C.; Rorato, R.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.; Elias, L.L.K. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-04

    We evaluated the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glutamine synthetase (GS), ionized calcium binding adaptor protein-1 (Iba-1), and ferritin in rats after single or repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, which is known to induce endotoxin tolerance and glial activation. Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) received ip injections of LPS (100 µg/kg) or saline for 6 days: 6 saline (N = 5), 5 saline + 1 LPS (N = 6) and 6 LPS (N = 6). After the sixth injection, the rats were perfused and the brains were collected for immunohistochemistry. After a single LPS dose, the number of GFAP-positive cells increased in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC; 1 LPS: 35.6 ± 1.4 vs control: 23.1 ± 2.5) and hippocampus (1 LPS: 165.0 ± 3.0 vs control: 137.5 ± 2.5), and interestingly, 6 LPS injections further increased GFAP expression in these regions (ARC = 52.5 ± 4.3; hippocampus = 182.2 ± 4.1). We found a higher GS expression only in the hippocampus of the 6 LPS injections group (56.6 ± 0.8 vs 46.7 ± 1.9). Ferritin-positive cells increased similarly in the hippocampus of rats treated with a single (49.2 ± 1.7 vs 28.1 ± 1.9) or repeated (47.6 ± 1.1 vs 28.1 ± 1.9) LPS dose. Single LPS enhanced Iba-1 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN: 92.8 ± 4.1 vs 65.2 ± 2.2) and hippocampus (99.4 ± 4.4 vs 73.8 ± 2.1), but had no effect in the retrochiasmatic nucleus (RCA) and ARC. Interestingly, 6 LPS increased the Iba-1 expression in these hypothalamic and hippocampal regions (RCA: 57.8 ± 4.6 vs 36.6 ± 2.2; ARC: 62.4 ± 6.0 vs 37.0 ± 2.2; PVN: 100.7 ± 4.4 vs 65.2 ± 2.2; hippocampus: 123.0 ± 3.8 vs 73.8 ± 2.1). The results suggest that repeated LPS treatment stimulates the expression of glial activation markers, protecting neuronal activity during prolonged inflammatory challenges.

  14. In vitro differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells into neurons and glial cells and differential protein expression in a two-compartment bone marrow stromal cell/neuron co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xu; Shao, Ming; Peng, Haisheng; Bi, Zhenggang; Su, Zhiqiang; Li, Hulun

    2010-07-01

    This study was performed to establish a bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC)/neuron two-compartment co-culture model in which differentiation of BMSCs into neurons could occur without direct contact between the two cell types, and to investigate protein expression changes during differentiation of this entirely BMSC-derived population. Cultured BMSCs isolated from Wistar rats were divided into three groups: BMSC culture, BMSC/neuron co-culture and BMSC/neuron two-compartment co-culture. Cells were examined for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. The electrophysiological behavior of the BMSCs was examined using patch clamping. Proteins that had significantly different expression levels in BMSCs cultured alone and co-cultured with neurons were studied using a protein chip-mass spectroscopy technique. Expression of NSE and GFAP were significantly higher in co-culture cells than in two-compartment co-culture cells, and significantly higher in both co-culture groups than in BMSCs cultured alone. Five proteins showed significant changes in expression during differentiation: TIP39_RAT and CALC_RAT underwent increases, and INSL6_RAT, PNOC_RAT and PCSK1_RAT underwent decreases in expression. We conclude that BMSCs can differentiate into neurons during both contact co-culture with neurons and two-compartment co-culture with neurons. The rate at which BMSCs differentiated into neurons was higher in contact co-culture than in non-contact co-culture.

  15. CNS development under altered gravity: cerebellar glial and neuronal protein expression in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguon, K.; Li, G.-H.; Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    The future of space exploration depends on a solid understanding of the developmental process under microgravity, specifically in relation to the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously employed a hypergravity paradigm to assess the impact of altered gravity on the developing rat cerebellum [Exp. Biol. Med. 226 (2000) 790]. The present study addresses the molecular mechanisms involved in the cerebellar response to hypergravity. Specifically, the study focuses on the expression of selected glial and neuronal cerebellar proteins in rat neonates exposed to hypergravity (1.5 G) from embryonic day (E)11 to postnatal day (P)6 or P9 (the time of maximal cerebellar changes) comparing them against their expression in rat neonates developing under normal gravity. Proteins were analyzed by quantitative Western blots of cerebellar homogenates; RNA analysis was performed in the same samples using quantitative PCR. Densitometric analysis of Western blots suggested a reduction in glial (glial acidic protein, GFAP) and neuronal (neuronal cell adhesion moiecule, NCAM-L1, synaptophysin) proteins, but the changes in individual cerebellar proteins in hypergravity-exposed neonates appeared both age- and gender-specific. RNA analysis suggested a reduction in GFAP and synaptophysin mRNAs on P6. These data suggest that exposure to hypergravity may interfere with the expression of selected cerebellar proteins. These changes in protein expression may be involved in mediating the effect of hypergravity on the developing rat cerebellum.

  16. GABA and glutamate uptake and metabolism in retinal glial (Müller cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eBringmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Müller cells, the principal glial cells of the retina, support the synaptic activity by the uptake and metabolization of extracellular neurotransmitters. Müller cells express uptake and exchange systems for various neurotransmitters including glutamate and -aminobutyric acid (GABA. Müller cells remove the bulk of extracellular glutamate in the inner retina and contribute to the glutamate clearance around photoreceptor terminals. By the uptake of glutamate, Müller cells are involved in the shaping and termination of the synaptic activity, particularly in the inner retina. Reactive Müller cells are neuroprotective, e.g., by the clearance of excess extracellular glutamate, but may also contribute to neuronal degeneration by a malfunctioning or even reversal of glial glutamate transporters, or by a downregulation of the key enzyme, glutamine synthetase. This review summarizes the present knowledge about the role of Müller cells in the clearance and metabolization of extracellular glutamate and GABA. Some major pathways of GABA and glutamate metabolism in Müller cells are described; these pathways are involved in the glutamate-glutamine cycle of the retina, in the defense against oxidative stress via the production of glutathione, and in the production of substrates for the neuronal energy metabolism.

  17. Progenitor cell-based treatment of glial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    -based neurodegenerative conditions may now be compelling targets for cell-based therapy. As such, glial cell-based therapies may offer potential benefit to a broader range of diseases than ever before contemplated, including disorders such as Huntington's disease and the motor neuron degeneration of amyotrophic lateral...

  18. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    secrete growth factors that act on neurons and other glial cells. from activated microglia. .... Microglia in Alzheimer's disease: Alzheimer's disease is charac- terized by deposition of ... trigger the recruitment ofT lymphocytes into the inflammatory.

  19. HIV-1 Tat protein induces glial cell autophagy through enhancement of BAG3 protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Anna Paola; De Simone, Francesca Isabella; Iorio, Vittoria; De Marco, Margot; Khalili, Kamel; Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Capunzo, Mario; Nori, Stefania Lucia; Rosati, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    BAG3 protein has been described as an anti-apoptotic and pro-autophagic factor in several neoplastic and normal cells. We previously demonstrated that BAG3 expression is elevated upon HIV-1 infection of glial and T lymphocyte cells. Among HIV-1 proteins, Tat is highly involved in regulating host cell response to viral infection. Therefore, we investigated the possible role of Tat protein in modulating BAG3 protein levels and the autophagic process itself. In this report, we show that transfection with Tat raises BAG3 levels in glioblastoma cells. Moreover, BAG3 silencing results in highly reducing Tat- induced levels of LC3-II and increasing the appearance of sub G0/G1 apoptotic cells, in keeping with the reported role of BAG3 in modulating the autophagy/apoptosis balance. These results demonstrate for the first time that Tat protein is able to stimulate autophagy through increasing BAG3 levels in human glial cells.

  20. Primary glia expressing the G93A-SOD1 mutation present a neuroinflammatory phenotype and provide a cellular system for studies of glial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Min

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Detailed study of glial inflammation has been hindered by lack of cell culture systems that spontaneously demonstrate the "neuroinflammatory phenotype". Mice expressing a glycine → alanine substitution in cytosolic Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (G93A-SOD1 associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS demonstrate age-dependent neuroinflammation associated with broad-spectrum cytokine, eicosanoid and oxidant production. In order to more precisely study the cellular mechanisms underlying glial activation in the G93A-SOD1 mouse, primary astrocytes were cultured from 7 day mouse neonates. At this age, G93A-SOD1 mice demonstrated no in vivo hallmarks of neuroinflammation. Nonetheless astrocytes cultured from G93A-SOD1 (but not wild-type human SOD1-expressing transgenic mouse pups demonstrated a significant elevation in either the basal or the tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα-stimulated levels of proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and •NO (indexed by nitrite release into the culture medium; and protein carbonyl products. Specific cytokine- and TNFα death-receptor-associated components were similarly upregulated in cultured G93A-SOD1 cells as assessed by multiprobe ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs for their mRNA transcripts. Thus, endogenous glial expression of G93A-SOD1 produces a metastable condition in which glia are more prone to enter an activated neuroinflammatory state associated with broad-spectrum increased production of paracrine-acting substances. These findings support a role for active glial involvement in ALS and may provide a useful cell culture tool for the study of glial inflammation.

  1. Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raizada, M.K.; Phillips, M.I.; Crews, F.T.; Sumners, C.

    1987-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang-II) has profound effects on the brain. Receptors for Ang-II have been demonstrated on neurons, but no relationship between glial cells and Agn-II has been established. Glial cells (from the hypothalamus and brain stem of 1-day-old rat brains) in primary culture have been used to demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors. Binding of 125 I-Ang-II to glial cultures was rapid, reversible, saturable, and specific for Ang-II. The rank order of potency of 125 I-Ang-II binding was determined. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogeneous population of high-affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 110 fmol/mg of protein. Light-microscopic autoradiography of 125 I-Ang-II binding supported the kinetic data, documenting specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells. Ang-II stimulated a dose-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols in glial cells, an effect mediated by Ang-II receptors. However, Ang-II failed to influence [ 3 H] norepinephrine uptake, and catecholamines failed to regulate Ang-II receptors, effects that occur in neurons. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells in primary cultures derived from normotensive rat brain. The receptors are kinetically similar to, but functionally distinct from, the neuronal Ang-II receptors

  2. An in vitro clonogenic assay to assess radiation damage in rat CNS glial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1990-01-01

    Normal glial progenitor cells can be isolated from the rat central nervous system (CNS) and cultured in vitro on a monolayer of type-1 astrocytes. These monolayers are able to support and stimulate explanted glial progenitor cells to proliferate. Employing these in vitro interactions of specific glial cell types, an in vivo-in vitro clonogenic assay has been developed. This method offers the possibility to study the intrinsic radiosensitivity, repair and regeneration of glial progenitor cells after in vitro or in vivo irradiation. (author)

  3. Micropit: a new cell culturing approach for characterization of solitary astrocytes and small networks of these glial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes play an important role in cell-cell signaling in the mammalian central nervous system. The ability of astrocytes to communicate with surrounding cells through gap-junctional coupling or signaling via the release of transmitters makes characterization of these cells difficult in vitro and even more so in vivo. To simplify the complexity of common in vitro systems, introduced by intercellular communication between astrocytes, we developed a novel cell culturing method, in which purified rat visual cortical astrocytes were grown in spatially defined cell-adhesion wells which we termed micropits. We showed that astrocytes cultured in micropit regions were viable and exhibited similar characteristics of Ca2+ dynamics and astrocytic marker expression to those of cells cultured in non-micropit regions. Examination of intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in solitary astrocytes cultured in micropits revealed less variable oscillations than those of non-micropit grouped astrocytes, which were in contact with their neighbors. Solitary cells in micropit regions can undergo ATP-mediated astrocyte-microglia signaling, demonstrating that this culturing method can also be used to investigate glial-glial interactions in a spatially well-defined microenvironment.

  4. Distinctive response of CNS glial cells in oro-facial pain associated with injury, infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-da-Silva Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oro-facial pain following injury and infection is frequently observed in dental clinics. While neuropathic pain evoked by injury associated with nerve lesion has an involvement of glia/immune cells, inflammatory hyperalgesia has an exaggerated sensitization mediated by local and circulating immune mediators. To better understand the contribution of central nervous system (CNS glial cells in these different pathological conditions, in this study we sought to characterize functional phenotypes of glial cells in response to trigeminal nerve injury (loose ligation of the mental branch, infection (subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide-LPS and to sterile inflammation (subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant-CFA on the lower lip. Each of the three insults triggered a specific pattern of mechanical allodynia. In parallel with changes in sensory response, CNS glial cells reacted distinctively to the challenges. Following ligation of the mental nerve, both microglia and astrocytes in the trigeminal nuclear complex were highly activated, more prominent in the principal sensory nucleus (Pr5 and subnucleus caudalis (Sp5C area. Microglial response was initiated early (days 3-14, followed by delayed astrocytes activation (days 7-28. Although the temporal profile of microglial and astrocyte reaction corresponded respectively to the initiation and chronic stage of neuropathic pain, these activated glial cells exhibited a low profile of cytokine expression. Local injection of LPS in the lower lip skin also triggered a microglial reaction in the brain, which started in the circumventricular organs (CVOs at 5 hours post-injection and diffused progressively into the brain parenchyma at 48 hours. This LPS-induced microglial reaction was accompanied by a robust induction of IκB-α mRNA and pro-inflammatory cytokines within the CVOs. However, LPS induced microglial activation did not specifically occur along the pain signaling pathway. In

  5. Trans-activation of the JC virus late promoter by the tat protein of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus in glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, Hiroomi; Lashgari, M.; Amini, S.; Khalili, K.; Rappaport, J.; Wong-Staal, F.

    1990-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the JC virus (JCV), a human papovavirus. PML is a relatively rare disease seen predominantly in immunocompromised individuals and is a frequent complication observed in AIDS patients. The significantly higher incidence of PML in AIDS patients than in other immunosuppressive disorders has suggested that the presence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the brain may directly or indirectly contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. In the present study the authors have examined the expression of the JCV genome in both glial and non-glial cells in the presence of HIV-1 regulatory proteins. They find that the HIV-1-encoded trans-regulatory protein tat increases the basal activity of the JCV late promoter, JCV L , in glial cells. They conclude that the presence of the HIV-1-encoded tat protein may positively affect the JCV lytic cycle in glial cells by stimulating JCV gene expression. The results suggest a mechanism for the relatively high incidence of PML in AIDS patients than in other immunosuppressive disorders. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the HIV-1 regulatory protein tat may stimulate other viral and perhaps cellular promoters, in addition to its own

  6. ­Glial and stem cell expression of murine Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 in the embryonic and perinatal nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantzen C. Collette

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and their receptors (FGFRs are involved in the development and function of multiple organs and organ systems, including the central nervous system (CNS. FGF signaling via FGFR1, one of the three FGFRs expressed in the CNS, stimulates proliferation of stem cells during prenatal and postnatal neurogenesis and participates in regulating cell-type ratios in many developing regions of the brain. Anomalies in FGFR1 signaling have been implicated in certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Fgfr1 expression has been shown, via in situ hybridization, to vary spatially and temporally throughout embryonic and postnatal development of the brain. However, in situ hybridization lacks sufficient resolution to identify which cell-types directly participate in FGF signaling. Furthermore, because antibodies raised against FGFR1 commonly cross-react with other members of the FGFR family, immunocytochemistry is not alone sufficient to accurately document Fgfr1 expression. Here, we elucidate the identity of Fgfr1 expressing cells in both the embryonic and perinatal mouse brain. Methods To do this, we utilized a tgFGFR1-EGFPGP338Gsat BAC line (tgFgfr1-EGFP+ obtained from the GENSAT project. The tgFgfr1-EGFP+ line expresses EGFP under the control of a Fgfr1 promoter, thereby causing cells endogenously expressing Fgfr1 to also present a positive GFP signal. Through simple immunostaining using GFP antibodies and cell-type specific antibodies, we were able to accurately determine the cell-type of Fgfr1 expressing cells. Results This technique revealed Fgfr1 expression in proliferative zones containing BLBP+ radial glial stem cells, such as the cortical and hippocampal ventricular zones, and cerebellar anlage of E14.5 mice, in addition to DCX+ neuroblasts. Furthermore, our data reveal Fgfr1 expression in proliferative zones containing BLBP+ cells of the anterior midline, hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum of P0.5 mice

  7. Giant Glial Cell: New Insight Through Mechanism-Based Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Ryazanova, L. S.; Brazhe, Nadezda

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a detailed mechanism-based model of a tripartite synapse consisting of P- and R-neurons together with a giant glial cell in the ganglia of the medical leech (Hirudo medicinalis), which is a useful object for experimental studies in situ. We describe the two main pathways...... of the glial cell activation: (1) via IP3 production and Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and (2) via increase of the extracellular potassium concentration, glia depolarization, and opening of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. We suggest that the second pathway is the more significant...

  8. Effect of iron deficiency on the expression of insulin-like growth factor-II and its receptor in neuronal and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales González, E; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A

    2014-09-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that iron deficiency modifies the normal function of the central nervous system and alters cognitive abilities. When cellular damage occurs in the central nervous system, neuroprotective mechanisms, such as the production of neurotrophic factors, are essential in order for nervous tissue to function correctly. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF- II) is a neurotrophic factor that was recently shown to be involved in the normal functioning of cognitive processes in animal models. However, the impact of iron deficiency on the expression and function of this molecule has not yet been clarified. Mixed primary cell cultures from the central nervous system were collected to simulate iron deficiency using deferoxamine. The expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-IIR was determined with the western blot test. We observed increased expression of IGF-II, along with a corresponding decrease in the expression of IGF-IIR, in iron-deficient mixed primary cell cultures. We did not observe alterations in the expression of these proteins in isolated microglia or neuronal cultures under the same conditions. We did not detect differences in the expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR in iron-deficient cultures. In vitro iron deficiency increases the expression of IGF-II in mixed glial cell cultures, which may have a beneficial effect on brain tissue homeostasis in a situation in which iron availability is decreased. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Allergic Inflammation Leads to Neuropathic Pain via Glial Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Ryo; Fujii, Takayuki; Wang, Bing; Masaki, Katsuhisa; Kido, Mizuho A; Yoshida, Mari; Matsushita, Takuya; Kira, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-23

    Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system. We found that mice with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or atopic diathesis had widespread and significantly more activated microglia and astroglia in the spinal cord than those without atopy, and displayed tactile allodynia. Microarray analysis of isolated microglia revealed a dysregulated phenotype showing upregulation of M1 macrophage markers and downregulation of M2 markers in atopic mice. Among the cell surface protein genes, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) was most upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that EDNRB expression was enhanced in microglia and astroglia, whereas endothelin-1, an EDNRB ligand, was increased in serum, lungs, and epidermis of atopic mice. No EDNRA expression was found in the spinal cord. Expression of FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B was significantly higher in the dorsal horn neurons of asthma mice than nonatopic mice. The EDNRB antagonist BQ788 abolished glial and neural activation and allodynia. We found increased serum endothelin-1 in atopic patients with myelitis and neuropathic pain, and activation of spinal microglia and astroglia with EDNRB upregulation in an autopsied case. These results suggest that allergic inflammation induces diffuse glial activation, influencing the nociceptive system via the EDNRB pathway. The prevalence of allergic disorders has markedly increased over the past few decades. Allergic disorders are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation

  10. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System-Microglia–The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 10. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - Microglia – The Guardians of the CNS. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Daya Manghani. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 10 October 2002 pp 23-29 ...

  11. Involvement of glial cells in the neurotoxicity of parathion and chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurich, M.-G.; Honegger, P.; Schilter, B.; Costa, L.G.; Monnet-Tschudi, F.

    2004-01-01

    An in vitro model, the aggregating brain cell culture of fetal rat telencephalon, has been used to investigate the influence of glial cells on the neurotoxicity of two organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), chlorpyrifos and parathion. Mixed-cell aggregate cultures were treated continuously for 10 days between DIV 5 and 15. Parathion induced astrogliosis at concentration at which MAP-2 immunostaining, found here to be more sensitive than neuron-specific enzyme activities, was not affected. In contrast, chlorpyrifos induced a comparatively weak gliotic reaction, and only at concentrations at which neurons were already affected. After similar treatments, increased neurotoxicity of parathion and chlorpyrifos was found in aggregate cultures deprived of glial cells. These results suggest that glial cells provide neuroprotection against OPs toxicity. To address the question of the difference in toxicity between parathion and chlorpyrifos, the toxic effects of their leaving groups, p-nitrophenol and trichloropyridinol, were studied in mixed-cell aggregates. General cytotoxicity was more pronounced for trichloropyridinol and both compounds had similar toxic effects on neuron-specific enzyme activities. In contrast, trichloropyridinol induced a much stronger decrease in glutamine synthetase activity, the enzymatic marker of astrocytes. Trichloropyridinol may exert a toxic effect on astrocytes, compromising their neuroprotective function, thus exacerbating the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos. This is in line with the suggestion that glial cells may contribute to OPs neurotoxicity, and with the view that OPs may exert their neurotoxic effects through different mechanisms

  12. Isolation of skin-derived precursors from human foreskin and their differentiation into neurons and glial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiari M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Skin-derived precursors (SKPs are a type of progenitor cells extracted from mammalian dermal tissue and can be differentiate to neural and mesodermal lineage in vitro. These cells can introduce an accessible autologos source of neural precursor cells for treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases. This research was done in order to set up isolation, culture, proliferation and differentiation of human skin derived precursors (hSKPs."n"nMethods: Human foreskin samples were cut into smaller pieces and cultured in proliferation medium after enzymatic digestion. To induce neural differentiation, cells were cultured in neural differentiation medium after fifth passage. We used immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR for characterization of the cells. Neuron and glial cell differentiation potential was assessed by immunofloresence using specific antibodies. The experiments were carried out in triplicate."n"nResults: After differentiation, βΙΙΙ- tubulin and neurofilament-M positive cells were observed that are specific markers for neurons. Moreover, glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP and S100 positive cells were identified that are markers specifically express in glial cells. Detected neurons and glials were

  13. Sodium channels in axons and glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C M; Strichartz, G R; Orkand, R K

    1979-11-01

    Experiments investigating both the binding of radioactively labelled saxitoxin (STX) and the electrophysiological response to drugs that increase the sodium permeability of excitable membranes were conducted in an effort to detect sodium channels in glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa, the mudpuppy. Glial cells in nerves from chronically enucleated animals, which lack optic nerve axons, show no saturable uptake of STX whereas a saturable uptake is clearly present in normal optic nerves. The normal nerve is depolarized by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine (10(-6)-10(-5) M), whereas the all-glial preparation is only depolarized by veratridine and at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M. Unlike the depolarization caused by veratridine in normal nerves, the response in the all-glial tissue is not blocked by tetrodotoxin nor enhanced by scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus). In glial cells of the normal nerve, where axons are also present, the addition of 10(-5) M veratridine does lead to a transient depolarization; however, it is much briefer than the axonal response to veratridine in this same tissue. This glial response to veratridine could be caused by the efflux of K+ from the drug-depolarized axons, and is similar to the glial response to extracellular K+ accumulation resulting from action potentials in the axon.

  14. Flavonoids Modulate the Proliferation of Neospora caninum in Glial Cell Primary Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa de Matos, Rosan; Braga-de-Souza, Suzana; Pena Seara Pitanga, Bruno; Amaral da Silva, Victor Diógenes; Viana de Jesus, Erica Etelvina; Morales Pinheiro, Alexandre; Dias Costa, Maria de Fátima; dos Santos El-Bacha, Ramon; de Oliveira Ribeiro, Cátia Suse

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum (Apicomplexa; Sarcocystidae) is a protozoan that causes abortion in cattle, horses, sheep, and dogs as well as neurological and dermatological diseases in dogs. In the central nervous system of dogs infected with N. caninum, cysts were detected that exhibited gliosis and meningitis. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that exhibit antibacterial, antiparasitic, antifungal, and antiviral properties. In this study, we investigated the effects of flavonoids in a well-established in vitro model of N. caninum infection in glial cell cultures. Glial cells were treated individually with 10 different flavonoids, and a subset of cultures was also infected with the NC-1 strain of N. caninum. All of the flavonoids tested induced an increase in the metabolism of glial cells and many of them increased nitrite levels in cultures infected with NC-1 compared to controls and uninfected cultures. Among the flavonoids tested, 3',4'-dihydroxyflavone, 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone (luteolin), and 3,3',4',5,6-pentahydroxyflavone (quercetin), also inhibited parasitophorous vacuole formation. Taken together, our findings show that flavonoids modulate glial cell responses, increase NO secretion, and interfere with N. caninum infection and proliferation. PMID:25548412

  15. Responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to nanostructured platinum surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennisi, C P; Sevcencu, C; Yoshida, K [Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Larsen, A Nylandsted; Besenbacher, F [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Hansen, J Lundsgaard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Zachar, V, E-mail: cpennisi@hst.aau.d [Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University (Denmark)

    2009-09-23

    The chronic performance of implantable neural prostheses is affected by the growth of encapsulation tissue onto the stimulation electrodes. Encapsulation is associated with activation of connective tissue cells at the electrode's metallic contacts, usually made of platinum. Since surface nanotopography can modulate the cellular responses to materials, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the 'in vitro' responses of connective tissue cells to platinum strictly by modulating its surface nanoroughness. Using molecular beam epitaxy combined with sputtering, we produced platinum nanostructured substrates consisting of irregularly distributed nanopyramids and investigated their effect on the proliferation, cytoskeletal organization and cellular morphology of primary fibroblasts and transformed glial cells. Cells were cultured on these substrates and their responses to surface roughness were studied. After one day in culture, the fibroblasts were more elongated and their cytoskeleton less mature when cultured on rough substrates. This effect increased as the roughness of the surface increased and was associated with reduced cell proliferation throughout the observation period (4 days). Morphological changes also occurred in glial cells, but they were triggered by a different roughness scale and did not affect cellular proliferation. In conclusion, surface nanotopography modulates the responses of fibroblasts and glial cells to platinum, which may be an important factor in optimizing the tissue response to implanted neural electrodes.

  16. Astrocyte-like glial cells physiologically regulate olfactory processing through the modification of ORN-PN synaptic strength in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Zhou, Bangyu; Yan, Wenjun; Lei, Zhengchang; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Ke; Guo, Aike

    2014-09-01

    Astrocyte-like glial cells are abundant in the central nervous system of adult Drosophila and exhibit morphology similar to astrocytes of mammals. Previous evidence has shown that astrocyte-like glial cells are strongly associated with synapses in the antennal lobe (AL), the first relay of the olfactory system, where olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) transmit information into projection neurons (PNs). However, the function of astrocyte-like glia in the AL remains obscure. In this study, using in vivo calcium imaging, we found that astrocyte-like glial cells exhibited spontaneous microdomain calcium elevations. Using simultaneous manipulation of glial activity and monitoring of neuronal function, we found that the astrocyte-like glial activation, but not ensheathing glial activation, could inhibit odor-evoked responses of PNs. Ensheathing glial cells are another subtype of glia, and are of functional importance in the AL. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that astrocyte-like glial activation decreased the amplitude and slope of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked through electrical stimulation of the antennal nerve. These results suggest that astrocyte-like glial cells may regulate olfactory processing through negative regulation of ORN-PN synaptic strength. Beyond the antennal lobe we observed astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium activities in the ventromedial protocerebrum, indicating that astrocyte-like glial spontaneous calcium elevations might be general in the adult fly brain. Overall, our study demonstrates a new function for astrocyte-like glial cells in the physiological modulation of olfactory information transmission, possibly through regulating ORN-PN synapse strength. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Human iPSC Glial Mouse Chimeras Reveal Glial Contributions to Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windrem, Martha S.; Osipovitch, Mikhail; Liu, Zhengshan

    2017-01-01

    with childhood-onset SCZ. After neonatal implantation into myelin-deficient shiverer mice, SCZ GPCs showed premature migration into the cortex, leading to reduced white matter expansion and hypomyelination relative to controls. The SCZ glial chimeras also showed delayed astrocytic differentiation and abnormal...... astrocytic morphologies. When established in myelin wild-type hosts, SCZ glial mice showed reduced prepulse inhibition and abnormal behavior, including excessive anxiety, antisocial traits, and disturbed sleep. RNA-seq of cultured SCZ human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) revealed disrupted glial...

  18. How do glial cells contribute to motor control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Kordt; Petersen, Anders Victor; Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie

    2013-01-01

    that glia play an active role in several physiological functions. The discovery that a bidirectional communication takes place between astrocytes (the star shaped glial cell of the brain) and neurons, was a major breakthrough in the field of synaptic physiology. Astrocytes express receptors that get...... activated by neurotransmitters during synaptic transmission. In turn they release other transmitters - called gliotransmitters - that bind to neuronal receptors and modulate synaptic transmission. This feedback, which led to the concept of the tripartite synapse, has been reported with various transmitters...... including glutamate, ATP, GABA or serine. In the present review we will focus on astrocytes and review the evidence suggesting and demonstrating their role in motor control. Rhythmic motor behaviors such as locomotion, swimming or chewing are generated by networks of neurons termed central pattern...

  19. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Simon Musyoka; Peng, Sophia; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Thorn, Natalie; Farris, Alton B; Jain, Sanjay; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Anania, Frank; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2016-01-15

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice, however, the mechanisms involved are not known. In this study we investigated the effects of GDNF overexpression and nanoparticle delivery of GDNF in mice on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and the expression of genes involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis. Transgenic overexpression of GDNF in liver and other metabolically active tissues was protective against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Mice overexpressing GDNF had significantly reduced P62/sequestosome 1 protein levels suggestive of accelerated autophagic clearance. They also had significantly reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and CD36 gene expression and protein levels, and lower expression of mRNA coding for enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis. GDNF-loaded nanoparticles were protective against short-term HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and attenuated liver fibrosis in mice with long-standing HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. They also suppressed the liver expression of steatosis-associated genes. In vitro, GDNF suppressed triglyceride accumulation in Hep G2 cells through enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent signaling and inhibition of PPAR-γ gene promoter activity. These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  20. Environmental stress, ageing and glial cell senescence: a novel mechanistic link to Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, S J; Lieu, C A; Demaria, M; Laberge, R-M; Campisi, J; Andersen, J K

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. For example, in Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic environmental exposure to certain toxins has been linked to the age-related development of neuropathology. Neuronal damage is believed to involve the induction of neuroinflammatory events as a consequence of glial cell activation. Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that occurs in a number of proliferative cell types and causes the arrest of proliferation of cells at risk of malignant transformation following exposure to potentially oncogenic stimuli. With age, senescent cells accumulate and express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP; that is the robust secretion of many inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and proteases). Whereas cell senescence in peripheral tissues has been causally linked to a number of age-related pathologies, little is known about the induction of cellular senescence and the SASP in the brain. On the basis of recently reported findings, we propose that environmental stressors associated with PD may act in part by eliciting senescence and the SASP within non neuronal glial cells in the ageing brain, thus contributing to the characteristic decline in neuronal integrity that occurs in this disorder. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. Different Levels of Expression of the Clock Protein PER and the Glial Marker REPO in Ensheathing and Astrocyte-Like Glia of the Distal Medulla of Drosophila Optic Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Walkowicz, Lucyna; Płonczyńska, Alicja; Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta

    2018-01-01

    Circadian plasticity of the visual system of Drosophila melanogaster depends on functioning of both the neuronal and glial oscillators. The clock function of the former is already quite well-recognized. The latter, however, is much less known and documented. In this study we focus on the glial oscillators that reside in the distal part of the second visual neuropil, medulla (dMnGl), in vicinity of the PIGMENT-DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) releasing terminals of the circadian clock ventral Lateral Neurons (LNvs). We reveal the heterogeneity of the dMnGl, which express the clock protein PERIOD (PER) and the pan-glial marker REVERSED POLARITY (REPO) at higher (P1) or lower (P2) levels. We show that the cells with stronger expression of PER display also stronger expression of REPO, and that the number of REPO-P1 cells is bigger during the day than during the night. Using a combination of genetic markers and immunofluorescent labeling with anti PER and REPO Abs, we have established that the P1 and P2 cells can be associated with two different types of the dMnGl, the ensheathing (EnGl), and the astrocyte-like glia (ALGl). Surprisingly, the EnGl belong to the P1 cells, whereas the ALGl, previously reported to play the main role in the circadian rhythms, display the characteristics of the P2 cells (express very low level of PER and low level of REPO). Next to the EnGl and ALGl we have also observed another type of cells in the distal medulla that express PER and REPO, although at very low levels. Based on their morphology we have identified them as the T1 interneurons. Our study reveals the complexity of the distal medulla circadian network, which appears to consist of different types of glial and neuronal peripheral clocks, displaying molecular oscillations of higher (EnGl) and lower (ALGl and T1) amplitudes.

  2. Characterization of a cis-acting element involved in cell-specific expression of the zebrafish brain aromatase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Yann; Menuet, Arnaud; Kah, Olivier; Pakdel, Farzad

    2008-10-01

    The cytochrome P450 Aromatase is the key enzyme catalyzing the conversion of androgens into estrogens. In zebrafish, the brain aromatase is encoded by cyp19b. Expression of cyp19b is restricted to radial glial cells bordering forebrain ventricles and is strongly stimulated by estrogens during development. At the promoter level, we have previously shown that an estrogen responsive element (ERE) is required for induction by estrogens. Here, we investigated the role of ERE flanking regions in the control of cell-specific expression. First, we show that a 20 bp length motif, named G x RE (glial x responsive element), acts in synergy with the ERE to mediate the estrogenic induction specifically in glial cells. Second, we demonstrate that, in vitro, this sequence binds factors exclusively present in glial or neuro-glial cells and is able to confer a glial specificity to an artificial estrogen-dependent gene. Taken together, these results contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms allowing cyp19b regulation by estrogens and allowed to identify a promoter sequence involved in the strong estrogen inducibility of cyp19b which is specific for glial cells. The exceptional aromatase activity measured in the brain of teleost fish could rely on such mechanisms.

  3. MicroRNA-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and regulates glioma cell migration by targeting connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Bier, Ariel; Cazacu, Simona; Finniss, Susan; Xiang, Cunli; Twito, Hodaya; Poisson, Laila M; Mikkelsen, Tom; Slavin, Shimon; Jacoby, Elad; Yalon, Michal; Toren, Amos; Rempel, Sandra A; Brodie, Chaya

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBM), the most common and aggressive type of malignant glioma, are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding brain tissues. Despite intensive therapeutic strategies, the median survival of GBM patients has remained dismal over the last decades. In this study we examined the expression of miR-145 in glial tumors and its function in glioma cells. Using TCGA analysis and real-time PCR we found that the expression of miR-145/143 cluster was downregulated in astrocytic tumors compared to normal brain specimens and in glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs) compared to normal astrocytes and neural stem cells. Moreover, the low expression of both miR-145 and miR-143 in GBM was correlated with poor patient prognosis. Transfection of glioma cells with miR-145 mimic or transduction with a lentivirus vector expressing pre-miR 145 significantly decreased the migration and invasion of glioma cells. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a novel target of miR-145 in glioma cells; transfection of the cells with this miRNA decreased the expression of CTGF as determined by Western blot analysis and the expression of its 3'-UTR fused to luciferase. Overexpression of a CTGF plasmid lacking the 3'-UTR and administration of recombinant CTGF protein abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-145 on glioma cell migration. Similarly, we found that silencing of CTGF decreased the migration of glioma cells. CTGF silencing also decreased the expression of SPARC, phospho-FAK and FAK and overexpression of SPARC abrogated the inhibitory effect of CTGF silencing on cell migration. These results demonstrate that miR-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and its low expression in GBM predicts poor patient prognosis. In addition miR-145 regulates glioma cell migration by targeting CTGF which downregulates SPARC expression. Therefore, miR-145 is an attractive therapeutic target for anti-invasive treatment of astrocytic tumors.

  4. MicroRNA-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and regulates glioma cell migration by targeting connective tissue growth factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Lee

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas (GBM, the most common and aggressive type of malignant glioma, are characterized by increased invasion into the surrounding brain tissues. Despite intensive therapeutic strategies, the median survival of GBM patients has remained dismal over the last decades. In this study we examined the expression of miR-145 in glial tumors and its function in glioma cells. Using TCGA analysis and real-time PCR we found that the expression of miR-145/143 cluster was downregulated in astrocytic tumors compared to normal brain specimens and in glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs compared to normal astrocytes and neural stem cells. Moreover, the low expression of both miR-145 and miR-143 in GBM was correlated with poor patient prognosis. Transfection of glioma cells with miR-145 mimic or transduction with a lentivirus vector expressing pre-miR 145 significantly decreased the migration and invasion of glioma cells. We identified connective tissue growth factor (CTGF as a novel target of miR-145 in glioma cells; transfection of the cells with this miRNA decreased the expression of CTGF as determined by Western blot analysis and the expression of its 3'-UTR fused to luciferase. Overexpression of a CTGF plasmid lacking the 3'-UTR and administration of recombinant CTGF protein abrogated the inhibitory effect of miR-145 on glioma cell migration. Similarly, we found that silencing of CTGF decreased the migration of glioma cells. CTGF silencing also decreased the expression of SPARC, phospho-FAK and FAK and overexpression of SPARC abrogated the inhibitory effect of CTGF silencing on cell migration. These results demonstrate that miR-145 is downregulated in glial tumors and its low expression in GBM predicts poor patient prognosis. In addition miR-145 regulates glioma cell migration by targeting CTGF which downregulates SPARC expression. Therefore, miR-145 is an attractive therapeutic target for anti-invasive treatment of astrocytic tumors.

  5. DNA synthesis during development and proliferation of glial cells in organotypic rat cerebellar culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renkawek, K.

    1977-01-01

    DNA synthesis was investigated in glial cells in vitro with 3 H thymidine in concentration 1 μCi/ml medium. Incorporation of isotope into the glial nuclei has been found both in the explant (7-21%) and in the outgrowth (22-56%). DNA synthesis was dependent on the age of culture and due to the contact inhibition in the outgrowth. Results point out that marked DNA synthesis is a characteristic feature of glia differentiation and of reactive character of glial cells in vitro. (author)

  6. Glial Cells - The Key Elements of Alzheimer's Disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Džamba, Dávid; Harantová, Lenka; Butenko, Olena; Anděrová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 8 (2016), s. 894-911 ISSN 1567-2050 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : alzheimer 's disease * astrocytes * glial cells Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2016

  7. How Does Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Influence Glial Cells in the Central Nervous System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is widely used in the clinic, and while it has a direct effect on neuronal excitability, the beneficial effects experienced by patients are likely to include the indirect activation of other cell types. Research conducted over the past two decades has made it increasingly clear that a population of non-neuronal cells, collectively known as glia, respond to and facilitate neuronal signalling. Each glial cell type has the ability to respond to electrical activity directly or indirectly, making them likely cellular effectors of TMS. TMS has been shown to enhance adult neural stem and progenitor cell proliferation, but the effect on cell survival and differentiation is less certain. Furthermore there is limited information regarding the response of astrocytes and microglia to TMS, and a complete paucity of data relating to the response of oligodendrocyte-lineage cells to this treatment. However, due to the critical and yet multifaceted role of glial cells in the CNS, the influence that TMS has on glial cells is certainly an area that warrants careful examination.

  8. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Barradas

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  9. Environmental stress, ageing and glial cell senescence: a novel mechanistic link to Parkinson’s disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinta, Shankar J; Lieu, Christopher A; DeMaria, Marco; Laberge, Remi-Martin; Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie K

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. For example, in Parkinson’s disease (PD), chronic environmental exposure to certain toxins has been linked to the age-related development of neuropathology. Neuronal damage is believed to involve the induction of neuroinflammatory events as a consequence of glial cell activation. Cellular senescence is a potent anti-cancer mechanism that occurs in a number of proliferative cell types and causes the arrest of proliferation of cells at risk of malignant transformation following exposure to potentially oncogenic stimuli. With age, senescent cells accumulate and express a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP; i.e. the robust secretion of many inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and proteases). Whereas cell senescence in peripheral tissues has been causally linked to a number of age-related pathologies, little is known about the induction of cellular senescence and the SASP in the brain. Based on recently reported findings, we propose that environmental stressors associated with PD may act in part by eliciting senescence and the SASP within non-neuronal glial cells in the ageing brain, thus contributing to the characteristic decline in neuronal integrity that occurs in this disorder. PMID:23600398

  10. MALDI mass spectrometry based molecular phenotyping of CNS glial cells for prediction in mammalian brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanrieder, Jørg; Wicher, Grzegorz; Bergquist, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    . Complementary proteomic experiments revealed the identity of these signature proteins that were predominantly expressed in the different glial cell types, including histone H4 for oligodendrocytes and S100-A10 for astrocytes. MALDI imaging MS was performed, and signature masses were employed as molecular...... tracers for prediction of oligodendroglial and astroglial localization in brain tissue. The different cell type specific protein distributions in tissue were validated using immunohistochemistry. ICMS of intact neuroglia is a simple and straightforward approach for characterization and discrimination...

  11. The effects of centrally administered fluorocitrate via inhibiting glial cells on working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Although prefrontal and hippocampal neurons are critical for spatial working memory,the function of glial cells in spatial working memory remains uncertain.In this study we investigated the function of glial cells in rats’ working memory.The glial cells of rat brain were inhibited by intracerebroventricular(icv) injection of fluorocitrate(FC).The effects of FC on the glial cells were examined by using electroencephalogram(EEG) recordings and delayed spatial alternation tasks.After icv injection of 10 μL of 0.5 nmol/L or 5 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectrum recorded from the hippocampus increased,but the power spectrum for the prefrontal cortex did not change,and working memory was unaffected.Following an icv injection of 10 μL of 20 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus increased,and working memory improved.The icv injection of 10 μL of 50 nmol/L FC,the EEG power spectra in both the prefrontal cortex and in the hippocampus decreased,and working memory was impaired.These results suggest that spatial working memory is affected by centrally administered FC,but only if there are changes in the EEG power spectrum in the prefrontal cortex.Presumably,the prefrontal glial cells relate to the working memory.

  12. The neurogenic factor NeuroD1 is expressed in post-mitotic cells during juvenile and adult Xenopus neurogenesis and not in progenitor or radial glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Anne D'Amico

    Full Text Available In contrast to mammals that have limited proliferation and neurogenesis capacities, the Xenopus frog exhibit a great potential regarding proliferation and production of new cells in the adult brain. This ability makes Xenopus a useful model for understanding the molecular programs required for adult neurogenesis. Transcriptional factors that control adult neurogenesis in vertebrate species undergoing widespread neurogenesis are unknown. NeuroD1 is a member of the family of proneural genes, which function during embryonic neurogenesis as a potent neuronal differentiation factor. Here, we study in detail the expression of NeuroD1 gene in the juvenile and adult Xenopus brains by in situ hybridization combined with immunodetections for proliferation markers (PCNA, BrdU or in situ hybridizations for cell type markers (Vimentin, Sox2. We found NeuroD1 gene activity in many brain regions, including olfactory bulbs, pallial regions of cerebral hemispheres, preoptic area, habenula, hypothalamus, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. We also demonstrated by double staining NeuroD1/BrdU experiments, after long post-BrdU administration survival times, that NeuroD1 gene activity was turned on in new born neurons during post-metamorphic neurogenesis. Importantly, we provided evidence that NeuroD1-expressing cells at this brain developmental stage were post-mitotic (PCNA- cells and not radial glial (Vimentin+ or progenitors (Sox2+ cells.

  13. Cell-Type Specific Changes in Glial Morphology and Glucocorticoid Expression During Stress and Aging in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Chan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to stressors is known to produce large-scale remodeling of neurons within the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Recent work suggests stress-related forms of structural plasticity can interact with aging to drive distinct patterns of pyramidal cell morphological changes. However, little is known about how other cellular components within PFC might be affected by these challenges. Here, we examined the effects of stress exposure and aging on medial prefrontal cortical glial subpopulations. Interestingly, we found no changes in glial morphology with stress exposure but a profound morphological change with aging. Furthermore, we found an upregulation of non-nuclear glucocorticoid receptors (GR with aging, while nuclear levels remained largely unaffected. Both changes are selective for microglia, with no stress or aging effect found in astrocytes. Lastly, we show that the changes found within microglia inversely correlated with the density of dendritic spines on layer III pyramidal cells. These findings suggest microglia play a selective role in synaptic health within the aging brain.

  14. DHT inhibits the Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis by regulation of seladin-1, survivin, XIAP, bax, and bcl-xl expression through a rapid PI3-K/Akt signaling in C6 glial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Lelin; Wu, Junfeng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Chen, Yinghui; Hong, Zhen; Zu, Hengbing

    2015-01-01

    Previous evidences indicate that androgen is neuroprotective in the brain. However, the underling mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Moreover, it is controversial whether dihydrotestosterone (DHT) modulates the expression of apoptosis-related effectors, such as survivin, XIAP, bax, and bcl-xl proteins mediated by the PI3-K/Akt pathway, which contributes to androgen neuroprotection. In this study using a C6 glial cell model, apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry. Akt, seladin-1, survivin, XIAP, bcl-xl, and bax protein expression is investigated by Western blot. After amyloid β-protein fragment (Aβ25-35) treatment, apoptotic cells at early (annexin V+, PI-) and late (annexin V+, PI+) stages were significantly increased. Apoptosis at early and late was obviously inhibited in the presence of DHT. The effect of DHT was markedly blocked by PI3-K inhibitor LY294002.To elicit the mechanism of DHT protection, the expression of seladin-1, survivin, XIAP, bax, and bcl-xl protein was determined in C6 cells treated with Aβ25-35, DHT, or LY294002. Aβ25-35 significantly downregulated the expression of seladin-1, survivin, XIAP, bcl-xl protein and upregulated the expression of bax protein. DHT significantly inhibited the expression of bax, seladin-1, survivin, XIAP, and bcl-xl protein induced by Aβ25-35. Further, we found the effect of DHT was significantly inhibited by LY294002. Collectively, in a C6 glial cell model, we firstly found that DHT inhibits Aβ25-35-induced apoptosis by a rapid nongenic PI-3K/Akt activation as well as regulation of seladin-1, survivin, XIAP, bcl-xl, and bax proteins.

  15. Long term effects of lipopolysaccharide on satellite glial cells in mouse dorsal root ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, E. [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240 (Israel); Procacci, P.; Conte, V.; Sartori, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, University of Milan, via Mangiagalli 14, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Hanani, M., E-mail: hananim@cc.huji.ac.il [Laboratory of Experimental Surgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91240 (Israel)

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been used extensively to study neuroinflammation, but usually its effects were examined acutely (24 h<). We have shown previously that a single intraperitoneal LPS injection activated satellite glial cells (SGCs) in mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and altered several functional parameters in these cells for at least one week. Here we asked whether the LPS effects would persist for 1 month. We injected mice with a single LPS dose and tested pain behavior, assessed SGCs activation in DRG using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, and injected a fluorescent dye intracellularly to study intercellular coupling. Electron microscopy was used to quantitate changes in gap junctions. We found that at 30 days post-LPS the threshold to mechanical stimulation was lower than in controls. GFAP expression, as well as the magnitude of dye coupling among SGCs were greater than in controls. Electron microscopy analysis supported these results, showing a greater number of gap junctions and an abnormal growth of SGC processes. These changes were significant, but less prominent than at 7 days post-LPS. We conclude that a single LPS injection exerts long-term behavioral and cellular changes. The results are consistent with the idea that SGC activation contributes to hyperalgesia. - Highlights: • A single lipopolysaccharides injection activated glia in mouse dorsal root ganglia for 30 days. • This was accompanied by increased communications by gap junctions among glia and by hyperalgesia. • Glial activation and coupling may contribute to chronic pain.

  16. NANOS2 acts downstream of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor signaling to suppress differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Aiko; Hasegawa, Kazuteru; Pin, Pui Han; Saga, Yumiko

    2012-02-01

    Stem cells are maintained by both stem cell-extrinsic niche signals and stem cell-intrinsic factors. During murine spermatogenesis, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) signal emanated from Sertoli cells and germ cell-intrinsic factor NANOS2 represent key regulators for the maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells. However, it remains unclear how these factors intersect in stem cells to control their cellular state. Here, we show that GDNF signaling is essential to maintain NANOS2 expression, and overexpression of Nanos2 can alleviate the stem cell loss phenotype caused by the depletion of Gfra1, a receptor for GDNF. By using an inducible Cre-loxP system, we show that NANOS2 expression is downregulated upon the conditional knockout (cKO) of Gfra1, while ectopic expression of Nanos2 in GFRA1-negative spermatogonia does not induce de novo GFRA1 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Nanos2 in the Gfra1-cKO testes prevents precocious differentiation of the Gfra1-knockout stem cells and partially rescues the stem cell loss phenotypes of Gfra1-deficient mice, indicating that the stem cell differentiation can be suppressed by NANOS2 even in the absence of GDNF signaling. Taken together, we suggest that NANOS2 acts downstream of GDNF signaling to maintain undifferentiated state of spermatogonial stem cells. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  17. Characterization of rat primary trigeminal satellite glial cells and associated extracellular vesicles under normal and inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinterhøj, Hye Sook Han; Stensballe, Allan; Duroux, Meg

    2018-01-01

    Satellite glial cells (SGCs) in sensory ganglia contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pain, potentially through mediating extracellular or paracrine signaling. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the form of exosomes have been found to play an important role in cell-cell communication....... Results demonstrated that SGCs shed vesicles in the size range of exosomes (>150 nm) but with altered protein expression upon LPS-activation. Proteomic profiling of SGCs-shed EVs showed that a number of proteins were differentially regulated upon LPS stimulation such as junction plakoglobin and myosin 9...

  18. Spatial organization of NG2 glial cells and astrocytes in rat hippocampal CA1 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Min

    2014-04-01

    Similar to astrocytes, NG2 glial cells are uniformly distributed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the interspatial relationship, nor the functional interactions between these two star-shaped glial subtypes. Confocal morphometric analysis showed that NG2 immunostained cells are spatially organized as domains in rat hippocampal CA1 region and that each NG2 glial domain occupies a spatial volume of ∼178, 364 μm(3) . The processes of NG2 glia and astrocytes overlap extensively; each NG2 glial domain interlaces with the processes deriving from 5.8 ± 0.4 neighboring astrocytes, while each astrocytic domain accommodates processes stemming from 4.5 ± 0.3 abutting NG2 glia. In CA1 stratum radiatum, the cell bodies of morphologically identified glial cells often appear to make direct somatic-somata contact, termed as doublets. We used dual patch recording and postrecording NG2/GFAP double staining to determine the glial identities of these doublets. We show that among 44 doublets, 50% were NG2 glia-astrocyte pairs, while another 38.6% and 11.4% were astrocyte-astrocyte and NG2 glia-NG2 glia pairs, respectively. In dual patch recording, neither electrical coupling nor intercellular biocytin transfer was detected in astrocyte-NG2 glia or NG2 glia-NG2 glia doublets. Altogether, although NG2 glia and astrocytes are not gap junction coupled, their cell bodies and processes are interwoven extensively. The anatomical and physiological relationships revealed in this study should facilitate future studies to understand the metabolic coupling and functional communication between NG2 glia and astrocytes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Electron microscopy of glial cells of the central nervous system in the crab Ucides cordatus

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    Allodi S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate glial cells show a variety of morphologies depending on species and location. They have been classified according to relatively general morphological or functional criteria and also to their location. The present study was carried out to characterize the organization of glial cells and their processes in the zona fasciculata and in the protocerebral tract of the crab Ucides cordatus. We performed routine and cytochemical procedures for electron microscopy analysis. Semithin sections were observed at the light microscope. The Thiéry procedure indicated the presence of carbohydrates, particularly glycogen, in tissue and in cells. To better visualize the axonal ensheathment at the ultrastructural level, we employed a method to enhance the unsaturated fatty acids present in membranes. Our results showed that there are at least two types of glial cells in these nervous structures, a light one and a dark one. Most of the dark cell processes have been mentioned in the literature as extracellular matrix, but since they presented an enveloping membrane, glycogen and mitochondria - intact and with different degrees of disruption - they were considered to be glial cells in the present study. We assume that they correspond to the perineurial cells on the basis of their location. The light cells must correspond to the periaxonal cells. Some characteristics of the axons such as their organization, ensheathment and subcellular structures are also described.

  20. Studying the glial cell response to biomaterials and surface topography for improving the neural electrode interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, Evon S.

    Neural electrode devices hold great promise to help people with the restoration of lost functions, however, research is lacking in the biomaterial design of a stable, long-term device. Current devices lack long term functionality, most have been found unable to record neural activity within weeks after implantation due to the development of glial scar tissue (Polikov et al., 2006; Zhong and Bellamkonda, 2008). The long-term effect of chronically implanted electrodes is the formation of a glial scar made up of reactive astrocytes and the matrix proteins they generate (Polikov et al., 2005; Seil and Webster, 2008). Scarring is initiated when a device is inserted into brain tissue and is associated with an inflammatory response. Activated astrocytes are hypertrophic, hyperplastic, have an upregulation of intermediate filaments GFAP and vimentin expression, and filament formation (Buffo et al., 2010; Gervasi et al., 2008). Current approaches towards inhibiting the initiation of glial scarring range from altering the geometry, roughness, size, shape and materials of the device (Grill et al., 2009; Kotov et al., 2009; Kotzar et al., 2002; Szarowski et al., 2003). Literature has shown that surface topography modifications can alter cell alignment, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and gene expression (Agnew et al., 1983; Cogan et al., 2005; Cogan et al., 2006; Merrill et al., 2005). Thus, the goals of the presented work are to study the cellular response to biomaterials used in neural electrode fabrication and assess surface topography effects on minimizing astrogliosis. Initially, to examine astrocyte response to various materials used in neural electrode fabrication, astrocytes were cultured on platinum, silicon, PMMA, and SU-8 surfaces, with polystyrene as the control surface. Cell proliferation, viability, morphology and gene expression was measured for seven days in vitro. Results determined the cellular characteristics, reactions and growth rates of astrocytes

  1. Glial-glial and glial-neuronal interfaces in radiation-induced, glia-depleted spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, S.A.; Sims, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    This review summarises some of the major findings derived from studies using the model of a glia-depleted environment developed and characterised in this laboratory. Glial depletion is achieved by exposure of the immature rodent spinal cord to x-radiation which markedly reduces both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte populations and severely impairs myelination. This glia-depleted, hypomylinated state presents a unique opportunity to examine aspects of spinal cord maturation in the absence of a normal glial population. An associated sequela within 2-3 wk following irradiation is the appearance of Schwann cells in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord. Characteristics of these intraspinal Schwann cells, their patterns of myelination or ensheathment, and their interrelations with the few remaining central glia have been examined. A later sequela is the development of Schwann cells in the ventral aspect of the spinal cord where they occur predominantly in the grey matter. (author)

  2. Flow Cytometric Detection of PrPSc in Neurons and Glial Cells from Prion-Infected Mouse Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akio; Hasebe, Rie; Horiuchi, Motohiro

    2018-01-01

    In prion diseases, an abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrP Sc ) accumulates in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia in the brains of animals affected by prions. Detailed analyses of PrP Sc -positive neurons and glial cells are required to clarify their pathophysiological roles in the disease. Here, we report a novel method for the detection of PrP Sc in neurons and glial cells from the brains of prion-infected mice by flow cytometry using PrP Sc -specific staining with monoclonal antibody (MAb) 132. The combination of PrP Sc staining and immunolabeling of neural cell markers clearly distinguished neurons, astrocytes, and microglia that were positive for PrP Sc from those that were PrP Sc negative. The flow cytometric analysis of PrP Sc revealed the appearance of PrP Sc -positive neurons, astrocytes, and microglia at 60 days after intracerebral prion inoculation, suggesting the presence of PrP Sc in the glial cells, as well as in neurons, from an early stage of infection. Moreover, the kinetic analysis of PrP Sc revealed a continuous increase in the proportion of PrP Sc -positive cells for all cell types with disease progression. Finally, we applied this method to isolate neurons, astrocytes, and microglia positive for PrP Sc from a prion-infected mouse brain by florescence-activated cell sorting. The method described here enables comprehensive analyses specific to PrP Sc -positive neurons, astrocytes, and microglia that will contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiological roles of neurons and glial cells in PrP Sc -associated pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Although formation of PrP Sc in neurons is associated closely with neurodegeneration in prion diseases, the mechanism of neurodegeneration is not understood completely. On the other hand, recent studies proposed the important roles of glial cells in PrP Sc -associated pathogenesis, such as the intracerebral spread of PrP Sc and clearance of PrP Sc from the brain. Despite the great need for detailed analyses

  3. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R

    2003-01-01

    neurons is seen after 3 weeks (2 weeks in ascorbic acid), suggesting that basal lamina production is important even for glial ensheathment in the enteric nervous system. No overgrowth of fibroblasts or other nonneuronal cells was noted in any cultures, and myelination of the peripheral nervous system...

  4. Sleep and immune function: glial contributions and consequences of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingiosi, Ashley M; Opp, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2013-10-01

    The reciprocal interactions between sleep and immune function are well-studied. Insufficient sleep induces innate immune responses as evidenced by increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in the brain and periphery. Conversely, immune challenges upregulate immunomodulator expression, which alters central nervous system-mediated processes and behaviors, including sleep. Recent studies indicate that glial cells, namely microglia and astrocytes, are active contributors to sleep and immune system interactions. Evidence suggests glial regulation of these interactions is mediated, in part, by adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate actions at purinergic type 1 and type 2 receptors. Furthermore, microglia and astrocytes may modulate declines in sleep-wake behavior and immunity observed in aging. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A preliminary investigation into the impact of a pesticide combination on human neuronal and glial cell lines in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Coleman

    Full Text Available Many pesticides are used increasingly in combinations during crop protection and their stability ensures the presence of such combinations in foodstuffs. The effects of three fungicides, pyrimethanil, cyprodinil and fludioxonil, were investigated together and separately on U251 and SH-SY5Y cells, which can be representative of human CNS glial and neuronal cells respectively. Over 48h, all three agents showed significant reductions in cellular ATP, at concentrations that were more than tenfold lower than those which significantly impaired cellular viability. The effects on energy metabolism were reflected in their marked toxic effects on mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, evidence of oxidative stress was seen in terms of a fall in cellular thiols coupled with increases in the expression of enzymes associated with reactive species formation, such as GSH peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. The glial cell line showed significant responsiveness to the toxin challenge in terms of changes in antioxidant gene expression, although the neuronal SH-SY5Y line exhibited greater vulnerability to toxicity, which was reflected in significant increases in caspase-3 expression, which is indicative of the initiation of apoptosis. Cyprodinil was the most toxic agent individually, although oxidative stress-related enzyme gene expression increases appeared to demonstrate some degree of synergy in the presence of the combination of agents. This report suggests that the impact of some pesticides, both individually and in combinations, merits further study in terms of their impact on human cellular health.

  6. Effects of X-irradiation on glial cells in the developing rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, I.; Borras, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single dose of 2Gy X-rays when 1 or 3 days of age. Dying cells in the germinal layer of the telencephalon reached peak values 6h after irradiation; dead cells were cleared 48h later. These effects were almost abolished with the injection of cyclohexamide (1 μg/g body weight) given at the time of irradiation. PCNA-immunoreactive cells (cells in late G 1 and S phases of the cell cycle) and PCNA-negative cells were sensitive to X-rays. Long-term effects on glial cell populations in the subcortical white matter of the cingulum were examined in irradiated rats, killed at postnatal day 30 (P30), by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin and S-100 immunohistochemistry, as well as with anti-TGF-α (transformerly growth factor) antibodies that are used as putative oligodendrogial cell markers in the white matter of rat. (author)

  7. Acquisition of glial cells missing 2 enhancers contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish.

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    Takanori Shono

    Full Text Available Glial cells missing 2 (gcm2 encoding a GCM-motif transcription factor is expressed in the parathyroid in amniotes. In contrast, gcm2 is expressed in pharyngeal pouches (a homologous site of the parathyroid, gills, and H(+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs, a subset of ionocytes on the skin surface of the teleost fish zebrafish. Ionocytes are specialized cells that are involved in osmotic homeostasis in aquatic vertebrates. Here, we showed that gcm2 is essential for the development of HRCs and Na(+-Cl(- co-transporter-rich cells (NCCCs, another subset of ionocytes in zebrafish. We also identified gcm2 enhancer regions that control gcm2 expression in ionocytes of zebrafish. Comparisons of the gcm2 locus with its neighboring regions revealed no conserved elements between zebrafish and tetrapods. Furthermore, We observed gcm2 expression patterns in embryos of the teleost fishes Medaka (Oryzias latipes and fugu (Fugu niphobles, the extant primitive ray-finned fishes Polypterus (Polypterus senegalus and sturgeon (a hybrid of Huso huso × Acipenser ruhenus, and the amphibian Xenopus (Xenopus laevis. Although gcm2-expressing cells were observed on the skin surface of Medaka and fugu, they were not found in Polypterus, sturgeon, or Xenopus. Our results suggest that an acquisition of enhancers for the expression of gcm2 contributes to a diversity of ionocytes in zebrafish during evolution.

  8. Andrographolide - A promising therapeutic agent, negatively regulates glial cell derived neurodegeneration of prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and working memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudeshna; Mishra, K P; Ganju, Lilly; Singh, S B

    2017-12-15

    Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region. Active microglial and reactive astrocytic makers were also downregulated after andrographolide treatment. Andrographolide suppressed overexpression of microglial MIP-1α, P2X7 receptor and its downstream signaling mediators including-inflammasome NLRP3, caspase1 and mature IL-1β. Furthermore, in vivo maze studies suggested that andrographolide treatment reversed LPS-induced behavioural and working memory disturbances including regulation of expression of protein markers like PKC, p-CREB, amyloid beta, APP, p-tau, synapsin and PSD-95. Andrographolide, by lowering expression of pro apoptotic genes and enhancing the expression of anti-apoptotic gene showed its anti-apoptotic nature that in turn reduces neurodegeneration. Morphology studies using Nissl and FJB staining also showed the neuroprotective effect of andrographolide in the prefrontal cortex region. The above studies indicated that andrographolide prevented neuroinflammation-associated neurodegeneration and improved synaptic plasticity markers in cortical as well as hippocampal region which suggests that andrographolide could be a novel pharmacological countermeasure for the treatment of neuroinflammation and neurological disorders related to memory impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Monocrotophos Induces the Expression of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Cytochrome P450s (CYP2C8 and CYP3A4) and Neurotoxicity in Human Brain Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Pandey, Ankita; Vatsa, Pankhi; Dhasmana, Anupam; Singh, Rajat Pratap; Appikonda, Sri Hari Chandan; Hwang, Inho; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2017-07-01

    Expression of various cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in mammalian brain cells is well documented. However, such studies are hampered in neural/glial cells of human origin due to nonavailability of human brain cells. To address this issue, we investigated the expression and inducibility of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 and their responsiveness against cyclophosphamide (CPA) and organophosphorus pesticide monocrotophos (MCP), a known developmental neurotoxicant in human neural (SH-SY5Y) and glial (U373-MG) cell lines. CPA induced significant expression of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 in both types of cells in a time-dependent manner. Neural cell line exhibited relatively higher constitutive and inducible expression of CYPs than the glial cell line. MCP exposure alone could not induce the significant expression of CYPs, whereas the cells preexposed to CPA showed a significant response to MCP. Similar to the case of CPA induced expressions, neural cells were found to be more vulnerable than glial cells. Our data indicate differential expressions of CYPs in cultured human neural and glial cell lines. The findings were synchronized with protein ligand docking studies, which showed a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR and PXR. Similarly, the known CYP inducer CPA has also shown significant high docking scores with the two studied CYP regulators. We also observed a significant induction in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxides (LPO), micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberration (CA), and reduction in reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase following the exposure of MCP. Moreover, the expressions of apoptotic markers such as caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, and p53 were significantly upregulated, whereas the levels of antiapoptotic marker, Bcl2, was downregulated after the exposure of MCP in both cell lines. These findings confirm the involvement of ROS-mediated oxidative stress, which subsequently triggers apoptosis pathways in both human neural (SH-SY5Y

  10. SUMO-1 is associated with a subset of lysosomes in glial protein aggregate diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mathew B; Goodwin, Jacob; Norazit, Anwar; Meedeniya, Adrian C B; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane; Gai, Wei Ping; Pountney, Dean L

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendroglial inclusion bodies characterize a subset of neurodegenerative diseases. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is characterized by α-synuclein glial cytoplasmic inclusions and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is associated with glial tau inclusions. The ubiquitin homologue, SUMO-1, has been identified in inclusion bodies in MSA, located in discrete sub-domains in α-synuclein-positive inclusions. We investigated SUMO-1 associated with oligodendroglial inclusion bodies in brain tissue from MSA and PSP and in glial cell models. We examined MSA and PSP cases and compared to age-matched normal controls. Fluorescence immunohistochemistry revealed frequent SUMO-1 sub-domains within and surrounding inclusions bodies in both diseases and showed punctate co-localization of SUMO-1 and the lysosomal marker, cathepsin D, in affected brain regions. Cell counting data revealed that 70-75 % of lysosomes in inclusion body-positive oligodendrocytes were SUMO-1-positive consistently across MSA and PSP cases, compared to 20 % in neighbouring inclusion body negative oligodendrocytes and 10 % in normal brain tissue. Hsp90 co-localized with some SUMO-1 puncta. We examined the SUMO-1 status of lysosomes in 1321N1 human glioma cells over-expressing α-synuclein and in immortalized rat oligodendrocyte cells over-expressing the four repeat form of tau following treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132. We also transfected 1321N1 cells with the inherently aggregation-prone huntingtin exon 1 mutant, HttQ74-GFP. Each cell model showed the association of SUMO-1-positive lysosomes around focal cytoplasmic accumulations of α-synuclein, tau or HttQ74-GFP, respectively. Association of SUMO-1 with lysosomes was also detected in glial cells bearing α-synuclein aggregates in a rotenone-lesioned rat model. SUMO-1 labelling of lysosomes showed a major increase between 24 and 48 h post-incubation of 1321N1 cells with MG132 resulting in an increase in a 90 kDa SUMO-1-positive band

  11. Bone marrow-derived fibroblast growth factor-2 induces glial cell proliferation in the regenerating peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro-Resende Victor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the essential biological roles of bone marrow-derived cells, secretion of many soluble factors is included and these small molecules can act upon specific receptors present in many tissues including the nervous system. Some of the released molecules can induce proliferation of Schwann cells (SC, satellite cells and lumbar spinal cord astrocytes during early steps of regeneration in a rat model of sciatic nerve transection. These are the major glial cell types that support neuronal survival and axonal growth following peripheral nerve injury. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 is the main mitogenic factor for SCs and is released in large amounts by bone marrow-derived cells, as well as by growing axons and endoneurial fibroblasts during development and regeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS. Results Here we show that bone marrow-derived cell treatment induce an increase in the expression of FGF-2 in the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia and the dorsolateral (DL region of the lumbar spinal cord (LSC in a model of sciatic nerve transection and connection into a hollow tube. SCs in culture in the presence of bone marrow derived conditioned media (CM resulted in increased proliferation and migration. This effect was reduced when FGF-2 was neutralized by pretreating BMMC or CM with a specific antibody. The increased expression of FGF-2 was validated by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in co-cultures of bone marrow derived cells with sciatic nerve explants and regenerating nerve tissue respectivelly. Conclusion We conclude that FGF-2 secreted by BMMC strongly increases early glial proliferation, which can potentially improve PNS regeneration.

  12. Minocycline blocks glial cell activation and ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer A; Arbogast, Tara E; Moya, Esteban A; Fu, Zhenxing; Powell, Frank L

    2017-04-01

    Ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH) is the time-dependent increase in ventilation, which persists upon return to normoxia and involves plasticity in both central nervous system respiratory centers and peripheral chemoreceptors. We investigated the role of glial cells in VAH in male Sprague-Dawley rats using minocycline, an antibiotic that inhibits microglia activation and has anti-inflammatory properties, and barometric pressure plethysmography to measure ventilation. Rats received either minocycline (45mg/kg ip daily) or saline beginning 1 day before and during 7 days of chronic hypoxia (CH, Pi O 2  = 70 Torr). Minocycline had no effect on normoxic control rats or the hypercapnic ventilatory response in CH rats, but minocycline significantly ( P minocycline administration during only the last 3 days of CH did not reverse VAH. Microglia and astrocyte activation in the nucleus tractus solitarius was quantified from 30 min to 7 days of CH. Microglia showed an active morphology (shorter and fewer branches) after 1 h of hypoxia and returned to the control state (longer filaments and extensive branching) after 4 h of CH. Astrocytes increased glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody immunofluorescent intensity, indicating activation, at both 4 and 24 h of CH. Minocycline had no effect on glia in normoxia but significantly decreased microglia activation at 1 h of CH and astrocyte activation at 24 h of CH. These results support a role for glial cells, providing an early signal for the induction but not maintenance of neural plasticity underlying ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The signals for neural plasticity in medullary respiratory centers underlying ventilatory acclimatization to chronic hypoxia are unknown. We show that chronic hypoxia activates microglia and subsequently astrocytes. Minocycline, an antibiotic that blocks microglial activation and has anti-inflammatory properties, also blocks astrocyte activation in respiratory

  13. Cell-type-specific expression of NFIX in the developing and adult cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, James; Essebier, Alexandra; Gronostajski, Richard M; Boden, Mikael; Wainwright, Brandon J; Harvey, Tracey J; Piper, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Transcription factors from the nuclear factor one (NFI) family have been shown to play a central role in regulating neural progenitor cell differentiation within the embryonic and post-natal brain. NFIA and NFIB, for instance, promote the differentiation and functional maturation of granule neurons within the cerebellum. Mice lacking Nfix exhibit delays in the development of neuronal and glial lineages within the cerebellum, but the cell-type-specific expression of this transcription factor remains undefined. Here, we examined the expression of NFIX, together with various cell-type-specific markers, within the developing and adult cerebellum using both chromogenic immunohistochemistry and co-immunofluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. In embryos, NFIX was expressed by progenitor cells within the rhombic lip and ventricular zone. After birth, progenitor cells within the external granule layer, as well as migrating and mature granule neurons, expressed NFIX. Within the adult cerebellum, NFIX displayed a broad expression profile, and was evident within granule cells, Bergmann glia, and interneurons, but not within Purkinje neurons. Furthermore, transcriptomic profiling of cerebellar granule neuron progenitor cells showed that multiple splice variants of Nfix are expressed within this germinal zone of the post-natal brain. Collectively, these data suggest that NFIX plays a role in regulating progenitor cell biology within the embryonic and post-natal cerebellum, as well as an ongoing role within multiple neuronal and glial populations within the adult cerebellum.

  14. Glial Draper Rescues Aβ Toxicity in a Drosophila Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Arpita; Speese, Sean D; Logan, Mary A

    2017-12-06

    Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and reactive gliosis. Glial cells offer protection against AD by engulfing extracellular Aβ peptides, but the repertoire of molecules required for glial recognition and destruction of Aβ are still unclear. Here, we show that the highly conserved glial engulfment receptor Draper/MEGF10 provides neuroprotection in an AD model of Drosophila (both sexes). Neuronal expression of human Aβ42 arc in adult flies results in robust Aβ accumulation, neurodegeneration, locomotor dysfunction, and reduced lifespan. Notably, all of these phenotypes are more severe in draper mutant animals, whereas enhanced expression of glial Draper reverses Aβ accumulation, as well as behavioral phenotypes. We also show that the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat92E), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/AP-1 signaling, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Mmp1) are activated downstream of Draper in glia in response to Aβ42 arc exposure. Furthermore, Aβ42-induced upregulation of the phagolysosomal markers Atg8 and p62 was notably reduced in draper mutant flies. Based on our findings, we propose that glia clear neurotoxic Aβ peptides in the AD model Drosophila brain through a Draper/STAT92E/JNK cascade that may be coupled to protein degradation pathways such as autophagy or more traditional phagolysosomal destruction methods. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alzheimer's disease (AD) and similar dementias are common incurable neurodegenerative disorders in the aging population. As the primary immune responders in the brain, glial cells are implicated as key players in the onset and progression of AD and related disorders. Here we show that the glial engulfment receptor Draper is protective in a Drosophila model of AD, reducing levels of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, reversing locomotor defects, and extending lifespan. We further show that protein degradation pathways are

  15. TOTAL NUMBER, DISTRIBUTION, AND PHENOTYPE OF CELLS EXPRESSING CHONDROITIN SULPHATE PROTEOGLYCANS IN THE NORMAL HUMAN AMYGDALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, Harry; Murray, Elisabeth A.; Berretta, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a key structural component of the brain extracellular matrix. They are involved in critical neurodevelopmental functions and are one of the main components of pericellular aggregates known as perineuronal nets. As a step toward investigating their functional and pathophysiological roles in the human amygdala, we assessed the pattern of CSPG expression in the normal human amygdala using wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) lectin-histochemistry. Total numbers of WFA-labeled elements were measured in the lateral (LN), basal (BN), accessory basal (ABN) and cortical (CO) nuclei of the amygdala from 15 normal adult human subjects. For interspecies qualitative comparison, we also investigated the pattern of WFA labeling in the amygdala of naïve rats (n=32) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n=6). In human amygdala, WFA lectin-histochemistry resulted in labeling of perineuronal nets and cells with clear glial morphology, while neurons did not show WFA-labeling. Total numbers of WFA-labeled glial cells showed high interindividual variability. These cells aggregated in clusters with a consistent between-subjects spatial distribution. In a subset of human subjects (n=5), dual color fluorescence using an antibody raised against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and WFA showed that the majority (93.7%) of WFA-labeled glial cells correspond to astrocytes. In rat and monkey amygdala, WFA histochemistry labeled perineuronal nets, but not glial cells. These results suggest that astrocytes are the main cell type expressing CSPGs in the adult human amygdala. Their highly segregated distribution pattern suggests that these cells serve specialized functions within human amygdalar nuclei. PMID:18374308

  16. Reappraisal of Bergmann glial cells as modulators of cerebellar circuit function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris I De Zeeuw

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as there is a huge morphological and functional diversity of neuron types specialized for specific aspects of information processing in the brain, astrocytes have equally distinct morphologies and functions that aid optimal functioning of the circuits in which they are embedded. One type of astrocyte, the Bergmann glial cell of the cerebellum, is a prime example of a highly diversified astrocyte type, the architecture of which is adapted to the cerebellar circuit and facilitates an impressive range of functions that optimize information processing in the adult brain. In this review we expand on the function of the Bergmann glial cell in the cerebellum to highlight the importance of astrocytes not only in housekeeping functions, but also in contributing to plasticity and information processing in the cerebellum.

  17. Chemokines in neuron-glial cell interaction and pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2017-09-01

    Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system. In recent years, accumulating studies have revealed the expression, distribution and function of chemokines in the spinal cord under chronic pain conditions. In this review, we provide evidence showing that several chemokines are upregulated after peripheral nerve injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain via different forms of neuron-glia interaction in the spinal cord. First, chemokine CX3CL1 is expressed in primary afferents and spinal neurons and induces microglial activation via its microglial receptor CX3CR1 (neuron-to-microglia signaling). Second, CCL2 and CXCL1 are expressed in spinal astrocytes and act on CCR2 and CXCR2 in spinal neurons to increase excitatory synaptic transmission (astrocyte-to-neuron signaling). Third, we recently identified that CXCL13 is highly upregulated in spinal neurons after spinal nerve ligation and induces spinal astrocyte activation via receptor CXCR5 (neuron-to-astrocyte signaling). Strategies that target chemokine-mediated neuron-glia interactions may lead to novel therapies for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  18. Transcriptional differences between normal and glioma-derived glial progenitor cells identify a core set of dysregulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvergne, Romane M; Sim, Fraser J; Wang, Su; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Burch, Jaclyn; Al Fanek, Yazan; Davis, Danielle; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Walter, Kevin; Achanta, Pragathi; Johnson, Mahlon; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Natesan, Sridaran; Ford, Heide L; Goldman, Steven A

    2013-06-27

    Glial progenitor cells (GPCs) are a potential source of malignant gliomas. We used A2B5-based sorting to extract tumorigenic GPCs from human gliomas spanning World Health Organization grades II-IV. Messenger RNA profiling identified a cohort of genes that distinguished A2B5+ glioma tumor progenitor cells (TPCs) from A2B5+ GPCs isolated from normal white matter. A core set of genes and pathways was substantially dysregulated in A2B5+ TPCs, which included the transcription factor SIX1 and its principal cofactors, EYA1 and DACH2. Small hairpin RNAi silencing of SIX1 inhibited the expansion of glioma TPCs in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a critical and unrecognized role of the SIX1-EYA1-DACH2 system in glioma genesis or progression. By comparing the expression patterns of glioma TPCs with those of normal GPCs, we have identified a discrete set of pathways by which glial tumorigenesis may be better understood and more specifically targeted. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Downregulation of DmMANF in Glial Cells Results in Neurodegeneration and Affects Sleep and Lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Lucyna Walkowicz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster, mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (DmMANF is an evolutionarily conserved ortholog of mammalian MANF and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF, which have been shown to promote the survival of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. We observed especially high levels of DmMANF in the visual system of Drosophila, particularly in the first optic neuropil (lamina. In the lamina, DmMANF was found in glial cells (surface and epithelial glia, photoreceptors and interneurons. Interestingly, silencing of DmMANF in all neurons or specifically in photoreceptors or L2 interneurons had no impact on the structure of the visual system. However, downregulation of DmMANF in glial cells induced degeneration of the lamina. Remarkably, this degeneration in the form of holes and/or tightly packed membranes was observed only in the lamina epithelial glial cells. Those membranes seem to originate from the endoplasmic reticulum, which forms autophagosome membranes. Moreover, capitate projections, the epithelial glia invaginations into photoreceptor terminals that are involved in recycling of the photoreceptor neurotransmitter histamine, were less numerous after DmMANF silencing either in neurons or glial cells. The distribution of the alpha subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase protein in the lamina cell membranes was also changed. At the behavioral level, silencing of DmMANF either in neurons or glial cells affected the daily activity/sleep pattern, and flies showed less activity during the day but higher activity during the night than did controls. In the case of silencing in glia, the lifespan of flies was also shortened. The obtained results showed that DmMANF regulates many functions in the brain, particularly those dependent on glial cells.

  20. Stereological analysis of neuron, glial and endothelial cell numbers in the human amygdaloid complex.

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    María García-Amado

    Full Text Available Cell number alterations in the amygdaloid complex (AC might coincide with neurological and psychiatric pathologies with anxiety imbalances as well as with changes in brain functionality during aging. This stereological study focused on estimating, in samples from 7 control individuals aged 20 to 75 years old, the number and density of neurons, glia and endothelial cells in the entire AC and in its 5 nuclear groups (including the basolateral (BL, corticomedial and central groups, 5 nuclei and 13 nuclear subdivisions. The volume and total cell number in these territories were determined on Nissl-stained sections with the Cavalieri principle and the optical fractionator. The AC mean volume was 956 mm(3 and mean cell numbers (x10(6 were: 15.3 neurons, 60 glial cells and 16.8 endothelial cells. The numbers of endothelial cells and neurons were similar in each AC region and were one fourth the number of glial cells. Analysis of the influence of the individuals' age at death on volume, cell number and density in each of these 24 AC regions suggested that aging does not affect regional size or the amount of glial cells, but that neuron and endothelial cell numbers respectively tended to decrease and increase in territories such as AC or BL. These accurate stereological measures of volume and total cell numbers and densities in the AC of control individuals could serve as appropriate reference values to evaluate subtle alterations in this structure in pathological conditions.

  1. Stereological analysis of neuron, glial and endothelial cell numbers in the human amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Amado, María; Prensa, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Cell number alterations in the amygdaloid complex (AC) might coincide with neurological and psychiatric pathologies with anxiety imbalances as well as with changes in brain functionality during aging. This stereological study focused on estimating, in samples from 7 control individuals aged 20 to 75 years old, the number and density of neurons, glia and endothelial cells in the entire AC and in its 5 nuclear groups (including the basolateral (BL), corticomedial and central groups), 5 nuclei and 13 nuclear subdivisions. The volume and total cell number in these territories were determined on Nissl-stained sections with the Cavalieri principle and the optical fractionator. The AC mean volume was 956 mm(3) and mean cell numbers (x10(6)) were: 15.3 neurons, 60 glial cells and 16.8 endothelial cells. The numbers of endothelial cells and neurons were similar in each AC region and were one fourth the number of glial cells. Analysis of the influence of the individuals' age at death on volume, cell number and density in each of these 24 AC regions suggested that aging does not affect regional size or the amount of glial cells, but that neuron and endothelial cell numbers respectively tended to decrease and increase in territories such as AC or BL. These accurate stereological measures of volume and total cell numbers and densities in the AC of control individuals could serve as appropriate reference values to evaluate subtle alterations in this structure in pathological conditions.

  2. Investigations on contribution of glial inwardly-rectifying K+ current to membrane potential and ion flux: An experimental and theoretical study

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    Sheng-Nan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inwardly rectifying K+ current [IK(IR] allows large inward K+ currents at potentials negative to K+ equilibrium potential (EK and it becomes small outward K+ currents at those positive to EK. How changes of such currents enriched in glial cells can influence the functions of glial cell, neurons, or both is not clearly defined, although mutations of Kir4.1 channels have been demonstrated to cause serious neurological disorders. In this study, we identified the presence of IK(IR in human glioma cells (U373 and U87 cells. The amplitude of IK(IR in U373 cells was subject to inhibition by amitriptyline, arecoline, or BaCl2. The activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channels was also clearly detected, and single-channel conductance of these channels was calculated to be around 23 pS. Moreover, based on a simulation model derived from neuron–glial interaction mediated by ion flux, we further found out that incorporation of glial IK(IR conductance into the model can significantly contribute to regulation of extracellular K+ concentrations and glial resting potential, particularly during high-frequency stimulation. Glial cells and neurons can mutually modulate their expression of ion channels through K+ ions released into the extracellular space. It is thus anticipated that glial IK(IR may be a potential target utilized to influence the activity of neuronal and glial cells as well as their interaction.

  3. Telmisartan Modulates Glial Activation: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

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    Nofar Torika

    Full Text Available The circulating renin-angiotensin system (RAS, including the biologically active angiotensin II, is a fundamental regulatory mechanism of blood pressure conserved through evolution. Angiotensin II components of the RAS have also been identified in the brain. In addition to pro-inflammatory cytokines, neuromodulators, such as angiotensin II can induce (through angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R some of the inflammatory actions of brain glial cells and influence brain inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD models, where neuroinflammation occurs, increased levels of cortical AT1Rs have been shown. Still, the precise role of RAS in neuroinflammation is not completely clear. The overall aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of RAS in the modulation of glial functions and AD pathology. To reach this goal, the specific aims of the present study were a. to investigate the long term effect of telmisartan (AT1R blocker on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin 1-β (IL1-β and nitric oxide (NO release from glial cells. b. to examine the effect of intranasally administered telmisartan on amyloid burden and microglial activation in 5X familial AD (5XFAD mice. Telmisartan effects in vivo were compared to those of perindopril (angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Long-term-exposure of BV2 microglia to telmisartan significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS -induced NO, inducible NO synthase, TNF-α and IL1-β synthesis. The effect of Telmisartan on NO production in BV2 cells was confirmed also in primary neonatal rat glial cells. Intranasal administration of telmisartan (1 mg/kg/day for up to two months significantly reduced amyloid burden and CD11b expression (a marker for microglia both in the cortex and hipoccampus of 5XFAD. Based on the current view of RAS and our data, showing reduced amyloid burden and glial activation in the brains of 5XFAD transgenic mice, one may envision potential intervention with the

  4. Transglial transmission at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse: glial cell to postsynaptic neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-04-01

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contains a subset of closely-apposed neuronal somata (NS) separated solely by a thin satellite glial cell (SGC) membrane septum to form an NS-glial cell-NS trimer. We recently reported that stimulation of one NS with an impulse train triggers a delayed, noisy and long-lasting response in its NS pair via a transglial signaling pathway that we term a 'sandwich synapse' (SS). Transmission could be unidirectional or bidirectional and facilitated in response to a second stimulus train. We have shown that in chick or rat SS the NS-to-SGC leg of the two-synapse pathway is purinergic via P2Y2 receptors but the second SGC-to-NS synapse mechanism remained unknown. A noisy evoked current in the target neuron, a reversal potential close to 0 mV, and insensitivity to calcium scavengers or G protein block favored an ionotropic postsynaptic receptor. Selective block by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) implicated glutamatergic transmission via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This agent also blocked NS responses evoked by puff of UTP, a P2Y2 agonist, directly onto the SGC cell, confirming its action at the second synapse of the SS transmission pathway. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit was implicated by block of transmission with ifenprodil and by its immunocytochemical localization to the NS membrane, abutting the glial septum P2Y2 receptor. Isolated DRG cell clusters exhibited daisy-chain and branching NS-glial cell-NS contacts, suggestive of a network organization within the ganglion. The identification of the glial-to-neuron transmitter and receptor combination provides further support for transglial transmission and completes the DRG SS molecular transmission pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Enteric glial cells and their role in gastrointestinal motor abnormalities: Introducing the neuro-gliopathies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Vincenzo Villanacci; Simona Fisogni; Elisa Rossi; Paola Baronio; Carlo Clerici; Christoph A Maurer; Gieri Cathomas; Elisabetta Antonelli

    2007-01-01

    The role of enteric glial cells has somewhat changed from that of mere mechanical support elements, gluing together the various components of the enteric nervous system, to that of active participants in the complex interrelationships of the gut motor and inflammatory events. Due to their multiple functions, spanning from supporting elements in the myenteric plexuses to neurotransmitters, to neuronal homeostasis, to antigen presenting cells, this cell population has probably more intriguing abilities than previously thought. Recently,some evidence has been accumulating that shows how these cells may be involved in the pathophysiological aspects of some diseases. This review will deal with the properties of the enteric glial cells more strictly related to gastrointestinal motor function and the human pathological conditions in which these cells may play a role, suggesting the possibility of enteric neurogliopathies.

  6. Restraining reactive oxygen species in Listeria monocytogenes promotes the apoptosis of glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sen; Li, Yixuan; Chen, Guowei; Zhang, Jingchen; Xu, Fei; Wu, Man

    2017-07-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative anaerobic foodborne pathogen that can traverse the blood-brain barrier and cause brain infection. L. monocytogenes infection induces host cell apoptosis in several cell types. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis of human glioma cell line U251 invaded by L. monocytogenes and evaluated the function of bacterial reactive oxygen species (ROS) during infection. Bacterial ROS level was reduced by carrying out treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). After infection, the apoptosis of U251 cells was examined by flow cytometry assay and propidium iodide staining. DPI and NAC efficiently decreased ROS level in L. monocytogenes without affecting bacterial growth. Moreover, the apoptosis of glial cells was enhanced upon invasion of DPI- and NAC-pretreated L. monocytogenes. Results indicate that the apoptosis of glial cells can be induced by L. monocytogenes, and that the inhibition of bacterial ROS increases the apoptosis of host cells.

  7. Advancements in the Underlying Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia: Implications of DNA Methylation in Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-Shu; Huang, Nanxin; Michael, Namaka; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a chronic and severe mental illness for which currently there is no cure. At present, the exact molecular mechanism involved in the underlying pathogenesis of SZ is unknown. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in SZ pathology. Specifically, DNA methylation, one of the earliest found epigenetic modifications, has been extensively linked to modulation of neuronal function, leading to psychiatric disorders such as SZ. However, increasing evidence indicates that glial cells, especially dysfunctional oligodendrocytes undergo DNA methylation changes that contribute to the pathogenesis of SZ. This review primarily focuses on DNA methylation involved in glial dysfunctions in SZ. Clarifying this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventional strategies for the treatment of SZ and other illnesses by correcting abnormal methylation in glial cells.

  8. Advancements in the Underlying Pathogenesis of Schizophrenia: Implications of DNA Methylation in Glial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Shu eChen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ)is a chronic and severe mental illness for which currently there is no cure. At present, the exact molecular mechanism involved in the underlying pathogenesis of SZ is unknown. The disease is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and environmental factors. Recent studies have shown that epigenetic regulation is involved in SZ pathology. Specifically, DNA methylation, one of the earliest found epigenetic modifications, has been extensively linked to modulation of neuronal function, leading to psychiatric disorders such as SZ. However, increasing evidence indicates that glial cells, especially dysfunctional oligodendrocytes undergo DNA methylation changes that contribute to the pathogenesis of SZ. This review primarily focuses on DNA methylation involved in glial dysfunctions in SZ. Clarifying this mechanism may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventional strategies for the treatment of SZ and other illnesses by correcting abnormal methylation in glial cells.

  9. DMPD: Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells in relation to potentialanti-inflammatory effects. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17669557 Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells in relation to potent... Epub 2007 Jun 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Multifunctional effects of bradykinin on glial cells i...n relation to potentialanti-inflammatory effects. PubmedID 17669557 Title Multifunction

  10. Clonal Heterogeneity in the Neuronal and Glial Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem/Progenitor Cells

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    Fraser I. Young

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular heterogeneity presents an important challenge to the development of cell-based therapies where there is a fundamental requirement for predictable and reproducible outcomes. Transplanted Dental Pulp Stem/Progenitor Cells (DPSCs have demonstrated early promise in experimental models of spinal cord injury and stroke, despite limited evidence of neuronal and glial-like differentiation after transplantation. Here, we report, for the first time, on the ability of single cell-derived clonal cultures of murine DPSCs to differentiate in vitro into immature neuronal-like and oligodendrocyte-like cells. Importantly, only DPSC clones with high nestin mRNA expression levels were found to successfully differentiate into Map2 and NF-positive neuronal-like cells. Neuronally differentiated DPSCs possessed a membrane capacitance comparable with primary cultured striatal neurons and small inward voltage-activated K+ but not outward Na+ currents were recorded suggesting a functionally immature phenotype. Similarly, only high nestin-expressing clones demonstrated the ability to adopt Olig1, Olig2, and MBP-positive immature oligodendrocyte-like phenotype. Together, these results demonstrate that appropriate markers may be used to provide an early indication of the suitability of a cell population for purposes where differentiation into a specific lineage may be beneficial and highlight that further understanding of heterogeneity within mixed cellular populations is required.

  11. Electrogenic glutamate uptake is a major current carrier in the membrane of axolotl retinal glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brew, Helen; Attwell, David

    1987-06-01

    Glutamate is taken up avidly by glial cells in the central nervous system1. Glutamate uptake may terminate the transmitter action of glutamate released from neurons1, and keep extracellular glutamate at concentrations below those which are neurotoxic. We report here that glutamate evokes a large inward current in retinal glial cells which have their membrane potential and intracellular ion concentrations controlled by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique2. This current seems to be due to an electrogenic glutamate uptake carrier, which transports at least two sodium ions with every glutamate anion carried into the cell. Glutamate uptake is strongly voltage-dependent, decreasing at depolarized potentials: when fully activated, it contributes almost half of the conductance in the part of the glial cell membrane facing the retinal neurons. The spatial localization, glutamate affinity and magnitude of the uptake are appropriate for terminating the synaptic action of glutamate released from photoreceptors and bipolar cells. These data challenge present explanations of how the b-wave of the electroretinogram is generated, and suggest a mechanism for non-vesicular voltage-dependent release of glutamate from neurons.

  12. Neuron-glial communication mediated by TNF-α and glial activation in dorsal root ganglia in visceral inflammatory hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan-dan; Li, Yong; Tang, Dong; Huang, Li-ya; Yuan, Yao-zong

    2014-05-01

    Communication between neurons and glia in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the central nervous system is critical for nociception. Both glial activation and proinflammatory cytokine induction underlie this communication. We investigated whether satellite glial cell (SGC) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activation in DRG participates in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of visceral hyperalgesia. In TNBS-treated rats, TNF-α expression increased in DRG and was colocalized to SGCs enveloping a given neuron. These SGCs were activated as visualized under electron microscopy: they had more elongated processes projecting into the connective tissue space and more gap junctions. When nerves attached to DRG (L6-S1) were stimulated with a series of electrical stimulations, TNF-α were released from DRG in TNBS-treated animals compared with controls. Using a current clamp, we noted that exogenous TNF-α (2.5 ng/ml) increased DRG neuron activity, and visceral pain behavioral responses were reversed by intrathecal administration of anti-TNF-α (10 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)). Based on our findings, TNF-α and SGC activation in neuron-glial communication are critical in inflammatory visceral hyperalgesia.

  13. Lack of connexin43-mediated Bergmann glial gap junctional coupling does not affect cerebellar long-term depression, motor coordination, or eyeblink conditioning

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    Mika Tanaka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Bergmann glial cells are specialized astrocytes in the cerebellum. In the mature cerebellar molecular layer, Bergmann glial processes are closely associated with Purkinje cells, enclosing Purkinje cell dendritic synapses with a glial sheath. There is intensive gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial processes, but their significance in cerebellar functions is not known. Connexin43 (Cx43, a major component of astrocytic gap junction channels, is abundantly expressed in Bergmann glial cells. To examine the role of Cx43-mediated gap junctions between Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar functions, we generated Cx43 conditional knockout mice with the S100b-Cre transgenic line (Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre, which exhibited a significant loss of Cx43 in the Bergmann glial cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum with a postnatal onset. The Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal cerebellar architecture. Although gap junctional coupling between the Bergmann glial cells measured by spreading of microinjected Lucifer yellow was virtually abolished in Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice, electrophysiologic analysis revealed that cerebellar long-term depression could be induced and maintained normally in thier cerebellar slices. In addition, at the behavioral level, Cx43fl/fl:S100b-Cre mice had normal motor coordination in the rotarod task and normal conditioned eyelid response. Our findings suggest that Cx43-mediated gap junctional coupling between Bergmann glial cells is not necessary for the neuron-glia interactions required for cerebellum-dependent motor coordination and motor learning.

  14. An Adenosine-Mediated Glial-Neuronal Circuit for Homeostatic Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorness, Theresa E; Dale, Nicholas; Mettlach, Gabriel; Sonneborn, Alex; Sahin, Bogachan; Fienberg, Allen A; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Bibb, James A; Greene, Robert W

    2016-03-30

    Sleep homeostasis reflects a centrally mediated drive for sleep, which increases during waking and resolves during subsequent sleep. Here we demonstrate that mice deficient for glial adenosine kinase (AdK), the primary metabolizing enzyme for adenosine (Ado), exhibit enhanced expression of this homeostatic drive by three independent measures: (1) increased rebound of slow-wave activity; (2) increased consolidation of slow-wave sleep; and (3) increased time constant of slow-wave activity decay during an average slow-wave sleep episode, proposed and validated here as a new index for homeostatic sleep drive. Conversely, mice deficient for the neuronal adenosine A1 receptor exhibit significantly decreased sleep drive as judged by these same indices. Neuronal knock-out of AdK did not influence homeostatic sleep need. Together, these findings implicate a glial-neuronal circuit mediated by intercellular Ado, controlling expression of homeostatic sleep drive. Because AdK is tightly regulated by glial metabolic state, our findings suggest a functional link between cellular metabolism and sleep homeostasis. The work presented here provides evidence for an adenosine-mediated regulation of sleep in response to waking (i.e., homeostatic sleep need), requiring activation of neuronal adenosine A1 receptors and controlled by glial adenosine kinase. Adenosine kinase acts as a highly sensitive and important metabolic sensor of the glial ATP/ADP and AMP ratio directly controlling intracellular adenosine concentration. Glial equilibrative adenosine transporters reflect the intracellular concentration to the extracellular milieu to activate neuronal adenosine receptors. Thus, adenosine mediates a glial-neuronal circuit linking glial metabolic state to neural-expressed sleep homeostasis. This indicates a metabolically related function(s) for this glial-neuronal circuit in the buildup and resolution of our need to sleep and suggests potential therapeutic targets more directly related to

  15. Identification of raw as a regulator of glial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Luong

    Full Text Available Glial cells perform numerous functions to support neuron development and function, including axon wrapping, formation of the blood brain barrier, and enhancement of synaptic transmission. We have identified a novel gene, raw, which functions in glia of the central and peripheral nervous systems in Drosophila. Reducing Raw levels in glia results in morphological defects in the brain and ventral nerve cord, as well as defects in neuron function, as revealed by decreased locomotion in crawling assays. Examination of the number of glia along peripheral nerves reveals a reduction in glial number upon raw knockdown. The reduced number of glia along peripheral nerves occurs as a result of decreased glial proliferation. As Raw has been shown to negatively regulate Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling in other developmental contexts, we examined the expression of a JNK reporter and the downstream JNK target, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (mmp1, and found that raw knockdown results in increased reporter activity and Mmp1 levels. These results are consistent with previous studies showing increased Mmp levels lead to nerve cord defects similar to those observed upon raw knockdown. In addition, knockdown of puckered, a negative feedback regulator of JNK signaling, also causes a decrease in glial number. Thus, our studies have resulted in the identification of a new regulator of gliogenesis, and demonstrate that increased JNK signaling negatively impacts glial development.

  16. Aggravation of Alzheimer's disease due to the COX-2-mediated reciprocal regulation of IL-1β and Aβ between glial and neuron cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Guan, Pei-Pei; Wang, Tao; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Zhan-You

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and displays the characteristics of chronic neurodegenerative disorders; amyloid plaques (AP) that contain amyloid β-protein (Aβ) accumulate in AD, which is also characterized by tau phosphorylation. Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated that long-term treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) markedly reduces the risk of AD by inhibiting the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Although the levels of COX-2 and its metabolic product prostaglandin (PG)E2 are elevated in the brain of AD patients, the mechanisms for the development of AD remain unknown. Using human- or mouse-derived glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cell lines as model systems, we delineated the signaling pathways by which COX-2 mediates the reciprocal regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Aβ between glial and neuron cells. In glioblastoma cells, COX-2 regulates the synthesis of IL-1β in a PGE2 -dependent manner. Moreover, COX-2-derived PGE2 signals the activation of the PI3-K/AKT and PKA/CREB pathways via cyclic AMP; these pathways transactivate the NF-κB p65 subunit via phosphorylation at Ser 536 and Ser 276, leading to IL-1β synthesis. The secretion of IL-1β from glioblastoma cells in turn stimulates the expression of COX-2 in human or mouse neuroblastoma cells. Similar regulatory mechanisms were found for the COX-2 regulation of BACE-1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. More importantly, Aβ deposition mediated the inflammatory response of glial cells via inducing the expression of COX-2 in glioblastoma cells. These findings not only provide new insights into the mechanisms of COX-2-induced AD but also initially define the therapeutic targets of AD. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on retinal function after experimental branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Kyhn, Maria Voss

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  18. Expression and deposition of basement membrane proteins by brain capillary endothelial cells in a primary murine model of the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Larsen, Annette Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents the interface between the blood and the brain parenchyma and consists of endothelial cells which are tightly sealed together by tight junction proteins. The endothelial cells are in addition supported by pericytes, which are embedded in the vascular basement...... of the present study was to create four different in vitro constructs of the murine BBB to characterise if the expression and secretion of basement membrane proteins by the murine brain capillary endothelial cells (mBCECs) was affected by co-culturing with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. Primary m......BCECs and pericytes were isolated from brains of adult mice. Mixed glial cells were prepared from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. The mBCECs were grown as mono-culture, or co-cultured with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both. To study the expression of basement membrane proteins RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry...

  19. The niche-derived glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF induces migration of mouse spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Dovere

    Full Text Available In mammals, the biological activity of the stem/progenitor compartment sustains production of mature gametes through spermatogenesis. Spermatogonial stem cells and their progeny belong to the class of undifferentiated spermatogonia, a germ cell population found on the basal membrane of the seminiferous tubules. A large body of evidence has demonstrated that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a Sertoli-derived factor, is essential for in vivo and in vitro stem cell self-renewal. However, the mechanisms underlying this activity are not completely understood. In this study, we show that GDNF induces dose-dependent directional migration of freshly selected undifferentiated spermatogonia, as well as germline stem cells in culture, using a Boyden chamber assay. GDNF-induced migration is dependent on the expression of the GDNF co-receptor GFRA1, as shown by migration assays performed on parental and GFRA1-transduced GC-1 spermatogonial cell lines. We found that the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP is specifically expressed in undifferentiated spermatogonia. VASP belongs to the ENA/VASP family of proteins implicated in actin-dependent processes, such as fibroblast migration, axon guidance, and cell adhesion. In intact seminiferous tubules and germline stem cell cultures, GDNF treatment up-regulates VASP in a dose-dependent fashion. These data identify a novel role for the niche-derived factor GDNF, and they suggest that GDNF may impinge on the stem/progenitor compartment, affecting the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration.

  20. Extracellular matrix of cultured glial cells: Selective expression of chondroitin 4-sulfate by type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, V.; Bertolotto, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the extracellular matrix composition of cultured glial cells by immunocytochemistry with different monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Double immunofluorescence experiments and metabolic labeling with [3H]glucosamine performed in different types of cerebellar and cortical cultures showed that bipotential progenitors for type-2 astrocytes and for oligodendrocytes synthesize chondroitin sulfate (CS) and deposit this proteoglycan in their extracellular matrix. The distribution of the various [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycosaminoglycans between the intracellular and the extracellular space was different. CS was present both within the cells and in the culture medium, although in different amounts. Bi-potential progenitors became also O4-positive during their development in vitro. At the stage of O4-positivity they were still stained with antibodies against CS. However, when the progenitor cells were maintained in serum-free medium and differentiated into Gal-C-positive oligodendrocytes, they became CS-negative. In the presence of fetal calf serum in the culture medium, the bipotential progenitors differentiated into GFAP-positive type-2 astrocytes. These cells still expressed CS: their Golgi area and their surface were stained with anti-CS antibodies. Staining with monoclonal antibodies specific for different types of CS (4-sulfate, 6-sulfate, and unsulfated) revealed that both bipotential progenitors and type-2 astrocytes synthesized only chondroitin 4-sulfate. Type-1 astrocytes were negative for both the polyclonal and the monoclonal anti-CS antibodies. Finally, type-2 astrocytes and their progenitors were weakly stained with anti-laminin antibodies and unstained with anti-fibronectin. Type-1 astrocytes were positive for both anti-laminin and anti-fibronectin antibodies and appeared to secrete fibronectin in the extracellular space

  1. On Variations in the Level of PER in Glial Clocks of Drosophila Optic Lobe and Its Negative Regulation by PDF Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta; Chwastek, Elżbieta M; Walkowicz, Lucyna; Witek, Kacper

    2018-01-01

    We show that the level of the core protein of the circadian clock Period (PER) expressed by glial peripheral oscillators depends on their location in the Drosophila optic lobe. It appears to be controlled by the ventral lateral neurons (LNvs) that release the circadian neurotransmitter Pigment Dispersing Factor (PDF). We demonstrate that glial cells of the distal medulla neuropil (dMnGl) that lie in the vicinity of the PDF-releasing terminals of the LNvs possess receptors for PDF (PDFRs) and express PER at significantly higher level than other types of glia. Surprisingly, the amplitude of PER molecular oscillations in dMnGl is increased twofold in PDF-free environment, that is in Pdf 0 mutants. The Pdf 0 mutants also reveal an increased level of glia-specific protein REPO in dMnGl. The photoreceptors of the compound eye (R-cells) of the PDF-null flies, on the other hand, exhibit de-synchrony of PER molecular oscillations, which manifests itself as increased variability of PER-specific immunofluorescence among the R-cells. Moreover, the daily pattern of expression of the presynaptic protein Bruchpilot (BRP) in the lamina terminals of the R-cells is changed in Pdf 0 mutant. Considering that PDFRs are also expressed by the marginal glia of the lamina that surround the R-cell terminals, the LNv pacemakers appear to be the likely modulators of molecular cycling in the peripheral clocks of both the glial cells and the photoreceptors of the compound eye. Consequently, some form of PDF-based coupling of the glial clocks and the photoreceptors of the eye with the central LNv pacemakers must be operational.

  2. Plasticity of Neuron-Glial Transmission: Equipping Glia for Long-Term Integration of Network Activity

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    Wayne Croft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of synaptic networks to express activity-dependent changes in strength and connectivity is essential for learning and memory processes. In recent years, glial cells (most notably astrocytes have been recognized as active participants in the modulation of synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity, implicating these electrically nonexcitable cells in information processing in the brain. While the concept of bidirectional communication between neurons and glia and the mechanisms by which gliotransmission can modulate neuronal function are well established, less attention has been focussed on the computational potential of neuron-glial transmission itself. In particular, whether neuron-glial transmission is itself subject to activity-dependent plasticity and what the computational properties of such plasticity might be has not been explored in detail. In this review, we summarize current examples of plasticity in neuron-glial transmission, in many brain regions and neurotransmitter pathways. We argue that induction of glial plasticity typically requires repetitive neuronal firing over long time periods (minutes-hours rather than the short-lived, stereotyped trigger typical of canonical long-term potentiation. We speculate that this equips glia with a mechanism for monitoring average firing rates in the synaptic network, which is suited to the longer term roles proposed for astrocytes in neurophysiology.

  3. Efficient Transduction of Feline Neural Progenitor Cells for Delivery of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Lentiviral Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Joann You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor-2 up-regulates the expression of nestin through the Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling axis in C6 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kai-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Li; Wong, Zong-Ruei; Su, Peng-Han; Huang, Bu-Miin; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Yang, Hsi-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nestin expression in C6 glioma cells is induced by FGF-2. •Nestin expression is induced by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. •The FGFR inhibitor SU5402 blocks the FGF-2-induced nestin expression. •The mRNA of FGFR1 and 3 are detected in C6 glioma cells. •Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling pathway is responsibe for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. -- Abstract: Nestin is a 240-kDa intermediate filament protein expressed mainly in neural and myogenic stem cells. Although a substantial number of studies have focused on the expression of nestin during development of the central nervous system, little is known about the factors that induce and regulate its expression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an effective mitogen and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of a subset of nestin-expressing cells, including neural progenitor cells, glial precursor cells, and smooth muscle cells. To assess whether FGF-2 is a potent factor that induces the expression of nestin, C6 glioma cells were used. The results showed that nestin expression was up-regulated by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Our RT-PCR results showed that C6 glioma cells express FGFR1/3, and FGFRs is required for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. Further signaling analysis also revealed that FGF-2-induced nestin expression is mediated through FGFR–MAPK–ERK signaling axis and the transcriptional factor Sp1. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of nestin in glial system and enable the further studies on the function of nestin in glial cells

  5. Fibroblast growth factor-2 up-regulates the expression of nestin through the Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling axis in C6 glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kai-Wei [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Wong, Zong-Ruei; Su, Peng-Han [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Bu-Miin [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ju, Tsai-Kai [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Yuan, E-mail: hyhy@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Nestin expression in C6 glioma cells is induced by FGF-2. •Nestin expression is induced by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. •The FGFR inhibitor SU5402 blocks the FGF-2-induced nestin expression. •The mRNA of FGFR1 and 3 are detected in C6 glioma cells. •Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling pathway is responsibe for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. -- Abstract: Nestin is a 240-kDa intermediate filament protein expressed mainly in neural and myogenic stem cells. Although a substantial number of studies have focused on the expression of nestin during development of the central nervous system, little is known about the factors that induce and regulate its expression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an effective mitogen and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of a subset of nestin-expressing cells, including neural progenitor cells, glial precursor cells, and smooth muscle cells. To assess whether FGF-2 is a potent factor that induces the expression of nestin, C6 glioma cells were used. The results showed that nestin expression was up-regulated by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Our RT-PCR results showed that C6 glioma cells express FGFR1/3, and FGFRs is required for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. Further signaling analysis also revealed that FGF-2-induced nestin expression is mediated through FGFR–MAPK–ERK signaling axis and the transcriptional factor Sp1. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of nestin in glial system and enable the further studies on the function of nestin in glial cells.

  6. Glial cell morphological and density changes through the lifespan of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Katelyn N; Lee, Kim M; Chiu, Kevin B; MacLean, Andrew G

    2016-07-01

    How aging impacts the central nervous system (CNS) is an area of intense interest. Glial morphology is known to affect neuronal and immune function as well as metabolic and homeostatic balance. Activation of glia, both astrocytes and microglia, occurs at several stages during development and aging. The present study analyzed changes in glial morphology and density through the entire lifespan of rhesus macaques, which are physiologically and anatomically similar to humans. We observed apparent increases in gray matter astrocytic process length and process complexity as rhesus macaques matured from juveniles through adulthood. These changes were not attributed to cell enlargement because they were not accompanied by proportional changes in soma or process volume. There was a decrease in white matter microglial process length as rhesus macaques aged. Aging was shown to have a significant effect on gray matter microglial density, with a significant increase in aged macaques compared with adults. Overall, we observed significant changes in glial morphology as macaques age indicative of astrocytic activation with subsequent increase in microglial density in aged macaques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyurethane/polylactide-based biomaterials combined with rat olfactory bulb-derived glial cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for neural regenerative medicine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Marycz, Krzysztof; Szarek, Dariusz; Bednarz, Paulina; Laska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning the elaboration and application of biomaterial which may support the nerve tissue regeneration is currently one of the most promising directions. Biocompatible polymer devices are noteworthy group among the numerous types of potentially attractive biomaterials for regenerative medicine application. Polylactides and polyurethanes may be utilized for developing devices for supporting the nerve regeneration, like nerve guide conduits or bridges connecting the endings of broken nerve tracts. Moreover, the combination of these biomaterial devices with regenerative cell populations, like stem or precursor cells should significantly improve the final therapeutic effect. Therefore, the composition and structure of final device should support the proper adhesion and growth of cells destined for clinical application. In current research, the three polymer mats elaborated for connecting the broken nerve tracts, made from polylactide, polyurethane and their blend were evaluated both for physical properties and in vitro, using the olfactory-bulb glial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The evaluation of Young's modulus, wettability and roughness of obtained materials showed the differences between analyzed samples. The analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology showed that the polyurethane–polylactide blend was the most neutral for cells in culture, while in the pure polymer samples there were significant alterations observed. Our results indicated that polyurethane–polylactide blend is an optimal composition for culturing and delivery of glial and mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Polyurethane–polylactide blends exhibit different characteristics from pure polymers. • Pure PU and PLA negatively influence on morphology of glial and mesenchymal cells. • PU/PLA blend was neutral for glial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and morphology

  8. Polyurethane/polylactide-based biomaterials combined with rat olfactory bulb-derived glial cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for neural regenerative medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzesiak, Jakub, E-mail: grzesiak.kuba@gmail.com [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kozuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wroclaw (Poland); Marycz, Krzysztof [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Kozuchowska 5b, 51-631 Wroclaw (Poland); Szarek, Dariusz [Department of Neurosurgery, Lower Silesia Specialist Hospital of T. Marciniak, Emergency Medicine Center, Traugutta 116, 50-420 Wroclaw (Poland); Bednarz, Paulina [State Higher Vocational School in Tarnów, Mickiewicza 8, 33-100 Tarnów (Poland); Laska, Jadwiga [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    Research concerning the elaboration and application of biomaterial which may support the nerve tissue regeneration is currently one of the most promising directions. Biocompatible polymer devices are noteworthy group among the numerous types of potentially attractive biomaterials for regenerative medicine application. Polylactides and polyurethanes may be utilized for developing devices for supporting the nerve regeneration, like nerve guide conduits or bridges connecting the endings of broken nerve tracts. Moreover, the combination of these biomaterial devices with regenerative cell populations, like stem or precursor cells should significantly improve the final therapeutic effect. Therefore, the composition and structure of final device should support the proper adhesion and growth of cells destined for clinical application. In current research, the three polymer mats elaborated for connecting the broken nerve tracts, made from polylactide, polyurethane and their blend were evaluated both for physical properties and in vitro, using the olfactory-bulb glial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The evaluation of Young's modulus, wettability and roughness of obtained materials showed the differences between analyzed samples. The analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology showed that the polyurethane–polylactide blend was the most neutral for cells in culture, while in the pure polymer samples there were significant alterations observed. Our results indicated that polyurethane–polylactide blend is an optimal composition for culturing and delivery of glial and mesenchymal stem cells. - Highlights: • Polyurethane–polylactide blends exhibit different characteristics from pure polymers. • Pure PU and PLA negatively influence on morphology of glial and mesenchymal cells. • PU/PLA blend was neutral for glial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and morphology.

  9. The contribution of spinal glial cells to chronic pain behaviour in the monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies of osteoarthritis (OA suggest central sensitization may contribute to the chronic pain experienced. This preclinical study used the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA model of OA joint pain to investigate the potential contribution of spinal sensitization, in particular spinal glial cell activation, to pain behaviour in this model. Experimental OA was induced in the rat by the intra-articular injection of MIA and pain behaviour (change in weight bearing and distal allodynia was assessed. Spinal cord microglia (Iba1 staining and astrocyte (GFAP immunofluorescence activation were measured at 7, 14 and 28 days post MIA-treatment. The effects of two known inhibitors of glial activation, nimesulide and minocycline, on pain behaviour and activation of microglia and astrocytes were assessed. Results Seven days following intra-articular injection of MIA, microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord were activated (p Conclusions Here we provide evidence for a contribution of spinal glial cells to pain behaviour, in particular distal allodynia, in this model of osteoarthritic pain. Our data suggest there is a potential role of glial cells in the central sensitization associated with OA, which may provide a novel analgesic target for the treatment of OA pain.

  10. Comparative expression analysis reveals lineage relationships between human and murine gliomas and a dominance of glial signatures during tumor propagation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Nico V; Forshew, Tim; Tatevossian, Ruth; Ellis, Matthew; Richard-Loendt, Angela; Rogers, Hazel; Jacques, Thomas S; Reitboeck, Pablo Garcia; Pearce, Kerra; Sheer, Denise; Grundy, Richard G; Brandner, Sebastian

    2013-09-15

    Brain tumors are thought to originate from stem/progenitor cell populations that acquire specific genetic mutations. Although current preclinical models have relevance to human pathogenesis, most do not recapitulate the histogenesis of the human disease. Recently, a large series of human gliomas and medulloblastomas were analyzed for genetic signatures of prognosis and therapeutic response. Using a mouse model system that generates three distinct types of intrinsic brain tumors, we correlated RNA and protein expression levels with human brain tumors. A combination of genetic mutations and cellular environment during tumor propagation defined the incidence and phenotype of intrinsic murine tumors. Importantly, in vitro passage of cancer stem cells uniformly promoted a glial expression profile in culture and in brain tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed that experimental gliomas corresponded to distinct subclasses of human glioblastoma, whereas experimental supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) correspond to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare childhood tumor. ©2013 AACR.

  11. Differentiation of Inflammation-Responsive Astrocytes from Glial Progenitors Generated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Astrocyte dysfunction and neuroinflammation are detrimental features in multiple pathologies of the CNS. Therefore, the development of methods that produce functional human astrocytes represents an advance in the study of neurological diseases. Here we report an efficient method for inflammation-responsive astrocyte generation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and embryonic stem cells. This protocol uses an intermediate glial progenitor stage and generates functional astrocytes that show levels of glutamate uptake and calcium activation comparable with those observed in human primary astrocytes. Stimulation of stem cell-derived astrocytes with interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis factor α elicits a strong and rapid pro-inflammatory response. RNA-sequencing transcriptome profiling confirmed that similar gene expression changes occurred in iPSC-derived and primary astrocytes upon stimulation with interleukin-1β. This protocol represents an important tool for modeling in-a-dish neurological diseases with an inflammatory component, allowing for the investigation of the role of diseased astrocytes in neuronal degeneration.

  12. Radiosensitivity of glial progenitor cells of the perinatal and adult rat optic nerve studied by an in vitro clonogenic assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Verhagen, I.; Kleiboer, B.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1991-01-01

    The cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelination and white matter necrosis of the central nervous system (CNS), is poorly understood. Glial cells responsible for myelination in the CNS might be the target cells of this type of damage. Glial cells with stem cell properties derived from the perinatal and adult rat CNS can be cultured in vitro. These cells are able to differentiate into oligodendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes (O-2A) depending on the culture conditions. Growth factors produced by monolayers of type-1 astrocytes inhibit premature differentiation of O-2A progenitor cells and allow colony formation. A method which employs these monolayers of type-1 astrocytes to culture O-2A progenitor cells has been adapted to allow the analysis of colonies of surviving cells after X-irradiation. In vitro survival curves were obtained for glial progenitor cells derived from perinatal and adult optic nerves. The intrinsic radiosensitivity of perinatal and adult O-2A progenitor cells showed a large difference. Perinatal O-2A progenitor cells are quite radiosensitive, in contrast to adult O-2A progenitor cells. For both cell types an inverse relationship was found between the dose and the size of colonies derived from surviving cells. Surviving O-2A progenitor cells maintain their ability to differentiate into oligo-dendrocytes or type-2 astrocytes. This system to assess radiation-induced damage to glial progenitor cells in vitro systems to have a great potential in unraveling the cellular basis of radiation-induced demyelinating syndromes of the CNS. (author). 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Expression of Tlx in both stem cells and transit amplifying progenitors regulates stem cell activation and differentiation in the neonatal lateral subependymal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obernier, Kirsten; Simeonova, Ina; Fila, Tatiana; Mandl, Claudia; Hölzl-Wenig, Gabriele; Monaghan-Nichols, Paula; Ciccolini, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    Niche homeostasis in the postnatal subependymal zone of the lateral ventricle (lSEZ) requires coordinated proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. The mechanisms regulating this balance are scarcely known. Recent observations indicate that the orphan nuclear receptor Tlx is an intrinsic factor essential in maintaining this balance. However, the effect of Tlx on gene expression depends on age and cell-type cues. Therefore, it is essential to establish its expression pattern at different developmental ages. Here, we show for the first time that in the neonatal lSEZ activated neural stem cells (NSCs) and especially transit-amplifying progenitors (TAPs) express Tlx and that its expression may be regulated at the posttranscriptional level. We also provide evidence that in both cell types Tlx affects gene expression in a positive and negative manner. In activated NSCs, but not in TAPs, absence of Tlx leads to overexpression of negative cell cycle regulators and impairment of proliferation. Moreover, in both cell types, the homeobox transcription factor Dlx2 is downregulated in the absence of Tlx. This is paralleled by increased expression of Olig2 in activated NSCs and glial fibrillary acidic protein in TAPs, indicating that in both populations Tlx decreases gliogenesis. Consistent with this, we found a higher proportion of cells expressing glial makers in the neonatal lSEZ of mutant mice than in the wild type counterpart. Thus, Tlx playing a dual role affects the expression of distinct genes in these two lSEZ cell types. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Connexin 50 Expression in Ependymal Stem Progenitor Cells after Spinal Cord Injury Activation

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    Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Jimenez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ion channels included in the family of Connexins (Cx help to control cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors. Here we explored the role of Connexin 50 (Cx50 in cell fate modulation of adult spinal cord derived neural precursors located in the ependymal canal (epSPC. epSPC from non-injured animals showed high expression levels of Cx50 compared to epSPC from animals with spinal cord injury (SCI (epSPCi. When epSPC or epSPCi were induced to spontaneously differentiate in vitro we found that Cx50 favors glial cell fate, since higher expression levels, endogenous or by over-expression of Cx50, augmented the expression of the astrocyte marker GFAP and impaired the neuronal marker Tuj1. Cx50 was found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte-derived cells. Similar expression patterns were found in primary cultures of mature astrocytes. In addition, opposite expression profile for nuclear Cx50 was observed when epSPC and activated epSPCi were conducted to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes, suggesting a different role for this ion channel in spinal cord beyond cell-to-cell communication. In vivo detection of Cx50 by immunohistochemistry showed a defined location in gray matter in non-injured tissues and at the epicenter of the injury after SCI. epSPCi transplantation, which accelerates locomotion regeneration by a neuroprotective effect after acute SCI is associated with a lower signal of Cx50 within the injured area, suggesting a minor or detrimental contribution of this ion channel in spinal cord regeneration by activated epSPCi.

  15. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

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    Vinay K Tripathi

    Full Text Available The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (U373-MG cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, cyclophosphamide (CPA, ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against

  16. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Troncoso; Julieta Troncoso; Efraín Buriticá; Efraín Buriticá

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to eithe...

  17. Juliprosopine and juliprosine from prosopis juliflora leaves induce mitochondrial damage and cytoplasmic vacuolation on cocultured glial cells and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Victor Diogenes A; Pitanga, Bruno P S; Nascimento, Ravena P; Souza, Cleide S; Coelho, Paulo Lucas C; Menezes-Filho, Noélio; Silva, André Mário M; Costa, Maria de Fátima D; El-Bachá, Ramon S; Velozo, Eudes S; Costa, Silvia L

    2013-12-16

    Prosopis juliflora is a shrub largely used for animal and human consumption. However, ingestion has been shown to induce intoxication in animals, which is characterized by neuromuscular alterations induced by mechanisms that are not yet well understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of a total alkaloid extract (TAE) and one alkaloid fraction (F32) obtained from P. juliflora leaves to rat cortical neurons and glial cells. Nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of F32 showed that this fraction is composed of a mixture of two piperidine alkaloids, juliprosopine (majority constituent) and juliprosine. TAE and F32 at concentrations between 0.3 and 45 μg/mL were tested for 24 h on neuron/glial cell primary cocultures. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide test revealed that TAE and F32 were cytotoxic to cocultures, and their IC50 values were 31.07 and 7.362 μg/mL, respectively. Exposure to a subtoxic concentration of TAE or F32 (0.3-3 μg/mL) induced vacuolation and disruption of the astrocyte monolayer and neurite network, ultrastructural changes, characterized by formation of double-membrane vacuoles, and mitochondrial damage, associated with changes in β-tubulin III and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression. Microglial proliferation was also observed in cultures exposed to TAE or F32, with increasing levels of OX-42-positive cells. Considering that F32 was more cytotoxic than TAE and that F32 reproduced in vitro the main morphologic and ultrastructural changes of "cara torta" disease, we can also suggest that piperidine alkaloids juliprosopine and juliprosine are primarily responsible for the neurotoxic damage observed in animals after they have consumed the plant.

  18. Indoxyl Sulfate Affects Glial Function Increasing Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: Interaction between Astrocytes and Microglia

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    Simona Adesso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoxyl sulfate (IS is a protein-bound uremic toxin resulting from the metabolism of dietary tryptophan which accumulates in patients with impaired renal function, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD. IS is a well-known nephrovascular toxin but little is known about its effects on central nervous system (CNS cells. Considering the growing interest in the field of CNS comorbidities in CKD, we studied the effect of IS on CNS cells. IS (15–60 μM treatment in C6 astrocyte cells increased reactive oxygen species release and decreased nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2 activation, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH dehydrogenase quinone 1 expression. Moreover, IS increased Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR and Nuclear Factor-kB (NF-kB activation in these cells. Similiar observations were made in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release and nitrotyrosine formation were increased by IS (15–60 μM in primary mouse astrocytes and mixed glial cells. IS increased AhR and NF-kB nuclear translocation and reduced Nrf2 translocation and HO-1 expression in primary glial cells. In addition, IS induced cell death in neurons in a dose dependent fashion. Injection of IS (800 mg/kg, i.p. into mice induced histological changes and increased COX-2 expression and nitrotyrosine formation in thebrain tissue. Taken together, our results show a significant contribution of IS in generating a neurotoxic enviroment and it could also have a potential role in neurodegeneration. IS could be considered also a potential therapeutical target for CKD-associated neurodegenerative complications.

  19. Pediatric Glial Heterotopia in the Medial Canthus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel Kofi; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Lee, Suk Keun

    2017-11-01

    Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, and nonteratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may be confused as encephalocele or dermoid cysts and are mostly present in the nose.An 8-month-old African female child presented with a slow growing paranasal mass. The mass had been present at the left upper medial canthus since birth and had slowly and progressively enlarged. There was no communication between the mass and the cranial cavity during the operational procedure. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein as well as for glial fibrillary acidic protein, but negative for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. This suggested that the mass was composed of benign glial tissues with many astrocytes.The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the first patient with pediatric glial heterotopic tissue in the medial canthus and to report the clinical importance of its immunohistochemical findings.

  20. Modeling glial contributions to seizures and epileptogenesis: cation-chloride cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Zeid M Rusan

    Full Text Available Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl- cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24-48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl- cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed.

  1. Cell-type-specific responses of RT4 neural cell lines to dibutyryl-cAMP: branch determination versus maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droms, K.; Sueoka, N.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the induction of cell-type-specific maturation, by dibutyryl-cAMP and testololactone, of neuronal and glial properties in a family of cell lines derived from a rat peripheral neurotumor, RT4. This maturation allows further understanding of the process of determination because of the close lineage relationship between the cell types of the RT4 family. The RT4 family is characterized by the spontaneous conversion of one of the cell types, RT4-AC (stem-cell type), to any of three derivative cell types, RT4-B, RT4-D, or RT4-E, with a frequency of about 10(-5). The RT4-AC cells express some properties characteristic of both neuronal and glial cells. Of these neural properties expressed by RT4-AC cells, only the neuronal properties are expressed by the RT4-B and RT4-E cells, and only the glial properties are expressed by the RT4-D cells. This in vitro cell-type conversion of RT4-AC to three derivative cell types is a branch point for the coordinate regulation of several properties and seems to resemble determination in vivo. In our standard culture conditions, several other neuronal and glial properties are not expressed by these cell types. However, addition of dibutyryl-cAMP induces expression of additional properties, in a cell-type-specific manner: formation of long cellular processes in the RT4-B8 and RT4-E5 cell lines and expression of high-affinity uptake of gamma-aminobutyric acid, by a glial-cell-specific mechanism, in the RT4-D6-2 cell line. These new properties are maximally expressed 2-3 days after addition of dibutyryl-cAMP

  2. Complex and differential glial responses in Alzheimer's disease and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, José J; Butt, Arthur M; Gardenal, Emanuela; Parpura, Vladimir; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Glial cells and their association with neurones are fundamental for brain function. The emergence of complex neurone-glial networks assures rapid information transfer, creating a sophisticated circuitry where both types of neural cells work in concert, serving different activities. All glial cells, represented by astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and NG2-glia, are essential for brain homeostasis and defence. Thus, glia are key not only for normal central nervous system (CNS) function, but also to its dysfunction, being directly associated with all forms of neuropathological processes. Therefore, the progression and outcome of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases depend on glial reactions. In this review, we provide a concise account of recent data obtained from both human material and animal models demonstrating the pathological involvement of glia in neurodegenerative processes, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as physiological ageing.

  3. Cytokine-induced activation of glial cells in the mouse brain is enhanced at an advanced age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X-H; Bertini, G; Xu, Y-Z; Yan, Z; Bentivoglio, M

    2006-08-25

    Numerous neurological diseases which include neuroinflammatory components exhibit an age-related prevalence. The aging process is characterized by an increase of inflammatory mediators both systemically and in the brain, which may prime glial cells. However, little information is available on age-related changes in the glial response of the healthy aging brain to an inflammatory challenge. This problem was here examined using a mixture of the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which was injected intracerebroventricularly in young (2-3.5 months), middle-aged (10-11 months) and aged (18-21 months) mice. Vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) was used as control. After a survival of 1 or 2 days (all age groups) or 4 days (young and middle-aged animals), immunohistochemically labeled astrocytes and microglia were investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively. In all age groups, astrocytes were markedly activated in periventricular as well as in deeper brain regions 2 days following cytokine treatment, whereas microglia activation was already evident at 24 h. Interestingly, cytokine-induced activation of both astrocytes and microglia was significantly more marked in the brain of aged animals, in which it included numerous ameboid microglia, than of younger age groups. Moderate astrocytic activation was also seen in the hippocampal CA1 field of vehicle-treated aged mice. FluoroJade B histochemistry and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick-end labeling technique, performed at 2 days after cytokine administration, did not reveal ongoing cell death phenomena in young or aged animals. This indicated that glial cell changes were not secondary to neuronal death. Altogether, the findings demonstrate for the first time enhanced activation of glial cells in the old brain, compared with young and middle-aged subjects, in response to cytokine exposure. Interestingly, the results also suggest that such enhancement

  4. Inhibition of CD200R1 expression by C/EBP beta in reactive microglial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dentesano Guido

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In physiological conditions, it is postulated that neurons control microglial reactivity through a series of inhibitory mechanisms, involving either cell contact-dependent, soluble-factor-dependent or neurotransmitter-associated pathways. In the current study, we focus on CD200R1, a microglial receptor involved in one of these cell contact-dependent mechanisms. CD200R1 activation by its ligand, CD200 (mainly expressed by neurons in the central nervous system,is postulated to inhibit the pro-inflammatory phenotype of microglial cells, while alterations in CD200-CD200R1 signalling potentiate this phenotype. Little is known about the regulation of CD200R1 expression in microglia or possible alterations in the presence of pro-inflammatory stimuli. Methods Murine primary microglial cultures, mixed glial cultures from wild-type and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ-deficient mice, and the BV2 murine cell line overexpressing C/EBPβ were used to study the involvement of C/EBPβ transcription factor in the regulation of CD200R1 expression in response to a proinflammatory stimulus (lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Binding of C/EBPβ to the CD200R1 promoter was determined by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP. The involvement of histone deacetylase 1 in the control of CD200R1 expression by C/EBPβ was also determined by co-immunoprecipitation and qChIP. Results LPS treatment induced a decrease in CD200R1 mRNA and protein expression in microglial cells, an effect that was not observed in the absence of C/EBPβ. C/EBPβ overexpression in BV2 cells resulted in a decrease in basal CD200R1 mRNA and protein expression. In addition, C/EBPβ binding to the CD200R1 promoter was observed in LPS-treated but not in control glial cells, and also in control BV2 cells overexpressing C/EBPβ. Finally, we observed that histone deacetylase 1 co-immunoprecipitated with C/EBPβ and showed binding to a C/EBPβ consensus sequence of the CD

  5. Low-dose/dose-rate γ radiation depresses neural differentiation and alters protein expression profiles in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and C17.2 neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajinskis, Ainars; Lindegren, Heléne; Johansson, Lotta; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Forsby, Anna

    2011-02-01

    The effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on cellular development in the nervous system are presently unclear. The focus of the present study was to examine low-dose γ-radiation-induced effects on the differentiation of neuronal cells and on the development of neural stem cells to glial cells. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to (137)Cs γ rays at different stages of retinoic acid-induced neuronal differentiation, and neurite formation was determined 6 days after exposure. When SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to low-dose-rate γ rays at the onset of differentiation, the number of neurites formed per cell was significantly less after exposure to either 10, 30 or 100 mGy compared to control cells. Exposure to 10 and 30 mGy attenuated differentiation of immature C17.2 mouse-derived neural stem cells to glial cells, as verified by the diminished expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein. Proteomic analysis of the neuroblastoma cells by 2D-PAGE after 30 mGy irradiation showed that proteins involved in neuronal development were downregulated. Proteins involved in cell cycle and proliferation were altered in both cell lines after exposure to 30 mGy; however, the rate of cell proliferation was not affected in the low-dose range. The radiation-induced attenuation of differentiation and the persistent changes in protein expression is indicative of an epigenetic rather than a cytotoxic mechanism.

  6. Endothelium in brain: Receptors, mitogenesis, and biosynthesis in glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCumber, M.W.; Ross, C.A.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have explored the cellular loci of endothelin (ET) actions and formation in the brain, using cerebellar mutant mice was well as primary and continuous cell cultures. A glial role is favored by several observations: (1) mutant mice lacking neuronal Purkinje cells display normal ET receptor binding and enhanced stimulation by ET of inositolphospholipid turnover; (ii) in weaver mice lacking neuronal granule cells, ET stimulation of inositolphospholipid turnover is not significantly diminished; (iii) C 6 glioma cells and primary cultures of cerebellar astroglia exhibit substantial ET receptor binding and ET-induced stimulation of inositolphospholipid turnover; (iv) ET promotes mitogenesis of C 6 glioma cells and primary cerebellar astroglia; and (v) primary cultures of cerebellar astroglia contain ET mRNA. ET also appears to have a neuronal role, since it stimulates inositolphospholipid turnover in primary cultures of cerebellar granule cells, and ET binding declines in granule cell-deficient mice. Thus, ET can be produced by glia and act upon both glia and neurons in a paracrine fashion

  7. Genetic deletion of afadin causes hydrocephalus by destruction of adherens junctions in radial glial and ependymal cells in the midbrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Adherens junctions (AJs play a role in mechanically connecting adjacent cells to maintain tissue structure, particularly in epithelial cells. The major cell-cell adhesion molecules at AJs are cadherins and nectins. Afadin binds to both nectins and α-catenin and recruits the cadherin-β-catenin complex to the nectin-based cell-cell adhesion site to form AJs. To explore the role of afadin in radial glial and ependymal cells in the brain, we generated mice carrying a nestin-Cre-mediated conditional knockout (cKO of the afadin gene. Newborn afadin-cKO mice developed hydrocephalus and died neonatally. The afadin-cKO brain displayed enlarged lateral ventricles and cerebral aqueduct, resulting from stenosis of the caudal end of the cerebral aqueduct and obliteration of the ventral part of the third ventricle. Afadin deficiency further caused the loss of ependymal cells from the ventricular and aqueductal surfaces. During development, radial glial cells, which terminally differentiate into ependymal cells, scattered from the ventricular zone and were replaced by neurons that eventually covered the ventricular and aqueductal surfaces of the afadin-cKO midbrain. Moreover, the denuded ependymal cells were only occasionally observed in the third ventricle and the cerebral aqueduct of the afadin-cKO midbrain. Afadin was co-localized with nectin-1 and N-cadherin at AJs of radial glial and ependymal cells in the control midbrain, but these proteins were not concentrated at AJs in the afadin-cKO midbrain. Thus, the defects in the afadin-cKO midbrain most likely resulted from the destruction of AJs, because AJs in the midbrain were already established before afadin was genetically deleted. These results indicate that afadin is essential for the maintenance of AJs in radial glial and ependymal cells in the midbrain and is required for normal morphogenesis of the cerebral aqueduct and ventral third ventricle in the midbrain.

  8. The Impact of Oxidative Stress Factors on the Viability, Senescence, and Methylation Status of Olfactory Bulb-Derived Glial Cells Isolated from Human Cadaver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Kornicka, Katarzyna; Grzesiak, Jakub; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Szarek, Dariusz; Kopacz, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    The olfactory bulb (OB) is a unique structure in the central nervous system that retains the ability to create new neuronal connections. Glial cells isolated from the OB have been recently considered as a novel and promising tool to establish an effective therapy for central nervous system injuries. Due to the hindered access to autologous tissue for cell isolation, an allogeneic source of tissues obtained postmortem has been proposed. In this study, we focused on the morphological and molecular characteristics of human OB-derived glial cells isolated postmortem, at different time points after a donor's death. We evaluated the proliferative activity of the isolated cells, and investigated the ultrastructure of the mitochondria, the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and the activity of superoxide dismutase. The data obtained clearly indicate that the duration of ischemia is crucial for the viability/senescence rate of OB-derived glial cells. The OB can be isolated during autopsy and still stand as a source of viable glial cells, but ischemia duration is a major factor limiting its potential usefulness in therapies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Differentiation of Inflammation-Responsive Astrocytes from Glial Progenitors Generated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata; Vadodaria, Krishna C; Jaeger, Baptiste N; Mei, Arianna; Lefcochilos-Fogelquist, Sabrina; Mendes, Ana P D; Erikson, Galina; Shokhirev, Maxim; Randolph-Moore, Lynne; Fredlender, Callie; Dave, Sonia; Oefner, Ruth; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Pena, Monique; Barron, Jerika J; Ku, Manching; Denli, Ahmet M; Kerman, Bilal E; Charnay, Patrick; Kelsoe, John R; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H

    2017-06-06

    Astrocyte dysfunction and neuroinflammation are detrimental features in multiple pathologies of the CNS. Therefore, the development of methods that produce functional human astrocytes represents an advance in the study of neurological diseases. Here we report an efficient method for inflammation-responsive astrocyte generation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells. This protocol uses an intermediate glial progenitor stage and generates functional astrocytes that show levels of glutamate uptake and calcium activation comparable with those observed in human primary astrocytes. Stimulation of stem cell-derived astrocytes with interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis factor α elicits a strong and rapid pro-inflammatory response. RNA-sequencing transcriptome profiling confirmed that similar gene expression changes occurred in iPSC-derived and primary astrocytes upon stimulation with interleukin-1β. This protocol represents an important tool for modeling in-a-dish neurological diseases with an inflammatory component, allowing for the investigation of the role of diseased astrocytes in neuronal degeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-level bisphenol A increases production of glial fibrillary acidic protein in differentiating astrocyte progenitor cells through excessive STAT3 and Smad1 activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideaki; Zhu, Jun; Yu, Tao; Sasaki, Kazuo; Umetsu, Hironori; Kidachi, Yumi; Ryoyama, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the differentiation of serum-free mouse embryo (SFME) cells, the astrocyte progenitor cells in the central nervous system, were examined. SFME cells were exposed to 10 ng/ml leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and 10 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) to increase glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and induce cell differentiation. Various concentrations of BPA (0.1 pg/ml-1 μg/ml) were then added to determine their effects on the cell differentiation. SFME cells were effectively differentiated by LIF and BMP2 in completely serum-free cultures. Cell proliferation following cell differentiation was not significantly affected by low-level BPA. However, GFAP expression was significantly increased in SFME cells in the presence of 1-100 pg/ml BPA. These increases were due to excessive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 1 (Smad1) by the low-level BPA

  11. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles inhibit proliferation and induce morphological changes and apoptosis in glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Márquez-Ramírez, Sandra Gissela; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma Laura; Chirino, Yolanda Irasema; Iglesias, Gisela Gutiérrez; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 NPs) are widely used in the chemical, electrical and electronic industries. TiO 2 NPs can enter directly into the brain through the olfactory bulb and be deposited in the hippocampus region. We determined the effect of TiO 2 NPs on rat and human glial cells, C6 and U373, respectively. We evaluated proliferation by crystal violet staining, internalization of TiO 2 NPs, and cellular morphology by TEM analysis, as well as F-actin distribution by immunostaining and cell death by detecting active caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. TiO 2 NPs inhibited proliferation and induced morphological changes that were related with a decrease in immuno-location of F-actin fibers. TiO 2 NPs were internalized and formation of vesicles was observed. TiO 2 NPs induced apoptosis after 96 h of treatment. Hence, TiO 2 NPs had a cytotoxic effect on glial cells, suggesting that exposure to TiO 2 NPs could cause brain injury and be hazardous to health.

  12. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    KAUST Repository

    Elsayed, Maha

    2015-12-16

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.

  13. A New Outlook on Mental Illnesses: Glial Involvement Beyond the Glue

    KAUST Repository

    Elsayed, Maha; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Mental illnesses have long been perceived as the exclusive consequence of abnormalities in neuronal functioning. Until recently, the role of glial cells in the pathophysiology of mental diseases has largely been overlooked. However recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest more diverse and significant functions of glia with behavior-altering effects. The newly ascribed roles of astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia have led to their examination in brain pathology and mental illnesses. Indeed, abnormalities in glial function, structure and density have been observed in postmortem brain studies of subjects diagnosed with mental illnesses. In this review, we discuss the newly identified functions of glia and highlight the findings of glial abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. We discuss these preclinical and clinical findings implicating the involvement of glial cells in mental illnesses with the perspective that these cells may represent a new target for treatment.

  14. Nuclear progesterone receptors are up-regulated by estrogens in neurons and radial glial progenitors in the brain of zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Diotel

    Full Text Available In rodents, there is increasing evidence that nuclear progesterone receptors are transiently expressed in many regions of the developing brain, notably outside the hypothalamus. This suggests that progesterone and/or its metabolites could be involved in functions not related to reproduction, particularly in neurodevelopment. In this context, the adult fish brain is of particular interest, as it exhibits constant growth and high neurogenic activity that is supported by radial glia progenitors. However, although synthesis of neuroprogestagens has been documented recently in the brain of zebrafish, information on the presence of progesterone receptors is very limited. In zebrafish, a single nuclear progesterone receptor (pgr has been cloned and characterized. Here, we demonstrate that this pgr is widely distributed in all regions of the zebrafish brain. Interestingly, we show that Pgr is strongly expressed in radial glial cells and more weakly in neurons. Finally, we present evidence, based on quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, that nuclear progesterone receptor mRNA and proteins are upregulated by estrogens in the brain of adult zebrafish. These data document for the first time the finding that radial glial cells are preferential targets for peripheral progestagens and/or neuroprogestagens. Given the crucial roles of radial glial cells in adult neurogenesis, the potential effects of progestagens on their activity and the fate of daughter cells require thorough investigation.

  15. Internalization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles by glial cells is given at short times and is mainly mediated by actin reorganization-dependent endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Márquez-Ramírez, Sandra Gissela; Ramos-Godinez, María Del Pilar; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Herrera, Luis Alonso; Parra, Alberto; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Gómez, Erika Olivia; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2015-12-01

    Many nanoparticles (NPs) have toxic effects on multiple cell lines. This toxicity is assumed to be related to their accumulation within cells. However, the process of internalization of NPs has not yet been fully characterized. In this study, the cellular uptake, accumulation, and localization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) in rat (C6) and human (U373) glial cells were analyzed using time-lapse microscopy (TLM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cytochalasin D (Cyt-D) was used to evaluate whether the internalization process depends of actin reorganization. To determine whether the NP uptake is mediated by phagocytosis or macropinocytosis, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction was measured and the 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride was used. Expression of proteins involved with endocytosis and exocytosis such as caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and cysteine string proteins (CSPs) was also determined using flow cytometry. TiO2 NPs were taken up by both cell types, were bound to cellular membranes and were internalized at very short times after exposure (C6, 30 min; U373, 2h). During the uptake process, the formation of pseudopodia and intracellular vesicles was observed, indicating that this process was mediated by endocytosis. No specific localization of TiO2 NPs into particular organelles was found: in contrast, they were primarily localized into large vesicles in the cytoplasm. Internalization of TiO2 NPs was strongly inhibited by Cyt-D in both cells and by amiloride in U373 cells; besides, the observed endocytosis was not associated with NBT reduction in either cell type, indicating that macropinocytosis is the main process of internalization in U373 cells. In addition, increases in the expression of Cav-1 protein and CSPs were observed. In conclusion, glial cells are able to internalize TiO2 NPs by a constitutive endocytic mechanism which may be associated with their strong cytotoxic effect in these cells; therefore, TiO2 NPs internalization and their

  16. Establishment of a long-term spiral ganglion neuron culture with reduced glial cell number: Effects of AraC on cell composition and neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieger, Jana; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Lenarz, Thomas; Scheper, Verena

    2016-08-01

    Sensorineural deafness is mainly caused by damage to hair cells and degeneration of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). Cochlear implants can functionally replace lost hair cells and stimulate the SGN electrically. The benefit from cochlear implantation depends on the number and excitability of these neurons. To identify potential therapies for SGN protection, in vitro tests are carried out on spiral ganglion cells (SGC). A glial cell-reduced and neuron-enhanced culture of neonatal rat SGC under mitotic inhibition (cytarabine (AraC)) for up to seven days is presented. Serum containing and neurotrophin-enriched cultures with and without AraC-addition were analyzed after 4 and 7 days. The total number of cells was significantly reduced, while the proportion of neurons was greatly increased by AraC-treatment. Cell type-specific labeling demonstrated that nearly all fibroblasts and most of the glial cells were removed. Neither the neuronal survival, nor the neurite outgrowth or soma diameter were negatively affected. Additionally neurites remain partly free of surrounding non-neuronal cells. Recent culture conditions allow only for short-term cultivation of neonatal SGC and lack information on the influence of non-neuronal cells on SGN and of direct contact of neurites with test-materials. AraC-addition reduces the number of non-neuronal cells and increases the ratio of SGN in culture, without negative impact on neuronal viability. This treatment allows longer-term cultivation of SGC and provides deeper insight into SGN-glial cell interaction and the attachment of neurites on test-material surfaces. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Secretoneurin A Directly Regulates the Proteome of Goldfish Radial Glial Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon F. Da Fonte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Radial glial cells (RGCs are the main macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis. They are the only brain cell type expressing aromatase B (cyp19a1b, the enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors. There are few studies on the regulation of RGC functions, but our previous investigations demonstrated that dopamine stimulates cyp19a1b expression in goldfish RGCs, while secretoneurin A (SNa inhibits the expression of this enzyme. Here, we determine the range of proteins and cellular processes responsive to SNa treatments in these steroidogenic cells. The focus here is on SNa, because this peptide is derived from selective processing of secretogranin II in magnocellular cells embedded within the RGC-rich preoptic nucleus. Primary cultures of RGCs were treated (24 h with 10, 100, or 1,000 nM SNa. By using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation and a Hybrid Quadrupole Obritrap Mass Spectrometry system, a total of 1,363 unique proteins were identified in RGCs, and 609 proteins were significantly regulated by SNa at one or more concentrations. Proteins that showed differential expression with all three concentrations of SNa included H1 histone, glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor γ, vimentin A2, and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein. At 10, 100, and 1,000 nM SNa, there were 5, 195, and 489 proteins that were downregulated, respectively, whereas the number of upregulated proteins were 72, 44, and 51, respectively. Subnetwork enrichment analysis of differentially regulated proteins revealed that processes such as actin organization, cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis, apoptosis, mRNA processing, RNA splicing, translation, cell growth, and proliferation are regulated by SNa based on the proteomic response. Moreover, we observed that, at the low concentration of SNa, there was an increase in the abundance of

  18. Axon Guidance of Sympathetic Neurons to Cardiomyocytes by Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miwa, Keiko; Lee, Jong-Kook; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Opthof, Tobias; Fu, Xianming; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Itsuo; Komuro, Issei

    2013-01-01

    Molecular signaling of cardiac autonomic innervation is an unresolved issue. Here, we show that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes cardiac sympathetic innervation in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ventricular myocytes (VMs) and sympathetic neurons (SNs) isolated from neonatal

  19. Efficient K+ buffering by mammalian retinal glial cells is due to cooperation of specialized ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, B; Reichenbach, A

    1988-06-01

    Radial glial (Müller) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. Regional membrane properties of these cells were studied by using the patch-clamp technique. In the course of our experiments, we found three distinct types of large K+ conducting channels. The vitread process membrane was dominated by high conductance inwardly rectifying (HCR) channels which carried, in the open state, inward currents along a conductance of about 105 pS (symmetrical solutions with 140 mM K+) but almost no outward currents. In the membrane of the soma and the proximal distal process, we found low conductance inwardly rectifying (LCR) channels which had an open state-conductance of about 60 pS and showed rather weak rectification. The endfoot membrane, on the other hand, was found to contain non-rectifying very high conductance (VHC) channels with an open state-conductance of about 360 pS (same solutions). These results suggest that mammalian Müller cells express regional membrane specializations which are optimized to carry spatial buffering currents of excess K+ ions.

  20. The Touch and Zap method for in vivo whole-cell patch recording of intrinsic and visual responses of cortical neurons and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Adrien E; Marinazzo, Daniele; Gener, Thomas; Graham, Lyle J

    2014-01-01

    Whole-cell patch recording is an essential tool for quantitatively establishing the biophysics of brain function, particularly in vivo. This method is of particular interest for studying the functional roles of cortical glial cells in the intact brain, which cannot be assessed with extracellular recordings. Nevertheless, a reasonable success rate remains a challenge because of stability, recording duration and electrical quality constraints, particularly for voltage clamp, dynamic clamp or conductance measurements. To address this, we describe "Touch and Zap", an alternative method for whole-cell patch clamp recordings, with the goal of being simpler, quicker and more gentle to brain tissue than previous approaches. Under current clamp mode with a continuous train of hyperpolarizing current pulses, seal formation is initiated immediately upon cell contact, thus the "Touch". By maintaining the current injection, whole-cell access is spontaneously achieved within seconds from the cell-attached configuration by a self-limited membrane electroporation, or "Zap", as seal resistance increases. We present examples of intrinsic and visual responses of neurons and putative glial cells obtained with the revised method from cat and rat cortices in vivo. Recording parameters and biophysical properties obtained with the Touch and Zap method compare favourably with those obtained with the traditional blind patch approach, demonstrating that the revised approach does not compromise the recorded cell. We find that the method is particularly well-suited for whole-cell patch recordings of cortical glial cells in vivo, targeting a wider population of this cell type than the standard method, with better access resistance. Overall, the gentler Touch and Zap method is promising for studying quantitative functional properties in the intact brain with minimal perturbation of the cell's intrinsic properties and local network. Because the Touch and Zap method is performed semi

  1. The Touch and Zap Method for In Vivo Whole-Cell Patch Recording of Intrinsic and Visual Responses of Cortical Neurons and Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Adrien E.; Marinazzo, Daniele; Gener, Thomas; Graham, Lyle J.

    2014-01-01

    Whole-cell patch recording is an essential tool for quantitatively establishing the biophysics of brain function, particularly in vivo. This method is of particular interest for studying the functional roles of cortical glial cells in the intact brain, which cannot be assessed with extracellular recordings. Nevertheless, a reasonable success rate remains a challenge because of stability, recording duration and electrical quality constraints, particularly for voltage clamp, dynamic clamp or conductance measurements. To address this, we describe “Touch and Zap”, an alternative method for whole-cell patch clamp recordings, with the goal of being simpler, quicker and more gentle to brain tissue than previous approaches. Under current clamp mode with a continuous train of hyperpolarizing current pulses, seal formation is initiated immediately upon cell contact, thus the “Touch”. By maintaining the current injection, whole-cell access is spontaneously achieved within seconds from the cell-attached configuration by a self-limited membrane electroporation, or “Zap”, as seal resistance increases. We present examples of intrinsic and visual responses of neurons and putative glial cells obtained with the revised method from cat and rat cortices in vivo. Recording parameters and biophysical properties obtained with the Touch and Zap method compare favourably with those obtained with the traditional blind patch approach, demonstrating that the revised approach does not compromise the recorded cell. We find that the method is particularly well-suited for whole-cell patch recordings of cortical glial cells in vivo, targeting a wider population of this cell type than the standard method, with better access resistance. Overall, the gentler Touch and Zap method is promising for studying quantitative functional properties in the intact brain with minimal perturbation of the cell's intrinsic properties and local network. Because the Touch and Zap method is performed semi

  2. Neuronal-glial trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelard, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The name 'glia' originates from the Greek word for glue, because astro glia (or astrocytes) were thought only to provide an anatomical framework for the electrically-excitable neurones. However, awareness that astrocytes perform vital roles in protecting the neurones, which they surround, emerged from evidence that they act as neuroprotective K + -sinks, and that they remove potentially toxic extracellular glutamate from the vicinity of the neurones. The astrocytes convert the glutamate to non-toxic glutamine which is returned to the neurones and used to replenish transmitter glutamate. This 'glutamate-glutamine cycle' (established in the 1960s by Berl and his colleagues) also contributes to protecting the neurones against a build-up of toxic ammonia. Glial cells also supply the neurones with components for free-radical scavenging glutathione. Recent studies have revealed that glial cells play a more positive interactive role in furnishing the neurones with fuels. Studies using radioactive 14 C, 13 C-MRS and 15 N-GCMS have revealed that glia produce alanine, lactate and proline for consumption by neurones, with increased formation of neurotransmitter glutamate. On neuronal activation the release of NH 4 + and glutamate from the neurones stimulates glucose uptake and glycolysis in the glia to produce more alanine, which can be regarded as an 'alanine-glutamate cycle' Use of 14 C-labelled precursors provided early evidence that neurotransmitter GABA may be partly derived from glial glutamine, and this has been confirmed recently in vivo by MRS isotopomer analysis of the GABA and glutamine labelled from 13 C-acetate. Relative rates of intermediary metabolism in glia and neurones can be calculated using a combination of [1- 13 C] glucose and [1,2- 13 C] acetate. When glutamate is released by neurones there is a net neuronal loss of TCA intermediates which have to be replenished. Part of this is derived from carboxylation of pyruvate, (pyruvate carboxylase

  3. Cabergoline decreases alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors via glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Nielsen, Carsten K; Bartlett, Selena E; Janak, Patricia H; Ron, Dorit

    2009-07-15

    Cabergoline is an ergotamine derivative that increases the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in vitro. We recently showed that GDNF in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) reduces the motivation to consume alcohol. We therefore set out to determine whether cabergoline administration decreases alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors via GDNF. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) were used to measure GDNF levels. Western blot analysis was used for phosphorylation experiments. Operant self-administration in rats and a two-bottle choice procedure in mice were used to assess alcohol-drinking behaviors. Instrumental performance tested during extinction was used to measure alcohol-seeking behavior. The [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay was used to assess the expression and function of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). We found that treatment of the dopaminergic-like cell line SH-SY5Y with cabergoline and systemic administration of cabergoline in rats resulted in an increase in GDNF level and in the activation of the GDNF pathway. Cabergoline treatment decreased alcohol-drinking and -seeking behaviors including relapse, and its action to reduce alcohol consumption was localized to the VTA. Finally, the increase in GDNF expression and the decrease in alcohol consumption by cabergoline were abolished in GDNF heterozygous knockout mice. Together, these findings suggest that cabergoline-mediated upregulation of the GDNF pathway attenuates alcohol-drinking behaviors and relapse. Alcohol abuse and addiction are devastating and costly problems worldwide. This study puts forward the possibility that cabergoline might be an effective treatment for these disorders.

  4. Transplantation of germ cells from glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-overexpressing mice to host testes depleted of endogenous spermatogenesis by fractionated irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, L. B.; Meng, X.; den Ouden, K.; van Pelt, A. M. M.; Izadyar, F.; Santoro, M.; Sariola, H.; de rooij, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    With a novel method of eliminating spermatogenesis in host animals, male germ cells isolated from mice with targeted overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were transplanted to evaluate their ability to reproduce the phenotype previously found in the transgenic animals.

  5. Modelling cell cycle synchronisation in networks of coupled radial glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Duncan S; Thul, Rüdiger; Owen, Markus R

    2015-07-21

    Radial glial cells play a crucial role in the embryonic mammalian brain. Their proliferation is thought to be controlled, in part, by ATP mediated calcium signals. It has been hypothesised that these signals act to locally synchronise cell cycles, so that clusters of cells proliferate together, shedding daughter cells in uniform sheets. In this paper we investigate this cell cycle synchronisation by taking an ordinary differential equation model that couples the dynamics of intracellular calcium and the cell cycle and extend it to populations of cells coupled via extracellular ATP signals. Through bifurcation analysis we show that although ATP mediated calcium release can lead to cell cycle synchronisation, a number of other asynchronous oscillatory solutions including torus solutions dominate the parameter space and cell cycle synchronisation is far from guaranteed. Despite this, numerical results indicate that the transient and not the asymptotic behaviour of the system is important in accounting for cell cycle synchronisation. In particular, quiescent cells can be entrained on to the cell cycle via ATP mediated calcium signals initiated by a driving cell and crucially will cycle in near synchrony with the driving cell for the duration of neurogenesis. This behaviour is highly sensitive to the timing of ATP release, with release at the G1/S phase transition of the cell cycle far more likely to lead to near synchrony than release during mid G1 phase. This result, which suggests that ATP release timing is critical to radial glia cell cycle synchronisation, may help us to understand normal and pathological brain development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracellular recordings from isolated rabbit retinal Müller (glial) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Eberhardt, W

    1986-09-01

    Müller (glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. The cells were fixed on a gelatine-covered glass slide by means of concanavalin A, and the slide was mounted in a perfusion chamber under a light microscope with modified optics. Besides the recording microelectrode, two other micropipettes could be adjusted with their tips near the cell. These micropipettes were used for application of test solutions into the environment of the cells. On application of high K+ solutions, the cell depolarized strongly but during prolonged application there was a marked repolarization. After the end of high K+ application the cells showed a hyperpolarization which was enhanced in both amplitude and duration with prolongation of the K+ exposure. Both repolarization and afterhyperpolarization disappeared under ouabain. Ouabain application itself caused a small reversible depolarization. Na+ free solution caused hyperpolarization. The results suggest the existence of an active membrane pump mechanism in our cells. This pump seems to be electrogenic under our experimental conditions and seems to be activated even in the absence of sodium. The cell membrane is demonstrated to contain a significant Na+ conductance.

  7. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

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    Mami eNoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of human brain, leading to various neurological dysfunctions. In adult brain, impairment of THs, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, can cause psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression. Though hypothyroidism impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity, its effect on glial cells and cellular mechanisms are unknown. This mini-review article summarizes how THs are transported to the brain, metabolized in astrocytes and affect microglia and oligodendrocytes, showing an example of glioendocrine system. It may help to understand physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of THs in the CNS and how hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may cause mental disorders.

  8. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2011-03-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders.

  9. Differential effects of Th1, monocyte/macrophage and Th2 cytokine mixtures on early gene expression for molecules associated with metabolism, signaling and regulation in central nervous system mixed glial cell cultures

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    Studzinski Diane

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines secreted by immune cells and activated glia play central roles in both the pathogenesis of and protection from damage to the central nervous system (CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods We have used gene array analysis to identify the initial direct effects of cytokines on CNS glia by comparing changes in early gene expression in CNS glial cultures treated for 6 hours with cytokines typical of those secreted by Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages (M/M. Results In two previous papers, we summarized effects of these cytokines on immune-related molecules, and on neural and glial related proteins, including neurotrophins, growth factors and structural proteins. In this paper, we present the effects of the cytokines on molecules involved in metabolism, signaling and regulatory mechanisms in CNS glia. Many of the changes in gene expression were similar to those seen in ischemic preconditioning and in early inflammatory lesions in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, related to ion homeostasis, mitochondrial function, neurotransmission, vitamin D metabolism and a variety of transcription factors and signaling pathways. Among the most prominent changes, all three cytokine mixtures markedly downregulated the dopamine D3 receptor, while Th1 and Th2 cytokines downregulated neuropeptide Y receptor 5. An unexpected finding was the large number of changes related to lipid metabolism, including several suggesting a switch from diacylglycerol to phosphatidyl inositol mediated signaling pathways. Using QRT-PCR we validated the results for regulation of genes for iNOS, arginase and P glycoprotein/multi-drug resistance protein 1 (MDR1 seen at 6 hours with microarray. Conclusion Each of the three cytokine mixtures differentially regulated gene expression related to metabolism and signaling that may play roles in the pathogenesis of MS, most notably with regard to mitochondrial function and neurotransmitter

  10. Glioblastoma models reveal the connection between adult glial progenitors and the proneural phenotype.

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    Liang Lei

    Full Text Available Tumor heterogeneity is a major obstacle for finding effective treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM. Based on global expression analysis, GBM can be classified into distinct subtypes: Proneural, Neural, Classical and Mesenchymal. The signatures of these different tumor subtypes may reflect the phenotypes of cells giving rise to them. However, the experimental evidence connecting any specific subtype of GBM to particular cells of origin is lacking. In addition, it is unclear how different genetic alterations interact with cells of origin in determining tumor heterogeneity. This issue cannot be addressed by studying end-stage human tumors.To address this issue, we used retroviruses to deliver transforming genetic lesions to glial progenitors in adult mouse brain. We compared the resulting tumors to human GBM. We found that different initiating genetic lesions gave rise to tumors with different growth rates. However all mouse tumors closely resembled the human Proneural GBM. Comparative analysis of these mouse tumors allowed us to identify a set of genes whose expression in humans with Proneural GBM correlates with survival.This study offers insights into the relationship between adult glial progenitors and Proneural GBM, and allows us to identify molecular alterations that lead to more aggressive tumor growth. In addition, we present a new preclinical model that can be used to test treatments directed at a specific type of GBM in future studies.

  11. Neural Crest Cells Isolated from the Bone Marrow of Transgenic Mice Express JCV T-Antigen.

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    Jennifer Gordon

    Full Text Available JC virus (JCV, a common human polyomavirus, is the etiological agent of the demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. In addition to its role in PML, studies have demonstrated the transforming ability of the JCV early protein, T-antigen, and its association with some human cancers. JCV infection occurs in childhood and latent virus is thought to be maintained within the bone marrow, which harbors cells of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages. Here we show that non-hematopoietic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from the bone marrow of JCV T-antigen transgenic mice give rise to JCV T-antigen positive cells when cultured under neural conditions. JCV T-antigen positive cells exhibited neural crest characteristics and demonstrated p75, SOX-10 and nestin positivity. When cultured in conditions typical for mesenchymal cells, a population of T-antigen negative cells, which did not express neural crest markers arose from the MSCs. JCV T-antigen positive cells could be cultured long-term while maintaining their neural crest characteristics. When these cells were induced to differentiate into neural crest derivatives, JCV T-antigen was downregulated in cells differentiating into bone and maintained in glial cells expressing GFAP and S100. We conclude that JCV T-antigen can be stably expressed within a fraction of bone marrow cells differentiating along the neural crest/glial lineage when cultured in vitro. These findings identify a cell population within the bone marrow permissible for JCV early gene expression suggesting the possibility that these cells could support persistent viral infection and thus provide clues toward understanding the role of the bone marrow in JCV latency and reactivation. Further, our data provides an excellent experimental model system for studying the cell-type specificity of JCV T-antigen expression, the role of bone marrow-derived stem cells in the pathogenesis of JCV-related diseases

  12. Imaging of glial cell morphology, SOD1 distribution and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the ALS hSOD1G93A rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Stefan; Dučić, Tanja; Stamenković, Vera; Kranz, Alexander; Andjus, Pavle R

    2017-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor and cognitive domains of the CNS. Mutations in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20% of familial ALS and provoke formation of intracellular aggregates and copper and zinc unbinding, leading to glial activation and neurodegeneration. Therefore, we investigated glial cell morphology, intracellular SOD1 distribution, and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the hSOD1 G93A transgenic rat model of ALS. Immunostaining for astrocytes, microglia and SOD1 revealed glial proliferation and progressive tissue accumulation of SOD1 in both brain regions of ALS rats starting already at the presymptomatic stage. Glial cell morphology analysis in the brainstem of ALS rats revealed astrocyte activation occurring before disease symptoms onset, followed by activation of microglia. Hippocampal ALS astrocytes exhibited an identical reactive profile, while microglial morphology was unchanged. Additionally, ALS brainstem astrocytes demonstrated progressive SOD1 accumulation in the cell body and processes, while microglial SOD1 levels were reduced and its distribution limited to distal cell processes. In the hippocampus both glial cell types exhibited SOD1 accumulation in the cell body. X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed decreased P and increased Ca, Cl, K, Ni, Cu and Zn in the brainstem, and higher levels of Cl, Ni and Cu, but lower levels of Zn in the hippocampus of symptomatic ALS rats. These results bring new insights into the glial response during disease development and progression in motor as well as in non-motor CNS structures, and indicate disturbed tissue elemental homeostasis as a prominent hallmark of disease pathology. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the inflammatory and glial cells in the central nervous system of goat fetuses and adult male goats naturally infected with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rafael Carneiro; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Abreu, Camila Costa; Nakagaki, Karen Yumi Ribeiro; Mesquita, Leonardo Pereira; Nascimento, Lismara Castro; Silva, Aline Costa; Maiorka, Paulo César; Peconick, Ana Paula; Raymundo, Djeison Lutier; Varaschin, Mary Suzan

    2014-12-14

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan protozoan that is considered one of the main agents responsible for abortion in ruminants. The lesions found in the central nervous system (CNS) of aborted fetuses show multifocal necrosis, gliosis, and perivascular cuffs of mononuclear cells, but the inflammatory and glial cells have not been immunophenotypically characterized. The lesions in the CNS of infected adult animals have rarely been described. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the lesions, the immunophenotypes of the inflammatory and glial cells and the expression of MHC-II and PCNA in the CNS of goats infected with N. caninum. The CNS of eight aborted fetuses and six adult male goats naturally infected with N. caninum were analyzed with lectin histochemistry (RCA1) and immunohistochemistry (with anti-CD3, -CD79α, -GFAP, -MHC-II, and -PCNA antibodies). All animals were the offspring of dams naturally infected with N. caninum. The microscopic lesions in the CNS of the aborted fetuses consisted of perivascular cuffs composed mainly of macrophages (RCA1(+)), rare T lymphocytes (CD3(+)), and rare B lymphocytes (CD79α(+)). Multifocal necrosis surrounded by astrocytes (GFAP(+)), gliosis composed predominantly of monocytic-lineage cells (macrophages and microglia, RCA1(+)), and the cysts of N. caninum, related (or not) to the lesions were present. Similar lesions were found in four of the six male goats, and multinucleate giant cells related to focal gliosis were also found in three adult goats. Anti-GFAP immunostaining showed astrocytes characterizing areas of glial scarring. Cysts of N. caninum were found in three adult male goats. The presence of N. caninum was evaluated with histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and PCR. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated anti-PCNA labeling of macrophages and microglia in the perivascular cuffs and the expression of MHC-II by microglia and endothelial cells in the CNS of the aborted fetuses and adult male goats. Macrophages and

  14. Enteric Glial Cells: A New Frontier in Neurogastroenterology and Clinical Target for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

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    Ochoa-Cortes, Fernando; Turco, Fabio; Linan-Rico, Andromeda; Soghomonyan, Suren; Whitaker, Emmett; Wehner, Sven; Cuomo, Rosario; Christofi, Fievos L

    2016-02-01

    The word "glia" is derived from the Greek word "γλoια," glue of the enteric nervous system, and for many years, enteric glial cells (EGCs) were believed to provide mainly structural support. However, EGCs as astrocytes in the central nervous system may serve a much more vital and active role in the enteric nervous system, and in homeostatic regulation of gastrointestinal functions. The emphasis of this review will be on emerging concepts supported by basic, translational, and/or clinical studies, implicating EGCs in neuron-to-glial (neuroglial) communication, motility, interactions with other cells in the gut microenvironment, infection, and inflammatory bowel diseases. The concept of the "reactive glial phenotype" is explored as it relates to inflammatory bowel diseases, bacterial and viral infections, postoperative ileus, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and motility disorders. The main theme of this review is that EGCs are emerging as a new frontier in neurogastroenterology and a potential therapeutic target. New technological innovations in neuroimaging techniques are facilitating progress in the field, and an update is provided on exciting new translational studies. Gaps in our knowledge are discussed for further research. Restoring normal EGC function may prove to be an efficient strategy to dampen inflammation. Probiotics, palmitoylethanolamide (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α), interleukin-1 antagonists (anakinra), and interventions acting on nitric oxide, receptor for advanced glycation end products, S100B, or purinergic signaling pathways are relevant clinical targets on EGCs with therapeutic potential.

  15. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

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    Feng Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury.

  16. Biodegradable chitin conduit tubulation combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury by reducing glial scar and cavity formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Wu, Er-jun; Zhang, Pei-xun; Li-ya, A; Kou, Yu-hui; Yin, Xiao-feng; Han, Na

    2015-01-01

    We examined the restorative effect of modified biodegradable chitin conduits in combination with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation after right spinal cord hemisection injury. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that biological conduit sleeve bridging reduced glial scar formation and spinal muscular atrophy after spinal cord hemisection. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells survived and proliferated after transplantation in vivo, and differentiated into cells double-positive for S100 (Schwann cell marker) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (glial cell marker) at 8 weeks. Retrograde tracing showed that more nerve fibers had grown through the injured spinal cord at 14 weeks after combination therapy than either treatment alone. Our findings indicate that a biological conduit combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation effectively prevented scar formation and provided a favorable local microenvironment for the proliferation, migration and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the spinal cord, thus promoting restoration following spinal cord hemisection injury. PMID:25788929

  17. Derivation of a JC virus-resistant human glial cell line: implications for the identification of host cell factors that determine viral tropism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Gretchen V.; Manley, Kate; Atwood, Walter J.

    2003-01-01

    JC virus (JCV) is a common human polyomavirus that infects 70-80% of the population worldwide. In immunosuppressed individuals, JCV infects oligodendrocytes and causes a fatal demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The tropism of JCV is restricted to oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and B lymphocytes. Several mechanisms may contribute to the restricted tropism of JCV, including the presence or absence of cell-type-specific transcription and replication factors and the presence or absence of cell-type-specific receptors. We have established a system to investigate cellular factors that influence viral tropism by selecting JCV-resistant cells from a susceptible glial cell line (SVG-A). SVG-A cells were subjected to several rounds of viral infection using JC virus (M1/SVEΔ). A population of resistant cells emerged (SVGR2) that were refractory to infection with the Mad-4 strain of JCV, the hybrid virus M1/SVEΔ, as well as to the related polyomavirus SV40. SVGR2 cells were as susceptible as the SVG-A cells to infection with an unrelated amphotropic retrovirus. The stage at which these cells are resistant to infection was investigated and the block appears to be at early viral gene transcription. This system should ultimately allow us to identify glial specific factors that influence the tropism of JCV

  18. Injury-induced ctgfa directs glial bridging and spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Patra, Chinmoy; Dickson, Amy L.; Endo, Toyokazu; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Poss, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike mammals, zebrafish efficiently regenerate functional nervous system tissue after major spinal cord injury. Whereas glial scarring presents a roadblock for mammalian spinal cord repair, glial cells in zebrafish form a bridge across severed spinal cord tissue and facilitate regeneration, a relatively unexplored process. Here, we performed a genome-wide profiling screen for secreted factors that are upregulated during zebrafish spinal cord regeneration. We find that connective tissue growth factor a (ctgfa) is induced in and around glial cells that participate in initial bridging events. Mutations in ctgfa disrupt spinal cord repair, while transgenic ctgfa overexpression and local human CTGF recombinant protein delivery accelerate bridging and functional regeneration. Our study reveals that CTGF is necessary and sufficient to stimulate glial bridging and natural spinal cord regeneration. PMID:27811277

  19. The central nervous system of sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion

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    Grondona Jesus M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous system. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS, a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of sea cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous system, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that: a the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous system produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b the nervous system of sea cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous system in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous system of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common

  20. Expression of Zonulin, c-kit, and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Human Gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardelly, Marco; Armbruster, Franz Paul; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Hilbig, Heidegard

    2009-08-18

    The hallmarks of human malignant gliomas are their marked invasiveness and vascularity. Because angiogenesis and tumor invasion have been associated with extracellular matrix degradation and intercellular tight junctions, the involvement of zonulin in glioma biology is in the focus. We selected for histological examination five cases of glioblastoma WHO IV (nomenclature of the World Health Organization) and one case each from astrocytoma WHO III, meningioma WHO III, and meningioma WHO I as control samples. The meningioma WHO I is regarded as benign, whereas the meningioma WHO III is recognized as the transition form of malignant tumors in humans. The visualization of a newly designed antibody against human zonulin was studied in triple-labeling studies using fluorescence immunocytochemistry and compared with the expression of c-kit and glial fibrillary acidic protein in differently developed human gliomas. We found that increasing the expression of c-kit is accompanied by an increase of zonulin expression. Both are correlated to the degree of malignancy of human brain tumors. The expression of zonulin is correlated to the degradation of the blood-brain barrier as revealed by Griffonia simplicifolia lectin. In differently graded tumors, we found differently graded involvement of blood vessels in the tumor development, explaining patients' survival.

  1. Mapping of brain lipid binding protein (Blbp) in the brain of adult zebrafish, co-expression with aromatase B and links with proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diotel, Nicolas; Vaillant, Colette; Kah, Olivier; Pellegrini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult fish exhibit a strong neurogenic capacity due to the persistence of radial glial cells. In zebrafish, radial glial cells display well-established markers such as the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme (AroB) and the brain lipid binding protein (Blbp), which is known to strongly bind omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). While Blpb is mainly described in the telencephalon of adult zebrafish, its expression in the remaining regions of the brain is poorly documented. The present study was designed to further investigate Blbp expression in the brain, its co-expression with AroB, and its link with radial glial cells proliferation in zebrafish. We generated a complete and detailed mapping of Blbp expression in the whole brain and show its complete co-expression with AroB, except in some tectal and hypothalamic regions. By performing PCNA and Blbp immunohistochemistry on cyp19a1b-GFP (AroB-GFP) fish, we also demonstrated preferential Blbp expression in proliferative radial glial cells in almost all regions studied. To our knowledge, this is the first complete and detailed mapping of Blbp-expressing cells showing strong association between Blbp and radial glial cell proliferation in the adult brain of fish. Given that zebrafish is now recognized models for studying neurogenesis and brain repair, our data provide detailed characterization of Blbp in the entire brain and open up a broad field of research investigating the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in neural stem cell activity in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons.

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    Masahito Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Nax is a sodium-concentration ([Na+]-sensitive Na channel with a gating threshold of ~150 mM for extracellular [Na+] ([Na+]o in vitro. We previously reported that Nax was preferentially expressed in the glial cells of sensory circumventricular organs including the subfornical organ, and was involved in [Na+] sensing for the control of salt-intake behavior. Although Nax was also suggested to be expressed in the neurons of some brain regions including the amygdala and cerebral cortex, the channel properties of Nax have not yet been adequately characterized in neurons. We herein verified that Nax was expressed in neurons in the lateral amygdala of mice using an antibody that was newly generated against mouse Nax. To investigate the channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons, we established an inducible cell line of Nax using the mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2a, which is endogenously devoid of the expression of Nax. Functional analyses of this cell line revealed that the [Na+]-sensitivity of Nax in neuronal cells was similar to that expressed in glial cells. The cation selectivity sequence of the Nax channel in cations was revealed to be Na+ ≈ Li+ > Rb+ > Cs+ for the first time. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nax bound to postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 through its PSD95/Disc-large/ZO-1 (PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus in neurons. The interaction between Nax and PSD95 may be involved in promoting the surface expression of Nax channels because the depletion of endogenous PSD95 resulted in a decrease in Nax at the plasma membrane. These results indicated, for the first time, that Nax functions as a [Na+]-sensitive Na channel in neurons as well as in glial cells.

  3. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  4. HDAC1 regulates the proliferation of radial glial cells in the developing Xenopus tectum.

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    Yi Tao

    Full Text Available In the developing central nervous system (CNS, progenitor cells differentiate into progeny to form functional neural circuits. Radial glial cells (RGs are a transient progenitor cell type that is present during neurogenesis. It is thought that a combination of neural trophic factors, neurotransmitters and electrical activity regulates the proliferation and differentiation of RGs. However, it is less clear how epigenetic modulation changes RG proliferation. We sought to explore the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC activity on the proliferation of RGs in the visual optic tectum of Xenopus laevis. We found that the number of BrdU-labeled precursor cells along the ventricular layer of the tectum decrease developmentally from stage 46 to stage 49. The co-labeling of BrdU-positive cells with brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP, a radial glia marker, showed that the majority of BrdU-labeled cells along the tectal midline are RGs. BLBP-positive cells are also developmentally decreased with the maturation of the brain. Furthermore, HDAC1 expression is developmentally down-regulated in tectal cells, especially in the ventricular layer of the tectum. Pharmacological blockade of HDACs using Trichostatin A (TSA or Valproic acid (VPA decreased the number of BrdU-positive, BLBP-positive and co-labeling cells. Specific knockdown of HDAC1 by a morpholino (HDAC1-MO decreased the number of BrdU- and BLBP-labeled cells and increased the acetylation level of histone H4 at lysine 12 (H4K12. The visual deprivation-induced increase in BrdU- and BLBP-positive cells was blocked by HDAC1 knockdown at stage 49 tadpoles. These data demonstrate that HDAC1 regulates radial glia cell proliferation in the developing optical tectum of Xenopus laevis.

  5. Age-related changes in the hippocampus (loss of synaptophysin and glial-synaptic interaction) are modified by systemic treatment with an NCAM-derived peptide, FGL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Bunmi; Rezaie, Payam; Gabbott, Paul L; Davies, Heather; Colyer, Frances; Cowley, Thelma R; Lynch, Marina; Stewart, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Altered synaptic morphology, progressive loss of synapses and glial (astrocyte and microglial) cell activation are considered as characteristic hallmarks of aging. Recent evidence suggests that there is a concomitant age-related decrease in expression of the presynaptic protein, synaptophysin, and the neuronal glycoprotein CD200, which, by interacting with its receptor, plays a role in maintaining microglia in a quiescent state. These age-related changes may be indicative of reduced neuroglial support of synapses. FG Loop (FGL) peptide synthesized from the second fibronectin type III module of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), has previously been shown to attenuate age-related glial cell activation, and to 'restore' cognitive function in aged rats. The mechanisms by which FGL exerts these neuroprotective effects remain unclear, but could involve regulation of CD200, modifying glial-synaptic interactions (affecting neuroglial 'support' at synapses), or impacting directly on synaptic function. Light and electron microscopic (EM) analyses were undertaken to investigate whether systemic treatment with FGL (i) alters CD200, synaptophysin (presynaptic) and PSD-95 (postsynaptic) immunohistochemical expression levels, (ii) affects synaptic number, or (iii) exerts any effects on glial-synaptic interactions within young (4 month-old) and aged (22 month-old) rat hippocampus. Treatment with FGL attenuated the age-related loss of synaptophysin immunoreactivity (-ir) within CA3 and hilus (with no major effect on PSD-95-ir), and of CD200-ir specifically in the CA3 region. Ultrastructural morphometric analyses showed that FGL treatment (i) prevented age-related loss in astrocyte-synaptic contacts, (ii) reduced microglia-synaptic contacts in the CA3 stratum radiatum, but (iii) had no effect on the mean number of synapses in this region. These data suggest that FGL mediates its neuroprotective effects by regulating glial-synaptic interaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Total numbers of neurons and glial cells in cortex and basal ganglia of aged brains with Down syndrome--a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anna Schou; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2011-11-01

    The total numbers of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex and basal ganglia in adults with Down syndrome (DS) were estimated with design-based stereological methods, providing quantitative data on brains affected by delayed development and accelerated aging. Cell numbers, volume of regions, and densities of neurons and glial cell subtypes were estimated in brains from 4 female DS subjects (mean age 66 years) and 6 female controls (mean age 70 years). The DS subjects were estimated to have about 40% fewer neocortical neurons in total (11.1 × 10(9) vs. 17.8 × 10(9), 2p ≤ 0.001) and almost 30% fewer neocortical glial cells with no overlap to controls (12.8 × 10(9) vs. 18.2 × 10(9), 2p = 0.004). In contrast, the total number of neurons in the basal ganglia was the same in the 2 groups, whereas the number of oligodendrocytes in the basal ganglia was reduced by almost 50% in DS (405 × 10(6) vs. 816 × 10(6), 2p = 0.01). We conclude that trisomy 21 affects cortical structures more than central gray matter emphasizing the differential impairment of brain development. Despite concomitant Alzheimer-like pathology, the neurodegenerative outcome in a DS brain deviates from common Alzheimer disease.

  7. Disruption of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in cultured human glial cells by polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon C; Bianco, Antonio C; Stapleton, Heather M

    2015-06-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are endocrine disruptors and suspected neurodevelopmental toxicants. While the direct mechanisms of neurodevelopmental toxicity have not been fully elucidated, it is conceivable that alterations in thyroid hormone levels in the developing brain may contribute to these effects. Cells within the brain locally convert thyroxine (T4) to the biologically active triiodothyronine (T3) through the action of the selenodeiodinase type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2). Previous studies have demonstrated that PBDEs can alter hepatic deiodinase activity both in vitro and in vivo; however, the effects of PBDEs on the deiodinase isoforms expressed in the brain are not well understood. Here, we studied the effects of several individual PBDEs and hydroxylated metabolites (OH-BDEs) on DIO2 activity in astrocytes, a specialized glial cell responsible for production of more than 50% of the T3 required by the brain. Primary human astrocytes and H4 glioma cells were exposed to individual PBDEs or OH-BDEs at concentrations up to 5 μM. BDE-99 decreased DIO2 activity by 50% in primary astrocyte cells and by up to 80% in the H4 cells at doses of ≥500 nM. 3-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 5'-OH-BDE-99 also decreased DIO2 activity in cultured H4 glioma cells by 45-80% at doses of approximately 1-5 μM. Multiple mechanisms appear to contribute to the decreased DIO2 activity, including weakened expression of DIO2 mRNA, competitive inhibition of DIO2, and enhanced post-translational degradation of DIO2. We conclude that decreases in DIO2 activity caused by exposure to PBDEs may play a role in the neurodevelopmental deficits caused by these toxicants.

  8. Glial response in the central nervous system of cats with feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Leonardo P; Hora, Aline S; de Siqueira, Adriana; Salvagni, Fernanda A; Brandão, Paulo E; Maiorka, Paulo C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate central nervous system (CNS) lesions in non-effusive and effusive cases of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) regarding aspects related to astrocytic and microglial reactions. Five necropsied cats that were naturally infected with FIP virus, confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, with different intensities of CNS lesions, were studied. Brain and cerebellum were evaluated by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin to assess astrocytic morphology, and lectin histochemistry for Ricinus communis agglutinin-I (RCA-I) to detect microglia was performed to evaluate the glial response in the CNS of cats with FIP. An important astrocytic response in many areas of the CNS of all cats, including the periventricular areas of lateral ventricles and fourth ventricle, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, was visualized. This astrocytic reactivity was associated with areas of granulomatous or pyogranulomatous vasculitis/perivasculitis in most cases, and it was characterized by multifocal to coalescing astrocytosis and astrogliosis with an increase in the expression of intermediate filaments, such as GFAP. However, astrocytes exhibited strong vimentin expression in neuroparenchyma with severe inflammatory and necrotic changes, but GFAP expression was mild or absent in these cases. A microglial response was present only in severe lesions, and RCA-I expression was detected primarily in gitter cells and resting microglia. The present study indicates a strong astrocytic response, including the presence of many less differentiated vimentin-positive astrocytes and gitter cells positive for RCA-1 in severe lesions in the CNS of cats with FIP. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Adult, embryonic and fetal hemoglobin are expressed in human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Marwan; Turner, A Robert; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Hemoglobin is a hemoprotein, produced mainly in erythrocytes circulating in the blood. However, non-erythroid hemoglobins have been previously reported in other cell types including human and rodent neurons of embryonic and adult brain, but not astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive tumor among gliomas. However, despite extensive basic and clinical research studies on GBM cells, little is known about glial defence mechanisms that allow these cells to survive and resist various types of treatment. We have shown previously that the newest members of vertebrate globin family, neuroglobin (Ngb) and cytoglobin (Cygb), are expressed in human GBM cells. In this study, we sought to determine whether hemoglobin is also expressed in GBM cells. Conventional RT-PCR, DNA sequencing, western blot analysis, mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to investigate globin expression in GBM cell lines (M006x, M059J, M059K, M010b, U87R and U87T) that have unique characteristics in terms of tumor invasion and response to radiotherapy and hypoxia. The data showed that α, β, γ, δ, ζ and ε globins are expressed in all tested GBM cell lines. To our knowledge, we are the first to report expression of fetal, embryonic and adult hemoglobin in GBM cells under normal physiological conditions that may suggest an undefined function of those expressed hemoglobins. Together with our previous reports on globins (Ngb and Cygb) expression in GBM cells, the expression of different hemoglobins may constitute a part of series of active defence mechanisms supporting these cells to resist various types of treatments including chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  10. Late effects of radiation on the central nervous system: role of vascular endothelial damage and glial stem cell survival.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coderre, J.A.; Morris, G.M.; Micca, P.L.; Hopewell, J.W.; Verhagen, I.; Kleiboer, B.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Selective irradiation of the vasculature of the rat spinal cord was used in this study, which was designed specifically to address the question as to whether it is the endothelial cell or the glial progenitor cell that is the target responsible for late white matter necrosis in the CNS. Selective

  11. Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Is Expressed in Spermatogenic Cells, and It Altered the Expression of Several Nucleic-Acid-Binding and Cytoskeletal Proteins in Germ Cell 1 Spermatogonial (GC1-spg) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Karthika; Bhagya, Kongattu P; Kumar, Anil Tr; Devi, Anandavalli N; Sengottaiyan, Jeeva; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a gene associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE is expressed heavily in the thymic epithelial cells and is involved in maintaining self-tolerance through regulating the expression of tissue-specific antigens. The testes are the most predominant extrathymic location where a heavy expression of AIRE is reported. Homozygous Aire-deficient male mice were infertile, possibly due to impaired spermatogenesis, deregulated germ cell apoptosis, or autoimmunity. We report that AIRE is expressed in the testes of neonatal, adolescent, and adult mice. AIRE expression was detected in glial cell derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (GFRα)(+) (spermatogonia), GFRα(-)/synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3)(+) (meiotic), and GFRα(-)/Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2)(+) (postmeiotic) germ cells in mouse testes. GC1-spg, a germ-cell-derived cell line, did not express AIRE. Retinoic acid induced AIRE expression in GC1-spg cells. Ectopic expression of AIRE in GC1-spg cells using label-free LC-MS/MS identified a total of 371 proteins that were differentially expressed. 100 proteins were up-regulated, and 271 proteins were down-regulated. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002511. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed increased levels of various nucleic-acid-binding proteins and transcription factors and a decreased level of various cytoskeletal and structural proteins in the AIRE overexpressing cells as compared with the empty vector-transfected controls. The transcripts of a select set of the up-regulated proteins were also elevated. However, there was no corresponding decrease in the mRNA levels of the down-regulated set of proteins. Molecular function network analysis indicated that AIRE influenced gene expression in GC1-spg cells by acting at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, RNA processing, protein transport, protein

  12. Reactive glia promote development of CD103+ CD69+ CD8+ T-cells through programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sujata; Hu, Shuxian; Sheng, Wen S; Chauhan, Priyanka; Lokensgard, James R

    2018-06-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated in vivo persistence of CD103 + CD69 + brain resident memory CD8 + T-cells (bT RM ) following viral infection, and that the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway promotes development of these T RM cells within the brain. Although glial cells express low basal levels of PD-L1, its expression is upregulated upon IFN-γ-treatment, and they have been shown to modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway. We performed flow cytometric analysis of cells from co-cultures of mixed glia and CD8 + T-cells obtained from wild type mice to investigate the role of glial cells in the development of bT RM . In this study, we show that interactions between reactive glia and anti-CD3 Ab-stimulated CD8 + T-cells promote development of CD103 + CD69 + CD8 + T-cells through engagement of the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway. These studies used co-cultures of primary murine glial cells obtained from WT animals along with CD8 + T-cells obtained from either WT or PD-1 KO mice. We found that αCD3 Ab-stimulated CD8 + T-cells from WT animals increased expression of CD103 and CD69 when co-cultured with primary murine glial cells. In contrast, significantly reduced expression of CD103 and CD69 was observed using CD8 + T-cells from PD-1 KO mice. We also observed that reactive glia promoted high levels of CD127, a marker of memory precursor effector cells (MPEC), on CD69 + CD8 + T-cells, which promotes development of T RM cells. Interestingly, results obtained using T-cells from PD-1 KO animals showed significantly reduced expression of CD127 on CD69 + CD8 + cells. Additionally, blocking of glial PD-L1 resulted in decreased expression of CD103, along with reduced CD127 on CD69 + CD8 + T-cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for activated glia in promoting development of bT RM through the PD-1: PD-L1 pathway. © 2018 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Glial overexpression of Dube3a causes seizures and synaptic impairments in Drosophila concomitant with down regulation of the Na+/K+ pump ATPα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Kevin A; LeDoux, Mark S; Reiter, Lawrence T

    2017-12-01

    Duplication 15q syndrome (Dup15q) is an autism-associated disorder co-incident with high rates of pediatric epilepsy. Additional copies of the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A are thought to cause Dup15q phenotypes, yet models overexpressing UBE3A in neurons have not recapitulated the epilepsy phenotype. We show that Drosophila endogenously expresses Dube3a (fly UBE3A homolog) in glial cells and neurons, prompting an investigation into the consequences of glial Dube3a overexpression. Here we expand on previous work showing that the Na + /K + pump ATPα is a direct ubiquitin ligase substrate of Dube3a. A robust seizure-like phenotype was observed in flies overexpressing Dube3a in glial cells, but not neurons. Glial-specific knockdown of ATPα also produced seizure-like behavior, and this phenotype was rescued by simultaneously overexpressing ATPα and Dube3a in glia. Our data provides the basis of a paradigm shift in Dup15q research given that clinical phenotypes have long been assumed to be due to neuronal UBE3A overexpression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cre recombinase expression or topical tamoxifen treatment do not affect retinal structure and function, neuronal vulnerability or glial reactivity in the mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneva, S K; Groß, T R; Schlecht, A; Schmitt, S I; Sippl, C; Jägle, H; Volz, C; Neueder, A; Tamm, E R; Braunger, B M

    2016-06-14

    Mice with a constitutive or tamoxifen-induced Cre recombinase (Cre) expression are frequently used research tools to allow the conditional deletion of target genes via the Cre-loxP system. Here we analyzed for the first time in a comprehensive and comparative way, whether retinal Cre expression or topical tamoxifen treatment itself would cause structural or functional changes, including changes in the expression profiles of molecular markers, glial reactivity and photoreceptor vulnerability. To this end, we characterized the transgenic α-Cre, Lmop-Cre and the tamoxifen-inducible CAGG-CreER™ mouse lines, all having robust Cre expression in the neuronal retina. In addition, we characterized the effects of topical tamoxifen treatment itself in wildtype mice. We performed morphometric analyses, immunohistochemical staining, in vivo ERG and angiography analyses and realtime RT-PCR analyses. Furthermore, the influence of Cre recombinase or topical tamoxifen exposure on neuronal vulnerability was studied by using light damage as a model for photoreceptor degeneration. Taken together, neither the expression of Cre, nor topical tamoxifen treatment caused detectable changes in retinal structure and function, the expression profiles of investigated molecular markers, glial reactivity and photoreceptor vulnerability. We conclude that the Cre-loxP system and its induction through tamoxifen is a safe and reliable method to delete desired target genes in the neural retina. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lin28B promotes Müller glial cell de-differentiation and proliferation in the regenerative rat retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zui; Zhao, Chen; Jian, Qian; Gillies, Mark; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-01-01

    Retinal regeneration and repair are severely impeded in higher mammalian animals. Although Müller cells can be activated and show some characteristics of progenitor cells when injured or under pathological conditions, they quickly form gliosis scars. Unfortunately, the basic mechanisms that impede retinal regeneration remain unknown. We studied retinas from Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rats and found that let-7 family molecules, let-7e and let-7i, were significantly overexpressed in Müller cells of degenerative retinas. It demonstrated that down-regulation of the RNA binding protein Lin28B was one of the key factors leading to the overexpression of let-7e and let-7i. Lin28B ectopic expression in the Müller cells suppressed overexpression of let-7e and let-7i, stimulated and mobilized Müller glia de-differentiation, proliferation, promoted neuronal commitment, and inhibited glial fate acquisition of de-differentiated Müller cells. ERG recordings revealed that the amplitudes of a-wave and b-wave were improved significantly after Lin28B was delivered into the subretinal space of RCS rats. In summary, down-regulation of Lin28B as well as up-regulation of let-7e and let-7i may be the main factors that impede Müller cell de-differentiation and proliferation in the retina of RCS rats. PMID:27384999

  16. Mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase in the nervous system: expression in neuronal and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandour, M S; Parkkila, A K; Parkkila, S; Waheed, A; Sly, W S

    2000-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) V is a mitochondrial enzyme that has been reported in several tissues of the gastrointestinal tract. In liver, it participates in ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis by providing bicarbonate ions for two other mitochondrial enzymes: carbamyl phosphate synthetase I and pyruvate carboxylase. This study presents evidence of immunohistochemical localization of CA V in the rodent nervous tissue. Polyclonal rabbit antisera against a polypeptide of 17 C-terminal amino acids of rat CA V and against purified recombinant mouse isozyme were used in western blotting and immunoperoxidase stainings. Immunohistochemistry showed that CA V is expressed in astrocytes and neurons but not in oligodendrocytes, which are rich in CA II, or capillary endothelial cells, which express CA IV on their plasma face. The specificity of the immunohistochemical results was confirmed by western blotting, which identified a major 30-kDa polypeptide band of CA V in mouse cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, spinal cord, and sciatic nerve. The expression of CA V in astrocytes and neurons suggests that this isozyme has a cell-specific, physiological role in the nervous system. In astrocytes, CA V may play an important role in gluconeogenesis by providing bicarbonate ions for the pyruvate carboxylase. The neuronal CA V could be involved in the regulation of the intramitochondrial calcium level, thus contributing to the stability of the intracellular calcium concentration. CA V may also participate in bicarbonate ion-induced GABA responses by regulating the bicarbonate homeostasis in neurons, and its inhibition could be the basis of some neurotropic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

  17. Expression dynamics of self-renewal factors for spermatogonial stem cells in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mizuki; Masaki, Kaito; Aiba, Shota; Tone, Masaaki; Takashima, Seiji

    2018-04-16

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are bona fide self-renewal factors for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Although GDNF is indispensable for the maintenance of SSCs, the role of FGF2 in the testis remains to be elucidated. To clarify this, the expression dynamics and regulatory mechanisms of Fgf2 and Gdnf in the mouse testes were analyzed. It is well known that Sertoli cells express Gdnf, and its receptor is expressed in a subset of undifferentiated spermatogonia, including SSCs. However, we found that Fgf2 was mainly expressed in the germ cells and its receptors were expressed not only in the cultured spermatogonial cell line, but also in testicular somatic cells. Aging, hypophysectomy, retinoic acid treatment, and testicular injury induced distinct Fgf2 and Gdnf expression dynamics, suggesting a difference in the expression mechanism of Fgf2 and Gdnf in the testis. Such differences might cause a dynamic fluctuation of Gdnf/Fgf2 ratio depending on the intrinsic/extrinsic cues. Considering that FGF2-cultured spermatogonia exhibit more differentiated phenotype than those cultured with GDNF, FGF2 might play a role distinct from that of GDNF in the testis, despite the fact that both factors are self-renewal factor for SSC in vitro.

  18. Identification of Glial Activation Markers by Comparison of Transcriptome Changes between Astrocytes and Microglia following Innate Immune Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Silvia; Woods, Tyson A; Mukherjee, Piyali; Sturdevant, Dan; Butchi, Niranjan B; Peterson, Karin E

    2015-01-01

    The activation of astrocytes and microglia is often associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Understanding how activation alters the transcriptome of these cells may offer valuable insight regarding how activation of these cells mediate neurological damage. Furthermore, identifying common and unique pathways of gene expression during activation may provide new insight into the distinct roles these cells have in the CNS during infection and inflammation. Since recent studies indicate that TLR7 recognizes not only viral RNA but also microRNAs that are released by damaged neurons and elevated during neurological diseases, we first examined the response of glial cells to TLR7 stimulation using microarray analysis. Microglia were found to generate a much stronger response to TLR7 activation than astrocytes, both in the number of genes induced as well as fold induction. Although the primary pathways induced by both cell types were directly linked to immune responses, microglia also induced pathways associated with cellular proliferation, while astrocytes did not. Targeted analysis of a subset of the upregulated genes identified unique mRNA, including Ifi202b which was only upregulated by microglia and was found to be induced during both retroviral and bunyavirus infections in the CNS. In addition, other genes including Birc3 and Gpr84 as well as two expressed sequences AW112010 and BC023105 were found to be induced in both microglia and astrocytes and were upregulated in the CNS following virus infection. Thus, expression of these genes may a useful measurement of glial activation during insult or injury to the CNS.

  19. Polyurethane/polylactide-based biomaterials combined with rat olfactory bulb-derived glial cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells for neural regenerative medicine applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak, Jakub; Marycz, Krzysztof; Szarek, Dariusz; Bednarz, Paulina; Laska, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    Research concerning the elaboration and application of biomaterial which may support the nerve tissue regeneration is currently one of the most promising directions. Biocompatible polymer devices are noteworthy group among the numerous types of potentially attractive biomaterials for regenerative medicine application. Polylactides and polyurethanes may be utilized for developing devices for supporting the nerve regeneration, like nerve guide conduits or bridges connecting the endings of broken nerve tracts. Moreover, the combination of these biomaterial devices with regenerative cell populations, like stem or precursor cells should significantly improve the final therapeutic effect. Therefore, the composition and structure of final device should support the proper adhesion and growth of cells destined for clinical application. In current research, the three polymer mats elaborated for connecting the broken nerve tracts, made from polylactide, polyurethane and their blend were evaluated both for physical properties and in vitro, using the olfactory-bulb glial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. The evaluation of Young's modulus, wettability and roughness of obtained materials showed the differences between analyzed samples. The analysis of cell adhesion, proliferation and morphology showed that the polyurethane-polylactide blend was the most neutral for cells in culture, while in the pure polymer samples there were significant alterations observed. Our results indicated that polyurethane-polylactide blend is an optimal composition for culturing and delivery of glial and mesenchymal stem cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Neural stem cells in the adult ciliary epithelium express GFAP and are regulated by Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ani V.; Zhao Xing; James, Jackson; Kim, Min; Cowan, Kenneth H.; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2006-01-01

    The identification of neural stem cells with retinal potential in the ciliary epithelium (CE) of the adult mammals is of considerable interest because of their potential for replacing or rescuing degenerating retinal neurons in disease or injury. The evaluation of such a potential requires characterization of these cells with regard to their phenotypic properties, potential, and regulatory mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that rat CE stem cells/progenitors in neurosphere culture display astrocytic nature in terms of expressing glial intermediate neurofilament protein, GFAP. The GFAP-expressing CE stem cells/progenitors form neurospheres in proliferating conditions and generate neurons when shifted to differentiating conditions. These cells express components of the canonical Wnt pathway and its activation promotes their proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the activation of the canonical Wnt pathway influences neuronal differentiation of CE stem cells/progenitors in a context dependent manner. Our observations suggest that CE stem cells/progenitors share phenotypic properties and regulatory mechanism(s) with neural stem cells elsewhere in the adult CNS

  1. Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor alleviates sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Min, Su; Xie, Fei; Yang, Jun; Li, Liang; Chen, Jingyuan

    2018-02-05

    Sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction results from up-regulation of the expression of γ- and α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Although glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been implicated in repairing and supporting neurons, little is known about the effects of GDNF on demyelination of nerves in sepsis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that GDNF could alleviate sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction by decreasing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy. Rats were randomly divided into a sham group and a sepsis group. Levels of inflammatory factors, muscle function, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were tested in rats after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). At 24 h after CLP, GDNF was injected around the sciatic nerve of sepsis rats, cytokines were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the expression of nAChRs. GDNF and its downstream effector (Erk1/2 and GFR-α), neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) and γ- and α7-nAChR were measured using Western blot analysis. The expression of GDNF reached a minimum at 24 h after CLP. Compared with the sham group, the release of cytokines and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR were significantly increased in the sepsis group. The administration of GDNF significantly alleviated sepsis-induced neuromuscular dysfunction, as well as reducing the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. In addition, the expression of Erk1/2, GFR-α, NRG-1 were significantly increased after GDNF treatment. GDNF administration may improve patient outcomes by reducing the demyelination of nerves and the expression of γ- and α7-nAChR. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Müller Glial Cell-Provided Cellular Light Guidance through the Vital Guinea-Pig Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Silke; Junek, Stephan; Matthias, Sabrina; Ulbricht, Elke; Erdmann, Ines; Wurm, Antje; Schild, Detlev; Käs, Josef A.; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In vertebrate eyes, images are projected onto an inverted retina where light passes all retinal layers on its way to the photoreceptor cells. Light scattering within this tissue should impair vision. We show that radial glial (Müller) cells in the living retina minimize intraretinal light scatter and conserve the diameter of a beam that hits a single Müller cell endfoot. Thus, light arrives at individual photoreceptors with high intensity. This leads to an optimized signal/noise ratio, which increases visual sensitivity and contrast. Moreover, we show that the ratio between Müller cells and cones—responsible for acute vision—is roughly 1. This suggests that high spatiotemporal resolution may be achieved by each cone receiving its part of the image via its individual Müller cell-light guide. PMID:22261048

  3. Characterization of cortical neuronal and glial alterations during culture of organotypic whole brain slices from neonatal and mature mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Jerome A; Alexander, Samuel R; Liu, Yao; Dickson, Tracey D; Vickers, James C

    2011-01-01

    Organotypic brain slice culturing techniques are extensively used in a wide range of experimental procedures and are particularly useful in providing mechanistic insights into neurological disorders or injury. The cellular and morphological alterations associated with hippocampal brain slice cultures has been well established, however, the neuronal response of mouse cortical neurons to culture is not well documented. In the current study, we compared the cell viability, as well as phenotypic and protein expression changes in cortical neurons, in whole brain slice cultures from mouse neonates (P4-6), adolescent animals (P25-28) and mature adults (P50+). Cultures were prepared using the membrane interface method. Propidium iodide labeling of nuclei (due to compromised cell membrane) and AlamarBlue™ (cell respiration) analysis demonstrated that neonatal tissue was significantly less vulnerable to long-term culture in comparison to the more mature brain tissues. Cultures from P6 animals showed a significant increase in the expression of synaptic markers and a decrease in growth-associated proteins over the entire culture period. However, morphological analysis of organotypic brain slices cultured from neonatal tissue demonstrated that there were substantial changes to neuronal and glial organization within the neocortex, with a distinct loss of cytoarchitectural stratification and increased GFAP expression (pglial limitans and, after 14 DIV, displayed substantial cellular protrusions from slice edges, including cells that expressed both glial and neuronal markers. In summary, we present a substantial evaluation of the viability and morphological changes that occur in the neocortex of whole brain tissue cultures, from different ages, over an extended period of culture.

  4. Inhibition of casein kinase 2 modulates XBP1-GRP78 arm of unfolded protein responses in cultured glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Hosoi

    Full Text Available Stress signals cause abnormal proteins to accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Such stress is known as ER stress, which has been suggested to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR to reduce levels of abnormal proteins by inducing the production of chaperon proteins such as GRP78, and to attenuate translation through the phosphorylation of eIF2α. However, excessive stress leads to apoptosis by generating transcription factors such as CHOP. Casein kinase 2 (CK2 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in regulating neoplasia, cell survival and viral infections. In the present study, we investigated a possible linkage between CK2 and ER stress using mouse primary cultured glial cells. 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB, a CK2-specific inhibitor, attenuated ER stress-induced XBP-1 splicing and subsequent induction of GRP78 expression, but was ineffective against ER stress-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and CHOP expression. Similar results were obtained when endogenous CK2 expression was knocked-down by siRNA. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that CK2 was present at the ER. These results indicate CK2 to be linked with UPR and to resist ER stress by activating the XBP-1-GRP78 arm of UPR.

  5. Vacuolar H+ -ATPase c protects glial cell death induced by sodium nitroprusside under glutathione-depleted condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Yu Jeong; Lee, Seong-Beom; Lee, Hwa Ok; Son, Min Jeong; Kim, Ho-Shik; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Jeong, Seong-Whan

    2011-08-01

    We examined the role of the c subunit (ATP6L) of vacuolar H(+) -ATPase and its molecular mechanisms in glial cell death induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP). ATP6L siRNA-transfected cells treated with SNP showed a significant increase in cytotoxicity under glutathione (GSH)-depleted conditions after pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine, but reduction of ATP6L did not affect the regulation of lysosomal pH in analyses with lysosomal pH-dependent fluorescence probes. Photodegraded SNP and ferrous sulfate induced cytotoxicity with the same pattern as that of SNP, but SNAP and potassium cyanide did not show activity. Pretreatment of the transfected cells with deferoxamine (DFO) reduced ROS production and significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity, which indicates that primarily iron rather than nitric oxide or cyanide from SNP contributes to cell death. Involvement of apoptotic processes in the cells was not shown. Pretreatment with JNK or p38 chemical inhibitor significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity, and we also confirmed that the MAPKs were activated in the cells by immunoblot analysis. Significant increase of LC3-II conversion was observed in the cells, and the conversions were inhibited by cotransfection of the MAPK siRNAs and pretreatment with DFO. Introduction of Atg5 siRNA inhibited the cytotoxicity and inhibited the activation of MAPKs and the conversion of LC3. We finally confirmed autophagic cell death and involvement of MAPKs by observation of autophagic vacuoles via electron microscopy. These data suggest that ATP6L has a protective role against SNP-induced autophagic cell death via inhibition of JNK and p38 in GSH-depleted glial cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Glial modulation by N-acylethanolamides in brain injury and neurodegeneration

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    María Inés Herrera

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation involves the activation of glial cells and represents a key element in normal aging and pathophysiology of brain damage. N-acylethanolamides (NAEs, naturally occurring amides, are known for their pro-homeostatic effects. An increase of NAEs has been reported in vivo and in vitro in the aging brain and in brain injury. Treatment with NAEs may promote neuroprotection and exert anti-inflammatory actions via PPARα activation and/or by counteracting gliosis. This review aims to provide an overview of endogenous and exogenous properties of NAEs in neuroinflammation and to discuss their interaction with glial cells.

  7. Cytotopographical specialization of enzymatically isolated rabbit retinal Müller (glial) cells: K+ conductivity of the cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Eberhardt, W

    1988-01-01

    Müller (radial glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by means of papaine and mechanical dissociation. Regional membrane properties of these cells were studied by intracellular microelectrode recordings of potential responses to local application of high K+ solutions. When different parts of the cell membrane were exposed to high K+, the amplitude of the depolarizing responses varied greatly, indicating a strong regional specialization of the membrane properties. Using morphometrical data of isolated rabbit Müller cells, and a simple circuit model, we calculated the endfoot membrane to constitute more than 80% of the total K+ conductance of the cell; the specific resistivity of the endfoot membrane was about 400 omega cm2, i.e., more than 40 times less than that of the membrane of the vitread process, which is immediately adjacent. This kind of regional membrane specialization seems to be optimized in respect to the Müller cells' ability to carry spatial buffering K+ currents.

  8. Inhibition of TRPA1 channel activity in sensory neurons by the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family member, artemin

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    Wang Shenglan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transient receptor potential (TRP channel subtype A1 (TRPA1 is known to be expressed on sensory neurons and respond to changes in temperature, pH and local application of certain noxious chemicals such as allyl isothiocyanate (AITC. Artemin is a neuronal survival and differentiation factor and belongs to the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF family. Both TRPA1 and artemin have been reported to be involved in pathological pain initiation and maintenance. In the present study, using whole-cell patch clamp recording technique, in situ hybridization and behavioral analyses, we examined the functional interaction between TRPA1 and artemin. Results We found that 85.8 ± 1.9% of TRPA1-expressing neurons also expressed GDNF family receptor alpha 3 (GFR α3, and 87.5 ± 4.1% of GFRα3-expressing neurons were TRPA1-positive. In whole-cell patch clamp analysis, a short-term treatment of 100 ng/ml artemin significantly suppressed the AITC-induced TRPA1 currents. A concentration-response curve of AITC resulting from the effect of artemin showed that this inhibition did not change EC50 but did lower the AITC-induced maximum response. In addition, pre-treatment of artemin significantly suppressed the number of paw lifts induced by intraplantar injection of AITC, as well as the formalin-induced pain behaviors. Conclusions These findings that a short-term application of artemin inhibits the TRPA1 channel's activity and the sequential pain behaviors suggest a role of artemin in regulation of sensory neurons.

  9. Healthy human CSF promotes glial differentiation of hESC-derived neural cells while retaining spontaneous activity in existing neuronal networks

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    Heikki Kiiski

    2013-05-01

    The possibilities of human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural cells from the basic research tool to a treatment option in regenerative medicine have been well recognized. These cells also offer an interesting tool for in vitro models of neuronal networks to be used for drug screening and neurotoxicological studies and for patient/disease specific in vitro models. Here, as aiming to develop a reductionistic in vitro human neuronal network model, we tested whether human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived neural cells could be cultured in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in order to better mimic the in vivo conditions. Our results showed that CSF altered the differentiation of hESC-derived neural cells towards glial cells at the expense of neuronal differentiation. The proliferation rate was reduced in CSF cultures. However, even though the use of CSF as the culture medium altered the glial vs. neuronal differentiation rate, the pre-existing spontaneous activity of the neuronal networks persisted throughout the study. These results suggest that it is possible to develop fully human cell and culture-based environments that can further be modified for various in vitro modeling purposes.

  10. Expanding the Repertoire of Optogenetically Targeted Cells with an Enhanced Gene Expression System

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    Kenji F. Tanaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetics has been enthusiastically pursued in recent neuroscience research, and the causal relationship between neural activity and behavior is becoming ever more accessible. Here, we established knockin-mediated enhanced gene expression by improved tetracycline-controlled gene induction (KENGE-tet and succeeded in generating transgenic mice expressing a highly light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 mutant at levels sufficient to drive the activities of multiple cell types. This method requires two lines of mice: one that controls the pattern of expression and another that determines the protein to be produced. The generation of new lines of either type readily expands the repertoire to choose from. In addition to neurons, we were able to manipulate the activity of nonexcitable glial cells in vivo. This shows that our system is applicable not only to neuroscience but also to any biomedical study that requires understanding of how the activity of a selected population of cells propagates through the intricate organic systems.

  11. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Mami

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS). Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs) are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of the human brain, leading ...

  12. Radiation-induced reduction of the glial population during development disrupts the formation of olfactory glomeruli in an insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, L.A.; Tolbert, L.P.; Mossman, K.L.

    1988-01-01

    Interactions between neurons and between neurons and glial cells have been shown by a number of investigators to be critical for normal development of the nervous system. In the olfactory system of Manduca sexta, sensory axons have been shown to induce the formation of synaptic glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the brain. Oland and Tolbert (1987) found that the growth of sensory axons into the developing antennal lobe causes changes in glial shape and disposition that presage the establishment of glomeruli, each surrounded by a glial envelope. Several lines of evidence lead us to hypothesize that the glial cells of the lobe may be acting as intermediaries in developmental interactions between sensory axons and neurons of the antennal lobe. In the present study, we have tested this hypothesis by using gamma-radiation to reduce the number of glial cells at a time when neurons of the antennal system are postmitotic but glomeruli have not yet developed. When glial numbers are severely reduced, the neuropil of the resulting lobe lacks glomeruli. Despite the presence of afferent axons, the irradiated lobe has many of the features of a lobe that developed in the absence of afferent axons. Our findings indicate that the glial cells must play a necessary role in the inductive influence of the afferent axons

  13. Satellite glial cell P2Y12 receptor in the trigeminal ganglion is involved in lingual neuropathic pain mechanisms in rats

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    Katagiri Ayano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the P2Y12 receptor (P2Y12R is involved in satellite glial cells (SGCs activation, indicating that P2Y12R expressed in SGCs may play functional roles in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms. However, the involvement of P2Y12R in orofacial neuropathic pain mechanisms is still unknown. We therefore studied the reflex to noxious mechanical or heat stimulation of the tongue, P2Y12R and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunohistochemistries in the trigeminal ganglion (TG in a rat model of unilateral lingual nerve crush (LNC to evaluate role of P2Y12R in SGC in lingual neuropathic pain. Results The head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the lateral tongue were significantly decreased in LNC-rats compared to sham-rats. These nocifensive effects were apparent on day 1 after LNC and lasted for 17 days. On days 3, 9, 15 and 21 after LNC, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-immunoreactive (IR cells significantly increased in the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branch regions of TG. On day 3 after LNC, P2Y12R expression occurred in GFAP-IR cells but not neuronal nuclei (NeuN-IR cells (i.e. neurons in TG. After 3 days of successive administration of the P2Y12R antagonist MRS2395 into TG in LNC-rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly decreased coincident with a significant reversal of the lowered head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue compared to vehicle-injected rats. Furthermore, after 3 days of successive administration of the P2YR agonist 2-MeSADP into the TG in naïve rats, the mean relative number of TG neurons encircled with GFAP-IR cells was significantly increased and head-withdrawal reflex thresholds to mechanical and heat stimulation of the tongue were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle-injected rats

  14. Resveratrol confers protection against rotenone-induced neurotoxicity by modulating myeloperoxidase levels in glial cells.

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    Chi Young Chang

    Full Text Available Myeloperoxidase (MPO functions as a key molecular component of the host defense system against diverse pathogens. We have previously reported that increased MPO levels and activity is a distinguishing feature of rotenone-exposed glial cells, and that either overactivation or deficiency of MPO leads to pathological conditions in the brain. Here, we provide that modulation of MPO levels in glia by resveratrol confers protective effects on rotenone-induced neurotoxicity. We show that resveratrol significantly reduced MPO levels but did not trigger abnormal nitric oxide (NO production in microglia and astrocytes. Resveratrol-induced down-regulation of MPO, in the absence of an associated overproduction of NO, markedly attenuated rotenone-triggered inflammatory responses including phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species production in primary microglia and astrocytes. In addition, impaired responses of primary mixed glia from Mpo (-/- mice to rotenone were relieved by treatment with resveratrol. We further show that rotenone-induced neuronal injury, particularly dopaminergic cell death, was attenuated by resveratrol in neuron-glia co-cultures, but not in neurons cultured alone. Similar regulatory effects of resveratrol on MPO levels were observed in microglia treated with MPP(+, another Parkinson's disease-linked neurotoxin, supporting the beneficial effects of resveratrol on the brain. Collectively, our findings provide that resveratrol influences glial responses to rotenone by regulating both MPO and NO, and thus protects against rotenone-induced neuronal injury.

  15. The glial scar-monocyte interplay: a pivotal resolution phase in spinal cord repair.

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    Ravid Shechter

    Full Text Available The inflammatory response in the injured spinal cord, an immune privileged site, has been mainly associated with the poor prognosis. However, recent data demonstrated that, in fact, some leukocytes, namely monocytes, are pivotal for repair due to their alternative anti-inflammatory phenotype. Given the pro-inflammatory milieu within the traumatized spinal cord, known to skew monocytes towards a classical phenotype, a pertinent question is how parenchymal-invading monocytes acquire resolving properties essential for healing, under such unfavorable conditions. In light of the spatial association between resolving (interleukin (IL-10 producing monocytes and the glial scar matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG, in this study we examined the mutual relationship between these two components. By inhibiting the de novo production of CSPG following spinal cord injury, we demonstrated that this extracellular matrix, mainly known for its ability to inhibit axonal growth, serves as a critical template skewing the entering monocytes towards the resolving phenotype. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that this matrix alone is sufficient to induce such monocyte polarization. Reciprocal conditional ablation of the monocyte-derived macrophages concentrated at the lesion margins, using diphtheria toxin, revealed that these cells have scar matrix-resolving properties. Replenishment of monocytic cell populations to the ablated mice demonstrated that this extracellular remodeling ability of the infiltrating monocytes requires their expression of the matrix-degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, a property that was found here to be crucial for functional recovery. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the glial scar-matrix, a known obstacle to regeneration, is a critical component skewing the encountering monocytes towards a resolving phenotype. In an apparent feedback loop, monocytes were found to regulate scar resolution. This

  16. Over-expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors enhances differentiation of human umbilical cord blood cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva, Daria; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Salafutdinov, Ilnur I.; Kudryashova, Nezhdana V.; Palotás, András; Islamov, Rustem R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. • Genetically modified hUCB-MCs enhanced differentiation of cells in a mouse model of ALS. • Stem cells successfully transformed into micro-glial and endothelial lines in spinal cords. • Over-expressing oct4 and sox2 also induced production of neural marker PGP9.5. • Formation of new nerve cells, secreting trophic factors and neo-vascularisation could improve symptoms in ALS. - Abstract: Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. Even though stem cells represent a highly potential therapeutic strategy, their wide-spread exploitation is marred by ethical concerns, potential for malignant transformation and a plethora of other technical issues, largely restricting their use to experimental studies. Utilizing genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), this communication reports enhanced differentiation of transplants in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over-expressing Oct4 and Sox2 induced production of neural marker PGP9.5, as well as transformation of hUCB-MCs into micro-glial and endothelial lines in ALS spinal cords. In addition to producing new nerve cells, providing degenerated areas with trophic factors and neo-vascularisation might prevent and even reverse progressive loss of moto-neurons and skeletal muscle paralysis

  17. Over-expression of Oct4 and Sox2 transcription factors enhances differentiation of human umbilical cord blood cells in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, Daria [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Rizvanov, Albert A.; Salafutdinov, Ilnur I.; Kudryashova, Nezhdana V. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Palotás, András, E-mail: palotas@asklepios-med.eu [Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation); Asklepios-Med (Private Medical Practice and Research Center), Szeged (Hungary); Islamov, Rustem R., E-mail: islamru@yahoo.com [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. • Genetically modified hUCB-MCs enhanced differentiation of cells in a mouse model of ALS. • Stem cells successfully transformed into micro-glial and endothelial lines in spinal cords. • Over-expressing oct4 and sox2 also induced production of neural marker PGP9.5. • Formation of new nerve cells, secreting trophic factors and neo-vascularisation could improve symptoms in ALS. - Abstract: Gene and cell-based therapies comprise innovative aspects of regenerative medicine. Even though stem cells represent a highly potential therapeutic strategy, their wide-spread exploitation is marred by ethical concerns, potential for malignant transformation and a plethora of other technical issues, largely restricting their use to experimental studies. Utilizing genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mono-nuclear cells (hUCB-MCs), this communication reports enhanced differentiation of transplants in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Over-expressing Oct4 and Sox2 induced production of neural marker PGP9.5, as well as transformation of hUCB-MCs into micro-glial and endothelial lines in ALS spinal cords. In addition to producing new nerve cells, providing degenerated areas with trophic factors and neo-vascularisation might prevent and even reverse progressive loss of moto-neurons and skeletal muscle paralysis.

  18. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 μM met-enkephalin, 1 μM met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined [ 3 H]-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture

  19. Opioid-dependent growth of glial cultures: Suppression of astrocyte DNA synthesis by met-enkephalin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiene-Martin, A.; Hauser, K.F. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The action of met-enkephalin on the growth of astrocytes in mixed-glial cultures was examined. Primary, mixed-glial cultures were isolated from 1 day-old mouse cerebral hemispheres and continuously treated with either basal growth media, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin, 1 {mu}M met-enkephalin plus the opioid antagonist naloxone, or naloxone alone. Absolute numbers of neural cells were counted in unstained preparations, while combined ({sup 3}H)-thymidine autoradiography and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) immunocytochemistry was performed to identify specific changes in astrocytes. When compared to control and naloxone treated cultures, met-enkephalin caused a significant decrease in both total cell numbers, and in ({sup 3}H)-thymidine incorporation by GFAP-positive cells with flat morphology. These results indicate that met-enkephalin suppresses astrocyte growth in culture.

  20. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits the self-renewal of spermatogonial stem cells in vitro via downregulation of GDNF expression in Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Shi, Kun; Li, Yi; Zhang, Haiyu; Hao, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can reduce sperm count and sperm quality. The molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the effects of LPS-treated Sertoli cells on self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogoinial stem cells (SSCs). Sertoli cell cultures were established and incubated with LPS (10μg/ml) for 1, 2 or 3 days, respectively. The culture media were collected and used as conditioned media (CM) to culture SSCs. The expression of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), stem cell factor (SCF) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in Sertoli cells treated with LPS was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of SSC differentiation markers, c-kit and Sohlh2, was increased, while the expression of SSC self-renewal markers, plzf, oct4, and PCNA, was repressed when cultured in CM from LPS-treated Sertoli cells. GDNF levels in Sertoli cells and CM reduced dramatically after LPS treatments, while SCF and BMP4 levels did not show any significant changes. Moreover, correlated with the GDNF levels in CM, GDNF target genes, Bcl6b and Etv5, were reduced markedly in SSCs. Our results suggest that LPS inhibits the expression of GDNF in Sertoli cells, and might prevent the SSC self-renewal via down-regulation of GDNF target genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of Glial Activation Markers by Comparison of Transcriptome Changes between Astrocytes and Microglia following Innate Immune Stimulation.

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    Silvia Madeddu

    Full Text Available The activation of astrocytes and microglia is often associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. Understanding how activation alters the transcriptome of these cells may offer valuable insight regarding how activation of these cells mediate neurological damage. Furthermore, identifying common and unique pathways of gene expression during activation may provide new insight into the distinct roles these cells have in the CNS during infection and inflammation. Since recent studies indicate that TLR7 recognizes not only viral RNA but also microRNAs that are released by damaged neurons and elevated during neurological diseases, we first examined the response of glial cells to TLR7 stimulation using microarray analysis. Microglia were found to generate a much stronger response to TLR7 activation than astrocytes, both in the number of genes induced as well as fold induction. Although the primary pathways induced by both cell types were directly linked to immune responses, microglia also induced pathways associated with cellular proliferation, while astrocytes did not. Targeted analysis of a subset of the upregulated genes identified unique mRNA, including Ifi202b which was only upregulated by microglia and was found to be induced during both retroviral and bunyavirus infections in the CNS. In addition, other genes including Birc3 and Gpr84 as well as two expressed sequences AW112010 and BC023105 were found to be induced in both microglia and astrocytes and were upregulated in the CNS following virus infection. Thus, expression of these genes may a useful measurement of glial activation during insult or injury to the CNS.

  2. BAC-Dkk3-EGFP Transgenic Mouse: An In Vivo Analytical Tool for Dkk3 Expression

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    Yuki Muranishi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dickkopf (DKK family proteins are secreted modulators of the Wnt signaling pathway and are capable of regulating the development of many organs and tissues. We previously identified Dkk3 to be a molecule predominantly expressed in the mouse embryonic retina. However, which cell expresses Dkk3 in the developing and mature mouse retina remains to be elucidated. To examine the precise expression of the Dkk3 protein, we generated BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice that express EGFP integrated into the Dkk3 gene in a BAC plasmid. Expression analysis using the BAC-Dkk3-EGFP transgenic mice revealed that Dkk3 is expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs at embryonic stages and in Müller glial cells in the adult retina. Since Müller glial cells may play a potential role in retinal regeneration, BAC-Dkk3-EGFP mice could be useful for retinal regeneration studies.

  3. Lithium and brain plasticity - studies on glial cell changes and electroconvulsive treatment-induced amnesia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Orre, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Depression and bipolar disorder, collectively known as mood disorders, are devastating, common and often chronic illnesses. Imaging studies of patients with mood disorders have demonstrated structural changes in several brain regions implicated in mood regulation. Furthermore, bipolar disorder is associated with white matter abnormalities and post mortem analysis of brain tissue from patients with mood disorders have shown glial cell pathology. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and pharmacologi...

  4. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

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    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  5. Drug-induced activation of SREBP-controlled lipogenic gene expression in CNS-related cell lines: Marked differences between various antipsychotic drugs

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    Vik-Mo Audun O

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The etiology of schizophrenia is unknown, but neurodevelopmental disturbances, myelin- and oligodendrocyte abnormalities and synaptic dysfunction have been suggested as pathophysiological factors in this severe psychiatric disorder. Cholesterol is an essential component of myelin and has proved important for synapse formation. Recently, we demonstrated that the antipsychotic drugs clozapine and haloperidol stimulate lipogenic gene expression in cultured glioma cells through activation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP transcription factors. We here compare the action of chlorpromazine, haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone and ziprasidone on SREBP activation and SREBP-controlled gene expression (ACAT2, HMGCR, HMGCS1, FDPS, SC5DL, DHCR7, LDLR, FASN and SCD1 in four CNS-relevant human cell lines. Results There were marked differences in the ability of the antipsychotic drugs to activate the expression of SREBP target genes, with clozapine and chlorpromazine as the most potent stimulators in a context of therapeutically relevant concentrations. Glial-like cells (GaMg glioma and CCF-STTG1 astrocytoma cell lines displayed more pronounced drug-induced SREBP activation compared to the response in HCN2 human cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, indicating that antipsychotic-induced activation of lipogenesis is most prominent in glial cells. Conclusion Our present data show a marked variation in the ability of different antipsychotics to induce SREBP-controlled transcriptional activation of lipogenesis in cultured human CNS-relevant cells. We propose that this effect could be relevant for the therapeutic efficacy of some antipsychotic drugs.

  6. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

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    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  7. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68{sup +} microglia, MT{sup +} astrocytes, and TUNEL{sup +} apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO{sup +} oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression

  8. Global gene expression profiles in brain regions reflecting abnormal neuronal and glial functions targeting myelin sheaths after 28-day exposure to cuprizone in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Saito, Fumiyo; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Both developmental and postpubertal cuprizone (CPZ) exposure impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. We previously found that developmental CPZ exposure alters the expression of genes related to neurogenesis, myelination, and synaptic transmission in specific brain regions of offspring. Here, we examined neuronal and glial toxicity profiles in response to postpubertal CPZ exposure by using expression microarray analysis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, corpus callosum, cerebral cortex, and cerebellar vermis of 5-week-old male rats exposed to 0, 120, and 600 mg/kg CPZ for 28 days. Genes showing transcript upregulation were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. We found transcript expression alterations at 600 mg/kg for genes related to synaptic transmission, Ache and Prima1, and cell cycle regulation, Tfap4 and Cdkn1a, in the dentate gyrus, which showed aberrant neurogenesis in the subgranular zone. This dose downregulated myelination-related genes in multiple brain regions, whereas KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte density was decreased only in the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum showed an increase in transcript levels for inflammatory response-related genes and in the number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells. These results suggest that postpubertal CPZ exposure targets synaptic transmission and cell cycle regulation to affect neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. CPZ suppressed myelination in multiple brain regions and KLOTHO-mediated oligodendrocyte maturation only in the corpus callosum. The increased number of CD68 + microglia, MT + astrocytes, and TUNEL + apoptotic cells in the corpus callosum may be involved in the induction of KLOTHO + oligodendrocyte death and be a protective mechanism against myelin damage following CPZ exposure. - Highlights: • Target gene expression profiles were examined in rats after 28-day CPZ exposure. • Multiple brain region-specific global gene expression profiling was performed. • CPZ

  9. A diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promote neuroprotection, reduced cell apoptosis and glial cell activation in the hypothalamus of old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marlon R; Cechella, José L; Pinton, Simone; Nogueira, Cristina W; Zeni, Gilson

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a process characterized by deterioration of the homeostasis of various physiological systems; although being a process under influence of multiple factors, the mechanisms involved in aging are not well understood. Here we investigated the effect of a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet (1ppm, 4weeks) and swimming exercise (1% of body weight, 20min per day, 4weeks) on proteins related to glial cells activation, apoptosis and neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old male Wistar rats (27month-old). Old rats had activation of astrocytes and microglia which was demonstrated by the increase in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) in hypothalamus. A decrease of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and procaspase-3 levels as well as an increase of the cleaved PARP/full length PARP ratio (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, PARP) and the pJNK/JNK ratio (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK) were observed. The levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF), the pAkt/Akt ratio (also known as protein kinase B) and NeuN (neuronal nuclei), a neuron marker, were decreased in the hypothalamus of old rats. Old rats that received a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and performed swimming exercise had the hypothalamic levels of Iba-1 and GFAP decreased. The combined treatment also increased the levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 and decreased the ratios of cleaved PARP/full length PARP and pJNK/JNK in old rats. The levels of mBDNF and NeuN, but not the pAkt/Akt ratio, were increased by combined treatment. In conclusion, a (PhSe)2-supplemented diet and swimming exercise promoted neuroprotection in the hypothalamus of old rats, reducing apoptosis and glial cell activation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced IL-1beta production in response to the activation of hippocampal glial cells impairs neurogenesis in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzumaki, Naoko; Ikegami, Daigo; Imai, Satoshi; Narita, Michiko; Tamura, Rie; Yajima, Marie; Suzuki, Atsuo; Miyashita, Kazuhiko; Niikura, Keiichi; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Ando, Takayuki; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Narita, Minoru

    2010-09-01

    A variety of mechanisms that contribute to the accumulation of age-related damage and the resulting brain dysfunction have been identified. Recently, decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampus has been recognized as one of the mechanisms of age-related brain dysfunction. However, the molecular mechanism of decreased neurogenesis with aging is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether aging decreases neurogenesis accompanied by the activation of microglia and astrocytes, which increases the expression of IL-1beta in the hippocampus, and whether in vitro treatment with IL-1beta in neural stem cells directly impairs neurogenesis. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-positive microglia and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes were increased in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of 28-month-old mice. Furthermore, the mRNA level of IL-1beta was significantly increased without related histone modifications. Moreover, a significant increase in lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9) trimethylation at the promoter of NeuroD (a neural progenitor cell marker) was observed in the hippocampus of aged mice. In vitro treatment with IL-1beta in neural stem cells prepared from whole brain of E14.5 mice significantly increased H3K9 trimethylation at the NeuroD promoter. These findings suggest that aging may decrease hippocampal neurogenesis via epigenetic modifications accompanied by the activation of microglia and astrocytes with the increased expression of IL-1beta in the hippocampus.

  11. Activation of Satellite Glial Cells in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion after Upper Molar Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunjigake, Kaori K.; Goto, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2009-01-01

    The neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs), which passively support the function of the neurons, but little is known about the interactions between SGCs and TG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. To examine the effect of nerve injury on SGCs, we investigated the activation of SGCs after neuronal damage due to the extraction of the upper molars in rats. Three, 7, and 10 days after extraction, animals were fixed and the TG was removed. Cryosections of the ganglia were immunostained with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of activated SGCs, and ATF3, a marker of damaged neurons. After tooth extraction, the number of ATF3-immunoreactive (IR) neurons enclosed by GFAP-IR SGCs had increased in a time-dependent manner in the maxillary nerve region of the TG. Although ATF3-IR neurons were not detected in the mandibular nerve region, the number of GFAP-IR SGCs increased in both the maxillary and mandibular nerve regions. Our results suggest that peripheral nerve injury affects the activation of TG neurons and the SGCs around the injured neurons. Moreover, our data suggest the existence of a neuronal interaction between maxillary and mandibular neurons via SGC activation

  12. Occlusion of retinal capillaries caused by glial cell proliferation in chronic ocular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, E; Ripandelli, G; Feher, J; Plateroti, A M; Plateroti, R; Kovacs, I; Plateroti, P; Taurone, S; Artico, M

    2015-01-01

    The inner blood-retinal barrier is a gliovascular unit in which glial cells surround capillary endothelial cells and regulate retinal capillaries by paracrine interactions. During chronic ocular inflammation, microvascular complications can give rise to vascular proliferative lesions, which compromise visual acuity. This pathologic remodelling caused by proliferating Müller cells determines occlusion of retinal capillaries. The aim of the present study was to identify qualitative and quantitative alterations in the retinal capillaries in patients with post-traumatic chronic ocular inflammation or post-thrombotic vascular glaucoma. Moreover, we investigated the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in retinal inflammation. Our electron microscopy findings demonstrated that during chronic ocular inflammation, thickening of the basement membrane, loss of pericytes and endothelial cells and proliferation of Müller cells occur with irreversible occlusion of retinal capillaries. Angiogenesis takes place as part of a regenerative reaction that results in fibrosis. We believe that VEGF and pro-inflammatory cytokines may be potential therapeutic targets in the treatment of this disease although further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  13. Expression of GDNF and GFR alpha 1 in mouse taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Masako; Suzuki, Yuko; Obara, Nobuko; Uchida, Nobuhiko; Kawakoshi, Kentaro

    2004-11-01

    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) affects the survival and maintenance of central and peripheral neurons. Using an immunocytochemical method, we examined whether the taste bud cells in the circumvallate papillae of normal mice expressed GDNF and its GFR alpha 1 receptor. Using double immunostaining for either of them and NCAM, PGP 9.5, or alpha-gustducin, we additionally sought to determine what type of taste bud cells expressed GDNF or GFR alpha 1, because NCAM is reported to be expressed in type-III cells, PGP 9.5, in type-III and some type-II cells, and alpha-gustducin, in some type-II cells. Normal taste bud cells expressed both GDNF and GFR alpha 1. The percentage of GDNF-immunoreactive cells among all taste bud cells was 31.63%, and that of GFR alpha 1-immunoreactive cells, 83.21%. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observations after double immunostaining showed that almost none of the GDNF-immunoreactive cells in the taste buds were reactive with anti-NCAM or anti-PGP 9.5 antibody, but could be stained with anti-alpha-gustducin antibody. On the other hand, almost all anti-PGP 9.5- or anti-alpha-gustducin-immunoreactive cells were positive for GFR alpha 1. Thus, GDNF-immunoreactive cells did not include type-III cells, but type-II cells, which are alpha-gustducin-immunoreactive; on the other hand, GFR alpha 1-immunoreactive cells included type-II and -III cells, and perhaps type-I cells. We conclude that GDNF in the type-II cells may exert trophic actions on type-I, -II, and -III taste bud cells by binding to their GFR alpha 1 receptors.

  14. Development of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, glial cells, and regional cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso, S P; Hoover, D B

    2012-09-27

    Very little is known about the development of cardiac parasympathetic ganglia and cholinergic innervation of the mouse heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth of cholinergic neurons and nerve fibers in mouse hearts from embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) through postnatal day 21(P21). Cholinergic perikarya and varicose nerve fibers were identified in paraffin sections immunostained for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). Satellite cells and Schwann cells in adjacent sections were identified by immunostaining for S100β calcium binding protein (S100) and brain-fatty acid binding protein (B-FABP). We found that cardiac ganglia had formed in close association to the atria and cholinergic innervation of the atrioventricular junction had already begun by E18.5. However, most cholinergic innervation of the heart, including the sinoatrial node, developed postnatally (P0.5-P21) along with a doubling of the cross-sectional area of cholinergic perikarya. Satellite cells were present throughout neonatal cardiac ganglia and expressed primarily B-FABP. As they became more mature at P21, satellite cells stained strongly for both B-FABP and S100. Satellite cells appeared to surround most cardiac parasympathetic neurons, even in neonatal hearts. Mature Schwann cells, identified by morphology and strong staining for S100, were already present at E18.5 in atrial regions that receive cholinergic innervation at later developmental times. The abundance and distribution of S100-positive Schwann cells increased postnatally along with nerve density. While S100 staining of cardiac Schwann cells was maintained in P21 and older mice, Schwann cells did not show B-FABP staining at these times. Parallel development of satellite cells and cholinergic perikarya in the cardiac ganglia and the increase in abundance of Schwann cells and varicose cholinergic nerve fibers in the atria suggest that neuronal-glial interactions could be important for development of the parasympathetic nervous

  15. Glial cell adhesion and protein adsorption on SAM coated semiconductor and glass surfaces of a microfluidic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Cox, Jimmy D.; Follstaedt, Susan C.; Curry, Mark S.; Skirboll, Steven K.; Gourley, Paul L.

    2001-05-01

    The development of microsystems that merge biological materials with microfabricated structures is highly dependent on the successful interfacial interactions between these innately incompatible materials. Surface passivation of semiconductor and glass surfaces with thin organic films can attenuate the adhesion of proteins and cells that lead to biofilm formation and biofouling of fluidic structures. We have examined the adhesion of glial cells and serum albumin proteins to microfabricated glass and semiconductor surfaces coated with self-assembled monolayers of octadecyltrimethoxysilane and N-(triethoxysilylpropyl)-O- polyethylene oxide urethane, to evaluate the biocompatibility and surface passivation those coatings provide.

  16. Cerebral radiation necrosis: vascular and glial features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, M M; Garcia, J H

    1976-12-21

    Glial and vascular abnormalities in brain, simulating intracranial neoplasia, are described in a patient who received radiation to the pituitary region for treatment of an adenoma, 13 months before death. In addition to the expected changes of cerebral radionecrosis, four interesting features are cited: (1) diffuse hyperplasia of capillaries in the cerebral cortex with marked endothelial hypertrophy; (2) abundant, large multipolar bizarre cells in the perivascular connective tissues; (3) focal astrocytic proliferation with many cells resembling either Alzheimer type I astrocytes or neoplastic cells, and (4) radiation changes in the non-irradiated brain.

  17. Controlled adhesion and growth of long term glial and neuronal cultures on Parylene-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Delivopoulos

    Full Text Available This paper explores the long term development of networks of glia and neurons on patterns of Parylene-C on a SiO(2 substrate. We harvested glia and neurons from the Sprague-Dawley (P1-P7 rat hippocampus and utilized an established cell patterning technique in order to investigate cellular migration, over the course of 3 weeks. This work demonstrates that uncontrolled glial mitosis gradually disrupts cellular patterns that are established early during culture. This effect is not attributed to a loss of protein from the Parylene-C surface, as nitrogen levels on the substrate remain stable over 3 weeks. The inclusion of the anti-mitotic cytarabine (Ara-C in the culture medium moderates glial division and thus, adequately preserves initial glial and neuronal conformity to underlying patterns. Neuronal apoptosis, often associated with the use of Ara-C, is mitigated by the addition of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. We believe that with the right combination of glial inhibitors and neuronal promoters, the Parylene-C based cell patterning method can generate structured, active neural networks that can be sustained and investigated over extended periods of time. To our knowledge this is the first report on the concurrent application of Ara-C and BDNF on patterned cell cultures.

  18. Ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission through glial γ-aminobutyric acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, David E; Watson, Ralph E; Robson, Simon C; Gulbransen, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Impaired gut motility may contribute, at least in part, to the development of systemic hyperammonemia and systemic neurological disorders in inherited metabolic disorders, or in severe liver and renal disease. It is not known whether enteric neurotransmission regulates intestinal luminal and hence systemic ammonia levels by induced changes in motility. Here, we propose and test the hypothesis that ammonia acts through specific enteric circuits to influence gut motility. We tested our hypothesis by recording the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission in tissue samples from mice, pigs, and humans and investigated specific mechanisms using novel mutant mice, selective drugs, cellular imaging, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Exogenous ammonia increased neurogenic contractions and decreased neurogenic relaxations in segments of mouse, pig, and human intestine. Enteric glial cells responded to ammonia with intracellular Ca 2+ responses. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase and the deletion of glial connexin-43 channels in hGFAP :: Cre ER T2+/- /connexin43 f/f mice potentiated the effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission. The effects of ammonia on neuromuscular transmission were blocked by GABA A receptor antagonists, and ammonia drove substantive GABA release as did the selective pharmacological activation of enteric glia in GFAP::hM3Dq transgenic mice. We propose a novel mechanism whereby local ammonia is operational through GABAergic glial signaling to influence enteric neuromuscular circuits that regulate intestinal motility. Therapeutic manipulation of these mechanisms may benefit a number of neurological, hepatic, and renal disorders manifesting hyperammonemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We propose that local circuits in the enteric nervous system sense and regulate intestinal ammonia. We show that ammonia modifies enteric neuromuscular transmission to increase motility in human, pig, and mouse intestine model systems. The mechanisms underlying the

  19. Spatiotemporal distribution and function of N-cadherin in postnatal Schwann cells: A matter of adhesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corell, Mikael; Wicher, Grzegorz; Limbach, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    During embryonic development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the adhesion molecule neuronal cadherin (N-cadherin) is expressed by Schwann cell precursors and associated with axonal growth cones. N-cadherin expression levels decrease as precursors differentiate into Schwann cells. In this ......During embryonic development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), the adhesion molecule neuronal cadherin (N-cadherin) is expressed by Schwann cell precursors and associated with axonal growth cones. N-cadherin expression levels decrease as precursors differentiate into Schwann cells....... In this study, we investigated the distribution of N-cadherin in the developing postnatal and adult rat peripheral nervous system. N-cadherin was found primarily in ensheathing glia throughout development, concentrated at neuron-glial or glial-glial contacts of the sciatic nerve, dorsal root ganglia (DRG......), and myenteric plexi. In the sciatic nerve, N-cadherin decreases with age and progress of myelination. In adult animals, N-cadherin was found exclusively in nonmyelinating Schwann cells. The distribution of N-cadherin in developing E17 DRG primary cultures is similar to what was observed in vivo. Functional...

  20. Therapeutic effects of NogoA vaccine and olfactory ensheathing glial cell implantation on acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhicheng Zhang, Fang Li, Tiansheng Sun, Dajiang Ren, Xiumei Liu PLA Institute of Orthopedics, Beijing Army General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: Many previous studies have focused on the effects of IN-1, a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes Nogo (a neurite growth inhibitory protein, on neurologic regeneration in spinal cord injury (SCI. However, safety problems and the short half-life of the exogenous antibody are still problematic. In the present study, the NogoA polypeptide was used as an antigen to make a therapeutic NogoA vaccine. Rats were immunized with this vaccine and were able to secrete the polyclonal antibody before SCI. The antibody can block NogoA within the injured spinal cord when the antibody gains access to the spinal cord due to a compromised blood–spinal cord barrier. Olfactory ensheathing glial cell transplantation has been used in a spinal cord contusion model to promote the recovery of SCI. The present study was designed to verify the efficacy and safety of NogoA polypeptide vaccine, the effects of immunotherapy with this vaccine, and the synergistic effects of the vaccine and olfactory ensheathing glial cells in repair of SCI. Methods: A 13-polypeptide fragment of NogoA was synthesized. This fragment was then coupled with keyhole limpet hemocyanin to improve the immunogenicity of the polypeptide vaccine. Immunization via injection into the abdominal cavity was performed in rats before SCI. The serum antibody level and ability of the vaccine to bind with Nogo were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The safety of the vaccine was evaluated according to the incidence and severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Olfactory ensheathing glia cells were obtained, purified, and subsequently implanted into a Wistar rat model of thoracic spinal cord contusion injury. The rats were divided into four groups, ie, an SCI model group, an olfactory ensheathing glia group, a vaccine

  1. Ultrastructural changes in the glial cells at neuromuscular synapses of Locusta migratoria occurring after nerve stimulation and subsequent rest: a morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, M

    1979-10-01

    The glial processes ensheathing the motor nerve terminals on the retractor unguis muscle of Locusta migratoria are described. Ultrastructural changes observed after electrical nerve stimulation (20 Hz, 7 min) without or with subsequent rest (2 min, 1 h) are analysed morphometrically. Immediately after stimulation both the average terminal circumference (+ 23%) and its proportion covered by glial processes (+ 16%) are significantly increased. The mean number of Schwann cell processes per micron of terminal circumference (without stimulation: 0.86 +/- 0.04) is also affected: Immediately after stimulation it is increased by about 15% and after 2 min of rest even by 36%. The periaxonal cleft (without stimulation: 16.5 nm +/- 0.36) becomes wider immediately after stimulation by about 19%, an effect which is almost reversed after 1 h of rest. It is suggested that these changes are a consequence of the enlargement of the nerve terminal's surface upon massive exocytotic activity and that they are possibly mediated by mechanical attachment between glial and terminal plasma membranes.

  2. Effects of aging and sensory loss on glial cells in mouse visual and auditory cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marie-Ève; Zettel, Martha L.; Ison, James R.; Allen, Paul D.; Majewska, Ania K.

    2011-01-01

    Normal aging is often accompanied by a progressive loss of receptor sensitivity in hearing and vision, whose consequences on cellular function in cortical sensory areas have remained largely unknown. By examining the primary auditory (A1) and visual (V1) cortices in two inbred strains of mice undergoing either age-related loss of audition (C57BL/6J) or vision (CBA/CaJ), we were able to describe cellular and subcellular changes that were associated with normal aging (occurring in A1 and V1 of both strains) or specifically with age-related sensory loss (only in A1 of C57BL/6J or V1 of CBA/CaJ), using immunocytochemical electron microscopy and light microscopy. While the changes were subtle in neurons, glial cells and especially microglia were transformed in aged animals. Microglia became more numerous and irregularly distributed, displayed more variable cell body and process morphologies, occupied smaller territories, and accumulated phagocytic inclusions that often displayed ultrastructural features of synaptic elements. Additionally, evidence of myelination defects were observed, and aged oligodendrocytes became more numerous and were more often encountered in contiguous pairs. Most of these effects were profoundly exacerbated by age-related sensory loss. Together, our results suggest that the age-related alteration of glial cells in sensory cortical areas can be accelerated by activity-driven central mechanisms that result from an age-related loss of peripheral sensitivity. In light of our observations, these age-related changes in sensory function should be considered when investigating cellular, cortical and behavioral functions throughout the lifespan in these commonly used C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ mouse models. PMID:22223464

  3. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuronal and glial release of (3H)GABA from the rat olfactory bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, E.H.; Cuello, A.C.

    1981-12-01

    Neuronal versus glial components of the (3H)gamma-aminobutyric acid ((3H)GABA) release studies were performed with two different microdissected layers of the olfactory bulb of the rat. In some experiments substantia nigra was used as a GABAergic axonal system and the trigeminal ganglia as a peripheral glial model. Spontaneous release of (3H)GABA was always lower in neuronal elements as compared with glial cells. A veratridine-evoked release was observed from the ONL but not from the trigeminal ganglia. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished the veratridine-evoked release from the ONL, which also showed a partial inhibition when high magnesium concentrations were used in a Ca2+-free solution. beta-Alanine was strongly exchanged with (3H)GABA from the ONL of animals with the olfactory nerve lesioned and from animals with no lesion; but only a small heteroexchange was found from the external plexiform layer. The beta-alanine heteroexchange was able to deplete the releasable GABA store from the ONL of lesioned animals. In nonlesioned animals and the external plexiform layer, the veratridine-stimulated release of (3H)GABA was not significantly reduced after the beta-alanine heteroexchange. Stimulation of the (3H)GABA release by high concentrations of potassium elicited a higher release rate from axonal terminals than from dendrites or glia. Neurones and glia showed a similar inhibition of (3H)GABA release when a high magnesium concentration was added to a calcium-free solution. When D-600 was used as a calcium-flux blocker no inhibition of the release was observed in glial cells, whereas an almost complete blockage was found in both neuronal preparations (substantia nigra and EPL). These results provide further evidence for differential release mechanisms of GABA from CNS neurones and glial cells.

  5. Mutant p53 transfection of astrocytic cells results in altered cell cycle control, radiation sensitivity, and tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanady, Kirk E.; Mei Su; Proulx, Gary; Malkin, David M.; Pardo, Francisco S.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction: Alterations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are one of the most frequent genetic alterations in malignant gliomas. An understanding of the molecular genetic events leading to glial tumor progression would aid in designing therapeutic vectors for controlling these challenging tumor types. We investigated whether mutations in coding exons of the p53 gene result in functional changes altering cell cycle 'checkpoint' control and the intrinsic radiation sensitivity of glial cells. Methods: An astrocytic cell line was derived from a low grade astrocytoma and characterized to be of human karyotype and GFAP positivity. Additionally, the cellular population has never formed tumors in immune-deficient mice. At early passage ( 2 as parameters. Cell kinetic analyses after 2, 5, and 10 Gy of ionizing radiation were conducted using propidium iodide FACS analyses. Results: Overall levels of p53 expression were increased 5-10 fold in the transfected cellular populations. Astrocytic cellular populations transfected with mutant p53 revealed a statistically significant increase in levels of resistance to ionizing radiation in vitro (2-tailed test, SF2, MID). Astrocytic cellular populations transfected with mutant p53, unlike the parental cells, were tumorigenic in SCID mice. Cell kinetic analyses indicated that the untransfected cell line demonstrated dose dependent G1 and G2 arrests. Following transfection, however, the resultant cellular population demonstrated a predominant G2 arrest. Conclusions: Astrocytic cellular populations derived from low grade astrocytomas, are relatively radiation sensitive, non-tumorigenic, and have intact cell cycle ''checkpoints.'' Cellular populations resulting upon transfection of parental cells with a dominant negative p53 mutation, are relatively radiation resistant, when compared to both parental and mock-transfected cells. Transfected cells demonstrate abnormalities of cell cycle control at the G1/S checkpoint, increases in levels

  6. The soft mechanical signature of glial scars in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeendarbary, Emad; Weber, Isabell P.; Sheridan, Graham K.; Koser, David E.; Soleman, Sara; Haenzi, Barbara; Bradbury, Elizabeth J.; Fawcett, James; Franze, Kristian

    2017-03-01

    Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) alters the molecular and cellular composition of neural tissue and leads to glial scarring, which inhibits the regrowth of damaged axons. Mammalian glial scars supposedly form a chemical and mechanical barrier to neuronal regeneration. While tremendous effort has been devoted to identifying molecular characteristics of the scar, very little is known about its mechanical properties. Here we characterize spatiotemporal changes of the elastic stiffness of the injured rat neocortex and spinal cord at 1.5 and three weeks post-injury using atomic force microscopy. In contrast to scars in other mammalian tissues, CNS tissue significantly softens after injury. Expression levels of glial intermediate filaments (GFAP, vimentin) and extracellular matrix components (laminin, collagen IV) correlate with tissue softening. As tissue stiffness is a regulator of neuronal growth, our results may help to understand why mammalian neurons do not regenerate after injury.

  7. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and endothelial cells promote self-renewal of rabbit germ cells with spermatogonial stem cell properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Wu, Xin; Goodyear, Shaun M; Avarbock, Mary R; Brinster, Ralph L

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that exogenous factors crucial for spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) self-renewal are conserved among several mammalian species. Since glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are critical for rodent SSC self-renewal, we hypothesized that they might promote self-renewal of nonrodent SSCs. Therefore, we cultured testicular germ cells from prepubertal rabbits in the presence of GDNF and FGF2 and found they proliferated indefinitely as cellular clumps that displayed characteristics previously identified for rodent SSCs. The rabbit germ cells could not be maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (STO) feeders that support rodent SSC self-renewal in vitro but were rather supported on mouse yolk sac-derived endothelial cell (C166) feeder layers. Proliferation of rabbit germ cells was dependent on GDNF. Of critical importance was that clump-forming rabbit germ cells colonized seminiferous tubules of immunodeficient mice, proliferated for at least 6 mo, while retaining an SSC phenotype in the testes of recipient mice, indicating that they were rabbit SSCs. This study demonstrates that GDNF is a mitogenic factor promoting self-renewal that is conserved between rodent and rabbit SSCs; with an evolutionary separation of ∼ 60 million years. These findings provide a foundation to study the mechanisms governing SSC self-renewal in nonrodent species.

  8. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging

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    Lilach Soreq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions. In line with these changes, high-resolution immunohistochemistry demonstrated decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes and of neuronal subpopulations in the aging brain cortex. Finally, glial-specific genes predict age with greater precision than neuron-specific genes, thus highlighting the need for greater mechanistic understanding of neuron-glia interactions in aging and late-life diseases.

  9. Major Shifts in Glial Regional Identity Are a Transcriptional Hallmark of Human Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreq, Lilach; Rose, Jamie; Soreq, Eyal; Hardy, John; Trabzuni, Daniah; Cookson, Mark R; Smith, Colin; Ryten, Mina; Patani, Rickie; Ule, Jernej

    2017-01-10

    Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions. In line with these changes, high-resolution immunohistochemistry demonstrated decreased numbers of oligodendrocytes and of neuronal subpopulations in the aging brain cortex. Finally, glial-specific genes predict age with greater precision than neuron-specific genes, thus highlighting the need for greater mechanistic understanding of neuron-glia interactions in aging and late-life diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

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    Julieta Troncoso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to either unilateral lesion of the facial nerve or sham surgery. Two-photon excitation microscopy was then used for evaluating both layer 5 pyramidal neurons and microglia in vibrissal primary motor cortex (vM1. It was found that facial nerve lesion induced long-lasting changes in dendritic morphology of vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons and in their surrounding microglia. Pyramidal cells’ dendritic arborization underwent overall shrinkage and transient spine pruning. Moreover, microglial cell density surrounding vM1 layer 5 pyramidal neurons was significantly increased with morphological bias towards the activated phenotype. Additionally, we induced facial nerve lesion in Wistar rats to evaluate the degree and extension of facial nerve lesion-induced reorganization processes in central nervous system using neuronal and glial markers. Immunoreactivity to NeuN (neuronal nuclei antigen, GAP-43 (growth-associated protein 43, GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein, and Iba 1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 were evaluated 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 35 days after either unilateral facial nerve lesion or sham surgery. Patches of decreased NeuN immunoreactivity were found bilaterally in vM1 as well as in primary somatosensory cortex (CxS1. Significantly increased GAP-43 immunoreactivity was found bilaterally after the lesion in hippocampus, striatum, and sensorimotor cortex. One day after lesion GFAP immunoreactivity increased bilaterally in hippocampus, subcortical white

  11. Homer1a protein expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression.

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    Leber, Stefan L; Llenos, Ida C; Miller, Christine L; Dulay, Jeannette R; Haybaeck, Johannes; Weis, Serge

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there was growing interest in postsynaptic density proteins in the central nervous system. Of the most important candidates of this specialized region are proteins belonging to the Homer protein family. This family of scaffolding proteins is suspected to participate in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. The present study aims to compare Homer1a expression in the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus of patients with major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze changes of Homer1a protein expression in the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus from the respective disease groups. Glial cells of the cingulate gyrus gray matter showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. The same results were seen when comparing cingulate gyrus gray matter glial cells in bipolar disorder with major depression. Stratum oriens glial cells of the hippocampus showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls and major depression. Stratum lacunosum glial cells showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to major depression. In stratum oriens interneurons Homer1a levels were increased in all disease groups when compared to controls. Stratum lucidum axons showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. Our data demonstrate altered Homer1a levels in specific brain regions and cell types of patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. These findings support the role of Homer proteins as interesting candidates in neuropsychiatric pathophysiology and treatment.

  12. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

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    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Targeting Glial Mitochondrial Function for Protection from Cerebral Ischemia: Relevance, Mechanisms, and the Role of MicroRNAs

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    Le Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes and microglia play crucial roles in the response to cerebral ischemia and are effective targets for stroke therapy in animal models. MicroRNAs (miRs are important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression that function by inhibiting the translation of select target genes. In astrocytes, miR expression patterns regulate mitochondrial function in response to oxidative stress via targeting of Bcl2 and heat shock protein 70 family members. Mitochondria play an active role in microglial activation, and miRs regulate the microglial neuroinflammatory response. As endogenous miR expression patterns can be altered with exogenous mimics and inhibitors, miR-targeted therapies represent a viable intervention to optimize glial mitochondrial function and improve clinical outcome following cerebral ischemia. In the present article, we review the role that astrocytes and microglia play in neuronal function and fate following ischemic stress, discuss the relevance of mitochondria in the glial response to injury, and present current evidence implicating miRs as critical regulators in the glial mitochondrial response to cerebral ischemia.

  14. Opposing Actions of Fgf8a on Notch Signaling Distinguish Two Muller Glial Cell Populations that Contribute to Retina Growth and Regeneration

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    Jin Wan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The teleost retina grows throughout life and exhibits a robust regenerative response following injury. Critical to both these events are Muller glia (or, Muller glial cells; MGs, which produce progenitors for retinal growth and repair. We report that Fgf8a may be an MG niche factor that acts through Notch signaling to regulate spontaneous and injury-dependent MG proliferation. Remarkably, forced Fgf8a expression inhibits Notch signaling and stimulates MG proliferation in young tissue but increases Notch signaling and suppresses MG proliferation in older tissue. Furthermore, cessation of Fgf8a signaling enhances MG proliferation in both young and old retinal tissue. Our study suggests that multiple MG populations contribute to retinal growth and regeneration, and it reveals a previously unappreciated role for Fgf8a and Notch signaling in regulating MG quiescence, activation, and proliferation.

  15. Combination effects of epidermal growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on the in vitro developmental potential of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    of improving this issue, the single and combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on oocyte developmental competence were investigated. Porcine cumulus–oocyte cell complexes (COCs) were matured in serum-free medium supplemented with EGF (0, 10...... with the combination of EGF and GDNF was shown to significantly improve oocyte competence in terms of blastocyst formation, blastocyst cell number and blastocyst hatching rate (P

  16. Role of T cellglial cell interactions in creating and amplifying Central Nervous System inflammation and Multiple Sclerosis disease symptoms

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    Eric S. Huseby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS that causes the demyelination of nerve cells and destroys oligodendrocytes, neurons and axons. Historically, MS has been thought of as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of CNS white matter. However, recent studies have identified gray matter lesions in MS patients, suggesting that CNS antigens other than myelin proteins may be involved during the MS disease process. We have recently found that T cells targeting astrocyte-specific antigens can drive unique aspects of inflammatory CNS autoimmunity, including the targeting of gray matter and white matter of the brain and inducing heterogeneous clinical disease courses. In addition to being a target of T cells, astrocytes play a critical role in propagating the inflammatory response within the CNS through cytokine induced NF-ΚB signaling. Here, we will discuss the pathophysiology of CNS inflammation mediated by T cellglial cell interactions and its contributions to CNS autoimmunity.

  17. Quantitative assessment of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 expression in neurons and glia

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    Lisha Choubey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and their receptors (FGFRs have numerous functions in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS. For example, the FGFR1 receptor is important for proliferation and fate specification of radial glial cells in the cortex and hippocampus, oligodendrocyte proliferation and regeneration, midline glia morphology and soma translocation, Bergmann glia morphology, and cerebellar morphogenesis. In addition, FGFR1 signaling in astrocytes is required for postnatal maturation of interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV. FGFR1 is implicated in synapse formation in the hippocampus, and alterations in the expression of Fgfr1 and its ligand, Fgf2 accompany major depression. Understanding which cell types express Fgfr1 during development may elucidate its roles in normal development of the brain as well as illuminate possible causes of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods Here, we used a BAC transgenic reporter line to trace Fgfr1 expression in the developing postnatal murine CNS. The specific transgenic line employed was created by the GENSAT project, tgFGFR1-EGFPGP338Gsat, and includes a gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the regulation of the Fgfr1 promoter, to trace Fgfr1 expression in the developing CNS. Unbiased stereological counts were performed for several cell types in the cortex and hippocampus. Results This model reveals that Fgfr1 is primarily expressed in glial cells, in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, along with some neurons. Dual labeling experiments indicate that the proportion of GFP+ (Fgfr1+ cells that are also GFAP+ increases from postnatal day 7 (P7 to 1 month, illuminating dynamic changes in Fgfr1 expression during postnatal development of the cortex. In postnatal neurogenic areas, GFP expression was also observed in SOX2, doublecortin (DCX, and brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP expressing cells. Fgfr1 is also highly expressed in DCX positive cells of

  18. Novel para-phenyl substituted diindolylmethanes protect against MPTP neurotoxicity and suppress glial activation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miranda, Briana R; Popichak, Katriana A; Hammond, Sean L; Miller, James A; Safe, Stephen; Tjalkens, Ronald B

    2015-02-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 (Nurr1) constitutively regulates inflammatory gene expression in glial cells by suppressing DNA binding activity of NF-κB. We recently reported that novel 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substitutedphenyl)methane (C-DIM) compounds that activate NR4A family nuclear receptors in cancer lines also suppress inflammatory gene expression in primary astrocytes and prevent loss of dopaminergic neurons in mice exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and probenecid (MPTPp). In this study, we postulated that the basis for this neuroprotection involves blockade of glial activation and subsequent expression of NF-κB-regulated inflammatory genes. To examine this mechanism, we treated transgenic NF-κB/EGFP reporter mice with MPTPp for 7 days (MPTPp7d) followed by daily oral gavage with either vehicle (corn oil; MPTPp14d) or C-DIMs containing p-methoxyphenyl (C-DIM5), p-hydroxyphenyl (C-DIM8), or p-chlorophenyl (C-DIM12) groups. Each compound conferred significant protection against progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), even when given after 7 days of dosing with MPTPp. C-DIM12 had the greatest neuroprotective activity in MPTPp-treated mice, and was also the most potent compound in suppressing activation of microglia and astrocytes, expression of cytokines and chemokines in quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array studies, and in reducing expression of NF-κB/EGFP in the SN. C-DIM12 prevented nuclear export of Nurr1 in dopaminergic neurons and enhanced expression of the Nurr1-regulated proteins tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. These data indicate that NR4A-active C-DIM compounds protect against loss of dopamine neurons in the MPTPp model of PD by preventing glial-mediated neuronal injury and by supporting a dopaminergic phenotype in TH-positive neurons in the SNpc. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology

  19. Heterogeneity of astrocytes: from development to injury - single cell gene expression.

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    Vendula Rusnakova

    Full Text Available Astrocytes perform control and regulatory functions in the central nervous system; heterogeneity among them is still a matter of debate due to limited knowledge of their gene expression profiles and functional diversity. To unravel astrocyte heterogeneity during postnatal development and after focal cerebral ischemia, we employed single-cell gene expression profiling in acutely isolated cortical GFAP/EGFP-positive cells. Using a microfluidic qPCR platform, we profiled 47 genes encoding glial markers and ion channels/transporters/receptors participating in maintaining K(+ and glutamate homeostasis per cell. Self-organizing maps and principal component analyses revealed three subpopulations within 10-50 days of postnatal development (P10-P50. The first subpopulation, mainly immature glia from P10, was characterized by high transcriptional activity of all studied genes, including polydendrocytic markers. The second subpopulation (mostly from P20 was characterized by low gene transcript levels, while the third subpopulation encompassed mature astrocytes (mainly from P30, P50. Within 14 days after ischemia (D3, D7, D14, additional astrocytic subpopulations were identified: resting glia (mostly from P50 and D3, transcriptionally active early reactive glia (mainly from D7 and permanent reactive glia (solely from D14. Following focal cerebral ischemia, reactive astrocytes underwent pronounced changes in the expression of aquaporins, nonspecific cationic and potassium channels, glutamate receptors and reactive astrocyte markers.

  20. Age and lesion-induced increases of GDNF transgene expression in brain following intracerebral injections of DNA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurek, D M; Hasselrot, U; Cass, W A; Sesenoglu-Laird, O; Padegimas, L; Cooper, M J

    2015-01-22

    In previous studies that used compacted DNA nanoparticles (DNP) to transfect cells in the brain, we observed higher transgene expression in the denervated striatum when compared to transgene expression in the intact striatum. We also observed that long-term transgene expression occurred in astrocytes as well as neurons. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the higher transgene expression observed in the denervated striatum may be a function of increased gliosis. Several aging studies have also reported an increase of gliosis as a function of normal aging. In this study we used DNPs that encoded for human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) and either a non-specific human polyubiquitin C (UbC) or an astrocyte-specific human glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. The DNPs were injected intracerebrally into the denervated or intact striatum of young, middle-aged or aged rats, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) transgene expression was subsequently quantified in brain tissue samples. The results of our studies confirmed our earlier finding that transgene expression was higher in the denervated striatum when compared to intact striatum for DNPs incorporating either promoter. In addition, we observed significantly higher transgene expression in the denervated striatum of old rats when compared to young rats following injections of both types of DNPs. Stereological analysis of GFAP+ cells in the striatum confirmed an increase of GFAP+ cells in the denervated striatum when compared to the intact striatum and also an age-related increase; importantly, increases in GFAP+ cells closely matched the increases in GDNF transgene levels. Thus neurodegeneration and aging may lay a foundation that is actually beneficial for this particular type of gene therapy while other gene therapy techniques that target neurons are actually targeting cells that are decreasing as the disease progresses. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by

  1. Primary Culture of Choroid Plexuses from Neonate Rats Containing Progenitor Cells Capable of Differentiation

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    Sheng-Li Huang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The choroid plexuses, which could secrete a number of neurotrophins, have recently been used in transplantation in central nervous system diseases. Aims: To study the mechanism of nerve regeneration in the central nervous system by grafting choroid plexus tissues. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: The choroid plexuses from the lateral ventricles of neonatal rats were cultured in adherent culture, and immunocytochemical methods were used to analyse the progenitor cells on days 2, 6, and 10 after seeding. Results: Expression of both nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in small cell aggregates on day 2 in primary culture. Most of the nestin-positive cells on day 6 were immunoreactive to glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. No cells expressing nestin or glial fibrillary acidic protein were seen on day 10. Conclusion: These experimental results indicate that the choroid plexus contains a specific cell population – progenitor cells. Under in vitro experimental conditions, the progenitor cells differentiated into choroid plexus epithelial cells but did not form neurons or astrocytes.

  2. Glial GABA Transporters as Modulators of Inhibitory Signalling in Epilepsy and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria E K; Al-Khawaja, Anas; Damgaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    is to provide an overview of glial GATs in regulating tonic inhibition, especially in epilepsy and stroke. This entails a comprehensive summary of changes known to occur in GAT expression levels and signalling following epileptic and ischemic insults. Further, we discuss the accumulating pharmacological...

  3. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

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    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  4. Primary microglia isolation from mixed glial cell cultures of neonatal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Tami T; Dalgard, Clifton Lee; Byrnes, Kimberly R

    2012-08-15

    Microglia account for approximately 12% of the total cellular population in the mammalian brain. While neurons and astrocytes are considered the major cell types of the nervous system, microglia play a significant role in normal brain physiology by monitoring tissue for debris and pathogens and maintaining homeostasis in the parenchyma via phagocytic activity. Microglia are activated during a number of injury and disease conditions, including neurodegenerative disease, traumatic brain injury, and nervous system infection. Under these activating conditions, microglia increase their phagocytic activity, undergo morpohological and proliferative change, and actively secrete reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, often activating a paracrine or autocrine loop. As these microglial responses contribute to disease pathogenesis in neurological conditions, research focused on microglia is warranted. Due to the cellular heterogeneity of the brain, it is technically difficult to obtain sufficient microglial sample material with high purity during in vivo experiments. Current research on the neuroprotective and neurotoxic functions of microglia require a routine technical method to consistently generate pure and healthy microglia with sufficient yield for study. We present, in text and video, a protocol to isolate pure primary microglia from mixed glia cultures for a variety of downstream applications. Briefly, this technique utilizes dissociated brain tissue from neonatal rat pups to produce mixed glial cell cultures. After the mixed glial cultures reach confluency, primary microglia are mechanically isolated from the culture by a brief duration of shaking. The microglia are then plated at high purity for experimental study. The principle and protocol of this methodology have been described in the literature. Additionally, alternate methodologies to isolate primary microglia are well described. Homogenized brain tissue may be separated

  5. [Expression of vimentin and GFAP and development of the retina in the trout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guevara, R; Pairault, C; Pinganaud, G

    1994-08-01

    The glial cell development was studied during the edification of the retina and the optic tract, in a teleost, the rainbow trout. The intermediate filament proteins, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were visualized by an indirect immunohistochemical method. Results show that both vimentin and GFAP are early expressed in the developing retina and, particularly in the Müller cells, a coexpression of vimentin and GFAP is observed from embryonic to adult stages. The ganglion cell layer and the optic fiber layer both exhibit GFAP-positive structures. The deep staining for GFAP is also seen in the optic nerve and induces us to credit astrocyte-like cells with a leading role in the pattern formation of this tract.

  6. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  7. Chronic lead intoxication affects glial and neural systems and induces hypoactivity in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansar, Wafa; Ahboucha, Samir; Gamrani, Halima

    2011-10-01

    Lead is an environmental toxin and its effects are principally manifested in the brain. Glial and neuronal changes have been described during development following chronic or acute lead intoxication, however, little is known about the effects of chronic lead intoxication in adults. In this study we evaluated immunohistochemically the glial and dopaminergic systems in adult male Wistar rats. 0.5% (v/v) lead acetate in drinking water was administrated chronically over a 3-month period. Hypertrophic immunoreactive astrocytes were observed in the frontal cortex and other brain structures of the treated animals. Analysis of the astroglial features showed increased number of astrocyte cell bodies and processes in treated rats, an increase confirmed by Western blot. Particular distribution of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was observed within the blood vessel walls in which dense immunoreactive glial processes emanate from astrocytes. Glial changes in the frontal cortex were concomitant with reduced tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neuronal processes, which seem to occur as a consequence of significantly reduced dopaminergic neurons within the nucleus of origin in the substantia nigra. These glial and neuronal changes following lead intoxication may affect animal behavior as evidenced by reduced locomotor activity in an open field test. These findings demonstrate that chronic lead exposure induces astroglial changes, which may compromise neuronal function and consequently animal behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline-induced Glial Cell Line-derived Neurotrophic Factor Production Involves Pertussis Toxin-sensitive Gαi/o Activation in Astroglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Miyano, Kanako; Matsumoto, Chie; Kajitani, Naoto; Abe, Hiromi; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Yokoyama, Akinobu; Uezono, Yasuhito; Morioka, Norimitsu; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2015-05-29

    Further elaborating the mechanism of antidepressants, beyond modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission, this study sought to elucidate the mechanism of amitriptyline-induced production of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in astroglial cells. Previous studies demonstrated that an amitriptyline-evoked matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/FGF receptor (FGFR)/FGFR substrate 2α (FRS2α)/ERK cascade is crucial for GDNF production, but how amitriptyline triggers this cascade remains unknown. MMP is activated by intracellular mediators such as G proteins, and this study sought to clarify the involvement of G protein signaling in amitriptyline-evoked GDNF production in rat C6 astroglial cells (C6 cells), primary cultured rat astrocytes, and normal human astrocytes. Amitriptyline-evoked GDNF mRNA expression and release were inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), a Gα(i/o) inhibitor, but not by NF449, a Gα(s) inhibitor, or YM-254890, a Gαq inhibitor. The activation of the GDNF production cascade (FGFR/FRS2α/ERK) was also inhibited by PTX. Deletion of Gα(ο1) and Gα(i3) by RNAi demonstrated that these G proteins play important roles in amitriptyline signaling. G protein activation was directly analyzed by electrical impedance-based biosensors (CellKey(TM) assay), using a label-free (without use of fluorescent proteins/probes or radioisotopes) and real time approach. Amitriptyline increased impedance, indicating Gα(i/o) activation that was suppressed by PTX treatment. The impedance evoked by amitriptyline was not affected by inhibitors of the GDNF production cascade. Furthermore, FGF2 treatment did not elicit any effect on impedance, indicating that amitriptyline targets PTX-sensitive Gα(i/o) upstream of the MMP/FGFR/FRS2α/ERK cascade. These results suggest novel targeting for the development of antidepressants. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Focal Transplantation of Human iPSC-Derived Glial-Rich Neural Progenitors Improves Lifespan of ALS Mice

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    Takayuki Kondo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of glial-rich neural progenitors has been demonstrated to attenuate motor neuron degeneration and disease progression in rodent models of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. However, translation of these results into a clinical setting requires a renewable human cell source. Here, we derived glial-rich neural progenitors from human iPSCs and transplanted them into the lumbar spinal cord of ALS mouse models. The transplanted cells differentiated into astrocytes, and the treated mouse group showed prolonged lifespan. Our data suggest a potential therapeutic mechanism via activation of AKT signal. The results demonstrated the efficacy of cell therapy for ALS by the use of human iPSCs as cell source.

  10. Hyperthyreosis effects on the learning and glial intermediate filaments of rat brain

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    S. V. Kyrychenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of hyperthyreosis on oxidative stress, state of glial intermediate filaments and memotry was investigated. Significant increasing of lipid peroxidation products into both hippocampus and cortex and change for the worse of memory was observed. Analysis of the behavioral reactions of rats in the test of passive avoidance conditioned reflex showed that the acquisition of skills of all groups of animals did not differ by time waiting period (latent period. Time saving memory test conditioned reflex of passive avoidance was excellent in the group of rats treated with thyroxine compared with controls. The change of polypeptide GFAP was observed in hippocampus and cortex. Both soluble and filamentous forms of GFAP increased in hippocampus of rat with hyperthyreosis. In filament fractions, increase in the intensity of 49 kDa polypeptide band was found. In the same fraction of insoluble cytoskeleton proteins degraded HFKB polypeptides with molecular weight in the region of 46–41 kDa appeared. Marked increase of degraded polypeptides was found in the soluble fraction of the brain stem. The intensity of the intact polypeptide (49 kDa, as well as in the filament fraction, significantly increased. It is possible that increasing concentrations of soluble subunits glial filaments may be due to dissociation of own filaments during the reorganization of cytoskeleton structures. Given the results of Western blotting for filament fraction, increased content of soluble intact 49 kDa polypeptide is primarily the result of increased expression of HFKB and only partly due to redistribution of existing filament structures. Calculation and analysis of indicators showed high correlation between the increase in content and peroxidation products of HFKB. These results indicate the important role of oxidative stress in the induction of astroglial reactive response under conditions of hyperthyroidism. This data shows the possibility of the glial cell

  11. Glial heterotopia of the oral cavity

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    Radhames E. Lizardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of a glial heterotopia arising from the oral cavity of an African neonate. The patient presented with an external pedunculated oral mass which was connected to the anterior hard palate by a firm, rubbery stalk of mucosal tissue. While the mass appeared painless, it interfered with the infant's feeding and was disturbing to the parents. After a computed tomography scan excluded an intracranial connection, the mass was excised at its base and sent for biopsy. Histopathology examination confirmed glial heterotopia. Glial heterotopias should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital masses in the oral region.

  12. Proliferative reactive gliosis is compatible with glial metabolic support and neuronal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fero Matthew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of mammalian glial cells to chronic degeneration and trauma is hypothesized to be incompatible with support of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS and retina. To test this hypothesis, we developed an inducible model of proliferative reactive gliosis in the absence of degenerative stimuli by genetically inactivating the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 (p27 or Cdkn1b in the adult mouse and determined the outcome on retinal structure and function. Results p27-deficient Müller glia reentered the cell cycle, underwent aberrant migration, and enhanced their expression of intermediate filament proteins, all of which are characteristics of Müller glia in a reactive state. Surprisingly, neuroglial interactions, retinal electrophysiology, and visual acuity were normal. Conclusion The benign outcome of proliferative reactive Müller gliosis suggests that reactive glia display context-dependent, graded and dynamic phenotypes and that reactivity in itself is not necessarily detrimental to neuronal function.

  13. Molecular mechanism of the relation of monoamine oxidase B and its inhibitors to Parkinson's disease: possible implications of glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatsu, T; Sawada, M

    2006-01-01

    Monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and MAO B) are the major enzymes that catalyze the oxidative deamination of monoamine neurotaransmitters such as dopamine (DA), noradrenaline, and serotonin in the central and peripheral nervous systems. MAO B is mainly localized in glial cells. MAO B also oxidizes the xenobiotic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to a parkinsonism-producing neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium (MPP+). MAO B may be closely related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), in which neuromelanin-containing DA neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum in the brain selectively degenerate. MAO B degrades the neurotransmitter DA that is deficient in the nigro-striatal region in PD, and forms H2O2 and toxic aldehyde metabolites of DA. H2O2 produces highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by Fenton reaction that is catalyzed by iron and neuromelanin. MAO B inhibitors such as L-(-)-deprenyl (selegiline) and rasagiline are effective for the treatment of PD. Concerning the mechanism of the clinical efficacy of MAO B inhibitors in PD, the inhibition of DA degradation (a symptomatic effect) and also the prevention of the formation of neurotoxic DA metabolites, i.e., ROS and dopamine derived aldehydes have been speculated. As another mechanism of clinical efficacy, MAO B inhibitors such as selegiline are speculated to have neuroprotective effects to prevent progress of PD. The possible mechanism of neuroprotection of MAO B inhibitors may be related not only to MAO B inhibition but also to induction and activation of multiple factors for anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis: i.e., catalase, superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, thioredoxin, Bcl-2, the cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and binding to glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Furthermore, it should be noted that selegiline increases production of neurotrophins such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial

  14. Activation of retinal glial (Müller cells by extracellular ATP induces pronounced increases in extracellular H+ flux.

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    Boriana K Tchernookova

    Full Text Available Small alterations in extracellular acidity are potentially important modulators of neuronal signaling within the vertebrate retina. Here we report a novel extracellular acidification mechanism mediated by glial cells in the retina. Using self-referencing H+-selective microelectrodes to measure extracellular H+ fluxes, we show that activation of retinal Müller (glial cells of the tiger salamander by micromolar concentrations of extracellular ATP induces a pronounced extracellular H+ flux independent of bicarbonate transport. ADP, UTP and the non-hydrolyzable analog ATPγs at micromolar concentrations were also potent stimulators of extracellular H+ fluxes, but adenosine was not. The extracellular H+ fluxes induced by ATP were mimicked by the P2Y1 agonist MRS 2365 and were significantly reduced by the P2 receptor blockers suramin and PPADS, suggesting activation of P2Y receptors. Bath-applied ATP induced an intracellular rise in calcium in Müller cells; both the calcium rise and the extracellular H+ fluxes were significantly attenuated when calcium re-loading into the endoplasmic reticulum was inhibited by thapsigargin and when the PLC-IP3 signaling pathway was disrupted with 2-APB and U73122. The anion transport inhibitor DIDS also markedly reduced the ATP-induced increase in H+ flux while SITS had no effect. ATP-induced H+ fluxes were also observed from Müller cells isolated from human, rat, monkey, skate and lamprey retinae, suggesting a highly evolutionarily conserved mechanism of potential general importance. Extracellular ATP also induced significant increases in extracellular H+ flux at the level of both the outer and inner plexiform layers in retinal slices of tiger salamander which was significantly reduced by suramin and PPADS. We suggest that the novel H+ flux mediated by ATP-activation of Müller cells and of other glia as well may be a key mechanism modulating neuronal signaling in the vertebrate retina and throughout the brain.

  15. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  16. Glial heterotopia of the lip: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Bayram, Fazli Cengiz; Ince, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Glial heterotopia represents collections of normal glial tissue in an abnormal location distant to the central nervous system or spinal canal with no intracranial connectivity. Nasal gliomas are non-neoplastic midline tumours, with limited growth potential and no similarity to the central nervous system gliomas. The nose and the nasopharynx are the most common sites of location. Existence of glial heterotopia in the lip region is a rare developmental disorder. We report a case of large glial heterotopia in the upper lip region in a full-term female newborn which had intracranial extension with a fibrotic band. After the surgery, there was no recurrence in the follow-up period of 3 years. When glial heterotopia, which is a rare midline anomaly, is suspected, possible intracranial connection and properties of the mass should be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. By this way, lower complication rate and better aesthetic results can be achieved with early diagnosis and proper surgery.

  17. Glial heterotopia of the lip: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia represents collections of normal glial tissue in an abnormal location distant to the central nervous system or spinal canal with no intracranial connectivity. Nasal gliomas are non-neoplastic midline tumours, with limited growth potential and no similarity to the central nervous system gliomas. The nose and the nasopharynx are the most common sites of location. Existence of glial heterotopia in the lip region is a rare developmental disorder. We report a case of large glial heterotopia in the upper lip region in a full-term female newborn which had intracranial extension with a fibrotic band. After the surgery, there was no recurrence in the follow-up period of 3 years. When glial heterotopia, which is a rare midline anomaly, is suspected, possible intracranial connection and properties of the mass should be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. By this way, lower complication rate and better aesthetic results can be achieved with early diagnosis and proper surgery.

  18. 40 CFR 79.67 - Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay... Glial fibrillary acidic protein assay. (a) Purpose. Chemical-induced injury of the nervous system, i.e... paragraph (e)(3) in this section). Assays of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the major intermediate...

  19. Riding the glial monorail: a common mechanism for glial-guided neuronal migration in different regions of the developing mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, M E

    1990-05-01

    In vitro studies from our laboratory indicate that granule neurons, purified from early postnatal mouse cerebellum, migrate on astroglial fibers by forming a 'migration junction' with the glial fiber along the length of the neuronal soma and extending a motile 'leading process' in the direction of migration. Similar dynamics are seen for hippocampal neurons migrating along hippocampal astroglial fibers in vitro. In heterotypic recombinations of neurons and glia from mouse cerebellum and rat hippocampus, neurons migrate on astroglial processes with a cytology and neuron-glia relationship identical to that of homotypic neuronal migration in vitro. In all four cases, the migrating neuron presents a stereotyped posture, speed and mode of movement, suggesting that glial fibers provide a generic pathway for neuronal migration in developing brain. Studies on the molecular basis of glial-guided migration suggest that astrotactin, a neuronal antigen that functions as a neuron-glia ligand, is likely to play a crucial role in the locomotion of the neuron along glial fibers. The navigation of neurons from glial fibers into cortical layers, in turn, is likely to involve neuron-neuron adhesion ligands.

  20. A Unique Model System for Tumor Progression in GBM Comprising Two Developed Human Neuro-Epithelial Cell Lines with Differential Transforming Potential and Coexpressing Neuronal and Glial Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Shiras

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms involved in tumor progression from a low-grade astrocytoma to the most malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM have been hampered due to lack of suitable experimental models. We have established a model of tumor progression comprising of two cell lines derived from the same astrocytoma tumor with a set of features corresponding to low-grade glioma (as in HNGC-1 and high-grade GBM (as in HNGC-2. The HNGC-1 cell line is slowgrowing, contact-inhibited, nontumorigenic, and noninvasive, whereas HNGC-2 is a rapidly proliferating, anchorage-independent, highly tumorigenic, and invasive cell line. The proliferation of cell lines is independent of the addition of exogenous growth factors. Interestingly, the HNGC-2 cell line displays a near-haploid karyotype except for a disomy of chromosome 2. The two cell lines express the neuronal precursor and progenitor markers vimentin, nestin, MAP-2, and NFP160, as well as glial differentiation protein S100μ. The HNGC-1 cell line also expresses markers of mature neurons like Tuj1 and GFAP, an astrocytic differentiation marker, hence contributing toward a more morphologically differentiated phenotype with a propensity for neural differentiation in vitro. Additionally, overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor and c-erbB2, and loss of fibronectin were observed only in the HNGC-2 cell line, implicating the significance of these pathways in tumor progression. This in vitro model system assumes importance in unraveling the cellular and molecular mechanisms in differentiation, transformation, and gliomagenesis.

  1. Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  2. Crosstalk between insulin-like growth factor-1 and angiotensin-II in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells: role in neuroinflammation and aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, Ana I.; Borrajo, Ana; Diaz-Ruiz, Carmen; Garrido-Gil, Pablo; Labandeira-Garcia, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    The local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) have been involved in longevity, neurodegeneration and aging-related dopaminergic degeneration. However, it is not known whether IGF-1 and angiotensin-II (AII) activate each other. In the present study, AII, via type 1 (AT1) receptors, exacerbated neuroinflammation and dopaminergic cell death. AII, via AT1 receptors, also increased the levels of IGF-1 and IGF-1 receptors in microglial cells. IGF-1 inhibited RAS activity in dopaminergic neurons and glial cells, and also inhibited the AII-induced increase in markers of the M1 microglial phenotype. Consistent with this, IGF-1 decreased dopaminergic neuron death induced by the neurotoxin MPP+ both in the presence and in the absence of glia. Intraventricular administration of AII to young rats induced a significant increase in IGF-1 expression in the nigral region. However, aged rats showed decreased levels of IGF-1 relative to young controls, even though RAS activity is known to be enhanced in aged animals. The study findings show that IGF-1 and the local RAS interact to inhibit or activate neuroinflammation (i.e. transition from the M1 to the M2 phenotype), oxidative stress and dopaminergic degeneration. The findings also show that this mechanism is impaired in aged animals. PMID:27167199

  3. Hippocampal kindling alters the concentration of glial fibrillary acidic protein and other marker proteins in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Bolwig, T G

    1990-01-01

    The effect of hippocampal kindling on neuronal and glial marker proteins was studied in the rat by immunochemical methods. In hippocampus, pyriform cortex and amygdala there was an increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicating reactive gliosis, and an increase in the glycolytic...... enzyme NSE, suggesting increased anaerobic metabolism. Neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) decreased in pyriform cortex and amygdala of kindled rats, indicating neuronal degeneration....

  4. ATP-dependent paracrine communication between enteric neurons and glia in a primary cell culture derived from embryonic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Chevalier, J; Boesmans, W; Roosen, L; van den Abbeel, V; Neunlist, M; Tack, J; Vanden Berghe, P

    2009-08-01

    The importance of dynamic interactions between glia and neurons is increasingly recognized, both in the central and enteric nervous system. However, apart from their protective role, little is known about enteric neuro-glia interaction. The aim was to investigate neuro-glia intercellular communication in a mouse culture model using optical techniques. Complete embryonic (E13) guts were enzymatically dissociated, seeded on coverslips and studied with immunohistochemistry and Ca(2+)-imaging. Putative progenitor-like cells (expressing both PGP9.5 and S-100) differentiated over approximately 5 days into glia or neurons expressing typical cell-specific markers. The glia-neuron ratio could be manipulated by specific supplements (N2, G5). Neurons and glia were functionally identified both by their Ca(2+)-response to either depolarization (high K(+)) or lysophosphatidic acid and by the expression of typical markers. Neurons responded to ACh, DMPP, 5-HT, ATP and electrical stimulation, while glia responded to ATP and ADPbetas. Inhibition of glial responses by MRS2179 suggests involvement of P2Y1 receptors. Neuronal stimulation also caused delayed glial responses, which were reduced by suramin and by exogenous apyrases that catalyse nucleotide breakdown. Conversely, glial responses were enhanced by ARL-67156, an ecto-ATPase inhibitor. In this mouse enteric co-culture, functional glia and neurons can be easily monitored using optical techniques. Glial cells can be activated directly by ATP or ADPbetas. Activation of neuronal cells (DMPP, K(+)) causes secondary responses in glial cells, which can be modulated by tuning ATP and ADP breakdown. This strongly supports the involvement of paracrine purinergic communication between enteric neurons and glia.

  5. A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrem, Martha S; Schanz, Steven J; Morrow, Carolyn; Munir, Jared; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Wang, Su; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-11-26

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416153-09$15.00/0.

  6. Glial heterotopia of maxilla: A clinical surprise

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    Santosh Kumar Mahalik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass lesion which often presents as a clinical surprise. We report a case of extranasal glial heterotopia in a neonate with unusual features. The presentation, management strategy, etiopathogenesis and histopathology of the mass lesion has been reviewed.

  7. Glial Heterotopia of the orbit: A rare presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, non-teratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may masquerade as encephalocoele or dermoid cyst and mostly present in nose. Herein, we present an unusual case of glial heterotopia of the orbit with unilateral blindness. Case presentation A 6 year-old-boy presented with a progressive painless mass over the nose and medial aspect of the left eye noticed since birth. On examination, the globe was displaced laterally by a firm, regular, mobile, non-pulsatile and non-tender medial mass. The affected eye had profound loss of vision. Computed tomography scan showed a large hypodense mass in the extraconal space with no intracranial connectivity and bony erosion. The child underwent total surgical excision of the mass and histopathological examination confirmed glial heterotopia of the orbit. Conclusion Though the incidence of this condition is rare, the need of appropriate diagnosis and management of such mass to prevent the visual and cosmetic deterioration is warranted. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of Glial heterotopia of orbit causing unilateral blindness. PMID:22088230

  8. Glial Heterotopia of the orbit: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitaula Ranju

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, non-teratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may masquerade as encephalocoele or dermoid cyst and mostly present in nose. Herein, we present an unusual case of glial heterotopia of the orbit with unilateral blindness. Case presentation A 6 year-old-boy presented with a progressive painless mass over the nose and medial aspect of the left eye noticed since birth. On examination, the globe was displaced laterally by a firm, regular, mobile, non-pulsatile and non-tender medial mass. The affected eye had profound loss of vision. Computed tomography scan showed a large hypodense mass in the extraconal space with no intracranial connectivity and bony erosion. The child underwent total surgical excision of the mass and histopathological examination confirmed glial heterotopia of the orbit. Conclusion Though the incidence of this condition is rare, the need of appropriate diagnosis and management of such mass to prevent the visual and cosmetic deterioration is warranted. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of Glial heterotopia of orbit causing unilateral blindness.

  9. Coffee induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in human neuroblastama SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakio, Shota; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Kobata, Kenji; Tamura, Hiroomi

    2017-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia-inducible vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects on neuronal and glial cells. On the other hand, recent epidemiological studies showed that daily coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of several neuronal disorders. Therefore, we investigated the effect of coffee on VEGF expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that even low concentration of coffee (coffee was attributed to the coffee-dependent inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation of HIF1α, which is essential for proteolytic degradation of HIF-1α. However, no inhibition was observed at the catalytic activity in vitro. Coffee component(s) responsible for the activation of HIF-1α was not major constituents such as caffeine, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and trigonelline, but was found to emerge during roasting process. The active component(s) was extractable with ethyl acetate. Our results suggest that daily consumption of coffee may induce VEGF expression in neuronal cells. This might be related to protective effect of coffee on neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  10. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR attenuates the expression of LPS- and Aβ peptide-induced inflammatory mediators in astroglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri Shailendra

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology shows characteristic 'plaques' rich in amyloid beta (Aβ peptide deposits. Inflammatory process-related proteins such as pro-inflammatory cytokines have been detected in AD brain suggesting that an inflammatory immune reaction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of AD. Glial cells in culture respond to LPS and Aβ stimuli by upregulating the expression of cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, and also the expression of proinflammatory genes iNOS and COX-2. We have earlier reported that LPS/Aβ stimulation-induced ceramide and ROS generation leads to iNOS expression and nitric oxide production in glial cells. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective function of AICAR (a potent activator of AMP-activated protein kinase in blocking the pro-oxidant/proinflammatory responses induced in primary glial cultures treated with LPS and Aβ peptide. Methods To test the anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant functions of AICAR, we tested its inhibitory potential in blocking the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS, expression of COX-2, generation of ROS, and associated signaling following treatment of glial cells with LPS and Aβ peptide. We also investigated the neuroprotective effects of AICAR against the effects of cytokines and inflammatory mediators (released by the glia, in blocking neurite outgrowth inhibition, and in nerve growth factor-(NGF induced neurite extension by PC-12 cells. Results AICAR blocked LPS/Aβ-induced inflammatory processes by blocking the expression of proinflammatory cytokine, iNOS, COX-2 and MnSOD genes, and by inhibition of ROS generation and depletion of glutathione in astroglial cells. AICAR also inhibited down-stream signaling leading to the regulation of transcriptional factors such as NFκB and C/EBP which are critical for the expression of iNOS, COX-2, MnSOD and cytokines (TNF-α/IL-1β and IL-6. AICAR promoted NGF-induced neurite growth

  11. Analysis of the regulation of fatty acid binding protein 7 expression in human renal carcinoma cell lines

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    Sugiyama Takayuki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC will depend on the development of better biomarkers for predicting disease progression and aiding the design of appropriate therapies. One such marker may be fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7, also known as B-FABP and BLBP, which is expressed normally in radial glial cells of the developing central nervous system and cells of the mammary gland. Melanomas, glioblastomas, and several types of carcinomas, including RCC, overexpress FABP7. The abundant expression of FABP7 in primary RCCs compared to certain RCC-derived cell lines may allow the definition of the molecular components of FABP7's regulatory system. Results We determined FABP7 mRNA levels in six RCC cell lines. Two were highly expressed, whereas the other and the embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293 were weakly expressed FABP7 transcripts. Western blot analysis of the cell lines detected strong FABP7 expression only in one RCC cell line. Promoter activity in the RCC cell lines was 3- to 21-fold higher than that of HEK293. Deletion analysis demonstrated that three FABP7 promoter regions contributed to upregulated expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell. Competition analysis of gel shifts indicated that OCT1, OCT6, and nuclear factor I (NFI bound to the FABP7 promoter region. Supershift experiments indicated that BRN2 (POU3F2 and NFI bound to the FABP7 promoter region as well. There was an inverse correlation between FABP7 promoter activity and BRN2 mRNA expression. The FABP7-positive cell line's NFI-DNA complex migrated faster than in other cell lines. Levels of NFIA mRNA were higher in the HEK293 cell line than in any of the six RCC cell lines. In contrast, NFIC mRNA expression was lower in the HEK293 cell line than in the six RCC cell lines. Conclusions Three putative FABP7 promoter regions drive reporter gene expression in RCC cell lines, but not in the HEK293 cell line. BRN2 and NFI may be key

  12. Cell proliferation in the Drosophila adult brain revealed by clonal analysis and bromodeoxyuridine labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand Andrea H

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of new neurons during adulthood and their subsequent integration into a mature central nervous system have been shown to occur in all vertebrate species examined to date. However, the situation in insects is less clear and, in particular, it has been reported that there is no proliferation in the Drosophila adult brain. Results We report here, using clonal analysis and 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU labelling, that cell proliferation does occur in the Drosophila adult brain. The majority of clones cluster on the ventrolateral side of the antennal lobes, as do the BrdU-positive cells. Of the BrdU-labelled cells, 86% express the glial gene reversed polarity (repo, and 14% are repo negative. Conclusion We have observed cell proliferation in the Drosophila adult brain. The dividing cells may be adult stem cells, generating glial and/or non-glial cell types.

  13. CCL2-ethanol interactions and hippocampal synaptic protein expression in a transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna eGruol

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to ethanol produces a number of detrimental effects on behavior. Neuroadaptive changes in brain structure or function underlie these behavioral changes and may be transient or persistent in nature. Central to the functional changes are alterations in the biology of neuronal and glial cells of the brain. Recent data show that ethanol induces glial cells of the brain to produce elevated levels of neuroimmune factors including CCL2, a key innate immune chemokine. Depending on the conditions of ethanol exposure, the upregulated levels of CCL2 can be transient or persistent and outlast the period of ethanol exposure. Importantly, results indicate that the upregulated levels of CCL2 may lead to CCL2-ethanol interactions that mediate or regulate the effects of ethanol on the brain. Glial cells are in close association with neurons and regulate many neuronal functions. Therefore, effects of ethanol on glial cells may underlie some of the effects of ethanol on neurons. To investigate this possibility, we are studying the effects of chronic ethanol on hippocampal synaptic function in a transgenic mouse model that expresses elevated levels of CCL2 in the brain through enhanced glial expression, a situation know to occur in alcoholics. Both CCL2 and ethanol have been reported to alter synaptic function in the hippocampus. In the current study, we determined if interactions are evident between CCL2 and ethanol at level of hippocampal synaptic proteins. Two ethanol exposure paradigms were used; the first involved ethanol exposure by drinking and the second involved ethanol exposure in a paradigm that combines drinking plus ethanol vapor. The first paradigm does not produce dependence on ethanol, whereas the second paradigm is commonly used to produce ethanol dependence. Results show modest effects of both ethanol exposure paradigms on the level of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus of CCL2 transgenic mice compared with their non

  14. Regulation of semaphorin III/collapsin-1 gene expression during peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Giger, Roman J; Verhaagen, J

    1998-01-01

    The competence of neurons to regenerate depends on their ability to initiate a program of gene expression supporting growth and on the growth-permissive properties of glial cells in the distal stump of the injured nerve. Most studies on intrinsic molecular mechanisms governing peripheral nerve

  15. [Nasal glial heterotopia: Clinical and morphological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, V P; Bakhtin, A A; Polyakov, D P; Yunusov, A S; Daikhes, N A

    The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues. The paper provides a brief overview of the discussed pathology.

  16. High glucose alters the expression of genes involved in proliferation and cell-fate specification of embryonic neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J; Tay, S S W; Ling, E A; Dheen, S T

    2006-05-01

    Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects during embryogenesis. Since the neural tube is derived from neural stem cells (NSCs), it is hypothesised that in diabetic pregnancy neural tube defects result from altered expression of developmental control genes, leading to abnormal proliferation and cell-fate choice of NSCs. Cell viability, proliferation index and apoptosis of NSCs and differentiated cells from mice exposed to physiological or high glucose concentration medium were examined by a tetrazolium salt assay, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling and immunocytochemistry. Expression of developmental genes, including sonic hedgehog (Shh), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), neurogenin 1/2 (Neurog1/2), achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Ascl1), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1 (Olig1), oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (Olig2), hairy and enhancer of split 1/5 (Hes1/5) and delta-like 1 (Dll1), was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Proliferation index and neuronal specification in the forebrain of embryos at embryonic day 11.5 were examined histologically. High glucose decreased the proliferation of NSCs and differentiated cells. The incidence of apoptosis was increased in NSCs treated with high glucose, but not in the differentiated cells. High glucose also accelerated neuronal and glial differentiation from NSCs. The decreased proliferation index and early differentiation of neurons were evident in the telencephalon of embryos derived from diabetic mice. Exposure to high glucose altered the mRNA expression levels of Shh, Bmp4, Neurog1/2, Ascl1, Hes1, Dll1 and Olig1 in NSCs and Shh, Dll1, Neurog1/2 and Hes5 in differentiated cells. The changes in proliferation and differentiation of NSCs exposed to high glucose are associated with altered expression of genes that are involved in cell-cycle progression and cell-fate specification during neurulation. These changes may form the

  17. Neurospheres induced from bone marrow stromal cells are multipotent for differentiation into neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hidenori; Taguchi, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Hideo; Li Zhenglin; Muramatsu, Keiichi; Gondo, Toshikazu; Kawai, Shinya

    2004-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be expanded rapidly in vitro and have the potential to be differentiated into neuronal, glial and endodermal cell types. However, induction for differentiation does not always have stable result. We present a new method for efficient induction and acquisition of neural progenitors, neuronal- and glial-like cells from MSCs. We demonstrate that rat MSCs can be induced to neurospheres and most cells are positive for nestin, which is an early marker of neuronal progenitors. In addition, we had success in proliferation of these neurospheres with undifferentiated characteristics and finally we could obtain large numbers of neuronal and glial phenotypes. Many of the cells expressed β-tubulin III when they were cultivated with our method. MSCs can become a valuable cell source as an autograft for clinical application involving regeneration of the central nervous system

  18. Potassium accumulation by the glial membrane pump as revealed by membrane potential recording from isolated rabbit retinal Müller cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Nilius, B; Eberhardt, W

    1986-01-30

    Müller (glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. In a special perfusion chamber, the cells were penetrated with a recording electrode. When high-K+ solutions were applied into the environment of the cells by means of a second micropipette, the cell membrane depolarized strongly. During prolonged application of high-K+ solutions, however, there occurred a marked repolarization, and after cessation of high-K+ application, a strong hyperpolarization was observed. Both effects disappeared under the influence of ouabain, suggesting the accumulation of intracellular K+ by an active membrane pump. The data were used for calculation of the membrane's Na+:K+ permeability ratio, the intracellular K+ concentration, the pump rate and the mean pump site density. The calculated values are in good agreement with published data from mammalian astrocytes and are compared with those from amphibian Müller cells.

  19. The Role of NG2 Glial Cells in ALS Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    attached and cells migrated out from the spheres. Some had typical OPC morphology (figure 2A), bipolar and tripolar . More importantly, they...cells showed NG2 and Olig2 expression (Figure 5B) after being cultured. After being treated with T3, some cells changed their bipolar and tripolar

  20. Synthesis and deposition of basement membrane proteins by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in a murine model of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Maj Schneider; Birkelund, Svend; Burkhart, Annette; Stensballe, Allan; Moos, Torben

    2017-03-01

    The brain vascular basement membrane is important for both blood-brain barrier (BBB) development, stability, and barrier integrity and the contribution hereto from brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), pericytes, and astrocytes of the BBB is probably significant. The aim of this study was to analyse four different in vitro models of the murine BBB for expression and possible secretion of major basement membrane proteins from murine BCECs (mBCECs). mBCECs, pericytes and glial cells (mainly astrocytes and microglia) were prepared from brains of C57BL/6 mice. The mBCECs were grown as monoculture, in co-culture with pericytes or mixed glial cells, or as a triple-culture with both pericytes and mixed glial cells. The integrity of the BBB models was validated by measures of transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and passive permeability to mannitol. The expression of basement membrane proteins was analysed using RT-qPCR, mass spectrometry and immunocytochemistry. Co-culturing mBCECs with pericytes, mixed glial cells, or both significantly increased the TEER compared to the monoculture, and a low passive permeability was correlated with high TEER. The mBCECs expressed all major basement membrane proteins such as laminin-411, laminin-511, collagen [α1(IV)] 2 α2(IV), agrin, perlecan, and nidogen 1 and 2 in vitro. Increased expression of the laminin α5 subunit correlated with the addition of BBB-inducing factors (hydrocortisone, Ro 20-1724, and pCPT-cAMP), whereas increased expression of collagen IV α1 primarily correlated with increased levels of cAMP. In conclusion, BCECs cultured in vitro coherently form a BBB and express basement membrane proteins as a feature of maturation. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13789. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Müller glial cells contribute to dim light vision in the spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus fuscus): Analysis of retinal light transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Silke; Savvinov, Alexey; Karl, Anett; Zayas-Santiago, Astrid; Ulbricht, Elke; Makarov, Vladimir I; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas; Skatchkov, Serguei N

    2018-05-16

    In this study, we show the capability of Müller glial cells to transport light through the inverted retina of reptiles, specifically the retina of the spectacled caimans. Thus, confirming that Müller cells of lower vertebrates also improve retinal light transmission. Confocal imaging of freshly isolated retinal wholemounts, that preserved the refractive index landscape of the tissue, indicated that the retina of the spectacled caiman is adapted for vision under dim light conditions. For light transmission experiments, we used a setup with two axially aligned objectives imaging the retina from both sides to project the light onto the inner (vitreal) surface and to detect the transmitted light behind the retina at the receptor layer. Simultaneously, a confocal microscope obtained images of the Müller cells embedded within the vital tissue. Projections of light onto several representative Müller cell trunks within the inner plexiform layer, i.e. (i) trunks with a straight orientation, (ii) trunks which are formed by the inner processes and (iii) trunks which get split into inner processes, were associated with increases in the intensity of the transmitted light. Projections of light onto the periphery of the Müller cell endfeet resulted in a lower intensity of transmitted light. In this way, retinal glial (Müller) cells support dim light vision by improving the signal-to-noise ratio which increases the sensitivity to light. The field of illuminated photoreceptors mainly include rods reflecting the rod dominance of the of tissue. A subpopulation of Müller cells with downstreaming cone cells led to a high-intensity illumination of the cones, while the surrounding rods were illuminated by light of lower intensity. Therefore, Müller cells that lie in front of cones may adapt the intensity of the transmitted light to the different sensitivities of cones and rods, presumably allowing a simultaneous vision with both receptor types under dim light conditions

  2. Human periapical cyst-mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, M; Paduano, F; Tatullo, M

    2015-06-01

    It was recently reported that human periapical cysts (hPCys), a commonly occurring odontogenic cystic lesion of inflammatory origin, contain mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with the capacity for self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. In this study, periapical inflammatory cysts were compared with dental pulp to determine whether this tissue may be an alternative accessible tissue source of MSCs that retain the potential for neurogenic differentiation. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis indicated that hPCy-MSCs and dental pulp stem cells spontaneously expressed the neuron-specific protein β-III tubulin and the neural stem-/astrocyte-specific protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in their basal state before differentiation occurs. Furthermore, undifferentiated hPCy-MSCs showed a higher expression of transcripts for neuronal markers (β-III tubulin, NF-M, MAP2) and neural-related transcription factors (MSX-1, Foxa2, En-1) as compared with dental pulp stem cells. After exposure to neurogenic differentiation conditions (neural media containing epidermal growth factor [EGF], basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], and retinoic acid), the hPCy-MSCs showed enhanced expression of β-III tubulin and GFAP proteins, as well as increased expression of neurofilaments medium, neurofilaments heavy, and neuron-specific enolase at the transcript level. In addition, neurally differentiated hPCy-MSCs showed upregulated expression of the neural transcription factors Pitx3, Foxa2, Nurr1, and the dopamine-related genes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. The present study demonstrated for the first time that hPCy-MSCs have a predisposition toward the neural phenotype that is increased when exposed to neural differentiation cues, based on upregulation of a comprehensive set of proteins and genes that define neuronal cells. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that hPCy-MSCs might be another optimal source of neural/glial cells for cell

  3. GSTpi expression in MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration of C57BL/6 mouse midbrain and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Caldas, Margarida; Neves Carvalho, Andreia; Peixeiro, Isabel; Rodrigues, Elsa; Lechner, Maria Celeste; Gama, Maria João

    2009-06-01

    MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity involves major biochemical processes such as oxidative stress and impaired energy metabolism, leading to a significant reduction in the number of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) is a phase II detoxifying enzyme that provides protection of cells from injury by toxic chemicals and products of oxidative stress. In humans, polymorphisms of GSTP1 affect substrate selectivity and stability increasing the susceptibility to parkinsonism-inducing effects of environmental toxins. Given the ability of MPTP to increase the levels of reactive oxygen species and the link between altered redox potential and the expression and activity of GSTpi, we investigated the effect of MPTP on GSTpi cellular concentration in an in vivo model of Parkinson's disease. The present study demonstrates that GSTpi is actively expressed in both substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum of C57BL/6 mice brain, mostly in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. After systemic administration of MPTP, GSTpi expression is significantly increased in glial cells in the vicinity of dopaminergic neurons cell bodies and fibers. The results suggest that GSTpi expression may be part of the mechanism underlying the ability of glial cells to elicit protection against the mechanisms involved in MPTP-induced neuronal death.

  4. Fat cells reactivate quiescent neuroblasts via TOR and glial insulin relays in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Nunes, Rita; Yee, Lih Ling; Gould, Alex P

    2011-03-24

    Many stem, progenitor and cancer cells undergo periods of mitotic quiescence from which they can be reactivated. The signals triggering entry into and exit from this reversible dormant state are not well understood. In the developing Drosophila central nervous system, multipotent self-renewing progenitors called neuroblasts undergo quiescence in a stereotypical spatiotemporal pattern. Entry into quiescence is regulated by Hox proteins and an internal neuroblast timer. Exit from quiescence (reactivation) is subject to a nutritional checkpoint requiring dietary amino acids. Organ co-cultures also implicate an unidentified signal from an adipose/hepatic-like tissue called the fat body. Here we provide in vivo evidence that Slimfast amino-acid sensing and Target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling activate a fat-body-derived signal (FDS) required for neuroblast reactivation. Downstream of this signal, Insulin-like receptor signalling and the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/TOR network are required in neuroblasts for exit from quiescence. We demonstrate that nutritionally regulated glial cells provide the source of Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) relevant for timely neuroblast reactivation but not for overall larval growth. Conversely, ILPs secreted into the haemolymph by median neurosecretory cells systemically control organismal size but do not reactivate neuroblasts. Drosophila thus contains two segregated ILP pools, one regulating proliferation within the central nervous system and the other controlling tissue growth systemically. Our findings support a model in which amino acids trigger the cell cycle re-entry of neural progenitors via a fat-body-glia-neuroblasts relay. This mechanism indicates that dietary nutrients and remote organs, as well as local niches, are key regulators of transitions in stem-cell behaviour.

  5. Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yongbae; Olivi, Luisa; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Maertens, Alex; Bressler, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin

  6. Depression as a Glial-Based Synaptic Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eRial

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies combining pharmacological, behavioral, electrophysiological and molecular approaches indicate that depression results from maladaptive neuroplastic processing occurring in defined frontolimbic circuits responsible for emotional processing such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and ventral striatum. However, the exact mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity that are disrupted to trigger depressive conditions have not been elucidated. Since glial cells (astrocytes and microglia tightly and dynamically interact with synapses, engaging a bi-directional communication critical for the processing of synaptic information, we now revisit the role of glial cells in the etiology of depression focusing on a dysfunction of the ‘quad-partite’ synapse. This interest is supported by the observations that depressive-like conditions are associated with a decreased density and hypofunction of astrocytes and with an increase microglia ‘activation’ in frontolimbic regions, which is expected to contribute for the synaptic dysfunction present in depression. Furthermore, the traditional culprits of depression (glucocorticoids, biogenic amines, BDNF affect glia functioning, whereas antidepressant treatments (SSRIs, electroshock, deep brain stimulation recover glia functioning. In this context of a quad-partite synapse, systems modulating glia-synapse bidirectional communication - such as the purinergic neuromodulation system operated by ATP and adenosine - emerge as promising candidates to re-normalize synaptic function by combining direct synaptic effects with an ability to also control astrocyte and microglia function. This proposed triple action of purines to control aberrant synaptic function illustrates the rationale to consider the interference with glia dysfunction as a mechanism of action driving the design of future pharmacological tools to manage depression.

  7. Neuronal markers are expressed in human gliomas and NSE knockdown sensitizes glioblastoma cells to radiotherapy and temozolomide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Tao; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Leiss, Lina; Sleire, Linda; Wang, Jian; Li, Xingang; Enger, Per Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    Expression of neuronal elements has been identified in various glial tumors, and glioblastomas (GBMs) with neuronal differentiation patterns have reportedly been associated with longer survival. However, the neuronal class III β-tubulin has been linked to increasing malignancy in astrocytomas. Thus, the significance of neuronal markers in gliomas is not established. The expressions of class III β-tubulin, neurofilament protein (NFP), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were investigated in five GBM cell lines and two GBM biopsies with immunocytochemistry and Western blot. Moreover, the expression levels were quantified by real-time qPCR under different culture conditions. Following NSE siRNA treatment we used Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) to monitor cell growth and migration and MTS assays to study viability after irradiation and temozolomide treatment. Finally, we quantitated NSE expression in a series of human glioma biopsies with immunohistochemistry using a morphometry software, and collected survival data for the corresponding patients. The biopsies were then grouped according to expression in two halves which were compared by survival analysis. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that all markers except NFP were expressed both in GBM cell lines and biopsies. Notably, qPCR demonstrated that NSE was upregulated in cellular stress conditions, such as serum-starvation and hypoxia, while we found no uniform pattern for the other markers. NSE knockdown reduced the migration of glioma cells, sensitized them to hypoxia, radio- and chemotherapy. Furthermore, we found that GBM patients in the group with the highest NSE expression lived significantly shorter than patients in the low-expression group. Neuronal markers are aberrantly expressed in human GBMs, and NSE is consistently upregulated in different cellular stress conditions. Knockdown of NSE reduces the migration of GBM cells and sensitizes

  8. Glial processes at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction match synaptic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre L Brink

    Full Text Available Glia are integral participants in synaptic physiology, remodeling and maturation from blowflies to humans, yet how glial structure is coordinated with synaptic growth is unknown. To investigate the dynamics of glial development at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ, we developed a live imaging system to establish the relationship between glia, neuronal boutons, and the muscle subsynaptic reticulum. Using this system we observed processes from two classes of peripheral glia present at the NMJ. Processes from the subperineurial glia formed a blood-nerve barrier around the axon proximal to the first bouton. Processes from the perineurial glial extended beyond the end of the blood-nerve barrier into the NMJ where they contacted synapses and extended across non-synaptic muscle. Growth of the glial processes was coordinated with NMJ growth and synaptic activity. Increasing synaptic size through elevated temperature or the highwire mutation increased the extent of glial processes at the NMJ and conversely blocking synaptic activity and size decreased the presence and size of glial processes. We found that elevated temperature was required during embryogenesis in order to increase glial expansion at the nmj. Therefore, in our live imaging system, glial processes at the NMJ are likely indirectly regulated by synaptic changes to ensure the coordinated growth of all components of the tripartite larval NMJ.

  9. Neural differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from GFP transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Juri; Ogawa, Rei; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Fukunaga, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2005-01-01

    Taking advantage of homogeneously marked cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice, we have recently reported that adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) could differentiate into mesenchymal lineages in vitro. In this study, we performed neural induction using ASCs from GFP transgenic mice and were able to induce these ASCs into neuronal and glial cell lineages. Most of the neurally induced cells showed bipolar or multipolar appearance morphologically and expressed neuronal markers. Electron microscopy revealed their neuronal morphology. Some cells also showed glial phenotypes, as shown immunocytochemically. The present study clearly shows that ASCs derived from GFP transgenic mice differentiate into neural lineages in vitro, suggesting that these cells might provide an ideal source for further neural stem cell research with possible therapeutic application for neurological disorders

  10. Combined treatment with ribavirin and tiazofurin attenuates response of glial cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nadežda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS, a human inflammatory and demyelinating disease. Microglia and astrocytes are glial cells of the central nervous system (CNS that play a dual role in MS and EAE pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of combined treatment with two nucleoside analogues, ribavirin and tiazofurin, on microglia and astrocytes in actively induced EAE. Therapeutic treatment with a combination of these two nucleoside analogues reduced disease severity, mononuclear cell infiltration and demyelination. The obtained histological results indicate that ribavirin and tiazofurin changed activated microglia into an inactive type and attenuated astrocyte reactivity at the end of the treatment period. Since reduction of reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis correlated with EAE suppression, the present study also suggests that the obtained beneficial effect of ribavirin and tiazofurin could be a consequence of their action inside as well as outside the CNS. [Acknowledgments. This work was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science, Project No: III41014.

  11. Unidirectional photoreceptor-to-Müller glia coupling and unique K+ channel expression in Caiman retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zayas-Santiago

    Full Text Available Müller cells, the principal glial cells of the vertebrate retina, are fundamental for the maintenance and function of neuronal cells. In most vertebrates, including humans, Müller cells abundantly express Kir4.1 inwardly rectifying potassium channels responsible for hyperpolarized membrane potential and for various vital functions such as potassium buffering and glutamate clearance; inter-species differences in Kir4.1 expression were, however, observed. Localization and function of potassium channels in Müller cells from the retina of crocodiles remain, hitherto, unknown.We studied retinae of the Spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus fuscus, endowed with both diurnal and nocturnal vision, by (i immunohistochemistry, (ii whole-cell voltage-clamp, and (iii fluorescent dye tracing to investigate K+ channel distribution and glia-to-neuron communications.Immunohistochemistry revealed that caiman Müller cells, similarly to other vertebrates, express vimentin, GFAP, S100β, and glutamine synthetase. In contrast, Kir4.1 channel protein was not found in Müller cells but was localized in photoreceptor cells. Instead, 2P-domain TASK-1 channels were expressed in Müller cells. Electrophysiological properties of enzymatically dissociated Müller cells without photoreceptors and isolated Müller cells with adhering photoreceptors were significantly different. This suggests ion coupling between Müller cells and photoreceptors in the caiman retina. Sulforhodamine-B injected into cones permeated to adhering Müller cells thus revealing a uni-directional dye coupling.Our data indicate that caiman Müller glial cells are unique among vertebrates studied so far by predominantly expressing TASK-1 rather than Kir4.1 K+ channels and by bi-directional ion and uni-directional dye coupling to photoreceptor cells. This coupling may play an important role in specific glia-neuron signaling pathways and in a new type of K+ buffering.

  12. SOX1 links the function of neural patterning and Notch signalling in the ventral spinal cord during the neuron-glial fate switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios, 2370 Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Panayi, Helen; Orford, Michael; Mean, Richard; Lapathitis, George; Gill, Herman; Raoof, Sahir [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios, 2370 Nicosia (Cyprus); Gasperi, Rita De; Elder, Gregory [James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Research and Development (3F22), 130 West Kingsbridge Road, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kessaris, Nicoletta; Richardson, William D. [Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research and Research Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Malas, Stavros, E-mail: smalas@cing.ac.cy [The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Airport Avenue, No. 6, Agios Dometios, 2370 Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2009-12-25

    During neural development the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis, known as the neuron-glial ({Nu}/G) fate switch, requires the coordinated function of patterning factors, pro-glial factors and Notch signalling. How this process is coordinated in the embryonic spinal cord is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that during the N/G fate switch in the ventral spinal cord (vSC) SOX1 links the function of neural patterning and Notch signalling. We show that, SOX1 expression in the vSC is regulated by PAX6, NKX2.2 and Notch signalling in a domain-specific manner. We further show that SOX1 regulates the expression of Hes1 and that loss of Sox1 leads to enhanced production of oligodendrocyte precursors from the pMN. Finally, we show that Notch signalling functions upstream of SOX1 during this fate switch and is independently required for the acquisition of the glial fate perse by regulating Nuclear Factor I A expression in a PAX6/SOX1/HES1/HES5-independent manner. These data integrate functional roles of neural patterning factors, Notch signalling and SOX1 during gliogenesis.

  13. Progranulin deficiency causes the retinal ganglion cell loss during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuse, Yoshiki; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Mizoguchi, Takahiro; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-05-10

    Astrocytes are glial cells that support and protect neurons in the central nervous systems including the retina. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are in contact with the astrocytes and our earlier findings showed the reduction of the number of cells in the ganglion cell layer in adult progranulin deficient mice. In the present study, we focused on the time of activation of the astrocytes and the alterations in the number of RGCs in the retina and optic nerve in progranulin deficient mice. Our findings showed that the number of Brn3a-positive cells was reduced and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was increased in progranulin deficient mice. The progranulin deficient mice had a high expression of GFAP on postnatal day 9 (P9) but not on postnatal day 1. These mice also had a decrease in the number of the Brn3a-positive cells on P9. Taken together, these findings indicate that the absence of progranulin can affect the survival of RGCs subsequent the activation of astrocytes during retinal development.

  14. Implications of glial nitric oxyde in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Enrique eYuste

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a pleiotropic janus-faced molecule synthesized by nitric oxide synthases (NOS which plays a critical role in a number of physiological and pathological processes in humans. The physiological roles of NO depend on its local concentrations, as well as its availability and the nature of downstream target molecules. Its double-edged sword action has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Excessive NO production, as the evoked by inflammatory signals, has been identified as one of the major causative reasons for the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, excessive NO synthesis under neuroinflammation leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species and neuronal cell death. There is an intimate relation between microglial activation, NO and neuroinflammation in the human brain. The role of NO in neuroinflammation has been defined in animal models where this neurotransmitter can modulate the inflammatory process acting on key regulatory pathways, such as those associated with excitotoxicity processes induced by glutamate accumulation and microglial activation. Activated glia express inducible NOS and produce NO that triggers calcium mobilization from the endoplasmic reticulum, activating the release of vesicular glutamate from astroglial cells resulting in neuronal death. This change in microglia potentially contributes to the increased age-associated susceptibility and neurodegeneration. In the current review, information is provided about the role of NO, glial activation and age-related processes in the central nervous system (CNS that may be helpful in the isolation of new therapeutic targets for aging and neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Saito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy. Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7 mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain.

  16. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian

    2013-01-01

    . Yet, its formal classification is still a matter of debate. CB1R and CB2R expression patterns are well described for rodent and monkey retinas. In the monkey retina, CB1R has been localized in its neural (cone photoreceptor, horizontal, bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells) and CB2R in glial...

  17. Glial loss of the metallo β-lactamase domain containing protein, SWIP-10, induces age- and glutamate-signaling dependent, dopamine neuron degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea L Gibson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Across phylogeny, glutamate (Glu signaling plays a critical role in regulating neural excitability, thus supporting many complex behaviors. Perturbed synaptic and extrasynaptic Glu homeostasis in the human brain has been implicated in multiple neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease, where theories suggest that excitotoxic insults may accelerate a naturally occurring process of dopamine (DA neuron degeneration. In C. elegans, mutation of the glial expressed gene, swip-10, results in Glu-dependent DA neuron hyperexcitation that leads to elevated DA release, triggering DA signaling-dependent motor paralysis. Here, we demonstrate that swip-10 mutations induce premature and progressive DA neuron degeneration, with light and electron microscopy studies demonstrating the presence of dystrophic dendritic processes, as well as shrunken and/or missing cell soma. As with paralysis, DA neuron degeneration in swip-10 mutants is rescued by glial-specific, but not DA neuron-specific expression of wildtype swip-10, consistent with a cell non-autonomous mechanism. Genetic studies implicate the vesicular Glu transporter VGLU-3 and the cystine/Glu exchanger homolog AAT-1 as potential sources of Glu signaling supporting DA neuron degeneration. Degeneration can be significantly suppressed by mutations in the Ca2+ permeable Glu receptors, nmr-2 and glr-1, in genes that support intracellular Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis, as well as genes involved in apoptotic cell death. Our studies suggest that Glu stimulation of nematode DA neurons in early larval stages, without the protective actions of SWIP-10, contributes to insults that ultimately drive DA neuron degeneration. The swip-10 model may provide an efficient platform for the identification of molecular mechanisms that enhance risk for Parkinson's disease and/or the identification of agents that can limit neurodegenerative disease progression.

  18. Inhalation exposure to white spirit causes region-dependent alterations in the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Ladefoged, Ole; østergaard, G.

    2000-01-01

    Enhanced expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is known to be associated with toxicant-induced gliosis, a homotypic response of the central nervous system to neural injury. A variety of neurochemical and neurophysiological effects have been observed in experimental animals exposed ...

  19. Possible role of glial cells in the onset and progression of Lyme neuroborreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Mary B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB may present as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, acute radiculoneuropathy or, rarely, as encephalomyelitis. We hypothesized that glia, upon exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, produce inflammatory mediators that promote the acute cellular infiltration of early LNB. This inflammatory context could potentiate glial and neuronal apoptosis. Methods We inoculated live B. burgdorferi into the cisterna magna of rhesus macaques and examined the inflammatory changes induced in the central nervous system (CNS, and dorsal root nerves and ganglia (DRG. Results ELISA of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF showed elevated IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, and CXCL13 as early as one week post-inoculation, accompanied by primarily lymphocytic and monocytic pleocytosis. In contrast, onset of the acquired immune response, evidenced by anti-B. burgdorferi C6 serum antibodies, was first detectable after 3 weeks post-inoculation. CSF cell pellets and CNS tissues were culture-positive for B. burgdorferi. Histopathology revealed signs of acute LNB: severe multifocal leptomeningitis, radiculitis, and DRG inflammatory lesions. Immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy detected B. burgdorferi antigen in the CNS and DRG. IL-6 was observed in astrocytes and neurons in the spinal cord, and in neurons in the DRG of infected animals. CCL2 and CXCL13 were found in microglia as well as in endothelial cells, macrophages and T cells. Importantly, the DRG of infected animals showed significant satellite cell and neuronal apoptosis. Conclusion Our results support the notion that innate responses of glia to B. burgdorferi initiate/mediate the inflammation seen in acute LNB, and show that neuronal apoptosis occurs in this context.

  20. Lack of CCR5 modifies glial phenotypes and population of the nigral dopaminergic neurons, but not MPTP-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Myung Koo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-01-01

    Constitutive expression of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 has been detected in astrocytes, microglia and neurons, but its physiological roles in the central nervous system are obscure. The bidirectional interactions between neuron and glial cells through CCR5 and its ligands were thought to be crucial for maintaining normal neuronal activities. No study has described function of CCR5 in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. In order to examine effects of CCR5 on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we employed CCR5 wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Immunostainings for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) exhibited that CCR5 KO mice had lower number of TH-positive neurons even in the absence of MPTP. Difference in MPTP (15mg/kg×4 times, 2hr interval)-mediated loss of TH-positive neurons was subtle between CCR5 WT and KO mice, but there was larger dopamine depletion, behavioral impairments and microglial activation in CCR5 deficient mice. Intriguingly, CCR5 KO brains contained higher immunoreactivity for monoamine oxidase (MAO) B which was mainly localized within astrocytes. In agreement with upregulation of MAO B, concentration of MPP+ was higher in the substantia nigra and striatum of CCR5 KO mice after MPTP injection. We found remarkable activation of p38 MAPK in CCR5 deficient mice, which positively regulates MAO B expression. These results indicate that CCR5 deficiency modifies the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal system and bidirectional interaction between neurons and glial cells via CCR5 might be important for dopaminergic neuronal survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glial heterotopia of the orbit: a rare cause of proptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhti, Souad; Terkmani, Fella; Tighilt, Nabila; Benmouma, Youcef; Boumehdi, Nazim; Djennas, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Glial heterotopia is defined as presence of normal glial tissue in an unusual location without connection with the brain. It is a very rare clinical entity occuring mostly in the head and neck region which is generally present at birth. Orbital location is very rare. We report a case of a 4-month-old girl presenting congenital proptosis with progressive increase. CT scan revealed an intraorbital mass without bony defect. The patient was operated, and resection was subtotal. Histologically, the tumor was composed of glial tissue with plexus choroid and pathologist concluded glial heterotopia. The child is under constant medical supervision because recurrences can be observed after incomplete resection; she had no new clinical signs at 18 months follow-up.

  2. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    , oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human...... for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human...

  3. Glial heterotopia in an adult: A rare orbital mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresh, Divya Dabir; Mangala Gouri, S R

    2016-11-01

    Heterotopic glial tissue is very rare in the orbit. Our case was an adult, which is unique since most cases reported in literature involve children. We describe a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with an orbital mass, which histopathologically revealed heterotopic glial tissue.

  4. A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windrem, Martha S; Schanz, Steven J; Morrow, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiat...

  5. Curcumin-loaded chitosan-alginate-STPP nanoparticles ameliorate memory deficits and reduce glial activation in pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Mona; Anissian, Diana; Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam; Akbari, Atefeh; Khalili-Fomeshi, Mohsen; Ghasemi, Shahram; Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Ebrahimpour, Anahita

    2017-10-03

    Despite several beneficial effects of curcumin, its medical application has been hampered due to low water solubility. To improve the aqueous solubility of curcumin, it has been loaded on chitosan (CS)-alginate (ALG) - sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) nanoparticles (NPs). Then, the effect of curcumin NPs on memory improvement and glial activation was investigated in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling model. Male NMRI mice have received the daily injection of curcumin NPs at dose of 12.5 or 25mg/kg. All interventions were injected intraperitoneally (i.p), 10days before PTZ administration and the injections were continued until 1h before each PTZ injection. Spatial learning and memory was evaluated using Morris water maze test after the 7th PTZ injection. Animals have received 10 injections of PTZ and then, brain tissues were removed for histological evaluation. Nissl staining was used to determine the level of cell death in hippocampus and immunostaining method was performed against NeuN and GFAP/Iba1 for assessment of neuronal density and glial activation respectively. Behavioral results showed that curcumin NPs exhibit anticonvulsant activity and prevent cognitive impairment in fully kindled animals. The level of cell death and glial activation reduced in animals which have received curcumin NPs compared to those received free curcumin. To conclude, these findings suggest that curcumin NPs effectively ameliorate memory impairment and attenuate the level of activated glial cells in a mice model of chronic epilepsy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Glial heterotopia in an adult: A rare orbital mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Dabir Sundaresh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic glial tissue is very rare in the orbit. Our case was an adult, which is unique since most cases reported in literature involve children. We describe a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with an orbital mass, which histopathologically revealed heterotopic glial tissue.

  7. Prefrontal changes in the glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters in depression with and without suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Verwer, R.W.H.; van Wamelen, D.J.; Qi, X.R.; Gao, S.F.; Lucassen, P.J.; Swaab, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    There are indications for changes in glutamate metabolism in relation to depression or suicide. The glutamate-glutamine cycle and neuronal/glial glutamate transporters mediate the uptake of the glutamate and glutamine. The expression of various components of the glutamate-glutamine cycle and the

  8. Soman poisoning increases neural progenitor proliferation and induces long-term glial activation in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collombet, Jean-Marc; Four, Elise; Bernabe, Denis; Masqueliez, Catherine; Burckhart, Marie-France; Baille, Valerie; Baubichon, Dominique; Lallement, Guy

    2005-01-01

    To date, only short-term glial reaction has been extensively studied following soman or other warfare neurotoxicant poisoning. In a context of cell therapy by neural progenitor engraftment to repair brain damage, the long-term effect of soman on glial reaction and neural progenitor division was analyzed in the present study. The effect of soman poisoning was estimated in mouse brains at various times ranging from 1 to 90 days post-poisoning. Using immunochemistry and dye staining techniques (hemalun-eosin staining), the number of degenerating neurons, the number of dividing neural progenitors, and microglial, astroglial or oligodendroglial cell activation were studied. Soman poisoning led to rapid and massive (post-soman day 1) death of mature neurons as assessed by hemalun-eosin staining. Following this acute poisoning phase, a weak toxicity effect on mature neurons was still observed for a period of 1 month after poisoning. A massive short-termed microgliosis peaked on day 3 post-poisoning. Delayed astrogliosis was observed from 3 to 90 days after soman poisoning, contributing to glial scar formation. On the other hand, oligodendroglial cells or their precursors were practically unaffected by soman poisoning. Interestingly, neural progenitors located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SGZ) or in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain survived soman poisoning. Furthermore, soman poisoning significantly increased neural progenitor proliferation in both SGZ and SVZ brain areas on post-soman day 3 or day 8, respectively. This increased proliferation rate was detected up to 1 month after poisoning

  9. Amitriptyline induces early growth response-1 gene expression via ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in rat C6 glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Young; Shin, Soon Young; Lee, Young Han

    2007-07-05

    Astrocytes play important roles in guiding the construction of the nervous system, controlling extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, and regulating CNS synaptogenesis. Egr-1 is a transcription factor involved in neuronal differentiation and astrocyte cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated whether the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) amitriptyline induces Egr-1 expression in astrocytes using rat C6 glioma cells as a model. We found that amitriptyline increased the expression of Egr-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The amitriptyline-induced Egr-1 expression was mediated through serum response elements (SREs) in the Egr-1 promoter. SREs were activated by the Ets-domain transcription factor Elk-1 through the ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. The inhibition of the ERK and JNK MAP kinase signals attenuated amitriptyline-induced transactivation of Gal4-Elk-1 and Egr-1 promoter activity. Our findings suggest that the induction of Egr-1 expression in astrocytes may be required to attain the therapeutic effects of antidepressant drugs.

  10. A three dimensional in vitro glial scar model to investigate the local strain effects from micromotion around neural implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin C; Sy, Jay C; Falcón-Banchs, Roberto; Cima, Michael J

    2017-02-28

    Glial scar formation remains a significant barrier to the long term success of neural probes. Micromotion coupled with mechanical mismatch between the probe and tissue is believed to be a key driver of the inflammatory response. In vitro glial scar models present an intermediate step prior to conventional in vivo histology experiments as they enable cell-device interactions to be tested on a shorter timescale, with the ability to conduct broader biochemical assays. No established in vitro models have incorporated methods to assess device performance with respect to mechanical factors. In this study, we describe an in vitro glial scar model that combines high-precision linear actuators to simulate axial micromotion around neural implants with a 3D primary neural cell culture in a collagen gel. Strain field measurements were conducted to visualize the local displacement within the gel in response to micromotion. Primary brain cell cultures were found to be mechanically responsive to micromotion after one week in culture. Astrocytes, as determined by immunohistochemical staining, were found to have significantly increased in cell areas and perimeters in response to micromotion compared to static control wells. These results demonstrate the importance of micromotion when considering the chronic response to neural implants. Going forward, this model provides advantages over existing in vitro models as it will enable critical mechanical design factors of neural implants to be evaluated prior to in vivo testing.

  11. BMP6 down-regulates GDNF expression through SMAD1/5 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human granulosa-lutein cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yue; Chang, Hsun-Ming; Taylor, Elizabeth L; Leung, Peter C K; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2018-05-09

    Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) is a critical regulator of follicular development that is expressed in mammalian oocytes and granulosa cells. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an intraovarian neurotrophic factor that plays an essential role in regulating mammalian oocyte maturation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BMP6 on the regulation of GDNF expression and the potential underlying mechanisms. We used an established immortalized human granulosa cell line (SVOG cells) and primary human granulosa-lutein cells as in vitro cell models. Our results showed that BMP6 significantly down-regulated the expression of GDNF in both SVOG and primary human granulosa-lutein cells. Using dual inhibition approaches (kinase receptor inhibitor and small interfering RNA knockdown), our results showed that both ALK2 and ALK3 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. In addition, BMP6 induced the phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 but not AKT or p38. Among three downstream mediators, both SMAD1 and SMAD5 are involved in BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF. Moreover, concomitant knockdown of endogenous SMAD4 and inhibition of ERK1/2 activity completely reversed BMP6-induced down-regulation of GDNF, indicating that both SMAD and ERK1/2 signaling pathways are required for the regulatory effect of BMP6 on GDNF expression. Our findings suggest an additional role for an intrafollicular growth factor in regulating follicular function through their paracrine interactions in human granulosa cells.

  12. Evidence that stress activates glial lactate formation in vivo assessed with rat hippocampus lactography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elekes, O; Venema, K; Postema, F; Dringen, R; Hamprecht, B; Korf, J

    1996-01-01

    Extracellular lactate of the rat hippocampus is inter alia increased by immobilization stress. The origin of lactate is, however, not well established, so it is not known whether it is mainly derived form neurons or glial cells. Dialysates were collected shortly (1 or 2 days) or with a delay (14 or

  13. Antihyperalgesic effects of dexketoprofen and tramadol in a model of postoperative pain in mice - effects on glial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Puig, Margarita M; Romero, Asunción

    2016-08-01

    To define likely targets (i.e. glia) and protocols (analgesic combinations) to improve postoperative pain outcomes and reduce chronic pain after surgery. Specifically, to assess the antihyperalgesic effects of the dexketoprofen : tramadol (DEX : TRM) combination, exploring the implication of glial activation. In a mouse model of postincisional pain, we evaluated mechanical nociceptive thresholds (Von Frey) for 21 days postoperatively. We assessed DEX and TRM alone and combined (1 : 1 ratio) on postoperative hyperalgesia (POH, day 1) and delayed latent pain sensitisation (substantiated by a naloxone challenge; PS, day 21). The interactions were analysed using isobolograms, and concomitant changes in spinal glial cell activation were measured. On day 1, DEX completely blocked POH, whereas TRM induced 32% inhibition. TRM, but not DEX, partially (47%) protected against PS, at 21 days. Co-administration of DEX : TRM (1 : 1 ratio) showed additivity for antihyperalgesia. Both drugs and their combination totally inhibited surgery-induced microglia activation on day 1, but had no effect on surgery-induced astrocyte activation (1 day) or re-activation after naloxone (21 days). The DEX : TRM combination could have clinical advantages: a complete prevention of POH after surgery, together with a substantial (48%) inhibition of the development of PS by TRM. Microglia, but not astrocyte activation, could play a relevant role in the development of postoperative pain hypersensitivity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Transplantation of Adipose Derived Stromal Cells into the Developing Mouse Eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Song-Hee; Jang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Shil; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Adipose derived stromal cells (ADSCs) were transplanted into a developing mouse eye to investigate the influence of a developing host micro environment on integration and differentiation. Green fluorescent protein-expressing ADSCs were transplanted by intraocular injections. The age of the mouse was in the range of 1 to 10 days postnatal (PN). Survival dates ranged from 7 to 28 post transplantation (DPT), at which time immunohistochemistry was performed. The transplanted ADSCs displayed some morphological differentiations in the host eye. Some cells expressed microtubule associated protein 2 (marker for mature neuron), or glial fibrillary acid protein (marker for glial cell). In addition, some cells integrated into the ganglion cell layer. The integration and differentiation of the transplanted ADSCs in the 5 and 10 PN 7 DPT were better than in the host eye the other age ranges. This study was aimed at demonstrating how the age of host micro environment would influence the differentiation and integration of the transplanted ADSCs. However, it was found that the integration and differentiation into the developing retina were very limited when compared with other stem cells, such as murine brain progenitor cell

  15. [Infecting glial cells with antimony resistant Leishmania tropica: A new ex-vivo model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbozan, Orçun; Harman, Mehmet; Evren, Vedat; Erdoğan, Mümin Alper; Kılavuz, Aslı; Tunalı, Varol; Çavuş, İbrahim; Yılmaz, Özlem; Özbilgin, Ahmet; Turgay, Nevin

    2018-01-01

    glial cell model, as far as we know, is the first model in the literature produced by L.tropica. The occurrence of L.tropica amastigote forms in glia cells may be indicative of the ability of Leishmania species to infect the central nervous system. The central nervous system may be an area for the Leishmania amastigotes to escape from the immune system in cases of leishmaniasis without a treatment response. Our study is important because it is the first study to show the infection of glia cells with L.tropica amastigotes.

  16. Glial cell ceruloplasmin and hepcidin differentially regulate iron efflux from brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ryan C; Kosman, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    We have used an in vitro model system to probe the iron transport pathway across the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This model consists of human BMVEC (hBMVEC) and C6 glioma cells (as an astrocytic cell line) grown in a transwell, a cell culture system commonly used to quantify metabolite flux across a cell-derived barrier. We found that iron efflux from hBMVEC through the ferrous iron permease ferroportin (Fpn) was stimulated by secretion of the soluble form of the multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (sCp) from the co-cultured C6 cells. Reciprocally, expression of sCp mRNA in the C6 cells was increased by neighboring hBMVEC. In addition, data indicate that C6 cell-secreted hepcidin stimulates internalization of hBMVEC Fpn but only when the end-feet projections characteristic of this glia-derived cell line are proximal to the endothelial cells. This hepcidin-dependent loss of Fpn correlated with knock-down of iron efflux from the hBMVEC; this result was consistent with the mechanism by which hepcidin regulates iron efflux in mammalian cells. In summary, the data support a model of iron trafficking across the BBB in which the capillary endothelium induce the underlying astrocytes to produce the ferroxidase activity needed to support Fpn-mediated iron efflux. Reciprocally, astrocyte proximity modulates the effective concentration of hepcidin at the endothelial cell membrane and thus the surface expression of hBMVEC Fpn. These results are independent of the source of hBMVEC iron (transferrin or non-transferrin bound) indicating that the model developed here is broadly applicable to brain iron homeostasis.

  17. Opposite patterns of age-associated changes in neurons and glial cells of the thalamus of human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, D; Zunarelli, E; Genedani, S; Trentini, G P; De Gaetani, C; Fuxe, K; Benegiamo, C; Agnati, L F

    2008-06-01

    In an autopsy series of 19 individuals, age-ranged 24-94, a relatively age-spared region, the anterior-ventral thalamus, was analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques to visualize neurons (neurofilament protein), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein), microglial cells (CD68) and amyloid precursor protein. The pattern of immunoreactivity was determined by surface fractal dimension and lacunarity, the size by the field area (FA) and the spatial uniformity by the uniformity index. From the normalized FA values of immunoreactivity for the four markers studied, a global parameter was defined to give an overall characterization of the age-dependent changes in the glio-neuronal networks. A significant exponential decline of the GP was observed with increasing age. This finding suggests that early in life (ageage>70 years) could be due to the non-trophic reserve still available.

  18. Over-expression of heme oxygenase-1 promotes oxidative mitochondrial damage in rat astroglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Haixiang; Song, Sisi; Paudel, Hemant K; Schipper, Hyman M

    2006-03-01

    Glial heme oxygenase-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Up-regulation of HO-1 in rat astroglia has been shown to facilitate iron sequestration by the mitochondrial compartment. To determine whether HO-1 induction promotes mitochondrial oxidative stress, assays for 8-epiPGF(2alpha) (ELISA), protein carbonyls (ELISA) and 8-OHdG (HPLC-EC) were used to quantify oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, respectively, in mitochondrial fractions and whole-cell compartments derived from cultured rat astroglia engineered to over-express human (h) HO-1 by transient transfection. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion and the MTT assay, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation and total cell counts. In rat astrocytes, hHO-1 over-expression (x 3 days) resulted in significant oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, partial growth arrest, and increased cell death. These effects were attenuated by incubation with 1 microM tin mesoporphyrin, a competitive HO inhibitor, or the iron chelator, deferoxamine. Up-regulation of HO-1 engenders oxidative mitochondrial injury in cultured rat astroglia. Heme-derived ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO) may mediate the oxidative modification of mitochondrial lipids, proteins and nucleic acids in these cells. Glial HO-1 hyperactivity may contribute to cellular oxidative stress, pathological iron deposition, and bioenergetic failure characteristic of degenerating and inflamed neural tissues and may constitute a rational target for therapeutic intervention in these conditions. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  20. Neural stem cell sex dimorphism in aromatase (CYP19 expression: a basis for differential neural fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Waldron

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Jay Waldron1, Althea McCourty1, Laurent Lecanu1,21The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, McGill University, Quebec, CanadaPurpose: Neural stem cell (NSC transplantation and pharmacologic activation of endogenous neurogenesis are two approaches that trigger a great deal of interest as brain repair strategies. However, the success rate of clinical attempts using stem cells to restore neurologic functions altered either after traumatic brain injury or as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease remains rather disappointing. This suggests that factors affecting the fate of grafted NSCs are largely understudied and remain to be characterized. We recently reported that aging differentially affects the neurogenic properties of male and female NSCs. Although the sex steroids androgens and estrogens participate in the regulation of neurogenesis, to our knowledge, research on how gender-based differences affect the capacity of NSCs to differentiate and condition their neural fate is lacking. In the present study, we explored further the role of cell sex as a determining factor of the neural fate followed by differentiating NSCs and its relationship with a potential differential expression of aromatase (CYP19, the testosterone-metabolizing enzyme.Results: Using NSCs isolated from the subventricular zone of three-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats and maintained as neurospheres, we showed that differentiation triggered by retinoic acid resulted in a neural phenotype that depends on cell sex. Differentiated male NSCs mainly expressed markers of neuronal fate, including ßIII-tubulin, microtubule associated protein 2, growth-associated protein 43, and doublecortin. In contrast, female NSCs essentially expressed the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Quantification of the expression of aromatase showed a very low level of expression in undifferentiated female NSCs

  1. Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    stages of repetitive brain trauma as well. Current methods of measure brain glutamate using proton spectroscopy is not specific to different cell...covering a representative range of clinical cases: a young female , young male , middle-aged male (all healthy volunteers) and a male patient with...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0412 TITLE: Measuring Glial Metabolism in Repetitive Brain Trauma and Alzheimer’s Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  2. Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Skalsky

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumor involving glial cells in the human brain. We used high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively profile the small RNAs expressed in glioblastoma and non-tumor brain tissues. MicroRNAs (miRNAs made up the large majority of small RNAs, and we identified over 400 different cellular pre-miRNAs. No known viral miRNAs were detected in any of the samples analyzed. Cluster analysis revealed several miRNAs that were significantly down-regulated in glioblastomas, including miR-128, miR-124, miR-7, miR-139, miR-95, and miR-873. Post-transcriptional editing was observed for several miRNAs, including the miR-376 family, miR-411, miR-381, and miR-379. Using the deep sequencing information, we designed a lentiviral vector expressing a cell suicide gene, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK gene, under the regulation of a miRNA, miR-128, that was found to be enriched in non-tumor brain tissue yet down-regulated in glioblastomas, Glioblastoma cells transduced with this vector were selectively killed when cultured in the presence of ganciclovir. Using an in vitro model to recapitulate expression of brain-enriched miRNAs, we demonstrated that neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells transduced with the miRNA-regulated HSV-TK vector are protected from killing by expression of endogenous miR-128. Together, these results provide an in-depth analysis of miRNA dysregulation in glioblastoma and demonstrate the potential utility of these data in the design of miRNA-regulated therapies for the treatment of brain cancers.

  3. Expression of delta-catenin is associated with progression of human astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MingHao, Wang; Qianze, Dong; Di, Zhang; YunJie, Wang

    2011-01-01

    δ-Catenin (CTNND2), which encodes a scaffold protein in humans, has been found in a few malignancies. However, the expression pattern and contribution of δ-catenin to astrocytoma progression are unclear. We investigated δ-catenin expression in human astrocytoma samples and its function in astrocytoma cell lines using immunohistochemistry, siRNA knockdown, transfection, MTT, transwell migration and Rac1 pulldown techniques. δ-Catenin protein expression was detected in cytoplasm of astrocytoma cells by immunohistochemistry. Analysis showed that grade I astrocytoma (0%, 0/11) and glial cells from normal brain tissue exhibited negative staining. δ-Catenin expression was significantly higher in grade III-IV (35%, 29/84) compared to grade II astrocytoma cells (18%, 11/61); p < 0.01). In addition, CTNND2 overexpression promoted proliferation, invasion and Rac1 activity of U251 astrocytoma cells. Treatment of δ-catenin-transfected cells with a Rac1 inhibitor decreased Rac1 activity and invasion. δ-Catenin knockdown in U87 glioblastoma cell decreased cell proliferation, invasion and Rac1 activity. The results suggest that δ-catenin expression is associated with the malignant progression of astrocytoma and promotes astrocytoma cell invasion through upregulation of Rac1 activity. δ-Catenin expression levels may serve as a useful marker of the biological behavior of astrocytoma cells

  4. [Influence of tissue-specific superoxide dismutase genes expression in brain cells on Drosophila melanogaster sensitivity to oxidative stress and viability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitushynska, M V; Matiytsiv, N P; Chernyk, Y

    2015-01-01

    The study has shown that both functional gene knockout Sodl and Sod2 and their overexpression in neurons and glial tissue increase the sensitivity of Drosophila melanogaster to oxidative stress (OS) conditions. The lowest survival rate was only 20.5% in insects with Sod2 knockout in neurons. Comparative analysis of the survival curves showed that adults with altered tissue-specific expression of the studied genes had reduced average and maximum life span. Under OS conditions induced by 5% hydrogen peroxide the life spans of wild type Oregon R and transgenic insects were significantly reduced. Altered Sod gene expression in glial tissue leads to degenerative changes in Drosophila brain at the young age. During the aging of insects and the action of pro-oxidants increasing of neurodegenerative phenotype is observed.

  5. Glial alterations from early to late stages in a model of Alzheimer's disease: Evidence of autophagy involvement in Aβ internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1+ cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neural differentiation of choroid plexus epithelial cells: role of human traumatic cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the key producer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the choroid plexus (CP provides a unique protective system in the central nervous system. CSF components are not invariable and they can change based on the pathological conditions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of non-traumatic and traumatic CSF on the differentiation of multipotent stem-like cells of CP into the neural and/or glial cells. CP epithelial cells were isolated from adult male rats and treated with human non-traumatic and traumatic CSF. Alterations in mRNA expression of Nestin and microtubule-associated protein (MAP2, as the specific markers of neurogenesis, and astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in cultured CP epithelial cells were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that treatment with CSF (non-traumatic and traumatic led to increase in mRNA expression levels of MAP2 and GFAP. Moreover, the expression of Nestin decreased in CP epithelial cells treated with non-traumatic CSF, while treatment with traumatic CSF significantly increased its mRNA level compared to the cells cultured only in DMEM/F12 as control. It seems that CP epithelial cells contain multipotent stem-like cells which are inducible under pathological conditions including exposure to traumatic CSF because of its compositions.

  7. Glial Tissue Mechanics and Mechanosensing by Glial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pogoda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanical behavior of human brain is critical to interpret the role of physical stimuli in both normal and pathological processes that occur in CNS tissue, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, aging, and most common brain tumors. Despite clear evidence that mechanical cues influence both normal and transformed brain tissue activity as well as normal and transformed brain cell behavior, little is known about the links between mechanical signals and their biochemical and medical consequences. A multi-level approach from whole organ rheology to single cell mechanics is needed to understand the physical aspects of human brain function and its pathologies. This review summarizes the latest achievements in the field.

  8. Downregulation of the Glial GLT1 Glutamate Transporter and Purkinje Cell Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Myotonic Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Sicot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain function is compromised in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular pathways primarily affected, we studied a mouse model of DM1 and brains of adult patients. We found pronounced RNA toxicity in the Bergmann glia of the cerebellum, in association with abnormal Purkinje cell firing and fine motor incoordination in DM1 mice. A global proteomics approach revealed downregulation of the GLT1 glutamate transporter in DM1 mice and human patients, which we found to be the result of MBNL1 inactivation. GLT1 downregulation in DM1 astrocytes increases glutamate neurotoxicity and is detrimental to neurons. Finally, we demonstrated that the upregulation of GLT1 corrected Purkinje cell firing and motor incoordination in DM1 mice. Our findings show that glial defects are critical in DM1 brain pathophysiology and open promising therapeutic perspectives through the modulation of glutamate levels.

  9. Substance P spinal signaling induces glial activation and nociceptive sensitization after fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wen-Wu; Guo, Tian-Zhi; Shi, Xiaoyou; Sun, Yuan; Wei, Tzuping; Clark, David J; Kingery, Wade S

    2015-01-01

    Tibia fracture in rodents induces substance P (SP)-dependent keratinocyte activation and inflammatory changes in the hindlimb, similar to those seen in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). In animal pain models spinal glial cell activation results in nociceptive sensitization. This study tested the hypothesis that limb fracture triggers afferent C-fiber SP release in the dorsal horn, resulting in chronic glia activation and central sensitization. At 4 weeks after tibia fracture and casting ...

  10. Efficient adenoviral vector directed expression of a foreign gene to neurons and sustentacular cells in the mouse olfactory neuroepithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Holtmaat, A.J.G.D.; Hermens, W.T.J.M.C.; Oestreicher, A.B.; Kaplitt, M.G.; Verhaagen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Replication deficient recombinant adenoviral vectors are efficient gene transfer agents for postmitotic cells, including neurons and glial cells. In this paper we have examined the effectiveness of adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer to the olfactory epithelium of adult mice. We show that

  11. Efficient adenoviral vector-directed expression of a foreign gene to neurons and sustentacular cells in the mouse olfactory neuroepithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, Anthony J D G; Hermens, W.T.J.M.C.; Oestreicher, A B; Gispen, Willem Hendrik; Kaplitt, M G; Verhaagen, J

    1996-01-01

    Replication deficient recombinant adenoviral vectors are efficient gene transfer agents for postmitotic cells, including neurons and glial cells. In this paper we have examined the effectiveness of adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer to the olfactory epithelium of adult mice. We show that

  12. Isolation and characterization of neural stem cells from dystrophic mdx mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annese, Tiziana; Corsi, Patrizia; Ruggieri, Simona; Tamma, Roberto; Marinaccio, Christian; Picocci, Sabrina; Errede, Mariella; Specchia, Giorgina; De Luca, Annamaria; Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Desantis, Vanessa; Vacca, Angelo; Ribatti, Domenico; Nico, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is altered in mdx mouse, an animal model to study Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our previous work demonstrated that perivascular glial endfeet control the selective exchanges between blood and neuropil as well as the BBB development and integrity; the alterations of dystrophin and dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPs) in the glial cells of mdx mouse, parallel damages of the BBB and increase in vascular permeability. The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge about brain cellular components in the mdx mouse through the isolation, for the first time, of the adult neural stem cells (ANSCs). We characterized them by FACS, electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Real Time-PCR and western blotting, and we studied the expression of the DAPs aquaporin-4 (AQP4), potassium channel Kir4.1, α- and β-dystroglycan (αDG, βDG), α-syntrophin (αSyn), and short dystrophin isoform Dp71 proteins. The results showed that the mdx ANSCs expressed CD133 and Nestin receptor as the control ones, but showed a reduction in Notch receptor and altered cell proliferation with an increment in the apoptotic nuclei. Ultrastructurally, they appeared 50% size reduced compared to control ones, with a few cytoplasmic organelles. Moreover, the mdx ANSCs are devoid in full length dystrophin 427, and they expressed post-transcriptional reduction in the Dp71 in parallel with the ubiquitin proteasome activation, and decrement of DAPs proteins which appeared diffused in the cytoplasm and not polarized on the stem cells plasmamembrane, as prevalently observed in the controls. Overall, these results indicate that structural and molecular alterations affect the neural stem cells in the dystrophic brain, whose increased apoptosis and reduced Dp71 and DAPs proteins expression, together with loss in Dp427 dystrophin, could be responsible of the altered mdx glial maintenance and differentiation and consequent failure in the vessels barrier

  13. Isolation and characterization of neural stem cells from dystrophic mdx mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annese, Tiziana [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Corsi, Patrizia [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Physiology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Ruggieri, Simona; Tamma, Roberto; Marinaccio, Christian [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Picocci, Sabrina [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Physiology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Errede, Mariella [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Specchia, Giorgina [Department of Emergency and Transplantation, Section of Hematology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); De Luca, Annamaria [Department of Bioscience, Biotechnology and Pharmacological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, University of Bari (Italy); Frassanito, Maria Antonia; Desantis, Vanessa; Vacca, Angelo [Department of Internal Medicine and Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); Ribatti, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.ribatti@uniba.it [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy); National Cancer Institute “Giovanni Paolo II”, Bari (Italy); Nico, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.nico@uniba.it [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, Section of Human Anatomy and Histology, University of Bari Medical School, Bari (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is altered in mdx mouse, an animal model to study Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Our previous work demonstrated that perivascular glial endfeet control the selective exchanges between blood and neuropil as well as the BBB development and integrity; the alterations of dystrophin and dystrophin-associated protein complex (DAPs) in the glial cells of mdx mouse, parallel damages of the BBB and increase in vascular permeability. The aim of this study was to improve our knowledge about brain cellular components in the mdx mouse through the isolation, for the first time, of the adult neural stem cells (ANSCs). We characterized them by FACS, electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Real Time-PCR and western blotting, and we studied the expression of the DAPs aquaporin-4 (AQP4), potassium channel Kir4.1, α- and β-dystroglycan (αDG, βDG), α-syntrophin (αSyn), and short dystrophin isoform Dp71 proteins. The results showed that the mdx ANSCs expressed CD133 and Nestin receptor as the control ones, but showed a reduction in Notch receptor and altered cell proliferation with an increment in the apoptotic nuclei. Ultrastructurally, they appeared 50% size reduced compared to control ones, with a few cytoplasmic organelles. Moreover, the mdx ANSCs are devoid in full length dystrophin 427, and they expressed post-transcriptional reduction in the Dp71 in parallel with the ubiquitin proteasome activation, and decrement of DAPs proteins which appeared diffused in the cytoplasm and not polarized on the stem cells plasmamembrane, as prevalently observed in the controls. Overall, these results indicate that structural and molecular alterations affect the neural stem cells in the dystrophic brain, whose increased apoptosis and reduced Dp71 and DAPs proteins expression, together with loss in Dp427 dystrophin, could be responsible of the altered mdx glial maintenance and differentiation and consequent failure in the vessels barrier

  14. Gene expression as a sensitive endpoint to evaluate cell differentiation and maturation of the developing central nervous system in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogberg, Helena T.; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Hartung, Thomas; Coecke, Sandra; Bal-Price, Anna K.

    2009-01-01

    The major advantage of primary neuronal cultures for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing is their ability to replicate the crucial stages of neurodevelopment. In our studies using primary culture of cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) we have evaluated whether the gene expression relevant to the most critical developmental processes such as neuronal differentiation (NF-68 and NF-200) and functional maturation (NMDA and GABA A receptors), proliferation and differentiation of astrocytes (GFAP and S100β) as well as the presence of neural precursor cells (nestin and Sox10) could be used as an endpoint for in vitro DNT. The expression of these genes was assessed after exposure to various pesticides (paraquat parathion, dichlorvos, pentachlorophenol and cycloheximide) that could induce developmental neurotoxicity through different mechanisms. All studied pesticides significantly modified the expression of selected genes, related to the different stages of neuronal and/or glial cell development and maturation. The most significant changes were observed after exposure to paraquat and parathion (i.e. down-regulation of mRNA expression of NF-68 and NF-200, NMDA and GABA A receptors). Similarly, dichlorvos affected mainly neurons (decreased mRNA expression of NF-68 and GABA A receptors) whereas cycloheximide had an effect on neurons and astrocytes, as significant decreases in the mRNA expression of both neurofilaments (NF-68 and NF-200) and the astrocyte marker (S100β) were observed. Our results suggest that toxicity induced by pesticides that target multiple pathways of neurodevelopment can be identified by studying expression of genes that are involved in different stages of cell development and maturation, and that gene expression could be used as a sensitive endpoint for initial screening to identify the compounds with the potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity

  15. Levetiracetam differentially alters CD95 expression of neuronal cells and the mitochondrial membrane potential of immune and neuronal cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah K Rogers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological seizure disorder that affects over 100 million people worldwide. Levetiracetam, either alone, as monotherapy, or as adjunctive treatment, is widely used to control certain types of seizures. Despite its increasing popularity as a relatively safe and effective anti-convulsive treatment option, its mechanism(s of action are poorly understood. Studies have suggested neuronal, glial, and immune mechanisms of action. Understanding the precise mechanisms of action of Levetiracetam would be extremely beneficial in helping to understand the processes involved in seizure generation and epilepsy. Moreover, a full understanding of these mechanisms would help to create more efficacious treatments while minimizing side effects. The current study examined the effects of Levetiracetam on the mitochondrial membrane potential of neuronal and non-neuronal cells, in vitro, in order to determine if Levetiracetam influences metabolic processes in these cell types. In addition, this study sought to address possible immune-mediated mechanisms by determining if Levetiracetam alters the expression of immune receptor-ligand pairs. The results show that Levetiracetam induces expression of CD95 and CD178 on NGF-treated C17.2 neuronal cells. The results also show that Levetiracetam increases mitochondrial membrane potential on C17.2 neuronal cells in the presence of nerve growth factor. In contrast, Levetiracetam decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential of splenocytes and this effect was dependent on intact invariant chain, thus implicating immune cell interactions. These results suggest that both neuronal and non-neuronal anti-epileptic activities of Levetiracetam involve control over energy metabolism, more specifically, mΔΨ. Future studies are needed to further investigate this potential mechanism of action.

  16. Plasma glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in patients with major depressive disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bun-Hee; Hong, Jin-Pyo; Hwang, Jung-A; Na, Kyoung-Sae; Kim, Won-Joong; Trigo, Jose; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2016-02-01

    Some clinical studies have reported reduced peripheral glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) level in elderly patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). We verified whether a reduction in plasma GDNF level was associated with MDD. Plasma GDNF level was measured in 23 healthy control subjects and 23 MDD patients before and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma GDNF level in MDD patients at baseline did not differ from that in healthy controls. Plasma GDNF in MDD patients did not differ significantly from baseline to the end of treatment. GDNF level was significantly lower in recurrent-episode MDD patients than in first-episode patients before and after treatment. Our findings revealed significantly lower plasma GDNF level in recurrent-episode MDD patients, although plasma GDNF levels in MDD patients and healthy controls did not differ significantly. The discrepancy between our study and previous studies might arise from differences in the recurrence of depression or the ages of the MDD patients.

  17. MCT expression and lactate influx/efflux in tanycytes involved in glia-neuron metabolic interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cortés-Campos

    Full Text Available Metabolic interaction via lactate between glial cells and neurons has been proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in hypothalamic glucosensing. We have postulated that hypothalamic glial cells, also known as tanycytes, produce lactate by glycolytic metabolism of glucose. Transfer of lactate to neighboring neurons stimulates ATP synthesis and thus contributes to their activation. Because destruction of third ventricle (III-V tanycytes is sufficient to alter blood glucose levels and food intake in rats, it is hypothesized that tanycytes are involved in the hypothalamic glucose sensing mechanism. Here, we demonstrate the presence and function of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs in tanycytes. Specifically, MCT1 and MCT4 expression as well as their distribution were analyzed in Sprague Dawley rat brain, and we demonstrate that both transporters are expressed in tanycytes. Using primary tanycyte cultures, kinetic analyses and sensitivity to inhibitors were undertaken to confirm that MCT1 and MCT4 were functional for lactate influx. Additionally, physiological concentrations of glucose induced lactate efflux in cultured tanycytes, which was inhibited by classical MCT inhibitors. Because the expression of both MCT1 and MCT4 has been linked to lactate efflux, we propose that tanycytes participate in glucose sensing based on a metabolic interaction with neurons of the arcuate nucleus, which are stimulated by lactate released from MCT1 and MCT4-expressing tanycytes.

  18. Glial Alterations From Early to Late Stages in a Model of Alzheimer’s Disease: Evidence of Autophagy Involvement in Aβ Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomilio, Carlos; Pavia, Patricio; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Vinuesa, Angeles; Alaimo, Agustina; Galvan, Veronica; Kotler, Monica Lidia; Beauquis, Juan; Saravia, Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective therapy. Brain amyloid deposits are classical histopathological hallmarks that generate an inflammatory reaction affecting neuronal and glial function. The identification of early cell responses and of brain areas involved could help to design new successful treatments. Hence, we studied early alterations of hippocampal glia and their progression during the neuropathology in PDAPP-J20 transgenic mice, AD model, at 3, 9, and 15 months (m) of age. At 3 m, before deposits formation, microglial Iba1 + cells from transgenic mice already exhibited signs of activation and larger soma size in the hilus, alterations appearing later on stratum radiatum. Iba1 immunohistochemistry revealed increased cell density and immunoreactive area in PDAPP mice from 9 m onward selectively in the hilus, in coincidence with prominent amyloid Congo red + deposition. At pre-plaque stages, GFAP+ astroglia showed density alterations while, at an advanced age, the presence of deposits was associated with important glial volume changes and apparently being intimately involved in amyloid degradation. Astrocytes around plaques were strongly labeled for LC3 until 15 m in Tg mice, suggestive of increased autophagic flux. Moreover, β-Amyloid fibrils internalization by astrocytes in in vitro conditions was dependent on autophagy. Co-localization of Iba1 with ubiquitin or p62 was exclusively found in microglia contacting deposits from 9 m onward, suggesting torpid autophagy. Our work characterizes glial changes at early stages of the disease in PDAPP-J20 mice, focusing on the hilus as an especially susceptible hippocampal subfield, and provides evidence that glial autophagy could play a role in amyloid processing at advanced stages. PMID:26235241

  19. EphA4 Regulates the Balance between Self-Renewal and Differentiation of Radial Glial Cells and Intermediate Neuronal Precursors in Cooperation with FGF Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Chen

    Full Text Available In mouse cerebral corticogenesis, neurons are generated from radial glial cells (RGCs or from their immediate progeny, intermediate neuronal precursors (INPs. The balance between self-renewal of these neuronal precursors and specification of cell fate is critical for proper cortical development, but the signaling mechanisms that regulate this progression are poorly understood. EphA4, a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily, is expressed in RGCs during embryogenesis. To illuminate the function of EphA4 in RGC cell fate determination during early corticogenesis, we deleted Epha4 in cortical cells at E11.5 or E13.5. Loss of EphA4 at both stages led to precocious in vivo RGC differentiation toward neurogenesis. Cortical cells isolated at E14.5 and E15.5 from both deletion mutants showed reduced capacity for neurosphere formation with greater differentiation toward neurons. They also exhibited lower phosphorylation of ERK and FRS2α in the presence of FGF. The size of the cerebral cortex at P0 was smaller than that of controls when Epha4 was deleted at E11.5 but not when it was deleted at E13.5, although the cortical layers were formed normally in both mutants. The number of PAX6-positive RGCs decreased at later developmental stages only in the E11.5 Epha4 deletion mutant. These results suggest that EphA4, in cooperation with an FGF signal, contributes to the maintenance of RGC self-renewal and repression of RGC differentiation through the neuronal lineage. This function of EphA4 is especially critical and uncompensated in early stages of corticogenesis, and thus deletion at E11.5 reduces the size of the neonatal cortex.

  20. Transplantation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Developing Mouse Eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun-Shil; Yu, Song-Hee; Jang, Yu-Jin; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied widely for their potential to differentiate into various lineage cells including neural cells in vitro and in vivo. To investigate the influence of the developing host environment on the integration and morphological and molecular differentiation of MSCs, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were transplanted into the developing mouse retina. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing BM-MSCs were transplanted by intraocular injections into mice, ranging in ages from 1 day postnatal (PN) to 10 days PN. The survival dates ranged from 7 days post-transplantation (DPT) to 28DPT, at which time an immunohistochemical analysis was performed on the eyes. The transplanted BM-MSCs survived and showed morphological differentiation into neural cells and some processes within the host retina. Some transplanted cells expressed microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2ab, marker for mature neural cells) or glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, marker for glial cells) at 5PN 7DPT. In addition, some transplanted cells integrated into the developing retina. The morphological and molecular differentiation and integration within the 5PN 7DPT eye was greater than those of other-aged host eye. The present findings suggest that the age of the host environment can strongly influence the differentiation and integration of BM-MSCs

  1. A Case of Nasal Glial Heterotopia in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hagiwara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of nasal glial heterotopia in an adult. After the surgery, frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage developed. A 58-year-old man had unilateral nasal obstruction that progressed for one year. He had been treated for hypertension, chronic heart failure, and cerebral infarction with aspirin and warfarin. A computed tomography scan showed that the tumor occupied the right nasal cavity and the sinuses with small defect in the cribriform plate. The tumor was removed totally with endoscopy. After the operation, the patient developed convulsions and frontal lobe cerebral hemorrhage. The hemorrhage site was located near a defect in the cribriform plate. Nasal glial heterotopia is a rare developmental abnormality, particularly rare in adult. Only few cases were reported. We could not find any report of adult nasal glial heterotopias that developed cerebral hemorrhage as a complication of the surgery.

  2. Macrophage-independent T cell infiltration to the site of injury-induced brain inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fux, Michaela; van Rooijen, Nico; Owens, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    We have addressed the role of macrophages in glial response and T cell entry to the CNS after axonal injury, by using intravenous injection of clodronate-loaded mannosylated liposomes, in C57BL6 mice. As expected, clodronate-liposome treatment resulted in depletion of peripheral macrophages which...... delay in the expansion of CD45(dim) CD11b(+) microglia in clodronate-liposome treated mice, but macrophage depletion had no effect on the percentage of infiltrating T cells in the lesion-reactive hippocampus. Lesion-induced TNFalpha mRNA expression was not affected by macrophage depletion, suggesting...... that activated glial cells are the primary source of this cytokine in the axonal injury-reactive brain. This identifies a potentially important distinction from inflammatory autoimmune infiltration in EAE, where macrophages are a prominent source of TNFalpha and their depletion prevents parenchymal T cell...

  3. Human glial chimeric mice reveal astrocytic dependence of JC virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondo, Yoichi; Windrem, Martha S; Zou, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    with humanized white matter by engrafting human glial progenitor cells (GPCs) into neonatal immunodeficient and myelin-deficient mice. Intracerebral delivery of JCV resulted in infection and subsequent demyelination of these chimeric mice. Human GPCs and astrocytes were infected more readily than...... that was chimeric for human astrocytes and GPCs. JCV effectively propagated in these mice, which indicates that astroglial infection is sufficient for JCV spread. Sequencing revealed progressive mutation of the JCV capsid protein VP1 after infection, suggesting that PML may evolve with active infection...

  4. Transient Cnp expression by early progenitors causes Cre-Lox-based reporter lines to map profoundly different fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognatta, Reshmi; Sun, Wenjing; Goebbels, Sandra; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Nishiyama, Akiko; Schoch, Susanne; Dimou, Leda; Dietrich, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    NG2 expressing oligodendroglial precursor cells are ubiquitous in the central nervous system and the only cell type cycling throughout life. Previous fate mapping studies have remained inconsistent regarding the question whether NG2 cells are capable of generating certain types of neurons. Here, we use CNP-Cre mice to map the fate of a sub-population of NG2 cells assumed to be close to differentiation. When crossing these mice with the ROSA26/YFP Cre-reporter line we discovered large numbers of reporter-expressing pyramidal neurons in the piriform and dorsal cortex. In contrast, when using Z/EG reporter mice to track the fate of Cnp-expressing NG2 cells only oligodendroglial cells were found reporter positive. Using BrdU-based birth dating protocols and inducible NG2CreER:ROSA26/YFP mice we show that YFP positive neurons are generated from radial glial cells and that these radial glial cells display temporary and low level activity of certain oligodendroglial genes sufficient to recombine the Cre-inducible reporter gene in ROSA26/YFP but not in Z/EG mice. Taken together, we did not obtain evidence for generation of neurons from NG2 cells. Our results suggest that with an appropriate reporter system Cnp activity can be used to define a proliferative subpopulation of NG2 cells committed to generate oligodendrocytes. However, the strikingly different results obtained from ROSA26/YFP versus Z/EG mice demonstrate that the choice of Cre-reporter line can be of crucial importance for fate mapping studies and other applications of the Cre-lox technology. GLIA 2017;65:342-359. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Activated microglia induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to produce glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor and protect neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingke Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated interactions among microglia (MG, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and neurons in cerebral ischemia and the potential mechanisms using an in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD model. Rat BMSCs were incubated with conditioned medium (CM from in vitro cultures of OGD-activated rat MG and murine BV2 MG cells. Effects of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF on rat neuron viability, apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were analyzed in this model. OGD-activated MG promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.01. TNFα, but not IL6 or IL1β, promoted GDNF production by BMSCs (P < 0.001. GDNF or CM pre-treated BMSCs elevated neuronal viability and suppressed apoptosis (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01; these effects were inhibited by the RET antibody. GDNF activated MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling but not JNK/c-JUN. Furthermore, GDNF upregulated B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (HSP60 levels, suppressed LDH leakage, and promoted MMP. Thus, activated MG produce TNFα to stimulate GDNF production by BMSCs, which prevents and repairs OGD-induced neuronal injury, possibly via regulating MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling. These findings will facilitate the prevention and treatment of neuronal injury by cerebral ischemia.

  6. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Na; Xu, Jing; Ren, Xiaotun

    2013-08-15

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12(th) day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neonatal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cell apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cell apoptosis through the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  7. A series of parapharyngeal glial heterotopia mimicking lymphatic malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haloob, Nora; Pepper, Christopher; Hartley, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Otolaryngologists will most frequently encounter extra-cranial glial tissue within the nasal cavity, where it is known as a 'nasal glioma', and may communicate with the dura. However, glial tissue can also present extra-nasally in the form of a neck mass with no intracranial connection. In these rare cases, they can present soon after birth as an enlarging neck mass, causing compressive symptoms with airway obstruction and feeding difficulties. In this way, it is often initially misdiagnosed as a more common lesion such as a lymphatic malformation, teratoma, branchial anomaly or vascular malformation. As with many congenital head and neck masses, offering the most the appropriate management relies heavily on radiological imaging and, where possible, histopathology from a diagnostic biopsy. Once the diagnosis of extra-nasal glial heterotopia has been confirmed, the gold standard management is complete surgical excision. We review three cases of extra-nasal glial heterotopia presenting to our institution over an eleven year period as a large neck mass, which mimicked other congenital neck lumps, and discuss them in the context of those in the literature. We highlight how their clinical and radiological features can easily be confused with lymphatic malformations, and the potential implications of misdiagnosis. Raising awareness of this diagnostic confusion will highlight the need for management of these cases within an appropriate paediatric multidisciplinary setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. IFN-beta inhibits T cell activation capacity of central nervous system APCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Ingrid; Liu, Yawei; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2006-01-01

    We have previously investigated the physiological effects of IFN-beta on chronic CNS inflammation and shown that IFN-beta(-/-) mice develop a more severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis than their IFN-beta(+/-) littermates. This result was shown to be associated with a higher activation...... state of the glial cells and a higher T cell cytokine production in the CNS. Because this state suggested a down-regulatory effect of IFN-beta on CNS-specific APCs, these results were investigated further. We report that IFN-beta pretreatment of astrocytes and microglia (glial cells) indeed down......-modulate their capacity to activate autoreactive Th1 cells. First, we investigated the intrinsic ability of glial cells as APCs and report that glial cells prevent autoreactive Th1 cells expansion while maintaining Ag-specific T cell effector functions. However, when the glial cells are treated with IFN-beta before...

  9. Phenotypic and gene expression modification with normal brain aging in GFAP-positive astrocytes and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Giovanna M; Peterson, Daniel A

    2011-06-01

    Astrocytes secrete growth factors that are both neuroprotective and supportive for the local environment. Identified by glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, astrocytes exhibit heterogeneity in morphology and in the expression of phenotypic markers and growth factors throughout different adult brain regions. In adult neurogenic niches, astrocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) within the neurogenic niche and are also a source of special GFAP-positive multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). Normal aging is accompanied by a decline in CNS function and reduced neurogenesis. We asked whether a decreased availability of astrocyte-derived factors may contribute to the age-related decline in neurogenesis. Determining alterations of astrocytic activity in the aging brain is crucial for understanding CNS homeostasis in aging and for assessing appropriate therapeutic targets for an aging population. We found region-specific alterations in the gene expression of GFAP, VEGF, and FGF-2 and their receptors in the aged brain corresponding to changes in astrocytic reactivity, supporting astrocytic heterogeneity and demonstrating a differential aging effect. We found that GFAP-positive NSCs uniquely coexpress both VEGF and its key mitotic receptor Flk-1 in both young and aged hippocampus, indicating a possible autocrine/paracrine signaling mechanism. VEGF expression is lost once NSCs commit to a neuronal fate, but Flk-1-mediated sensitivity to VEGF signaling is maintained. We propose that age-related astrocytic changes result in reduced VEGF and FGF-2 signaling, which in turn limits NSC and progenitor cell maintenance and contributes to decreased neurogenesis. © 2011 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Macrophage polarization in nerve injury: do Schwann cells play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Anne Stratton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to peripheral nerve injury, the inflammatory response is almost entirely comprised of infiltrating macrophages. Macrophages are a highly plastic, heterogenic immune cell, playing an indispensable role in peripheral nerve injury, clearing debris and regulating the microenvironment to allow for efficient regeneration. There are several cells within the microenvironment that likely interact with macrophages to support their function - most notably the Schwann cell, the glial cell of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells express several ligands that are known to interact with receptors expressed by macrophages, yet the effects of Schwann cells in regulating macrophage phenotype remains largely unexplored. This review discusses macrophages in peripheral nerve injury and how Schwann cells may regulate their behavior.

  11. Sex- and age-dependent effects of thyroid hormone on glial morphology and function

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Mami; Mori, Yuki; Yoshioka, Yusaku

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS), not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. In adult CNS, both hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may affect psychological condition and potentially increase the risk of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have reported non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on microglial functions and its signaling in vitro...

  12. Neural stem cells induce bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to generate neural stem-like cells via juxtacrine and paracrine interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Arshak R.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports suggest that there is far more plasticity that previously believed in the developmental potential of bone-marrow-derived cells (BMCs) that can be induced by extracellular developmental signals of other lineages whose nature is still largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-cultured with mouse proliferating or fixed (by paraformaldehyde or methanol) neural stem cells (NSCs) generate neural stem cell-like cells with a higher expression of Sox-2 and nestin when grown in NS-A medium supplemented with N2, NSC conditioned medium (NSCcm) and bFGF. These neurally induced MSCs eventually differentiate into β-III-tubulin and GFAP expressing cells with neuronal and glial morphology when grown an additional week in Neurobasal/B27 without bFGF. We conclude that juxtacrine interaction between NSCs and MSCs combined with soluble factors released from NSCs are important for generation of neural-like cells from bone-marrow-derived adherent MSCs

  13. Dampak Hipoksia Sistemik terhadap Malondialdehida, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein dan Aktivitas Asetilkolin Esterase Otak Tikus

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    Andriani Andriani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hipoksia sistemik menyebabkan berkurangnya oksigen dan energi di otak sehingga memicupenglepasan neurotransmiter asetilkolin, meningkatkan radikal bebas dan glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAPyang berfungsi menjaga kekuatan membran. Tujuan penelitian untuk melihat gambaran adaptasi otak padahipoksia sistemik terhadap fungsi asetilkolin esterase, kerusakan membran sel neuron dan astrosit. Penelitiandilakukan di Laboratorium Biokimia & Biologi Molekuler FK Universitas Indonesia, pada tahun 2013.Penelitian ekperimental ini menggunakan hewan coba tikus spraque dawley yang diinduksi hipoksia sistemikyang diambil jaringan otak bagian korteks dan plasma tikus. Kelompok tikus terdiri atas kelompok kontrol,kelompok perlakuan induksi hipoksia hari ke-1, 3 hari, 5 hari dan hari ke-7. Parameter yang diukur adalahkadar malondialdehida (MDA otak dan plasma, aktivitas spesifik enzim AChE jaringan otak serta kadar GFAPjaringan otak. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa hipoksia sistemik tidak meningkatkankadar MDA otak dan plasma.Induksi hipoksia sistemik meningkatkan aktivitas spesifik enzim AChE dan kadar GFAP jaringan otak secarabermakna. Pada plasma tidak terjadi peningkatan kadar GFAP. Hipoksia sistemik selama hari ke-7 belummenyebabkan kerusakan oksidatif, namun memperlihatkan peningkatan aktivitas AChe dan adaptasi astrositmelalui peningkatan GFAP. Kata kunci: hipoksia, astrosit, glial fibrillary acidic protein, malondialdehida, asetilkolin esterase   Systemic Hypoxia Effect on Rat Brain Malondialdehyde, Glial FibrillaryAcidic Protein, and Acetylcholine Esterase Activity Abstract Sistemic hypoxia causes lack of oxygen and energy in brain that trigger the release of acetylcholine,free radical and Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a specific protein in astrocyte cells that act to strenghtenastrocite membrane. The aim of the research was to evaluate the damages of brain in systemic hypoxiathrough activity of acetylcholine esterase, neuron and astrocyte membran

  14. Non-Neuronal Cells Are Required to Mediate the Effects of Neuroinflammation: Results from a Neuron-Enriched Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chin Wai; Zhang, Yang; Herrup, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with activated microglia and reactive astrocytes and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cytokine responses to immune challenges contribute to neuronal death during neurodegeneration. In order to investigate the role of glial cells in this phenomenon, we developed a modified method to remove the non-neuronal cells in primary cultures of E16.5 mouse cortex. We modified previously reported methods as we found that a brief treatment with the thymidine analog, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdU), is sufficient to substantially deplete dividing non-neuronal cells in primary cultures. Cell cycle and glial markers confirm the loss of ~99% of all microglia, astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). More importantly, under this milder treatment, the neurons suffered neither cell loss nor any morphological defects up to 2.5 weeks later; both pre- and post-synaptic markers were retained. Further, neurons in FdU-treated cultures remained responsive to excitotoxicity induced by glutamate application. The immunobiology of the FdU culture, however, was significantly changed. Compared with mixed culture, the protein levels of NFκB p65 and the gene expression of several cytokine receptors were altered. Individual cytokines or conditioned medium from β-amyloid-stimulated THP-1 cells that were, potent neurotoxins in normal, mixed cultures, were virtually inactive in the absence of glial cells. The results highlight the importance of our glial-depleted culture system and identifies and offer unexpected insights into the complexity of -brain neuroinflammation.

  15. Glial and Neuronal Glutamate Transporters Differ in the Na+ Requirements for Activation of the Substrate-Independent Anion Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Divito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs are secondary active transporters of L-glutamate and L- or D-aspartate. These carriers also mediate a thermodynamically uncoupled anion conductance that is gated by Na+ and substrate binding. The activation of the anion channel by binding of Na+ alone, however, has only been demonstrated for mammalian EAAC1 (EAAT3 and EAAT4. To date, no difference has been observed for the substrate dependence of anion channel gating between the glial, EAAT1 and EAAT2, and the neuronal isoforms EAAT3, EAAT4 and EAAT5. Here we describe a difference in the Na+-dependence of anion channel gating between glial and neuronal isoforms. Chloride flux through transporters without glutamate binding has previously been described as substrate-independent or “leak” channel activity. Choline or N-methyl-D-glucamine replacement of external Na+ ions significantly reduced or abolished substrate-independent EAAT channel activity in EAAT3 and EAAT4 yet has no effect on EAAT1 or EAAT2. The interaction of Na+ with the neuronal carrier isoforms was concentration dependent, consistent with previous data. The presence of substrate and Na+-independent open states in the glial EAAT isoforms is a novel finding in the field of EAAT function. Our results reveal an important divergence in anion channel function between glial and neuronal glutamate transporters and highlight new potential roles for the EAAT-associated anion channel activity based on transporter expression and localization in the central nervous system.

  16. Oral Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) reduces kainic acid-induced epileptic seizures and neuronal death accompanied by attenuating glial cell proliferation and S100B proteins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Wen; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2011-05-17

    Epilepsy is a common clinical syndrome with recurrent neuronal discharges in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Here we aim to determine the protective role of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR), an herbal drug belong to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on epileptic rats. To address this issue, we tested the effect of UR on kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizures and further investigate the underlying mechanisms. Oral UR successfully decreased neuronal death and discharges in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. The population spikes (PSs) were decreased from 4.1 ± 0.4 mV to 2.1 ± 0.3 mV in KA-induced epileptic seizures and UR-treated groups, respectively. Oral UR protected animals from neuronal death induced by KA treatment (from 34 ± 4.6 to 191.7 ± 48.6 neurons/field) through attenuating glial cell proliferation and S100B protein expression but not GABAA and TRPV1 receptors. The above results provide detail mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective action of UR on KA-induced epileptic seizure in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Functional Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva C. Thoma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct transdifferentiation of somatic cells is a promising approach to obtain patient-specific cells for numerous applications. However, conversion across germ-layer borders often requires ectopic gene expression with unpredictable side effects. Here, we present a gene-free approach that allows efficient conversion of human fibroblasts via a transient progenitor stage into Schwann cells, the major glial cell type of peripheral nerves. Using a multikinase inhibitor, we transdifferentiated fibroblasts into transient neural precursors that were subsequently further differentiated into Schwann cells. The resulting induced Schwann cells (iSCs expressed numerous Schwann cell-specific proteins and displayed neurosupportive and myelination capacity in vitro. Thus, we established a strategy to obtain mature Schwann cells from human postnatal fibroblasts under chemically defined conditions without the introduction of ectopic genes.

  18. N-Cadherin Upregulation Promotes the Neurogenic Differentiation of Menstrual Blood-Derived Endometrial Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanli; Yang, Fen; Liang, Shengying; Liu, Qing; Fu, Sulei; Wang, Zhenyu; Yang, Ciqing; Lin, Juntang

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are typically caused by either trauma or medical disorders, and recently, stem cell-based therapies have provided a promising treatment approach. Menstrual blood-derived endometrial stem cells (MenSCs) are considered an ideal therapeutic option for peripheral nerve repair due to a noninvasive collection procedure and their high proliferation rate and immunological tolerance. Here, we successfully isolated MenSCs and examined their biological characteristics including their morphology, multipotency, and immunophenotype. Subsequent in vitro studies demonstrated that MenSCs express high levels of neurotrophic factors, such as NT3, NT4, BDNF, and NGF, and are capable of transdifferentiating into glial-like cells under conventional induction conditions. Moreover, upregulation of N-cadherin (N-cad) mRNA and protein expression was observed after neurogenic differentiation. In vivo studies clearly showed that N-cad knockdown via in utero electroporation perturbed the migration and maturation of mouse neural precursor cells (NPCs). Finally, a further transfection assay also confirmed that N-cad upregulation in MenSCs results in the expression of S100. Collectively, our results confirmed the paracrine effect of MenSCs on neuroprotection as well as their potential for transdifferentiation into glial-like cells and demonstrated that N-cad upregulation promotes the neurogenic differentiation of MenSCs, thereby providing support for transgenic MenSC-based therapy for peripheral nerve injury.

  19. Isolation of progenitor cells from GFP-transgenic pigs and transplantation to the retina of allorecipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassen, Henry; Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H

    2008-01-01

    to survival as allografts and integrate into the host retinal architecture, we isolated donor cells from fetal green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic pigs. Cultures were propagated from the brain, retina, and corneo-scleral limbus. GFP expression rapidly increased with time in culture, although lower...... in conjunction with photoreceptor markers and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), thus suggesting downregulation of GFP during differentiation. Following transplantation, GFP expression allowed histological visualization of integrated cells and extension of fine processes to adjacent plexiform layers. GFP...

  20. Nestin Reporter Transgene Labels Multiple Central Nervous System Precursor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery S. Walker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic neuroepithelia and adult subventricular zone (SVZ stem and progenitor cells express nestin. We characterized a transgenic line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP specified to neural tissue by the second intronic enhancer of the nestin promoter that had several novel features. During embryogenesis, the dorsal telencephalon contained many and the ventral telencephalon few eGFP+ cells. eGFP+ cells were found in postnatal and adult neurogenic regions. eGFP+ cells in the SVZ expressed multiple phenotype markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein, Dlx, and neuroblast-specific molecules suggesting the transgene is expressed through the lineage. eGFP+ cell numbers increased in the SVZ after cortical injury, suggesting this line will be useful in probing postinjury neurogenesis. In non-neurogenic regions, eGFP was strongly expressed in oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not in astrocytes, even when they were reactive. This eGFP+ mouse will facilitate studies of proliferative neuroepithelia and adult neurogenesis, as well as of parenchymal oligodendrocytes.

  1. Hippocampal Astrocyte Cultures from Adult and Aged Rats Reproduce Changes in Glial Functionality Observed in the Aging Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaver, Bruna; Souza, Débora Guerini; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2017-05-01

    Astrocytes are dynamic cells that maintain brain homeostasis, regulate neurotransmitter systems, and process synaptic information, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and inflammatory response. Aging is a biological process that is closely associated with hippocampal astrocyte dysfunction. In this sense, we demonstrated that hippocampal astrocytes from adult and aged Wistar rats reproduce the glial functionality alterations observed in aging by evaluating several senescence, glutamatergic, oxidative and inflammatory parameters commonly associated with the aging process. Here, we show that the p21 senescence-associated gene and classical astrocyte markers, such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and actin, changed their expressions in adult and aged astrocytes. Age-dependent changes were also observed in glutamate transporters (glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1)) and glutamine synthetase immunolabeling and activity. Additionally, according to in vivo aging, astrocytes from adult and aged rats showed an increase in oxidative/nitrosative stress with mitochondrial dysfunction, an increase in RNA oxidation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, superoxide levels, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels. Changes in antioxidant defenses were also observed. Hippocampal astrocytes also displayed age-dependent inflammatory response with augmentation of proinflammatory cytokine levels, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18, and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). Furthermore, these cells secrete neurotrophic factors, including glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) protein, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which changed in an age-dependent manner. Classical signaling pathways associated with aging, such as nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NFκ

  2. Imaging of intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Shimin; Qin Jinxi; Zhang Leili; Liu Meili; Jin Song; Yan Shixin; Liu Li; Dai Weiying; Li Tao; Gao Man

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic clinical, imaging , and pathologic findings of intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours. Methods: The imaging findings of surgery and pathobiology proved intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours in 14 cases (7 male and 7 female, ranging in age from 6-56 years; mean age 33.8 years) were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Eight gangliogliomas were located in the frontal lobe (4 cases), temporal lobe (1 case), front- temporal lobe (2 cases), and pons (1 case). They appeared as iso-or low density on CT, iso-or low signal intensity on T 1 WI, and high signal intensity on T 2 WI on MR imaging. Two central neurocytomas were located in the supratentorial ventricles. Four desmoplastic gangliogliomas were seen as cystic masses, appearing as low signal intensity on T 1 WI and high signal intensity on T 2 WI. Conclusion: Intracranial neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumours had imaging characteristics. Combined with clinical history, it was possible to make a tendency preoperative diagnosis using CT or MR

  3. Nasal glial heterotopia or congenital hemangioma? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartizien, R; Durand, C; Blaise, S; Morand, B

    2017-10-01

    Nasal glial heterotopia (NGH) is a rare benign tumor of the median line. We describe the case of a child presenting a lateral nasal mass. The characteristics of the prenatal ultrasound and the postnatal clinical examination argued in favor of a congenital hemangioma (CH). The MRI performed at 6 weeks of life suggested glial heterotopia. This diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological analysis. Congenital hemangiomas and nasal glial heterotopies have similar clinical presentations. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis between NGH and CH is difficult. Fetal MRI is not yet highly specific for these two lesions, but it can eliminate an intracerebral connection in cases of NGH. Postnatal exams are more specific. Flow on the Doppler exam is rapid for CH and slow for NGH. On MRI, these two lesions appear as a hypersignal on T2-weighted sequences, but less intense for NGH than for CH. Distinguishing between NGH and CH can be difficult. This does not have a direct incidence on treatment because it is surgical in both cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipoic Acid Treatment after Brain Injury: Study of the Glial Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Rocamonde

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After trauma brain injury, oxidative substances released to the medium provoke an enlargement of the initial lesion, increasing glial cell activation and, occasionally, an influx of immune cells into the central nervous system, developing the secondary damage. In response to these stimuli, microglia are activated to perform upregulation of intracellular enzymes and cell surface markers to propagate the immune response and phagocytosis of cellular debris. The phagocytosis of debris and dead cells is essential to limit the inflammatory reaction and potentially prevent extension of the damage to noninjured regions. Lipoic acid has been reported as a neuroprotectant by acting as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Furthermore, angiogenic effect promoted by lipoic acid has been recently shown by our group as a crucial process for neural regeneration after brain injury. In this work, we focus our attention on the lipoic acid effect on astroglial and microglial response after brain injury.

  5. The "Big-Bang" for modern glial biology: Translation and comments on Pío del Río-Hortega 1919 series of papers on microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Amanda; de Castro, Fernando; Del Río-Hortega, Juan; Rafael Iglesias-Rozas, José; Garrosa, Manuel; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-11-01

    The word "glia" was coined in the mid-19th century and defined as "the nerve glue". For decades, it was assumed to be a uniform matrix, until cell theorists raised the "neuron doctrine" which stipulated that nervous tissue was composed of individual cells. The term "astrocytes" was introduced in the late 19th century as a synonym for glial cells, but it was Santiago Ramón y Cajal who defined a "third element" distinct from glial cells (astrocytes) and neurons. It was not until 1919 when Pío del Río-Hortega, an alumnus of the Cajal School, introduced the modern terms we use today, and thoroughly described both "oligodendrocytes" and "microglia" to clearly distinguish them from astrocytes. In a series of four papers published that year in Spanish, Río-Hortega described the distribution and morphological phenotype of microglia. He also noted that these cells were the origin of the rod cells described earlier in pathologic tissue, and recognized that resting microglia transformed into an ameboid phenotype in different types of brain diseases and pathologies. He also noted the mesodermal origin of these cells and recognized their phagocytic capacity. We here provide the first English translation of these landmark series of papers, which paved the way for modern glial research. To heighten the value and accessibility of these classic papers and their original figures, an introduction to this critical period of neuroscience is provided, along with unpublished photographs. By adding comments to the translated text, we provide sufficient context so that contemporary scientists may fully appreciate it. GLIA 2016;64:1801-1840. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Long term imaging of living brain cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Patricia M. A.; Galembeck, André; Milani, Raquel; Andrade, Arnaldo C. D. S.; Stingl, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    QDs synthesized in aqueous medium and functionalized with polyethylene glycol were used as fluorescent probes. They label and monitor living healthy and cancer brain glial cells in culture. Physical-chemical characterization was performed. Toxicological studies were performed by in vivo short and long-term inhalation in animal models. Healthy and cancer glial living cells were incubated in culture media with highly controlled QDs. Specific features of glial cancer cells were enhanced by QD labelling. Cytoplasmic labelling pattern was clearly distinct for healthy and cancer cells. Labelled cells kept their normal activity for same period as non-labelled control samples.

  7. Glial Tissue Mechanics and Mechanosensing by Glial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Pogoda; Katarzyna Pogoda; Paul A. Janmey

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the mechanical behavior of human brain is critical to interpret the role of physical stimuli in both normal and pathological processes that occur in CNS tissue, such as development, inflammation, neurodegeneration, aging, and most common brain tumors. Despite clear evidence that mechanical cues influence both normal and transformed brain tissue activity as well as normal and transformed brain cell behavior, little is known about the links between mechanical signals and their bio...

  8. Differentiated cells derived from fetal neural stem cells improve motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Hao Song; Aifang Shen; Chao Chen; Yanming Liu; Yabing Dong; Fabin Han

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Parkinson’s disease(PD), which is one of the most common neuro‐degenerative disorders, is characterized by the loss of dopamine(DA) neurons in the substantia nigra in the midbrain. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that fetal neural stem cells(NSCs) have therapeutic effects in neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine whether cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat model of PD. Methods: NSCs were isolated from 14‐week‐old embryos and induced to differentiate into neurons, DA neurons, and glial cells, and these cells were characterized by their expression of the following markers: βⅢ‐tubulin and microtubule‐associated protein 2(neurons), tyrosine hydroxylase(DA neurons), and glial fibrillary acidic protein(glial cells). After a 6‐hydroxydopamine(6‐OHDA)‐lesioned rat model of PD was generated, the differentiated cells were transplanted into the striata of the 6‐OHDA‐lesioned PD rats. Results: The motor behaviors of the PD rats were assessed by the number of apomorphine‐induced rotation turns. The results showed that the NSCs differentiated in vitro into neurons and DA neurons with high efficiencies. After transplantation into the striata of the PD rats, the differentiated cells significantly improved the motor deficits of the transplanted PD rats compared to those of the control nontransplanted PD rats by decreasing the apomorphine‐induced turn cycles as early as 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunofluorescence analyses showed that the differentiated DA neurons survived more than 16 weeks. Conclusions: Our results showed that cells that were differentiated from NSCs had therapeutic effects in a rat PD model, which suggests that differentiated cells may be an effective treatment for patients with PD.

  9. Effects of piracetam on the incorporation of 32P into the phospholipids of neurons and glial cells isolated from rabbit cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woelk, H.

    1979-01-01

    In the search for the biochemical basis of the action of Piracetam, the effects of this encephalotropic substance on the neuronal and glial phospholipid metabolism was investigated. Piracetam increases the incorporation of 32 P into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl choline of both glia and neuronal cell bodies. When taking the important role of phosphatidylinoitol in the processes of synaptic transmission and axonal conduction into consideration, the data obtained in the present work suggest that piracetam may stimulate excitatory neurons and may be involved in the process of synaptic transmission. The stimulatory effect of piracetam on the incorporation of 32 P into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidyl choline appears to be mediated by norepinephrine or another neurotransmitter. (orig.) [de

  10. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of familial juvenile onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD often fail to produce diverse pathological features of the disease by modification of single gene mutations that are responsible for the disease. They can hence be poor models for testing and development of novel drugs. Here, we analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw. We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splic