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Sample records for expressing cre recombinase

  1. Cytokeratin 19 promoter directs the expression of Cre recombinase in various epithelia of transgenic mice.

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    Zhao, Gui-Feng; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Jia-Jie; Wu, Ji-Cheng; He, Hao-Yu; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Xue-Wen; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Jie; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2017-03-14

    Cytokeratin 19 (K19) is expressed in various differentiated cells, including gastric, intestinal and bronchial epithelial cells, and liver duct cells. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line, K19-Cre, in which the expression of Cre recombinase was controlled by the promoter of K19. To test the tissue distribution and excision activity of Cre recombinase, K19-Cre transgenic mice were bred with Rosa26 reporter strain and a mouse strain that carries PTEN conditional alleles (PTENLoxp/Loxp). At mRNA level, Cre was strongly expressed in the stomach, lung and intestine, while in stomach, lung, and liver at protein level. The immunoreactivity to Cre was strongly observed the cytoplasm of gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells. Cre activity was detectable in gastric, bronchial and intestinal epithelial cells, according to LacZ staining. In K19-Cre/PTEN Loxp/Loxp mice, PTEN was abrogated in stomach, intestine, lung, liver and breast, the former two of which were verified by in situ PCR. There appeared breast cancer with PTEN loss. These data suggest that K19 promoter may be a useful tool to study the pathophysiological functions of cytokeratin 19-positive cells, especially gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Cell specificity of neoplasia is not completely attributable to the cell-specific expression of oncogenes and cell-specific loss of tumor suppressor genes.

  2. Tie-1-directed expression of Cre recombinase in endothelial cells of embryoid bodies and transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, E; Brakebusch, C; Hietanen, K

    2001-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene inactivation using the Cre-loxP system has become an important tool to unravel functions of genes when the conventional null mutation is lethal. We report here the generation of a transgenic mouse line expressing Cre recombinase in endothelial cells. In order to avoid...... the production and screening of multiple transgenic lines we used embryonic stem cell and embryoid body technology to identify recombinant embryonic stem cell clones with high, endothelial-specific Cre activity. One embryonic stem cell clone that showed high Cre activity in endothelial cells was used to generate...... germline chimeras. The in vivo efficiency and specificity of the transgenic Cre was analysed by intercrossing the tie-1-Cre line with the ROSA26R reporter mice. At initial stages of vascular formation (E8-9), LacZ staining was detected in almost all cells of the forming vasculature. Between E10 and birth...

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects the heart from acute injury caused by inducible Cre recombinase.

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    Hull, Travis D; Bolisetty, Subhashini; DeAlmeida, Angela C; Litovsky, Silvio H; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F

    2013-08-01

    The protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cardiovascular disease has been previously demonstrated using transgenic animal models in which HO-1 is constitutively overexpressed in the heart. However, the temporal requirements for protection by HO-1 induction relative to injury have not been investigated, but are essential to employ HO-1 as a therapeutic strategy in human cardiovascular disease states. Therefore, we generated mice with cardiac-specific, tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible overexpression of a human HO-1 (hHO-1) transgene (myosin heavy chain (MHC)-HO-1 mice) by breeding mice with cardiac-specific expression of a TAM-inducible Cre recombinase (MHC-Cre mice), with mice containing an hHO-1 transgene preceded by a floxed-stop signal. MHC-HO-1 mice overexpress HO-1 mRNA and the enzymatically active protein following TAM administration (40 mg/kg body weight on 2 consecutive days). In MHC-Cre controls, TAM administration leads to severe, acute cardiac toxicity, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and 80% mortality by day 3. This cardiac toxicity is accompanied by a significant increase in inflammatory cells in the heart that are predominantly neutrophils. In MHC-HO-1 mice, HO-1 overexpression ameliorates the depression of cardiac function and high mortality rate observed in MHC-Cre mice following TAM administration and attenuates cardiomyocyte necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These results highlight that HO-1 induction is sufficient to prevent the depression of cardiac function observed in mice with TAM-inducible Cre recombinase expression by protecting the heart from necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These findings are important because MHC-Cre mice are widely used in cardiovascular research despite the limitations imposed by Cre-induced cardiac toxicity, and also because inflammation is an important pathological component of many human cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Transgenic mice for a tamoxifen-induced, conditional expression of the Cre recombinase in osteoclasts.

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    Maria Arantzazu Sanchez-Fernandez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, have remained limited due to the lack of transgenic mice allowing the conditional knockout of genes in osteoclasts at any time during development or adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We report here on the generation of transgenic mice which specifically express a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase in osteoclasts. These mice, generated on C57BL/6 and FVB background, express a fusion Cre recombinase-ERT2 protein whose expression is driven by the promoter of cathepsin K (CtsK, a gene highly expressed in osteoclasts. We tested the cellular specificity of Cre activity in CtsKCreERT2 strains by breeding with Rosa26LacZ reporter mice. PCR and histological analyses of the CtsKCreERT2LacZ positive adult mice and E17.5 embryos show that Cre activity is restricted largely to bone tissue. In vitro, primary osteoclasts derived from the bone marrow of CtsKCreERT2+/-LacZ+/- adult mice show a Cre-dependent β-galactosidase activity after tamoxifen stimulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have generated transgenic lines that enable the tamoxifen-induced, conditional deletion of loxP-flanked genes in osteoclasts, thus circumventing embryonic and postnatal gene lethality and avoiding gene deletion in other cell types. Such CtsKCreERT2 mice provide a convenient tool to study in vivo the different facets of osteoclast function in bone physiology during different developmental stages and adulthood of mice.

  5. Transgenic Mice Expressing a Ligand-Inducible Cre Recombinase in Osteoblasts and Odontoblasts

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    Kim, Jung-Eun; Nakashima, Kazuhisa; de Crombrugghe, Benoit

    2004-01-01

    The skeleton supports body structures in vertebrates and helps maintain calcium homeostasis throughout life. Disruption of genes involved in mammalian bone formation has often led to embryonic lethality, hence preventing study of these genes’ role in adult animals. To develop a usable tool for such study, we generated transgenic mice in which a 2.3-kb mouse Col1a1 proximal promoter, which is active in all osteoblasts, drives a transgene coding for a polypeptide consisting of Cre recombinase fused to a mutated ligand-binding domain of the estrogen receptor. In this Col1a1-CreERT2 mouse line, expression patterns of the transgene and of the resulting Cre-mediated DNA recombination are analyzed by crossing with ROSA26 reporter mice and by measurement of β-galactosidase activity and X-gal staining. Exposure to 4-hydroxytamoxifen induced Cre-mediated recombination in osteoblasts in virtually all bones and in odontoblasts in teeth of both embryos and postnatal mice. The generation of these transgenic mice provides a new and important tool with which to study the function of specific genes in bone and tooth physiology and diseases in intact animals after birth. PMID:15579432

  6. Targeting of GFP-Cre to the mouse Cyp11a1 locus both drives cre recombinase expression in steroidogenic cells and permits generation of Cyp11a1 knock out mice.

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    Laura O'Hara

    Full Text Available To permit conditional gene targeting of floxed alleles in steroidogenic cell-types we have generated a transgenic mouse line that expresses Cre Recombinase under the regulation of the endogenous Cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1 promoter. Mice Carrying the Cyp11a1-GC (GFP-Cre allele express Cre Recombinase in fetal adrenal and testis, and adrenal cortex, testicular Leydig cells (and a small proportion of Sertoli cells, theca cells of the ovary, and the hindbrain in postnatal life. Circulating testosterone concentration is unchanged in Cyp11(+/GC males, suggesting steroidogenesis is unaffected by loss of one allele of Cyp11a1, mice are grossly normal, and Cre Recombinase functions to recombine floxed alleles of both a YFP reporter gene and the Androgen Receptor (AR in steroidogenic cells of the testis, ovary, adrenal and hindbrain. Additionally, when bred to homozygosity (Cyp11a1(GC/GC , knock-in of GFP-Cre to the endogenous Cyp11a1 locus results in a novel mouse model lacking endogenous Cyp11a1 (P450-SCC function. This unique dual-purpose model has utility both for those wishing to conditionally target genes within steroidogenic cell types and for studies requiring mice lacking endogenous steroid hormone production.

  7. Mutants of Cre recombinase with improved accuracy

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    Eroshenko, Nikolai; Church, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in genome engineering technologies, inserting genes into precise locations in the human genome remains an outstanding problem. It has been suggested that site-specific recombinases can be adapted towards use as transgene delivery vectors. The specificity of recombinases can be altered either with directed evolution or via fusions to modular DNA-binding domains. Unfortunately, both wildtype and altered variants often have detectable activities at off-target sites. Here we use bacterial selections to identify mutations in the dimerization surface of Cre recombinase (R32V, R32M, and 303GVSdup) that improve the accuracy of recombination. The mutants are functional in bacteria, in human cells, and in vitro (except for 303GVSdup, which we did not purify), and have improved selectivity against both model off-target sites and the entire E. coli genome. We propose that destabilizing binding cooperativity may be a general strategy for improving the accuracy of dimeric DNA-binding proteins. PMID:24056590

  8. Monodispersity of recombinant Cre recombinase correlates with its effectiveness in vivo

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    Edenhofer Frank

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cre recombinase is a common reagent used for the in vivo on/off switching of the expression of target genes flanked by loxP sites. In particular, recombinant TAT-Cre fusion constructs purified from bacteria have been used to promote the cell uptake of the enzyme. However, the recovery of active TAT-Cre remains a demanding process and its specific activity varies significantly among batches, making difficult data comparison. Results We noticed a strong correlation between recombinase activity and enzyme monodispersity. The existence of such correlation enabled us to indirectly monitor the TAT-Cre recombinase activity during the multi-step purification process by measuring its monodispersity, a parameter detectable by means of a spectrofluorimetric assay that allows the calculation of the Aggregation Index (AI in an easy and rapid way. AI values were recorded after each purification passage to identify the critical steps and to choose optimal alternatives for chromatographic conditions, desalting procedures, and protocols for bacterial endotoxin removal. Furthermore, the effect of metal ions and temperature on TAT-Cre aggregation and inactivation was characterized in vitro. Finally, we optimized the enzyme delivery protocol in vivo by following the accumulation tuning of the reporter protein β-catenin. Conclusion A rational purification protocol for TAT-Cre has been developed by choosing the options that minimize the enzyme aggregation. Our data suggest that AI measurement should support the optimization of any protocol aiming at the recovery of monodispersed protein.

  9. Cell type-specific manipulation with GFP-dependent Cre recombinase.

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    Tang, Jonathan C Y; Rudolph, Stephanie; Dhande, Onkar S; Abraira, Victoria E; Choi, Seungwon; Lapan, Sylvain W; Drew, Iain R; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Huberman, Andrew D; Regehr, Wade G; Cepko, Constance L

    2015-09-01

    There are many transgenic GFP reporter lines that allow the visualization of specific populations of cells. Using such lines for functional studies requires a method that transforms GFP into a molecule that enables genetic manipulation. We developed a method that exploits GFP for gene manipulation, Cre recombinase dependent on GFP (CRE-DOG), a split component system that uses GFP and its derivatives to directly induce Cre/loxP recombination. Using plasmid electroporation and AAV viral vectors, we delivered CRE-DOG to multiple GFP mouse lines, which led to effective recombination selectively in GFP-labeled cells. Furthermore, CRE-DOG enabled optogenetic control of these neurons. Beyond providing a new set of tools for manipulation of gene expression selectively in GFP(+) cells, we found that GFP can be used to reconstitute the activity of a protein not known to have a modular structure, suggesting that this strategy might be applicable to a wide range of proteins.

  10. Conditional Wwox deletion in mouse mammary gland by means of two Cre recombinase approaches.

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    Brent W Ferguson

    Full Text Available Loss of WWOX expression has been reported in many different cancers including breast cancer. Elucidating the function of this gene in adult tissues has not been possible with full Wwox knockout models. Here we characterize the first conditional models of Wwox ablation in mouse mammary epithelium utilizing two transgenic lines expressing Cre recombinase, keratin 5-Cre (BK5-Cre and MMTV-Cre. In the BK5-Cre model we observed very efficient Wwox ablation in KO mammary glands. However, BK5-Cre Wwox KO animals die prematurely for unknown reasons. In the MMTV-Cre model we observed significant ablation of Wwox in mammary epithelium with no effect on survival. In both of these models we found that Wwox deletion resulted in impaired mammary branching morphogenesis. We demonstrate that loss of Wwox is not carcinogenic in our KO models. Furthermore, no evidence of increase proliferation or development of premalignant lesions was observed. In none of the models did loss of a single Wwox allele (i.e. haploinsufficiency have any observable phenotypic effect in mammary gland. To better understand the function of Wwox in the mammary gland, transcriptome profiling was performed. We observed that Wwox ablation results in the deregulation of genes involved in various cellular processes. We found that expression of the non-canonical Wnt ligand, Wnt5a, was significantly upregulated in Wwox KO mammary epithelium. Interestingly, we also determined that components of the Jak/Stat3 signaling pathway were upregulated in KO mice and this correlated with a very robust increase in phospho-Stat3 signaling, which warrants further testing. Even though the loss of Wwox expression in breast and other cancers is very well documented, our findings suggest that Wwox does not act as a classical tumor suppressor as previously thought.

  11. Temporal control of gene deletion in sensory ganglia using a tamoxifen-inducible Advillin-Cre-ERT2 recombinase mouse

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    Lau Joanne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue-specific gene deletion has proved informative in the analysis of pain pathways. Advillin has been shown to be a pan-neuronal marker of spinal and cranial sensory ganglia. We generated BAC transgenic mice using the Advillin promoter to drive a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase construct in order to be able to delete genes in adult animals. We used a floxed stop ROSA26LacZ reporter mouse to examine functional Cre expression, and analysed the behaviour of mice expressing Cre recombinase. Results We used recombineering to introduce a CreERT2 cassette in place of exon 2 of the Advillin gene into a BAC clone (RPCI23-424F19 containing the 5' region of the Advillin gene. Transgenic mice were generated using pronuclear injection. The resulting AvCreERT2 transgenic mice showed a highly specific expression pattern of Cre activity after tamoxifen induction. Recombinase activity was confined to sensory neurons and no expression was found in other organs. Less than 1% of neurons showed Cre expression in the absence of tamoxifen treatment. Five-day intraperitoneal treatment with tamoxifen (2 mg per day induced Cre recombination events in ≈90% of neurons in dorsal root and cranial ganglia. Cell counts of dorsal root ganglia (DRG from transgenic animals with or without tamoxifen treatment showed no neuronal cell loss. Sensory neurons in culture showed ≈70% induction after 3 days treatment with tamoxifen. Behavioural tests showed no differences between wildtype, AvCreERT2 and tamoxifen-treated animals in terms of motor function, responses to light touch and noxious pressure, thermal thresholds as well as responses to inflammatory agents. Conclusions Our results suggest that the inducible pan-DRG AvCreERT2 deleter mouse strain is a useful tool for studying the role of individual genes in adult sensory neuron function. The pain phenotype of the Cre-induced animal is normal; therefore any alterations in pain processing can be

  12. Imaging Voltage in Genetically Defined Neuronal Subpopulations with a Cre Recombinase-Targeted Hybrid Voltage Sensor.

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    Bayguinov, Peter O; Ma, Yihe; Gao, Yu; Zhao, Xinyu; Jackson, Meyer B

    2017-09-20

    Genetically encoded voltage indicators create an opportunity to monitor electrical activity in defined sets of neurons as they participate in the complex patterns of coordinated electrical activity that underlie nervous system function. Taking full advantage of genetically encoded voltage indicators requires a generalized strategy for targeting the probe to genetically defined populations of cells. To this end, we have generated a mouse line with an optimized hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) probe within a locus designed for efficient Cre recombinase-dependent expression. Crossing this mouse with Cre drivers generated double transgenics expressing hVOS probe in GABAergic, parvalbumin, and calretinin interneurons, as well as hilar mossy cells, new adult-born neurons, and recently active neurons. In each case, imaging in brain slices from male or female animals revealed electrically evoked optical signals from multiple individual neurons in single trials. These imaging experiments revealed action potentials, dynamic aspects of dendritic integration, and trial-to-trial fluctuations in response latency. The rapid time response of hVOS imaging revealed action potentials with high temporal fidelity, and enabled accurate measurements of spike half-widths characteristic of each cell type. Simultaneous recording of rapid voltage changes in multiple neurons with a common genetic signature offers a powerful approach to the study of neural circuit function and the investigation of how neural networks encode, process, and store information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Genetically encoded voltage indicators hold great promise in the study of neural circuitry, but realizing their full potential depends on targeting the sensor to distinct cell types. Here we present a new mouse line that expresses a hybrid optical voltage sensor under the control of Cre recombinase. Crossing this line with Cre drivers generated double-transgenic mice, which express this sensor in targeted cell types. In

  13. Generation of a transgenic mouse for colorectal cancer research with intestinal cre expression limited to the large intestine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xue, Yingben; Johnson, Robert; Desmet, Marsha; Snyder, Paul W; Fleet, James C

    2010-01-01

    .... We sought to create a transgenic mouse with Cre recombinase (Cre) expression limited to the epithelial cells of the large intestine and used this model to study colon cancer driven by adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC) gene inactivation...

  14. Modified Cre-loxP Recombination in Aspergillus oryzae by Direct Introduction of Cre Recombinase for Marker Gene Rescue

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    Masaki, Kazuo; Gomi, Katsuya; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2012-01-01

    Marker rescue is an important molecular technique that enables sequential gene deletions. The Cre-loxP recombination system has been used for marker gene rescue in various organisms, including aspergilli. However, this system requires many time-consuming steps, including construction of a Cre expression plasmid, introduction of the plasmid, and Cre expression in the transformant. To circumvent this laborious process, we investigated a method wherein Cre could be directly introduced into Aspergillus oryzae protoplasts on carrier DNA such as a fragment or plasmid. In this study, we define the carrier DNA (Cre carrier) as a carrier for the Cre enzyme. A mixture of commercial Cre and nucleic acids (e.g., pUG6 plasmid) was introduced into A. oryzae protoplasts using a modified protoplast-polyethylene glycol method, resulting in the deletion of a selectable marker gene flanked by loxP sites. By using this method, we readily constructed a marker gene-rescued strain lacking ligD to optimize homologous recombination. Furthermore, we succeeded in integrative recombination at a loxP site in A. oryzae. Thus, we developed a simple method to use the Cre-loxP recombination system in A. oryzae by direct introduction of Cre into protoplasts using DNA as a carrier for the enzyme. PMID:22504800

  15. Efficient delivery of Cre-recombinase to neurons in vivo and stable transduction of neurons using adeno-associated and lentiviral vectors

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    Sablitzky Fred

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryonic or perinatal lethality and the compensatory regulation of other genes. One approach to producing conditional activation or inactivation of genes involves the use of Cre recombinase to remove loxP-flanked segments of DNA. We have studied the effects of delivering Cre to the hippocampus and neocortex of adult mice by injecting replication-deficient adeno-associated virus (AAV and lentiviral (LV vectors into discrete regions of the forebrain. Results Recombinant AAV-Cre, AAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein and LV-Cre-EGFP (enhanced GFP were made with the transgene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infecting 293T cells in vitro with AAV-Cre and LV-Cre-EGFP resulted in transduction of most cells as shown by GFP fluorescence and Cre immunoreactivity. Injections of submicrolitre quantities of LV-Cre-EGFP and mixtures of AAV-Cre with AAV-GFP into the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Rosa26 reporter mice resulted in strong Cre and GFP expression in the dentate gyrus and moderate to strong labelling in specific regions of the hippocampus and in the neocortex, mainly in neurons. The pattern of expression of Cre and GFP obtained with AAV and LV vectors was very similar. X-gal staining showed that Cre-mediated recombination had occurred in neurons in the same regions of the brain, starting at 3 days post-injection. No obvious toxic effects of Cre expression were detected even after four weeks post-injection. Conclusion AAV and LV vectors are capable of delivering Cre to neurons in discrete regions of the adult mouse brain and producing recombination.

  16. Efficient delivery of Cre-recombinase to neurons in vivo and stable transduction of neurons using adeno-associated and lentiviral vectors.

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    Ahmed, Bushra Y; Chakravarthy, Sridhara; Eggers, Ruben; Hermens, Wim T J M C; Zhang, Jing Ying; Niclou, Simone P; Levelt, Christiaan; Sablitzky, Fred; Anderson, Patrick N; Lieberman, A R; Verhaagen, Joost

    2004-01-30

    Inactivating genes in vivo is an important technique for establishing their function in the adult nervous system. Unfortunately, conventional knockout mice may suffer from several limitations including embryonic or perinatal lethality and the compensatory regulation of other genes. One approach to producing conditional activation or inactivation of genes involves the use of Cre recombinase to remove loxP-flanked segments of DNA. We have studied the effects of delivering Cre to the hippocampus and neocortex of adult mice by injecting replication-deficient adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentiviral (LV) vectors into discrete regions of the forebrain. Recombinant AAV-Cre, AAV-GFP (green fluorescent protein) and LV-Cre-EGFP (enhanced GFP) were made with the transgene controlled by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infecting 293T cells in vitro with AAV-Cre and LV-Cre-EGFP resulted in transduction of most cells as shown by GFP fluorescence and Cre immunoreactivity. Injections of submicrolitre quantities of LV-Cre-EGFP and mixtures of AAV-Cre with AAV-GFP into the neocortex and hippocampus of adult Rosa26 reporter mice resulted in strong Cre and GFP expression in the dentate gyrus and moderate to strong labelling in specific regions of the hippocampus and in the neocortex, mainly in neurons. The pattern of expression of Cre and GFP obtained with AAV and LV vectors was very similar. X-gal staining showed that Cre-mediated recombination had occurred in neurons in the same regions of the brain, starting at 3 days post-injection. No obvious toxic effects of Cre expression were detected even after four weeks post-injection. AAV and LV vectors are capable of delivering Cre to neurons in discrete regions of the adult mouse brain and producing recombination.

  17. 5-HT inhibition of rat insulin 2 promoter Cre recombinase transgene and proopiomelanocortin neuron excitability in the mouse arcuate nucleus.

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    Hisadome, K; Smith, M A; Choudhury, A I; Claret, M; Withers, D J; Ashford, M L J

    2009-03-03

    A number of anti-obesity agents have been developed that enhance hypothalamic 5-HT transmission. Various studies have demonstrated that arcuate neurons, which express proopiomelanocortin peptides (POMC neurons), and neuropeptide Y with agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP) neurons, are components of the hypothalamic circuits responsible for energy homeostasis. An additional arcuate neuron population, rat insulin 2 promoter Cre recombinase transgene (RIPCre) neurons, has recently been implicated in hypothalamic melanocortin circuits involved in energy balance. It is currently unclear how 5-HT modifies neuron excitability in these local arcuate neuronal circuits. We show that 5-HT alters the excitability of the majority of mouse arcuate RIPCre neurons, by either hyperpolarization and inhibition or depolarization and excitation. RIPCre neurons sensitive to 5-HT, predominantly exhibit hyperpolarization and pharmacological studies indicate that inhibition of neuronal firing is likely to be through 5-HT(1F) receptors increasing current through a voltage-dependent potassium conductance. Indeed, 5-HT(1F) receptor immunoreactivity co-localizes with RIPCre green fluorescent protein expression. A minority population of POMC neurons also respond to 5-HT by hyperpolarization, and this appears to be mediated by the same receptor-channel mechanism. As neither POMC nor RIPCre neuronal populations display a common electrical response to 5-HT, this may indicate that sub-divisions of POMC and RIPCre neurons exist, perhaps serving different outputs.

  18. TRANSFORMATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PLANTS BY DNA-CONSTRUCTIONS WITH SITE-SPECIFIC RECOMBINASE SYSTEM Cre/loxP

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    A. S. Sekan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using of new approach with site-specific recombinase system Cre/loxP under the control of 35S-promoter to generate marker-free genetically modified plants was developed. The analysis of recombinase system was carried out during the next generation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants, produced by agrobacterium transformation method. For this purpose two types of DNA-constructions were used for establishing better variant. The histochemical analysis of the plants progeny T1 transformed by both construct types was described. As a result of our work, it was established that the amount of marker-free transformants was arising during every next transformation offspring independently of the used construct type. The new strategy provides a simple and rapid way to eliminate swelective and marker genes.

  19. Generation of an Rx-tTA: TetOp-Cre knock-in mouse line for doxycycline regulated Cre activity in the Rx expression domain.

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    Timothy F Plageman

    Full Text Available Genetic deletion of mouse genes has played a crucial role in our understanding of embryonic eye development. Transgenic, tissue specific Cre recombinase expression in various eye structures has facilitated these experiments. However, an early expressing, temporally-regulated, optic vesicle-specific Cre line has not been available. In this report, we detail the generation and analysis of a knock-in, inducible Cre line designed to drive recombination specifically within the Rx expression domain. Crossing this line with a reporter line demonstrates that recombination can be mediated within the early optic vesicle and throughout retinal development. Recombination can also be mediated in the Rx-expressing, ventral diencephalon and future posterior pituitary gland. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that dietary doxycycline could effectively modulate Cre activity. This line has the potential to facilitate conditional knock-out experimentation to study early retina and/or posterior pituitary development.

  20. Dermal Delivery of Constructs Encoding Cre Recombinase to Induce Skin Tumors in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ Mice

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    Marcel A. Deken

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current genetically-engineered mouse melanoma models are often based on Tyr::CreERT2-controlled MAPK pathway activation by the BRAFV600E mutation and PI3K pathway activation by loss of PTEN. The major drawback of these models is the occurrence of spontaneous tumors caused by leakiness of the Tyr::CreERT2 system, hampering long-term experiments. To address this problem, we investigated several approaches to optimally provide local delivery of Cre recombinase, including injection of lentiviral particles, DNA tattoo administration and particle-mediated gene transfer, to induce melanomas in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice lacking the Tyr::CreERT2 allele. We found that dermal delivery of the Cre recombinase gene under the control of a non-specific CAG promoter induced the formation of melanomas, but also keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinomas. Delivery of Cre recombinase DNA under the control of melanocyte-specific promoters in PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice resulted in sole melanoma induction. The growth rate and histological features of the induced tumors were similar to 4-hydroxytamoxifen-induced tumors in Tyr::CreERT2;PtenLoxP/LoxP;BrafCA/+ mice, while the onset of spontaneous tumors was prevented completely. These novel induction methods will allow long-term experiments in mouse models of skin malignancies.

  1. Heterogeneous transgene expression in the retinas of the TH-RFP, TH-Cre, TH-BAC-Cre and DAT-Cre mouse lines.

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    Vuong, H E; Pérez de Sevilla Müller, L; Hardi, C N; McMahon, D G; Brecha, N C

    2015-10-29

    Transgenic mouse lines are essential tools for understanding the connectivity, physiology and function of neuronal circuits, including those in the retina. This report compares transgene expression in the retina of a tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-red fluorescent protein (RFP) mouse line with three catecholamine-related Cre recombinase mouse lines [TH-bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-, TH-, and dopamine transporter (DAT)-Cre] that were crossed with a ROSA26-tdTomato reporter line. Retinas were evaluated and immunostained with commonly used antibodies including those directed to TH, GABA and glycine to characterize the RFP or tdTomato fluorescent-labeled amacrine cells, and an antibody directed to RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing to identify ganglion cells. In TH-RFP retinas, types 1 and 2 dopamine (DA) amacrine cells were identified by their characteristic cellular morphology and type 1 DA cells by their expression of TH immunoreactivity. In the TH-BAC-, TH-, and DAT-tdTomato retinas, less than 1%, ∼ 6%, and 0%, respectively, of the fluorescent cells were the expected type 1 DA amacrine cells. Instead, in the TH-BAC-tdTomato retinas, fluorescently labeled AII amacrine cells were predominant, with some medium diameter ganglion cells. In TH-tdTomato retinas, fluorescence was in multiple neurochemical amacrine cell types, including four types of polyaxonal amacrine cells. In DAT-tdTomato retinas, fluorescence was in GABA immunoreactive amacrine cells, including two types of bistratified and two types of monostratified amacrine cells. Although each of the Cre lines was generated with the intent to specifically label DA cells, our findings show a cellular diversity in Cre expression in the adult retina and indicate the importance of careful characterization of transgene labeling patterns. These mouse lines with their distinctive cellular labeling patterns will be useful tools for future studies of retinal function and visual processing. Published by Elsevier

  2. Generation of NSE-MerCreMer transgenic mice with tamoxifen inducible Cre activity in neurons.

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    Mandy Ka Man Kam

    Full Text Available To establish a genetic tool for conditional deletion or expression of gene in neurons in a temporally controlled manner, we generated a transgenic mouse (NSE-MerCreMer, which expressed a tamoxifen inducible type of Cre recombinase specifically in neurons. The tamoxifen inducible Cre recombinase (MerCreMer is a fusion protein containing Cre recombinase with two modified estrogen receptor ligand binding domains at both ends, and is driven by the neural-specific rat neural specific enolase (NSE promoter. A total of two transgenic lines were established, and expression of MerCreMer in neurons of the central and enteric nervous systems was confirmed. Transcript of MerCreMer was detected in several non-neural tissues such as heart, liver, and kidney in these lines. In the background of the Cre reporter mouse strain Rosa26R, Cre recombinase activity was inducible in neurons of adult NSE-MerCreMer mice treated with tamoxifen by intragastric gavage, but not in those fed with corn oil only. We conclude that NSE-MerCreMer lines will be useful for studying gene functions in neurons for the conditions that Cre-mediated recombination resulting in embryonic lethality, which precludes investigation of gene functions in neurons through later stages of development and in adult.

  3. Ubiquitous transgene expression and Cre-based recombination driven by the ubiquitin promoter in zebrafish

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    Mosimann, Christian; Kaufman, Charles K.; Li, Pulin; Pugach, Emily K.; Tamplin, Owen J.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in zebrafish research are hampered by the lack of a ubiquitous transgene driver element that is active at all developmental stages. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the zebrafish ubiquitin (ubi) promoter, which drives constitutive transgene expression during all developmental stages and analyzed adult organs. Notably, ubi expresses in all blood cell lineages, and we demonstrate the application of ubi-driven fluorophore transgenics in hematopoietic transplantation experiments to assess true multilineage potential of engrafted cells. We further generated transgenic zebrafish that express ubiquitous 4-hydroxytamoxifen-controlled Cre recombinase activity from a ubi:creERt2 transgene, as well as ubi:loxP-EGFP-loxP-mCherry (ubi:Switch) transgenics and show their use as a constitutive fluorescent lineage tracing reagent. The ubi promoter and the transgenic lines presented here thus provide a broad resource and important advancement for transgenic applications in zebrafish. PMID:21138979

  4. Insights into the preferential order of strand exchange in the Cre/loxP recombinase system: impact of the DNA spacer flanking sequence and flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Ghanem, Josephine; Samsonov, Sergey A.; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2015-03-01

    The Cre/loxP system is widely used as a genetic tool to manipulate DNA. Cre recombinase catalyzes site-specific recombination between 34 bp loxP sites. Each loxP site is recognized by two Cre molecules assuming a cleaving (CreC) and non-cleaving (CreNC) activity. Despite the symmetry in the sequences of the arms of loxP, available biochemical data show strong evidence that the recombination reaction is asymmetric with a preferred strand exchange order. The asymmetry comes from the spacer separating the two sets of palindromic arms of the loxP sequence. However, it remains to be understood how this preferential order is established. We apply computational structure-based methods and perform a thorough detailed analysis of available structural and biochemical information on the Cre/loxP system in order to investigate such asymmetry in the recombination, and we propose a rationale to explain the determinants favoring the strand exchange order. We show that the structural properties of the DNA flanking sequence of the spacer guide the recombination, and we establish the role of residues R118, R121 and K122 from CreC, which contact the spacer region and by clamping the DNA inhibit the cleavage on the second arm of loxP. Our studies give an atomistic insight on the synapsis state of the recombination process in the Cre/loxP system and highlight the importance of the flexibility and other intrinsic properties of the flanking regions of the DNA spacer to establish a preferential strand exchange order.

  5. Conditional transgenesis using Dimerizable Cre (DiCre.

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    Nicolas Jullien

    Full Text Available Cre recombinase is extensively used to engineer the genome of experimental animals. However, its usefulness is still limited by the lack of an efficient temporal control over its activity. We have recently developed a conceptually new approach to regulate Cre recombinase, that we have called Dimerizable Cre or DiCre. It is based on splitting Cre into two inactive moieties and fusing them to FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein and FRB (binding domain of the FKBP12-rapamycin associated protein, respectively. These latter can be efficiently hetero-dimerized by rapamycin, leading to the reinstatement of Cre activity. We have been able to show, using in vitro approaches, that this ligand-induced dimerization is an efficient way to regulate Cre activity, and presents a low background activity together with a high efficiency of recombination following dimerization. To test the in vivo performance of this system, we have, in the present work, knocked-in DiCre into the Rosa26 locus of mice. To evaluate the performance of the DiCre system, mice have been mated with indicator mice (Z/EG or R26R and Cre-induced recombination was examined following activation of DiCre by rapamycin during embryonic development or after birth of progenies. No recombination could be observed in the absence of treatment of the animals, indicating a lack of background activity of DiCre in the absence of rapamycin. Postnatal rapamycin treatment (one to five daily injection, 10 mg/kg i.p induced recombination in a number of different tissues of progenies such as liver, heart, kidney, muscle, etc. On the other hand, recombination was at a very low level following in utero treatment of DiCrexR26R mice. In conclusion, DiCre has indeed the potentiality to be used to establish conditional Cre-deleter mice. An added advantage of this system is that, contrary to other modulatable Cre systems, it offers the possibility of obtaining regulated recombination in a combinatorial manner, i.e. induce

  6. An easy method for preparation of Cre-loxP regulated fluorescent adenoviral expression vectors and its application for direct reprogramming into hepatocytes

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    Chitose Kurihara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant adenoviral gene expression system is a powerful tool for gene delivery. However, it is difficult to obtain high titers of infectious virus, principally due to the toxicity of the expressed gene which affects on virus replication in the host HEK293 cells. To avoid these problems, we generated a Cre-loxP-regulated fluorescent universal vector (termed pAxCALRL. This vector produces recombinant adenoviruses that express the red fluorescent protein (RFP instead of the inserted gene during proliferation, which limits toxicity and can be used to monitor viral replication. Expression of the gene of interest is induced by co-infection with an adenovirus that expresses Cre-recombinase (AxCANCre. Recombinant adenovirus produced by this system that express Hnf4α and Foxa2 were used to reprogram mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF into induced-hepatocyte-like cells (iHep following several rounds of infection, demonstrating the efficacy of this new system.

  7. The Pax3-Cre transgene exhibits a rostrocaudal gradient of expression in the skeletal muscle lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarad, George; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2009-01-01

    Pax3-Cre (P3Pro-Cre) transgenic mice have been used for conditional gene deletion and/or lineage tracing in derivatives of neural crest, neural tube, metanephric mesenchyme, and ureteric mesenchyme. However, the extent of its expression in skeletal muscle has not been reported. We investigated the expression of P3Pro-Cre in the skeletal muscle lineage using the R26R reporter and found an unexpected rostrocaudal gradient of expression. By X-gal staining, head, neck, forelimb, diaphragm, and most of the chest wall muscles did not show evidence of Cre expression, whereas all muscle groups posterior of the diaphragm stained blue. Intercostal muscles exhibited a rostrocaudal gradient of staining. The consistency of this expression pattern was demonstrated by using P3Pro-Cre to mutate a conditional dystroglycan allele. The result was loss of dystroglycan from caudal muscles, which exhibited the histological signs of muscle fiber injury and regeneration characteristic of muscular dystrophy. The lack of dystroglycan in regenerating myofibers suggests that the P3Pro-Cre transgene is active in satellite cells and/or in their precursors. In contrast, rostral muscles, including feeding and breathing muscles, maintained dystroglycan expression and were spared from disease. Accordingly, the mutants were viable for over a year. Its unique gradient of activity makes the P3Pro-Cre transgene a previously unappreciated yet powerful tool for manipulating gene expression in skeletal muscle and its precursors.

  8. High-resolution labeling and functional manipulation of specific neuron types in mouse brain by Cre-activated viral gene expression.

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    Sandra J Kuhlman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method that combines Cre-recombinase knockin mice and viral-mediated gene transfer to genetically label and functionally manipulate specific neuron types in the mouse brain. We engineered adeno-associated viruses (AAVs that express GFP, dsRedExpress, or channelrhodopsin (ChR2 upon Cre/loxP recombination-mediated removal of a transcription-translation STOP cassette. Fluorescent labeling was sufficient to visualize neuronal structures with synaptic resolution in vivo, and ChR2 expression allowed light activation of neuronal spiking. The structural dynamics of a specific class of neocortical neuron, the parvalbumin-containing (Pv fast-spiking GABAergic interneuron, was monitored over the course of a week. We found that although the majority of Pv axonal boutons were stable in young adults, bouton additions and subtractions on axonal shafts were readily observed at a rate of 10.10% and 9.47%, respectively, over 7 days. Our results indicate that Pv inhibitory circuits maintain the potential for structural re-wiring in post-adolescent cortex. With the generation of an increasing number of Cre knockin mice and because viral transfection can be delivered to defined brain regions at defined developmental stages, this strategy represents a general method to systematically visualize the structure and manipulate the function of different cell types in the mouse brain.

  9. Foxc2CreERT2knock-in mice mark stage-specific Foxc2-expressing cells during mouse organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammed Badrul; Miura, Naoyuki; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Islam, Mohammod Johirul; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Iseki, Sachiko; Kume, Tsutomu; Trainor, Paul A; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Aoto, Kazushi

    2017-01-01

    Foxc2, a member of the winged helix transcription factor family, is essential for eye, calvarial bone, cardiovascular and kidney development in mice. Nevertheless, how Foxc2-expressing cells and their descendent cells contribute to the development of these tissues and organs has not been elucidated. Here, we generated a Foxc2 knock-in (Foxc2 CreERT2 ) mouse, in which administration of estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen induces nuclear translocation of Cre recombinase in Foxc2-expressing cells. By crossing with ROSA-LacZ reporter mice (Foxc2 CreERT2 ; R26R), the fate of Foxc2 positive (Foxc2 + ) cells was analyzed through LacZ staining at various embryonic stages. We found Foxc2 + cell descendants in the supraoccipital and exoccipital bone in E18.5 embryos, when tamoxifen was administered at embryonic day (E) 8.5. Furthermore, Foxc2 + descendant cranial neural crest cells at E8-10 were restricted to the corneal mesenchyme, while Foxc2 + cell derived cardiac neural crest cells at E6-12 were found in the aorta, pulmonary trunk and valves, and endocardial cushions. Foxc2 + cell descendant contributions to the glomerular podocytes in the kidney were also observed following E6.5 tamoxifen treatment. Our results are consistent with previous reports of Foxc2 expression during early embryogenesis and the Foxc2 CreERT2 mouse provides a tool to investigate spatiotemporal roles of Foxc2 and contributions of Foxc2 + expressing cells during mouse embryogenesis. © 2016 Japanese Teratology Society.

  10. Cardiac fibrosis in mice expressing an inducible myocardial-specific Cre driver

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    Jonas Lexow

    2013-11-01

    Tamoxifen-inducible Cre-mediated manipulation of animal genomes has achieved wide acceptance over the last decade, with numerous important studies heavily relying on this technique. Recently, a number of groups have reported transient complications of using this protocol in the heart. In the present study we observed a previously unreported focal fibrosis and depressed left-ventricular function in tamoxifen-treated αMHC-MerCreMer-positive animals in a Tβ4shRNAflox × αMHC-MerCreMer cross at 6–7 weeks following standard tamoxifen treatment, regardless of the presence of the floxed transgene. The phenotype was reproduced by treating mice from the original αMHC-MerCreMer strain with tamoxifen. In the acute phase after tamoxifen treatment, cell infiltration into the myocardium was accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, Ccl2 and markers of hypertrophy (ANF, BNP, Col3a1. These observations highlight the requirement for including tamoxifen-treated MerCreMer littermate controls to avert misinterpretation of conditional mutant phenotypes. A survey of the field as well as the protocols presented here suggests that controlling the parameters of tamoxifen delivery is important in avoiding the chronic MerCreMer-mediated cardiac phenotype reported here.

  11. Development of the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology in Streptococcus thermophilus and validation using the lactose operon promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junjua, M.; Galia, W.; Gaci, N.; Uriot, O.; Genay, M.; Bachmann, H.; Kleerebezem, M.; Dary, A.; Roussel, Y.

    2014-01-01


    Aims

    To construct and validate the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) tool in Streptococcus thermophilus (ST).

    Methods and Results

    The R-IVET system we constructed in the LMD-9 strain includes the plasmid pULNcreB allowing transcriptional fusion

  12. Development of the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology in Streptococcus thermophilus and validation using the lactose operon promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junjua, M.; Galia, W.; Gaci, N.; Uriot, O.; Genay, M.; Bachmann, H.; Kleerebezem, M.; Dary, A.; Roussel, Y.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To construct and validate the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) tool in Streptococcus thermophilus (ST). METHODS AND RESULTS: The R-IVET system we constructed in the LMD-9 strain includes the plasmid pULNcreB allowing transcriptional fusion with the gene of the

  13. Split-Cre complementation restores combination activity on transgene excision in hair roots of transgenic tobacco.

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    Mengling Wen

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ''split-Cre'' fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants.

  14. Highly Efficient Sex Chromosome Interchanges Produced By I-CreI Expression in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Maggert, Keith A; Golic, Kent G

    2005-01-01

    The homing endonuclease I-CreI recognizes a site in the gene encoding the 23S rRNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A very similar sequence is present in the 28S rRNA genes that are located on the X and Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. In this work we show that I-CreI expression in Drosophila is capable of causing induced DNA damage and eliciting cell cycle arrest. Expression also caused recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in the heterochromatic regions where the rDNA is locat...

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of the Rosa26 locus produces Cre reporter rat strains for monitoring Cre-loxP-mediated lineage tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanwu; Yu, Lei; Pan, Shuo; Gao, Shan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Wei; Li, Jing; Zhou, Rui; Huang, Lan; Han, Yunlin; Bai, Lin; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2017-10-01

    The rat is an important laboratory animal for physiological, toxicological and pharmacological studies. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) is a simple and efficient tool to generate precise genetic modifications in rats, which will promote the accumulation of genetic resources and enable more precise studies of gene function. To monitor Cre-loxP-mediated excision in vivo, we generated a Cre reporter rat strain (Rosa26-imCherry) by knockin of a Cre reporter cassette at the Rosa26 locus using CRISPR/Cas9. Rosa26-imCherry rats exhibited inducible expression of the mCherry cassette (imCherry) using the Cre-loxP system, whereas normal rats exhibited ubiquitous expression of eGFP but not mCherry in the whole body. Injection of adeno-associated virus serotype 9-Cre into the hippocampus and skeletal muscle resulted in mCherry expression in virus-infected cells. Cre-loxP-mediated mCherry expression was then evaluated by crossing Rosa26-imCherry rats with transgenic rats ubiquitously expressing CAG-Cre, heart-specific α-MHC-Cre transgenic rats and liver-specific Alb-Cre knockin rats. Finally, using the established system the expression pattern of Cre driven by two endogenous gene promoters (Wfs1-Cre knockin rat, FabP2-Cre knockin rat) was traced. In summary, we demonstrated excision of the loxP-flanked allele in Rosa26-imCherry rats via activation of mCherry expression in the presence of Cre recombinase. This newly established Rosa26-imCherry rat strain represents a useful tool to facilitate Cre-expression pattern determination and tracing experiments. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  16. Unexpected severe consequences of Pikfyve deletion by aP2- or Aq-promoter-driven Cre expression for glucose homeostasis and mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomov, Ognian C; Sbrissa, Diego; Delvecchio, Khortnal; Rillema, James A; Shisheva, Assia

    2016-06-01

    Systemic deficiency of PIKfyve, the evolutionarily conserved phosphoinositide kinase synthesizing cellular PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2 and implicated in insulin signaling, causes early embryonic death in mice. In contrast, mice with muscle-specific Pikfyve disruption have normal lifespan but exhibit early-age whole-body glucose intolerance and muscle insulin resistance, thus establishing the key role of muscle PIKfyve in glucose homeostasis. Fat and muscle tissues control postprandial glucose clearance through different mechanisms, raising questions as to whether adipose Pikfyve disruption will also trigger whole-body metabolic abnormalities, and if so, what the mechanism might be. To clarify these issues, here we have characterized two new mouse models with adipose tissue disruption of Pikfyve through Cre recombinase expression driven by adipose-specific aP2- or adiponectin (Aq) promoters. Whereas both mouse lines were ostensibly normal until adulthood, their glucose homeostasis and systemic insulin sensitivity were severely dysregulated. These abnormalities stemmed in part from accelerated fat-cell lipolysis and elevated serum FFA Intriguingly, aP2-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) but not Aq-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) females had severely impaired pregnancy-induced mammary gland differentiation and lactogenesis, consistent with aP2-Cre-mediated Pikfyve excision in nonadipogenic tissues underlying this defect. Intriguingly, whereas mammary glands from postpartum control and Aq-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) mice or ex vivo mammary gland explants showed profound upregulation of PIKfyve protein levels subsequent to prolactin receptor activation, such increases were not apparent in aP2-Cre-PIKfyve(fl/fl) females. Collectively, our data identify for the first time that adipose tissue Pikfyve plays a key role in the mechanisms regulating glucose homeostasis and that the PIKfyve pathway is critical in mammary epithelial differentiation during pregnancy and lactogenesis downstream of prolactin receptor

  17. Dual fluorescent reporter pig for Cre recombination: transgene placement at the ROSA26 locus.

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    Shun Li

    Full Text Available We are extending the Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system to pigs, focussing on conditional and tissue-specific expression of oncogenic mutations to model human cancers. Identifying the location, pattern and extent of Cre recombination in vivo is an important aspect of this technology. Here we report pigs with a dual fluorochrome cassette under the control of the strong CAG promoter that switches expression after Cre-recombination, from membrane-targeted tandem dimer Tomato to membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein. The reporter cassette was placed at the porcine ROSA26 locus by conventional gene targeting using primary mesenchymal stem cells, and animals generated by nuclear transfer. Gene targeting efficiency was high, and analysis of foetal organs and primary cells indicated that the reporter is highly expressed and functional. Cre reporter pigs will provide a multipurpose indicator of Cre recombinase activity, an important new tool for the rapidly expanding field of porcine genetic modification.

  18. A new Cre driver mouse line, Tcf21/Pod1-Cre, targets metanephric mesenchyme.

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    Yoshiro Maezawa

    Full Text Available Conditional gene targeting in mice has provided great insight into the role of gene function in kidney development and disease. Although a number of Cre-driver mouse strains already exist for the kidney, development of additional strains with unique expression patterns is needed. Here we report the generation and validation of a Tcf21/Pod1-Cre driver strain that expresses Cre recombinase throughout the condensing and stromal mesenchyme of developing kidneys and in their derivatives including epithelial components of the nephron and interstitial cells. To test the efficiency of this line, we crossed it to mice transgenic for either loss or gain of function β-catenin conditional alleles. Mice with deletion of β-catenin from Tcf21-expressing cells are born with hypoplastic kidneys, hydroureters and hydronephrosis. By contrast, Tcf21-Cre driven gain of function for β-catenin in mice results in fused midline kidneys and hypoplastic kidneys. Finally, we report the first renal mesenchymal deletion of Patched1 (Ptch1, the receptor for sonic hedgehog (Shh, which results in renal cysts demonstrating a functional role of Shh signaling pathway in renal cystogensis. In summary, we report the generation and validation of a new Cre driver strain that provides robust excision in metanephric mesenchyme.

  19. Highly efficient sex chromosome interchanges produced by I-CreI expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggert, Keith A; Golic, Kent G

    2005-11-01

    The homing endonuclease I-CreI recognizes a site in the gene encoding the 23S rRNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A very similar sequence is present in the 28S rRNA genes that are located on the X and Y chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. In this work we show that I-CreI expression in Drosophila is capable of causing induced DNA damage and eliciting cell cycle arrest. Expression also caused recombination between the X and Y chromosomes in the heterochromatic regions where the rDNA is located, presumably as a result of a high frequency of double-strand breaks in these regions. Approximately 20% of the offspring of males expressing I-CreI showed exceptional inheritance of X- and Y-linked markers, consistent with chromosome exchange at rDNA loci. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the structures of many of these products. Exchange between the X and Y chromosomes can be induced in males and females to produce derivative-altered Y chromosomes, attached-XY, and attached-X chromosomes. This method has advantages over the traditional use of X rays for generating X-Y interchanges because it is very frequent and it generates predictable products.

  20. A recombinase-mediated transcriptional induction system in transgenic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, T; Schnorr, K M; Mundy, J

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and tested a Cre-loxP recombination-mediated vector system termed pCrox for use in transgenic plants. In this system, treatment of Arabidopsis under inducing conditions mediates an excision event that removes an intervening piece of DNA between a promoter and the gene to be expressed......-mediated GUS activation. Induction was shown to be possible at essentially any stage of plant growth. This single vector system circumvents the need for genetic crosses required by other, dual recombinase vector systems. The pCrox system may prove particularly useful in instances where transgene over...

  1. Enzymatic engineering of the porcine genome with transposons and recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Daniel F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine is an important agricultural commodity and biomedical model. Manipulation of the pig genome provides opportunity to improve production efficiency, enhance disease resistance, and add value to swine products. Genetic engineering can also expand the utility of pigs for modeling human disease, developing clinical treatment methodologies, or donating tissues for xenotransplantation. Realizing the full potential of pig genetic engineering requires translation of the complete repertoire of genetic tools currently employed in smaller model organisms to practical use in pigs. Results Application of transposon and recombinase technologies for manipulation of the swine genome requires characterization of their activity in pig cells. We tested four transposon systems- Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, piggyBac, and Passport in cultured porcine cells. Transposons increased the efficiency of DNA integration up to 28-fold above background and provided for precise delivery of 1 to 15 transgenes per cell. Both Cre and Flp recombinase were functional in pig cells as measured by their ability to remove a positive-negative selection cassette from 16 independent clones and over 20 independent genomic locations. We also demonstrated a Cre-dependent genetic switch capable of eliminating an intervening positive-negative selection cassette and activating GFP expression from episomal and genome-resident transposons. Conclusion We have demonstrated for the first time that transposons and recombinases are capable of mobilizing DNA into and out of the porcine genome in a precise and efficient manner. This study provides the basis for developing transposon and recombinase based tools for genetic engineering of the swine genome.

  2. Lactation Defect in a Widely Used MMTV-Cre Transgenic Line of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Taichang; Wang, Yongping; Pao, Lily; Anderson, Steve M.; Gu, Haihua

    2011-01-01

    Background MMTV-Cre mouse lines have played important roles in our understanding about the functions of numerous genes in mouse mammary epithelial cells during mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. However, numerous studies have not included MMTV-Cre mice as controls, and many investigators have not indicated which of the different MMTV-Cre founder lines were used in their studies. Here, we describe a lactation defect that severely limits the use of one of the most commonly used MMTV-Cre founder lines. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the role of protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp1 in mammary gland development, mice bearing the floxed Shp1 gene were crossed with MMTV-Cre mice and mammary gland development was examined by histological and biochemical techniques, while lactation competency was assessed by monitoring pup growth. Surprisingly, both the Shp1fl/+;MMTV-Cre and MMTV-Cre female mice displayed a severe lactation defect when compared to the Shp1 fl/+ control mice. Histological and biochemical analyses reveal that female mice expressing the MMTV-Cre transgene, either alone or in combination with floxed genes, exhibit defects in lobuloalveolar expansion, presence of large cytoplasmic lipid droplets in luminal alveolar epithelial cells postpartum, and precocious induction of involution. Using a PCR-based genotyping method, the three different founder lines can be distinguished, and we determined that the MMTV-Cre line A, the most widely used MMTV-Cre founder line, exhibits a profound lactation defect that limits its use in studies on mammary gland development. Conclusions/Significance The identification of a lactation defect in the MMTV-Cre line A mice indicates that investigators must use MMTV-Cre alone mice as control in studies that utilize Cre recombinase to excise genes of interest from mammary epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that previous results obtained in studies using the MMTV-Cre line A line should be re-evaluated if the

  3. Development of CRTEIL and CETRIZ, Cre-loxP-Based Systems, Which Allow Change of Expression of Red to Green or Green to Red Fluorescence upon Transfection with a Cre-Expression Vector

    OpenAIRE

    Masato Ohtsuka; Takayuki Warita; Takayuki Sakurai; Satoshi Watanabe; Hidetoshi Inoko; Masahiro Sato

    2009-01-01

    We developed Cre-loxP-based systems, termed CRTEIL and CETRIZ, which allow gene switching in a noninvasive manner. Single transfection with pCRTEIL resulted in predominant expression of red fluorescence. Cotransfection with pCRTEIL and Cre-expression plasmid (pCAG/NCre) caused switching from red to green fluorescence. Similarly, cotransfection with pCETRIZ and pCAG/NCre resulted in change of green to red fluorescence. These noninvasive systems will be useful in cell lineage analysis, since de...

  4. Viral Delivery of GFP-Dependent Recombinases to the Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jonathan C Y; Rudolph, Stephanie; Cepko, Constance L

    2017-01-01

    Many genetic tools have been developed that use green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its derivatives for labeling specific cell populations in organisms and in cell culture. To extend the use of GFP beyond labeling purposes, we developed methods and reagents that use GFP as a driver of biological activities. We used nanobodies that bind GFP to engineer CRE-DOG and Flp-DOG, recombinases that can induce Cre/lox and Flp/FRT recombination in a GFP-dependent manner, respectively. Here, we present a protocol to deliver CRE-DOG and Flp-DOG into the mouse brain by recombinant AAV infection. This protocol enables one to manipulate gene expression specifically in GFP-expressing cells, found either in transgenic GFP reporter lines or in cells made to express GFP by other transduction methods.

  5. A multifunctional teal-fluorescent Rosa26 reporter mouse line for Cre- and Flp-mediated recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayoshi, Itaru; Hirano, Kyoko; Sakamoto, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Goichi; Imura, Tetsuya; Kitano, Satsuki; Miyachi, Hitoshi; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2012-05-01

    Reporters of Cre and/or Flp activity are important for defining the spatial and temporal extent of Cre/Flp-mediated recombination. Here, we describe R26-CAG-LF-mTFP1, a multifunctional fluorescent reporter mouse that strongly expresses mTFP1 (bright teal fluorescent protein) after Cre- and Flp-mediated recombination. To meet the need for single recombinase-mediated reporter expression, we generated derivatives of R26-CAG-LF-mTFP1. The germline excision of the Frt-flanked stop cassette in R26-CAG-LF-mTFP1 generated a Cre-dependent reporter (R26-CAG-LoxP-mTFP1). Similarly, R26-CAG-FRT-mTFP1, in which the loxP-flanked stop cassette was excised in the germline, requires only Flp to activate mTFP1 expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Transgenic mice exhibiting inducible and spontaneous Cre activities driven by a bovine keratin 5 promoter that can be used for the conditional analysis of basal epithelial cells in multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chih-Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cre/loxP-mediated genetic modification is the most widely used conditional genetic approach used in the mouse. Engineered Cre and the mutated ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor fusion recombinase (CreERT allow temporal control of Cre activity. Results In this study, we have generated two distinct transgenic mouse lines expressing CreERT, which show 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT-inducible and spontaneous (4-OHT-independent Cre activities, referred to Tg(BK5-CreERTI and Tg(BK5-CreERTS, respectively. The transgenic construct is driven by the bovine Keratin 5 promoter, which is active in the basal epithelial lineage of stratified and pseudo-stratified epithelium across multiple organs. Despite the difference in 4-OHT dependency, the Tg(BK5-CreERTI and Tg(BK5-CreERTS mouse lines shared similar Cre-mediated recombination among various organs, except for unique mammary epithelial Cre activity in Tg(BK5-CreERTS females. Conclusion These two new transgenic mouse lines for the analysis of basal epithelial function and for the genetic modification have been created allowing the identification of these cell lineages and analysis of their differentiation during embryogenesis, during perinatal development and in adult mice.

  7. All-in-one construct for genome engineering using Cre-lox technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Ana M; González-González, Luis; Querol, Enrique; Piñol, Jaume

    2016-06-01

    Mycoplasma genitalium is an appealing model of a minimal cell and synthetic biology study, and it was one of the first organisms whose genome was fully sequenced and chemically synthesized. Despite its usefulness as a model organism, many genetic tools well established for other microorganisms are not currently available in mycoplasmas. We have developed several vectors to adapt the Cre-lox technology for genome engineering in M. genitalium, providing an all-in-one construct that could be also useful to obtain unmarked genetic modifications in many other slow growing microorganisms. This construct contains a modified promoter sequence based in TetR system that exhibits an enhanced control on Cre recombinase expression, virtually abolishing the presence of this recombinase in the absence of inducer. This allows to introduce the Cre recombinase gene and the desired genetic modification in a single transformation step. In addition, this inducible promoter may be a very promising tool for a wide range of molecular applications. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  8. Efficient B cell depletion via diphtheria toxin in CD19-Cre/iDTR mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Demircik

    Full Text Available B cells were first discovered as antibody producing cells, as B-1 B cells and finally as effector cells. In recent years their capacity to serve as antigen presenting cells is increasingly appreciated, and better tools are needed to study their function. We have previously described a new mouse model, the iDTR mice, that allow for the Cre-mediated expression of the diphtheria toxin receptor, thus rendering cells that express the Cre-recombinase sensitivity to diphtheria toxin. Herein we describe a new mouse line, the B-DTR mice, where the CD19-Cre was crossed to the iDTR mice. B-DTR allows for the efficient and cost-effective depletion of different B cell subpopulations, but only partially plasma cells. These mice can therefore be used to study the importance of B cells versus plasma cells in different immune responses and autoimmune diseases.

  9. Identification of a two-component Class IIb bacteriocin in Streptococcus pyogenes by recombinase-based in vivo expression technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brent D.; Herfst, Christine A.; Tonial, Nicholas C.; Wakabayashi, Adrienne T.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; McCormick, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a globally prominent bacterial pathogen that exhibits strict tropism for the human host, yet bacterial factors responsible for the ability of S. pyogenes to compete within this limited biological niche are not well understood. Using an engineered recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) system, we identified an in vivo-induced promoter region upstream of a predicted Class IIb bacteriocin system in the M18 serotype S. pyogenes strain MGAS8232. This promoter element was not active under in vitro laboratory conditions, but was highly induced within the mouse nasopharynx. Recombinant expression of the predicted mature S. pyogenes bacteriocin peptides (designated SpbM and SpbN) revealed that both peptides were required for antimicrobial activity. Using a gain of function experiment in Lactococcus lactis, we further demonstrated S. pyogenes immunity function is encoded downstream of spbN. These data highlight the importance of bacterial gene regulation within appropriate environments to help understand mechanisms of niche adaptation by bacterial pathogens. PMID:27808235

  10. CcpA represses the expression of the divergent cit operons of Enterococcus faecalis through multiple cre sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian A; Blancato, Víctor S; Poncet, Sandrine; Deutscher, Josef; Magni, Christian

    2011-10-11

    In Enterococcus faecalis the genes encoding the enzymes involved in citrate metabolism are organized in two divergent operons, citHO and oadHDB-citCDEFX-oadA-citMG (citCL locus). Expression of both operons is specifically activated by adding citrate to the medium. This activation is mediated by binding of the GntR-like transcriptional regulator (CitO) to the cis-acting sequences located in the cit intergenic region. Early studies indicated that citrate and glucose could not be co-metabolized suggesting some form of catabolite repression, however the molecular mechanism remained unknown. In this study, we observed that the citHO promoter is repressed in the presence of sugars transported by the Phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate Phosphotranserase System (PTS sugars). This result strongly suggested that Carbon Catabolic Repression (CCR) impedes the expression of the activator CitO and the subsequent induction of the cit pathway. In fact, we demonstrate that CCR is acting on both promoters. It is partially relieved in a ccpA-deficient E. faecalis strain indicating that a CcpA-independent mechanism is also involved in regulation of the two operons. Furthermore, sequence analysis of the citH/oadH intergenic region revealed the presence of three putative catabolite responsive elements (cre). We found that they are all active and able to bind the CcpA/P-Ser-HPr complex, which downregulates the expression of the cit operons. Systematic mutation of the CcpA/P-Ser-HPr binding sites revealed that cre1 and cre2 contribute to citHO repression, while cre3 is involved in CCR of citCL. In conclusion, our study establishes that expression of the cit operons in E. faecalis is controlled by CCR via CcpA-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

  11. PREPARATION OF PLANT TRANSFORMATION VECTOR CONTAINING “SELF-EXCISION” CRE/LOXP SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Moravčíková

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on preparation of the plant transformation vector pZP6 containing “self-excision” Cre/loxP system. The T-DNA of binary vector consists of the cre recombinase gene driven by the Arabidopsis DLL promoter and the nptII expression unit flanked by two loxP sites in direct orientation. The gus reporter gene controlled by the double CaMV 35S promoter was placed out of the loxP embedded DNA. To confirm functionality of the Cre/loxP system, the pZP6 was analyzed for correct removal of the loxP embedded sequence in E. coli. The pZP6 was transformed into two bacterial strains A. tumefaciens AGLO and LBA 4404. Its stability in agrobacteria was evaluated by restriction analyses.

  12. aP2-Cre-mediated inactivation of estrogen receptor alpha causes hydrometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonson, Per; Matic, Marko; Portwood, Neil; Kuiper, Raoul V; Bryzgalova, Galyna; Gao, Hui; Windahl, Sara H; Humire, Patricia; Ohlsson, Claes; Berggren, Per-Olof; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2014-01-01

    In this study we describe the reproductive phenotypes of a novel mouse model in which Cre-mediated deletion of ERα is regulated by the aP2 (fatty acid binding protein 4) promoter. ERα-floxed mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the aP2 promoter to generate aP2-Cre/ERα(flox/flox) mice. As expected, ERα mRNA levels were reduced in adipose tissue, but in addition we also detected an 80% reduction of ERα levels in the hypothalamus of aP2-Cre/ERα(flox/flox) mice. Phenotypic analysis revealed that aP2-Cre/ERα(flox/flox) female mice were infertile. In line with this, aP2-Cre/ERα(flox/flox) female mice did not cycle and presented 3.8-fold elevated estrogen levels. That elevated estrogen levels were associated with increased estrogen signaling was evidenced by increased mRNA levels of the estrogen-regulated genes lactoferrin and aquaporin 5 in the uterus. Furthermore, aP2-Cre/ERα(flox/flox) female mice showed an accumulation of intra-uterine fluid, hydrometra, without overt indications for causative anatomical anomalies. However, the vagina and cervix displayed advanced keratosis with abnormal quantities of accumulating squamous epithelial cells suggesting functional obstruction by keratin plugs. Importantly, treatment of aP2-Cre/ERα(flox/flox) mice with the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole caused regression of the hydrometra phenotype linking increased estrogen levels to the observed phenotype. We propose that in aP2-Cre/ERα(flox/flox) mice, increased serum estrogen levels cause over-stimulation in the uterus and genital tracts resulting in hydrometra and vaginal obstruction.

  13. Cell-Specific Cre Strains For Genetic Manipulation in Salivary Glands.

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    Eri O Maruyama

    Full Text Available The secretory acinar cells of the salivary gland are essential for saliva secretion, but are also the cell type preferentially lost following radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. The source of replacement acinar cells is currently a matter of debate. There is evidence for the presence of adult stem cells located within specific ductal regions of the salivary glands, but our laboratory recently demonstrated that differentiated acinar cells are maintained without significant stem cell contribution. To enable further investigation of salivary gland cell lineages and their origins, we generated three cell-specific Cre driver mouse strains. For genetic manipulation in acinar cells, an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER was targeted to the prolactin-induced protein (Pip gene locus. Targeting of the Dcpp1 gene, encoding demilune cell and parotid protein, labels intercalated duct cells, a putative site of salivary gland stem cells, and serous demilune cells of the sublingual gland. Duct cell-specific Cre expression was attempted by targeting the inducible Cre to the Tcfcp2l1 gene locus. Using the R26Tomato Red reporter mouse, we demonstrate that these strains direct inducible, cell-specific expression. Genetic tracing of acinar cells using PipGCE supports the recent finding that differentiated acinar cells clonally expand. Moreover, tracing of intercalated duct cells expressing DcppGCE confirms evidence of duct cell proliferation, but further analysis is required to establish that renewal of secretory acinar cells is dependent on stem cells within these ducts.

  14. Altered Baseline and Nicotine-Mediated Behavioral and Cholinergic Profiles in ChAT-Cre Mouse Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edison; Lallai, Valeria; Sherafat, Yasmine; Grimes, Nickolas P; Pushkin, Anna N; Fowler, J P; Fowler, Christie D

    2018-01-25

    The recent development of transgenic rodent lines expressing cre recombinase in a cell-specific manner, along with advances in engineered viral vectors, has permitted in-depth investigations into circuit function. However, emerging evidence has begun to suggest that genetic modifications may introduce unexpected caveats. In the current studies, we sought to extensively characterize male and female mice from both the ChAT (BAC) -Cre mouse line, created with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) method, and ChAT (IRES) -Cre mouse line, generated with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) method. ChAT (BAC) -Cre transgenic and wildtype mice did not differ in general locomotor behavior, anxiety measures, drug-induced cataplexy, nicotine-mediated hypolocomotion, or operant food training. However, ChAT (BAC) -Cre transgenic mice did exhibit significant deficits in intravenous nicotine self-administration, which paralleled an increase in vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) hippocampal expression. For the ChAT (IRES) -Cre line, transgenic mice exhibited deficits in baseline locomotor, nicotine-mediated hypolocomotion, and operant food training compared to wildtype and hemizygous littermates. No differences among ChAT (IRES) -Cre wildtype, hemizygous and transgenic littermates were found in anxiety measures, drug-induced cataplexy, and nicotine self-administration. Given that increased cre expression was present in the ChAT (IRES) -Cre transgenic mice, as well as a decrease in ChAT expression in the hippocampus, altered neuronal function may underlie behavioral phenotypes. In contrast, ChAT (IRES) -Cre hemizygous mice were more similar to wildtype mice in both protein expression and the majority of behavioral assessments. As such, interpretation of data derived from ChAT-Cre rodents must consider potential limitations dependent on the line and/or genotype employed in research investigations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered

  15. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations...

  16. Restoring pollen fertility in transgenic male-sterile eggplant by Cre/loxp-mediated site-specific recombination system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihao Cao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to control plant fertility by cell lethal gene Barnase expressing at specific developmental stage and in specific tissue of male organ under the control of Cre/loxP system, for heterosis breeding, producing hybrid seed of eggplant. The Barnase-coding region was flanked by loxP recognition sites for Cre-recombinase. The eggplant inbred/pure line ('E-38' was transformed with Cre gene and the inbred/pure line ('E-8' was transformed with the Barnase gene situated between loxp. The experiments were done separately, by means of Agrobacterium co-culture. Four T0-plants with the Barnase gene were obtained, all proved to be male-sterile and incapable of producing viable pollen. Flowers stamens were shorter, but the vegetative phenotype was similar to wild-type. Five T0-plants with the Cre gene developed well, blossomed out and set fruit normally. The crossing of male-sterile Barnase-plants with Cre expression transgenic eggplants resulted in site-specific excision with the male-sterile plants producing normal fruits. With the Barnase was excised, pollen fertility was fully restored in the hybrids. The phenotype of these restored plants was the same as that of the wild-type. Thus, the Barnase and Cre genes were capable of stable inheritance and expression in progenies of transgenic plants.

  17. Efficient Construction of Large Genomic Deletion in Agrobacterium tumefaciens by Combination of Cre/loxP System and Triple Recombineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengqiang; Xie, Yali; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Xuezhi; Xia, Liqiu; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop an efficient system for deleting genomic segment in Agrobacterium tumefaciens to analyze gene functions and construct marker gene-free recombinant strains, a Cre recombinase expression plasmid was constructed by placing its encoding gene under the control of Ptet promoter and cloning into the plasmid replicable in both A. tumefaciens and E. coli. Triple recombineering was applied to efficiently construct integrative vectors which were used to introduce loxP sites and selection markers into the chromosome of A. tumefaciens. Cre recombinase could be properly induced by anhydrotetracycline in A. tumefaciens, which was revealed by the fact that kanamycin resistance gene flanked by two parallel loxP sites was excised from the genome of A. tumefaciens with virtually 100% efficiency. And what is more, an A. tumefaciens mutant carrying large-deletion (~85 kb) in genome was successfully constructed by Cre/loxP system. Here, we described the application of combination of Cre/loxP system and triple recombineering to efficiently excise genomic segment in A. tumefaciens, which also would facilitate efficient construction of multiple gene disruptions in A. tumefaciens.

  18. Elevated cJUN expression and an ATF/CRE site within the ATF3 promoter contribute to activation of ATF3 transcription by the amino acid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lingchen; Kilberg, Michael S

    2013-02-15

    Mammalian cells respond to amino acid deprivation through multiple signaling pathways referred to as the amino acid response (AAR). Transcription factors mediate the AAR after their activation by several mechanisms; examples include translational control (activating transcription factor 4, ATF4), phosphorylation (p-cJUN), and transcriptional control (ATF3). ATF4 induces ATF3 transcription through a promoter-localized C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE). The present report characterizes an ATF/CRE site upstream of the CARE that also contributes to AAR-induced ATF3 transcription. ATF4 binds to the ATF/CRE and CARE sequences and both are required for a maximal response to ATF4 induction. ATF3, which antagonizes ATF4 and represses its own gene, also exhibited binding activity to the ATF/CRE and CARE sequences. The AAR resulted in elevated total cJUN and p-cJUN protein levels and both forms exhibited binding activity to the ATF/CRE and CARE ATF3 sequences. Knockdown of AAR-enhanced cJUN expression blocked induction of the ATF3 gene and mutation of either the ATF/CRE or the CARE site prevented the cJUN-dependent increase in ATF3-driven luciferase activity. The results indicate that both increased cJUN and the cis-acting ATF/CRE sequence within the ATF3 promoter contribute to the transcriptional activation of the gene during the AAR.

  19. Cre Fused with RVG Peptide Mediates Targeted Genome Editing in Mouse Brain Cells In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiyuan; Sun, Zhaolin; Li, Pan; Feng, Tao; Wu, Sen

    2016-12-14

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that can pass through cell membranes. CPPs can facilitate the cellular entry of proteins, macromolecules, nanoparticles and drugs. RVG peptide (RVG hereinafter) is a 29-amino-acid CPP derived from a rabies virus glycoprotein that can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter brain cells. However, whether RVG can be used for genome editing in the brain has not been reported. In this work, we combined RVG with Cre recombinase for bacterial expression. The purified RVG-Cre protein cut plasmids in vitro and traversed cell membranes in cultured Neuro2a cells. By tail vein-injecting RVG-Cre into Cre reporter mouse lines mTmG and Rosa26lacZ, we demonstrated that RVG-Cre could target brain cells and achieve targeted somatic genome editing in adult mice. This direct delivery of the gene-editing enzyme protein into mouse brains with RVG is much safer than plasmid- or viral-based methods, holding promise for further applications in the treatment of various brain diseases.

  20. Molecular switch of Cre/loxP for radiation modulated gene therapy on hepatoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Chen, Fu-Du; Wang, Fu Hui; Ke, Chien Chih; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2007-02-01

    For the purpose of enhancement of AFP promoter for the use of radiation modulated gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we combined hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer II with AFP promoter which shows the selectivity to the target cells to control the Cre/loxP system. Different gene constructs, pE4luc, pE4Tk, EIIAPA-Cre, E4CMV-STOP-Tk and chimeric promoters combined with HBV enhancer were constructed and transfected into HepG2, HeLa and NIH-3T3 cell lines. Cell experiments revealed that E4 enhancer responses to radiation best after 60 h irradiation at a dose range of 5-7 Gy in HepG2 stable clone. The EIIAPA promoter provided high specificity to hepatoma and activated the Cre downstream and removed the stop cassette only in hepatoma cells. After removal of the stop cassette, the E4 response to radiation could encode more Tk protein and kill more tumor cells. In summary, the chimeric EIIAPA promoter can stringently control the expression of Cre recombinase only in HCC. The radiation effect of the EIIAPA-Cre and E4CMV-STOP-Tk system shows promising results in terms of cell survival of HCC.

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila AmpH and CepH beta-lactamases: derepressed expression in mutants of Escherichia coli lacking creB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avison, M B; Niumsup, P; Walsh, T R; Bennett, P M

    2000-11-01

    The class 1 cephalosporinase (CepH) and class 2d oxacillinase (AmpH) from an Aeromonas hydrophila clinical isolate, strain T429125, have been cloned and sequenced. Both enzymes are typical of their equivalents in other species of Aeromonas Both cloned beta-lactamase genes were expressed at a low level in a standard laboratory Escherichia coli strain, but when cloned into a cre deletion E. coli mutant, they were expressed at significantly higher levels. Specific disruption of the creB gene resulted in similar increased levels of beta-lactamase expression, so it was concluded that CreB represses the transcription of ampH and cepH in a cre(+) E. coli strain. The expression of cepH was four times that of ampH in the deltacre mutant because of an additional factor encoded on the cloned T429125 chromosomal fragment containing cepH. This factor was able to trans-activate expression of co-resident ampH in the deltacre mutant such that expression of the two genes was approximately equal. The entire cepH-containing fragment was sequenced, but it contained no genes that were obviously related to any known class of DNA-binding protein.

  2. A CRE/AP-1-like motif is essential for induced syncytin-2 expression and fusion in human trophoblast-like model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirine Toufaily

    Full Text Available Syncytin-2 is encoded by the envelope gene of Endogenous Retrovirus-FRD (ERVFRD-1 and plays a critical role in fusion of placental trophoblasts leading to the formation of the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. Its expression is consequently regulated in a strict manner. In the present study, we have identified a forskolin-responsive region located between positions -300 to -150 in the Syncytin-2 promoter region. This 150 bp region in the context of a minimal promoter mediated an 80-fold induction of promoter activity following forskolin stimulation. EMSA analyses with competition experiments with nuclear extracts from forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells demonstrated that the -211 to -177 region specifically bound two forskolin-induced complexes, one of them containing a CRE/AP-1-like motif. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CRE/AP-1 binding site in the context of the Syncytin-2 promoter or a heterologous promoter showed that this motif was mostly essential for forskolin-induced promoter activity. Transfection experiments with dominant negative mutants and constitutively activated CREB expression vectors in addition to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation suggested that a CREB family member, CREB2 was binding and acting through the CRE/AP-1 motif. We further demonstrated the binding of JunD to this same motif. Similar to forskolin and soluble cAMP, CREB2 and JunD overexpression induced Syncytin-2 promoter activity in a CRE/AP-1-dependent manner and Syncytin-2 expression. In addition, BeWo cell fusion was induced by both CREB2 and JunD overexpression, while being repressed following silencing of either gene. These results thereby demonstrate that induced expression of Syncytin-2 is highly dependent on the interaction of bZIP-containing transcription factors to a CRE/AP-1 motif and that this element is important for the regulation of Syncytin-2 expression, which results in the formation of the peripheral syncytiotrophoblast layer.

  3. Nestin-Cre mice are affected by hypopituitarism, which is not due to significant activity of the transgene in the pituitary gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Galichet

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Nestin-Cre mice express Cre recombinase under control of the rat nestin promoter and central nervous system (CNS enhancer. While endogenous Nestin is expressed in some other tissues including the pituitary gland, Nestin-Cre mice induce recombination predominantly in the CNS. For this reason, they have been widely used to explore gene function or cell fate in the latter. Pituitary hormonal deficiencies, or hypopituitarism, are associated with a wide range of symptoms and with a significant morbidity. These can have a neural and/or a pituitary origin as the gland's secretions are controlled by the hypothalamus. We report here that Nestin-Cre mice themselves are affected by mild hypopituitarism. Hence, physiological consequences are expected, especially in combination with defects resulting from Cre mediated deletion of any gene under investigation. To further investigate the origin of this phenotype, we re-examined the activity of the transgene. We compared it with expression of Nestin itself in the context of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, especially in the light of a recent report showing pituitary Nestin-Cre activity, which contrasts with previous data. Our results disagree with those of this recent study and do not support the claim that Nestin positive cells are present in the pituitary anlagen, the Rathke's pouch (RP. Moreover we did not observe any significant activity in the post-natal pituitary, in agreement with the initial report.

  4. Nestin-Cre Mice Are Affected by Hypopituitarism, Which Is Not Due to Significant Activity of the Transgene in the Pituitary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galichet, Christophe; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Rizzoti, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Nestin-Cre mice express Cre recombinase under control of the rat nestin promoter and central nervous system (CNS) enhancer. While endogenous Nestin is expressed in some other tissues including the pituitary gland, Nestin-Cre mice induce recombination predominantly in the CNS. For this reason, they have been widely used to explore gene function or cell fate in the latter. Pituitary hormonal deficiencies, or hypopituitarism, are associated with a wide range of symptoms and with a significant morbidity. These can have a neural and/or a pituitary origin as the gland's secretions are controlled by the hypothalamus. We report here that Nestin-Cre mice themselves are affected by mild hypopituitarism. Hence, physiological consequences are expected, especially in combination with defects resulting from Cre mediated deletion of any gene under investigation. To further investigate the origin of this phenotype, we re-examined the activity of the transgene. We compared it with expression of Nestin itself in the context of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, especially in the light of a recent report showing pituitary Nestin-Cre activity, which contrasts with previous data. Our results disagree with those of this recent study and do not support the claim that Nestin positive cells are present in the pituitary anlagen, the Rathke's pouch (RP). Moreover we did not observe any significant activity in the post-natal pituitary, in agreement with the initial report. PMID:20625432

  5. Generation of a tenascin-C-CreER2 knockin mouse line for conditional DNA recombination in renal medullary interstitial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjuan He

    Full Text Available Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMIC are specialized fibroblast-like cells that exert important functions in maintaining body fluid homeostasis and systemic blood pressure. Here, we generated a RMIC specific tenascin-C promoter driven inducible CreER2 knockin mouse line with an EGFP reporter. Similar as endogenous tenascin-C expression, the reporter EGFP expression in the tenascin-C-CreER2(+/- mice was observed in the inner medulla of the kidney, and co-localized with COX2 but not with AQP2 or AQP1, suggesting selective expression in RMICs. After recombination (tenascin-C-CreER2(+/-/ROSA26-lacZ(+/- mice + tamoxifen, β-gal activity was restricted to the cells in the inner medulla of the kidney, and didn't co-localize with AQP2, consistent with selective Cre recombinase activity in RMICs. Cre activity was not obvious in other major organs or without tamoxifen treatment. This inducible RMIC specific Cre mouse line should therefore provide a novel tool to manipulate genes of interest in RMICs.

  6. Cre/lox-mediated marker gene excision in transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Subbarao, S; Addae, P; Shen, A; Armstrong, C; Peschke, V; Gilbertson, L

    2003-11-01

    After the initial transformation and tissue culture process is complete, selectable marker genes, which are used in virtually all transformation approaches, are not required for the expression of the gene of interest in the transgenic plants. There are several advantages to removing the selectable marker gene after it is no longer needed, such as enabling the reuse of selectable markers and simplifying transgene arrays. We have tested the Cre/ lox system from bacteriophage P1 for its ability to precisely excise stably integrated marker genes from chromosomes in transgenic maize plants. Two strategies, crossing and autoexcision, have been tested and demonstrated. In the crossing strategy, plants expressing the Cre recombinase are crossed with plants bearing a transgene construct in which the selectable marker gene is flanked by directly repeated lox sites. Unlike previous reports in which incomplete somatic and germline excision were common, in our experiments complete somatic and germline marker gene excision occurred in the F(1) plants from most crosses with multiple independent Cre and lox lines. In the autoexcision strategy, the cre gene, under the control of a heat shock-inducible promoter, is excised along with the nptII marker gene. Our results show that a transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic callus is sufficient for inducing cre and excising the cre and nptII genes. Genetic segregation and molecular analysis confirmed that marker gene removal is precise, complete and stable. The autoexcision strategy provides a way of removing the selectable marker gene from callus or other tissues such as embryos and kernels.

  7. STIM1fl/fl Ksp-Cre Mouse has Impaired Renal Water Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Cebotaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/AIM: STIM1 is as an essential component in store operated Ca2+ entry. However give the paucity of information on the role of STIM1 in kidney, the aim was to study the function of STIM1 in the medulla of the kidney. Methods: we crossed a Ksp-cre mouse with another mouse containing two loxP sites flanking Exon 6 of STIM1. The Ksp-cre mouse is based upon the Ksp-cadherin gene promoter which expresses cre recombinase in developing nephrons, collecting ducts (SD and thick ascending limbs (TAL of the loop of Henle. Results: The offspring of these mice are viable without gross morphological changes, however, we noticed that the STIM1 Ksp-cre knockout mice produced more urine compared to control. To examine this more carefully, we fed mice low (LP and high protein (HP diets respectively. When mice were fed HP diet STIM1 ko mice had significantly increased urinary volume and lower specific gravity compared to wt mice. In STIM1 ko mice fed HP diet urine creatinine and urea were significantly lower compared to wt mice fed HP diet, however the fractional excretion was the same. Conclusion: These data support the idea that STIM1 ko mice have impaired urinary concentrating ability when challenged with HP diet is most likely caused by impaired Ca2+-dependent signal transduction through the vasopressin receptor cascade.

  8. A Trp53fl/flPtenfl/fl mouse model of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma mediated by adeno-Cre injection and in vivo bioluminescence imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa R Buchakjian

    Full Text Available Genetic mouse models of soft tissue sarcoma provide critical insights into disease pathophysiology, which are oftentimes unable to be extracted from human tumor samples or xenograft models. In this study we describe a mouse model of soft tissue sarcoma mediated by adenoviral-Cre recombinase injection into Trp53fl/fl/Ptenfl/fl lox-stop-lox luciferase mice. Injection of adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase, either subcutaneously or intramuscularly in two experimental groups, results in viral infection and gene recombination with 100% penetrance within the first 24 hours following injection. Luciferase expression measured by real-time bioluminescence imaging increases over time, with an initial robust increase following viral injection, followed by a steady rise over the next several weeks as primary tumors develop and grow. Intramuscular injections were more commonly associated with evidence of systemic viral distribution than subcutaneous injections. All mice developed soft tissue sarcomas at the primary injection site, with histological examination identifying 93% of tumors as invasive pleomorphic sarcomas based on microscopic morphology and immunohistochemical expression of sarcoma markers. A lymphocytic infiltrate was present in 64% of the sarcomas in this immunocompetent model and 71% of tumors expressed PD-L1. This is the first report of a viral-Cre mediated Trp53/Pten mouse model of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. The bioluminescence imaging feature, along with high penetrance of the model and its immunological characteristics, makes it suited for pre-clinical studies of soft tissue sarcoma.

  9. Identification of Salmonella enterica genes with a role in persistence on lettuce leaves during cold storage by recombinase-based in vivo expression technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupitski, Y; Brandl, M T; Pinto, R; Belausov, E; Tamir-Ariel, D; Burdman, S; Sela Saldinger, S

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of enteric illness linked to lettuce and a lack of efficacious strategies to decontaminate produce underscores the need for a better understanding of the molecular interactions of foodborne pathogens with plants. This study aimed at identifying Salmonella enterica genes involved in the persistence of this organism on post-harvest lettuce during cold storage using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET). In total, 37 potentially induced loci were identified in four distinct screenings. Knockout mutations in eight upregulated genes revealed that four of them have a role in persistence of the pathogen in this system. These genes included stfC, bcsA, misL, and yidR, encoding a fimbrial outer membrane usher, a cellulose synthase catalytic subunit, an adhesin of the autotransporter family expressed from the Salmonella pathogenicity island-3, and a putative ATP/GTP-binding protein, respectively. bcsA, misL, and yidR but not stfC mutants were impaired also in attachment and biofilm formation, suggesting that these functions are required for survival of S. enterica on post-harvest lettuce. This is the first report that MisL, which has a role in Salmonella binding to fibronectin in animal hosts, is involved also in adhesion to plant tissue. Hence, our study uncovered a new plant attachment factor in Salmonella and demonstrates that RIVET is an effective approach for investigating human pathogen-plant interactions in a post-harvest leafy vegetable.

  10. ccrABEnt serine recombinase genes are widely distributed in the Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus casseliflavus species groups and are expressed in E. faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkeng, Eva Katrin; Tessema, Girum Tadesse; Lundblad, Eirik Wasmuth; Butaye, Patrick; Willems, Rob; Sollid, Johanna Ericsson; Sundsfjord, Arnfinn; Hegstad, Kristin

    2010-12-01

    The presence, distribution and expression of cassette chromosome recombinase (ccr) genes, which are homologous to the staphylococcal ccrAB genes and are designated ccrAB(Ent) genes, were examined in enterococcal isolates (n=421) representing 13 different species. A total of 118 (28 %) isolates were positive for ccrAB(Ent) genes by PCR, and a number of these were confirmed by Southern hybridization with a ccrA(Ent) probe (n=76) and partial DNA sequencing of ccrA(Ent) and ccrB(Ent) genes (n=38). ccrAB(Ent) genes were present in Enterococcus faecium (58/216, 27 %), Enterococcus durans (31/38, 82 %), Enterococcus hirae (27/52, 50 %), Enterococcus casseliflavus (1/4, 25 %) and Enterococcus gallinarum (1/2, 50 %). In the eight other species tested, including Enterococcus faecalis (n=94), ccrAB(Ent) genes were not found. Thirty-eight sequenced ccrAB(Ent) genes from five different enterococcal species showed 94-100 % nucleotide sequence identity and linkage PCRs showed heterogeneity in the ccrAB(Ent) flanking chromosomal genes. Expression analysis of ccrAB(Ent) genes from the E. faecium DO strain showed constitutive expression as a bicistronic mRNA. The ccrAB(Ent) mRNA levels were lower during log phase than stationary phase in relation to total mRNA. Multilocus sequence typing was performed on 39 isolates. ccrAB(Ent) genes were detected in both hospital-related (10/29, 34 %) and non-hospital (4/10, 40 %) strains of E. faecium. Various sequence types were represented by both ccrAB(Ent) positive and negative isolates, suggesting acquisition or loss of ccrAB(Ent) in E. faecium. In summary, ccrAB(Ent) genes, potentially involved in genome plasticity, are expressed in E. faecium and are widely distributed in the E. faecium and E. casseliflavus species groups.

  11. Long-term Cre-mediated Retrograde Tagging of Neurons Using a Novel Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus

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    Hassana eOyibo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain regions contain diverse populations of neurons that project to different long-range targets. The study of these subpopulations in circuit function and behavior requires a toolkit to characterize and manipulate their activity in vivo. We have developed a novel set of reagents based on Pseudorabies Virus (PRV for efficient and long-term genetic tagging of neurons based on their projection targets. By deleting IE180, the master transcriptional regulator in the PRV genome, we have produced a mutant virus capable of infection and transgene expression in neurons but unable to replicate in or spread from those neurons. IE180-null mutants showed no cytotoxicity, and infected neurons exhibited normal physiological function more than 45 days after infection, indicating the utility of these engineered viruses for chronic experiments. To enable rapid and convenient construction of novel IE180-null recombinants, we engineered a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC shuttle-vector system for moving new constructs into the PRV IE180-null genome. Using this system we generated an IE180-null recombinant virus expressing the site-specific recombinase Cre. This Cre-expressing virus (PRV-hSyn-Cre efficiently and robustly infects neurons in vivo and activates transgene expression from Cre-dependent vectors in local and retrograde projecting populations of neurons in the mouse. We also generated an assortment of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins (mCherry, EGFP, ECFP. These viruses exhibit long-term labeling of neurons in vitro but transient labeling in vivo. Together these novel IE180-null PRV reagents expand the toolkit for targeted gene expression in the brain, facilitating functional dissection of neuronal circuits in vivo.

  12. Strict control of telomerase activation using Cre-mediated inversion

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    Harrington Lea

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cells appear exquisitely sensitive to the levels of hTERT expression, the telomerase reverse transcriptase. In primary cells that do not express hTERT, telomeres erode with each successive cell division, leading to the eventual loss of telomere DNA, an induction of a telomere DNA damage response, and the onset of cellular senescence or crisis. In some instances, an average of less than one appropriately spliced hTERT transcript per cell appears sufficient to restore telomerase activity and telomere maintenance, and overcome finite replicative capacity. Results To underscore this sensitivity, we showed that a widely used system of transcriptional induction involving ecdysone (muristerone led to sufficient expression of hTERT to immortalize human fibroblasts, even in the absence of induction. To permit tightly regulated expression of hTERT, or any other gene of interest, we developed a method of transcriptional control using an invertible expression cassette flanked by antiparallel loxP recombination sites. When introduced into human fibroblasts with the hTERT cDNA positioned in the opposite orientation relative to a constitutively active promoter, no telomerase activity was detected, and the cell population retained a mortal phenotype. Upon inversion of the hTERT cDNA to a transcriptionally competent orientation via the action of Cre recombinase, cells acquired telomerase activity, telomere DNA was replenished, and the population was immortalized. Further, using expression of a fluorescent protein marker, we demonstrated the ability to repeatedly invert specific transcripts between an active and inactive state in an otherwise isogenic cell background. Conclusion This binary expression system thus provides a useful genetic means to strictly regulate the expression of a given gene, or to control the expression of at least two different genes in a mutually exclusive manner.

  13. The CreB deubiquitinating enzyme does not directly target the CreA repressor protein in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Ashiqul; Kamlangdee, Niyom; Kelly, Joan M

    2017-08-01

    Ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. The major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans is CreA, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. A key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising CreB (deubiquitinating enzyme) and HulA (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in the regulatory mechanism. Previously, missense alleles of creA and creB were analysed for genetic interactions, and here we extended this to complete loss-of-function alleles of creA and creB, and compared morphological and biochemical phenotypes, which confirmed genetic interaction between the genes. We investigated whether CreA, or a protein in a complex with it, is a direct target of the CreB deubiquitination enzyme, using co-purifications of CreA and CreB, first using strains that overexpress the proteins and then using strains that express the proteins from their native promoters. The Phos-tag system was used to show that CreA is a phosphorylated protein, but no ubiquitination was detected using anti-ubiquitin antibodies and Western analysis. These findings were confirmed using mass spectrometry, which confirmed that CreA was differentially phosphorylated but not ubiquitinated. Thus, CreA is not a direct target of CreB, and nor are proteins that form part of a stable complex with CreA a target of CreB. These results open up new questions regarding the molecular mechanism of CreA repressing activity, and how the ubiquitination pathway involving CreB interacts with this regulatory network.

  14. Impaired Ca(2+ signaling in β-cells lacking leptin receptors by Cre-loxP recombination.

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    Eva Tudurí

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes and is typically associated with hyperleptinemia and a state of leptin resistance. The impact of chronically elevated leptin levels on the function of insulin-secreting β-cells has not been elucidated. We previously generated mice lacking leptin signaling in β-cells by using the Cre-loxP strategy and showed that these animals develop increased body weight and adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Here, we performed several in vitro studies and observed that β-cells lacking leptin signaling in this model are capable of properly metabolizing glucose, but show impaired intracellular Ca(2+ oscillations and lack of synchrony within the islets in response to glucose, display reduced response to tolbutamide and exhibit morphological abnormalities including increased autophagy. Defects in intracellular Ca(2+ signaling were observed even in neonatal islets, ruling out the possible contribution of obesity to the β-cell irregularities observed in adults. In parallel, we also detected a disrupted intracellular Ca(2+ pattern in response to glucose and tolbutamide in control islets from adult transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the rat insulin promoter, despite these animals being glucose tolerant and secreting normal levels of insulin in response to glucose. This unexpected observation impeded us from discerning the consequences of impaired leptin signaling as opposed to long-term Cre expression in the function of insulin-secreting cells. These findings highlight the need to generate improved Cre-driver mouse models or new tools to induce Cre recombination in β-cells.

  15. Self-excising Cre/mutant lox marker recycling system for multiple gene integrations and consecutive gene deletions in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silai; Ban, Akihiko; Ebara, Naoki; Mizutani, Osamu; Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a self-excising Cre/loxP-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into Aspergillus oryzae. To construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the Aspergillus nidulans adeA gene, and the Cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. However, construction of the plasmid failed, possibly owing to a slight expression of cre downstream of the fungal gene promoter in Escherichia coli. Hence, to avoid the excision of the cassette in E. coli, a 71-bp intron of the A. oryzae xynG2 gene was inserted into the cre gene. The A. oryzae adeA deletion mutant was transformed with the resulting plasmid in the presence of glucose, and the transformants were cultured in medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source. PCR analysis of genomic DNA from resultant colonies revealed the excision of both the marker and Cre expression construct, indicating that the self-excising marker cassette was efficient at removing the selectable marker. Using the marker recycling system, hyperproduction of kojic acid could be achieved in A. oryzae by the introduction of two genes that encode oxidoreductase and transporter. Furthermore, we also constructed an alternative marker recycling cassette bearing the A. nidulans pyrithiamine resistant gene (ptrA) as a dominant selectable marker. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tamoxifen-Induced Cre-loxP Recombination Is Prolonged in Pancreatic Islets of Adult Mice.

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    Rachel B Reinert

    Full Text Available Tamoxifen (Tm-inducible Cre recombinases are widely used to perform gene inactivation and lineage tracing studies in mice. Although the efficiency of inducible Cre-loxP recombination can be easily evaluated with reporter strains, the precise length of time that Tm induces nuclear translocation of CreER(Tm and subsequent recombination of a target allele is not well defined, and difficult to assess. To better understand the timeline of Tm activity in vivo, we developed a bioassay in which pancreatic islets with a Tm-inducible reporter (from Pdx1(PB-CreER(Tm;R26R(lacZ mice were transplanted beneath the renal capsule of adult mice previously treated with three doses of 1 mg Tm, 8 mg Tm, or corn oil vehicle. Surprisingly, recombination in islet grafts, as assessed by expression of the β-galactosidase (β-gal reporter, was observed days or weeks after Tm treatment, in a dose-dependent manner. Substantial recombination occurred in islet grafts long after administration of 3×8 mg Tm: in grafts transplanted 48 hours after the last Tm injection, 77.9±0.4% of β-cells were β-gal+; in β-cells placed after 1 week, 46.2±5.0% were β-gal+; after 2 weeks, 26.3±7.0% were β-gal+; and after 4 weeks, 1.9±0.9% were β-gal+. Islet grafts from mice given 3×1 mg Tm showed lower, but notable, recombination 48 hours (4.9±1.7% and 1 week (4.5±1.9% after Tm administration. These results show that Tm doses commonly used to induce Cre-loxP recombination may continue to label significant numbers of cells for weeks after Tm treatment, possibly confounding the interpretation of time-sensitive studies using Tm-dependent models. Therefore, investigators developing experimental approaches using Tm-inducible systems should consider both maximal recombination efficiency and the length of time that Tm-induced Cre-loxP recombination occurs.

  17. Expression of the SNARE protein SNAP-23 is essential for cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Sunil; Mittal, Sharad K; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Kruhlak, Michael J; Roche, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Members of the SNARE-family of proteins are known to be key regulators of the membrane-membrane fusion events required for intracellular membrane traffic. The ubiquitously expressed SNARE protein SNAP-23 regulates a wide variety of exocytosis events and is essential for mouse development. Germline deletion of SNAP-23 results in early embryonic lethality in mice, and for this reason we now describe mice and cell lines in which SNAP-23 can be conditionally-deleted using Cre-lox technology. Deletion of SNAP-23 in CD19-Cre expressing mice prevents B lymphocyte development and deletion of SNAP-23 using a variety of T lymphocyte-specific Cre mice prevents T lymphocyte development. Acute depletion of SNAP-23 in mouse fibroblasts leads to rapid apoptotic cell death. These data highlight the importance of SNAP-23 for cell survival and describe a mouse in which specific cell types can be eliminated by expression of tissue-specific Cre-recombinase.

  18. Excision of a selectable marker gene in transgenic banana using a Cre/lox system controlled by an embryo specific promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Ramos, Adolfo; Kosky, Rafael G; Angenon, Geert

    2013-09-01

    Antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes have been used in transgene technology as powerful selection tools. Nonetheless, once transgenic events have been obtained their presence is no longer needed and can even be undesirable. In this work, we have developed a system to excise the selectable marker and the cre recombinase genes from transgenic banana cv. 'Grande Naine' (Musa AAA). To achieve this, the embryo specific REG-2 promoter was isolated from rice and its expression pattern in banana cell clumps, somatic embryos and regenerated plantlets was characterized by using a pREG2::uidA fusion construct. Subsequently, the REG-2 promoter was placed upstream of the cre gene, conferring Cre functionality in somatic embryos and recombination of lox sites resulting in excision of the selectable marker and cre genes. PCR analysis revealed that 41.7 % of the analysed transgenic plants were completely marker free, results that were thereafter confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using developmentally controlled promoters to mediate marker excision in banana. This system does not require any extra handling compared to the conventional transformation procedure and might be useful in other species regenerating through somatic embryogenesis.

  19. Detection of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in airways of a bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis model derived from an α-smooth muscle actin-Cre transgenic mouse

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    Yang Xiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs has been widely observed in patients suffering interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that AECs could convert into myofibroblasts following exposure to TGF-β1. In this study, we examined whether EMT occurs in bleomycin (BLM induced pulmonary fibrosis, and the involvement of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs in the EMT. Using an α-smooth muscle actin-Cre transgenic mouse (α-SMA-Cre/R26R strain, we labelled myofibroblasts in vivo. We also performed a phenotypic analysis of human BEC lines during TGF-β1 stimulation in vitro. Methods We generated the α-SMA-Cre mouse strain by pronuclear microinjection with a Cre recombinase cDNA driven by the mouse α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA promoter. α-SMA-Cre mice were crossed with the Cre-dependent LacZ expressing strain R26R to produce the double transgenic strain α-SMA-Cre/R26R. β-galactosidase (βgal staining, α-SMA and smooth muscle myosin heavy chains immunostaining were carried out simultaneously to confirm the specificity of expression of the transgenic reporter within smooth muscle cells (SMCs under physiological conditions. BLM-induced peribronchial fibrosis in α-SMA-Cre/R26R mice was examined by pulmonary βgal staining and α-SMA immunofluorescence staining. To confirm in vivo observations of BECs undergoing EMT, we stimulated human BEC line 16HBE with TGF-β1 and examined the localization of the myofibroblast markers α-SMA and F-actin, and the epithelial marker E-cadherin by immunofluorescence. Results βgal staining in organs of healthy α-SMA-Cre/R26R mice corresponded with the distribution of SMCs, as confirmed by α-SMA and SM-MHC immunostaining. BLM-treated mice showed significantly enhanced βgal staining in subepithelial areas in bronchi, terminal bronchioles and walls of pulmonary vessels. Some AECs in certain peribronchial areas or even a small

  20. Visualisation of Kiss1 Neurone Distribution Using a Kiss1-CRE Transgenic Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, S-H; Kyle, V; Morris, P G; Jackman, S; Sinnett-Smith, L C; Schacker, M; Chen, C; Colledge, W H

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptin neuropeptides are encoded by the Kiss1 gene and play a critical role in the regulation of the mammalian reproductive axis. Kiss1 neurones are found in two locations in the rodent hypothalamus: one in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and another in the RP3V region, which includes the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Detailed mapping of the fibre distribution of Kiss1 neurones will help with our understanding of the action of these neurones in other regions of the brain. We have generated a transgenic mouse in which the Kiss1 coding region is disrupted by a CRE-GFP transgene so that expression of the CRE recombinase protein is driven from the Kiss1 promoter. As expected, mutant mice of both sexes are sterile with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism and do not show the normal rise in luteinising hormone after gonadectomy. Mutant female mice do not develop mature Graafian follicles or form corpora lutea consistent with ovulatory failure. Mutant male mice have low blood testosterone levels and impaired spermatogenesis beyond the meiosis stage. Breeding Kiss-CRE heterozygous mice with CRE-activated tdTomato reporter mice allows fluorescence visualisation of Kiss1 neurones in brain slices. Approximately 80-90% of tdTomato positive neurones in the ARC were co-labelled with kisspeptin and expression of tdTomato in the AVPV region was sexually dimorphic, with higher expression in females than males. A small number of tdTomato-labelled neurones was also found in other locations, including the lateral septum, the anterodorsal preoptic nucleus, the amygdala, the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, the periaquaductal grey, and the mammillary nucleus. Three dimensional visualisation of Kiss1 neurones and fibres by CLARITY processing of whole brains showed an increase in ARC expression during puberty and higher numbers of Kiss1 neurones in the caudal region of the ARC compared to the rostral region. ARC Kiss1 neurones sent fibre projections to several

  1. Neurochemical characterization of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 in the mouse hypothalamus1

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Melissa J. S.; Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that acts via MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) in the mouse. It promotes positive energy balance thus mice lacking MCH or MCHR1 are lean, hyperactive, and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Identifying the cellular targets of MCH is an important step to understanding the mechanisms underlying MCH actions. We generated the Mchr1-cre mouse that expressed cre recombinase driven by the MCHR1 promoter and crossed it with a tdTomato reporter ...

  2. Effects of CreERT2, 4-OH Tamoxifen, and Gender on CFU-F Assays.

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    Sophie L McHaffie

    Full Text Available Gene function in stem cell maintenance is often tested by inducing deletion via the Cre-loxP system. However, controls for Cre and other variables are frequently not included. Here we show that when cultured in the presence of 4-OH tamoxifen, bone and marrow cells containing the CreERT2 construct have a reduced colony forming ability. Inactive CreERT2 recombinase, however, has the opposite effect. Young female marrow cells containing the inactive CreERT2 construct grew more colonies than cells lacking the construct altogether. Young female control marrow cells (i.e., negative for CreERT2 also produced significantly greater colony numbers when cultured with 4-OH tamoxifen, compared with the ethanol vehicle control. In conclusion, we report that the use of the Cre-loxP system is inadvisable in combination with CFU-F assays, and that appropriate controls should be in place to extend the future use of Cre-loxP in alternate assays.

  3. Recombinase technology for precise genome engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of recombinases for genomic engineering is no longer a new technology. In fact this technology has entered its third decade since the initial discovery that recombinases function in heterologous systems. The random insertion of a transgene into a plant genome by traditional methods generates...

  4. HMGA1 expression levels are elevated in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cells in the Ptf1a-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veite-Schmahl, Michelle J; Joesten, William C; Kennedy, Michael A

    2017-08-22

    Pancreatic cancer is currently the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and it is predicted to become the second by the year 2030. High-mobility group A1 protein (HMGA1) is an oncogenic transcription factor, localised and active in cell nuclei, that is linked to tumour progression in many human cancers, including pancreatic cancer. Overexpression of HMGA1 renders cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy. Although the Ptf1a-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mouse is perhaps the most widely utilised animal model for human pancreatic cancer, expression levels of HMGA1 in pancreata from this mouse model have not been characterised. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine nuclear HMGA1 levels in pancreatic tissue sections from Ptf1a-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D mice aged 5, 11, and 15 months. The H Score method was used for quantitative analysis. The HMGA1 levels were significantly elevated in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) epithelia compared with untransformed acinar tissues or fibroinflammatory stroma. The PanINs have long been regarded as precancerous precursors to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Significantly elevated HMGA1 levels observed in the nuclei of PanINs in Ptf1a-Cre; LSL-KrasG12D mice validate this animal model for investigating the role that HMGA1 plays in cancer progression and testing therapeutic approaches targeting HMGA1 in human cancers.

  5. Hydrodynamic Delivery of Cre Protein to Lineage-Mark or Time-Stamp Mouse Hepatocytes In situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsteng, Katherine M.; Prigge, Justin R.; Talago, Emily A.; June, Ronald K.; Schmidt, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Cre-responsive fluorescent marker alleles are powerful tools for cell lineage tracing in mice; however their utility is limited by regulation of Cre activity. When targeting hepatocytes, hydrodynamic delivery of a Cre-expression plasmid can convert Cre-responsive alleles without inducing the intracellular or systemic antiviral responses often associated with viral-derived Cre-expression vectors. In this method, rapid high-volume intravenous inoculation induces hepatocyte-targeted uptake of extracellular molecules. Here we tested whether hydrodynamic delivery of Cre protein or Cre fused to the HIV-TAT cell-penetrating peptide could convert Cre-responsive reporters in hepatocytes of mice. Hydrodynamic delivery of 2 nmol of either Cre or TAT-Cre protein converted the reporter allele in 5 to 20% of hepatocytes. Neither protein gave detectable Cre activity in endothelia, non-liver organs, or non-hepatocyte cells in liver. Using mice homozygous for a Cre-responsive marker that directs red- (Cre-naïve) or green- (Cre-converted) fluorescent proteins to the nucleus, we assessed sub-saturation Cre-activity. One month after hydrodynamic inoculation with Cre protein, 58% of hepatocyte nuclei that were green were also red, indicating that less than half of the hepatocytes that had obtained enough Cre to convert one marker allele to green were able to convert all alleles. For comparison, one month after hydrodynamic delivery of a Cre-expression plasmid with a weak promoter, only 26% of the green nuclei were also red. Our results show that hydrodynamic delivery of Cre protein allows rapid allelic conversion in hepatocytes, but Cre-activity is sub-saturating so many cells will not convert multiple Cre-responsive alleles. PMID:24626158

  6. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  7. CreZOO--the European virtual repository of Cre and other targeted conditional driver strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandras, Christina; Zouberakis, Michael; Salimova, Ekaterina; Smedley, Damian; Rosenthal, Nadia; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2012-01-01

    The CreZOO (http://www.crezoo.org/) is the European virtual repository of Cre and other targeted conditional driver strains. These mice serve as tools for researchers to selectively 'switch off' gene expression in mouse models to examine gene function and disease pathology. CreZOO aims to capture and disseminate extant and new information on these Cre driver strains, such as genetic background and availability information, and details pertaining promoter, allele, inducibility and expression patterns, which are also presented. All transgenic strains carry detailed information according to MGI's official nomenclature, whereas their availability [e.g. live mice, cryopreserved embryos, sperm and embryonic stem (ES) cells] is clearly indicated with links to European and International databases and repositories (EMMA, MGI/IMSR, MMRRC, etc) and laboratories where the particular mouse strain is available together with the respective IDs. Each promoter/gene includes IDs and direct links to MGI, Entrez Gene, Ensembl, OMIM and RGD databases depending on their species origin, whereas allele information is presented with MGI IDs and active hyperlinks to redirect the user to the respective page in a new tab. The tissue/cell (special) and developmental (temporal) specificity expression patterns are clearly presented, whereas handling and genotyping details (in the form of documents or hyperlinks) together with all relevant publications are clearly presented with PMID(s) and direct PubMed links. CreZOO's design offers a user-friendly query interface and provides instant access to the list of conditional driver strains, promoters and inducibility details. Database access is free of charge and there are no registration requirements for data querying. CreZOO is being developed in the context of the CREATE consortium (http://www.creline.org/), a core of major European and international mouse database holders and research groups involved in conditional mutagenesis. Database URL: http

  8. A Novel Reporter Rat Strain That Conditionally Expresses the Bright Red Fluorescent Protein tdTomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Igarashi

    Full Text Available Despite the strength of the Cre/loxP recombination system in animal models, its application in rats trails that in mice because of the lack of relevant reporter strains. Here, we generated a floxed STOP tdTomato rat that conditionally expresses a red fluorescent protein variant (tdTomato in the presence of exogenous Cre recombinase. The tdTomato signal vividly visualizes neurons including their projection fibers and spines without any histological enhancement. In addition, a transgenic rat line (FLAME that ubiquitously expresses tdTomato was successfully established by injecting intracytoplasmic Cre mRNA into fertilized ova. Our rat reporter system will facilitate connectome studies as well as the visualization of the fine structures of genetically identified cells for long periods both in vivo and ex vivo. Furthermore, FLAME is an ideal model for organ transplantation research owing to improved traceability of cells/tissues.

  9. Cre-/IoxP-Mediated Recombination between the SIL and SCL Genes Leads to a Block in T-Cell Development at the CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+ Transition

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    Yue Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most common form of stem cell leukemia (SCL gene rearrangement, an interstitial deletion of 82 kb brings SCL under the control of regulatory elements that normally govern expression of the ubiquitously expressed SCL interrupting locus (SIL gene, which is located directly upstream of SCL. To investigate the effect of this fusion in a mouse model, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clone containing both human SIL and SCL genes was isolated, and IoxP sites were inserted into intron 1 of both the SIL and SCL genes, corresponding to the sites at which recombination occurs in human T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia patients. This BAC clone was used to generate transgenic SILIoxloxSCL mice. These transgenic mice were subsequently bred to Lck-Cre mice that express the Cre recombinase specifically in the thymus. The BAC transgene was recombined between the two IoxP sites in over 50% of the thymocytes from SILIoxloxSCL/Cre double-transgenic mice, bringing the SCL gene under the direct control of SIL regulatory elements. Aberrant SCL gene expression in the thymus was verified by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction. Using FACS analysis, we found that mice carrying both SILIoxloxSCL and Cre transgenes have increased CD4-/CD8- thymocytes compared with transgenenegative mice. In the spleen, these transgenic mice show a marked reduction in the number of mature CD4+ or CD8+ cells. These results demonstrate that conditional activation of SCL under control of SIL regulatory elements can impair normal T-cell development.

  10. Genetic surgery in fungi: employing site-specific recombinases for genome manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappmann, Sven

    2014-03-01

    Site-specific recombination mediates the rearrangement of nucleic acids by the virtue of an recombinase acting on specific recognition sequences. Recombining activities belong either to the tyrosine- or serine-type group, based on the presence of specific residues in the catalytic centre, which can be further subdivided into families due to additional criteria. The most prominent systems are the λ phage integrase acting on att sites; the Cre recombinase from bacteriophage P1 with its loxP attachment sites; the FLP/FTR system of fungal origin, where it is required for 2-μm plasmid replication/amplification in yeast; and the prokaryotic β-recombinase that recombines six sites specifically in cis. Each of these has been exploited in fungal hosts of biotechnological, medical or general relevance, mainly for cloning projects, approaches of gene targeting, genome modification or screening purposes. With their precise and defined mode of action are site-specific recombination systems eminently suited for genetic tasks in fungi, like they are executed in functional studies at high throughput or modern approaches of synthetic biology.

  11. Regulation of glycogen metabolism by the CRE-1, RCO-1 and RCM-1 proteins in Neurospora crassa. The role of CRE-1 as the central transcriptional regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupertino, Fernanda Barbosa; Virgilio, Stela; Freitas, Fernanda Zanolli; Candido, Thiago de Souza; Bertolini, Maria Célia

    2015-04-01

    The transcription factor CreA/Mig1/CRE-1 is a repressor protein that regulates the use of alternative carbon sources via a mechanism known as Carbon Catabolite Repression (CCR). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mig1 recruits the complex Ssn6-Tup1, the Neurospora crassa RCM-1 and RCO-1 orthologous proteins, respectively, to bind to promoters of glucose-repressible genes. We have been studying the regulation of glycogen metabolism in N. crassa and the identification of the RCO-1 corepressor as a regulator led us to investigate the regulatory role of CRE-1 in this process. Glycogen content is misregulated in the rco-1(KO), rcm-1(RIP) and cre-1(KO) strains, and the glycogen synthase phosphorylation is decreased in all strains, showing that CRE-1, RCO-1 and RCM-1 proteins are involved in glycogen accumulation and in the regulation of GSN activity by phosphorylation. We also confirmed the regulatory role of CRE-1 in CCR and its nuclear localization under repressing condition in N. crassa. The expression of all glycogenic genes is misregulated in the cre-1(KO) strain, suggesting that CRE-1 also controls glycogen metabolism by regulating gene expression. The existence of a high number of the Aspergillus nidulans CreA motif (5'-SYGGRG-3') in the glycogenic gene promoters led us to analyze the binding of CRE-1 to some DNA motifs both in vitro by DNA gel shift and in vivo by ChIP-qPCR analysis. CRE-1 bound in vivo to all motifs analyzed demonstrating that it down-regulates glycogen metabolism by controlling gene expression and GSN phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A pink mouse reports the switch from red to green fluorescence upon Cre-mediated recombination

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwich Heiner; Satheesh Somisetty V; Nothwang Hans

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Targeted genetic modification in the mouse becomes increasingly important in biomedical and basic science. This goal is most often achieved by use of the Cre/loxP system and numerous Cre-driver mouse lines are currently generated. Their initial characterization requires reporter mouse lines to study the in vivo spatiotemporal activity of Cre. Findings Here, we report a dual fluorescence reporter mouse line, which switches expression from the red fluorescent protein mCherry...

  13. Genetic Tracing of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in the Peripheral Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal Sierra, Yinth A.; Haseleu, Julia; Kozlenkov, Alexey; B?gay, Val?rie; Lewin, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Ca...

  14. Site-specific recombinase strategy to create induced pluripotent stem cells efficiently with plasmid DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Marisa; Chavez, Christopher L; Farruggio, Alfonso P; Geisinger, Jonathan M; Keravala, Annahita; Jung, W Edward; Lan, Feng; Wu, Joseph C; Chen-Tsai, Yanru; Calos, Michele P

    2011-11-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized the stem cell field. iPSCs are most often produced by using retroviruses. However, the resulting cells may be ill-suited for clinical applications. Many alternative strategies to make iPSCs have been developed, but the nonintegrating strategies tend to be inefficient, while the integrating strategies involve random integration. Here, we report a facile strategy to create murine iPSCs that uses plasmid DNA and single transfection with sequence-specific recombinases. PhiC31 integrase was used to insert the reprogramming cassette into the genome, producing iPSCs. Cre recombinase was then used for excision of the reprogramming genes. The iPSCs were demonstrated to be pluripotent by in vitro and in vivo criteria, both before and after excision of the reprogramming cassette. This strategy is comparable with retroviral approaches in efficiency, but is nonhazardous for the user, simple to perform, and results in nonrandom integration of a reprogramming cassette that can be readily deleted. We demonstrated the efficiency of this reprogramming and excision strategy in two accessible cell types, fibroblasts and adipose stem cells. This simple strategy produces pluripotent stem cells that have the potential to be used in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Recombinase-mediated reprogramming and dystrophin gene addition in mdx mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

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    Chunli Zhao

    Full Text Available A cell therapy strategy utilizing genetically-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC may be an attractive approach for genetic disorders such as muscular dystrophies. Methods for genetic engineering of iPSC that emphasize precision and minimize random integration would be beneficial. We demonstrate here an approach in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy that focuses on the use of site-specific recombinases to achieve genetic engineering. We employed non-viral, plasmid-mediated methods to reprogram mdx fibroblasts, using phiC31 integrase to insert a single copy of the reprogramming genes at a safe location in the genome. We next used Bxb1 integrase to add the therapeutic full-length dystrophin cDNA to the iPSC in a site-specific manner. Unwanted DNA sequences, including the reprogramming genes, were then precisely deleted with Cre resolvase. Pluripotency of the iPSC was analyzed before and after gene addition, and ability of the genetically corrected iPSC to differentiate into myogenic precursors was evaluated by morphology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, FACS analysis, and intramuscular engraftment. These data demonstrate a non-viral, reprogramming-plus-gene addition genetic engineering strategy utilizing site-specific recombinases that can be applied easily to mouse cells. This work introduces a significant level of precision in the genetic engineering of iPSC that can be built upon in future studies.

  16. Generation and Characterization of Transgenic Mice Expressing Mouse Ins1 Promoter for Pancreatic β-Cell-Specific Gene Overexpression and Knockout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulong; Su, Yutong; Shan, Aijing; Jiang, Xiuli; Ma, Qinyun; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Cao, Yanan

    2015-07-01

    The technologies for pancreatic β-cell-specific gene overexpression or knockout are fundamental for investigations of functional genes in vivo. Here we generated the Ins1-Cre-Dsred and Ins1-rtTA mouse models, which expressed the Cre recombinase or reverse tetracycline regulatable transactivator (rtTA) without hGH minigene under the control of mouse Ins1 promoter. Our data showed that the Cre-mediated recombination and rtTA-mediated activation could be efficiently detected at embryonic day 13.5 when these models were crossed with the reporter mice (ROSA(mT/mG) or tetO-HIST1H2BJ/GFP). The Cre and rtTA expression was restricted to β-cells without leakage in the brain and other tissues. Moreover, both the transgenic lines showed normal glucose tolerance and insulin secretion. These results suggested that the Ins1-Cre-Dsred and Ins1-rtTA mice could be used to knock out or overexpress target genes in embryos and adults to facilitate β-cell researches.

  17. Promiscuous recombination of LoxP alleles during gametogenesis in cornea Cre driver mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Daniel Y.; Zhang, Yujin; Hayashi, Yasuhito; Kuan, Chia-Yi; Liu, Chia-Yang; Babcock, George; Weng, Wei-Lan; Schwemberger, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether promiscuous Cre/LoxP recombination happens during gametogenesis in double transgenic mice carrying LoxP modified alleles and Cre transgene driven by tissue-specific promoter outside the gonads of adult mice. Methods Cre driver mice were crossbred with reporter mouse lines (e.g., ZEG and Rosa26R) to obtain Cre/ZEG and Cre/Rosa26R double transgenic mice. The frequency of promiscuous LoxP/Cre recombination was determined by the expression of second reporter genes in the offspring of double transgenic mice. Results The frequency of promiscuous LoxP/Cre recombination varied in different lines of Cre driver mice and in the sex of the same driver mice with higher penetrance in male than in female double transgenic mice. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and recombination analysis demonstrate that the recombination of floxed allele occurs during the transition from spermatogonia (diploid) to primary spermatocyte (tetraploid) in the testis. Thereby, target-floxed allele(s) may be ubiquitously ablated in experimental animals intended for tissue-specific gene deletion. Conclusions Gametogenesis-associated recombination should always be examined in tissue-specific gene ablation studies. PMID:18385792

  18. High-fidelity Glucagon-CreER mouse line generated by CRISPR-Cas9 assisted gene targeting

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    Amanda M. Ackermann

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: We successfully derived a Gcg-CreERT2 mouse line that expresses CreERT2 in pancreatic α-cells and enteroendocrine L-cells without disrupting preproglucagon gene expression. These mice will be a useful tool for performing temporally controlled genetic manipulation specifically in these cell types.

  19. Somatostatin-IRES-Cre Mice: Between Knockout and Wild-Type?

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    Cécile Viollet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM is widely expressed in rodent brain and somatostatin-IRES-Cre (SOM-cre mouse strains are increasingly used to unravel the physiology of SOM-containing neurons. However, while knock-in targeting strategy greatly improves Cre-Lox system accuracy, recent reports have shown that genomic insertion of Cre construct per se can markedly affect physiological function. We show that Cre transgene insertion into the 3′UTR of the somatostatin gene leads to the selective and massive depletion of endogenous SOM in all tested brain regions. It also strongly impacts SOM-related neuroendocrine responses in a similar manner to what has been reported for SST KO mice: increased corticosterone levels after 30-min restraint stress, decreased amplitude and regularity of ultradian growth hormone secretory patterns accompanied by changes in sexually dimorphic liver gene expression (serpina1, Cyp2b9, Cyp2a4, Cyp2d9, and Cyp7b1. In addition to demonstrating the need for examination of the consequences of Cre transgenesis, these results also reveal how this SOM-cre strain may be a useful tool in studying the functional consequences of moderate to low SOM levels as reported in neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  20. Bxb1 phage recombinase assists genome engineering in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutev, Roumen; Mann, Richard S

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and reliable genome modifications provide the basis for detailed in vivo functional analysis of any genomic entity (gene, regulatory DNA, non-coding RNA, etc). With the advent of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology, manipulation of a particular genomic locus has become a routine undertaking in variety of model organisms, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. To further diversify the available tools for genome engineering, we successfully harnessed the phage recombinase Bxb1 to perform recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) in D. melanogaster. We demonstrate that Bxb1 possesses highly efficient recombinase activity and could be used alone or in conjunction with other currently available recombinases for creating platforms for cassette exchange of targeted loci.

  1. Essentials of Recombinase-Based Genetic Fate Mapping in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Patricia; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Fate maps, by defining the relationship between embryonic tissue organization and postnatal tissue structure, are one of the most important tools on hand to developmental biologists. In the past, generating such maps in mice was hindered by their in utero development limiting the physical access required for traditional methods involving tracer injection or cell transplantation. No longer is physical access a requirement. Innovations over the past decade have led to genetic techniques that offer means to “deliver” cell lineage tracers noninvasively. Such “genetic fate mapping” approaches employ transgenic strategies to express genetically encoded site-specific recombinases in a cell type-specific manner to switch on expression of a cell-heritable reporter transgene as lineage tracer. The behaviors and fate of marked cells and their progeny can then be explored and their contributions to different tissues examined. Here, we review the basic concepts of genetic fate mapping and consider the strengths and limitations for their application. We also explore two refinements of this approach that lend improved spatial and temporal resolution: (1) Intersectional and subtractive genetic fate mapping and (2) Genetic inducible fate mapping. PMID:24318835

  2. Logic Synthesis of Recombinase-Based Genetic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tai-Yin; Jiang, Jie-Hong R

    2017-10-09

    A synthetic approach to biology is a promising technique for various applications. Recent advancements have demonstrated the feasibility of constructing synthetic two-input logic gates in Escherichia coli cells with long-term memory based on DNA inversion induced by recombinases. Moreover, recent evidences indicate that DNA inversion mediated by genome editing tools is possible. Powerful genome editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9 systems, have great potential to be exploited to implement large-scale recombinase-based circuits. What remains unclear is how to construct arbitrary Boolean functions based on these emerging technologies. In this paper, we lay the theoretical foundation formalizing the connection between recombinase-based genetic circuits and Boolean functions. It enables systematic construction of any given Boolean function using recombinase-based logic gates. We further develop a methodology leveraging existing electronic design automation (EDA) tools to automate the synthesis of complex recombinase-based genetic circuits with respect to area and delay optimization. In silico experimental results demonstrate the applicability of our proposed methods as a useful tool for recombinase-based genetic circuit synthesis and optimization.

  3. Tg(Th-CreFI172Gsat (Th-Cre defines neurons that are required for full hypercapnic and hypoxic reflexes

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    Jenny J. Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The catecholaminergic (CA system has been implicated in many facets of breathing control and offers an important target to better comprehend the underlying etiologies of both developmental and adult respiratory pathophysiologies. Here, we used a noninvasive DREADD-based pharmacogenetic approach to acutely perturb Tg(Th-CreFI172Gsat (Th-Cre-defined neurons in awake and unrestrained mice in an attempt to characterize CA function in breathing. We report that clozapine-N-oxide (CNO-DREADD-mediated inhibition of Th-Cre-defined neurons results in blunted ventilatory responses under respiratory challenge. Under a hypercapnic challenge (5% CO2/21% O2/74% N2, perturbation of Th-Cre neurons results in reduced fR, and . Under a hypoxic challenge (10% O2/90% N2, we saw reduced fR, and , in addition to instability in both interbreath interval and tidal volume, resulting in a Cheyne-Stokes-like respiratory pattern. These findings demonstrate the necessity of Th-Cre-defined neurons for the hypercapnic and hypoxic ventilatory responses and breathing stability during hypoxia. However, given the expanded non-CA expression domains of the Tg(Th-CreFI172Gsat mouse line found in the brainstem, full phenotypic effect cannot be assigned solely to CA neurons. Nonetheless, this work identifies a key respiratory population that may lead to further insights into the circuitry that maintains respiratory stability in the face of homeostatic challenges.

  4. Spinal Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons contribute to rhythm generation in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Vanessa; Dougherty, Kimberly J; Borgius, Lotta; Kiehn, Ole

    2017-01-27

    Rhythm generating neurons are thought to be ipsilaterally-projecting excitatory neurons in the thoracolumbar mammalian spinal cord. Recently, a subset of Shox2 interneurons (Shox2 non-V2a INs) was found to fulfill these criteria and make up a fraction of the rhythm-generating population. Here we use Hb9::Cre mice to genetically manipulate Hb9::Cre-derived excitatory interneurons (INs) in order to determine the role of these INs in rhythm generation. We demonstrate that this line captures a consistent population of spinal INs which is mixed with respect to neurotransmitter phenotype and progenitor domain, but does not overlap with the Shox2 non-V2a population. We also show that Hb9::Cre-derived INs include the comparatively small medial population of INs which continues to express Hb9 postnatally. When excitatory neurotransmission is selectively blocked by deleting Vglut2 from Hb9::Cre-derived INs, there is no difference in left-right and/or flexor-extensor phasing between these cords and controls, suggesting that excitatory Hb9::Cre-derived INs do not affect pattern generation. In contrast, the frequencies of locomotor activity are significantly lower in cords from Hb9::Cre-Vglut2(Δ/Δ) mice than in cords from controls. Collectively, our findings indicate that excitatory Hb9::Cre-derived INs constitute a distinct population of neurons that participates in the rhythm generating kernel for spinal locomotion.

  5. Cre-dependent selection yields AAV variants for widespread gene transfer to the adult brain

    OpenAIRE

    Deverman, Benjamin E.; Pravdo, Piers L.; Simpson, Bryan P.; Kumar, Sripriya Ravindra; Chan, Ken Y.; Banerjee, Abhik; Wu, Wei-Li; Yang, Bin; Huber, Nina; Pasca, Sergiu P.; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are commonly used vehicles for in vivo gene transfer 1-6 . However, the tropism repertoire of naturally occurring AAVs is limited, prompting a search for novel AAV capsids with desired characteristics 7-13 . Here we describe a capsid selection method, called Cre-recombination-based AAV targeted evolution (CREATE), that enables the development of AAV capsids that more efficiently transduce defined Cre-expressing cell populations in vivo. We use CREA...

  6. Specific expression of channelrhodopsin-2 in single neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Cornelia Schmitt

    Full Text Available Optogenetic approaches using light-activated proteins like Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 enable investigating the function of populations of neurons in live Caenorhabditis elegans (and other animals, as ChR2 expression can be targeted to these cells using specific promoters. Sub-populations of these neurons, or even single cells, can be further addressed by restricting the illumination to the cell of interest. However, this is technically demanding, particularly in free moving animals. Thus, it would be helpful if expression of ChR2 could be restricted to single neurons or neuron pairs, as even wide-field illumination would photostimulate only this particular cell. To this end we adopted the use of Cre or FLP recombinases and conditional ChR2 expression at the intersection of two promoter expression domains, i.e. in the cell of interest only. Success of this method depends on precise knowledge of the individual promoters' expression patterns and on relative expression levels of recombinase and ChR2. A bicistronic expression cassette with GFP helps to identify the correct expression pattern. Here we show specific expression in the AVA reverse command neurons and the aversive polymodal sensory ASH neurons. This approach shall enable to generate strains for optogenetic manipulation of each of the 302 C. elegans neurons. This may eventually allow to model the C. elegans nervous system in its entirety, based on functional data for each neuron.

  7. Flip-Flop HSV-BAC: bacterial artificial chromosome based system for rapid generation of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors using two independent site-specific recombinases

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    Todo Tomoki

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV vectors that specifically replicate in and kill tumor cells sparing normal cells are a promising cancer therapy. Traditionally, recombinant HSV vectors have been generated through homologous recombination between the HSV genome and a recombination plasmid, which usually requires laborious screening or selection and can take several months. Recent advances in bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC technology have enabled cloning of the whole HSV genome as a BAC plasmid and subsequent manipulation in E. coli. Thus, we sought a method to generate recombinant oncolytic HSV vectors more easily and quickly using BAC technology. Results We have developed an HSV-BAC system, termed the Flip-Flop HSV-BAC system, for the rapid generation of oncolytic HSV vectors. This system has the following features: (i two site-specific recombinases, Cre and FLPe, are used sequentially to integrate desired sequences and to excise the BAC sequences, respectively; and (ii the size of the HSV-BAC-insert genome exceeds the packaging limit of HSV so only correctly recombined virus grows efficiently. We applied this to the construction of an HSV-BAC plasmid that can be used for the generation of transcriptionally-targeted HSV vectors. BAC sequences were recombined into the UL39 gene of HSV ICP4-deletion mutant d120 to generate M24-BAC virus, from which HSV-BAC plasmid pM24-BAC was isolated. An ICP4 expression cassette driven by an exogenous promoter was re-introduced to pM24-BAC by Cre-mediated recombination and nearly pure preparations of recombinant virus were obtained typically in two weeks. Insertion of the ICP4 coding sequence alone did not restore viral replication and was only minimally better than an ICP4-null construct, whereas insertion of a CMVIE promoter-ICP4 transgene (bM24-CMV efficiently drove viral replication. The levels of bM24-CMV replication in tumor cells varied considerably compared to hrR3 (UL39

  8. Initial characterization of the Pf-Int recombinase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Mehdi Ghorbal

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is an essential means of evolution and adaptation in many organisms in response to environmental change. Certain DNA alterations can be carried out by site-specific recombinases (SSRs that fall into two families: the serine and the tyrosine recombinases. SSRs are seldom found in eukaryotes. A gene homologous to a tyrosine site-specific recombinase has been identified in the genome of Plasmodium falciparum. The sequence is highly conserved among five other members of Plasmodia.The predicted open reading frame encodes for a ∼57 kDa protein containing a C-terminal domain including the putative tyrosine recombinase conserved active site residues R-H-R-(H/W-Y. The N-terminus has the typical alpha-helical bundle and potentially a mixed alpha-beta domain resembling that of λ-Int. Pf-Int mRNA is expressed differentially during the P. falciparum erythrocytic life stages, peaking in the schizont stage. Recombinant Pf-Int and affinity chromatography of DNA from genomic or synthetic origin were used to identify potential DNA targets after sequencing or micro-array hybridization. Interestingly, the sequences captured also included highly variable subtelomeric genes such as var, rif, and stevor sequences. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays with DNA were carried out to verify Pf-Int/DNA binding. Finally, Pf-Int knock-out parasites were created in order to investigate the biological role of Pf-Int.Our data identify for the first time a malaria parasite gene with structural and functional features of recombinases. Pf-Int may bind to and alter DNA, either in a sequence specific or in a non-specific fashion, and may contribute to programmed or random DNA rearrangements. Pf-Int is the first molecular player identified with a potential role in genome plasticity in this pathogen. Finally, Pf-Int knock-out parasite is viable showing no detectable impact on blood stage development, which is compatible with such function.

  9. Conditional expression of Wnt4 during chondrogenesis leads to dwarfism in mice.

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    Hu-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available Wnts are expressed in the forming long bones, suggesting roles in skeletogenesis. To examine the action of Wnts in skeleton formation, we developed a genetic system to conditionally express Wnt4 in chondrogenic tissues of the mouse. A mouse Wnt4 cDNA was introduced into the ubiquitously expressed Rosa26 (R26 locus by gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES cells. The expression of Wnt4 from the R26 locus was blocked by a neomycin selection cassette flanked by loxP sites (floxneo that was positioned between the Rosa26 promoter and the Wnt4 cDNA, creating the allele designated R26(floxneoWnt4. Wnt4 expression was activated during chondrogenesis using Col2a1-Cre transgenic mice that express Cre recombinase in differentiating chondrocytes. R26(floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre double heterozygous mice exhibited a growth deficiency, beginning approximately 7 to 10 days after birth, that resulted in dwarfism. In addition, they also had craniofacial abnormalities, and delayed ossification of the lumbar vertebrae and pelvic bones. Histological analysis revealed a disruption in the organization of the growth plates and a delay in the onset of the primary and secondary ossification centers. Molecular studies showed that Wnt4 overexpression caused decreased proliferation and altered maturation of chondrocytes. In addition, R26(floxneoWnt4; Col2a1-Cre mice had decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. These studies demonstrate that Wnt4 overexpression leads to dwarfism in mice. The data indicate that Wnt4 levels must be regulated in chondrocytes for normal growth plate development and skeletogenesis. Decreased VEGF expression suggests that defects in vascularization may contribute to the dwarf phenotype.

  10. Reactions of Cre with methylphosphonate DNA: similarities and contrasts with Flp and vaccinia topoisomerase.

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    Chien-Hui Ma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of vaccinia topoisomerase and the tyrosine site-specific recombinase Flp with methylphosphonate (MeP substituted DNA substrates, have provided important insights into the electrostatic features of the strand cleavage and strand joining steps catalyzed by them. A conserved arginine residue in the catalytic pentad, Arg-223 in topoisomerase and Arg-308 in Flp, is not essential for stabilizing the MeP transition state. Topoisomerase or its R223A variant promotes cleavage of the MeP bond by the active site nucleophile Tyr-274, followed by the rapid hydrolysis of the MeP-tyrosyl intermediate. Flp(R308A, but not wild type Flp, mediates direct hydrolysis of the activated MeP bond. These findings are consistent with a potential role for phosphate electrostatics and active site electrostatics in protecting DNA relaxation and site-specific recombination, respectively, against abortive hydrolysis.We have examined the effects of DNA containing MeP substitution in the Flp related Cre recombination system. Neutralizing the negative charge at the scissile position does not render the tyrosyl intermediate formed by Cre susceptible to rapid hydrolysis. Furthermore, combining the active site R292A mutation in Cre (equivalent to the R223A and R308A mutations in topoisomerase and Flp, respectively with MeP substitution does not lead to direct hydrolysis of the scissile MeP bond in DNA. Whereas Cre follows the topoisomerase paradigm during the strand cleavage step, it follows the Flp paradigm during the strand joining step.Collectively, the Cre, Flp and topoisomerase results highlight the contribution of conserved electrostatic complementarity between substrate and active site towards transition state stabilization during site-specific recombination and DNA relaxation. They have potential implications for how transesterification reactions in nucleic acids are protected against undesirable abortive side reactions. Such protective mechanisms are significant

  11. iRAGu: A Novel Inducible and Reversible Mouse Model for Ubiquitous Recombinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Marie; Sarmento, Leonor Morais; Martins, Ana C; Sobral, Daniel; Silva, Joana; Demengeot, Jocelyne

    2017-01-01

    Developing lymphocytes express the recombination activating genes (RAGs) 1 and 2 products that form a site specific recombinase complex (RAG), introducing double strand DNA breaks (DSBs) at recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking the V, D, and J gene segments in the antigen receptor loci. The subsequent steps in the reaction consist in the ligation of DSBs by ubiquitous enzymes of the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway. This mutagenesis process is responsible for the generation of the very large clonal diversity of T and B lymphocytes, itself allowing the recognition of a virtually open-ended antigenic universe. Sequences resembling RSS are found at high frequency all over the genome, and involved in RAG mediated illegitimate recombination and translocations. Hence, natural and induced ectopic activity of RAG is a threat to the genome only recently underscored. Here, we report and characterize a novel mouse transgenic system for which ubiquitous expression of the recombinase is inducible. In this system, the RAG1 protein is constitutively expressed and functional, while the RAG2 protein, coupled to the estrogen receptor, becomes functionally active upon 4-hydroxytamoxifen (TAM) administration. We describe two transgenic lines. The first one, when introgressed into an endogenous Rag2-/- genetic background is faithfully recapitulating lymphocyte development, repertoire dynamics and cryptic rearrangements, in a TAM-dependent manner. In this model, deprivation of TAM is followed by lymphocyte development arrest, evidencing the reversibility of the system. The second transgenic line is leaky, as the transgenes promote lymphocyte differentiation in absence of TAM treatment. Upon TAM-induction defects in lymphocytes composition and global health reveals the deleterious effect of uncontrolled RAG activity. Overall, this novel transgenic model provides a tool where RAG activity can be specifically manipulated to assess the dynamics of lymphocyte

  12. Cre-loxP-Mediated Recombination: General Principles and Experimental Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Micheal A; Rosenthal, Nadia A; Pinto, Alexander R

    2017-03-02

    The cre-loxP-mediated recombination system (the "cre-loxP system") is an integral experimental tool for mammalian genetics and cell biology. Use of the system has greatly expanded our ability to precisely interrogate gene function in the mouse, providing both spatial and temporal control of gene expression. This has been largely due to the simplicity of its use and its adaptability to address diverse biological questions. While the use of the cre-loxP system is becoming increasingly widespread, in particular because of growing availability of conditional mouse mutants, many considerations need to be taken into account when utilizing the cre-loxP system. This review provides an overview of the cre-loxP system and its various permutations. It addresses the limitations of cre-loxP technology and related considerations for experimental design, and it discusses alternative strategies for site-specific genetic recombination and integration. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Chromosomal manipulation by site-specific recombinases and fluorescent protein-based vectors.

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    Munehiro Uemura

    Full Text Available Feasibility of chromosomal manipulation in mammalian cells was first reported 15 years ago. Although this technique is useful for precise understanding of gene regulation in the chromosomal context, a limited number of laboratories have used it in actual practice because of associated technical difficulties. To overcome the practical hurdles, we developed a Cre-mediated chromosomal recombination system using fluorescent proteins and various site-specific recombinases. These techniques enabled quick construction of targeting vectors, easy identification of chromosome-rearranged cells, and rearrangement leaving minimum artificial elements at junctions. Applying this system to a human cell line, we successfully recapitulated two types of pathogenic chromosomal translocations in human diseases: MYC/IgH and BCR/ABL1. By inducing recombination between two loxP sites targeted into the same chromosome, we could mark cells harboring deletion or duplication of the inter-loxP segments with different colors of fluorescence. In addition, we demonstrated that the intrachromosomal recombination frequency is inversely proportional to the distance between two recombination sites, implicating a future application of this frequency as a proximity sensor. Our method of chromosomal manipulation can be employed for particular cell types in which gene targeting is possible (e.g. embryonic stem cells. Experimental use of this system would open up new horizons in genome biology, including the establishment of cellular and animal models of diseases caused by translocations and copy-number variations.

  14. Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity

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    Denton Jai A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina is an important source of cellulases for use in the textile and alternative fuel industries. To fully understand the regulation of cellulase production in T. reesei, the role of a gene known to be involved in carbon regulation in Aspergillus nidulans, but unstudied in T. reesei, was investigated. Results The T. reesei orthologue of the A. nidulans creB gene, designated cre2, was identified and shown to be functional through heterologous complementation of a creB mutation in A. nidulans. A T. reesei strain was constructed using gene disruption techniques that contained a disrupted cre2 gene. This strain, JKTR2-6, exhibited phenotypes similar to the A. nidulans creB mutant strain both in carbon catabolite repressing, and in carbon catabolite derepressing conditions. Importantly, the disruption also led to elevated cellulase levels. Conclusions These results demonstrate that cre2 is involved in cellulase expression. Since the disruption of cre2 increases the amount of cellulase activity, without severe morphological affects, targeting creB orthologues for disruption in other industrially useful filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum or Aspergillus niger may also lead to elevated hydrolytic enzyme activity in these species.

  15. Targeted deletion of RANKL in M cell inducer cells by the Col6a1-Cre driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuki; Sawa, Shinichiro; Nitta, Takeshi; Prados, Alejandro; Koliaraki, Vasiliki; Kollias, George; Nakashima, Tomoki; Takayanagi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-04

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), including Peyer's patches (PPs), cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs), establish a host-microbe symbiosis by the promotion of immune reactions against gut microbes. Microfold cell inducer (MCi) cells in GALTs are the recently identified mesenchymal cells that express the cytokine RANKL and initiate bacteria-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) production via induction of microfold (M) cell differentiation. In the previous study, the Twist2-Cre driver was utilized for gene deletion in mesenchymal cells including MCi cells. In order to investigate MCi cells more extensively, it will be necessary to develop experimental tools in addition to the Twist2-Cre driver mice and characterize such drivers in specificity and efficiency. Here we show that M cell differentiation and IgA production are impaired in the targeted deletion of RANKL by the Col6a1-Cre driver. We compared Col6a1-Cre with Twist2-Cre in terms of the specificity for mesenchymal cells in GALTs. Col6a1-Cre CAG-CAT-EGFP mice exhibited EGFP expression in podoplanin+CD31- cells including MCi cells, while Twist2-Cre mice were shown to target endothelial cells and podoplanin+CD31- cells. Tnfsf11fl/ΔCol6a1-Cre mice exhibited the absence of M cells and severe IgA reduction together with an alteration in gut microbial composition. Moreover, we analyzed germ free mice to test whether changes in the microbiota are the cause of M cell deficiency. M cell differentiation was normal in the CPs/ILFs of germ free mice, indicating that MCi cells induce M cells independently of microbial colonization. This study demonstrates that Col6a1-Cre driver mice are as useful as Twist2-Cre driver mice for functional analyses of GALT-resident mesenchymal cells, including MCi cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression of the herpes simplex virus type 1 latency-associated transcripts does not influence latency establishment of virus mutants deficient for neuronal replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, M P; Efstathiou, S

    2013-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 establishes latency within neurons of the trigeminal ganglion. During latency, viral gene expression is largely restricted to the latency-associated transcripts (LATs), which, whilst not essential for any aspect of latency, function to suppress lytic gene expression and enhance the survival of virus-infected neurons. The latent cell population comprises primary-order neurons infected directly from peripheral tissues and cells infected following further virus spread within the ganglion. In order to assess the role of LAT expression on latency establishment within first-order neurons, we infected ROSA26R reporter mice with Cre recombinase-expressing recombinant viruses harbouring deletion of the thymidine kinase lytic gene and/or the core LAT promoter. We found that LAT expression did not impact on latency establishment in viruses unable to replicate in neurons, and under these conditions, it was not required for the survival of neurons between 3 and 31 days post-infection.

  17. The Pai-associated leuX specific tRNA5(Leu) affects type 1fimbriation in pathogenic Escherichia coli by control of FimB recombinase expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, A.; Gally, D.; Olsen, Peter Bjarke

    1997-01-01

    The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain 536 (06:K15:H31) carries two large chromosomalpathogenicity islands (Pais). Both Pais are flanked by tRNA genes. Spontaneous deletion of Pai IIresults in truncation of the leuX tRNA5Leu gene. This tRNA is required for the expression of type 1fimbriae (Fim...

  18. Deciphering the cis-regulatory elements for XYR1 and CRE1 regulators in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Silva-Rocha

    Full Text Available In this work, we report the in silico identification of the cis-regulatory elements for XYR1 and CRE1 proteins in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, two regulators that play a central role in the expression of cellulase genes. Using four datasets of condition-dependent genes from RNA-seq and RT-qPCR experiments, we performed unsupervised motif discovery and found two short motifs resembling the proposed binding consensus for XYR1 and CRE1. Using these motifs, we analysed the presence and arrangement of putative cis-regulatory elements recognized by both regulators and found that shortly spaced sites were more associated with XYR1- and CRE1-dependent promoters than single, high-score sites. Furthermore, the approach used here allowed the identification of the previously reported XYR1-binding sites from cel7a and xyn1 promoters, and we also mapped the potential target sequence for this regulator at the cel6a promoter that has been suggested but not identified previously. Additionally, seven other promoters (for cel7b, cel61a, cel61b, cel3c, cel3d, xyn3 and swo genes presented a putative XYR1-binding site, and strong sites for CRE1 were found at the xyr1 and cel7b promoters. Using the cis-regulatory architectures nearly defined for XYR1 and CRE1, we performed genome-wide identification of potential targets for direct regulation by both proteins and important differences on their functional regulons were elucidated. Finally, we performed binding site mapping on the promoters of differentially expressed genes found in T. reesei mutant strains lacking xyr1 or cre1 and found that indirect regulation plays a key role on their signalling pathways. Taken together, the data provided here sheds new light on the mechanisms for signal integration mediated by XYR1 and CRE1 at cellulase promoters.

  19. A pink mouse reports the switch from red to green fluorescence upon Cre-mediated recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwich Heiner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Targeted genetic modification in the mouse becomes increasingly important in biomedical and basic science. This goal is most often achieved by use of the Cre/loxP system and numerous Cre-driver mouse lines are currently generated. Their initial characterization requires reporter mouse lines to study the in vivo spatiotemporal activity of Cre. Findings Here, we report a dual fluorescence reporter mouse line, which switches expression from the red fluorescent protein mCherry to eGFP after Cre-mediated recombination. Both fluorescent proteins are expressed from the ubiquitously active and strong CAGGS promoter. Among the founders, we noticed a pink mouse line, expressing high levels of the red fluorescent protein mCherry throughout the entire body. Presence of mCherry in the living animal as well as in almost all organs was clearly visible without optical equipment. Upon Cre-activity, mCherry expression was switched to eGFP, demonstrating functionality of this reporter mouse line. Conclusions The pink mouse presented here is an attractive novel reporter line for fluorescence-based monitoring of Cre-activity. The high expression of mCherry, which is visible to the naked eye, facilitates breeding and crossing, as no genotyping is required to identify mice carrying the reporter allele. The presence of two fluorescent proteins allows in vivo monitoring of recombined and non-recombined cells. Finally, the pink mouse is an eye-catching animal model to demonstrate the power of transgenic techniques in teaching courses.

  20. Neurochemical characterization of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 in the mouse hypothalamus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Melissa J. S.; Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2013-01-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that acts via MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) in the mouse. It promotes positive energy balance thus mice lacking MCH or MCHR1 are lean, hyperactive, and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Identifying the cellular targets of MCH is an important step to understanding the mechanisms underlying MCH actions. We generated the Mchr1-cre mouse that expressed cre recombinase driven by the MCHR1 promoter and crossed it with a tdTomato reporter mouse. The resulting Mchr1-cre/tdTomato progeny expressed easily detectable tdTomato fluorescence in MCHR1 neurons, which were found throughout the olfactory system, striatum, and hypothalamus. To chemically identify MCH-targeted cell populations that play a role in energy balance, MCHR1 hypothalamic neurons were characterized by colabeling select hypothalamic neuropeptides with tdTomato fluorescence. TdTomato fluorescence colocalized with dynorphin, oxytocin, vasopressin, enkephalin, thyrothropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus. In the lateral hypothalamus, neurotensin but neither orexin nor MCH neurons expressed tdTomato. In the arcuate nucleus, both Neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin cells expressed tdTomato. We further demonstrated that some of these arcuate neurons were also targets of leptin action. Interestingly, MCHR1 was expressed in the vast majority of leptin-sensitive proopiomelanocortin neurons, highlighting their importance for the orexigenic actions of MCH. Taken together, this study supports the use of the Mchr1-cre mouse for outlining the neuroanatomical distribution and neurochemical phenotype of MCHR1 neurons. PMID:23605441

  1. Neurochemical characterization of neurons expressing melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 in the mouse hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Melissa J S; Pissios, Pavlos; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2013-07-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that acts via MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) in the mouse. It promotes positive energy balance; thus, mice lacking MCH or MCHR1 are lean, hyperactive, and resistant to diet-induced obesity. Identifying the cellular targets of MCH is an important step to understanding the mechanisms underlying MCH actions. We generated the Mchr1-cre mouse that expresses cre recombinase driven by the MCHR1 promoter and crossed it with a tdTomato reporter mouse. The resulting Mchr1-cre/tdTomato progeny expressed easily detectable tdTomato fluorescence in MCHR1 neurons, which were found throughout the olfactory system, striatum, and hypothalamus. To chemically identify MCH-targeted cell populations that play a role in energy balance, MCHR1 hypothalamic neurons were characterized by colabeling select hypothalamic neuropeptides with tdTomato fluorescence. TdTomato fluorescence colocalized with dynorphin, oxytocin, vasopressin, enkephalin, thyrothropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus. In the lateral hypothalamus, neurotensin, but neither orexin nor MCH neurons, expressed tdTomato. In the arcuate nucleus, both Neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin cells expressed tdTomato. We further demonstrated that some of these arcuate neurons were also targets of leptin action. Interestingly, MCHR1 was expressed in the vast majority of leptin-sensitive proopiomelanocortin neurons, highlighting their importance for the orexigenic actions of MCH. Taken together, this study supports the use of the Mchr1-cre mouse for outlining the neuroanatomical distribution and neurochemical phenotype of MCHR1 neurons. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific recombination in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Pei Long

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of gene function and the production of site-specific genetically modified mutants are two major goals of genetic engineering in the post-genomic era. Although site-specific recombination systems have been powerful tools for genome manipulation of many organisms, they have not yet been established for use in the manipulation of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome. In this study, we achieved site-specific excision of a target gene at predefined chromosomal sites in the silkworm using a FLP/FRT site-specific recombination system. We first constructed two stable transgenic target silkworm strains that both contain a single copy of the transgene construct comprising a target gene expression cassette flanked by FRT sites. Using pre-blastoderm microinjection of a FLP recombinase helper expression vector, 32 G3 site-specific recombinant transgenic individuals were isolated from five of 143 broods. The average frequency of FLP recombinase-mediated site-specific excision in the two target strains genome was approximately 3.5%. This study shows that it is feasible to achieve site-specific recombination in silkworms using the FLP/FRT system. We conclude that the FLP/FRT system is a useful tool for genome manipulation in the silkworm. Furthermore, this is the first reported use of the FLP/FRT system for the genetic manipulation of a lepidopteran genome and thus provides a useful reference for the establishment of genome manipulation technologies in other lepidopteran species.

  3. High- and low-affinity cre boxes for CcpA binding in Bacillus subtilis revealed by genome-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Bogumiła C; Pabijaniak, Monika; de Jong, Anne; Dűhring, Robert; Seidel, Gerald; Hillen, Wolfgang; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2012-08-17

    In Bacillus subtilis and its relatives carbon catabolite control, a mechanism enabling to reach maximal efficiency of carbon and energy sources metabolism, is achieved by the global regulator CcpA (carbon catabolite protein A). CcpA in a complex with HPr-Ser-P (seryl-phosphorylated form of histidine-containing protein, HPr) binds to operator sites called catabolite responsive elements, cre. Depending on the cre box position relative to the promoter, the CcpA/HPr-Ser-P complex can either act as a positive or a negative regulator. The cre boxes are highly degenerate semi-palindromes with a lowly conserved consensus sequence. So far, studies aimed at revealing how CcpA can bind such diverse sites were focused on the analysis of single cre boxes. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of cre sites was performed in order to identify differences in cre sequence and position, which determine their binding affinity. The transcriptomes of B. subtilis cultures with three different CcpA expression levels were compared. The higher the amount of CcpA in the cells, the more operons possessing cre sites were differentially regulated. The cre boxes that mediated regulation at low CcpA levels were designated as strong (high affinity) and those which responded only to high amounts of CcpA, as weak (low affinity). Differences in the sequence and position in relation to the transcription start site between strong and weak cre boxes were revealed. Certain residues at specific positions in the cre box as well as, to a certain extent, a more palindromic nature of cre sequences and the location of cre in close vicinity to the transcription start site contribute to the strength of CcpA-dependent regulation. The main factors contributing to cre regulatory efficiencies, enabling subtle differential control of various subregulons of the CcpA regulon, are identified.

  4. High- and low-affinity cre boxes for CcpA binding in Bacillus subtilis revealed by genome-wide analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Bogumiła C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Bacillus subtilis and its relatives carbon catabolite control, a mechanism enabling to reach maximal efficiency of carbon and energy sources metabolism, is achieved by the global regulator CcpA (carbon catabolite protein A. CcpA in a complex with HPr-Ser-P (seryl-phosphorylated form of histidine-containing protein, HPr binds to operator sites called catabolite responsive elements, cre. Depending on the cre box position relative to the promoter, the CcpA/HPr-Ser-P complex can either act as a positive or a negative regulator. The cre boxes are highly degenerate semi-palindromes with a lowly conserved consensus sequence. So far, studies aimed at revealing how CcpA can bind such diverse sites were focused on the analysis of single cre boxes. In this study, a genome-wide analysis of cre sites was performed in order to identify differences in cre sequence and position, which determine their binding affinity. Results The transcriptomes of B. subtilis cultures with three different CcpA expression levels were compared. The higher the amount of CcpA in the cells, the more operons possessing cre sites were differentially regulated. The cre boxes that mediated regulation at low CcpA levels were designated as strong (high affinity and those which responded only to high amounts of CcpA, as weak (low affinity. Differences in the sequence and position in relation to the transcription start site between strong and weak cre boxes were revealed. Conclusions Certain residues at specific positions in the cre box as well as, to a certain extent, a more palindromic nature of cre sequences and the location of cre in close vicinity to the transcription start site contribute to the strength of CcpA-dependent regulation. The main factors contributing to cre regulatory efficiencies, enabling subtle differential control of various subregulons of the CcpA regulon, are identified.

  5. Immune clearance of attenuated rabies virus results in neuronal survival with altered gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Gomme

    Full Text Available Rabies virus (RABV is a highly neurotropic pathogen that typically leads to mortality of infected animals and humans. The precise etiology of rabies neuropathogenesis is unknown, though it is hypothesized to be due either to neuronal death or dysfunction. Analysis of human brains post-mortem reveals surprisingly little tissue damage and neuropathology considering the dramatic clinical symptomology, supporting the neuronal dysfunction model. However, whether or not neurons survive infection and clearance and, provided they do, whether they are functionally restored to their pre-infection phenotype has not been determined in vivo for RABV, or any neurotropic virus. This is due, in part, to the absence of a permanent "mark" on once-infected cells that allow their identification long after viral clearance. Our approach to study the survival and integrity of RABV-infected neurons was to infect Cre reporter mice with recombinant RABV expressing Cre-recombinase (RABV-Cre to switch neurons constitutively expressing tdTomato (red to expression of a Cre-inducible EGFP (green, permanently marking neurons that had been infected in vivo. We used fluorescence microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR to measure the survival of neurons after viral clearance; we found that the vast majority of RABV-infected neurons survive both infection and immunological clearance. We were able to isolate these previously infected neurons by flow cytometry and assay their gene expression profiles compared to uninfected cells. We observed transcriptional changes in these "cured" neurons, predictive of decreased neurite growth and dysregulated microtubule dynamics. This suggests that viral clearance, though allowing for survival of neurons, may not restore them to their pre-infection functionality. Our data provide a proof-of-principle foundation to re-evaluate the etiology of human central nervous system diseases of unknown etiology: viruses may trigger permanent neuronal

  6. Robust cre-mediated recombination in small intestinal stem cells utilizing the olfm4 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijers, Jurian; van der Flier, Laurens G; van Es, Johan; Clevers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium of the small intestine is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue in mammals. We previously demonstrated the existence of a long-lived pool of cycling stem cells defined by Lgr5 expression at the bottom of intestinal crypts. An Lgr5-eGFP-IRES-CreERT2 knockin allele has been instrumental

  7. Establishment of a Cre/loxP recombination system for N-terminal epitope tagging of genes in Tetrahymena

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki Kazufumi; Vogt Alexander; Busch Clara

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epitope tagging is a powerful strategy to study the function of proteins. Although tools for C-terminal protein tagging in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila have been developed, N-terminal protein tagging in this organism is still technically demanding. Results In this study, we have established a Cre/loxP recombination system in Tetrahymena and have applied this system for the N-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes. Cre can be expressed in Tetrahymen...

  8. Molecular Basis for Enhancement of the Meiotic DMCI Recombinase by RAD51AP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Dunlop, Myun Hwa; Kauppi, Liisa; San Filippo, Joseph San; Wiese, Claudia; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Begovic, Sead; Schild, David; Jasin, Maria; Keeney, Scott; Sung, Patrick

    2010-11-05

    Homologous recombination is needed for meiotic chromosome segregation, genome maintenance, and tumor suppression. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) has been shown to interact with and enhance the recombinase activity of RAD51. Accordingly, genetic ablation of RAD51AP1 leads to enhanced sensitivity to and also chromosome aberrations upon DNA damage, demonstrating a role for RAD51AP1 in mitotic homologous recombination. Here we show physical association of RAD51AP1 with the meiosis-specific recombinase DMC1 and a stimulatory effect of RAD51AP1 on the DMC1-mediated D-loop reaction. Mechanistic studies have revealed that RAD51AP1 enhances the ability of the DMC1 presynaptic filament to capture the duplex DNA partner and to assemble the synaptic complex, in which the recombining DNA strands are homologously aligned. We also provide evidence that functional co-operation is dependent on complex formation between DMC1 and RAD51AP1, and that distinct epitopes in RAD51AP1 mediate interactions with RAD51 and DMC1. Finally, we show that RAD51AP1 is expressed in mouse testes, and that RAD51AP1 foci co-localize with a subset of DMC1 foci in spermatocytes. These results suggest that RAD51AP1 also serves an important role in meiotic homologous recombination.

  9. The evolution of tyrosine-recombinase elements in Nematoda

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Szitenberg; Georgios Koutsovoulos; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lunt, David H

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like...

  10. Generation of a Tlx1(CreER-Venus) knock-in mouse strain for the study of spleen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Ryo; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Oda, Akihisa; Nishimura, Miyuki; Murakami, Akikazu; Azuma, Takachika; Kaifu, Tomonori; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2014-11-01

    The spleen is a lymphoid organ that serves as a unique niche for immune reactions, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and the removal of aged erythrocytes from the circulation. While much is known about the immunological functions of the spleen, the mechanisms governing the development and organization of its stromal microenvironment remain poorly understood. Here we report the generation and analysis of a Tlx1(Cre) (ER) (-Venus) knock-in mouse strain engineered to simultaneously express tamoxifen-inducible CreER(T2) and Venus fluorescent protein under the control of regulatory elements of the Tlx1 gene, which encodes a transcription factor essential for spleen development. We demonstrated that Venus as well as CreER expression recapitulates endogenous Tlx1 transcription within the spleen microenvironment. When Tlx1(Cre) (ER) (-Venus) mice were crossed with the Cre-inducible reporter strain, Tlx1-expressing cells as well as their descendants were specifically labeled following tamoxifen administration. We also showed by cell lineage tracing that asplenia caused by Tlx1 deficiency is attributable to altered contribution of mesenchymal cells in the spleen anlage to the pancreatic mesenchyme. Thus, Tlx1(Cre) (ER) (-Venus) mice represent a new tool for lineage tracing and conditional gene manipulation of spleen mesenchymal cells, essential approaches for understanding the molecular mechanisms of spleen development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Structural Basis for Catalytic Activation of a Serine Recombinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenholtz, Ross A.; Rowland, Sally-J.; Boocock, Martin R.; Stark, W. Marshall; Rice, Phoebe A. (Glasgow); (UC)

    2014-10-02

    Sin resolvase is a site-specific serine recombinase that is normally controlled by a complex regulatory mechanism. A single mutation, Q115R, allows the enzyme to bypass the entire regulatory apparatus, such that no accessory proteins or DNA sites are required. Here, we present a 1.86 {angstrom} crystal structure of the Sin Q115R catalytic domain, in a tetrameric arrangement stabilized by an interaction between Arg115 residues on neighboring subunits. The subunits have undergone significant conformational changes from the inactive dimeric state previously reported. The structure provides a new high-resolution view of a serine recombinase active site that is apparently fully assembled, suggesting roles for the conserved active site residues. The structure also suggests how the dimer-tetramer transition is coupled to assembly of the active site. The tetramer is captured in a different rotational substate than that seen in previous hyperactive serine recombinase structures, and unbroken crossover site DNA can be readily modeled into its active sites.

  12. Homologous Recombination in Protozoan Parasites and Recombinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Andrew A; Waldvogel, Sarah M; Luthman, Adam J; Sehorn, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems through genetic recombination. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors, capable of disrupting HR in protozoan parasites, represent potential therapeutic options. A number of small molecule inhibitors were identified that disrupt the activities of the human recombinase RAD51. Recent studies have examined the effect of two of these molecules on the Entamoeba recombinases. Here, we discuss the current understandings of HR in the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Entamoeba, and we review the small molecule inhibitors known to disrupt human RAD51 activity.

  13. Homologous Recombination in Protozoan Parasites and Recombinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Kelso

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR is a DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes. In many protozoan parasites, HR is an essential DSB repair pathway that allows these organisms to adapt to environmental conditions and evade host immune systems through genetic recombination. Therefore, small molecule inhibitors, capable of disrupting HR in protozoan parasites, represent potential therapeutic options. A number of small molecule inhibitors were identified that disrupt the activities of the human recombinase RAD51. Recent studies have examined the effect of two of these molecules on the Entamoeba recombinases. Here, we discuss the current understandings of HR in the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Plasmodium, and Entamoeba, and we review the small molecule inhibitors known to disrupt human RAD51 activity.

  14. Construction of non-polar mutants in Haemophilus influenzae using FLP recombinase technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker Beth D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi is a gram-negative bacterium that causes otitis media in children as well as other infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract in children and adults. We are employing genetic strategies to identify and characterize virulence determinants in NTHi. NTHi is naturally competent for transformation and thus construction of most mutants by common methodologies is relatively straightforward. However, new methodology was required in order to construct unmarked non-polar mutations in poorly expressed genes whose products are required for transformation. We have adapted the lambda red/FLP-recombinase-mediated strategy used in E. coli for use in NTHi. Results A cassette containing a spectinomycin resistance gene and an rpsL gene flanked by FRT sites was constructed. A PCR amplicon containing 50 base pairs of DNA homologous to the 5' and 3' ends of the gene to be disrupted and the cassette was generated, then recombineered into the target NTHi gene, cloned on a plasmid, using the lambda recombination proteins expressed in E. coli DY380. Thus, the gene of interest was replaced by the cassette. The construct was then transformed into a streptomycin resistant NTHi strain and mutants were selected on spectinomycin-containing growth media. A plasmid derived from pLS88 with a temperature sensitive replicon expressing the FLP recombinase gene under the control of the tet operator/repressor was constructed. This plasmid was electroporated into the NTHi mutant at the permissive temperature and FLP expression was induced using anhydrotetracycline. The recombinase recognizes the FRT sites and eliminates the antibiotic cassette by site-specific recombination, creating the unmarked non-polar mutation. The plasmid is cured by growth of cells at the restrictive temperature. Conclusion The products of the genes in the NTHi pilABCD operon are required for type IV pilus biogenesis and have a role in

  15. A Study of Plazomicin Compared With Colistin in Patients With Infection Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-03

    Bloodstream Infections (BSI) Due to CRE; Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (HABP) Due to CRE; Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia (VABP) Due to CRE; Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (cUTI) Due to CRE; Acute Pyelonephritis (AP) Due to CRE

  16. Redesigning Recombinase Specificity for Safe Harbor Sites in the Human Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C Wallen

    Full Text Available Site-specific recombinases (SSRs are valuable tools for genetic engineering due to their ability to manipulate DNA in a highly specific manner. Engineered zinc-finger and TAL effector recombinases, in particular, are two classes of SSRs composed of custom-designed DNA-binding domains fused to a catalytic domain derived from the resolvase/invertase family of serine recombinases. While TAL effector and zinc-finger proteins can be assembled to recognize a wide range of possible DNA sequences, recombinase catalytic specificity has been constrained by inherent base requirements present within each enzyme. In order to further expand the targeted recombinase repertoire, we used a genetic screen to isolate enhanced mutants of the Bin and Tn21 recombinases that recognize target sites outside the scope of other engineered recombinases. We determined the specific base requirements for recombination by these enzymes and demonstrate their potential for genome engineering by selecting for variants capable of specifically recombining target sites present in the human CCR5 gene and the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that complementing functional characterization with protein engineering is a potentially powerful approach for generating recombinases with expanded targeting capabilities.

  17. Germ-line recombination activity of the widely used hGFAP-Cre and nestin-Cre transgenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Zhang

    Full Text Available Herein we demonstrate with PCR, immunodetection and reporter gene approaches that the widely used human Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (hGFAP-Cre transgene exhibits spontaneous germ-line recombination activity in leading to deletion in brain, heart and tail tissue with high frequency. The ectopic activity of hGFAP-Cre requires a rigorous control. We likewise observed that a second widely used nestin-Cre transgene shows germ-line deletion. Here we describe procedures to identify mice with germ-line recombination mediated by the hGFAP-Cre and nestin-Cre transgenes. Such control is essential to avoid pleiotropic effects due to germ-line deletion of loxP-flanked target genes and to maintain the CNS-restricted deletion status in transgenic mouse colonies.

  18. The recombinase protein is a torque sensitive molecular switch

    CERN Document Server

    Atwell, Scott; Migliozzi, Daniel; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Cappello, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    How a nano-searcher finds its nano-target is a general problem in non-equilibrium statistical physics. It becomes vital when the searcher is a damaged DNA fragment trying to find its counterpart on the intact homologous chromosome. If the two copies are paired, that intact homologous sequence serves as a template to reconstitute the damaged DNA sequence, enabling the cell to survive without genetic mutations. To succeed, the search must stop only when the perfect homology is found. The biological process that ensures such a genomic integrity is called Homologous Recombination and is promoted by the Recombinase proteins. In this article, we use torque-sensitive magnetic tweezers to measure the free-energy landscape of the human Recombinase hRad51 protein assembled a DNA fragment. Based on our measurements we model the hRad51/DNA complex as an out-of-equilibrium two-state system and provide a thermodynamical description of Homologous Recombination. With this dynamical two-state model, we suggest a mechanism by ...

  19. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets

  20. Establishment of a Cre/loxP recombination system for N-terminal epitope tagging of genes in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Clara Jana-Lui; Vogt, Alexander; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-07-13

    Epitope tagging is a powerful strategy to study the function of proteins. Although tools for C-terminal protein tagging in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila have been developed, N-terminal protein tagging in this organism is still technically demanding. In this study, we have established a Cre/loxP recombination system in Tetrahymena and have applied this system for the N-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes. Cre can be expressed in Tetrahymena and localizes to the macronucleus where it induces precise recombination at two loxP sequences in direct orientation in the Tetrahymena macronuclear chromosome. This Cre/loxP recombination can be used to remove a loxP-flanked drug-resistance marker from an N-terminal tagging construct after it is integrated into the macronucleus. The system established in this study allows us to express an N-terminal epitope tagged gene from its own endogenous promoter in Tetrahymena.

  1. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gayatri; Rebolledo, Mauricio; White, A. Clinton; Crannell, Zachary; Richards-Kortum, R. Rebecca; Pinilla, A. Elizabeth; Ramírez, Juan David; López, M. Consuelo; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and has been associated with childhood malnutrition. Traditional microscopy approaches are neither sensitive nor specific for Entamoeba histolytica. Antigen assays are more specific, but many cases are missed unless tested by molecular methods. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective, the need for sophisticated, expensive equipment, infrastructure, and trained personnel limits its usefulness, especially in the resource-limited, endemic areas. Here, we report development of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method to detect E. histolytica specifically. Using visual detection by lateral flow (LF), the test was highly sensitive and specific and could be performed without additional equipment. The availability of this inexpensive, sensitive, and field-applicable diagnostic test could facilitate rapid diagnosis and treatment of amebiasis in endemic regions. PMID:26123960

  2. Heat shock induced excision of selectable marker genes in transgenic banana by the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong-Pérez, Borys; Kosky, Rafael G; Reyes, Maritza; Rojas, Luis; Ocaña, Bárbara; Tejeda, Marisol; Pérez, Blanca; Angenon, Geert

    2012-06-30

    Selectable marker genes are indispensable for efficient production of transgenic events, but are no longer needed after the selection process and may cause public concern and technological problems. Although several gene excision systems exist, few have been optimized for vegetatively propagated crops. Using a Cre-loxP auto-excision strategy, we obtained transgenic banana plants cv. Grande Naine (Musa AAA) devoid of the marker gene used for selection. We used T-DNA vectors with the cre recombinase gene under control of a heat shock promoter and selectable marker gene cassettes placed between two loxP sites in direct orientation, and a gene of interest inserted outside of the loxP sites. Heat shock promoters pGmHSP17.6-L and pHSP18.2, from soybean and Arabidopsis respectively, were tested. A transient heat shock treatment of primary transgenic embryos was sufficient for inducing cre and excising cre and the marker genes. Excision efficiency, as determined by PCR and Southern hybridization was 59.7 and 40.0% for the GmHSP17.6-L and HSP18.2 promoters, respectively. Spontaneous excision was not observed in 50 plants derived from untreated transgenic embryos. To our knowledge this is the first report describing an efficient marker gene removal system for banana. The method described is simple and might be generally applicable for the production of marker-free transgenic plants of many crop species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Site-specific DNA Inversion by Serine Recombinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Reversible site-specific DNA inversion reactions are widely distributed in bacteria and their viruses. They control a range of biological reactions that most often involve alterations of molecules on the surface of cells or phage. These programmed DNA rearrangements usually occur at a low frequency, thereby preadapting a small subset of the population to a change in environmental conditions, or in the case of phages, an expanded host range. A dedicated recombinase, sometimes with the aid of additional regulatory or DNA architectural proteins, catalyzes the inversion of DNA. RecA or other components of the general recombination-repair machinery are not involved. This chapter discusses site-specific DNA inversion reactions mediated by the serine recombinase family of enzymes and focuses on the extensively studied serine DNA invertases that are stringently controlled by the Fis-bound enhancer regulatory system. The first section summarizes biological features and general properties of inversion reactions by the Fis/enhancer-dependent serine invertases and the recently described serine DNA invertases in Bacteroides. Mechanistic studies of reactions catalyzed by the Hin and Gin invertases are then discussed in more depth, particularly with regards to recent advances in our understanding of the function of the Fis/enhancer regulatory system, the assembly of the active recombination complex (invertasome) containing the Fis/enhancer, and the process of DNA strand exchange by rotation of synapsed subunit pairs within the invertasome. The role of DNA topological forces that function in concert with the Fis/enhancer controlling element in specifying the overwhelming bias for DNA inversion over deletion and intermolecular recombination is emphasized. PMID:25844275

  4. Recombinase-Dependent Mouse Lines for Chemogenetic Activation of Genetically Defined Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale R. Sciolino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemogenetic technologies, including the mutated human Gq-coupled M3 muscarinic receptor (hM3Dq, have greatly facilitated our ability to directly link changes in cellular activity to altered physiology and behavior. Here, we extend the hM3Dq toolkit with recombinase-responsive mouse lines that permit hM3Dq expression in virtually any cell type. These alleles encode a fusion protein designed to increase effective expression levels by concentrating hM3Dq to the cell body and dendrites. To illustrate their broad utility, we targeted three different genetically defined cell populations: noradrenergic neurons of the compact, bilateral locus coeruleus and two dispersed populations, Camk2a+ neurons and GFAP+ glia. In all three populations, we observed reproducible expression and confirmed that activation of hM3Dq is sufficient to dose-dependently evoke phenotypic changes, without extreme phenotypes associated with hM3Dq overexpression. These alleles offer the ability to non-invasively control activity of diverse cell types to uncover their function and dysfunction at any developmental stage.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of maize (Zea mays) with Cre-lox site specific recombination cassettes in BIBAC vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Juan M; Yu, Weichang; Han, Fangpu; Kato, Akio; Peters, Eric M; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Birchler, James A

    2008-04-01

    The Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system has been applied in various plant species including maize (Zea mays) for marker gene removal, gene targeting, and functional genomics. A BIBAC vector system was adapted for maize transformation with a large fragment of genetic material including a herbicide resistance marker gene, a 30 kb yeast genomic fragment as a marker for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and a 35S-lox-cre recombination cassette. Seventy-five transgenic lines were generated from Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of a maize Hi II line with multiple B chromosomes. Eighty-four inserts have been localized among all 10 A chromosome pairs by FISH using the yeast DNA probe together with a karyotyping cocktail. No inserts were found on the B chromosomes; thus a bias against the B chromosomes by the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was revealed. The expression of a cre gene was confirmed in 68 of the 75 transgenic lines by a reporter construct for cre/lox mediated recombination. The placement of the cre/lox site-specific recombination system in many locations in the maize genome will be valuable materials for gene targeting and chromosome engineering.

  6. A construct with fluorescent indicators for conditional expression of miRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Xugang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic RNAi holds promise as a simple, low-cost, and fast method for reverse genetics in mammals. It may be particularly useful for producing animal models for hypomorphic gene function. Inducible RNAi that permits spatially and temporally controllable gene silencing in vivo will enhance the power of transgenic RNAi approach. Furthermore, because microRNA (miRNA targeting specific genes can be expressed simultaneously with protein coding genes, incorporation of fluorescent marker proteins can simplify the screening and analysis of transgenic RNAi animals. Results We sought to optimally express a miRNA simultaneously with a fluorescent marker. We compared two construct designs. One expressed a red fluorescent protein (RFP and a miRNA placed in its 3' untranslated region (UTR. The other expressed the same RFP and miRNA, but the precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA coding sequence was placed in an intron that was inserted into the 3'-UTR. We found that the two constructs expressed comparable levels of miRNA. However, the intron-containing construct expressed a significantly higher level of RFP than the intron-less construct. Further experiments indicate that the 3'-UTR intron enhances RFP expression by its intrinsic gene-expression-enhancing activity and by eliminating the inhibitory effect of the pre-miRNA on the expression of RFP. Based on these findings, we incorporated the intron-embedded pre-miRNA design into a conditional expression construct that employed the Cre-loxP system. This construct initially expressed EGFP gene, which was flanked by loxP sites. After exposure to Cre recombinase, the transgene stopped EGFP expression and began expression of RFP and a miRNA, which silenced the expression of specific cellular genes. Conclusion We have designed and tested a conditional miRNA-expression construct and showed that this construct expresses both the marker genes strongly and can silence the target gene efficiently upon Cre

  7. Heat-inducible Cre-lox system for marker excision in transgenic rice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study assessed the efficacy of a heat-inducible cre gene for conditional removal of the marker gene from a rice genome via Cre-lox recombination. A cre gene controlled by the soybean heat-shock promoter was introduced into the rice genome along with the recombination target (lox) construct. Cre-mediated ...

  8. Tracing notochord-derived cells using a Noto-cre mouse: implications for intervertebral disc development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. McCann

    2012-01-01

    Back pain related to intervertebral disc degeneration is the most common musculoskeletal problem, with a lifetime prevalence of 82%. The lack of effective treatment for this widespread problem is directly related to our limited understanding of disc development, maintenance and degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the developmental origins of nucleus pulposus cells within the intervertebral disc using a novel notochord-specific Cre mouse. To trace the fate of notochordal cells within the intervertebral disc, we derived a notochord-specific Cre mouse line by targeting the homeobox gene Noto. Expression of this gene is restricted to the node and the posterior notochord during gastrulation [embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5-E12.5]. The Noto-cre mice were crossed with a conditional lacZ reporter for visualization of notochord fate in whole-mount embryos. We performed lineage-tracing experiments to examine the contribution of the notochord to spinal development from E12.5 through to skeletally mature mice (9 months. Fate mapping studies demonstrated that, following elongation and formation of the primitive axial skeleton, the notochord gives rise to the nucleus pulposus in fully formed intervertebral discs. Cellular localization of β-galactosidase (encoded by lacZ and cytokeratin-8 demonstrated that both notochordal cells and chondrocyte-like nucleus pulposus cells are derived from the embryonic notochord. These studies establish conclusively that notochordal cells act as embryonic precursors to all cells found within the nucleus pulposus of the mature intervertebral disc. This suggests that notochordal cells might serve as tissue-specific progenitor cells within the disc and establishes the Noto-cre mouse as a unique tool to interrogate the contribution of notochordal cells to both intervertebral disc development and disc degeneration.

  9. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2006 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the electricity and natural gas markets to household consumers on 1 July 2007: CRE at the service of eligible customers (Information for eligible customers, Improved knowledge of non-household customers); Monitoring of the non-discrimination, transparency and independence of system operators (Drafting and distribution of codes of good conduct for system operators, The necessary improvement of system operator independence); Preparing the practical methods of opening: GTE 2007 and GTG 2007 (The necessary simplification of relations between operators and customers, Achieving a greater level of consumer information and protection, The clearly defined stages of the 'customer pathway', Profiling and settlement mechanisms: turning experience feedback from 2004 to good account); Persisting uncertainties and hurdles (The need for a suitable regulatory and legislative platform, Hurdles to the opening of the household market); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Increasing weight of

  10. Using the cre-lox recombination system to assess functional impairment caused by amino acid substitutions in yeast proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Renee L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to assess the functional significance of a sequence motif in yeast Upf3p, a protein required for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD. The motif lies at the edge of the Upf3p-Upf2p interaction domain, but at the same time resembles the canonical leucine-rich nuclear export sequence (NES found in proteins that bind Crm1p exportin. To test the function of the putative NES, site-directed mutations that cause substitutions of conserved NES-A residues were first selected to identify hypermorphic alleles. Next, a portable Crm1p-binding NES from HIV-1 Rev protein that functions in yeast was fused en masse to the C-terminus of variant Upf3 proteins using loxP sites recognized by bacterial cre-recombinase. Finally, variant Upf3-Rev proteins that were functional in NMD were selected and examined for the types of amino acid substitutions present in NES-A. The mutational analysis revealed that amino acid substitutions in the Upf3 NES impair both nuclear export and the Upf2p-Upf3p interaction, both of which are required for Upf3p to function in NMD. The method described in this report could be modified for the genetic analysis of a variety of portable protein domains.

  11. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2004 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the gas and electricity markets for professional customers on 1 July 2004; B - Regulation of the gas market: Gas markets and players (The European environment, The French gas market); Regulation of the gas market (Implementing regulation, Works planned for the coming year; C - Regulation of the electricity market: The electricity markets and players (The European electricity markets, The French electricity market, Monitoring the electricity market); Regulation of the French electricity market (Access to public grid, Cross-border exchanges, Un-bundled accounting principles); The public electricity service in the regulated market (Content of the public service, Public service charges, Electricity production public service financing, Electricity sales tariffs) D - The working of CRE: How CRE exercises its jurisdiction, Tools; E - Appendices: Glossary, Units and conversions, Council of European Energy Regulators, Index of tables and figures.

  12. The evolution of tyrosine-recombinase elements in Nematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Szitenberg

    Full Text Available Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum.

  13. The evolution of tyrosine-recombinase elements in Nematoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szitenberg, Amir; Koutsovoulos, Georgios; Blaxter, Mark L; Lunt, David H

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements can be categorised into DNA and RNA elements based on their mechanism of transposition. Tyrosine recombinase elements (YREs) are relatively rare and poorly understood, despite sharing characteristics with both DNA and RNA elements. Previously, the Nematoda have been reported to have a substantially different diversity of YREs compared to other animal phyla: the Dirs1-like YRE retrotransposon was encountered in most animal phyla but not in Nematoda, and a unique Pat1-like YRE retrotransposon has only been recorded from Nematoda. We explored the diversity of YREs in Nematoda by sampling broadly across the phylum and including 34 genomes representing the three classes within Nematoda. We developed a method to isolate and classify YREs based on both feature organization and phylogenetic relationships in an open and reproducible workflow. We also ensured that our phylogenetic approach to YRE classification identified truncated and degenerate elements, informatively increasing the number of elements sampled. We identified Dirs1-like elements (thought to be absent from Nematoda) in the nematode classes Enoplia and Dorylaimia indicating that nematode model species do not adequately represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum. Nematode Pat1-like elements were found to be a derived form of another Pat1-like element that is present more widely in animals. Several sequence features used widely for the classification of YREs were found to be homoplasious, highlighting the need for a phylogenetically-based classification scheme. Nematode model species do not represent the diversity of transposable elements in the phylum.

  14. Osterix-Cre Labeled Progenitor Cells Contribute to the Formation and Maintenance of the Bone Marrow Stroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaling; Strecker, Sara; Wang, Liping; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Wang, Wen; Rowe, David W.; Maye, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out fate mapping studies using Osterix-EGFPCre and Osterix-CreERt animal models and found Cre reporter expression in many different cell types that make up the bone marrow stroma. Constitutive fate mapping resulted in the labeling of different cellular components located throughout the bone marrow, whereas temporal fate mapping at E14.5 resulted in the labeling of cells within a region of the bone marrow. The identity of cell types marked by constitutive and temporal fate mapping included osteoblasts, adipocytes, vascular smooth muscle, perineural, and stromal cells. Prolonged tracing of embryonic precursors labeled at E14.5dpc revealed the continued existence of their progeny up to 10 months of age, suggesting that fate mapped, labeled embryonic precursors gave rise to long lived bone marrow progenitor cells. To provide further evidence for the marking of bone marrow progenitors, bone marrow cultures derived from Osterix-EGFPCre/Ai9 mice showed that stromal cells retained Cre reporter expression and yielded a FACS sorted population that was able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes in vitro and into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and perivascular stromal cells after transplantation. Collectively, our studies reveal the developmental process by which Osterix-Cre labeled embryonic progenitors give rise to adult bone marrow progenitors which establish and maintain the bone marrow stroma. PMID:23951132

  15. Regulation of Recombination between gtfB/gtfC Genes in Streptococcus mutans by Recombinase A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Inagaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans produces 3 types of glucosyltransferases (GTFs, whose cooperative action is essential for cellular adhesion. The recombinase A (RecA protein is required for homologous recombination. In our previous study, we isolated several strains with a smooth colony morphology and low GTF activity, characteristics speculated to be derived from the GTF fusions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of those fusions. S. mutans strain MT8148 was grown in the presence of recombinant RecA (rRecA protein, after which smooth colonies were isolated. The biological functions and sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes of this as well as other clinical strains were determined. The sucrose-dependent adherence rates of those strains were reduced as compared to that of MT8148. Determination of the sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes showed that an approximately 3500 bp region was deleted from the area between them. Furthermore, expression of the recA gene was elevated in those strains as compared to MT8148. These results suggest that RecA has an important role in fusions of gtfB and gtfC genes, leading to alteration of colony morphology and reduction in sucrose-dependent adhesion.

  16. Regulation of recombination between gtfB/gtfC genes in Streptococcus mutans by recombinase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Satoko; Fujita, Kazuyo; Takashima, Yukiko; Nagayama, Kayoko; Ardin, Arifah C; Matsumi, Yuki; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans produces 3 types of glucosyltransferases (GTFs), whose cooperative action is essential for cellular adhesion. The recombinase A (RecA) protein is required for homologous recombination. In our previous study, we isolated several strains with a smooth colony morphology and low GTF activity, characteristics speculated to be derived from the GTF fusions. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of those fusions. S. mutans strain MT8148 was grown in the presence of recombinant RecA (rRecA) protein, after which smooth colonies were isolated. The biological functions and sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes of this as well as other clinical strains were determined. The sucrose-dependent adherence rates of those strains were reduced as compared to that of MT8148. Determination of the sequences of the gtfB and gtfC genes showed that an approximately 3500 bp region was deleted from the area between them. Furthermore, expression of the recA gene was elevated in those strains as compared to MT8148. These results suggest that RecA has an important role in fusions of gtfB and gtfC genes, leading to alteration of colony morphology and reduction in sucrose-dependent adhesion.

  17. Deletion of Rictor in brain and fat alters peripheral clock gene expression and increases blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drägert, Katja; Bhattacharya, Indranil; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Seebeck, Petra; Azzi, Abdelhalim; Brown, Steven A; Georgiopoulou, Stavroula; Held, Ulrike; Blyszczuk, Przemyslaw; Arras, Margarete; Humar, Rok; Hall, Michael N; Battegay, Edouard; Haas, Elvira

    2015-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) contains the essential protein RICTOR and is activated by growth factors. mTORC2 in adipose tissue contributes to the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. In the perivascular adipose tissue, mTORC2 ensures normal vascular reactivity by controlling expression of inflammatory molecules. To assess whether RICTOR/mTORC2 contributes to blood pressure regulation, we applied a radiotelemetry approach in control and Rictor knockout (Rictor(aP2KO)) mice generated using adipocyte protein-2 gene promoter-driven CRE recombinase expression to delete Rictor. The 24-hour mean arterial pressure was increased in Rictor(aP2KO) mice, and the physiological decline in mean arterial pressure during the dark period was impaired. In parallel, heart rate and locomotor activity were elevated during the dark period with a pattern similar to blood pressure changes. This phenotype was associated with mild cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, decreased cardiac natriuretic peptides, and their receptor expression in adipocytes. Moreover, clock gene expression was reduced or phase-shifted in perivascular adipose tissue. No differences in clock gene expression were observed in the master clock suprachiasmatic nucleus, although Rictor gene expression was also lower in brain of Rictor(aP2KO) mice. Thus, this study highlights the importance of RICTOR/mTORC2 for interactions between vasculature, adipocytes, and brain to tune physiological outcomes, such as blood pressure and locomotor activity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Diagnostics of Dengue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd El Wahed

    Full Text Available Over 2.5 billion people are exposed to the risk of contracting dengue fever (DF. Early diagnosis of DF helps to diminish its burden on public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase amplification assays (RT-PCR are the standard method for molecular detection of the dengue virus (DENV. Real-time RT-PCR analysis is not suitable for on-site screening since mobile devices are large, expensive, and complex. In this study, two RT-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA assays were developed to detect DENV1-4.Using two quantitative RNA molecular standards, the analytical sensitivity of a RT-RPA targeting the 3´non-translated region of DENV1-4 was found to range from 14 (DENV4 to 241 (DENV1-3 RNA molecules detected. The assay was specific and did not cross detect other Flaviviruses. The RT-RPA assay was tested in a mobile laboratory combining magnetic-bead based total nucleic acid extraction and a portable detection device in Kedougou (Senegal and in Bangkok (Thailand. In Kedougou, the RT-RPA was operated at an ambient temperature of 38 °C with auxiliary electricity tapped from a motor vehicle and yielded a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 98% (n=31 and 100% (n=23, respectively. While in the field trial in Bangkok, the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 72% (n=90 and 100%(n=41, respectively.During the first 5 days of infection, the developed DENV1-4 RT-RPA assays constitute a suitable accurate and rapid assay for DENV diagnosis. Moreover, the use of a portable fluorescence-reading device broadens its application potential to the point-of-care for outbreak investigations.

  19. Oxytocin receptors are expressed on dopamine and glutamate neurons in the mouse ventral tegmental area that project to nucleus accumbens and other mesolimbic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Joanna; MacFadyen, Kaley; Smith, Justin A; de Kloet, Annette D; Wang, Lei; Krause, Eric G

    2017-04-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) circuitry determines which behaviors are positively reinforcing and therefore should be encoded in the memory to become a part of the behavioral repertoire. Natural reinforcers, like food and sex, activate this pathway, thereby increasing the likelihood of further consummatory, social, and sexual behaviors. Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in mediating natural reward and OT-synthesizing neurons project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, direct neuroanatomical evidence of OT regulation of DA neurons within the VTA is sparse. To phenotype OT-receptor (OTR) expressing neurons originating within the VTA, we delivered Cre-inducible adeno-associated virus that drives the expression of fluorescent marker into the VTA of male mice that had Cre-recombinase driven by OTR gene expression. OTR-expressing VTA neurons project to NAc, prefrontal cortex, the extended amygdala, and other forebrain regions but less than 10% of these OTR-expressing neurons were identified as DA neurons (defined by tyrosine hydroxylase colocalization). Instead, almost 50% of OTR-expressing cells in the VTA were glutamate (GLU) neurons, as indicated by expression of mRNA for the vesicular GLU transporter (vGluT). About one-third of OTR-expressing VTA neurons did not colocalize with either DA or GLU phenotypic markers. Thus, OTR expression by VTA neurons implicates that OT regulation of reward circuitry is more complex than a direct action on DA neurotransmission. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1094-1108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Making Health Care Safer -- Stop Infections from Lethal CRE Germs Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program (EIP). Providing CRE outbreak support such as staff expertise, prevention guidelines, tools, and lab testing to states and facilities. Developing detection methods and prevention programs to control CRE. CDC's "Detect and Protect" effort supports regional ...

  1. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Boyle

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB has been designated a public health priority by the World Health Organisation. In high burden TB countries nucleic acid based TB tests have been restricted to centralised laboratories and specialised research settings. Requirements such as a constant electrical supply, air conditioning and skilled, computer literate operators prevent implementation of such tests in many settings. Isothermal DNA amplification technologies permit the use of simpler, less energy intensive detection platforms more suited to low resource settings that allow the accurate diagnosis of a disease within a short timeframe. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA is a rapid, low temperature isothermal DNA amplification reaction. We report here RPA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC DNA in <20 minutes at 39 °C. Assays for two MTC specific targets were investigated, IS6110 and IS1081. When testing purified MTC genomic DNA, limits of detection of 6.25 fg (IS6110 and 20 fg (IS1081were consistently achieved. When testing a convenience sample of pulmonary specimens from suspected TB patients, RPA demonstrated superior accuracy to indirect fluorescence microscopy. Compared to culture, sensitivities for the IS1081 RPA and microscopy were 91.4% (95%CI: 85, 97.9 and 86.1% (95%CI: 78.1, 94.1 respectively (n = 71. Specificities were 100% and 88.6% (95% CI: 80.8, 96.1 respectively. For the IS6110 RPA and microscopy sensitivities of 87.5% (95%CI: 81.7, 93.2 and 70.8% (95%CI: 62.9, 78.7 were obtained (n = 90. Specificities were 95.4 (95% CI: 92.3,98.1 and 88% (95% CI: 83.6, 92.4 respectively. The superior specificity of RPA for detecting tuberculosis was due to the reduced ability of fluorescence microscopy to distinguish Mtb complex from other acid fast bacteria. The rapid nature of the RPA assay and its low energy requirement compared to other amplification technologies suggest RPA-based TB

  2. [Site-specific recombinases in genetic engineering: modern in vivo technologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostash, B

    2010-01-01

    Current advances in the field of site-specific recombinases (SSR) and their application for pro- and eukaryotic genomics are reviewed. Functions of SSR and main types of the genetic rearrangements they catalyze are outlined. Examples described in the review show the potential of SSR for studies of a diverse array of fundamental and applied problems, which are not easily solved (or not solved at all) with the help of other experimental approaches. Use of SSR for wider set of biological systems, generation of recombinases with a strict temporal and spatial control of their activity and search for SSR displaying new substrate specificity are major directions of development of SSR-based technology.

  3. Generation of Shox2-Cre allele for tissue specific manipulation of genes in the developing heart, palate, and limb

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Chao; Gu, Shuping; Chen, YiPing

    2013-01-01

    Shox2 is expressed in several developing organs in a tissue specific manner in both mice and humans, including the heart, palate, limb, and nervous system. To better understand the spatial and temporal expression patterns of Shox2 and to systematically dissect the genetic cascade regulated by Shox2, we created Shox2-LacZ and Shox2-Cre knock-in mouse lines. We show that the Shox2-LacZ allele expresses beta-galactosidase reporter gene in a fashion that recapitulates the endogenous Shox2 express...

  4. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Annika Højrup Runegaard; Jensen, Kathrine L; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M

    2017-01-01

    assessment of the dopaminergic system in hemizygous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Our data show that TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice...

  5. Target-specific variants of Flp recombinase mediate genome engineering reactions in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Riddhi; Li, Feng; Voziyanova, Eugenia; Voziyanov, Yuri

    2015-09-01

    Genome engineering relies on DNA-modifying enzymes that are able to locate a DNA sequence of interest and initiate a desired genome rearrangement. Currently, the field predominantly utilizes site-specific DNA nucleases that depend on the host DNA repair machinery to complete a genome modification task. We show here that genome engineering approaches that employ target-specific variants of the self-sufficient, versatile site-specific DNA recombinase Flp can be developed into promising alternatives. We demonstrate that the Flp variant evolved to recombine an FRT-like sequence, FL-IL10A, which is located upstream of the human interleukin-10 gene, and can target this sequence in the model setting of Chinese hamster ovary and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. This target-specific Flp variant is able to perform the integration reaction and, when paired with another recombinase, the dual recombinase-mediated cassette exchange reaction. The efficiency of the integration reaction in human cells can be enhanced by 'humanizing' the Flp variant gene and by adding the nuclear localization sequence to the recombinase. © 2015 FEBS.

  6. Cre-dependent selection yields AAV variants for widespread gene transfer to the adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deverman, Benjamin E; Pravdo, Piers L; Simpson, Bryan P; Kumar, Sripriya Ravindra; Chan, Ken Y; Banerjee, Abhik; Wu, Wei-Li; Yang, Bin; Huber, Nina; Pasca, Sergiu P; Gradinaru, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are commonly used vehicles for in vivo gene transfer. However, the tropism repertoire of naturally occurring AAVs is limited, prompting a search for novel AAV capsids with desired characteristics. Here we describe a capsid selection method, called Cre recombination-based AAV targeted evolution (CREATE), that enables the development of AAV capsids that more efficiently transduce defined Cre-expressing cell populations in vivo. We use CREATE to generate AAV variants that efficiently and widely transduce the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS) after intravenous injection. One variant, AAV-PHP.B, transfers genes throughout the CNS with an efficiency that is at least 40-fold greater than that of the current standard, AAV9 (refs. 14,15,16,17), and transduces the majority of astrocytes and neurons across multiple CNS regions. In vitro, it transduces human neurons and astrocytes more efficiently than does AAV9, demonstrating the potential of CREATE to produce customized AAV vectors for biomedical applications.

  7. Establishment of a Cre/loxP recombination system for N-terminal epitope tagging of genes in Tetrahymena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochizuki Kazufumi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epitope tagging is a powerful strategy to study the function of proteins. Although tools for C-terminal protein tagging in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila have been developed, N-terminal protein tagging in this organism is still technically demanding. Results In this study, we have established a Cre/loxP recombination system in Tetrahymena and have applied this system for the N-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes. Cre can be expressed in Tetrahymena and localizes to the macronucleus where it induces precise recombination at two loxP sequences in direct orientation in the Tetrahymena macronuclear chromosome. This Cre/loxP recombination can be used to remove a loxP-flanked drug-resistance marker from an N-terminal tagging construct after it is integrated into the macronucleus. Conclusions The system established in this study allows us to express an N-terminal epitope tagged gene from its own endogenous promoter in Tetrahymena.

  8. Improved α-Amylase Production by Dephosphorylation Mutation of CreD, an Arrestin-Like Protein Required for Glucose-Induced Endocytosis of Maltose Permease and Carbon Catabolite Derepression in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Mizuki; Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Tada, Hinako; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus oryzae produces copious amount of amylolytic enzymes, and MalP, a major maltose permease, is required for the expression of amylase-encoding genes. The expression of these genes is strongly repressed by carbon catabolite repression (CCR) in the presence of glucose. MalP is transported from the plasma membrane to the vacuole by endocytosis, which requires the homolog of E6-AP carboxyl terminus ubiquitin ligase HulA, an ortholog of yeast Rsp5. In yeast, arrestin-like proteins mediate endocytosis as adaptors of Rsp5 and transporters. In the present study, we examined the involvement of CreD, an arrestin-like protein, in glucose-induced MalP endocytosis and CCR of amylase-encoding genes. Deletion of creD inhibited the glucose-induced endocytosis of MalP, and CreD showed physical interaction with HulA. Phosphorylation of CreD was detected by Western blotting, and two serine residues were determined as the putative phosphorylation sites. However, the phosphorylation state of the serine residues did not regulate MalP endocytosis and its interaction with HulA. Although α-amylase production was significantly repressed by creD deletion, both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mimics of CreD had a negligible effect on α-amylase activity. Interestingly, dephosphorylation of CreD was required for CCR relief of amylase genes that was triggered by disruption of the deubiquitinating enzyme-encoding gene creB The α-amylase activity of the creB mutant was 1.6-fold higher than that of the wild type, and the dephosphorylation mimic of CreD further improved the α-amylase activity by 2.6-fold. These results indicate that a combination of the dephosphorylation mutation of CreD and creB disruption increased the production of amylolytic enzymes in A. oryzae IMPORTANCE In eukaryotes, glucose induces carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and proteolytic degradation of plasma membrane transporters via endocytosis. Glucose-induced endocytosis of transporters is mediated by

  9. A Nestin-cre transgenic mouse is insufficient for recombination in early embryonic neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Liang

    2012-09-01

    Nestin-cre transgenic mice have been widely used to direct recombination to neural stem cells (NSCs and intermediate neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Here we report that a readily utilized, and the only commercially available, Nestin-cre line is insufficient for directing recombination in early embryonic NSCs and NPCs. Analysis of recombination efficiency in multiple cre-dependent reporters and a genetic mosaic line revealed consistent temporal and spatial patterns of recombination in NSCs and NPCs. For comparison we utilized a knock-in Emx1cre line and found robust recombination in NSCs and NPCs in ventricular and subventricular zones of the cerebral cortices as early as embryonic day 12.5. In addition we found that the rate of Nestin-cre driven recombination only reaches sufficiently high levels in NSCs and NPCs during late embryonic and early postnatal periods. These findings are important when commercially available cre lines are considered for directing recombination to embryonic NSCs and NPCs.

  10. Genetic Tracing of Cav3.2 T-Type Calcium Channel Expression in the Peripheral Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal Sierra, Yinth A; Haseleu, Julia; Kozlenkov, Alexey; Bégay, Valérie; Lewin, Gary R

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the distinct functions of the T-type ion channel subunits Cav3.1, 3.2 or 3.3 has proven difficult due to their highly conserved amino-acid sequences and the lack of pharmacological blockers specific for each subunit. To precisely determine the expression pattern of the Cav3.2 channel in the nervous system we generated two knock-in mouse strains that express EGFP or Cre recombinase under the control of the Cav3.2 gene promoter. We show that in the brains of these animals, the Cav3.2 channel is predominantly expressed in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the peripheral nervous system, the activation of the promoter starts at E9.5 in neural crest cells that will give rise to dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, but not sympathetic neurons. As development progresses the number of DRG cells expressing the Cav3.2 channel reaches around 7% of the DRG at E16.5, and remains constant until E18.5. Characterization of sensory neuron subpopulations at E18.5 showed that EGFP+ cells are a heterogeneous population consisting mainly of TrkB+ and TrkC+ cells, while only a small percentage of DRG cells were TrkA+. Genetic tracing of the sensory nerve end-organ innervation of the skin showed that the activity of the Cav3.2 channel promoter in sensory progenitors marks many mechanoreceptor and nociceptor endings, but spares slowly adapting mechanoreceptors with endings associated with Merkel cells. Our genetic analysis reveals for the first time that progenitors that express the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel, defines a sensory specific lineage that populates a large proportion of the DRG. Using our Cav3.2-Cre mice together with AAV viruses containing a conditional fluorescent reporter (tdTomato) we could also show that Cre expression is largely restricted to two functionally distinct sensory neuron types in the adult ganglia. Cav3.2 positive neurons innervating the skin were found to only form lanceolate endings on hair follicles and are probably identical to D

  11. Mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of Leishmania donovani using recombinase polymerase amplification assay

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Dinesh; Ghosh, Prakash; Khan, Md. Anik; Hossain, Faria; Böhlken-Fascher, Susanne; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Leishmania donovani (LD) is a protozoan parasite transmitted to humans from sand flies, which causes Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Currently, the diagnosis is based on presence of the anti-LD antibodies and clinical symptoms. Molecular diagnosis would require real-time PCR, which is not easy to implement at field settings. In this study, we report on the development and testing of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the detection of LD. Methods A genomic DNA sampl...

  12. Fate tracing of mature hepatocytes in mouse liver homeostasis and regeneration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malato, Yann; Naqvi, Syed; Schürmann, Nina; Ng, Raymond; Wang, Bruce; Zape, Joan; Kay, Mark A; Grimm, Dirk; Willenbring, Holger

    2011-01-01

    .... To test these concepts, we generated a hepatocyte fate-tracing model based on timed and specific Cre recombinase expression and marker gene activation in all hepatocytes of adult Rosa26 reporter mice...

  13. Establishment of a novel triple-transgenic mouse: conditionally and liver-specifically expressing hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, H Y; Zhao, Y; Yang, J; Sun, M N; Lei, Y F; Yao, M; Huang, X J; Zhang, J M; Xu, Z K; Lü, X; Yin, W

    2014-11-01

    It is well known that NS3/4A protein plays crucial roles in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. NS3/4A protein also results to virus-mediated immune evasion and persistence of infection through the interaction with host proteins. However, the lack of a suitable animal model hampers studies of HCV NS3/4A protein interaction with host proteins, which impacts immunopathology due to infection. Here, transgenic vector containing transcriptional regulation and Fluc reporter gene was constructed to conditionally express NS3/4A protein under the dual control of Tet-On regulatory system and Cre/LoxP gene-knockout system. NS3/4A transgenic founder mice were continuously crossed with Lap transgenic mice expressing reverse tetracycline-controlled transcriptional activator (rtTA), the NS3/4A/Lap double transgenic mouse lines with liver-specifically and conditionally expressing reporter (luciferase Fluc) under control of Tet-On system were established. The NS3/4A/Lap double transgenic mouse are mated with Lap/LC-1 double transgenic mouse with liver-specifically and conditionally expressing Cre recombinase under control of Tet-On system, NS3/4A/Lap/LC-1 triple transgenic mouse were generated. In vivo bioluminescent imaging, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining (IHS) was used to confirm that NS3/4A protein was strictly expressed in the liver of Doxycycline-induced triple transgenic mice. The results show that we established a triple-transgenic mouse model conditionally expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein under strict control of the Tet-On regulatory system and Cre/loxP system. This novel transgenic mouse model expressing NS3/4A in a temporally and spatially-specific manner will be useful for studying interactions between HCV NS3/4A protein and the host, also for evaluating NS3/4A protease inhibitors.

  14. A 3D Searchable Database of Transgenic Zebrafish Gal4 and Cre Lines for Functional Neuroanatomy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Gregory D; Tabor, Kathryn M; Brown, Mary; Strykowski, Jennifer L; Varshney, Gaurav K; LaFave, Matthew C; Mueller, Thomas; Burgess, Shawn M; Higashijima, Shin-Ichi; Burgess, Harold A

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic methods enable the selective manipulation of neurons for functional mapping of neuronal circuits. Using confocal microscopy, we have imaged the cellular-level expression of 109 transgenic lines in live 6 day post fertilization larvae, including 80 Gal4 enhancer trap lines, 9 Cre enhancer trap lines and 20 transgenic lines that express fluorescent proteins in defined gene-specific patterns. Image stacks were acquired at single micron resolution, together with a broadly expressed neural marker, which we used to align enhancer trap reporter patterns into a common 3-dimensional reference space. To facilitate use of this resource, we have written software that enables searching for transgenic lines that label cells within a selectable 3-dimensional region of interest (ROI) or neuroanatomical area. This software also enables the intersectional expression of transgenes to be predicted, a feature which we validated by detecting cells with co-expression of Cre and Gal4. Many of the imaged enhancer trap lines show intrinsic brain-specific expression. However, to increase the utility of lines that also drive expression in non-neuronal tissue we have designed a novel UAS reporter, that suppresses expression in heart, muscle, and skin through the incorporation of microRNA binding sites in a synthetic 3' untranslated region. Finally, we mapped the site of transgene integration, thus providing molecular identification of the expression pattern for most lines. Cumulatively, this library of enhancer trap lines provides genetic access to 70% of the larval brain and is therefore a powerful and broadly accessible tool for the dissection of neural circuits in larval zebrafish.

  15. Inducible reduction in pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene expression inhibits established atherosclerotic plaque progression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Laurie K; Chakraborty, Suban; Conover, Cheryl A

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a novel zinc metalloproteinase implicated in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether a reduction in PAPP-A expression in the adult affects the progression of established atherosclerotic plaque. Apolipoprotein E-null mice were fed a high-fat diet for 5 weeks to initiate early-stage plaque development before tamoxifen-inducible, Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A gene. High-fat feeding was continued, and after 10 weeks the aorta and brachiocephalic artery were harvested for atherosclerotic plaque analyses of overall burden and morphology, respectively. An inducible decrease in PAPP-A gene expression significantly inhibited atherosclerotic plaque progression as assessed by a 70% reduction in plaque burden in the aorta (P = .012) without an effect on the elevated circulating levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in this model. Furthermore, this reduction in PAPP-A prevented the development of advanced plaque with necrotic cores and buried fibrous caps in the brachiocephalic artery. These data indicate PAPP-A as a potential target to limit progression of established atherosclerotic plaque.

  16. Constitutive expression of microRNA-150 in mammary epithelium suppresses secretory activation and impairs de novo lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Richard E; Rudolph, Michael C; Ramanathan, Palani; Spoelstra, Nicole S; Butterfield, Kiel T; Webb, Patricia G; Babbs, Beatrice L; Gao, Hongwei; Chen, Shang; Gordon, Michael A; Anderson, Steve M; Neville, Margaret C; Gu, Haihua; Richer, Jennifer K

    2016-11-15

    Profiling of RNA from mouse mammary epithelial cells (MECs) isolated on pregnancy day (P)14 and lactation day (L)2 revealed that the majority of differentially expressed microRNA declined precipitously between late pregnancy and lactation. The decline in miR-150, which exhibited the greatest fold-decrease, was verified quantitatively and qualitatively. To test the hypothesis that the decline in miR-150 is crucial for lactation, MEC-specific constitutive miR-150 was achieved by crossing ROSA26-lox-STOP-lox-miR-150 mice with WAP-driven Cre recombinase mice. Both biological and foster pups nursed by bitransgenic dams exhibited a dramatic decrease in survival compared with offspring nursed by littermate control dams. Protein products of predicted miR-150 targets Fasn, Olah, Acaca, and Stat5B were significantly suppressed in MECs of bitransgenic mice with constitutive miR-150 expression as compared with control mice at L2. Lipid profiling revealed a significant reduction in fatty acids synthesized by the de novo pathway in L2 MECs of bitransgenic versus control mice. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that a synchronized decrease in miRNAs, such as miR-150, at late pregnancy serves to allow translation of targets crucial for lactation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. A CRE1- regulated cluster is responsible for light dependent production of dihydrotrichotetronin in Trichoderma reesei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Alonso Monroy

    Full Text Available Changing light conditions, caused by the rotation of earth resulting in day and night or growth on the surface or within a substrate, result in considerably altered physiological processes in fungi. For the biotechnological workhorse Trichoderma reesei, regulation of glycoside hydrolase gene expression, especially cellulase expression was shown to be a target of light dependent gene regulation. Analysis of regulatory targets of the carbon catabolite repressor CRE1 under cellulase inducing conditions revealed a secondary metabolite cluster to be differentially regulated in light and darkness and by photoreceptors. We found that this cluster is involved in production of trichodimerol and that the two polyketide synthases of the cluster are essential for biosynthesis of dihydrotrichotetronine (syn. bislongiquinolide or bisorbibutenolide. Additionally, an indirect influence on production of the peptaibol antibiotic paracelsin was observed. The two polyketide synthetase genes as well as the monooxygenase gene of the cluster were found to be connected at the level of transcription in a positive feedback cycle in darkness, but negative feedback in light, indicating a cellular sensing and response mechanism for the products of these enzymes. The transcription factor TR_102497/YPR2 residing within the cluster regulates the cluster genes in a light dependent manner. Additionally, an interrelationship of this cluster with regulation of cellulase gene expression was detected. Hence the regulatory connection between primary and secondary metabolism appears more widespread than previously assumed, indicating a sophisticated distribution of resources either to degradation of substrate (feed or to antagonism of competitors (fight, which is influenced by light.

  18. GFAP-Cre-mediated transgenic activation of Bmi1 results in pituitary tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart A Westerman

    Full Text Available Bmi1 is a member of the polycomb repressive complex 1 and plays different roles during embryonic development, depending on the developmental context. Bmi1 over expression is observed in many types of cancer, including tumors of astroglial and neural origin. Although genetic depletion of Bmi1 has been described to result in tumor inhibitory effects partly through INK4A/Arf mediated senescence and apoptosis and also through INK4A/Arf independent effects, it has not been proven that Bmi1 can be causally involved in the formation of these tumors. To see whether this is the case, we developed two conditional Bmi1 transgenic models that were crossed with GFAP-Cre mice to activate transgenic expression in neural and glial lineages. We show here that these mice generate intermediate and anterior lobe pituitary tumors that are positive for ACTH and beta-endorphin. Combined transgenic expression of Bmi1 together with conditional loss of Rb resulted in pituitary tumors but was insufficient to induce medulloblastoma therefore indicating that the oncogenic function of Bmi1 depends on regulation of p16(INK4A/Rb rather than on regulation of p19(ARF/p53. Human pituitary adenomas show Bmi1 overexpression in over 50% of the cases, which indicates that Bmi1 could be causally involved in formation of these tumors similarly as in our mouse model.

  19. TGF-ß regulates enamel mineralization and maturation through KLK4 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cho

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß signaling plays an important role in regulating crucial biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Many of these processes are also an integral part of amelogenesis. In order to delineate a precise role of TGF-ß signaling during amelogenesis, we developed a transgenic mouse line that harbors bovine amelogenin promoter-driven Cre recombinase, and bred this line with TGF-ß receptor II floxed mice to generate ameloblast-specific TGF-ß receptor II conditional knockout (cKO mice. Histological analysis of the teeth at postnatal day 7 (P7 showed altered enamel matrix composition in the cKO mice as compared to the floxed mice that had enamel similar to the wild-type mice. The µCT and SEM analyses revealed decreased mineral content in the cKO enamel concomitant with increased attrition and thinner enamel crystallites. Although the mRNA levels remained unaltered, immunostaining revealed increased amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin localization in the cKO enamel at the maturation stage. Interestingly, KLK4 mRNA levels were significantly reduced in the cKO teeth along with a slight increase in MMP-20 levels, suggesting that normal enamel maturation is regulated by TGF-ß signaling through the expression of KLK4. Thus, our study indicates that TGF-ß signaling plays an important role in ameloblast functions and enamel maturation.

  20. Transcriptional profile of the homologous recombination machinery and characterization of the EhRAD51 recombinase in response to DNA damage in Entamoeba histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Camarillo César

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, homologous recombination is an accurate mechanism to generate genetic diversity, and it is also used to repair DNA double strand-breaks. RAD52 epistasis group genes involved in recombinational DNA repair, including mre11, rad50, nsb1/xrs2, rad51, rad51c/rad57, rad51b/rad55, rad51d, xrcc2, xrcc3, rad52, rad54, rad54b/rdh54 and rad59 genes, have been studied in human and yeast cells. Notably, the RAD51 recombinase catalyses strand transfer between a broken DNA and its undamaged homologous strand, to allow damaged region repair. In protozoan parasites, homologous recombination generating antigenic variation and genomic rearrangements is responsible for virulence variation and drug resistance. However, in Entamoeba histolytica the protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis, DNA repair and homologous recombination mechanisms are still unknown. Results In this paper, we initiated the study of the mechanism for DNA repair by homologous recombination in the primitive eukaryote E. histolytica using UV-C (150 J/m2 irradiated trophozoites. DNA double strand-breaks were evidenced in irradiated cells by TUNEL and comet assays and evaluation of the EhH2AX histone phosphorylation status. In E. histolytica genome, we identified genes homologous to yeast and human RAD52 epistasis group genes involved in DNA double strand-breaks repair by homologous recombination. Interestingly, the E. histolytica RAD52 epistasis group related genes were differentially expressed before and after UV-C treatment. Next, we focused on the characterization of the putative recombinase EhRAD51, which conserves the typical architecture of RECA/RAD51 proteins. Specific antibodies immunodetected EhRAD51 protein in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Moreover, after DNA damage, EhRAD51 was located as typical nuclear foci-like structures in E. histolytica trophozoites. Purified recombinant EhRAD51 exhibited DNA binding

  1. ATM is required for SOD2 expression and homeostasis within the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Lisa M; Kepple, Jessica D; Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Stanton, Virginia L; Reinhard, Mary K; Backman, Lindsey R F; Streitfeld, W Scott; Babu, Nivetha Ramesh; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; McKinnon, Peter J; Brown, Kevin D

    2017-12-01

    ATM activates the NF-κB transcriptional complex in response to genotoxic and oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine if the NF-κB target gene and critical antioxidant SOD2 (MnSOD) in cultured mammary epithelium is also ATM-dependent, and what phenotypes arise from deletion of ATM and SOD2 within the mammary gland. SOD2 expression was studied in human mammary epithelial cells and MCF10A using RNAi to knockdown ATM or the NF-κB subunit RelA. To study ATM and SOD2 function in mammary glands, mouse lines containing Atm or Sod2 genes containing LoxP sites were mated with mice harboring Cre recombinase under the control of the whey acidic protein promoter. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression, and mammary gland structure was studied using histology. SOD2 expression is ATM- and RelA-dependent, ATM knockdown renders cells sensitive to pro-oxidant exposure, and SOD mimetics partially rescue this sensitivity. Mice with germline deletion of Atm fail to develop mature mammary glands, but using a conditional knockout approach, we determined that Atm deletion significantly diminished the expression of Sod2. We also observed that these mice (termed AtmΔ/Δ) displayed a progressive lactation defect as judged by reduced pup growth rate, aberrant lobulo-alveolar structure, diminished milk protein gene expression, and increased apoptosis within lactating glands. This phenotype appears to be linked to dysregulated Sod2 expression as mammary gland-specific deletion of Sod2 phenocopies defects observed in AtmΔ/Δ dams. We conclude that ATM is required to promote expression of SOD2 within the mammary epithelium, and that both ATM and SOD2 play a crucial role in mammary gland homeostasis.

  2. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2008 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How CRE works: CRE regulatory authority and organisation: Powers, Organisation; Budget resources; Personnel; B - The Standing Committee for Dispute Settlement and Sanctions (CoRDiS) activity: Admissibility, Authority; C - Building a single European energy market: Overview; Organisation and coordination of the main European regulators (Work carried out collectively by European regulators, Regulator organisation and development, CRE's relations with European Community institutions, Development of CEER activities outside the European Union); CRE's European activities (The contribution of European regulators to the Third Energy Package, Integration of gas markets, Integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, Opening up markets to benefit consumers); European Community activities (The European Commission's proposals for the internal energy market: the Third Energy Package, The European Commission's proposals for fighting climate change: the Climate

  3. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine parvovirus type 2 by recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Liu, Libing; Li, Ruiwen; Wang, Jinfeng; Fu, Qi; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2016-04-01

    A novel recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)-based method for detection of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was developed. Sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of RPA was 10 copies of CPV-2 genomic DNA. RPA amplified both CPV-2a and -2b DNA but did not amplify the template of other important dog viruses (CCoV, PRV or CDV), demonstrating high specificity. The method was further validated with 57 canine fecal samples. An outstanding advantage of RPA is that it is an isothermal reaction and can be performed in a water bath, making RPA a potential alternative method for CPV-2 detection in resource-limited settings.

  4. Resolution of Mismatched Overlap Holliday Junction Intermediates by the Tyrosine Recombinase IntDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwald, Kenneth; Yoneji, Sumiko; Gardner, Jeffrey

    2017-05-15

    CTnDOT is an integrated conjugative element found in Bacteroides species. CTnDOT contains and transfers antibiotic resistance genes. The element integrates into and excises from the host chromosome via a Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate as part of a site-specific recombination mechanism. The CTnDOT integrase, IntDOT, is a tyrosine recombinase with core-binding, catalytic, and amino-terminal (N) domains. Unlike well-studied tyrosine recombinases, such as lambda integrase (Int), IntDOT is able to resolve Holliday junctions containing heterology (mismatched bases) between the sites of strand exchange. All known natural isolates of CTnDOT contain mismatches in the overlap region between the sites of strand exchange. Previous work showed that IntDOT was unable to resolve synthetic Holliday junctions containing mismatched bases to products in the absence of the arm-type sites and a DNA-bending protein. We constructed synthetic HJs with the arm-type sites and tested them with the Bacteroides host factor (BHFa). We found that the addition of BHFa stimulated resolution of HJ intermediates with mismatched overlap regions to products. In addition, the L1 site is required for directionality of the reaction, particularly when the HJ contains mismatches. BHFa is required for product formation when the overlap region contains mismatches, and it stimulates resolution to products when the overlap region is identical. Without this DNA bending, the N domain of IntDOT is likely unable to bind the L1 arm-type site. These findings suggest that BHFa bends DNA into the necessary conformation for the higher-order complexes, including the L1 site, that are required for product formation.IMPORTANCE CTnDOT is a mobile element that carries antibiotic resistance genes and moves by site-selective recombination and subsequent conjugation. The recombination reaction is catalyzed by an integrase IntDOT that is a member of the tyrosine recombinase family. The reaction proceeds through ordered

  5. Inducible knockdown of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene expression in adult female mice extends life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Laurie K; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild-type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP-A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) gene in mice at 5 months of age. fPAPP-A mice, which were either positive (pos) or negative (neg) for Tam-Cre, received Tam treatment with quarterly boosters. Only female mice could be used with this experimental design. fPAPP-A/neg and fPAPP-A/pos mice had similar weights at the start of the experiment and showed equivalent weight gain. We found that fPAPP-A/pos mice had a significant extension of life span (P = 0.005). The median life span was increased by 21% for fPAPP-A/pos compared to fPAPP-A/neg mice. Analysis of mortality in life span quartiles indicated that the proportion of deaths of fPAPP-A/pos mice were lower than fPAPP-A/neg mice at young adult ages (P = 0.002 for 601-800 days) and higher than fPAPP-A/neg mice at older ages (P = 0.004 for >1000 days). Thus, survival curves and age-specific mortality indicate that female mice with knockdown of PAPP-A gene expression as adults have an extended healthy life span. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cyclic AMP induces IPC leukemia cell apoptosis via CRE-and CDK-dependent Bim transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseby, S; Gausdal, G; Keen, T J; Kjærland, E; Krakstad, C; Myhren, L; Brønstad, K; Kunick, C; Schwede, F; Genieser, H-G; Kleppe, R; Døskeland, S O

    2011-12-08

    The IPC-81 cell line is derived from the transplantable BNML model of acute myelogenic leukemia (AML), known to be a reliable predictor of the clinical efficiency of antileukemic agents, like the first-line AML anthracycline drug daunorubicin (DNR). We show here that cAMP acted synergistically with DNR to induce IPC cell death. The DNR-induced death differed from that induced by cAMP by (1) not involving Bim induction, (2) being abrogated by GSK3β inhibitors, (3) by being promoted by the HSP90/p23 antagonist geldanamycin and truncated p23 and (4) by being insensitive to the CRE binding protein (CREB) antagonist ICER and to cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) inhibitors. In contrast, the apoptosis induced by cAMP correlated tightly with Bim protein expression. It was abrogated by Bim (BCL2L11) downregulation, whether achieved by the CREB antagonist ICER, by CDK inhibitors, by Bim-directed RNAi, or by protein synthesis inhibitor. The forced expression of BimL killed IPC-81(WT) cells rapidly, Bcl2-overexpressing cells being partially resistant. The pivotal role of CREB and CDK activity for Bim transcription is unprecedented. It is also noteworthy that newly developed cAMP analogs specifically activating PKA isozyme I (PKA-I) were able to induce IPC cell apoptosis. Our findings support the notion that AML cells may possess targetable death pathways not exploited by common anti-cancer agents.

  7. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1 transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Six-weekold female p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ andcompoundFat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice were fed (AIN-76A diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P 85%; P < .05–0.01 in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice compared to p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

  8. Novel migrating mouse neural crest cell assay system utilizing P0-Cre/EGFP fluorescent time-lapse imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami Minoru

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural crest cells (NCCs are embryonic, multipotent stem cells. Their long-range and precision-guided migration is one of their most striking characteristics. We previously reported that P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-lacZ double-transgenic mice showed significant lacZ expression in tissues derived from NCCs. Results In this study, by embedding a P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryo at E9.5 in collagen gel inside a culture glass slide, we were able to keep the embryo developing ex vivo for more than 24 hours; this development was with enough NCC fluorescent signal intensity to enable single-cell resolution analysis, with the accompanying NCC migration potential intact and with the appropriate NCC response to the extracellular signal maintained. By implantation of beads with absorbed platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA, we demonstrated that PDGF-AA acts as an NCC-attractant in embryos. We also performed assays with NCCs isolated from P0-Cre/CAG-CAT-EGFP embryos on culture plates. The neuromediator 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT has been known to regulate NCC migration. We newly demonstrated that dopamine, in addition to 5-HT, stimulated NCC migration in vitro. Two NCC populations, with different axial levels of origins, showed unique distribution patterns regarding migration velocity and different dose-response patterns to both 5-HT and dopamine. Conclusions Although avian species predominated over the other species in the NCC study, our novel system should enable us to use mice to assay many different aspects of NCCs in embryos or on culture plates, such as migration, division, differentiation, and apoptosis.

  9. Bayesian multiple-instance motif discovery with BAMBI: inference of recombinase and transcription factor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajamovich, Guido H; Wang, Xiaodong; Arkin, Adam P; Samoilov, Michael S

    2011-11-01

    Finding conserved motifs in genomic sequences represents one of essential bioinformatic problems. However, achieving high discovery performance without imposing substantial auxiliary constraints on possible motif features remains a key algorithmic challenge. This work describes BAMBI-a sequential Monte Carlo motif-identification algorithm, which is based on a position weight matrix model that does not require additional constraints and is able to estimate such motif properties as length, logo, number of instances and their locations solely on the basis of primary nucleotide sequence data. Furthermore, should biologically meaningful information about motif attributes be available, BAMBI takes advantage of this knowledge to further refine the discovery results. In practical applications, we show that the proposed approach can be used to find sites of such diverse DNA-binding molecules as the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and Din-family site-specific serine recombinases. Results obtained by BAMBI in these and other settings demonstrate better statistical performance than any of the four widely-used profile-based motif discovery methods: MEME, BioProspector with BioOptimizer, SeSiMCMC and Motif Sampler as measured by the nucleotide-level correlation coefficient. Additionally, in the case of Din-family recombinase target site discovery, the BAMBI-inferred motif is found to be the only one functionally accurate from the underlying biochemical mechanism standpoint. C++ and Matlab code is available at http://www.ee.columbia.edu/~guido/BAMBI or http://genomics.lbl.gov/BAMBI/.

  10. Remodeling and Control of Homologous Recombination by DNA Helicases and Translocases that Target Recombinases and Synapsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Northall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recombinase enzymes catalyse invasion of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA into homologous duplex DNA forming “Displacement loops” (D-loops, a process called synapsis. This triggers homologous recombination (HR, which can follow several possible paths to underpin DNA repair and restart of blocked and collapsed DNA replication forks. Therefore, synapsis can be a checkpoint for controlling whether or not, how far, and by which pathway, HR proceeds to overcome an obstacle or break in a replication fork. Synapsis can be antagonized by limiting access of a recombinase to ssDNA and by dissociation of D-loops or heteroduplex formed by synapsis. Antagonists include DNA helicases and translocases that are identifiable in eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and which target synaptic and pre-synaptic DNA structures thereby controlling HR at early stages. Here we survey these events with emphasis on enabling DNA replication to be resumed from sites of blockage or collapse. We also note how knowledge of anti-recombination activities could be useful to improve efficiency of CRISPR-based genome editing.

  11. The BCL11A transcription factor directly activates RAG gene expression and V(D)J recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Baeck-seung; Dekker, Joseph D; Lee, Bum-kyu; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Sleckman, Barry P; Shaffer, Arthur L; Ippolito, Gregory C; Tucker, Philip W

    2013-05-01

    Recombination-activating gene 1 protein (RAG1) and RAG2 are critical enzymes for initiating variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) segment recombination, an essential process for antigen receptor expression and lymphocyte development. The transcription factor BCL11A is required for B cell development, but its molecular function(s) in B cell fate specification and commitment is unknown. We show here that the major B cell isoform, BCL11A-XL, binds the RAG1 promoter and Erag enhancer to activate RAG1 and RAG2 transcription in pre-B cells. We employed BCL11A overexpression with recombination substrates in a cultured pre-B cell line as well as Cre recombinase-mediated Bcl11a(lox/lox) deletion in explanted murine pre-B cells to demonstrate direct consequences of BCL11A/RAG modulation on V(D)J recombination. We conclude that BCL11A is a critical component of a transcriptional network that regulates B cell fate by controlling V(D)J recombination.

  12. Overlapping CRE and E-box promoter elements can independently regulate COX-2 gene transcription in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, J R; Rivadeneira, D E; Mackrell, P J; Duff, M; Stapleton, P P; Mack-Strong, V; Maddali, S; Smyth, G P; Tanabe, T; Daly, J M

    2001-05-11

    Macrophage cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) transcription is mediated through the collaboration of different promoter elements. Here, the role of an overlapping cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE)/E-box was investigated. Nuclear proteins bound both the CRE and E-box, which synergized with other promoter elements to induce COX-2 transcription. Endotoxin induced binding of nuclear proteins to the CRE and E-box and each element independently induced higher COX-2 transcription levels than the overlapping CRE/E-box. Transcription factors associated with the CRE binding complex included c-Jun and CRE binding protein and with the E-box binding complex USF-1; their overexpression significantly induced COX-2 transcription. Therefore, both CRE and E-box promoter elements regulate COX-2 transcription in macrophages.

  13. Structural and functional characterization of the coxsackievirus B3 CRE(2C): role of CRE(2C) in negative- and positive-strand RNA synthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooij, M.J. van; Vogt, D.A.; Paul, A.; Castro, C.; Kuijpers, J.M.; Kuppeveld, F.J.M. van; Cameron, C.E.; Wimmer, E.; Andino, R.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    A stem-loop element located within the 2C-coding region of the coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) genome has been proposed to function as a cis-acting replication element (CRE). It is shown here that disruption of this structure indeed interfered with viral RNA replication in vivo and abolished uridylylation

  14. ADAM17 deletion in thymic epithelial cells alters aire expression without affecting T cell developmental progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Gravano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular interactions between thymocytes and thymic stromal cells are critical for normal T cell development. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs are important stromal niche cells that provide essential growth factors, cytokines, and present self-antigens to developing thymocytes. The identification of genes that mediate cellular crosstalk in the thymus is ongoing. One candidate gene, Adam17, encodes a metalloprotease that functions by cleaving the ectodomain of several transmembrane proteins and regulates various developmental processes. In conventional Adam17 knockout mice, a non-cell autonomous role for ADAM17 in adult T cell development was reported, which strongly suggested that expression of ADAM17 in TECs was required for normal T cell development. However, knockdown of Adam17 results in multisystem developmental defects and perinatal lethality, which has made study of the role of Adam17 in specific cell types difficult. Here, we examined T cell and thymic epithelial cell development using a conditional knockout approach.We generated an Adam17 conditional knockout mouse in which floxed Adam17 is deleted specifically in TECs by Cre recombinase under the control of the Foxn1 promoter. Normal T cell lineage choice and development through the canonical αβ T cell stages was observed. Interestingly, Adam17 deficiency in TECs resulted in reduced expression of the transcription factor Aire. However, no alterations in the patterns of TEC phenotypic marker expression and thymus morphology were noted.In contrast to expectation, our data clearly shows that absence of Adam17 in TECs is dispensable for normal T cell development. Differentiation of TECs is also unaffected by loss of Adam17 based on phenotypic markers. Surprisingly, we have uncovered a novel genetic link between Adam17and Aire expression in vivo. The cell type in which ADAM17 mediates its non-cell autonomous impact and the mechanisms by which it regulates intrathymic T cell development

  15. A 3D searchable database of transgenic zebrafish Gal4 and Cre lines for functional neuroanatomy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Marquart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic methods enable the selective manipulation of neurons for functional mapping of neuronal circuits. Using confocal microscopy, we have imaged the cellular-level expression of 109 transgenic lines in live 6 day post fertilization larvae, including 80 Gal4 enhancer trap lines, 9 Cre enhancer trap lines and 20 transgenic lines that express fluorescent proteins in defined gene-specific patterns. Image stacks were acquired at single micron resolution, together with a broadly expressed neural marker, which we used to align enhancer trap reporter patterns into a common 3-dimensional reference space. To facilitate use of this resource, we have written software that enables searching for transgenic lines that label cells within a selectable 3-dimensional region of interest or neuroanatomical area. Many of the imaged enhancer trap lines show intrinsic brain-specific expression. However, to increase the utility of lines that also drive expression in non-neuronal tissue we have designed a novel UAS reporter, that suppresses expression in heart, muscle and skin through the incorporation of microRNA binding sites in a synthetic 3' untranslated region. Finally, we mapped the site of transgene integration, thus providing molecular identification of the expression pattern for most lines. Cumulatively, this library of enhancer trap lines provides genetic access to 70 % of the larval brain and is therefore a powerful and broadly accessible tool for the dissection of neural circuits in larval zebrafish.

  16. Localization of recombination proteins and Srs2 reveals anti-recombinase function in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Lisby, Michael; Altmannova, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR), although an important DNA repair mechanism, is dangerous to the cell if improperly regulated. The Srs2 "anti-recombinase" restricts HR by disassembling the Rad51 nucleoprotein filament, an intermediate preceding the exchange of homologous DNA strands. Here, we...... cytologically characterize Srs2 function in vivo and describe a novel mechanism for regulating the initiation of HR. We find that Srs2 is recruited separately to replication and repair centers and identify the genetic requirements for recruitment. In the absence of Srs2 activity, Rad51 foci accumulate......, and surprisingly, can form in the absence of Rad52 mediation. However, these Rad51 foci do not represent repair-proficient filaments, as determined by recombination assays. Antagonistic roles for Rad52 and Srs2 in Rad51 filament formation are also observed in vitro. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Srs2...

  17. DNA Recombinase Proteins, their Function and Structure in the Active Form, a Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, Claudio; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a crucial sequence of reactions in all cells for the repair of double strand DNA (dsDNA) breaks. While it was traditionally considered as a means for generating genetic diversity, it is now known to be essential for restart of collapsed replication forks that have met a lesion on the DNA template (Cox et al., 2000). The central stage of this process requires the presence of the DNA recombinase protein, RecA in bacteria, RadA in archaea, or Rad51 in eukaryotes, which leads to an ATP-mediated DNA strand-exchange process. Despite many years of intense study, some aspects of the biochemical mechanism, and structure of the active form of recombinase proteins are not well understood. Our theoretical study is an attempt to shed light on the main structural and mechanistic issues encountered on the RecA of the e-coli, the RecA of the extremely radio resistant Deinococcus Radiodurans (promoting an inverse DNA strand-exchange repair), and the homolog human Rad51. The conformational changes are analyzed for the naked enzymes, and when they are linked to ATP and ADP. The average structures are determined over 2ns time scale of Langevian dynamics using a collision frequency of 1.0 ps(sup -1). The systems are inserted in an octahedron periodic box with a 10 Angstrom buffer of water molecules explicitly described by the TIP3P model. The corresponding binding free energies are calculated in an implicit solvent using the Poisson-Boltzmann solvent accessible surface area, MM-PBSA model. The role of the ATP is not only in stabilizing the interaction RecA-DNA, but its hydrolysis is required to allow the DNA strand-exchange to proceed. Furthermore, we extended our study, using the hybrid QM/MM method, on the mechanism of this chemical process. All the calculations were performed using the commercial code Amber 9.

  18. Temporal lineage tracing of Aire-expressing cells reveals a requirement for Aire in their maturation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nishijima, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Minoru; Morimoto, Junko; Hirota, Fumiko; Takahashi, Satoru; Luche, Hervé; Fehling, Hans Joerg; Mouri, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Mitsuru

    2014-03-15

    Understanding the cellular dynamics of Aire-expressing lineage(s) among medullary thymic epithelial cells (AEL-mTECs) is essential for gaining insight into the roles of Aire in establishment of self-tolerance. In this study, we monitored the maturation program of AEL-mTECs by temporal lineage tracing, in which bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under control of the Aire regulatory element were crossed with reporter strains. We estimated that the half-life of AEL-mTECs subsequent to Aire expression was ∼7-8 d, which was much longer than that reported previously, owing to the existence of a post-Aire stage. We found that loss of Aire did not alter the overall lifespan of AEL-mTECs, inconsistent with the previous notion that Aire expression in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) might result in their apoptosis for efficient cross-presentation of self-antigens expressed by AEL-mTECs. In contrast, Aire was required for the full maturation program of AEL-mTECs, as exemplified by the lack of physiological downregulation of CD80 during the post-Aire stage in Aire-deficient mice, thus accounting for the abnormally increased CD80(high) mTECs seen in such mice. Of interest, increased CD80(high) mTECs in Aire-deficient mice were not mTEC autonomous and were dependent on cross-talk with thymocytes. These results further support the roles of Aire in the differentiation program of AEL-mTECs.

  19. Deletion of creB in Aspergillus oryzae increases secreted hydrolytic enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A J; Morris, T A; Jin, B; Saint, C P; Kelly, J M

    2013-09-01

    Aspergillus oryzae has been used in the food and beverage industry for centuries, and industrial strains have been produced by multiple rounds of selection. Targeted gene deletion technology is particularly useful for strain improvement in such strains, particularly when they do not have a well-characterized meiotic cycle. Phenotypes of an Aspergillus nidulans strain null for the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme include effects on growth and repression, including increased activity levels of various enzymes. We show that Aspergillus oryzae contains a functional homologue of the CreB deubiquitinating enzyme and that a null strain shows increased activity levels of industrially important secreted enzymes, including cellulases, xylanases, amylases, and proteases, as well as alleviated inhibition of spore germination on glucose medium. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that the increased levels of enzyme activity in both Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus oryzae are mirrored at the transcript level, indicating transcriptional regulation. We report that Aspergillus oryzae DAR3699, originally isolated from soy fermentation, has a similar phenotype to that of a creB deletion mutant of the RIB40 strain, and it contains a mutation in the creB gene. Collectively, the results for Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma reesei, and Penicillium decumbens show that deletion of creB may be broadly useful in diverse fungi for increasing production of a variety of enzymes.

  20. Lineage tracing of Pf4-Cre marks hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaminus, Simon D J; Guitart, Amelie V; Guitart, Amelie; Sinclair, Amy; Schachtner, Hannah; Watson, Steve P; Holyoake, Tessa L; Kranc, Kamil R; Machesky, Laura M

    2012-01-01

    The development of a megakaryocyte lineage specific Cre deleter, using the Pf4 (CXCL4) promoter (Pf4-Cre), was a significant step forward in the specific analysis of platelet and megakaryocyte cell biology. However, in the present study we have employed a sensitive reporter-based approach to demonstrate that Pf4-Cre also recombines in a significant proportion of both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), including the most primitive fraction containing the long-term repopulating HSCs. Consequently, we demonstrate that Pf4-Cre activity is not megakaryocyte lineage-specific but extends to other myeloid and lymphoid lineages at significant levels between 15-60%. Finally, we show for the first time that Pf4 transcripts are present in adult HSCs and primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. These results have fundamental implications for the use of the Pf4-Cre mouse model and for our understanding of a possible role for Pf4 in the development of the hematopoietic lineage.

  1. Lineage tracing of Pf4-Cre marks hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D J Calaminus

    Full Text Available The development of a megakaryocyte lineage specific Cre deleter, using the Pf4 (CXCL4 promoter (Pf4-Cre, was a significant step forward in the specific analysis of platelet and megakaryocyte cell biology. However, in the present study we have employed a sensitive reporter-based approach to demonstrate that Pf4-Cre also recombines in a significant proportion of both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, including the most primitive fraction containing the long-term repopulating HSCs. Consequently, we demonstrate that Pf4-Cre activity is not megakaryocyte lineage-specific but extends to other myeloid and lymphoid lineages at significant levels between 15-60%. Finally, we show for the first time that Pf4 transcripts are present in adult HSCs and primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. These results have fundamental implications for the use of the Pf4-Cre mouse model and for our understanding of a possible role for Pf4 in the development of the hematopoietic lineage.

  2. Nationwide Surveillance of Clinical Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE Strains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE - mediated hospital infections in China prompted a need to investigate the genetic basis of emergence of such strains. A nationwide survey was conducted in China covering a total of 1105 CRE strains collected from 25 geographical locales with results showing that acquisition of two carbapenemase genes, blaKPC-2 and blaNDM, was responsible for phenotypic resistance in 90% of the CRE strains tested (58% and 32% respectively, among which several major strain types, such as ST11 of K. pneumoniae and ST131/ST167 of E. coli, were identified, suggesting that dissemination of specific resistant clones is mainly responsible for emergence of new CRE strains. Prevalence of the fosA3 gene which mediates fosfomycin resistance, was high, while the colistin resistance determinant mcr-1 was rarely present in these isolates. Consistently, the majority of the blaNDM-bearing plasmids recoverable from the test strains belonged to IncX3, which contained a common core structure, blaNDM-blaMBL-trpF. Likewise, the core structure of ISKpn27-blaKPC-2-ISKpn2 was observed among plasmids harboring the blaKPC-2 gene, although they were genetically more divergent. In conclusion, the increasing prevalence of CRE strains in China is attributed to dissemination of conservative mobile elements carrying blaNDM or blaKPC-2 on conjugative and non-conjugative plasmids.

  3. Proglucagon Promoter Cre-Mediated AMPK Deletion in Mice Increases Circulating GLP-1 Levels and Oral Glucose Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie R Sayers

    Full Text Available Enteroendocrine L-cells synthesise and release the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 in response to food transit. Deletion of the tumour suppressor kinase LKB1 from proglucagon-expressing cells leads to the generation of intestinal polyps but no change in circulating GLP-1 levels. Here, we explore the role of the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in these cells.Loss of AMPK from proglucagon-expressing cells was achieved using a preproglucagon promoter-driven Cre (iGluCre to catalyse recombination of floxed alleles of AMPKα1 and α2. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance were measured using standard protocols. L-cell mass was measured by immunocytochemistry. Hormone and peptide levels were measured by electrochemical-based luminescence detection or radioimmunoassay.Recombination with iGluCre led to efficient deletion of AMPK from intestinal L- and pancreatic alpha-cells. In contrast to mice rendered null for LKB1 using the same strategy, mice deleted for AMPK displayed an increase (WT: 0.05 ± 0.01, KO: 0.09±0.02%, p<0.01 in L-cell mass and elevated plasma fasting (WT: 5.62 ± 0.800 pg/ml, KO: 14.5 ± 1.870, p<0.01 and fed (WT: 15.7 ± 1.48pg/ml, KO: 22.0 ± 6.62, p<0.01 GLP-1 levels. Oral, but not intraperitoneal, glucose tolerance was significantly improved by AMPK deletion, whilst insulin and glucagon levels were unchanged despite an increase in alpha to beta cell ratio (WT: 0.23 ± 0.02, KO: 0.33 ± 0.03, p<0.01.AMPK restricts L-cell growth and GLP-1 secretion to suppress glucose tolerance. Targeted inhibition of AMPK in L-cells may thus provide a new therapeutic strategy in some forms of type 2 diabetes.

  4. Mechanosensory and ATP Release Deficits following Keratin14-Cre-Mediated TRPA1 Deletion Despite Absence of TRPA1 in Murine Keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J Zappia

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes are the first cells that come into direct contact with external tactile stimuli; however, their role in touch transduction in vivo is not clear. The ion channel Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 is essential for some mechanically-gated currents in sensory neurons, amplifies mechanical responses after inflammation, and has been reported to be expressed in human and mouse skin. Other reports have not detected Trpa1 mRNA transcripts in human or mouse epidermis. Therefore, we set out to determine whether selective deletion of Trpa1 from keratinocytes would impact mechanosensation. We generated K14Cre-Trpa1fl/fl mice lacking TRPA1 in K14-expressing cells, including keratinocytes. Surprisingly, Trpa1 transcripts were very poorly detected in epidermis of these mice or in controls, and detection was minimal enough to preclude observation of Trpa1 mRNA knockdown in the K14Cre-Trpa1fl/fl mice. Unexpectedly, these K14Cre-Trpa1fl/fl mice nonetheless exhibited a pronounced deficit in mechanosensitivity at the behavioral and primary afferent levels, and decreased mechanically-evoked ATP release from skin. Overall, while these data suggest that the intended targeted deletion of Trpa1 from keratin 14-expressing cells of the epidermis induces functional deficits in mechanotransduction and ATP release, these deficits are in fact likely due to factors other than reduction of Trpa1 expression in adult mouse keratinocytes because they express very little, if any, Trpa1.

  5. Cyclic strain causes heterogeneous induction of transcription factors, AP-1, CRE binding protein and NF-kB, in endothelial cells: species and vascular bed diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Mills, I; Sumpio, B E

    1995-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that cyclic strain stimulates protein kinase C in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) as well as the induction of immediate early genes and the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The objective of this study was to determine whether transcriptional factor induction in endothelial cells (EC) exposed to strain is the same with regard to the species and vascular bed they are derived from. Evidence for a heterogeneous response for growth, orientation and prostacyclin secretion has been obtained for a variety of EC exposed to cyclic strain. In this study, we investigated cyclic strain mediated induction of transcription factors, AP-1, cAMP response element binding protein (CRE) and nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) in cultured EC from HUVEC, human aorta (HAEC), and BAEC. EC were exposed to 10% average strain at 60 cpm for up to 24 h. At varying time points, nuclear protein was extracted and analyzed for production of AP-1, CRE and NF-kB by electromobility shift assay. The results demonstrate that EC exposure to cyclic strain leads to a significant induction of AP-1, CRE and NF-kB in HAEC and HUVEC, but not in BAEC. Furthermore, these findings are in marked contrast to the previously described shear stress induced activation of AP-1 and NF-kB in BAEC. There was also a temporal difference in their response such that stretch-induced activation of AP-1 and NF-kB peaked at 4 h, whereas CRE increased in a biphasic manner at 15 min and 24 h. These results may partially explain the divergent effects of cyclic strain on EC gene expression and phenotype in EC from different vascular beds and species and underscore the difference in EC response to cyclic strain and shear stress.

  6. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2005; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2005 activity report of CRE. Content: A - The opening of the markets in France and in Europe: The opening of the markets one year after 1 July 2004 (An especially important step, Electricity and gas: a common framework with structural differences, The coexistence of market prices and regulated tariffs); The European texts of 26 June 2003 (Texts to give new impetus, Texts to harmonize the role and powers of national regulators, Texts to guarantee the independence of system operators, Texts to ensure transparent and non-discriminatory access to networks, Texts providing for strengthening of interconnections); The outlook for 2007, a fully open market (1 July 2007: a date set by the directives, Priority given to informing and protecting consumers); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Europe's dependency on imports is increasing, Gas prices increased considerably across the whole of Europe in 2004, The European gas scene continues to be dominated by a small number of players, Gas infrastructures need to be developed in Europe, The new

  7. BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES OF CreD OF Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tausif Chaudhry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available CreD characterized as Mg2+-dependent phosphohydrolase with conserved HD domain was involved in 4-cresol metabolism in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Native molecular mass of 54 kDa suggested that the biological unit is a dimer. No deoxynucleotide triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase activity was detected for CreD. The apparent Km and Vmax values for 4-nitrophenyl phosphate were 0.35 mM and 16.23 M min-1 mg-1, respectively, while calculated values for kcat and kcat/Km were 0.4 s-1 and 1.14103 M-1 s-1, respectively. Among thiol group inhibitors, iodoacetic acid significantly inhibited phosphohydrolase activity. Sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis suggested universal existence of CreD homologues. Involvement of HD-domain hydrolase in aromatic degradation has not been reported before.

  8. The Peutz-Jeghers kinase LKB1 suppresses polyp growth from intestinal cells of a proglucagon-expressing lineage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagen Zac-Varghese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Liver kinase B1 (LKB1; also known as STK11 is a serine/threonine kinase and tumour suppressor that is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS, a premalignant syndrome associated with the development of gastrointestinal polyps. Proglucagon-expressing enteroendocrine cells are involved in the control of glucose homeostasis and the regulation of appetite through the secretion of gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY. To determine the role of LKB1 in these cells, we bred mice bearing floxed alleles of Lkb1 against animals carrying Cre recombinase under proglucagon promoter control. These mice (GluLKB1KO were viable and displayed near-normal growth rates and glucose homeostasis. However, they developed large polyps at the gastro-duodenal junction, and displayed premature mortality (death from 120 days of age. Histological analysis of the polyps demonstrated that they had a PJS-like appearance with an arborising smooth-muscle core. Circulating GLP-1 levels were normal in GluLKB1KO mice and the polyps expressed low levels of the peptide, similar to levels in the neighbouring duodenum. Lineage tracing using a Rosa26tdRFP transgene revealed, unexpectedly, that enterocytes within the polyps were derived from non-proglucagon-expressing precursors, whereas connective tissue was largely derived from proglucagon-expressing precursors. Developmental studies in wild-type mice suggested that a subpopulation of proglucagon-expressing cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT to become smooth-muscle-like cells. Thus, it is likely that polyps in the GluLKB1KO mice developed from a unique population of smooth-muscle-like cells derived from a proglucagon-expressing precursor. The loss of LKB1 within this subpopulation seems to be sufficient to drive tumorigenesis.

  9. Efficient Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange in hPSCs to Study the Hepatocyte Lineage Reveals AAVS1 Locus-Mediated Transgene Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ordovás

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tools for rapid and efficient transgenesis in “safe harbor” loci in an isogenic context remain important to exploit the possibilities of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. We created hPSC master cell lines suitable for FLPe recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE in the AAVS1 locus that allow generation of transgenic lines within 15 days with 100% efficiency and without random integrations. Using RMCE, we successfully incorporated several transgenes useful for lineage identification, cell toxicity studies, and gene overexpression to study the hepatocyte lineage. However, we observed unexpected and variable transgene expression inhibition in vitro, due to DNA methylation and other unknown mechanisms, both in undifferentiated hESC and differentiating hepatocytes. Therefore, the AAVS1 locus cannot be considered a universally safe harbor locus for reliable transgene expression in vitro, and using it for transgenesis in hPSC will require careful assessment of the function of individual transgenes.

  10. Preselection of recombinant gene integration sites enabling high transcription rates in CHO cells using alternate start codons and recombinase mediated cassette exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Martina; Gludovacz, Elisabeth; Sealover, Natalie; Bahr, Scott; George, Henry; Lin, Nan; Kayser, Kevin; Borth, Nicole

    2017-11-01

    Site-specific recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) enables the transfer of the gene of interest (GOI) into pre-selected genomic locations with defined expression properties. For the generation of recombinant production cell lines, this has the advantage that screening for high transcription rates at the genome integration site would be required only once, with the possibility to reuse the selected site for new products. Here, we describe a strategy that aims at the selection of transcriptionally active genome integration sites in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells by using alternate start codons in the surface reporter protein CD4, in combination with FACS sorting for high expressers. The alternate start codon reduces the translation initiation efficiency and allows sorting for CHO cells with the highest transcription rates, while RMCE enables the subsequent exchange of the CD4 against the GOI. We have shown that sorted cell pools with the CD4 reporter gene containing the alternate start codon CTG lead to higher GFP signals and higher antibody titers upon RMCE as compared to cell pools containing the ATG start codon of the CD4 reporter. Despite the absence of any subcloning step, the final cell pool contained the CD4 gene in a single genome integration site. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Development and deployment of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification Ebola virus detection assay in Guinea in 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Soropogui, B.; Patel, Pranav; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Loucoubar, C.; Fall, G.; Kiory, D.; Magassouba, N.; Keita, S.; Kondé, M. K.; Diallo, A.; Koivogui, L.; Karlberg, H.; Mirazimi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a vaccine or specific treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), early identification of cases is crucial for the control of EVD epidemics. We evaluated a new extraction kit (SpeedXtract (SE), Qiagen) on sera and swabs in combination with an improved diagnostic reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of Ebola virus (EBOV-RT-RPA). The performance of combined extraction and detection was best for swabs. Sensitivity and specificity of t...

  12. Redundancy in Kiss1 Expression Safeguards Reproduction in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Simina M.; Moriyama, Ryutaro M.; Caligioni, Claudia S.; Yang, Jasmine J.; Cho, Caroline M.; Concepcion, Tessa L.; Oakley, Amy E.; Lee, In Hae; Sanz, Elisenda; Amieux, Paul S.; Caraty, Alain; Palmiter, Richard D.; Navarro, Victor M.; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B.; Clifton, Donald K.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) signaling to GnRH neurons is widely acknowledged to be a prerequisite for puberty and reproduction. Animals lacking functional genes for either kisspeptin or its receptor exhibit low gonadotropin secretion and infertility. Paradoxically, a recent study reported that genetic ablation of nearly all Kiss1-expressing neurons (Kiss1 neurons) does not impair reproduction, arguing that neither Kiss1 neurons nor their products are essential for sexual maturation. We posited that only minute quantities of kisspeptin are sufficient to support reproduction. If this were the case, animals having dramatically reduced Kiss1 expression might retain fertility, testifying to the redundancy of Kiss1 neurons and their products. To test this hypothesis and to determine whether males and females differ in the required amount of kisspeptin needed for reproduction, we used a mouse (Kiss1-CreGFP) that has a severe reduction in Kiss1 expression. Mice that are heterozygous and homozygous for this allele (Kiss1Cre/+ and Kiss1Cre/Cre) have ∼50% and 95% reductions in Kiss1 transcript, respectively. We found that although male Kiss1Cre/Cre mice sire normal-sized litters, female Kiss1Cre/Cre mice exhibit significantly impaired fertility and ovulation. These observations suggest that males require only 5% of normal Kiss1 expression to be reproductively competent, whereas females require higher levels for reproductive success. PMID:23736293

  13. Application of GFAT as a novel selection marker to mediate gene expression.

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    Guogan Wu

    Full Text Available The enzyme glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT, also known as glucosamine synthase (GlmS, catalyzes the formation of glucosamine-6-phosphate from fructose-6-phosphate and is the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. For the first time, the GFAT gene was proven to possess a function as an effective selection marker for genetically modified (GM microorganisms. This was shown by construction and analysis of two GFAT deficient strains, E. coli ΔglmS and S. pombe Δgfa1, and the ability of the GFAT encoding gene to mediate plasmid selection. The gfa1 gene of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was deleted by KanMX6-mediated gene disruption and the Cre-loxP marker removal system, and the glmS gene of Escherichia coli was deleted by using λ-Red mediated recombinase system. Both E. coli ΔglmS and S. pombe Δgfa1 could not grow normally in the media without addition of glucosamine. However, the deficiency was complemented by transforming the plasmids that expressed GFAT genes. The xylanase encoding gene, xynA2 from Thermomyces lanuginosus was successfully expressed and secreted by using GFAT as selection marker in S. pombe. Optimal glucosamine concentration for E. coli ΔglmS and S. pombe Δgfa1 growth was determined respectively. These findings provide an effective technique for the construction of GM bacteria without an antibiotic resistant marker, and the construction of GM yeasts to be applied to complex media.

  14. CRE communication on the work of the GTE 2007 and GTG 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The work conducted in the first half of 2006 by the Electricity Working Group (GTE) and Gas Working Group (GTG) consultation bodies set up by the Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE), has specified the practical conditions for market operation defined in CRE communication of 10 January 2006. The CRE decision of 26 May 2005, has led to the creation of a consumer committee within the GTE and GTG allowing the expectations of gas and electricity consumers to be given greater consideration. During the first half of 2006, this consumer committee defined consumers needs in terms of information and protection, and set recommendations, whose application is one of the priorities over the coming months. The consumer committee has become a plenary committee for gas and electricity consumers, with the same stature as the GTE and GTG plenary committees. Following a round table with the players on 14 September 2006, CRE presents the decisions made and guidelines adopted for the coming months in this communication. (author)

  15. The FEM simulation of continuous rotary extrusion (CRE) of aluminum alloy AA3003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Nijenthan; Valberg, Henry; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.

    2017-10-01

    Continuous Rotary Extrusion (CRE) process is also known in literature under Conform TM name and it is mainly used for the continuous extrusion of Aluminum and Copper alloys. CRE use a feedstock in the form of rod, powders and chips, which are fed into the groove of the rotating wheel. As the wheel rotates the feedstock moves along with it due to friction with the wheel. Once the feedstock reaches the abutment the material deforms plastically and it is extruded through the die. CRE has lot to offer when compared to other more conventional extrusion processes such as low energy input, no limit in billet length as it is a continuous process as well as improved material physical properties due to plastic deformation under constant parameters. In this work a FEM model has been developed using Deform TM 3D, to study the metal flow and state variables of AA3003 CRE extrusion. The effect of extrusion wheel velocity has been investigated. The results show that increase in wheel velocity will heat up the feedstock metal due to high shear deformation and higher friction, which significantly changes metal flow conditions at the die exit.

  16. Sox9- and Scleraxis-Cre Lineage Fate Mapping in Aortic and Mitral Valve Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair F. Austin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heart valves are complex structures composed of a heterogeneous population of valve interstitial cells (VICs, an overlying endothelium and highly organized layers of extracellular matrix. Alterations in valve homeostasis are characteristic of dysfunction and disease, however the mechanisms that initiate and promote valve pathology are poorly understood. Advancements have been largely hindered by the limited availability of tools for gene targeting in heart valve structures during embryogenesis and after birth. We have previously shown that the transcription factors Sox9 and Scleraxis (Scx are required for heart valve formation and in this study we describe the recombination patterns of Sox9- and Scx-Cre lines at differential time points in aortic and mitral valve structures. In ScxCre; ROSA26GFP mice, recombination is undetected in valve endothelial cells (VECs and low in VICs during embryogenesis. However, recombination increases in VICs from post natal stages and by 4 weeks side-specific patterns are observed. Using the inducible Sox9CreERT2 system, we observe recombination in VECs and VICs in the embryo, and high levels are maintained through post natal and juvenile stages. These Cre-drivers provide the field with new tools for gene targeting in valve cell lineages during differential stages of embryonic and post natal maturation and maintenance.

  17. Enhancement of the RAD51 Recombinase Activity by the Tumor Suppressor PALB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dray, Eloise; Etchin, Julia; Wiese, Claudia; Saro, Dorina; Williams, Gareth J.; Hammel, Michal; Yu, Xiong; Galkin, Vitold E.; Liu, Dongqing; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Sy, Shirley M-H.; Egelman, Edward; Chen, Junjie; Sung, Patrick; Schild, D.

    2010-08-24

    Homologous recombination mediated by the RAD51 recombinase helps eliminate chromosomal lesions, such as DNA double-stranded breaks induced by radiation or arising from injured DNA replication forks. The tumor suppressors BRCA2 and PALB2 act together to deliver RAD51 to chromosomal lesions to initiate repair. Here we document a new function of PALB2 in the enhancement of RAD51's ability to form the D-loop. We show that PALB2 binds DNA and physically interacts with RAD51. Importantly, while PALB2 alone stimulates D-loop formation, a cooperative effect is seen with RAD51AP1, an enhancer of RAD51. This stimulation stems from PALB2's ability to function with RAD51 and RAD51AP1 to assemble the synaptic complex. Our results help unveil a multi-faceted role of PALB2 in chromosome damage repair. Since PALB2 mutations can cause breast and other tumors or lead to Fanconi anemia, our findings are important for understanding the mechanism of tumor suppression in humans.

  18. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

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    Sören Hansen

    Full Text Available The detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infections in ruminants is crucial to control spread among animals and to humans. Cultivation of MAP is seen as the gold standard for detection, although it is very time consuming and labour intensive. In addition, several PCR assays have been developed to detect MAP in around 90 minutes, but these assays required highly sophisticated equipment as well as lengthy and complicated procedure.In this study, we have developed a rapid assay for the detection of MAP based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay targeting a MAP specific region, the IS900 gene. The detection limit was 16 DNA molecules in 15 minutes as determined by the probit analysis on eight runs of the plasmid standard. Cross reactivity with other mycobacterial and environmentally associated bacterial strains was not observed. The clinical performance of the MAP RPA assay was tested using 48 MAP-positive and 20 MAP-negative blood, sperm, faecal and tissue samples. All results were compared with reads of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. The specificity of the MAP RPA assay was 100%, while the sensitivity was 89.5%.The RPA assay is quicker and much easier to handle than real-time PCR. All RPA reagents were cold-chain independent. Moreover, combining RPA assay with a simple extraction protocol will maximize its use at point of need for rapid detection of MAP.

  19. Use of the lambda Red recombinase system to produce recombinant prophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes

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    Jofre Juan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Red recombinase system of bacteriophage lambda has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12 through homologous recombination using linear PCR products. The aim of this study was to induce mutations in the genome of some temperate Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages. When phage genes are in the prophage state, they behave like chromosomal genes. This enables marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes, to be incorporated into the stx gene. Once the phages' lytic cycle is activated, recombinant Shiga toxin converting phages are produced. These phages can transfer the marker genes to the bacteria that they infect and convert. As the Red system's effectiveness decreased when used for our purposes, we had to introduce significant variations to the original method. These modifications included: confirming the stability of the target stx gene increasing the number of cells to be transformed and using a three-step PCR method to produce the amplimer containing the antibiotic resistance gene. Results Seven phages carrying two different antibiotic resistance genes were derived from phages that are directly involved in the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing strains, using this modified protocol. Conclusion This approach facilitates exploration of the transduction processes and is a valuable tool for studying phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  20. New Fpg probe chemistry for direct detection of recombinase polymerase amplification on lateral flow strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael L; Bowler, Frank R; Martinez, Aurore J; Greenwood, Catherine J; Armes, Niall; Piepenburg, Olaf

    2018-02-15

    Rapid, cost-effective and sensitive detection of nucleic acids has the ability to improve upon current practices employed for pathogen detection in diagnosis of infectious disease and food testing. Furthermore, if assay complexity can be reduced, nucleic acid amplification tests could be deployed in resource-limited and home use scenarios. In this study, we developed a novel Fpg (Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase) probe chemistry, which allows lateral flow detection of amplification in undiluted recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions. The prototype nucleic acid lateral flow chemistry was applied to a human genomic target (rs1207445), Campylobacter jejuni 16S rDNA and two genetic markers of the important food pathogen E. coli O157:H7. All four assays have an analytical sensitivity between 10 and 100 copies DNA per amplification. Furthermore, the assay is performed with fewer hands-on steps than using the current RPA Nfo lateral flow method as dilution of amplicon is not required for lateral flow analysis. Due to the simplicity of the workflow, we believe that the lateral flow chemistry for direct detection could be readily adapted to a cost-effective single-use consumable, ideal for use in non-laboratory settings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. A Novel Isothermal Assay of Borrelia burgdorferi by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification with Lateral Flow Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Xue-Xia; Wan, Kang-Lin; Hao, Qin

    2016-08-03

    A novel isothermal detection for recombinase polymerase amplification with lateral flow (LF-RPA) was established for Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) detection in this study. This assay with high sensitivity and specificity can get a visible result without any additional equipment in 30 min. We designed a pair of primers according to recA gene of B. burgdorferi strains and a methodology evaluation was performed. The results showed that the RPA assay based on the recA gene was successfully applied in B. burgdorferi detection, and its specific amplification was only achieved from the genomic DNA of B. burgdorferi. The detection limit of the new assay was about 25 copies of the B. burgdorferi genomic DNA. Twenty Lyme borreliosis patients' serum samples were detected by LF-RPA assay, real-time qPCR and nested-PCR. Results showed the LF-RPA assay is more effective than nested-PCR for its shorter reaction time and considerably higher detection rate. This method is of great value in clinical rapid detection for Lyme borreliosis. Using the RPA assay might be a megatrend for DNA detection in clinics and endemic regions.

  2. Development of Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2

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    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus virus type II (PCV2 is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (PDNS, and necrotizing pneumonia. Rapid diagnosis tool for detection of PCV2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PCV2 real-time RPA assay and RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (PCV2 RPA LFD assay were developed targeting the PCV2 ORF2 gene. The results showed that the sensitivity of the PCV2 real-time RPA assay was 102 copies per reaction within 20 min at 37°C and the PCV2 RPA LFD assay had a detection limit of 102 copies per reaction in less than 20 min at 37°C. Both assays were highly specific for PCV2, with no cross-reactions with porcine circovirus virus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and classical swine fever virus. Therefore, the RPA assays provide a novel alternative for simple, sensitive, and specific identification of PCV2.

  3. A recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C Bonney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity. The assay was shown to tolerate the presence of inhibitors in crude preparations of mock field samples, indicating that this assay may be suitable for use in the field with minimal sample preparation. The CCHFV RPA was successfully used to screen and detect CCHFV positives from a panel of clinical samples from Tajikistan.The assay is a rapid, isothermal, simple-to-perform molecular diagnostic, which can be performed on a light, portable real-time detection device. It is ideally placed therefore for use as a field-diagnostic or in-low resource laboratories, for monitoring of CCHF outbreaks at the point-of-need, such as in remote rural regions in affected countries.

  4. A recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Laura C; Watson, Robert J; Afrough, Babak; Mullojonova, Manija; Dzhuraeva, Viktoriya; Tishkova, Farida; Hewson, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever Virus (CCHFV) is a rapidly emerging vector-borne pathogen and the cause of a virulent haemorrhagic fever affecting large parts of Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia. An isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay was successfully developed for molecular detection of CCHFV. The assay showed rapid (under 10 minutes) detection of viral extracts/synthetic virus RNA of all 7 S-segment clades of CCHFV, with high target specificity. The assay was shown to tolerate the presence of inhibitors in crude preparations of mock field samples, indicating that this assay may be suitable for use in the field with minimal sample preparation. The CCHFV RPA was successfully used to screen and detect CCHFV positives from a panel of clinical samples from Tajikistan. The assay is a rapid, isothermal, simple-to-perform molecular diagnostic, which can be performed on a light, portable real-time detection device. It is ideally placed therefore for use as a field-diagnostic or in-low resource laboratories, for monitoring of CCHF outbreaks at the point-of-need, such as in remote rural regions in affected countries.

  5. Assay for Listeria monocytogenes cells in whole blood using isotachophoresis and recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Charbel; Santiago, Juan G

    2016-12-19

    We present a new approach which enables lysis, extraction, and detection of inactivated Listeria monocytogenes cells from blood using isotachophoresis (ITP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). We use an ITP-compatible alkaline and proteinase K approach for rapid and effective lysis. We then perform ITP purification to separate bacterial DNA from whole blood contaminants using a microfluidic device that processes 25 μL sample volume. Lysis, mixing, dispensing, and on-chip ITP purification are completed in a total of less than 50 min. We transfer extracted DNA directly into RPA master mix for isothermal incubation and detection, an additional 25 min. We first validate our assay in the detection of purified genomic DNA spiked into whole blood, and demonstrate a limit of detection of 16.7 fg μL -1 genomic DNA, the equivalent of 5 × 10 3 cells per mL. We then show detection of chemically-inactivated L. monocytogenes cells spiked into whole blood, and demonstrate a limit of detection of 2 × 10 4 cells per mL. Lastly, we show preliminary experimental data demonstrating the feasibility of the integration of ITP purification with RPA detection on a microfluidic chip. Our results suggest that ITP purification is compatible with RPA detection, and has potential to extend the applicability of RPA to whole blood.

  6. Establishment of recombinase polymerase amplification assay for five hemorrhagic fever-related viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-feng CAO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish a one-step recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA method for pathogen screening and rapid detection in the field targeting for five hemorrhagic fever related viruses (Zaire ebola virus, Sudan ebola virus, Marburg virus, Lassa virus and Yellow fever virus. Methods The specific nucleic acid (NA fragments of each virus were selected as target genes by genome sequence analysis, and the primers and probes for RPA assays were designed according to the sequence. A series of diluted template genes were used for RPA detection to determine the sensitivity. The hemorrhagic fever-related viral nucleic acids were used for RPA detection to determine the specificity. The amplification experiments were carried out at different temperature ranging from 37℃ to 42℃ to validate the reaction temperature range. Results The RPA reaction systems of the five hemorrhagic fever viruses could effectively amplify the target genes, the sensitivities were between 1.5×102 and 1.5×103 copies. No cross reactions existed with the other hemorrhagic fever-related viral genes. Meanwhile, RPA assay could effectively amplify the target genes at 37-42℃. Conclusion The isothermal RPA assays of five hemorrhagic fever viruses are established, which may amply target genes fast and react at a wide temperature range, and be potentially useful for in field pathogens detection. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.09

  7. Characterization of the recombination activities of the Entamoeba histolytica Rad51 recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Andrew A; Goodson, Steven D; Chavan, Suchitra; Say, Amanda F; Turchick, Audrey; Sharma, Deepti; Ledford, LeAnna L; Ratterman, Erin; Leskoske, Kristin; King, Ada V; Attaway, Christopher C; Bandera, Yura; Foulger, Stephen H; Mazin, Alexander V; Temesvari, Lesly A; Sehorn, Michael G

    The protozoan parasite responsible for human amoebiasis is Entamoeba histolytica. An important facet of the life cycle of E. histolytica involves the conversion of the mature trophozoite to a cyst. This transition is thought to involve homologous recombination (HR), which is dependent upon the Rad51 recombinase. Here, a biochemical characterization of highly purified ehRad51 protein is presented. The ehRad51 protein preferentially binds ssDNA, forms a presynaptic filament and possesses ATP hydrolysis activity that is stimulated by the presence of DNA. Evidence is provided that ehRad51 catalyzes robust DNA strand exchange over at least 5.4 kilobase pairs. Although the homologous DNA pairing activity of ehRad51 is weak, it is strongly enhanced by the presence of two HR accessory cofactors, calcium and Hop2-Mnd1. The biochemical system described herein was used to demonstrate the potential for targeting ehRad51 with two small molecule inhibitors of human RAD51. We show that 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibited ehRad51 by interfering with DNA binding and attenuated encystation in Entamoeba invadens, while B02 had no effect on ehRad51 strand exchange activity. These results provide insight into the underlying mechanism of homology-directed DNA repair in E. histolytica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Overview of BioCreAtIvE: critical assessment of information extraction for biology

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    Hirschman Lynette

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of the first BioCreAtIvE challenge (Critical Assessment of Information Extraction in Biology was to provide a set of common evaluation tasks to assess the state of the art for text mining applied to biological problems. The results were presented in a workshop held in Granada, Spain March 28–31, 2004. The articles collected in this BMC Bioinformatics supplement entitled "A critical assessment of text mining methods in molecular biology" describe the BioCreAtIvE tasks, systems, results and their independent evaluation. Results BioCreAtIvE focused on two tasks. The first dealt with extraction of gene or protein names from text, and their mapping into standardized gene identifiers for three model organism databases (fly, mouse, yeast. The second task addressed issues of functional annotation, requiring systems to identify specific text passages that supported Gene Ontology annotations for specific proteins, given full text articles. Conclusion The first BioCreAtIvE assessment achieved a high level of international participation (27 groups from 10 countries. The assessment provided state-of-the-art performance results for a basic task (gene name finding and normalization, where the best systems achieved a balanced 80% precision / recall or better, which potentially makes them suitable for real applications in biology. The results for the advanced task (functional annotation from free text were significantly lower, demonstrating the current limitations of text-mining approaches where knowledge extrapolation and interpretation are required. In addition, an important contribution of BioCreAtIvE has been the creation and release of training and test data sets for both tasks. There are 22 articles in this special issue, including six that provide analyses of results or data quality for the data sets, including a novel inter-annotator consistency assessment for the test set used in task 2.

  9. Inducible knockdown of pregnancy?associated plasma protein?A gene expression in adult female mice extends life span

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, Laurie K.; West, Sally A.; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Pregnancy?associated plasma protein?A (PAPP?A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild?type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP?A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)?inducible Cre recombinase?mediated excision of the floxed PAPP?A (fPAPP?A) gene in mice at 5?months of age. fPAPP?A mice,...

  10. Targeted deletion of Atg5 reveals differential roles of autophagy in keratin K5-expressing epithelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukseree, Supawadee [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand); Rossiter, Heidemarie; Mildner, Michael [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Pammer, Johannes [Institute of Clinical Pathology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Buchberger, Maria; Gruber, Florian [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Watanapokasin, Ramida [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok (Thailand); Tschachler, Erwin [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Eckhart, Leopold, E-mail: leopold.eckhart@meduniwien.ac.at [Research Division of Biology and Pathobiology of the Skin, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We generated mice lacking Atg5 and autophagy in keratin K5-positive epithelia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of autophagy in thymic epithelium was not associated with signs of autoimmunity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy was required for normal terminal differentiation of preputial gland cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Autophagy-deficient cells of the preputial glands degraded nuclear DNA prematurely. -- Abstract: Autophagy contributes to the homeostasis of many tissues, yet its role in epithelia is incompletely understood. A recent report proposed that Atg5-dependent autophagy in thymic epithelial cells is essential for their function in the negative selection of self-reactive T-cells and, thus, for the suppression of tissue inflammation. Here we crossed mice carrying floxed alleles of the Atg5 gene with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the keratin K5 promoter to suppress autophagy in all K5-positive epithelia. The efficiency of autophagy abrogation was confirmed by immunoanalyses of LC3, which was converted to the autophagy-associated LC3-II form in normal but not Atg5-deficient cells, and of p62, which accumulated in Atg5-deficient cells. Mice carrying the epithelium-specific deletion of Atg5 showed normal weight gain, absence of tissue inflammation, and a normal morphology of the thymic epithelium. By contrast, autophagy-deficient epithelial cells of the preputial gland showed aberrant eosinophilic staining in histology and premature degradation of nuclear DNA during terminal differentiation. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that autophagy is dispensable for the suppression of autoimmunity by thymic epithelial cells but essential for normal differentiation of the preputial gland in mice.

  11. The role of hyaluronan produced by Has2 gene expression in development of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughley, Peter J; Lamplugh, Lisa; Lee, Eunice R; Matsumoto, Kazu; Yamaguchi, Yu

    2011-06-15

    Histologic analysis of spine development in cartilage-specific knockout mice. To evaluate the role hyaluronan produced by hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) in spine development. The Has2 gene is responsible for most hyaluronan production throughout the body, including the skeleton. However, it is not possible to study the involvement of hyaluronan in skeletal development using constitutive Has2 knockout mice, as the embryonic mice die early before skeletal development has occurred. This problem can be overcome by the use of cartilage-specific knockout mice. Mice possessing floxed Has2 genes were crossed with mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the type II collagen promoter to generate cartilage-specific Has2 knockout mice. Spine development was studied by histology. Knockout mice died near birth and displayed severe abnormality in skeletal development. The spine showed defects in vertebral body size and the formation of the intervertebral discs. There was no evidence for the formation of an organized primary center of ossification within the vertebrae, and the appearance and organization of the hypertrophic chondrocytes was abnormal. Although no organized endochondral ossification appeared to be taking place, there was excessive bone formation at the center of the vertebrae. There was also a generalized increased cellularity of the vertebral cartilage and a corresponding decrease in the abundance of extracellular matrix. The nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs were less flattened than in the control mice and possessed an increased amount of large vacuolated cells. Remnants of the notochord could also be seen between adjacent discs. Hyaluronan production by Has2 is essential for normal vertebral and intervertebral disc development within the spine, and the absence of this synthase impairs the organization of both soft and hard tissue elements.

  12. The effect of CreA in glucose and xylose catabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prathumpai, Wai; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The catabolism of glucose and xylose was studied in a wild type and creA deleted (carbon catabolite de-repressed) strain of Aspergillus nidulans. Both strains were cultivated in bioreactors with either glucose or xylose as the sole carbon source, or in the presence of both sugars....... In the cultivations on single carbon sources, it was demonstrated that xylose acted as a carbon catabolite repressor (xylose cultivations), while the enzymes in the xylose utilisation pathway were also subject to repression in the presence of glucose (glucose cultivations). In the wild type strain growing...... on the sugar mixture, glucose repression of xylose utilisation was observed; with xylose utilisation occurring only after glucose was depleted. This phenomenon was not seen in the creA deleted strain, where glucose and xylose were catabolised simultaneously. Measurement of key metabolites and the activities...

  13. Being a Learner Using Social Media in School: The Case of Space2cre8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasbø, Kristin Beate; Silseth, Kenneth; Erstad, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to gain knowledge about what it means to be a learner using social media in an educational setting. The article presents an ethnographic study of students in a multiethnic community in Oslo who participate in a social networking site called Space2cre8 (S28). In this article, we set out to explore the kind of space for…

  14. Utilizing the CreA Gene to Better Understand Carbon Flux in Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annecharico, Matthew D.; Baker, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a system which represses the synthesis of enzymes required for certain carbon sources when more favored carbon sources are present. Fungal enzymes are useful in various industrial applications such as the degradation of bi-product biomass produced in many areas of manufacturing and production. For example, the basidiomycete, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a filamentous fungus, produces a number of lignin peroxidases (LiPs) such as an extra-cellular lignin-modifying protein and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnPs). The LiPs secreted by P. chrysosporium are able to break down lignin, one of the main substances of wood, while leaving the cellulose behind. These enzymes are capable of degrading toxic waste as well as biomass waste. Through polysaccharide hydrolysis and lignin utilization, biobased products and biofuels can be processed from biomass instead of petroleum, which is more environmentally sound than current fuel options. Previous research in the fungal phylum, Ascomyces has shown that the creA gene is an important gene that controls various enzymes which have key roles in controlling carbon utilization by fungi. We hypothesize that there are similarities across all fungi in the mechanism by which carbon flux is controlled and that orthologs of the creA gene exist in all fungal phyla. A COnsensus-DEgenerate Hybrid Oligonucleotide Primers (CODEHOP) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy was used to isolate genomic fragments of the creA gene from a variety of fungi with the objective to design and utilize a method for isolation of the creA gene from a wide range of fungi.

  15. Generation of eGFP and Cre knockin rats by CRISPR/Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuanwu; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Wei; Yu, Lei; Lu, Yingdong; Bai, Lin; Shen, Bin; Huang, Xingxu; Zhang, Lianfeng

    2014-09-01

    The type II bacterial CRISPR/Cas [clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas)] system is a very valuable genome engineering tool, which has been widely used in genome editing of a variety of organisms. Previously, we generated floxed alleles in rats by CRISPR/Cas9. Here, we successfully use a two-cut strategy with one circular vector, which contains the exogenous cDNAs with homology arm regions, in generating knockin rats at the Trdmt1, Nestin and Cck loci. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockin was up to 54%. Furthermore, by crossing the Nestin-Cre rat with the Dnmt3b floxed rat and Cck-Cre with the Dnmt1 floxed rat, we detected Cre/loxP-mediated recombination in the F1 generation of rats. We also show that the knockin alleles were germline transmitted. These results provided a simple and flexible engineering strategy for the establishment of knockin rats. © 2014 FEBS.

  16. Cancer-specific binary expression system activated in mice by bacteriophage HK022 Integrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Amer; Spector, Itay; Sogolovsky-Bard, Ilana

    2016-01-01

    Binary systems based on site-specific recombination have been used for tumor specific transcription targeting of suicide genes in animal models. In these binary systems a site specific recombinase or integrase that is expressed from a tumor specific promoter drives tumor specific expression of a ...

  17. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification and lateral flow analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nucleic acid amplification is the most sensitive and specific method to detect Plasmodium falciparum. However the polymerase chain reaction remains laboratory-based and has to be conducted by trained personnel. Furthermore, the power dependency for the thermocycling process and the costly equipment necessary for the read-out are difficult to cover in resource-limited settings. This study aims to develop and evaluate a combination of isothermal nucleic acid amplification and simple lateral flow dipstick detection of the malaria parasite for point-of-care testing. Methods A specific fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of P. falciparum was amplified in 10 min at a constant 38°C using the isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method. With a unique probe system added to the reaction solution, the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow strip without further labelling. The combination of these methods was tested for sensitivity and specificity with various Plasmodium and other protozoa/bacterial strains, as well as with human DNA. Additional investigations were conducted to analyse the temperature optimum, reaction speed and robustness of this assay. Results The lateral flow RPA (LF-RPA) assay exhibited a high sensitivity and specificity. Experiments confirmed a detection limit as low as 100 fg of genomic P. falciparum DNA, corresponding to a sensitivity of approximately four parasites per reaction. All investigated P. falciparum strains (n = 77) were positively tested while all of the total 11 non-Plasmodium samples, showed a negative test result. The enzymatic reaction can be conducted under a broad range of conditions from 30-45°C with high inhibitory concentration of known PCR inhibitors. A time to result of 15 min from start of the reaction to read-out was determined. Conclusions Combining the isothermal RPA and the lateral flow detection is an approach to improve molecular diagnostic for P. falciparum in

  18. Development of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assays for Detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi or Rickettsia typhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chung Chao

    Full Text Available Sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi (O. tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi (R. typhi, the causative agents of scrub typhus and murine typhus, respectively, are necessary to accurately and promptly diagnose patients and ensure that they receive proper treatment. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assays using a lateral flow test (RPA-nfo and real-time fluorescent detection (RPA-exo were developed targeting the 47-kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi or 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. The RPA assay was capable of detecting O. tsutsugamushi or R. typhi at levels comparable to that of the quantitative PCR method. Both the RPA-nfo and RPA-exo methods performed similarly with regards to sensitivity when detecting the 17 kDa gene of R. typhi. On the contrary, RPA-exo performed better than RPA-nfo in detecting the 47 kDa gene of O. tsutsugamushi. The clinical performance of the O. tsutsugamushi RPA assay was evaluated using either human patient samples or infected mouse samples. Eight out of ten PCR confirmed positives were determined positive by RPA, and all PCR confirmed negative samples were negative by RPA. Similar results were obtained for R. typhi spiked patient sera. The assays were able to differentiate O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi from other phylogenetically related bacteria as well as mouse and human DNA. Furthermore, the RPA-nfo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 37°C followed by a 10 minute incubation at room temperature for development of an immunochromatographic strip. The RPA-exo reaction was completed in 20 minutes at 39°C. The implementation of a cross contamination proof cassette to detect the RPA-nfo fluorescent amplicons provided an alternative to regular lateral flow detection strips, which are more prone to cross contamination. The RPA assays provide a highly time-efficient, sensitive and specific alternative to other methods for diagnosing scrub typhus or murine typhus.

  19. Mobile suitcase laboratory for rapid detection of Leishmania donovani using recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Dinesh; Ghosh, Prakash; Khan, Md Anik Ashfaq; Hossain, Faria; Böhlken-Fascher, Susanne; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed

    2016-05-13

    Leishmania donovani (LD) is a protozoan parasite transmitted to humans from sand flies, which causes Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). Currently, the diagnosis is based on presence of the anti-LD antibodies and clinical symptoms. Molecular diagnosis would require real-time PCR, which is not easy to implement at field settings. In this study, we report on the development and testing of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the detection of LD. A genomic DNA sample was applied to determine the assay analytical sensitivity. The cross-reactivity of the assay was tested by DNA of Leishmania spp. and of pathogens considered for differential diagnosis. The clinical performance of the assay was evaluated on LD positive and negative samples. All results were compared with real-time PCR. To allow the use of the assay at field settings, a mobile suitcase laboratory (56 × 45.5 × 26.5 cm) was developed and operated at the local hospital in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The LD RPA assay detected equivalent to one LD genomic DNA. The assay was performed at constant temperature (42 °C) in 15 min. The RPA assay also detected other Leishmania species (L. major, L. aethiopica and L. infantum), but did not identify nucleic acid of other pathogens. Forty-eight samples from VL, asymptomatic and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis subjects were detected positive and 48 LD-negative samples were negative by both LD RPA and real-time PCR assays, which indicates 100 % agreement. The suitcase laboratory was successfully operated at the local hospital by using a solar-powered battery. DNA extraction was performed by a novel magnetic bead based method (SpeedXtract), in which a simple fast lysis protocol was applied. Moreover, All reagents were cold-chain independent. The mobile suitcase laboratory using RPA is ideal for rapid sensitive and specific detection of LD especially at low resource settings and could contribute to VL control and elimination programmes.

  20. Near-infrared fluorescent protein iRFP713 as a reporter protein for optogenetic vectors, a transgenic Cre-reporter rat, and other neuronal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Christopher T; Whitaker, Leslie R; Whitaker, Keith W; Necarsulmer, Julie; Baldwin, Heather A; Zhang, Yajun; Fortuno, Lowella; Hinkle, Josh J; Koivula, Pyry; Henderson, Mark J; Sun, Wenzhi; Wang, Kai; Smith, Jeffrey C; Pickel, Jim; Ji, Na; Hope, Bruce T; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-06-01

    The use of genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters is essential for the identification and observation of cells that express transgenic modulatory proteins. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins have superior light penetration through biological tissue, but are not yet widely adopted. Using the near-infrared fluorescent protein, iRFP713, improves the imaging resolution in thick tissue sections or the intact brain due to the reduced light-scattering at the longer, NIR wavelengths used to image the protein. Additionally, iRFP713 can be used to identify transgenic cells without photobleaching other fluorescent reporters or affecting opsin function. We have generated a set of adeno-associated vectors in which iRFP713 has been fused to optogenetic channels, and can be expressed constitutively or Cre-dependently. iRFP713 is detectable when expressed in neurons both in vitro and in vivo without exogenously supplied chromophore biliverdin. Neuronally-expressed iRFP713 has similar properties to GFP-like fluorescent proteins, including the ability to be translationally fused to channelrhodopsin or halorhodopsin, however, it shows superior photostability compared to EYFP. Furthermore, electrophysiological recordings from iRFP713-labeled cells compared to cells labeled with mCherry suggest that iRFP713 cells are healthier and therefore more stable and reliable in an ex vivo preparation. Lastly, we have generated a transgenic rat that expresses iRFP713 in a Cre-dependent manner. Overall, we have demonstrated that iRFP713 can be used as a reporter in neurons without the use of exogenous biliverdin, with minimal impact on viability and function thereby making it feasible to extend the capabilities for imaging genetically-tagged neurons in slices and in vivo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Efficient elimination of selectable marker genes from the plastid genome by the CRE-lox site-specific recombination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneille, S; Lutz, K; Svab, Z; Maliga, P

    2001-07-01

    Incorporation of a selectable marker gene during transformation is essential to obtain transformed plastids. However, once transformation is accomplished, having the marker gene becomes undesirable. Here we report on adapting the P1 bacteriophage CRE-lox site-specific recombination system for the elimination of marker genes from the plastid genome. The system was tested by the elimination of a negative selectable marker, codA, which is flanked by two directly oriented lox sites (>codA>). Highly efficient elimination of >codA> was triggered by introduction of a nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted CRE by Agrobacterium transformation or via pollen. Excision of >codA> in tissue culture cells was frequently accompanied by a large deletion of a plastid genome segment which includes the tRNA-ValUAC gene. However, the large deletions were absent when cre was introduced by pollination. Thus pollination is our preferred protocol for the introduction of cre. Removal of the >codA> coding region occurred at a dramatic speed, in striking contrast to the slow and gradual build-up of transgenic copies during plastid transformation. The nuclear cre gene could subsequently be removed by segregation in the seed progeny. The modified CRE-lox system described here will be a highly efficient tool to obtain marker-free transplastomic plants.

  2. The phenylquinazoline compound S-4893 is a non-competitive cytokinin antagonist that targets Arabidopsis cytokinin receptor CRE1 and promotes root growth in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Yuto; Nagasawa-Iida, Asako; Uneme, Hideki; Nakajima, Hiroki; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Sato, Ryo

    2010-12-01

    We identified two phenylquinazoline compounds in a large-scale screening for cytokinin antagonists in yeast expressing the Arabidopsis cytokinin receptor cytokinin response 1/histidine kinase 4 (CRE1). After chemical modifications, we obtained compound S-4893, which non-competitively inhibited binding of the natural ligand 2-isopentenyladenine to CRE1. S-4893 antagonized cytokinin-induced activation of the Arabidopsis response regulator 5 promoter in Arabidopsis. Importantly, S-4893 had no detectable intrinsic cytokinin agonist activity in Arabidopsis or in the transformed yeast system. Cytokinin bioassay further demonstrated that S-4893 antagonized cytokinin-induced stimulation of callus formation and inhibition of root elongation. S-4893 also promoted seminal, crown and lateral root growth in rice, suggesting that S-4893 could potentially promote root growth in a variety of agronomically important plants. We believe S-4893 will be a useful tool in functional studies of cytokinin action in a wide range of plants and a lead compound for the development of useful root growth promoters in agriculture.

  3. The Application of NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox System in the Generation of Bivalent Duck Enteritis Virus Vaccine against Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang Chang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Duck-targeted vaccines to protect against avian influenza are critically needed to aid in influenza disease control efforts in regions where ducks are endemic for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI. Duck enteritis virus (DEV is a promising candidate viral vector for development of vaccines targeting ducks, owing to its large genome and narrow host range. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 system is a versatile gene-editing tool that has proven beneficial for gene modification and construction of recombinant DNA viral vectored vaccines. Currently, there are two commonly used methods for gene insertion: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homology-directed repair (HDR. Owing to its advantages in efficiency and independence from molecular requirements of the homologous arms, we utilized NHEJ-dependent CRISPR/Cas9 to insert the influenza hemagglutinin (HA antigen expression cassette into the DEV genome. The insert was initially tagged with reporter green fluorescence protein (GFP, and a Cre-Lox system was later used to remove the GFP gene insert. Furthermore, a universal donor plasmid system was established by introducing double bait sequences that were independent of the viral genome. In summary, we provide proof of principle for generating recombinant DEV viral vectored vaccines against the influenza virus using an integrated NHEJ-CRISPR/Cas9 and Cre-Lox system.

  4. Diphtheria toxin treatment of Pet-1-Cre floxed diphtheria toxin receptor mice disrupts thermoregulation without affecting respiratory chemoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerpa, Verónica; Gonzalez, Amalia; Richerson, George B.

    2014-01-01

    In genetically-modified Lmx1bf/f/p mice, selective deletion of LMX1B in Pet-1 expressing cells leads to failure of embryonic development of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. As adults, these mice have a decreased hypercapnic ventilatory response and abnormal thermoregulation. This mouse model has been valuable in defining the normal role of 5-HT neurons, but it is possible that developmental compensation reduces the severity of observed deficits. Here we studied mice genetically modified to express diphtheria toxin receptors (DTR) on Pet-1 expressing neurons (Pet-1-Cre/Floxed DTR or Pet1/DTR mice). These mice developed with a normal complement of 5-HT neurons. As adults, systemic treatment with 2 – 35 μg diphtheria toxin (DT) reduced the number of tryptophan hydroxylase immunoreactive (TpOH-ir) neurons in the raphe nuclei and ventrolateral medulla by 80%. There were no effects of DT on baseline ventilation (VE) or the ventilatory response to hypercapnia or hypoxia. At an ambient temperature (TA) of 24°C, all Pet1/DTR mice dropped their body temperature (TB) below 35°C after DT treatment, but the latency was shorter in males than females (3.0 ± 0.37 vs 4.57 ± 0.29 days, respectively; p thermoregulation, in males more than females. In comparison to models with deficient embryonic development of 5-HT neurons, acute deletion of 5-HT neurons in adults leads to a greater defect in thermoregulation, suggesting that significant developmental compensation can occur. PMID:25171790

  5. Yes-associated protein and WW-containing transcription regulator 1 regulate the expression of sex-determining genes in Sertoli cells, but their inactivation does not cause sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Adrien; Paquet, Marilène; Boerboom, Derek; Boyer, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) and WW-containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1) are two functionally redundant transcriptional regulators that are downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway, and that act as major regulators of cell growth and differentiation. To elucidate their role in Sertoli cells, primary Sertoli cell culture from Yapflox/flox; Wwtr1flox/flox animals were infected with a Cre recombinase-expressing adenovirus. Concomitant inactivation of Yap and Wwtr1 resulted in a decrease in the mRNA levels of the male sex differentiation genes Dhh, Dmrt1, Sox9, and Wt1, whereas those of genes involved in female differentiation (Wnt4, Rspo1, and Foxl2) were induced. SOX9, FOXL2, and WNT4 proteins were regulated in the same manner as their mRNAs in response to loss of YAP and WWTR1. To further characterize the role of YAP and WWTR1 in Sertoli cells, we generated a mouse model (Yapflox/flox; Wwtr1flox/flox; Amhcre/+) in which Yap and Wwtr1 were conditionally deleted in Sertoli cells. An increase in the number of apoptotic cells was observed in the seminiferous tubules of 4 dpp mutant mice, leading to a reduction in testis weights and a decrease in the number of Sertoli cells in adult animals. Gene expression analyses of testes from 4 dpp Yapflox/flox; Wwtr1flox/flox; Amhcre/+ mice showed that Sertoli cell differentiation is initially altered, as Dhh, Dmrt1, and Sox9 mRNA levels were downregulated, whereas Wnt4 mRNA levels were increased. However, expression of these genes was not changed in older animals. Together, these results suggest a novel role of the Hippo signaling pathway in the mechanisms of sex differentiation. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The molecular biology of memory: cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel Eric R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The analysis of the contributions to synaptic plasticity and memory of cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB has recruited the efforts of many laboratories all over the world. These are six key steps in the molecular biological delineation of short-term memory and its conversion to long-term memory for both implicit (procedural and explicit (declarative memory. I here first trace the background for the clinical and behavioral studies of implicit memory that made a molecular biology of memory storage possible, and then detail the discovery and early history of these six molecular steps and their roles in explicit memory.

  7. The molecular biology of memory: cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eric R

    2012-05-14

    The analysis of the contributions to synaptic plasticity and memory of cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB has recruited the efforts of many laboratories all over the world. These are six key steps in the molecular biological delineation of short-term memory and its conversion to long-term memory for both implicit (procedural) and explicit (declarative) memory. I here first trace the background for the clinical and behavioral studies of implicit memory that made a molecular biology of memory storage possible, and then detail the discovery and early history of these six molecular steps and their roles in explicit memory.

  8. Diversity and overlap of Parvalbumin and Somatostatin expressing interneurons in mouse presubiculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérie eNassar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presubiculum, located between hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, plays a fundamental role in representing spatial information, notably head direction. Little is known about GABAergic interneurons of this region. Here, we used three transgenic mouse lines, Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre and X98, to examine distinct interneurons labeled with tdTomato or green fluorescent protein. The distribution of interneurons in presubicular lamina for each animal line was compared to that in the GAD67-GFP knock-in animal line. Labelling was specific in the Pvalb-Cre line with 87% of labeled interneurons immunopositive for (PV. Immunostaining for somatostatin (SOM revealed good specificity in the X98 line with 89% of fluorescent cells, but a lesser specificity in Sst-Cre animals where only 71% of labeled cells were immunopositive. A minority of ~ 6% of interneurons co-expressed PV and SOM in the presubiculum of Sst-Cre animals. The electrophysiological and morphological properties of fluorescent interneurons from Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre and X98 mice differed. Distinct physiological groups of presubicular interneurons were resolved by unsupervised cluster analysis of parameters describing passive properties, firing patterns and AP shapes. One group consisted of SOM-positive, Martinotti type neurons with a low firing threshold (cluster 1. Fast spiking basket cells, mainly from the Pvalb-Cre line, formed a distinct group (cluster 3. Another group (cluster 2 contained interneurons of intermediate electrical properties and basket-cell like morphologies. These labeled neurons were recorded from both Sst-Cre and Pvalb-Cre animals. Thus, our results reveal a wide variation in anatomical and physiological properties for these interneurons, a real overlap of interneurons immuno-positive for both PV and SOM as well as an off-target recombination in the Sst-Cre line, possibly linked to maternal cre inheritance.

  9. Multigene expression of protein complexes by iterative modification of genomic Bacmid DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma Cristina C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cellular multi-protein complexes are naturally present in cells at low abundance. Baculovirus expression offers one approach to produce milligram quantities of correctly folded and processed eukaryotic protein complexes. However, current strategies suffer from the need to produce large transfer vectors, and the use of repeated promoter sequences in baculovirus, which itself produces proteins that promote homologous recombination. One possible solution to these problems is to construct baculovirus genomes that express each protein in a complex from a separate locus within the viral DNA. However current methods for selecting such recombinant genomes are too inefficient to routinely modify the virus in this way. Results This paper reports a method which combines the lambda red and bacteriophage P1 Cre-recombinase systems to efficiently generate baculoviruses in which protein complexes are expressed from multiple, single-locus insertions of foreign genes. This method is based on an 88 fold improvement in the selection of recombinant viruses generated by red recombination techniques through use of a bipartite selection cassette. Using this system, seven new genetic loci were identified in the AcMNPV genome suitable for the high level expression of recombinant proteins. These loci were used to allow the recovery two recombinant virus-like particles with potential biotechnological applications (influenza A virus HA/M1 particles and bluetongue virus VP2/VP3/VP5/VP7 particles and the mammalian chaperone and cancer drug target CCT (16 subunits formed from 8 proteins. Conclusion 1. Use of bipartite selections can significantly improve selection of modified bacterial artificial chromosomes carrying baculovirus DNA. Furthermore this approach is sufficiently robust to allow routine modification of the virus genome. 2. In addition to the commonly used p10 and polyhedrin loci, the ctx, egt, 39k, orf51, gp37, iap2 and odv-e56 loci in Ac

  10. Low p16INK4a Expression in Early Passage Human Prostate Basal Epithelial Cells Enables Immortalization by Telomerase Expression Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mindy Kim; Principessa, Lorenzo; Antony, Lizamma; Meeker, Alan K; Isaacs, John T

    2017-03-01

    experimentally facile model for clarifying the molecular mechanism(s) involved in both immortalization of human PrECs, as well as identifying genetic/epigenetic "drivers" for conversion of these immortalized non-tumorigenic cells into fully lethal prostate cancers. Notably, loxP sites flank the exogenous TERT gene in the TERT-PrECs. Cre recombinase can be used to excise TERT, and resolve whether TERT expression is required for these cells to be fully transformed into lethal cancer. Prostate 77: 374-384, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparison of Three Cre-LoxP Based Paired-End Library Construction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ze; Nath, Nandita; Tritt, Andrew; Liang, Shoudan; Han, James; Pennacchio, Len; Chen, Feng

    2013-03-26

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo whole genome shotgun assembly. The ability of generating mate pairs with > 8 Kb insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. To make mate paired libraries for next generation sequencing, DNA fragments need to be circularized to bring the ends together. There are several methods that can be used for DNA circulation, namely ligation, hybridization and Cre-LoxP recombination. With higher circularization efficiency with large insert DNA fragments, Cre-LoxP recombination method generally has been used for constructing >8 kb insert size paired-end libraries. Second fragmentation step is also crucial for maintaining high library complexity and uniform genome coverage. Here we will describe the following three fragmentation methods: restriction enzyme digestion, random shearing and nick translation. We will present the comparison results for these three methods. Our data showed that all three methods are able to generate paired-end libraries with greater than 20 kb insert. Advantages and disadvantages of these three methods will be discussed as well.

  12. Flavonoids and Auxin Transport Inhibitors Rescue Symbiotic Nodulation in the Medicago truncatula Cytokinin Perception Mutant cre1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jason Liang Pin; Hassan, Samira; Truong, Thy T.; Hocart, Charles H.; Laffont, Carole; Frugier, Florian; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Initiation of symbiotic nodules in legumes requires cytokinin signaling, but its mechanism of action is largely unknown. Here, we tested whether the failure to initiate nodules in the Medicago truncatula cytokinin perception mutant cre1 (cytokinin response1) is due to its altered ability to regulate auxin transport, auxin accumulation, and induction of flavonoids. We found that in the cre1 mutant, symbiotic rhizobia cannot locally alter acro- and basipetal auxin transport during nodule initiation and that these mutants show reduced auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) accumulation and auxin responses compared with the wild type. Quantification of flavonoids, which can act as endogenous auxin transport inhibitors, showed a deficiency in the induction of free naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, quercetin, and hesperetin in cre1 roots compared with wild-type roots 24 h after inoculation with rhizobia. Coinoculation of roots with rhizobia and the flavonoids naringenin, isoliquiritigenin, and kaempferol, or with the synthetic auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5,-triiodobenzoic acid, rescued nodulation efficiency in cre1 mutants and allowed auxin transport control in response to rhizobia. Our results suggest that CRE1-dependent cytokinin signaling leads to nodule initiation through the regulation of flavonoid accumulation required for local alteration of polar auxin transport and subsequent auxin accumulation in cortical cells during the early stages of nodulation. PMID:26253705

  13. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Felipe, S.; Tortajada-Genaro, L.A.; Puchades, R.; Maquieira, A., E-mail: amaquieira@qim.upv.es

    2014-02-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Recombinase polymerase amplification is a powerful DNA method operating at 40 °C. •The combination RPA–ELISA gives excellent performances for high-throughput analysis. •Screening of food safety threats has been done using standard laboratory equipment. •Allergens, GMOs, bacteria, and fungi have been successfully determined. -- Abstract: Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR–ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA–ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40 °C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5′-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA–ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA–ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings.

  14. Targeted deletion of Sox10 by Wnt1-cre defects neuronal migration and projection in the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanYan Mao

    Full Text Available Sensory nerves of the brainstem are mostly composed of placode-derived neurons, neural crest-derived neurons and neural crest-derived Schwann cells. This mixed origin of cells has made it difficult to dissect interdependence for fiber guidance. Inner ear-derived neurons are known to connect to the brain after delayed loss of Schwann cells in ErbB2 mutants. However, the ErbB2 mutant related alterations in the ear and the brain compound interpretation of the data. We present here a new model to evaluate exclusively the effect of Schwann cell loss on inner ear innervation. Conditional deletion of the neural crest specific transcription factor, Sox10, using the rhombic lip/neural crest specific Wnt1-cre driver spares Sox10 expression in the ear. We confirm that neural crest-derived cells provide a stop signal for migrating spiral ganglion neurons. In the absence of Schwann cells, spiral ganglion neurons migrate into the center of the cochlea and even out of the ear toward the brain. Spiral ganglion neuron afferent processes reach the organ of Corti, but many afferent fibers bypass the organ of Corti to enter the lateral wall of the cochlea. In contrast to this peripheral disorganization, the central projection to cochlear nuclei is normal. Compared to ErbB2 mutants, conditional Sox10 mutants have limited cell death in spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that the absence of Schwann cells alone contributes little to the embryonic survival of neurons. These data suggest that neural crest-derived cells are dispensable for all central and some peripheral targeting of inner ear neurons. However, Schwann cells provide a stop signal for migratory spiral ganglion neurons and facilitate proper targeting of the organ of Corti by spiral ganglion afferents.

  15. Generation of ER{alpha}-floxed and knockout mice using the Cre/LoxP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonson, P., E-mail: per.antonson@ki.se [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Omoto, Y.; Humire, P. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Gustafsson, J.-A. [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, SE-141 83 Huddinge (Sweden); Center for Nuclear Receptors and Cell Signaling, Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha} floxed and knockout mice were generated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Disruption of the ER{alpha} gene results in sterility in both male and female mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice have ovaries with hemorrhagic follicles and hypoplastic uterus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Female ER{alpha}{sup -/-} mice develop obesity. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptor alpha (ER{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates a range of physiological processes in response to estrogens. In order to study its biological role, we generated a floxed ER{alpha} mouse line that can be used to knock out ER{alpha} in selected tissues by using the Cre/LoxP system. In this study, we established a new ER{alpha} knockout mouse line by crossing the floxed ER{alpha} mice with Cre deleter mice. Here we show that genetic disruption of the ER{alpha} gene in all tissues results in sterility in both male and female mice. Histological examination of uterus and ovaries revealed a dramatically atrophic uterus and hemorrhagic cysts in the ovary. These results suggest that infertility in female mice is the result of functional defects of the reproductive tract. Moreover, female knockout mice are hyperglycemic, develop obesity and at the age of 4 months the body weight of these mice was more than 20% higher compared to wild type littermates and this difference increased over time. Our results demonstrate that ER{alpha} is necessary for reproductive tract development and has important functions as a regulator of metabolism in females.

  16. Construction of an Unmarked Zymomonas mobilis Mutant Using a Site-Specific FLP Recombinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Lan Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flippase expression was carried out in Zymomonas mobilis strain ZM4. The FRT-flanked selection marker gene was first integrated into the ZM4 chromosome by homologous recombination. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae flp gene was then introduced under the control of the ZM4 gap gene promoter (Pgap, encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase or the λ bacteriophage cI857-pR contained in the broad-host-range cloning vector pBBR1-MCS-2. This study demonstrated that flp was expressed and that the deletion frequency of the FRT-flanked marker gene was very high (approx. 100 %. In addition, the flp gene expression vector could be conveniently removed from the resulting unmarked Z. mobilis mutants by serially transferring the cells three times into antibiotic-free medium, thereby establishing an efficient method for constructing unmarked Z. mobilis mutants.

  17. Decolorization of dyes by recombinase CotA from Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-22

    Mar 22, 2012 ... Dyes are usually difficult to be decolorized due to their complex chemical structures. In this work, recombinant CotA laccase was purified from Escherichia coli to evaluate its application in dye decolorization. Factors influencing laccase expression, such as induction temperature, phosphate buffer (pH) ...

  18. Decolorization of dyes by recombinase CotA from Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyes are usually difficult to be decolorized due to their complex chemical structures. In this work, recombinant CotA laccase was purified from Escherichia coli to evaluate its application in dye decolorization. Factors influencing laccase expression, such as induction temperature, phosphate buffer (pH), copper concentration ...

  19. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  20. Aptamer Lateral Flow Assays for Ultrasensitive Detection of β-Conglutin Combining Recombinase Polymerase Amplification and Tailed Primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauset-Rubio, Miriam; Svobodová, Markéta; Mairal, Teresa; McNeil, Calum; Keegan, Neil; El-Shahawi, Mohammad S; Bashammakh, Abdulaziz S; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2016-11-01

    In this work, different methodologies were evaluated in search of robust, simple, rapid, ultrasensitive, and user-friendly lateral flow aptamer assays. In one approach, we developed a competitive based lateral flow aptamer assay, in which β-conglutin immobilized on the test line of a nitrocellulose membrane and β-conglutin in the test sample compete for binding to AuNP labeled aptamer. The control line exploits an immobilized DNA probe complementary to the labeled aptamer, forcing displacement of the aptamer from the β-conglutin-aptamer complex. In a second approach, the competition for aptamer binding takes place off-strip, and following competition, aptamer bound to the immobilized β-conglutin is eluted and used as a template for isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification, exploiting tailed primers, resulting in an amplicon of a duplex flanked by single stranded DNA tails. The amplicon is rapidly and quantitatively detected using a nucleic acid lateral flow with an immobilized capture probe and a gold nanoparticle labeled reporter probe. The competitive lateral flow is completed in just 5 min, achieving a detection limit of 55 pM (1.1 fmol), and the combined competitive-amplification lateral flow requires just 30 min, with a detection limit of 9 fM (0.17 amol).

  1. Rapid and visual detection ofMycobacterium aviumsubsp.paratuberculosisby recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimin, Zhao; Hongmei, Wang; Peili, Hou; Chengqiang, He; Hongbin, He

    2017-12-28

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic debilitating disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Quick diagnosis could facilitate control; however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust method. Isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique has emerged as a novel DNA amplify assay for use in rapid diagnosis. Here, an RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) assay was developed to estimate DNA from M.paratuberculosis . First, the specificity and sensitivity of RPA-nfo primer and probe sets were assessed. The assay successfully detected M.paratuberculosis DNA in 30 minutes at 39°C, limit of detection up to eight copies per reaction, which was equivalent with the real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The assay was specific, as it did not amplify genomes from five other Mycobacterium and five pathogenic enteric bacteria. Then, 612 clinical samples (320 fecal and 292 serum) were assessed by RPA-LFD, qPCR and ELISA assays respectively, also the established RPA-LFD assay yielded 100% sensitivity, 97.63% specificity, and 98.44% concordance rate with the qPCR. This is the first report utilizing an RPA-LFD assay to visual and rapid detect M.paratuberculosis . Our results show this assay should be a useful method for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in resource constrained setting.

  2. Rapid and visual detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral flow strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglin; Liu, Houming; Ye, Feidi; Xiang, Guangxin; Shan, Wanshui; Xing, Wanli

    2017-12-01

    To definitively diagnose active pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) bacilli must be identified within clinical specimens from patients. In this study, we introduced a rapid and visual detection method of MTBC using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strips. The LF-RPA assay, read results with naked eyes, could detect as few as 5 genome copies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) per reaction and had no cross-reactions with other control bacteria even using excessive amount of template DNA. The system could work well at a broad range of temperature 25-45 °C and reach detectable level even within 5 min. When testing a total of 137 clinical specimens, the sensitivity and specificity of the LF-RPA assay were 100% (95% CI: 95.94%-100%) and 97.92% (95% CI: 88.93%-99.95%), respectively, compared to culture identification method. Therefore, the LF-RPA system we have demonstrated is a rapid, simple, robust method for MTBC detection which, subject to the availability of a suitable sample extraction method, has the potentiality to diagnose TB at the point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An Autoregulatory Mechanism Imposes Allosteric Control on the V(DJ Recombinase by Histone H3 Methylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available V(DJ recombination is initiated by a specialized transposase consisting of the subunits RAG-1 and RAG-2. The susceptibility of gene segments to DNA cleavage by the V(DJ recombinase is correlated with epigenetic modifications characteristic of active chromatin, including trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3. Engagement of H3K4me3 by a plant homeodomain (PHD in RAG-2 promotes recombination in vivo and stimulates DNA cleavage by RAG in vitro. We now show that H3K4me3 acts allosterically at the PHD finger to relieve autoinhibition imposed by a separate domain within RAG-2. Disruption of this autoinhibitory domain was associated with constitutive increases in recombination frequency, DNA cleavage activity, substrate binding affinity, and catalytic rate, thus mimicking the stimulatory effects of H3K4me3. Our observations support a model in which allosteric control of RAG is enforced by an autoinhibitory domain whose action is relieved by engagement of active chromatin.

  4. Development and deployment of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification Ebola virus detection assay in Guinea in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Soropogui, Barré; Patel, Pranav; El Wahed, Ahmed Abd; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Fall, Gamou; Kiory, Davy; Magassouba, N'Faly; Keita, Sakoba; Kondé, Mandy Kader; Diallo, Alpha Amadou; Koivogui, Lamine; Karlberg, Helen; Mirazimi, Ali; Nentwich, Oliver; Piepenburg, Olaf; Niedrig, Matthias; Weidmann, Manfred; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a vaccine or specific treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), early identification of cases is crucial for the control of EVD epidemics. We evaluated a new extraction kit (SpeedXtract (SE), Qiagen) on sera and swabs in combination with an improved diagnostic reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of Ebola virus (EBOV-RT-RPA). The performance of combined extraction and detection was best for swabs. Sensitivity and specificity of the combined SE and EBOV-RT-RPA were tested in a mobile laboratory consisting of a mobile glovebox and a Diagnostics-in-a-Suitcase powered by a battery and solar panel, deployed to Matoto Conakry, Guinea as part of the reinforced surveillance strategy in April 2015 to reach the goal of zero cases. The EBOV-RT-RPA was evaluated in comparison to two real-time PCR assays. Of 928 post-mortem swabs, 120 tested positive, and the combined SE and EBOV-RT-RPA yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in reference to one real-time RT-PCR assay. Another widely used real-time RT-PCR was much less sensitive than expected. Results were provided very fast within 30 to 60 min, and the field deployment of the mobile laboratory helped improve burial management and community engagement.

  5. Promotion of Homologous Recombination and Genomic Stability byRAD51AP1 via RAD51 Recombinase Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Claudia; Dray, Eloise; Groesser, Torsten; San Filippo,Joseph; Shi, Idina; Collins, David W.; Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Williams,Gareth; Rydberg, Bjorn; Sung, Patrick; Schild, David

    2007-04-11

    Homologous recombination (HR) repairs chromosome damage and is indispensable for tumor suppression in humans. RAD51 mediates the DNA strand pairing step in HR. RAD51AP1 (RAD51 Associated Protein 1) is a RAD51-interacting protein whose function has remained elusive. Knockdown of RAD51AP1 in human cells by RNA interference engenders sensitivity to different types of genotoxic stress. Moreover, RAD51AP1-depleted cells are impaired for the recombinational repair of a DNA double-strand break and exhibit chromatid breaks both spontaneously and upon DNA damaging treatment. Purified RAD51AP1 binds dsDNA and RAD51, and it greatly stimulates the RAD51-mediated D-loop reaction. Biochemical and cytological results show that RAD51AP1 functions at a step subsequent to the assembly of the RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament. Our findings provide the first evidence that RAD51AP1 helps maintain genomic integrity via RAD51 recombinase enhancement.

  6. Generation of an allelic series of knock-in mice using recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebroek, Anton J M; Van Gool, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic strategies applying embryonic stem cell (ES cell) technologies to study the function of a gene in mice or to generate a mouse model for a human disease are continuously under development. Next to (conditional) inactivation of genes the application and importance of approaches to generate knock-in mutations are increasing. In this chapter the principle and application of recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) are discussed as being a new emerging knock-in strategy, which enables easy generation of a series of different knock-in mutations within one gene. An RMCE protocol, which was used to generate a series of different knock-in mutations in the Lrp1 gene of ES cells, is described in detail as an example of how RMCE can be used to generate highly efficiently an allelic series of differently modified ES cell clones from a parental modified ES cell clone. Subsequently the differently modified ES cell clones can be used to generate an allelic series of mutant knock-in mice.

  7. Targeted inactivation of the mouse epididymal beta-defensin 41 alters sperm flagellar beat pattern and zona pellucida binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkgren, Ida; Alvarez, Luis; Blank, Nelli; Balbach, Melanie; Turunen, Heikki; Laajala, Teemu Daniel; Toivanen, Jussi; Krutskikh, Anton; Wahlberg, Niklas; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Poutanen, Matti; Wachten, Dagmar; Sipilä, Petra

    2016-05-15

    During epididymal maturation, sperm acquire the ability to swim progressively by interacting with proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. Beta-defensin proteins, expressed in the epididymis, continue to regulate sperm motility during capacitation and hyperactivation in the female reproductive tract. We characterized the mouse beta-defensin 41 (DEFB41), by generating a mouse model with iCre recombinase inserted into the first exon of the gene. The homozygous Defb41(iCre/iCre) knock-in mice lacked Defb41 expression and displayed iCre recombinase activity in the principal cells of the proximal epididymis. Heterozygous Defb41(iCre/+) mice can be used to generate epididymis specific conditional knock-out mouse models. Homozygous Defb41(iCre/iCre) sperm displayed a defect in sperm motility with the flagella primarily bending in the pro-hook conformation while capacitated wild-type sperm more often displayed the anti-hook conformation. This led to a reduced straight line motility of Defb41(iCre/iCre) sperm and weaker binding to the oocyte. Thus, DEFB41 is required for proper sperm maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin-6 deletion in mice driven by aP2-Cre-ERT2 prevents against high-fat diet-induced gain weight and adiposity in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, B; Ferrer, B; Giralt, M; Comes, G; Carrasco, J; Molinero, A; Quintana, A; Leclerc, J; Viollet, B; Señarís, R M; Hidalgo, J

    2014-08-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling body weight and metabolism, but because many types of cells can synthesize and respond to IL-6 considerable uncertainty still exists about the mechanisms underlying IL-6 effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of tissue-specific deletion of IL-6 using a fatty acid binding protein (aP2) promoter-Cre inducible system (aP2-Cre-ERT2). Tissue-specific IL-6 KO mice (aP2-IL-6 KO mice) were produced upon tamoxifen administration and were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58.4% kcal from fat) or a control diet (18%) for 14 weeks. aP2-IL-6 KO female mice on a HFD gained less weight and adiposity than littermate wild-type mice, but these effects were not observed in males. Hypothalamic factors such as NPY and AgRP showed a pattern of expression consistent with this sex-specific phenotype. PGC-1α expression was increased in several tissues in aP2-IL-6 KO female mice, which is compatible with increased energy expenditure. Serum leptin, insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels were increased by HFD, and in females IL-6 deficiency reversed this effect in the case of insulin and cholesterol. HFD induced impaired responses to insulin and glucose tolerance tests, but no significant differences between genotypes were observed. The present results demonstrate that deletion of IL-6 driven by aP2-Cre regulates body weight, body fat and metabolism in a sex-specific fashion. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A CaMK cascade activates CRE-mediated transcription in neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshishige; Corcoran, Ethan E.; Eto, Koh; Gengyo-Ando, Keiko; Muramatsu, Masa-aki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Freedman, Jonathan H.; Mitani, Shohei; Hagiwara, Masatoshi; Means, Anthony R.; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signals regulate a diverse set of cellular responses, from proliferation to muscular contraction and neuro-endocrine secretion. The ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor, calmodulin (CaM), translates changes in local intracellular Ca2+ concentrations into changes in enzyme activities. Among its targets, the Ca2+/CaM-dependent protein kinases I and IV (CaMKs) are capable of transducing intraneuronal signals, and these kinases are implicated in neuronal gene regulation that mediates synaptic plasticity in mammals. Recently, the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been proposed as a target for a CaMK cascade involving not only CaMKI or CaMKIV, but also an upstream kinase kinase that is also CaM regulated (CaMKK). Here, we report that all components of this pathway are coexpressed in head neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans. Utilizing a transgenic approach to visualize CREB-dependent transcription in vivo, we show that this CaMK cascade regulates CRE-mediated transcription in a subset of head neurons in living nematodes. PMID:12231504

  10. Tracking proliferative history in lymphocyte development with cre-mediated sister chromatid recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojun Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tracking and isolating live cells based on their proliferative history in live animals remains a technical challenge in animal studies. We have designed a genetic marking system for tracking the proliferative frequency and history of lymphocytes during their development and homeostatic maintenance. This system is based on activation of a fluorescent marker after Cre-dependent recombination between sister chromatids at a specially designed tandem loxP site, named Tlox. We have demonstrated the utility of the Tlox system in tracking proliferative windows of B and T lymphocyte development. We have further applied the Tlox system in the analysis of the proliferative behavior and homeostatic maintenance of Vγ1.1 positive γδ T cells. Our data show that Vγ1.1 T cells generated in neonatal but not adult life are able to expand in the thymus. The expanded Vγ1.1 T cells are preferentially maintained in the liver but not in lymphoid organs. It has been shown that numbers of Vγ1.1 T cells were dramatically increased in the lymphoid organs of Id3 deficient mice. By combining BrdU and Tlox assays we show that this phenotype is primarily due to enhanced neonatal expansion and subsequent retention of Vγ1.1 T cells. Thus, the Tlox system provides a new genetic tool to track clonal expansion within a defined cell population or tissue type in live animals.

  11. Upregulation of CREM/ICER suppresses wound endothelial CRE-HIF-1α-VEGF-dependent signaling and impairs angiogenesis in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad S. Bitar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes constitute dominant risk factors for non-healing wounds and most forms of cardiovascular disease. We propose that diabetes shifts the ‘angiogenic balance’ in favor of an excessive anti-angiogenic phenotype. Herein, we report that diabetes impairs in vivo sponge angiogenic capacity by decreasing VEGF expression and fibrovascular invasion, and reciprocally enhances the formation of angiostatic molecules, such as thrombospondins, NFκB and FasL. Defective in vivo angiogenesis prompted cellular studies in cultured endothelial cells derived from subcutaneous sponge implants (SIECs of control and Goto-Kakizaki rats. Ensuing data from diabetic SIECs demonstrated a marked upregulation in cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling, possibly stemming from increased expression of adenylyl cyclase isoforms 3 and 8, and decreased expression of PDE3. Mechanistically, we found that oxidative stress and PKA activation in diabetes enhanced CREM/ICER expression. This reduces IRS2 cellular content by inhibiting cAMP response element (CRE transcriptional activity. Consequently, a decrease in the activity of Akt-mTOR ensued with a concomitant reduction in the total and nuclear protein levels of HIF-1α. Limiting HIF-1α availability for the specific hypoxia response elements in diabetic SIECs elicited a marked reduction in VEGF expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels. These molecular abnormalities were illustrated functionally by a defect in various pro-angiogenic properties, including cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. A genetic-based strategy in diabetic SIECs using siRNAs against CREM/ICER significantly augmented the PKA-dependent VEGF expression. To this end, the current data identify the importance of CREM/ICER as a negative regulator of endothelial function and establish a link between CREM/ICER overexpression and impaired angiogenesis during the course of diabetes. Moreover, it could

  12. Consultation organised by CRE and CREG on the France-Belgium interconnection; Consultation organisee par la CRE et la CREG relative a la gestion de l'interconnexion France-Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In June 2002, RTE and ELIA put forward a proposal to CRE and CREG for setting up a new joint mechanism for allocating capacity on the Franco-Belgian border. As it contained a number of improvements, the regulators authorised its use as from July 1, 2002. At the same time, they announced that users would be consulted during Autumn 2002 on the way RTE's and ELIA's commitments had been reflected in contractual terms, the transparency of the allocation process, the new mechanism's overall efficiency and the possibility of allocating capacity on an annual basis. CRE and CREG ask everybody concerned by electricity transfers between France and Belgium to give his or her opinion on the way in which the interconnections new operating conditions contribute at present, or could contribute in the future, to developing fair and efficient competition on European Union electricity markets. (author)

  13. The CRE1 Cytokinin Pathway Is Differentially Recruited Depending on Medicago truncatula Root Environments and Negatively Regulates Resistance to a Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffont, Carole; Rey, Thomas; André, Olivier; Novero, Mara; Kazmierczak, Théophile; Debellé, Frédéric; Bonfante, Paola; Jacquet, Christophe; Frugier, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that regulate many developmental and environmental responses. The Medicago truncatula cytokinin receptor MtCRE1 (Cytokinin Response 1) is required for the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with rhizobia. As several cytokinin signaling genes are modulated in roots depending on different biotic and abiotic conditions, we assessed potential involvement of this pathway in various root environmental responses. Phenotyping of cre1 mutant roots infected by the Gigaspora margarita arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiotic fungus, the Aphanomyces euteiches root oomycete, or subjected to an abiotic stress (salt), were carried out. Detailed histological analysis and quantification of cre1 mycorrhized roots did not reveal any detrimental phenotype, suggesting that MtCRE1 does not belong to the ancestral common symbiotic pathway shared by rhizobial and AM symbioses. cre1 mutants formed an increased number of emerged lateral roots compared to wild-type plants, a phenotype which was also observed under non-stressed conditions. In response to A. euteiches, cre1 mutants showed reduced disease symptoms and an increased plant survival rate, correlated to an enhanced formation of lateral roots, a feature previously linked to Aphanomyces resistance. Overall, we showed that the cytokinin CRE1 pathway is not only required for symbiotic nodule organogenesis but also affects both root development and resistance to abiotic and biotic environmental stresses. PMID:25562779

  14. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral-flow dipstick assay for detection of bovine ephemeral fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Peili; Zhao, Guimin; Wang, Hongmei; He, Chengqiang; Huan, Yanjun; He, Hongbin

    2017-12-26

    Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), identified as the causative pathogen of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF), is responsible for increasing numbers of epidemics/outbreaks and has a significant harmful effect on the livestock industry. Therefore, a rapid detection assay is imperative for BEFV diagnosis. In this study, we described the development of lateral-flow dipstick isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (LFD-RPA) assays for detection of BEFV. RPA primers and LF probes were designed by targeting the specific G gene, and the amplification product can be visualized on a simple lateral flow dipstick with the naked eyes. The amplification reaction was performed at 38 °C for 20 min and LFD incubation time within 5 min. The detection limit of this assay was 8 copies per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other bovine infectious viruses such as bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine coronavirus, bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, bovine vesicular stomatitis virus. In addition, the assay was performed with total 128 clinical specimens and the diagnostic results were compared with conventional RT-PCR, real-time quantative(q) PCR. The result showed that the coincidence rate of BEFV LFD-RPA and real-time qPCR was 96.09% (123/128), which was higher than conventional RT-PCR. The RPA combined with LFD assay probably provides a rapid and sensitive alternative for diagnosis of BEFV infections outbreak. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y D; Xu, M J; Wang, Q Q; Zhou, C X; Wang, M; Zhu, X Q; Zhou, D H

    2017-08-30

    Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded vertebrates, resulting in a great threat to human health and significant economic loss to the livestock industry. Ingestion of infectious oocysts of T. gondii from the environment is the major source of transmission. Detection of T. gondii oocysts by existing methods is laborious, time-consuming and expensive. The objective of the present study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip for detection of T. gondii oocysts in the soil and water. The DNA of T. gondii oocysts was amplified by a pair of specific primers based on the T. gondii B1 gene over 15min at a constant temperature ranging from 30°C to 45°C using RPA. The amplification product was visualized by the lateral flow (LF) strip within 5min using the specific probe added to the RPA reaction system. The sensitivity of the established assay was 10 times higher than that of nested PCR with a lower detection limit of 0.1 oocyst per reaction, and there was no cross-reactivity with other closely related protozoan species. Fifty environmental samples were further assessed for the detection validity of the LF-RPA assay (B1-LF-RPA) and compared with nested PCR based on the B1 gene sequence. The B1-LF-RPA and nested PCR both showed that 5 out of the 50 environmental samples were positive. The B1-LF-RPA method was also proven to be sufficiently tolerant of existing inhibitors in the environment. In addition, the advantages of simple operation, speediness and cost-effectiveness make B1-LF-RPA a promising molecular detection tool for T. gondii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  17. Elimination of Marker Genes from Transformed Filamentous Fungi by Unselected Transient Transfection with a Cre-expressing Plasmid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A convenient method to remove selectable markers from fungal transformants permits the markers to be used for sequential transformations, and should also reduce public concerns and regulatory impediments to applications involving environmental release of genetically modified fungi. We report a metho...

  18. Recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid and visual detection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kui; Xing, Weiwei; Yu, Xinling; Fu, Wenliang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zou, Minji; Luo, Zhihong; Xu, Donggang

    2016-08-31

    With the continuous decline in prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection in China, more accurate and sensitive methods suitable for field detection become much needed for schistosomiasis control. Here, a novel rapid and visual detection method based on the combination of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed to detect S. japonicum DNA in fecal samples. The LFD-RPA assay targeting SjR2 could detect 5 fg S. japonicum DNA, which was identical to qPCR and real-time RPA assay, and showed no cross-reaction with other parasites. The detection could be finished within 15-20 min at a wide temperature range (25-45 °C), and the results could be visualized by naked eye. The diagnostic validity of LFD-RPA assay was further assessed with 14 fecal samples of infected patients diagnosed by Kato-Katz method and 31 fecal samples of healthy persons, and compared with that of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELSIA) and Indirect Hemagglutination Assay (IHA). The LFD-RPA assay showed 92.68 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity and excellent diagnostic agreement with the gold standard Kato-Katz test (k = 0.947, Z = 6.36, P < 0.001), whereas ELISA showed 85.71 % sensitivity, 93.55 % specificity, and substantial diagnostic agreement (k = 0.793, Z = 5.31, P < 0.001), and IHA showed 78.57 % sensitivity, 83.87 % specificity, and moderate diagnostic agreement (k = 0.600, Z = 4.05, P < 0.001), indicating that the LFD-RPA was much better than the traditional methods. The LFD-RPA assay established by us is a sensitive, specific, rapid and convenient method for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, and shows a great potency in field application.

  19. A rapid assay for detection of Rose rosette virus using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification using multiple gene targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Binoy; Washburn, Brian K; Miller, Steven H; Poduch, Kristina; Sarigul, Tulin; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Paret, Mathews L

    2017-02-01

    Rose rosette disease caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is the most economically relevant disease of Knock Out® series roses in the U.S. As there are no effective chemical control options for the disease, the most critical disease management strategies include the use of virus free clean plants for propagation and early detection and destruction of infected plants. The current diagnostic techniques for RRV including end-point reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) are highly sensitive, but limited to diagnostic labs with the equipment and expertise; and is time consuming. To address this limitation, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay based on multiple gene targets for specific detection of RRV was developed. The assay is highly specific and did not cross react with other viruses belonging to the inclusive and exclusive genus. Dilution assays using the in vitro transcripts showed that the primer sets designed (RPA-267, RPA-131, and RPA-321) are highly sensitive, consistently detecting RRV with a detection limit of 1fg/μL. Testing of the infected plants using the primer sets indicated that the virus could be detected from leaves, stems and petals of roses. The primer pair RPA-267 produced 100% positive detection of the virus from infected leaf tissues, while primer set RPA-131 produced 100% detection from stems and petals. The primer set RPA-321 produced 83%, 87.5% and 75% positive detection from leaves, petals and stem tissues, respectively. In addition, the assay has been efficiently used in the detection of RRV infecting Knock Out® roses, collected from different states in the U.S. The assay can be completed in 20min as compared to the end-point RT-PCR assay (3-4h) and RT-qPCR (1.5h). The RT-RPA assay is reliable, rapid, highly sensitive, and can be easily used in diagnostic laboratories for detection of RRV with no need for any special equipment

  20. Synthesis of the investment program proposals submitted by RTE to CRE's approval; Synthese des propositions de programme d'investissement soumises par RTE a l'approbation de la CRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Conformably to the French law from February 10, 2000, the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) must proceed to the examination of the proposals submitted by the electricity transportation network (RTE) for the approval of its 2002 investments program devoted to the power grid. The main lines of the proposals submitted by RTE are described in this document: 1 - strategy of grid development (methodology, interconnections), 2 - methods of evaluation and selection of regional projects (replacement and development projects), 3 - main projects retained (main transportation network and interconnections, regional networks, remote control and safety systems), 4 - program financing plan. (J.S.)

  1. Conserved amino acid motifs from the novel Piv/MooV family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of DNA inversion by Piv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiason, D M; Buchner, J M; Thiel, W H; Gernert, K M; Karls, A C

    2001-02-01

    Piv, a site-specific invertase from Moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements. The functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (Piv/MooV family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in Piv. All Piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the M. lacunata invertible DNA segment, but competent for in vivo binding to Piv DNA recognition sequences. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Piv/MooV recombinases do not contain a conserved DDE motif, which defines the retroviral integrase/transposase (IN/Tnps) family, the predicted secondary structural elements of Piv align well with those of the IN/Tnps for which crystal structures have been determined. Molecular modelling of Piv based on these alignments predicts that E59, conserved as either E or D in the Piv/MooV family, forms a catalytic pocket with the conserved D9 and D101 residues. Analysis of Piv E59G confirms a role for E59 in catalysis of inversion. These results suggest that Piv and the related IS110/IS492 transposases mediate DNA recombination by a common mechanism involving a catalytic DED or DDD motif.

  2. Growth factor independence 1b (gfi1b is important for the maturation of erythroid cells and the regulation of embryonic globin expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Vassen

    Full Text Available Growth factor independence 1b (GFI1B is a DNA binding repressor of transcription with vital functions in hematopoiesis. Gfi1b-null embryos die at midgestation very likely due to defects in erythro- and megakaryopoiesis. To analyze the full functionality of Gfi1b, we used conditionally deficient mice that harbor floxed Gfi1b alleles and inducible (Mx-Cre, Cre-ERT or erythroid specific (EpoR-Cre Cre expressing transgenes. In contrast to the germline knockout, EpoR-Cre mediated erythroid specific ablation of Gfi1b allows full gestation, but causes perinatal lethality with very few mice surviving to adulthood. Both the embryonic deletion of Gfi1b by EpoR-Cre and the deletion in adult mice by Mx-Cre or Cre-ERT leads to reduced numbers of erythroid precursors, perturbed and delayed erythroid maturation, anemia and extramedullary erythropoiesis. Global expression analyses showed that the Hba-x, Hbb-bh1 and Hbb-y embryonic globin genes were upregulated in Gfi1b deficient TER119+ fetal liver cells over the gestation period from day 12.5-17.5 p.c. and an increased level of Hbb-bh1 and Hbb-y embryonic globin gene expression was even maintained in adult Gfi1b deficient mice. While the expression of Bcl11a, a regulator of embryonic globin expression was not affected by Gfi1b deficiency, the expression of Gata1 was reduced and the expression of Sox6, also involved in globin switch, was almost entirely lost when Gfi1b was absent. These findings establish Gfi1b as a regulator of embryonic globin expression and embryonic and adult erythroid maturation.

  3. High burden of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE fecal carriage at a teaching hospital: cost-effectiveness of screening in low-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Zaidah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB have been continuously growing and pose challenge to health institution globally. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea (CRE was identified as one of the MDR-GNB which has limited treatment options and higher mortality compared to those of sensitive strains. We report an increased burden of CRE fecal carriage at a hospital in the North-eastern region of Malaysia. Methods A retrospective descriptive study from August 2013 to December 2015 was conducted in the Medical Microbiology & Parasitology laboratory of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, which is a tertiary teaching hospital with more than 700 beds. This hospital treats patients with various medical and surgical conditions. Suspected CRE from any clinical specimens received by the laboratory was identified and confirmed using standard protocols. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was performed to determine the genotype. Results Altogether, 8306 Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from various clinical specimens during the study period and 477/8306 (5.74% were CRE. Majority of the isolated CRE were Klebsiella [408/477, (85.5%], of which Klebsiella pneumoniae was the predominant species, 388/408 (95%. CRE were mainly isolated from rectal swab (screening, 235/477 (49.3%; urine, 76/477 (15.9%; blood, 46/477 (9.6% and about 7.1% from tracheal aspirate. One hundred and thirty-six isolates were subjected to genotype determination and., 112/136 (82.4% showed positive detection of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 gene (bla NDM1. Conclusion The study noted a high numbers of CRE isolated especially from rectal swabs. Active screening results in significant cost pressures and therefore should be revisited and revised, especially in low resource settings.

  4. DLG1 influences distal ureter maturation via a non-epithelial cell autonomous mechanism involving reduced retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Tae; Ahn, Sun-Young; Swat, Wojciech; Miner, Jeffrey H

    2014-06-15

    The absence of Discs-large 1 (DLG1), the mouse ortholog of the Drosophila discs-large tumor suppressor, results in congenital hydronephrosis characterized by urinary tract abnormalities, reduced ureteric bud branching, and delayed disconnection of the ureter from the common nephric duct (CND). To define the specific cellular requirements for Dlg1 expression during urogenital development, we used a floxed Dlg1 allele and Pax2-Cre, Pax3-Cre, Six2-Cre, and HoxB7-Cre transgenes to generate cell type-restricted Dlg1 mutants. In addition, we used Ret(GFP) knockin and retinoic acid response element-lacZ transgenic mice to determine the effects of Dlg1 mutation on the respective morphogenetic signaling pathways. Mutation of Dlg1 in urothelium and collecting ducts (via HoxB7-Cre or Pax2-Cre) and in nephron precursors (via Pax2-Cre and Six2-Cre) resulted in no apparent abnormalities in ureteric bud branching or in distal ureter maturation, and no hydronephrosis. Mutation in nephrons, ureteric smooth muscle, and mesenchyme surrounding the lower urinary tract (via the Pax3-Cre transgene) resulted in congenital hydronephrosis accompanied by reduced branching, abnormal distal ureter maturation and insertion, and smooth muscle orientation defects, phenotypes very similar to those in Dlg1 null mice. Dlg1 null mice showed reduced Ret expression and apoptosis during ureter maturation and evidence of reduced retinoic acid signaling in the kidney. Taken together, these results suggest that Dlg1 expression in ureter and CND-associated mesenchymal cells is essential for ensuring distal ureter maturation by facilitating retinoic acid signaling, Ret expression, and apoptosis of the urothelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of Energy Balance via BDNF Expressed in Nonparaventricular Hypothalamic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haili; An, Juan Ji; Sun, Chao; Xu, Baoji

    2016-05-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expressed in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH) has been shown to play a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure. BDNF is also expressed in other hypothalamic nuclei; however, the role in the control of energy balance for BDNF produced in these structures remains largely unknown. We found that deleting the Bdnf gene in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) during embryogenesis using the Sf1-Cre transgene had no effect on body weight in mice. In contrast, deleting the Bdnf gene in the adult VMH using Cre-expressing virus led to significant hyperphagia and obesity. These observations indicate that the lack of a hyperphagia phenotype in the Sf1-Cre/Bdnf mutant mice is likely due to developmental compensation. To investigate the role of BDNF expressed in other hypothalamic areas, we employed the hypothalamus-specific Nkx2.1-Cre transgene to delete the Bdnf gene. We found that the Nkx2.1-Cre transgene could abolish BDNF expression in many hypothalamic nuclei, but not in the PVH, and that the resulting mutant mice developed modest obesity due to reduced energy expenditure. Thus, BDNF produced in the VMH plays a role in regulating energy intake. Furthermore, BDNF expressed in hypothalamic areas other than PVH and VMH is also involved in the control of energy expenditure.

  6. A novel, broad-range, CTXΦ-derived stable integrative expression vector for functional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhabatosh; Kumari, Reena; Pant, Archana; Sen Gupta, Sourav; Saxena, Shruti; Mehta, Ojasvi; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish

    2014-12-01

    CTXΦ, a filamentous vibriophage encoding cholera toxin, uses a unique strategy for its lysogeny. The single-stranded phage genome forms intramolecular base-pairing interactions between two inversely oriented XerC and XerD binding sites (XBS) and generates a functional phage attachment site, attP(+), for integration. The attP(+) structure is recognized by the host-encoded tyrosine recombinases XerC and XerD (XerCD), which enables irreversible integration of CTXΦ into the chromosome dimer resolution site (dif) of Vibrio cholerae. The dif site and the XerCD recombinases are widely conserved in bacteria. We took advantage of these conserved attributes to develop a broad-host-range integrative expression vector that could irreversibly integrate into the host chromosome using XerCD recombinases without altering the function of any known open reading frame (ORF). In this study, we engineered two different arabinose-inducible expression vectors, pBD62 and pBD66, using XBS of CTXΦ. pBD62 replicates conditionally and integrates efficiently into the dif of the bacterial chromosome by site-specific recombination using host-encoded XerCD recombinases. The expression level of the gene of interest could be controlled through the PBAD promoter by modulating the functions of the vector-encoded transcriptional factor AraC. We validated the irreversible integration of pBD62 into a wide range of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, such as V. cholerae, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Gene expression from the PBAD promoter of integrated vectors was confirmed in V. cholerae using the well-studied reporter genes mCherry, eGFP, and lacZ. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Antisense silencing of the creA gene in Aspergillus nidulans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bautista, L. F.; Aleksenko, Alexei Y.; Hentzer, Morten

    2000-01-01

    Antisense expression of a portion of the gene encoding the major carbon catabolite repressor CREA in Aspergillus nidulans resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of glucose-repressible enzymes, both endogenous and heterologous, in the presence of glucose. The derepression effect was appr......Antisense expression of a portion of the gene encoding the major carbon catabolite repressor CREA in Aspergillus nidulans resulted in a substantial increase in the levels of glucose-repressible enzymes, both endogenous and heterologous, in the presence of glucose. The derepression effect...

  8. Instant, Visual, and Instrument-Free Method for On-Site Screening of GTS 40-3-2 Soybean Based on Body-Heat Triggered Recombinase Polymerase Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Liu; Qian, Wenjuan; Qian, Cheng; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2017-04-18

    On-site monitoring the plantation of genetically modified (GM) crops is of critical importance in agriculture industry throughout the world. In this paper, a simple, visual and instrument-free method for instant on-site detection of GTS 40-3-2 soybean has been developed. It is based on body-heat recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and followed with naked-eye detection via fluorescent DNA dye. Combining with extremely simplified sample preparation, the whole detection process can be accomplished within 10 min and the fluorescent results can be photographed by an accompanied smart phone. Results demonstrated a 100% detection rate for screening of practical GTS 40-3-2 soybean samples by 20 volunteers under different ambient temperatures. This method is not only suitable for on-site detection of GM crops but also demonstrates great potential to be applied in other fields.

  9. Rad51 and RecA juxtapose dsDNA ends ready for DNA ligase-catalyzed end-joining under recombinase-suppressive conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konomura, Naoto; Arai, Naoto; Shinohara, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Iwasaki, Wakana; Ikawa, Shukuko; Kusano, Kohji; Shibata, Takehiko

    2017-01-01

    RecA-family recombinase-catalyzed ATP-dependent homologous joint formation is critical for homologous recombination, in which RecA or Rad51 binds first to single-stranded (ss)DNA and then interacts with double-stranded (ds)DNA. However, when RecA or Rad51 interacts with dsDNA before binding to ssDNA, the homologous joint-forming activity of RecA or Rad51 is quickly suppressed. We found that under these and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-generating suppressive conditions for the recombinase activity, RecA or Rad51 at similar optimal concentrations enhances the DNA ligase-catalyzed dsDNA end-joining (DNA ligation) about 30- to 40-fold. The DNA ligation enhancement by RecA or Rad51 transforms most of the substrate DNA into multimers within 2–5 min, and for this enhancement, ADP is the common and best cofactor. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is effective for RecA, but not for Rad51. Rad51/RecA-enhanced DNA ligation depends on dsDNA-binding, as shown by a mutant, and is independent of physical interactions with the DNA ligase. These observations demonstrate the common and unique activities of RecA and Rad51 to juxtapose dsDNA-ends in preparation for covalent joining by a DNA ligase. This new in vitro function of Rad51 provides a simple explanation for our genetic observation that Rad51 plays a role in the fidelity of the end-joining of a reporter plasmid DNA, by yeast canonical non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) in vivo. PMID:27794044

  10. TCreERT2, a transgenic mouse line for temporal control of Cre-mediated recombination in lineages emerging from the primitive streak or tail bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Naiche, L A; Wilson, Catherine P; Elder, Cindy; Swing, Deborah A; Lewandoski, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The study of axis extension and somitogenesis has been greatly advanced through the use of genetic tools such as the TCre mouse line. In this line, Cre is controlled by a fragment of the T (Brachyury) promoter that is active in progenitor cells that reside within the primitive streak and tail bud and which give rise to lineages emerging from these tissues as the embryonic axis extends. However, because TCre-mediated recombination occurs early in development, gene inactivation can result in an axis truncation that precludes the study of gene function in later or more posterior tissues. To address this limitation, we have generated an inducible TCre transgenic mouse line, called TCreERT2, that provides temporal control, through tamoxifen administration, in all cells emerging from the primitive streak or tail bud throughout development. TCreERT2 activity is mostly silent in the absence of tamoxifen and, in its presence, results in near complete recombination of emerging mesoderm from E7.5 through E13.5. We demonstrate the utility of the TCreERT2 line for determining rate of posterior axis extension and somite formation, thus providing the first in vivo tool for such measurements. To test the usefulness of TCreERT2 for genetic manipulation, we demonstrate that an early deletion of ß-Catenin via TCreERT2 induction phenocopies the TCre-mediated deletion of ß-Catenin defect, whereas a later induction bypasses this early phenotype and produces a similar defect in more caudal tissues. TCreERT2 provides a useful and novel tool for the control of gene expression of emerging embryonic lineages throughout development.

  11. Inhibition of Pancreatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia Progression to Carcinoma by Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin in p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthalapally V. Rao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NO-aspirin represents a novel class of promising chemopreventive agents. Unlike conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, NO-aspirin seems to be free of adverse effects while retaining the beneficial activities of its parent compound. The effect of NO-aspirin on pancreatic carcinogenesis was investigated by assessing the development of precursor pancreatic lesions and adenocarcinomas in KrasG12D/+ transgenic mice that recapitulate human pancreatic cancer progression. Six-week-old male p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ transgenic mice (20 per group were fed diets containing 0, 1000, or 2000 ppm NO-aspirin. The development of pancreatic tumors was monitored by positron emission tomography imaging. All mice were killed at the age of 41 weeks and assessed for pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC and for molecular changes in the tumors. Our results reveal that NO-aspirin at 1000 and 2000 ppm significantly suppressed pancreatic tumor weights, PDAC incidence, and carcinoma in situ (PanIN-3 lesions. The degree of inhibition of PanIN-3 and carcinoma was more pronounced with NO-aspirin at 1000 ppm (58.8% and 48%, respectively than with 2000 ppm (47% and 20%, respectively. NO-aspirin at 1000 ppm significantly inhibited the spread of carcinoma in the pancreas (∼97%; P < .0001. Decreased expression of cyclooxygenase (COX; with ∼42% inhibition of total COX activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, and β-catenin was observed, with induction of p21, p38, and p53 in the pancreas of NO-aspirin-treated mice. These results suggest that low-dose NO-aspirin possesses inhibitory activity against pancreatic carcinogenesis by modulating multiple molecular targets.

  12. Transgenic tools for analysis of the haematopoietic system: knock-in CD45 reporter and deletor mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Hills, David; Taylor, Erin; Pfeffer, Klaus; Ure, Jan; Medvinsky, Alexander

    2008-09-15

    We have produced and characterised reporter knock-in CD45-YFP and CD45-Cre mice that drive expression of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and Cre-recombinase, respectively under control of the haematopoietic CD45 locus. CD45-YFP expression was characterised in various haematopoietic cells populations. The activity of CD45-Cre mice was assessed by crossing with silent GFP reporter mice. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that both CD45-YFP and CD45-Cre were strongly expressed in the CD45(+) compartment of peripheral blood. Expression of these markers in various populations of adult bone marrow, including primitive cell populations was also determined. These mouse models will be useful for the direct visualisation of haematopoietic cells, especially at the periphery, and for gene knockout studies, in the haematopoietic system.

  13. α-Fetoprotein promoter-driven Cre/LoxP-switched RNA interference for hepatocellular carcinoma tissue-specific target therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fei Peng

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi has recently emerged as a potential treatment modality for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC therapy, but the lack of cellular targets and sustained efficacy limits its application. The purpose of this study is to develop an HCC tissue-specific RNAi system and investigate its possibility for HCC treatment.Two different HCC-specific RNAi systems in which therapeutic miRNA or shRNA against target gene (Beclin 1 was directly or indirectly driven by alpha-fetoprotein promoter (AFP-miRNA and AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA were constructed. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and HCCLM3 and non-HCC cell lines (L-02, Hela and SW1116 were infected with the systems. The effectiveness and tissue-specificity of the systems were examined by Q-PCR and western blot analysis. The efficacy of the systems was further tested in mouse model of HCC by intravenous or intratumoral administration. The feasibility of the system for HCC treatment was evaluated by applying the system as adjuvant therapy to enhance sorafenib treatment. An AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system targeting Atg5 gene (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA-Atg5 was constructed and its efficacy in sensitizing HCC cells (MHCC97L/PLC to sorafenib treatment was examined by apoptosis assay in vitro and tumorigenesis assay in vivo.The AFP-miRNA system could silence target gene (Beclin 1 but required a high titer which was lethal to target cells. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently knockdown target gene while maintain high HCC specificity. Intratumoral injection of the AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system could efficiently silence target gene (Beclin 1 in vivo while intravenous administration could not. The AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA system target Atg5 gene could significantly sensitize MHCC97L/PLC cells to sorafenib-induced apoptosis in vitro and tumor growth suppression in vivo.An efficient HCC tissue-specific RNAi system (AFP-Cre/LoxP-shRNA was successfully established. The system provides a usable tool for HCC-specific RNAi

  14. Mikroskop görüntüsünde otomatik embriyonik kök hücre tespiti ve sayımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen Çetinel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mikroskop altında hücre sayımı, bir uzman tarafından mikroskop merceğine sürekli bakılarak veya otomatik hücre sayımı yöntemleri kullanılarak yapılabilmektedir. Sayım uzman tarafından yapıldığında oldukça yorucu, uzun süren ve düşük doğruluğa sahip bir işlem haline gelmektedir. Bunun dışında hücre sayımını zorlaştrıan ve doğruluğu düşüren başka etkenler de mevcuttur. Bu nedenle, hücre sayımının otomatik bir şekilde yapılması ve sunulan sayım yöntemlerinin iyileştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada, flüoresans mikroskop görüntüsünde otomatik hücre tespiti ve sayımı için bir yöntem sunulmuştur. Yöntemin tüm adımları açıklanmıştır. Sunulan yöntemin etkinliği birçok farklı durum için simülasyon programları vasıtasıyla test edilmiş, yöntemin başarıya ulaştığı ve gelecek vadeden bir çalışma olduğu gösterilmiştir.

  15. A set of vectors for introduction of antibiotic resistance genes by in vitro Cre-mediated recombination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassetzky Yegor S

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introduction of new antibiotic resistance genes in the plasmids of interest is a frequent task in molecular cloning practice. Classical approaches involving digestion with restriction endonucleases and ligation are time-consuming. Findings We have created a set of insertion vectors (pINS carrying genes that provide resistance to various antibiotics (puromycin, blasticidin and G418 and containing a loxP site. Each vector (pINS-Puro, pINS-Blast or pINS-Neo contains either a chloramphenicol or a kanamycin resistance gene and is unable to replicate in most E. coli strains as it contains a conditional R6Kγ replication origin. Introduction of the antibiotic resistance genes into the vector of interest is achieved by Cre-mediated recombination between the replication-incompetent pINS and a replication-competent target vector. The recombination mix is then transformed into E. coli and selected by the resistance marker (kanamycin or chloramphenicol present in pINS, which allows to recover the recombinant plasmids with 100% efficiency. Conclusion Here we propose a simple strategy that allows to introduce various antibiotic-resistance genes into any plasmid containing a replication origin, an ampicillin resistance gene and a loxP site.

  16. Study of muscle cell dedifferentiation after skeletal muscle injury of mice with a Cre-Lox system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Mu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation of muscle cells in the tissue of mammals has yet to be observed. One of the challenges facing the study of skeletal muscle cell dedifferentiation is the availability of a reliable model that can confidentially distinguish differentiated cell populations of myotubes and non-fused mononuclear cells, including stem cells that can coexist within the population of cells being studied.In the current study, we created a Cre/Lox-β-galactosidase system, which can specifically tag differentiated multinuclear myotubes and myotube-generated mononuclear cells based on the activation of the marker gene, β-galactosidase. By using this system in an adult mouse model, we found that β-galactosidase positive mononuclear cells were generated from β-galactosidase positive multinuclear myofibers upon muscle injury. We also demonstrated that these mononuclear cells can develop into a variety of different muscle cell lineages, i.e., myoblasts, satellite cells, and muscle derived stem cells.These novel findings demonstrated, for the first time, that cellular dedifferentiation of skeletal muscle cells actually occurs in mammalian skeletal muscle following traumatic injury in vivo.

  17. Cell-Type-Specific Circuit Connectivity of Hippocampal CA1 Revealed through Cre-Dependent Rabies Tracing

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    Yanjun Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC, the medial septum (MS, and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.

  18. CRE Solvability, Nonlocal Symmetry and Exact Interaction Solutions of the Fifth-Order Modified Korteweg-de Vries Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Guang; Qiu, De-Qin; Yu, Bo

    2017-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the fifth-order modified Korteweg-de Vries (fmKdV) equation. It is proved that the fmKdV equation is consistent Riccati expansion (CRE) solvable. Three special form of soliton-cnoidal wave interaction solutions are discussed analytically and shown graphically. Furthermore, based on the consistent tanh expansion (CTE) method, the nonlocal symmetry related to the consistent tanh expansion (CTE) is investigated, we also give the relationship between this kind of nonlocal symmetry and the residual symmetry which can be obtained with the truncated Painlevé method. We further study the spectral function symmetry and derive the Lax pair of the fmKdV equation. The residual symmetry can be localized to the Lie point symmetry of an enlarged system and the corresponding finite transformation group is computed. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505090, and Research Award Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province under Grant No. BS2015SF009

  19. Design of potent inhibitors of human RAD51 recombinase based on BRC motifs of BRCA2 protein: modeling and experimental validation of a chimera peptide.

    KAUST Repository

    Nomme, Julian

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that a 28-amino acid peptide derived from the BRC4 motif of BRCA2 tumor suppressor inhibits selectively human RAD51 recombinase (HsRad51). With the aim of designing better inhibitors for cancer treatment, we combined an in silico docking approach with in vitro biochemical testing to construct a highly efficient chimera peptide from eight existing human BRC motifs. We built a molecular model of all BRC motifs complexed with HsRad51 based on the crystal structure of the BRC4 motif-HsRad51 complex, computed the interaction energy of each residue in each BRC motif, and selected the best amino acid residue at each binding position. This analysis enabled us to propose four amino acid substitutions in the BRC4 motif. Three of these increased the inhibitory effect in vitro, and this effect was found to be additive. We thus obtained a peptide that is about 10 times more efficient in inhibiting HsRad51-ssDNA complex formation than the original peptide.

  20. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA of CaMV-35S Promoter and nos Terminator for Rapid Detection of Genetically Modified Crops

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    Chao Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37–42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15–25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean. With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops.

  1. Three new structures of left-handed RADA helical filaments: structural flexibility of N-terminal domain is critical for recombinase activity.

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    Yu-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available RecA family proteins, including bacterial RecA, archaeal RadA, and eukaryotic Dmc1 and Rad51, mediate homologous recombination, a reaction essential for maintaining genome integrity. In the presence of ATP, these proteins bind a single-strand DNA to form a right-handed nucleoprotein filament, which catalyzes pairing and strand exchange with a homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, by as-yet unknown mechanisms. We recently reported a structure of RadA left-handed helical filament, and here present three new structures of RadA left-handed helical filaments. Comparative structural analysis between different RadA/Rad51 helical filaments reveals that the N-terminal domain (NTD of RadA/Rad51, implicated in dsDNA binding, is highly flexible. We identify a hinge region between NTD and polymerization motif as responsible for rigid body movement of NTD. Mutant analysis further confirms that structural flexibility of NTD is essential for RadA's recombinase activity. These results support our previous hypothesis that ATP-dependent axial rotation of RadA nucleoprotein helical filament promotes homologous recombination.

  2. Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP(®) using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulu; Ravelonandro, Michel; Russell, Paul; McOwen, Nathan; Briard, Pascal; Bohannon, Seven; Vrient, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most destructive viral disease known as plum pox or Sharka disease in stone fruit trees. As an important regulated pathogen, detection of PPV is thus of critical importance to quarantine and eradication of the spreading disease. In this study, the innovative development of two AmplifyRP(®) tests is reported for a rapid isothermal detection of PPV using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. In an AmplifyRP(®) test, all specific recombination and amplification reactions occur at a constant temperature without thermal cycling and the test results are either recorded in real-time with a portable fluorescence reader or displayed using a lateral flow strip contained inside an amplicon detection chamber. The major improvement of this assay is that the entire test from sample preparation to result can be completed in as little as 20min and can be performed easily both in laboratories and in the field. The results from this study demonstrated the ability of the AmplifyRP(®) technique to detect all nine PPV strains (An, C, CR, D, EA, M, Rec, T, or W). Among the economic benefits to pathogen surveys is the higher sensitivity of the AmplifyRP(®) to detect PPV when compared to the conventional ELISA and ImmunoStrip(®) assays. This is the first report describing the use of such an innovative technique to detect rapidly plant viruses affecting perennial crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) of CaMV-35S Promoter and nos Terminator for Rapid Detection of Genetically Modified Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Li, Liang; Jin, Wujun; Wan, Yusong

    2014-01-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37–42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S) promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos) terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM) crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15–25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean). With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops. PMID:25310647

  4. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of genetic information between the hematopoietic system and the brain in response to inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Ridder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms behind how the immune system signals to the brain in response to systemic inflammation are not fully understood. Transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase specifically in the hematopoietic lineage in a Cre reporter background display recombination and marker gene expression in Purkinje neurons. Here we show that reportergene expression in neurons is caused by intercellular transfer of functional Cre recombinase messenger RNA from immune cells into neurons in the absence of cell fusion. In vitro purified secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs from blood cells contain Cre mRNA, which induces recombination in neurons when injected into the brain. Although Cre-mediated recombination events in the brain occur very rarely in healthy animals, their number increases considerably in different injury models, particularly under inflammatory conditions, and extend beyond Purkinje neurons to other neuronal populations in cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra. Recombined Purkinje neurons differ in their miRNA profile from their nonrecombined counterparts, indicating physiological significance. These observations reveal the existence of a previously unrecognized mechanism to communicate RNA-based signals between the hematopoietic system and various organs, including the brain, in response to inflammation.

  5. A centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Goro; Jung, Jae Hwan; Park, Byung Hyun; Oh, Seung Jun; Seo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-06-21

    In this study, we developed a centrifugal direct recombinase polymerase amplification (direct-RPA) microdevice for multiplex and real-time identification of food poisoning bacteria contaminated milk samples. The microdevice was designed to contain identical triplicate functional units and each unit has four reaction chambers, thereby making it possible to perform twelve direct-RPA reactions simultaneously. The integrated microdevice consisted of two layers: RPA reagents were injected in the top layer, while spiked milk samples with food poisoning bacteria were loaded into sample reservoirs in the bottom layer. For multiplex bacterial detection, the target gene-specific primers and probes were dried in each reaction chamber. The introduced samples and reagents could be equally aliquoted and dispensed into each reaction chamber by centrifugal force, and then the multiplex direct-RPA reaction was executed. The target genes of bacteria spiked in milk could be amplified at 39 °C without a DNA extraction step by using the direct-RPA cocktails, which were a combination of a direct PCR buffer and RPA enzymes. As the target gene amplification proceeded, the increased fluorescence signals coming from the reaction chambers were recorded in real-time at an interval of 2 min. The entire process, including the sample distribution, the direct-RPA reaction, and the real-time analysis, was accomplished with a custom-made portable genetic analyzer and a miniaturized optical detector. Monoplex, duplex, and triplex food poisoning bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) detection was successfully performed with a detection sensitivity of 4 cells per 3.2 μL of milk samples within 30 min. By implementing the direct-PRA on the miniaturized centrifugal microsystem, the on-site food poisoning bacteria analysis would be feasible with high speed, sensitivity, and multiplicity.

  6. Isothermal Method of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Most Common High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Type 18 DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Fang, Jiehong; Wang, Ye; He, Haizhen; Dai, Mingyan; Lin, Wei; Su, Wei; Zhang, Mingzhou

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common gynecologic malignant tumor and has a great impact on women's health. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is implicated in cervical cancer and precancerous lesions and the two are possibly two stages of disease progression. With the technological development of molecular biology and epidemiology, detection and treatment of HPV has become an important means to prevent cervical cancer. Here we present a novel, rapid, sensitive and specific isothermal method of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which is established to detect the two most common high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 and type 18 DNA. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of the RPA assay, incubating clinical specimens of HPV16 and HPV18 using plasmids standard. It operates at constant low temperature without the thermal instrumentation for incubation. The products can be detected via agarose gel electrophoresis assay, reverse dot blot assay, and quantitative real-time assay with SYBR Green I. We assess the diagnostic performance of the RPA assay for detecting of HPV16 and HPV18 in 335 clinical samples from patients suspected of cervical cancer. The results revealed no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes and the RPA assay achieve a sensitivity of 100 copies. Compared with TaqMan qPCR, the RPA technique achieves exponential amplification with no need for pretreatment of sample DNA at 37°C for 20 minutes, which reveals more satisfactory performance. The agreement between the RPA and qPCR assays was 97.6% (κ = 0.89) for HPV16 positivity and 98.5% (κ = 0.81) for HPV18 positivity, indicating very good correlation between both tests. Importantly, the RPA assay was demonstrated to be a useful and powerful method for detection of HPV virus, which therefore may serve as a valuable tool for rapid diagnosis of HPV infection in both commercial and clinical applications.

  7. Conditional gene expression systems in the transgenic rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönig Kai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Turning gene expression on and off at will is one of the most powerful tools for the study of gene function in vivo. While several conditional systems were successful in invertebrates, in mice the Cre/loxP recombination system and the tet-controlled transcription activation system are predominant. Both expression systems allow for spatial and temporal control of gene activities, and, in the case of tet regulation, even for the reversible activation/inactivation of gene expression. Although the rat is the principal experimental model in biomedical research, in particular in studies of neuroscience, conditional rat transgenic systems are exceptionally rare in this species. Results We addressed this lack of technology, and established and thoroughly characterized CreERT2 and tTA transgenic rats with forebrain-specific transgene expression, controlled by the CaMKII alpha promoter. In addition, we developed new universal rat reporter lines for both transcription control systems and established inducible and efficient reporter gene expression in forebrain neurons. Conclusions We demonstrate that conditional genetic manipulations in the rat brain are both feasible and practicable and outline advantages and limitations of the Tet and Cre/loxP system in the rat brain.

  8. How can Cre.eight – an online t-shirt brand – increase brand awareness and sales, in Portuguese market, through its main social media networking sites : Facebook and Instagram?

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Pedro Filgueiras Soares

    2016-01-01

    Cre.eight is an online t-shirt brand founded by Pedro Ferraz in 2015. This dissertation has the objective of studying Cre.eight and understanding the importance of Facebook and Instagram as means of increasing brand awareness and sales. The relevance of social media networking sites for the millennial generation was evaluated, along with the tools that these platforms posses for up-rising brands. An outlined analysis of Facebook and Instagram and their power as communication ch...

  9. Beta1 integrin expression by podocytes is required to maintain glomerular structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Ambra; Jarad, George; Moeckel, Gilbert W; Coffa, Sergio; Zhang, Xi; Gewin, Leslie; Eremina, Vera; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Harris, Raymond C; Holzman, Lawrence B; Phillips, Carrie L; Fassler, Reinhard; Quaggin, Susan E; Miner, Jeffrey H; Zent, Roy

    2008-04-15

    Integrins are transmembrane heteromeric receptors that mediate interactions between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). beta1, the most abundantly expressed integrin subunit, binds at least 12 alpha subunits. beta1 containing integrins are highly expressed in the glomerulus of the kidney; however their role in glomerular morphogenesis and maintenance of glomerular filtration barrier integrity is poorly understood. To study these questions we selectively deleted beta1 integrin in the podocyte by crossing beta1(flox/flox) mice with podocyte specific podocin-cre mice (pod-Cre), which express cre at the time of glomerular capillary formation. We demonstrate that podocyte abnormalities are visualized during glomerulogenesis of the pod-Cre;beta1(flox/flox) mice and proteinuria is present at birth, despite a grossly normal glomerular basement membrane. Following the advent of glomerular filtration there is progressive podocyte loss and the mice develop capillary loop and mesangium degeneration with little evidence of glomerulosclerosis. By 3 weeks of age the mice develop severe end stage renal failure characterized by both tubulointerstitial and glomerular pathology. Thus, expression of beta1 containing integrins by the podocyte is critical for maintaining the structural integrity of the glomerulus.

  10. Distribution and characterisation of Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor expressing cells in the mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Cork

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: This study is a comprehensive description and phenotypic analysis of GLP-1R expression in the mouse CNS. We demonstrate the power of combining the GLP-1R-CRE mouse with a virus to generate a selective molecular handle enabling future in vivo investigation as to their physiological importance.

  11. A field based detection method for Rose rosette virus using isothermal probe-based Reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Binoy; Washburn, Brian K; Ertek, Tülin Sarigül; Miller, Steven H; Riddle, Charles B; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Olson, Jennifer; Katırcıoğlu, Yakup Zekai; Paret, Mathews L

    2017-09-01

    Rose rosette disease, caused by Rose rosette virus (RRV; genus Emaravirus) is a major threat to the rose industry in the U.S. The only strategy currently available for disease management is early detection and eradication of the infected plants, thereby limiting its potential spread. Current RT-PCR based diagnostic methods for RRV are time consuming and are inconsistent in detecting the virus from symptomatic plants. Real-time RT-qPCR assay is highly sensitive for detection of RRV, but it is expensive and requires well-equipped laboratories. Both the RT-PCR and RT-qPCR cannot be used in a field-based testing for RRV. Hence a novel probe based, isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-exoRPA) assay, using primer/probe designed based on the nucleocapsid gene of the RRV has been developed. The assay is highly specific and did not give a positive reaction to other viruses infecting roses belonging to both inclusive and exclusive genus. Dilution assays using the in vitro transcript showed that the primer/probe set is highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1 fg/μl. In addition, a rapid technique for the extraction of viral RNA (<5min) has been standardized from RRV infected tissue sources, using PBS-T buffer (pH 7.4), which facilitates the virus adsorption onto the PCR tubes at 4°C for 2min, followed by denaturation to release the RNA. RT-exoRPA analysis of the infected plants using the primer/probe indicated that the virus could be detected from leaves, stems, petals, pollen, primary roots and secondary roots. In addition, the assay was efficiently used in the diagnosis of RRV from different rose varieties, collected from different states in the U.S. The entire process, including the extraction can be completed in 25min, with less sophisticated equipments. The developed assay can be used with high efficiency in large scale field testing for rapid detection of RRV in commercial nurseries and landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  12. Non-instrumented incubation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of proviral HIV-1 DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Lillis

    Full Text Available Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs. However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS, diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25-43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100% HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100% reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose

  13. Natural Killer Cells from Patients with Recombinase-Activating Gene and Non-Homologous End Joining Gene Defects Comprise a Higher Frequency of CD56bright NKG2A+++ Cells, and Yet Display Increased Degranulation and Higher Perforin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dobbs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the recombinase-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2 in humans are associated with a broad range of phenotypes. For patients with severe clinical presentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT represents the only curative treatment; however, high rates of graft failure and incomplete immune reconstitution have been observed, especially after unconditioned haploidentical transplantation. Studies in mice have shown that Rag−/− natural killer (NK cells have a mature phenotype, reduced fitness, and increased cytotoxicity. We aimed to analyze NK cell phenotype and function in patients with mutations in RAG and in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ genes. Here, we provide evidence that NK cells from these patients have an immature phenotype, with significant expansion of CD56bright CD16−/int CD57− cells, yet increased degranulation and high perforin content. Correlation was observed between in vitro recombinase activity of the mutant proteins, NK cell abnormalities, and in vivo clinical phenotype. Addition of serotherapy in the conditioning regimen, with the aim of depleting the autologous NK cell compartment, may be important to facilitate engraftment and immune reconstitution in patients with RAG and NHEJ defects treated by HSCT.

  14. Transgenic mouse models in the study of reproduction: insights into GATA protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tevosian, Sergei G

    2014-07-01

    For the past 2 decades, transgenic technology in mice has allowed for an unprecedented insight into the transcriptional control of reproductive development and function. The key factor among the mouse genetic tools that made this rapid advance possible is a conditional transgenic approach, a particularly versatile method of creating gene deletions and substitutions in the mouse genome. A centerpiece of this strategy is an enzyme, Cre recombinase, which is expressed from defined DNA regulatory elements that are active in the tissue of choice. The regulatory DNA element (either genetically engineered or natural) assures Cre expression only in predetermined cell types, leading to the guided deletion of genetically modified (flanked by loxP or 'floxed' by loxP) gene loci. This review summarizes and compares the studies in which genes encoding GATA family transcription factors were targeted either globally or by Cre recombinases active in the somatic cells of ovaries and testes. The conditional gene loss experiments require detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal expression of Cre activity, and the challenges in interpreting the outcomes are highlighted. These studies also expose the complexity of GATA-dependent regulation of gonadal gene expression and suggest that gene function is highly context dependent. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. Diversity of Reporter Expression Patterns in Transgenic Mouse Lines Targeting Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Expressing Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncai; Molet, Jenny; Gunn, Benjamin G; Ressler, Kerry; Baram, Tallie Z

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic mice, including lines targeting corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF or CRH), have been extensively employed to study stress neurobiology. These powerful tools are poised to revolutionize our understanding of the localization and connectivity of CRH-expressing neurons, and the crucial roles of CRH in normal and pathological conditions. Accurate interpretation of studies using cell type-specific transgenic mice vitally depends on congruence between expression of the endogenous peptide and reporter. If reporter expression does not faithfully reproduce native gene expression, then effects of manipulating unintentionally targeted cells may be misattributed. Here, we studied CRH and reporter expression patterns in 3 adult transgenic mice: Crh-IRES-Cre;Ai14 (tdTomato mouse), Crfp3.0CreGFP, and Crh-GFP BAC. We employed the CRH antiserum generated by Vale after validating its specificity using CRH-null mice. We focused the analyses on stress-salient regions, including hypothalamus, amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and hippocampus. Expression patterns of endogenous CRH were consistent among wild-type and transgenic mice. In tdTomato mice, most CRH-expressing neurons coexpressed the reporter, yet the reporter identified a few non-CRH-expressing pyramidal-like cells in hippocampal CA1 and CA3. In Crfp3.0CreGFP mice, coexpression of CRH and the reporter was found in central amygdala and, less commonly, in other evaluated regions. In Crh-GFP BAC mice, the large majority of neurons expressed either CRH or reporter, with little overlap. These data highlight significant diversity in concordant expression of reporter and endogenous CRH among 3 available transgenic mice. These findings should be instrumental in interpreting important scientific findings emerging from the use of these potent neurobiological tools.

  16. Role of activating transcription factor-4 in 24-hour rhythm of serotonin transporter expression in the mouse midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Koyanagi, Satoru; Sato, Yuuki; Ogata, Takamitsu; Matsunaga, Naoya; Fujimura, Akio; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2012-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) transporter (5-HTT) plays a key role in the control of 5-HT neuronal activity by reuptaking extracellular 5-HT from the synapse cleft. We have previously demonstrated that 5-HTT mRNA expression levels and its uptake activity in the mouse midbrain are significantly higher in the dark phase than those in the light phase. However, the molecular mechanisms of time-dependent expression of 5-HTT have not been clarified. In this study, expression of 5-HTT mRNA in the mouse midbrain showed a significant 24-h rhythm and was higher in the dark phase. Although such an oscillation was eliminated by a Clock gene mutation, CLOCK and BMAL1 did not activate 5-HTT transcription in the luciferase reporter assay. Activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4), a member of the ATF/cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein family, is a component responsible for sustaining circadian oscillations of CRE-mediated gene expression. ATF4 significantly activated 5-HTT transcription in vitro and time dependently bound to the CRE site in the 5-HTT promoter in the mouse midbrain. In addition, mutation of the Clock gene disrupted temporal binding of ATF4 to the CRE site in the 5-HTT promoter. These results indicated that the circuit of circadian-basis molecular regulation between the clockwork system and mouse 5-HTT gene was connected by the ATF4 signaling pathway.

  17. Cell lineage of timed cohorts of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and Tbx6 mutant embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Concepcion

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tbx6 is a T-box transcription factor with multiple roles in embryonic development as evidenced by dramatic effects on mesoderm cell fate determination, left/right axis determination, and somite segmentation in mutant mice. The expression of Tbx6 is restricted to the primitive streak and presomitic mesoderm, but some of the phenotypic features of mutants are not easily explained by this expression pattern. We have used genetically-inducible fate mapping to trace the fate of Tbx6-expressing cells in wild-type and mutant embryos to explain some of the puzzling features of the mutant phenotype. We created an inducible Tbx6-creERT2 transgenic mouse in which cre expression closely recapitulates endogenous Tbx6 expression both temporally and spatially. Using a lacZ-based Cre reporter and timed tamoxifen injections, we followed temporally overlapping cohorts of cells that had expressed Tbx6 and found contributions to virtually all mesodermally-derived embryonic structures as well as the extraembryonic allantois. Contribution to the endothelium of major blood vessels may account for the embryonic death of homozygous mutant embryos. In mutant embryos, Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells contributed to the abnormally segmented anterior somites and formed the characteristic ectopic neural tubes. Retention of cells in the mutant tail bud indicates a deficiency in migratory behavior of the mutant cells and the presence of Tbx6-creERT2-traced cells in the notochord, a node derivative provides a possible explanation for the heterotaxia seen in mutant embryos.

  18. Polyglutamine expansions cause decreased CRE-mediated transcription and early gene expression changes prior to cell death in an inducible cell model of Huntingtons disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Swartz, J.; Kita, H.

    2001-01-01

    Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK, 1Taisho Laboratory of Functional Genomics, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma,...

  19. Recombinant protein expression by targeting pre-selected chromosomal loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krömer Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant protein expression in mammalian cells is mostly achieved by stable integration of transgenes into the chromosomal DNA of established cell lines. The chromosomal surroundings have strong influences on the expression of transgenes. The exploitation of defined loci by targeting expression constructs with different regulatory elements is an approach to design high level expression systems. Further, this allows to evaluate the impact of chromosomal surroundings on distinct vector constructs. Results We explored antibody expression upon targeting diverse expression constructs into previously tagged loci in CHO-K1 and HEK293 cells that exhibit high reporter gene expression. These loci were selected by random transfer of reporter cassettes and subsequent screening. Both, retroviral infection and plasmid transfection with eGFP or antibody expression cassettes were employed for tagging. The tagged cell clones were screened for expression and single copy integration. Cell clones producing > 20 pg/cell in 24 hours could be identified. Selected integration sites that had been flanked with heterologous recombinase target sites (FRTs were targeted by Flp recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE. The results give proof of principle for consistent protein expression upon RMCE. Upon targeting antibody expression cassettes 90-100% of all resulting cell clones showed correct integration. Antibody production was found to be highly consistent within the individual cell clones as expected from their isogenic nature. However, the nature and orientation of expression control elements revealed to be critical. The impact of different promoters was examined with the tag-and-targeting approach. For each of the chosen promoters high expression sites were identified. However, each site supported the chosen promoters to a different extent, indicating that the strength of a particular promoter is dominantly defined by its chromosomal context

  20. NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    of NF1 by infecting differentiated cultures with AAV carrying Cre recombinase (Task 2 A and B). We used these cultures along with uninfected...activation and regulation of its signaling to downstream protein kinases (Task 3). We infected neurons with the AAV virus encoding Cre-recombinase...cultured striatal neurons on MAPK signaling. Cultured neurons from NF1flx/flx mice were infected with either AAV -Cre deleting NF1 or control AAV

  1. Unliganded estrogen receptor α stimulates bone sialoprotein gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hideki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Matsui, Sari; Kim, Kyung Mi; Mezawa, Masaru; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2014-04-10

    Estrogen is one of the steroid hormones essential for skeletal development. The estrogen receptor (ER) is a transcription factor and a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. There are two different forms of the ER, usually referred to as α and β, each encoded by a separate gene. Hormone-activated ERs form dimers, since the two forms are coexpressed in many cell types. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a tissue-specific acidic glycoprotein that is expressed by differentiated osteoblasts, odontoblasts and cementoblasts during the initial formation of mineralized tissue. To determine the molecular basis of the tissue-specific expression of BSP and its regulation by estrogen and the ER, we have analyzed the effects of β-estradiol and ERα on BSP gene transcription. ERα protein levels were increased after ERα overexpression in ROS17/2.8 cells. While BSP mRNA levels were increased by ERα overexpression, the endogenous and overexpressed BSP mRNA levels were not changed by β-estradiol (10(-8)M, 24 h). Luciferase activities of different sized BSP promoter constructs (pLUC3~6) were increased by ERα overexpression, whereas basal and induced luciferase activities by ERα overexpression were not influenced by β-estradiol. Effects of ERα overexpression were abrogated by 2 bp mutations in either the cAMP response element (CRE) or activator protein 1 (AP1)/glucocorticoid response element (GRE). Gel shift analyses showed that ERα overexpression increased binding to the CRE and AP1/GRE elements. Notably, the CRE-protein complexes were disrupted by ERα, CREB and phospho-CREB antibodies. The AP1/GRE-protein complexes were supershifted by the c-Fos antibody. These studies demonstrate that ERα stimulates BSP gene transcription in a ligand-independent manner by targeting the CRE and AP1/GRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Manipulating gene expression in projection-specific neuronal populations using combinatorial viral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Bryan B; Soden, Marta E; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian brain contains tremendous structural and genetic complexity that is vital for its function. The elucidation of gene expression profiles in the brain, coupled with the development of large-scale connectivity maps and emerging viral vector-based approaches for target-selective gene manipulation, now allow for detailed dissection of gene-circuit interfaces. This protocol details how to perform combinatorial viral injections to manipulate gene expression in subsets of neurons interconnecting two brain regions. This method utilizes stereotaxic injection of a retrograde transducing CAV2-Cre virus into one brain region, combined with injection of a locally transducing Cre-dependent AAV virus into another brain region. This technique is widely applicable to the genetic dissection of neural circuitry, as it enables selective expression of candidate genes, dominant-negatives, fluorescent reporters, or genetic tools within heterogeneous populations of neurons based upon their projection targets.

  3. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The zinc finger transcription factor GATA6 is believed to have important roles in the development of several organs including the liver, gastrointestinal tract and heart. However, analyses of the contribution of GATA6 toward organogenesis have been hampered because Gata6-/- mice fail to develop beyond gastrulation due to defects in extraembryonic endoderm function. We have therefore generated a mouse line harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6 using Cre/loxP technology. LoxP elements were introduced into introns flanking exon 2 of the Gata6 gene by homologous recombination in ES cells. Mice containing this altered allele were bred to homozygosity and were found to be viable and fertile. To assess the functional integrity of the loxP sites and to confirm that we had generated a Gata6 loss-of-function allele, we bred Gata6 'floxed' mice to EIIa-Cre mice in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, and to Villin-Cre mice that express Cre in the epithelial cells of the intestine. We conclude that we have generated a line of mice in which GATA6 activity can be ablated in a cell type specific manner by expression of Cre recombinase. This line of mice can be used to establish the role of GATA6 in regulating embryonic development and various aspects of mammalian physiology.

  4. Androgen receptor signalling in Vascular Endothelial cells is dispensable for spermatogenesis and male fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hara Laura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen signalling is essential both for male development and function of the male reproductive system in adulthood. Within the adult testis, Germ cells (GC do not express androgen receptor (AR suggesting androgen-mediated promotion of spermatogenesis must act via AR-expressing somatic cell-types. Several recent studies have exploited the Cre/lox system of conditional gene-targeting to ablate AR function from key somatic cell-types in order to establish the cell-specific role of AR in promotion of male fertility. In this study, we have used a similar approach to specifically ablate AR-signalling from Vascular Endothelial (VE cells, with a view to defining the significance of androgen signalling within this cell-type on spermatogenesis. Findings AR expression in VE cells of the testicular vasculature was confirmed using an antibody against AR. A Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter line was used to empirically establish the utility of a mouse line expressing Cre Recombinase driven by the Tie2-Promoter, for targeting VE cells. Immunofluorescent detection revealed expression of YFP (and therefore Cre Recombinase function limited to VE cells and an interstitial population of cells, believed to be macrophages, that did not express AR. Mating of Tie2-Cre males to females carrying a floxed AR gene produced Vascular Endothelial Androgen Receptor Knockout (VEARKO mice and littermate controls. Ablation of AR from all VE cells was confirmed; however, no significant differences in bodyweight or reproductive tissue weights could be detected in VEARKO animals and spermatogenesis and fertility was unaffected. Conclusions We demonstrate the successful generation and empirical validation of a cell-specific knockout of AR from VE cells, and conclude that AR expression in VE cells is not essential for spermatogenesis or male fertility.

  5. Twist1 Is Essential for Tooth Morphogenesis and Odontoblast Differentiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meng, Tian; Huang, Yanyu; Wang, Suzhen; Zhang, Hua; Dechow, Paul C; Wang, Xiaofang; Qin, Chunlin; Shi, Bing; D'Souza, Rena N; Lu, Yongbo

    2015-01-01

    ...)) by breeding Twist1 floxed mice (Twist1(fl/fl)) with Twist2-Cre recombinase knockin mice (Twist2(Cre) (/+)). The Twist2(Cre) (/+);Twist1(fl/fl) embryos formed smaller tooth germs and abnormal cusps during early tooth morphogenesis...

  6. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho, E-mail: jung0603@pusan.ac.kr

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3 in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3-mediated

  7. Deciphering the Neuronal Circuitry Controlling Local Blood Flow in the Cerebral Cortex with Optogenetics in PV::Cre Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Alan; Rancillac, Armelle; Martinez, Lucie; Rossier, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Although it is know since more than a century that neuronal activity is coupled to blood supply regulation, the underlying pathways remains to be identified. In the brain, neuronal activation triggers a local increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) that is controlled by the neurogliovascular unit composed of terminals of neurons, astrocytes, and blood vessel muscles. It is generally accepted that the regulation of the neurogliovascular unit is adjusted to local metabolic demand by local circuits. Today experimental data led us to realize that the regulatory mechanisms are more complex and that a neuronal system within the brain is devoted to the control of local brain-blood flow. Recent optogenetic experiments combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that light stimulation of neurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV) is associated with positive blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the corresponding barrel field but also with negative BOLD in the surrounding deeper area. Here, we demonstrate that in acute brain slices, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) based photostimulation of PV containing neurons gives rise to an effective contraction of penetrating arterioles. These results support the neurogenic hypothesis of a complex distributed nervous system controlling the CBF. PMID:22715327

  8. Disparities and Trends in Door-to-Needle Time: The FL-PR CReSD Study (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Sofia A; Wang, Kefeng; Dong, Chuanhui; Ciliberti-Vargas, Maria A; Gutierrez, Carolina M; Yi, Li; Romano, Jose G; Perez, Enmanuel; Tyson, Brittany Ann; Ayodele, Maranatha; Asdaghi, Negar; Gardener, Hannah; Rose, David Z; Garcia, Enid J; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Foster, Dianne; Robichaux, Mary; Waddy, Salina P; Sacco, Ralph L; Rundek, Tatjana

    2017-08-01

    In the United States, about half of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) receive treatment within 60 minutes of hospital arrival. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients receiving tPA within 60 minutes (door-to-needle time [DTNT] ≤60) and 45 minutes (DTNT ≤45) of hospital arrival by race/ethnicity and sex and to identify temporal trends in DTNT ≤60 and DTNT ≤45. Among 65 654 acute ischemic stroke admissions in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-funded FL-PR CReSD study (Florida-Puerto Rico Collaboration to Reduce Stroke Disparities) from 2010 to 2015, we included 6181 intravenous tPA-treated cases (9.4%). Generalized estimating equations were used to determine predictors of DTNT ≤60 and DTNT ≤45. DTNT ≤60 was achieved in 42% and DTNT ≤45 in 18% of cases. After adjustment, women less likely received DTNT ≤60 (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.92) and DTNT ≤45 (odds ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.93). Compared with Whites, Blacks less likely had DTNT ≤45 during off hours (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.98). Achievement of DTNT ≤60 and DTNT ≤45 was highest in South Florida (50%, 23%) and lowest in West Central Florida (28%, 11%). In the FL-PR CReSD, achievement of DTNT ≤60 and DTNT ≤45 remains low. Compared with Whites, Blacks less likely receive tPA treatment within 45 minutes during off hours. Treatment within 60 and 45 minutes is lower in women compared with men and lowest in West Central Florida compared with other Florida regions and Puerto Rico. Further research is needed to identify reasons for delayed thrombolytic treatment in women and Blacks and factors contributing to regional disparities in DTNT. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. An inducible transgenic mouse model for immune mediated hepatitis showing clearance of antigen expressing hepatocytes by CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cebula

    Full Text Available The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreER(T2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred K(b/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreER(T2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreER(T2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance.

  10. A new mouse model to explore the initiation, progression, and therapy of BRAFV600E-induced lung tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankort, David; Filenova, Elena; Collado, Manuel; Serrano, Manuel; Jones, Kirk; McMahon, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Mutationally activated BRAFV600E (BRAFVE) is detected in ∼6% of human malignancies and promotes sustained MEK1/2–ERK1/2 pathway activation. We have designed BRafCA mice to express normal BRaf prior to Cre-mediated recombination after which BRafVE is expressed at physiological levels. BRafCA mice infected with an Adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase developed benign lung tumors that only rarely progressed to adenocarcinoma. Moreover, BRafVE-induced lung tumors were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of MEK1/2. BRafVE expression initially induced proliferation that was followed by growth arrest bearing certain hallmarks of senescence. Consistent with Ink4a/Arf and TP53 tumor suppressor function, BRafVE expression combined with mutation of either locus led to cancer progression. PMID:17299132

  11. La credibilidad de los medios de Comunicación de masas: una aproximación desde el Modelo de Marca Creíble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Calvo-Porral

    Full Text Available Este estudio tiene por objetivo investigar, en el entorno actual de los medios de Comunicación, la relación entre el valor de marca de los medios de Comunicación desde el enfoque del consumidor y su credibilidad, aplicando el Modelo de Marca Creíble para analizar cómo la audiencia elabora un juicio sobre la credibilidad de los medios. Los datos recogidos mediante un cuestionario estructurado sobre las percepciones de los consumidores, se analizaron mediante un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales. Nuestros resultados sugieren la existencia de una relación positiva entre el valor de marca de los medios de Comunicación y su credibilidad, mostrando que tanto la imagen o asociaciones, juntamente com la lealtad, ejercen la mayor influencia sobre el valor de los medios de Comunicación. Por tanto, la credibilidad de los medios de Comunicación implica una mejora de los procesos y de la propia imagen de éstos, así como el desarrollo de nuevas formas de tratamiento de las noticias y de las necesidades de información de la audiencia.

  12. Inducible knock out of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-a gene expression in the adult mouse: effect on vascular injury response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A; Bale, Laurie K; Powell, David R

    2013-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) enhances local IGF signaling through its ability to proteolyze inhibitory IGF binding proteins. In vivo, PAPP-A (like IGF) appears to exhibit antagonistic pleiotropy; ie, it has beneficial effects early in life but detrimental effects later in life. Accordingly, PAPP-A knockout (KO) mice are born as proportional dwarfs and have diminished reproductive vigor and reduced peak bone mass acquisition at puberty. On the other hand, PAPP-A KO mice live approximately 30% longer than their wild-type littermates, with decreased incidence and severity of age-related diseases and resistance to adverse responses of vascular injury. To be able to distinguish the impact of PAPP-A deficiency in the adult from that in early life, we developed a mouse model suitable for inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the PAPP-A gene. In this study, we characterize the conditional PAPP-A KO mouse model for efficacy of tamoxifen-induced floxed PAPP-A excision in various tissues of adult mice and demonstrate a significant (P = .0001) reduction of neointimal formation in these mice after unilateral carotid artery ligation.

  13. Expression of Foxm1 transcription factor in cardiomyocytes is required for myocardial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Bolte

    Full Text Available Forkhead Box M1 (Foxm1 is a transcription factor essential for organ morphogenesis and development of various cancers. Although complete deletion of Foxm1 in Foxm1(-/- mice caused embryonic lethality due to severe abnormalities in multiple organ systems, requirements for Foxm1 in cardiomyocytes remain to be determined. This study was designed to elucidate the cardiomyocyte-autonomous role of Foxm1 signaling in heart development. We generated a new mouse model in which Foxm1 was specifically deleted from cardiomyocytes (Nkx2.5-Cre/Foxm1(fl/f mice. Deletion of Foxm1 from cardiomyocytes was sufficient to disrupt heart morphogenesis and induce embryonic lethality in late gestation. Nkx2.5-Cre/Foxm1(fl/fl hearts were dilated with thinning of the ventricular walls and interventricular septum, as well as disorganization of the myocardium which culminated in cardiac fibrosis and decreased capillary density. Cardiomyocyte proliferation was diminished in Nkx2.5-Cre/Foxm1(fl/fl hearts owing to altered expression of multiple cell cycle regulatory genes, such as Cdc25B, Cyclin B(1, Plk-1, nMyc and p21(cip1. In addition, Foxm1 deficient hearts displayed reduced expression of CaMKIIδ, Hey2 and myocardin, which are critical mediators of cardiac function and myocardial growth. Our results indicate that Foxm1 expression in cardiomyocytes is critical for proper heart development and required for cardiomyocyte proliferation and myocardial growth.

  14. The role of ghrelin-responsive mediobasal hypothalamic neurons in mediating feeding responses to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bharath K; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Mequinion, Mathieu; Lawrence, Sydney; Gautron, Laurent; Andrews, Zane B; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2017-08-01

    Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that affects food intake and regulates blood glucose. The best-characterized actions of ghrelin are mediated by its binding to and activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor). Adequate examination of the identity, function, and relevance of specific subsets of GHSR-expressing neurons has been hampered by the absence of a suitable Cre recombinase (Cre)-expressing mouse line with which to manipulate gene expression in a targeted fashion within GHSR-expressing neurons. The present study aims to characterize the functional significance and neurocircuitry of GHSR-expressing neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), as they relate to ghrelin-induced food intake and fasting-associated rebound hyperphagia, using a novel mouse line in which Cre expression is controlled by the Ghsr promoter. A Ghsr-IRES-Cre mouse line that expresses Cre directed by the Ghsr promoter was generated. The line was validated by comparing Cre activity in reporter mice to the known brain distribution pattern of GHSR. Next, the requirement of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal activity in mediating food intake in response to administered ghrelin and in response to fasting was assessed after stereotaxic delivery of inhibitory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) virus to the MBH. In a separate cohort of Ghsr-IRES-Cre mice, stereotaxic delivery of stimulatory DREADD virus to the MBH was performed to assess the sufficiency of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal activity on food intake. Finally, the distribution of MBH GHSR-expressing neuronal axonal projections was assessed in the DREADD virus-injected animals. The pattern of Cre activity in the Ghsr-IRES-Cre mouse line mostly faithfully reproduced the known GHSR expression pattern. DREADD-assisted inhibition of MBH GHSR neuronal activity robustly suppressed the normal orexigenic response to ghrelin and fasting-associated rebound food intake. DREADD

  15. Cell-specific expression of SERCA, the exogenous Ca2+ transport ATPase, in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hailun; Sumbilla, Carlota M; Farrance, Iain K G; Klein, Michael G; Inesi, Giuseppe

    2004-03-01

    We evaluated various constructs to obtain cell-specific expression of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) gene in cardiac myocytes after cDNA transfer by means of transfections or infections with adenovirus vectors. Expression of exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and SERCA genes was studied in cultured chicken embryo and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, skeletal and smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes. Whereas the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter yielded high levels of protein expression in all cells studied, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter segments demonstrated high specificity for cardiac myocytes. Their efficiency for protein expression was lower than that of the CMV promoter, but higher than that of cardiac myosin light chain or beta-myosin heavy chain promoter segments. A double virus system for Cre-dependent expression under control of the CMV promoter and Cre expression under control of a cardiac-specific promoter yielded high protein levels in cardiac myocytes, but only partial cell specificity due to significant Cre expression in hepatocytes. Specific intracellular targeting of gene products was demonstrated in situ by specific immunostaining of exogenous SERCA1 and endogenous SERCA2 and comparative fluorescence microscopy. The -374 cTnT promoter segment was the most advantageous of the promoters studied, producing cell-specific SERCA expression and a definite increase over endogenous Ca2+ -ATPase activity as well as faster removal of cytosolic calcium after membrane excitation. We conclude that analysis of promoter efficiency and cell specificity is of definite advantage when cell-specific expression of exogenous SERCA is wanted in cardiac myocytes after cDNA delivery to mixed cell populations.

  16. Epithelial Myeloid-Differentiation Factor 88 Is Dispensable during Klebsiella Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Adam A; Claushuis, Theodora A M; Mohan, Rajiv A; Christoffels, Vincent M; Aidinis, Vassilis; Florquin, Sandrine; Van't Veer, Cornelis; Hou, Baidong; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-05-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia. Previous studies have documented an important role for Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed by myeloid cells in the recognition of K. pneumoniae and the initiation of a protective immune response. Lung epithelial cells also express TLRs and can participate in innate immune defense. The aim of this study was to examine the role of the common TLR adaptor protein myeloid-differentiation factor (MyD) 88 in lung epithelium during host defense against K. pneumoniae-induced pneumonia. To this end, we first crossed mice expressing cre recombinase under the control of the surfactant protein C (SftpCcre) or the club cell 10 kD (CC10cre) promoter with reporter mice to show that SftpCcre mice mainly express cre in type II alveolar cells, whereas CC10cre mice express cre almost exclusively in bronchiolar epithelial cells. We then generated mice with cell-targeted deletion of MyD88 in type II alveolar (SftpCcre-MyD88-lox) and bronchiolar epithelial (CC10cre-MyD88-lox) cells, and infected them with K. pneumoniae via the airways. Bacterial growth and dissemination were not affected by the loss of MyD88 in SftpCcre-MyD88-lox or CC10cre-MyD88-lox mice compared with control littermates. Furthermore, inflammatory responses induced by K. pneumoniae in the lung were not dependent on MyD88 expression in type II alveolar or bronchiolar epithelial cells. These results indicate that MyD88 expression in two distinct lung epithelial cell types does not contribute to host defense during pneumonia caused by a common human gram-negative pathogen.

  17. A functional comparison of the 3XP3 promoter by recombinase-mediated cassette exchange in Drosophila and tephritid fly, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transposable elements are widely used as vectors for integrating transgenes into the genome of insects. However, the random nature of transposon vector integrations often results in mutations and makes transgene expression subject to variable genomic position effects. This makes reliable quantitativ...

  18. MyD88 and TRIF mediate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP induced corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH expression in JEG3 choriocarcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocak Hande

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classically protein kinase A (PKA and transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1 mediate the cyclic AMP (cAMP induced-corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH expression in the placenta. However enteric Gram (- bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS may also induce-CRH expression via Toll like receptor (TLR4 and its adaptor molecule Myd88. Here we investigated the role of MyD88, TRIF and IRAK2 on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of LPS/TLR4 stimulation. Methods JEG3 cells were transfected with CRH-luciferase and Beta-galactosidase expression vectors and either empty or dominant-negative (DN-MyD88, DN-TRIF or DN-IRAK2 vectors using Fugene6 (Roche. cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation was examined by using a luminometer and luciferase assay. Calorimetric Beta-galactosidase assays were performed to correct for transfection efficiency. Luciferase expression vectors of cAMP-downstream molecules, CRE and AP-1, were used to further examine the signaling cascades. Results cAMP stimulation induced AP-1 and CRE promoter expression and led to dose-dependent CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells. Inhibition of MyD88 signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRE and CRH promoter activation. Inhibition of TRIF signaling blocked cAMP-induced CRH but not CRE expression, while inhibition of IRAK2 did not have an effect on cAMP-induced CRH expression. Conclusion MyD88 and TRIF exert direct regulatory effect on cAMP-induced CRH promoter activation in JEG3 cells in the absence of infection. MyD88 most likely interacts with molecules upstream of IRAK2 to regulate cAMP-induced CRH expression.

  19. Nicotinic receptor Alpha7 expression during tooth morphogenesis reveals functional pleiotropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W Rogers

    Full Text Available The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP; alpha7GFP or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre. The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5-E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ.

  20. A critical view of the use of genetic tools to unveil neural circuits: the case of leptin action in reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable development and refinement of the Cre-loxP system coupled with the nonstop production of new mouse models and virus vectors have impelled the growth of various fields of investigation. In this article, I will discuss the data collected using these genetic tools in our area of interest, giving specific emphasis to the identification of the neuronal populations that relay leptin action in reproductive physiology. A series of mouse models that allow manipulation of the leptin receptor gene have been generated. Of those, I will discuss the use of two models of leptin receptor gene reexpression (LepRneo/neo and LepRloxTB/loxTB) and one model of leptin signaling blockade (LepRflox/flox). I will also highlight the differences of using stereotaxic delivery of virus vectors expressing DNA-recombinases (Flp and Cre) and mouse models expressing Cre-recombinase. Our findings indicate that leptin action in the ventral premammillary nucleus is sufficient, but not required, for leptin action in reproduction and that leptin action in Kiss1 neurons arises after pubertal maturation; therefore, direct leptin signaling in Kiss1 neurons is neither required nor sufficient for the permissive action of leptin in pubertal development. It also became evident that the full action of leptin in the reproductive neuroendocrine axis requires the engagement of an integrated circuitry, yet to be fully unveiled. PMID:24196667

  1. Overexpression of miR-155 in the liver of transgenic mice alters the expression profiling of hepatic genes associated with lipid metabolism.

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    Xiaolin Lin

    Full Text Available Hepatic expression profiling has revealed miRNA changes in liver diseases, while hepatic miR-155 expression was increased in murine non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, suggesting that miR-155 might regulate the biological process of lipid metabolism. To illustrate the effects of miR-155 gain of function in transgenic mouse liver on lipid metabolism, transgenic mice (i.e., Rm155LG mice for the conditional overexpression of mouse miR-155 transgene mediated by Cre/lox P system were firstly generated around the world in this study. Rm155LG mice were further crossed to Alb-Cre mice to realize the liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre double transgenic mice which showed the unaltered body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat pad weight and gross morphology and appearance of liver. Furthermore, liver-specific overexpression of miR-155 transgene resulted in significantly reduced levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL, as well as remarkably decreased contents of hepatic lipid, TG, HDL and free fatty acid in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre transgenic mice. More importantly, microarray data revealed a general downward trend in the expression profile of hepatic genes with functions typically associated with fatty acid, cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism, which is likely at least partially responsible for serum cholesterol and triglyceride lowering observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic overexpression of miR-155 alleviated nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. Additionally, carboxylesterase 3/triacylglycerol hydrolase (Ces3/TGH was identified as a direct miR-155 target gene that is potentially responsible for the partial liver phenotypes observed in Rm155LG/Alb-Cre mice. Taken together, these data from miR-155 gain of function study suggest, for what we believe is the first time, the altered lipid metabolism and provide new insights into

  2. Bmpr1a is required for proper migration of the AVE through regulation of Dkk1 expression in the pre-streak mouse embryo.

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    Miura, Shigeto; Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Mishina, Yuji

    2010-05-01

    Here, we report a novel mechanism regulating migration of the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) by BMP signaling through BMPRIA. In Bmpr1a-deficient (Bmpr-null) embryos, the AVE does not migrate at all. In embryos with an epiblast-specific deletion of Bmpr1a (Bmpr1a(null/flox); Sox2Cre embryos), the AVE cells migrate randomly from the distal end of embryos, resulting in an expansion of the AVE. Dkk1, which is normally expressed in the anterior proximal visceral endoderm (PxVE), is downregulated in Bmpr-null embryos, whereas it is circumferentially expressed in Bmpr1a(null/flox); Sox2Cre embryos at E5.75-6.5. These results demonstrate an association of the position of Dkk1 expressing cells with direction of the migration of AVE. In Bmpr1a(null/flox); Sox2Cre embryos, a drastic decrease of WNT signaling is observed at E6.0. Addition of WNT3A to the culture of Bmpr1a(null/flox); Sox2Cre embryos at E5.5 restores expression patterns of Dkk1 and Cer1. These data indicate that BMP signaling in the epiblast induces Wnt3 and Wnt3a expression to maintain WNT signaling in the VE, resulting in downregulation of Dkk1 to establish the anterior expression domain. Thus, our results suggest that BMP signaling regulates the expression patterns of Dkk1 for anterior migration of the AVE. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A novel mouse model for tracking the fate of CXCR5-expressing T cells.

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    Takebe, Tomo; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Higami, Yoshikazu; Harada, Yohsuke

    2018-01-08

    The germinal center (GC) reaction, a critical process in the humoral immune response, requires follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. Tfh cells express the master transcription factor Bcl6 and chemokine receptor CXCR5, which enable them to migrate from the T cell zone to B cell follicles and interact with GC B cells. However, CXCR5 is downregulated when Tfh cells become memory cells. Therefore, it is difficult to track Tfh cells continuously in vivo. In this study, we generated a mouse strain, Cxcr5CreERT2R26Tomato, in which the fluorescent protein tdTomato is inducibly expressed in CXCR5+ cells by tamoxifen administration. After the oral administration of tamoxifen, most Tfh cells in Peyer's patches (PP) from Cxcr5CreERT2R26Tomato mice were tdTomato+. To track antigen-specific Tfh cells in vivo, OVA-specific OT-II T cells derived from Cxcr5CreERT2R26Tomato mice were transferred to wild-type mice, and the recipient mice were immunized with OVA followed by tamoxifen administration. CXCR5+ T cells became tdTomato+ and were mainly located in B cell follicles and GC areas 8 days after immunization. Four weeks after immunization, tdTomato+ OT-II T cells migrated from B cell follicles to the T-B border area and T cell zone after CXCR5 downregulation and CCR7 upregulation. These results indicate that Cxcr5CreERT2R26Tomato mice are a useful tool for studying the cell fate of differentiated Tfh cells in vivo and therefore have implications for the development of therapeutic strategies for infectious and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nucleic Acid Biosensor Synthesis of an All-in-One Universal Blocking Linker Recombinase Polymerase Amplification with a Peptide Nucleic Acid-Based Lateral Flow Device for Ultrasensitive Detection of Food Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuancong; Wei, Yujun; Cheng, Nan; Huang, Kunlun; Wang, Weiran; Zhang, Li; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo

    2018-01-02

    In this study, a whole-course nucleic-acid-constructed biosensor that combines the all-in-one concepts of the universal blocking linker recombinase polymerase amplification (UBLRPA) and a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based lateral flow device (PLFD) has been developed for the ultrasensitive detection of food pathogens. Using the preamplification UBLRPA principle, a universal linker and C3 space blocker were utilized to produce the universal linker single-duplex DNA products. The developed amplification system was employed to convert duplex products to a single strand. In the signal recognition strategy, a special PNA probe was successfully employed in the portable PLFD. The UBLRPA products were identified visually using the PLFD through dual hybridization (a PNA probe on the gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) was combined with a universal linker on the end of the products; a PNA capture probe was used on the test line and a universal linker on the other end of the products). The accumulation of Au-NPs produced a characteristic red band, enabling the visual detection of a food pathogen without further testing. To demonstrate the value of the all-in-one biosensor, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium was used as a model organism. The biosensor showed high selectivity and extraordinary repeatability using S. typhimurium, and the limit of detection was 4 CFU mL -1 . Furthermore, when milk samples artificially contaminated with S. typhimurium were analyzed, the analysis was completed within 30 min without complicated instrumentation. The results exhibited good precision and recovery. This portable all-in-one biosensor demonstrates great promise for the screening of pathogens in food and environmental samples.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Gp96 in Macrophages is Essential for Protective Immunity during Gram-negative Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Anas, Adam A.; de Vos, Alex F; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; van Lieshout, Miriam H. P.; van Heijst, Jeroen W.J.; Florquin, Sandrine; Li, Zihai; van ’t Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is among the most common gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia. Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone that is essential for the trafficking and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and integrins. To determine the role of gp96 in myeloid cells in host defence during Klebsiella pneumonia. Mice homozygous for the conditional Hsp90b1 allele encoding gp96 were crossed with mice expressing Cre-recombinase under control of the LysM promoter to generate LysMcre-Hsp9...

  6. Genetic mechanisms in Apc-mediated mammary tumorigenesis.

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    Mari Kuraguchi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Many components of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway also play critical roles in mammary tumor development, yet the role of the tumor suppressor gene APC (adenomatous polyposis coli in breast oncongenesis is unclear. To better understand the role of Apc in mammary tumorigenesis, we introduced conditional Apc mutations specifically into two different mammary epithelial populations using K14-cre and WAP-cre transgenic mice that express Cre-recombinase in mammary progenitor cells and lactating luminal cells, respectively. Only the K14-cre-mediated Apc heterozygosity developed mammary adenocarcinomas demonstrating histological heterogeneity, suggesting the multilineage progenitor cell origin of these tumors. These tumors harbored truncation mutation in a defined region in the remaining wild-type allele of Apc that would retain some down-regulating activity of beta-catenin signaling. Activating mutations at codons 12 and 61 of either H-Ras or K-Ras were also found in a subset of these tumors. Expression profiles of acinar-type mammary tumors from K14-cre; Apc(CKO/+ mice showed luminal epithelial gene expression pattern, and clustering analysis demonstrated more correlation to MMTV-neu model than to MMTV-Wnt1. In contrast, neither WAP-cre-induced Apc heterozygous nor homozygous mutations resulted in predisposition to mammary tumorigenesis, although WAP-cre-mediated Apc deficiency resulted in severe squamous metaplasia of mammary glands. Collectively, our results suggest that not only the epithelial origin but also a certain Apc mutations are selected to achieve a specific level of beta-catenin signaling optimal for mammary tumor development and explain partially the colon- but not mammary-specific tumor development in patients that carry germline mutations in APC.

  7. Klotho expression in long bones regulates FGF23 production during renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Komaba, Hirotaka; Sato, Tadatoshi; Erben, Reinhold G; Baron, Roland; Olauson, Hannes; Larsson, Tobias E; Lanske, Beate

    2017-05-01

    Circulating levels of bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increase early during acute and chronic kidney disease and are associated with adverse outcomes. Membrane-bound Klotho acts as a permissive coreceptor for FGF23, and its expression was recently found in osteoblasts/osteocytes. We hypothesized that Klotho in bone cells is part of an autocrine feedback loop that regulates FGF23 expression during renal failure. Thus, we induced renal failure in mice with targeted deletion of Klotho in long bones. Uremic wild-type (KLfl/fl ) and knockout (Prx1-Cre;KLfl/fl ) mice both responded with reduced body weight, kidney atrophy, hyperphosphatemia, and increased bone turnover. Importantly, long bones of Prx1-Cre;KLfl/fl mice but not their axial skeleton failed to increase FGF23 expression as observed in uremic KLfl/fl mice. Consequently, Prx1-Cre;KLfl/fl mice had significantly lower serum FGF23 and parathyroid hormone levels, and higher renal 1-α-hydroxylase expression, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and calcium levels than KLfl/fl mice. These results were confirmed in two independent models of renal failure, adenine diet induced and 5/6 nephrectomy. Moreover, FGF23-treated bone cells required Klotho to increase FGF23 mRNA and ERK phosphorylation. In summary, our novel findings show that Klotho in bone is crucial for inducing FGF23 production upon renal failure. We propose the presence of an autocrine feedback loop in which Klotho senses the need for FGF23.-Kaludjerovic, J., Komaba, H., Sato, T., Erben, R. G., Baron, R., Olauson, H., Larsson, T. E., Lanske, B. Klotho expression in long bones regulates FGF23 production during renal failure. © FASEB.

  8. Synergistic and Dose-Controlled Regulation of Cellulase Gene Expression in Penicillium oxalicum

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    Li, Zhonghai; Yao, Guangshan; Wu, Ruimei; Gao, Liwei; Kan, Qinbiao; Liu, Meng; Yang, Piao; Liu, Guodong; Qin, Yuqi; Song, Xin; Zhong, Yaohua; Fang, Xu; Qu, Yinbo

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungus Penicillium oxalicum produces diverse lignocellulolytic enzymes, which are regulated by the combinations of many transcription factors. Here, a single-gene disruptant library for 470 transcription factors was constructed and systematically screened for cellulase production. Twenty transcription factors (including ClrB, CreA, XlnR, Ace1, AmyR, and 15 unknown proteins) were identified to play putative roles in the activation or repression of cellulase synthesis. Most of these regulators have not been characterized in any fungi before. We identified the ClrB, CreA, XlnR, and AmyR transcription factors as critical dose-dependent regulators of cellulase expression, the core regulons of which were identified by analyzing several transcriptomes and/or secretomes. Synergistic and additive modes of combinatorial control of each cellulase gene by these regulatory factors were achieved, and cellulase expression was fine-tuned in a proper and controlled manner. With one of these targets, the expression of the major intracellular β-glucosidase Bgl2 was found to be dependent on ClrB. The Bgl2-deficient background resulted in a substantial gene activation by ClrB and proved to be closely correlated with the relief of repression mediated by CreA and AmyR during cellulase induction. Our results also signify that probing the synergistic and dose-controlled regulation mechanisms of cellulolytic regulators and using it for reconstruction of expression regulation network (RERN) may be a promising strategy for cellulolytic fungi to develop enzyme hyper-producers. Based on our data, ClrB was identified as focal point for the synergistic activation regulation of cellulase expression by integrating cellulolytic regulators and their target genes, which refined our understanding of transcriptional-regulatory network as a “seesaw model” in which the coordinated regulation of cellulolytic genes is established by counteracting activators and repressors. PMID:26360497

  9. The ERK1/2 pathway regulates testosterone synthesis by coordinately regulating the expression of steroidogenic genes in Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzkin, Maria Eugenia; Yamashita, Soichi; Ascoli, Mario

    2013-05-06

    Adult mice with a Leydig cell specific deletion of MAPK kinase (MEK) 1 and 2 (Mek1(f)(/)(f);Mek2(-/-);Cre(+)) mice display Leydig cell hypoplasia and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. We used radioimmunoassays and quantitative PCR to evaluate the function and expression of the Leydig cell genes involved in the conversion of cholesterol to testosterone (Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b6, Cyp17a1 and Hsd17b3), androgen metabolism (Srda1 and Dhrs9), and four transcription factors (Creb1, Nr5a1, Nr4a1 and Nr0b1) that regulate the expression of steroidogenic genes. We show that Star, Hsd3b6, Cyp17a1 and Hsd17b3 are downregulated in Ledyig cells of adult Mek1(f)(/)(f);Mek2(-/-);Cre(+) mice whereas Srda1 and Dhrs9 are upregulated and Creb1, Nr5a1, Nr4a1 and Nr0b1 are unchanged or upregulated. Functionally, all the downregulated genes but none of the upregulated genes contribute to the decrease in testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells of adult Mek1(f)(/)(f);Mek2(-/-);Cre(+) mice because they produce low testosterone and dihydrotestosterone when stimulated with hCG or when incubated with testosterone precursors such as progesterone or androstenedione. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Leptin induces CREB-dependent aromatase activation through COX-2 expression in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Yong An; Khanal, Tilak; Lee, Gi Ho; Kim, Se Jong; Rhee, Sang Dal; Chung, Young Chul; Hwang, Young Jung; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-08-01

    Leptin plays a key role in the control of adipocyte formation, as well as in the associated regulation of energy intake and expenditure. The goal of this study was to determine if leptin-induced aromatase enhances estrogen production and induces tumor cell growth stimulation. To this end, breast cancer cells were incubated with leptin in the absence or presence of inhibitor pretreatment, and changes in aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels. Transient transfection assays were performed to examine the aromatase and COX-2 gene promoter activities and immunoblot analysis was used to examine protein expression. Leptin induced aromatase expression, estradiol production, and promoter activity in breast cancer cells. Protein levels of phospho-STAT3, PKA, Akt, ERK, and JNK were increased by leptin. Leptin also significantly increased cAMP levels, cAMP response element (CRE) activation, and CREB phosphorylation. In addition, leptin induced COX-2 expression, promoter activity, and increased the production of prostaglandin E2. Finally, a COX-2 inhibitor and aromatase inhibitor suppressed leptin-induced cell proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Together, our data show that leptin increased aromatase expression in breast cancer cells, which was correlated with COX-2 upregulation, mediated through CRE activation and cooperation among multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation and Application of Male Mice with Specific Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein in Germ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiru; Li, Jun; Cao, Dong; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhu, Desheng

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to generate a mouse line with green fluorescent protein (GFP) specifically expressed in male germ cells to assess testicular toxicity. The mouse line with GFP specifically expressed in male germ cells was generated by mating a germ cell-specific transgenic Cre male mouse with a double-fluorescent reporter female mouse using Cre/loxP. The mouse line was administered ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) by oral gavage. Then, the green fluorescence intensity in the testes was used as an indicator to examine the potential for testicular toxicity testing by molecular biology, histopathology, and in vivo imaging techniques. Specific testicular GFP expression was observed in mice. GFP was mainly expressed in the germ cell lineage and concentrated in secondary spermatocytes/spermatocytes and spermatozoa. After administration of EGME, at the organ level, the green fluorescent intensity of the testes was decreased by 11 days and had disappeared by 34 days. Frozen testicular sections stained with DAPI showed significantly decreased green fluorescence in secondary spermatocytes and sperm cells. These observations were consistent with the testis weight and results of testicular histopathology. With the application of in vivo imaging becoming popular, this mouse line with GFP specifically expressed in the male germ cells may have some advantages for the study of reproductive toxicity.

  12. Grin1 receptor deletion within CRF neurons enhances fear memory.

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    Georgette Gafford

    Full Text Available Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF dysregulation is implicated in mood and anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. CRF is expressed in areas engaged in fear and anxiety processing including the central amygdala (CeA. Complicating our ability to study the contribution of CRF-containing neurons to fear and anxiety behavior is the wide variety of cell types in which CRF is expressed. To manipulate specific subpopulations of CRF containing neurons, our lab has developed a mouse with a Cre recombinase gene driven by a CRF promoter (CRFp3.0Cre (Martin et al., 2010. In these studies, mice that have the gene that encodes NR1 (Grin1 flanked by loxP sites (floxed were crossed with our previously developed CRFp3.0Cre mouse to selectively disrupt Grin1 within CRF containing neurons (Cre+/fGrin1+. We find that disruption of Grin1 in CRF neurons did not affect baseline levels of anxiety, locomotion, pain sensitivity or exploration of a novel object. However, baseline expression of Grin1 was decreased in Cre+/fGrin1+ mice as measured by RTPCR. Cre+/fGrin1+ mice showed enhanced auditory fear acquisition and retention without showing any significant effect on fear extinction. We measured Gria1, the gene that encodes AMPAR1 and the CREB activator Creb1 in the amygdala of Cre+/fGrin1+ mice after fear conditioning. Both Gria1 and Creb1 were enhanced in the amygdala after training. To determine if the Grin1-expressing CRF neurons within the CeA are responsible for the enhancement of fear memory in adults, we infused a lentivirus with Cre driven by a CRF promoter (LV pCRF-Cre/fGrin1+ into the CeA of floxed Grin1 mice. Cre driven deletion of Grin1 specifically within CRF expressing cells in the CeA also resulted in enhanced fear memory acquisition and retention. Altogether, these findings suggest that selective disruption of Grin1 within CeA CRF neurons strongly enhances fear memory.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of cis-regulatory element structure and discovery of motif-driven gene co-expression networks in grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Darren Chern Jan; Lopez Gutierrez, Rodrigo; Gambetta, Gregory Alan; Castellarin, Simone Diego

    2017-06-01

    Coordinated transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming ensures a plant's continued growth and survival under adverse environmental conditions. Transcription factors (TFs) act to modulate gene expression through complex cis-regulatory element (CRE) interactions. Genome-wide analysis of known plant CREs was performed for all currently predicted protein-coding gene promoters in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Many CREs such as abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive, drought-responsive, auxin-responsive, and evening elements, exhibit bona fide CRE properties such as strong position bias towards the transcription start site (TSS) and over-representation when compared with random promoters. Genes containing these CREs are enriched in a large repertoire of plant biological pathways. Large-scale transcriptome analyses also show that these CREs are highly implicated in grapevine development and stress response. Numerous CRE-driven modules in condition-specific gene co-expression networks (GCNs) were identified and many of these modules were highly enriched for plant biological functions. Several modules corroborate known roles of CREs in drought response, pathogen defense, cell wall metabolism, and fruit ripening, whereas others reveal novel functions in plants. Comparisons with Arabidopsis suggest a general conservation in promoter architecture, gene expression dynamics, and GCN structure across species. Systems analyses of CREs provide insights into the grapevine cis-regulatory code and establish a foundation for future genomic studies in grapevine. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  14. Expression of BARHL1 in medulloblastoma is associated with prolonged survival in mice and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöschl, J; Lorenz, A; Hartmann, W; von Bueren, A O; Kool, M; Li, S; Peraud, A; Tonn, J-C; Herms, J; Xiang, M; Rutkowski, S; Kretzschmar, H A; Schüller, U

    2011-11-24

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood, and development of targeted therapies is highly desired. Although the molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation are not fully understood, it is known that medulloblastomas may arise from cerebellar granule neuron precursors. The homeodomain transcription factor Barhl1 is known to regulate migration and survival of granule cell precursors, but its functional role in medulloblastoma is unknown. We show here that the expression of BARHL1 is significantly upregulated during human cerebellar development and in human medulloblastoma samples as compared with the normal adult cerebellum. We also detected high levels of Barhl1 expression in medulloblastomas of Math1-cre:SmoM2 mice, a mouse model for Sonic hedgehog-associated medulloblastomas that we developed previously. To investigate Barhl1 function in vivo during tumor development, we generated Barhl1(-/-)Math1-cre:SmoM2 mice. Interestingly, tumors that developed in these mice displayed increased mitotic activity and decreased neuronal differentiation. Moreover, survival of these mice was significantly decreased. Similarly, low expression of BARHL1 in human medulloblastoma cases was associated with a less favorable prognosis for patients. These results suggest that the expression of Barhl1 decelerates tumor growth both in human and in murine medulloblastomas and should be further investigated with respect to potential implications for individualized therapeutic strategies.

  15. Characterization of gastric and neuronal histaminergic populations using a transgenic mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K Walker

    Full Text Available Histamine is a potent biogenic amine that mediates numerous physiological processes throughout the body, including digestion, sleep, and immunity. It is synthesized by gastric enterochromaffin-like cells, a specific set of hypothalamic neurons, as well as a subset of white blood cells, including mast cells. Much remains to be learned about these varied histamine-producing cell populations. Here, we report the validation of a transgenic mouse line in which Cre recombinase expression has been targeted to cells expressing histidine decarboxylase (HDC, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of histamine. This was achieved by crossing the HDC-Cre mouse line with Rosa26-tdTomato reporter mice, thus resulting in the expression of the fluorescent Tomato (Tmt signal in cells containing Cre recombinase activity. As expected, the Tmt signal co-localized with HDC-immunoreactivity within the gastric mucosa and gastric submucosa and also within the tuberomamillary nucleus of the brain. HDC expression within Tmt-positive gastric cells was further confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis of mRNA isolated from highly purified populations of Tmt-positive cells obtained by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS. HDC expression within these FACS-separated cells was found to coincide with other markers of both ECL cells and mast cells. Gastrin expression was co-localized with HDC expression in a subset of histaminergic gastric mucosal cells. We suggest that these transgenic mice will facilitate future studies aimed at investigating the function of histamine-producing cells.

  16. Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the gastric oxyntic mucosa does not arise from Lgr5-expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki Taek; O'Neal, Ryan L; Coffey, Robert J; Finke, Paul E; Barker, Nick; Goldenring, James R

    2012-12-01

    Metaplastic lineages in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach are critical preneoplastic precursors of gastric cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the mouse oxyntic mucosa arises from transdifferentiation of mature gastric chief cells. Other investigations of intestinal progenitor cells have shown that cells demonstrating transcriptional activity for leucine-rich repeat containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) in the intestine, colon and gastric antrum function as adult stem cells. We have now investigated whether cells demonstrating Lgr5 transcriptional activity in the oxyntic mucosa of mice might be responsible for development of metaplasia. Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-Cre(ERT2/+);Rosa26R mice were used to examine the distribution of Lgr5 transcriptionally active cells in the normal oxyntic mucosa as well as after treatment with DMP-777 or L-635 to induce acute SPEM. Lineage mapping was performed to determine if Lgr5-expressing cells gave rise to SPEM. Cells expressing transcriptional activity for Lgr5 in the oxyntic mucosa were present as scattered rare cells only along the lesser curvature of the stomach. These cells also stained for markers of chief cells (intrinsic factor and pepsinogen) but never showed any staining for proliferative markers (Ki-67). In Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-Cre(ERT2/+);Rosa26R mice induced with tamoxifen, treatment with either DMP-777 or L-635 to induce acute oxyntic atrophy caused induction of SPEM, but no lineage mapping into SPEM from Lgr5-expressing cells was observed. The results indicate that, while chief cells with Lgr5 transcriptional activity are present along the lesser curvature of the gastric oxyntic mucosa, they are not responsible for production of metaplasia.

  17. T-cell-specific deletion of Mof blocks their differentiation and results in genomic instability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Hunt, Clayton R; Pandita, Raj K; Pae, Juhee; Komal, K; Singh, Mayank; Shay, Jerry W; Kumar, Rakesh; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi; Horikoshi, Nobuo; Hittelman, Walter N; Guha, Chandan; Ludwig, Thomas; Pandita, Tej K

    2013-05-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia patients develop lymphoid malignancies of both B- and T-cell origin. Similarly, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm)-deficient mice exhibit severe defects in T-cell maturation and eventually develop thymomas. The function of ATM is known to be influenced by the mammalian orthologue of the Drosophila MOF (males absent on the first) gene. Here, we report the effect of T-cell-specific ablation of the mouse Mof (Mof) gene on leucocyte trafficking and survival. Conditional Mof(Flox/Flox) (Mof (F/F)) mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the T-cell-specific Lck proximal promoter (Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+)) display a marked reduction in thymus size compared with Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice. In contrast, the spleen size of Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice was increased compared with control Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice. The thymus of Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice contained significantly reduced T cells, whereas thymic B cells were elevated. Within the T-cell population, CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T-cell levels were reduced, whereas the immature CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) population was elevated. Defective T-cell differentiation is also evident as an increased DN3 (CD44(-)CD25(+)) population, the cell stage during which T-cell receptor rearrangement takes place. The differentiation defect in T cells and reduced thymus size were not rescued in a p53-deficient background. Splenic B-cell distributions were similar between Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) and Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice except for an elevation of the κ light-chain population, suggestive of an abnormal clonal expansion. T cells from Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice did not respond to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, whereas LPS-stimulated B cells from Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(+) mice demonstrated spontaneous genomic instability. Mice with T-cell-specific loss of MOF had shorter lifespans and decreased survival following irradiation than did Mof(F/F)/Lck-Cre(-) mice. These observations suggest that Mof plays a critical

  18. Targeted genetic manipulations of neuronal subtypes using promoter-specific combinatorial AAVs for use in wild-type animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich S Gompf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to genetically manipulate the activity of defined neuronal subpopulations have been useful in elucidating function, however applicability to translational research beyond transgenic mice is limited. Subtype targeted transgene expression can be achieved using specific promoters, but often currently available promoters are either too large to package into many vectors, in particular adeno-associated virus (AAV, or do not drive expression at levels sufficient to alter behavior. To permit neuron subtype specific gene expression in wildtype animals, we developed a combinatorial AAV targeting system that drives, in combination, subtype specific Cre-recombinase expression with a strong but non-specific Cre-conditional transgene. Using this system we demonstrate that the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (TH-Cre-AAV restricted expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (EF1α-DIO-ChR2-mCherry-AAV to the rat ventral tegmental area (VTA, or an activating DREADD (hSyn-DIO-hM3Dq-mCherry-AAV to the rat locus coeruleus (LC. High expression levels were achieved in both regions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed the majority of ChR2+ neurons (>93% colocalized with TH in the VTA, and optical stimulation evoked striatal dopamine release. Activation of TH neurons in the LC produced sustained EEG and behavioral arousal. TH-specific hM3Dq expression in the LC was further compared with 1 a Cre construct driven by a strong but non-specific promoter (non-targeting, and 2 a retrogradely-transported WGA-Cre delivery mechanism (targeting a specific projection. IHC revealed that the area of c-fos activation after CNO treatment in the LC and peri-LC neurons appeared proportional to the resulting increase in wakefulness (non-targeted > targeted > ACC to LC projection restricted. Our dual AAV targeting system effectively overcomes the large size and weak activity barrier prevalent with many subtype specific promoters by functionally separating subtype specificity from promoter

  19. Transient expression of neuropeptide W in postnatal mouse hypothalamus--a putative regulator of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoike, T; Skach, A G; Godwin, J K; Sinton, C M; Yamazaki, M; Abe, M; Natsume, R; Sakimura, K; Yanagisawa, M

    2015-08-20

    Neuropeptide B and W (NPB and NPW) are cognate peptide ligands for NPBWR1 (GPR7), a G protein-coupled receptor. In rodents, they have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, neuroendocrine/autonomic responses, and social interactions. Although localization of these peptides and their receptors in adult rodent brain has been well documented, their expression in mouse brain during development is unknown. Here we demonstrate the transient expression of NPW mRNA in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of postnatal mouse brain and its co-localization with neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA. Neurons expressing both NPW and NPY mRNAs begin to emerge in the DMH at about postnatal day 0 (P-0) through P-3. Their expression is highest around P-14, declines after P-21, and by P-28 only a faint expression of NPW and NPY mRNA remains. In P-18 brains, we detected NPW neurons in the region spanning the subincertal nucleus (SubI), the lateral hypothalamic (LH) perifornical (PF) areas, and the DMH, where the highest expression of NPW mRNA was observed. The majority of these postnatal hypothalamic NPW neurons co-express NPY mRNA. A cross of NPW-iCre knock-in mice with a Cre-dependent tdTomato reporter line revealed that more than half of the reporter-positive neurons in the adult DMH, which mature from the transiently NPW-expressing neurons, are sensitive to peripherally administrated leptin. These data suggest that the DMH neurons that transiently co-express NPW and NPY in the peri-weaning period might play a role in regulating energy homeostasis during postnatal development. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Layer- and column-specific knockout of NMDA receptors in pyramidal neurons of the mouse barrel cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Aronoff

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors injected into the mouse brain offer the possibility for localized genetic modifications in a highly controlled manner. Lentivector injection into mouse neocortex transduces cells within a diameter of approximately 200µm, which closely matches the lateral scale of a column in barrel cortex. The depth and volume of the injection determines which cortical layer is transduced. Furthermore, transduced gene expression from the lentivector can be limited to predominantly pyramidal neurons by using a 1.3kb fragment of the αCaMKII promoter. This technique therefore allows genetic manipulation of a specific cell type in defined columns and layers of the neocortex. By expressing Cre recombinase from such a lentivector in gene-targeted mice carrying a floxed gene, highly specific genetic lesions can be induced. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this approach by specifically knocking out NMDA receptors (NMDARs in pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory barrel cortex of gene-targeted mice carrying floxed NMDAR 1 genes. Neurons transduced with lentivector encoding GFP and Cre recombinase exhibit not only reductions in NMDAR 1 mRNA levels, but reduced NMDAR-dependent currents and pairing-induced synaptic potentiation. This technique for knockout of NMDARs in a cell type, column- and layer-specific manner in the mouse somatosensory cortex may help further our understanding of the functional roles of NMDARs in vivo during sensory perception and learning.

  1. Glioblastoma formation from cell population depleted of Prominin1-expressing cells.

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    Kenji Nishide

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Prominin1 (Prom1, also known as CD133 in human has been widely used as a marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs, which self-renew and are tumorigenic, in malignant tumors including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. However, there is other evidence showing that Prom1-negative cancer cells also form tumors in vivo. Thus it remains controversial whether Prom1 is a bona fide marker for CSCs. To verify if Prom1-expressing cells are essential for tumorigenesis, we established a mouse line, whose Prom1-expressing cells can be eliminated conditionally by a Cre-inducible DTA gene on the Prom1 locus together with a tamoxifen-inducible CreER(TM, and generated glioma-initiating cells (GICs-LD by overexpressing both the SV40 Large T antigen and an oncogenic H-Ras(L61 in neural stem cells of the mouse line. We show here that the tamoxifen-treated GICs-LD (GICs-DTA form tumor-spheres in culture and transplantable GBM in vivo. Thus, our studies demonstrate that Prom1-expressing cells are dispensable for gliomagenesis in this mouse model.

  2. Acute circuit-resistance exercise increases expression of lymphocyte agouti-related protein in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh; Rashid-Lamir, Amir; Fathi, Rozita; Kraemer, Robert R

    2010-03-01

    Exercise-induced leukocytosis and lymphocytosis is accompanied by up-regulation and down-regulation of hundreds of genes in white blood cells (WBCs). Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptide secreted predominantly from the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP affects feeding behavior and plays a role in energy and glucose homeostasis and adiposity. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of circuit resistance exercise (CRE) (9 exercises, 25 s per exercise) at different intensities on peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) AgRP mRNA expression and its concentrations in lymphocytes and plasma. Twenty-five young female college students were randomly divided into five groups: control, 40% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM), 60% 1-RM, 80% 1-RM and combined (40 + 60 + 80% 1-RM) loads. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by a lymphocyte density gradient centrifugation method for AgRP mRNA expression. Lymphocyte ATP, glycogen, AgRP, growth hormone (GH), and plasma AgRP, GH and glucose concentrations were measured. CRE increased AgRP mRNA lymphocyte expression significantly (P exercise stress.

  3. A high throughput Cre–lox activated viral membrane fusion assay identifies pharmacological inhibitors of HIV entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Anthony M. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States); Cheung, Pamela [Integrated Screening Core, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Swartz, Talia H.; Li, Hongru [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States); Tsibane, Tshidi [Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Durham, Natasha D. [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States); Basler, Christopher F. [Department of Microbiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Felsenfeld, Dan P. [Integrated Screening Core, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Chen, Benjamin K., E-mail: benjamin.chen@mssm.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Immunology Institute, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Enveloped virus entry occurs when viral and cellular membranes fuse releasing particle contents into the target cell. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry occurs by cell-free virus or virus transferred between infected and uninfected cells through structures called virological synapses. We developed a high-throughput cell-based assay to identify small molecule inhibitors of cell-free or virological synapse-mediated entry. An HIV clone carrying Cre recombinase as a Gag-internal gene fusion releases active Cre into cells upon viral entry activating a recombinatorial gene switch changing dsRed to GFP-expression. A screen of a 1998 known-biological profile small molecule library identified pharmacological HIV entry inhibitors that block both cell-free and cell-to-cell infection. Many top hits were noted as HIV inhibitors in prior studies, but not previously recognized as entry antagonists. Modest therapeutic indices for simvastatin and nigericin were observed in confirmatory HIV infection assays. This robust assay is adaptable to study HIV and heterologous viral pseudotypes. - Highlights: • Cre recombinase viral fusion assay screens cell-free or cell–cell entry inhibitors. • This Gag-iCre based assay is specific for the entry step of HIV replication. • Screened a library of known pharmacologic compounds for HIV fusion antagonists. • Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but here are classified as entry antagonists. Many top hits were previously noted as HIV inhibitors, but not as entry antagonists. • The assay is compatible with pseudotyping with HIV and heterologous viruses.

  4. Inducible ablation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells reveals their central role in non-image forming visual responses.

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    Megumi Hatori

    Full Text Available Rod/cone photoreceptors of the outer retina and the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs of the inner retina mediate non-image forming visual responses including entrainment of the circadian clock to the ambient light, the pupillary light reflex (PLR, and light modulation of activity. Targeted deletion of the melanopsin gene attenuates these adaptive responses with no apparent change in the development and morphology of the mRGCs. Comprehensive identification of mRGCs and knowledge of their specific roles in image-forming and non-image forming photoresponses are currently lacking. We used a Cre-dependent GFP expression strategy in mice to genetically label the mRGCs. This revealed that only a subset of mRGCs express enough immunocytochemically detectable levels of melanopsin. We also used a Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor (iDTR expression approach to express the DTR in mRGCs. mRGCs develop normally, but can be acutely ablated upon diphtheria toxin administration. The mRGC-ablated mice exhibited normal outer retinal function. However, they completely lacked non-image forming visual responses such as circadian photoentrainment, light modulation of activity, and PLR. These results point to the mRGCs as the site of functional integration of the rod/cone and melanopsin phototransduction pathways and as the primary anatomical site for the divergence of image-forming and non-image forming photoresponses in mammals.

  5. Conditional deletion of neurogenin-3 using Nkx2.1iCre results in a mouse model for the central control of feeding, activity and obesity

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    Neal Anthwal

    2013-09-01

    The ventral hypothalamus acts to integrate visceral and systemic information to control energy balance. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor neurogenin-3 (Ngn3 is required for pancreatic β-cell development and has been implicated in neuronal development in the hypothalamus. Here, we demonstrate that early embryonic hypothalamic inactivation of Ngn3 (also known as Neurog3 in mice results in rapid post-weaning obesity that is associated with hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure. This obesity is caused by loss of expression of Pomc in Pomc- and Cart-expressing (Pomc/Cart neurons in the arcuate nucleus, indicating an incomplete specification of anorexigenic first order neurons. Furthermore, following the onset of obesity, both the arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei become insensitive to peripheral leptin treatment. This conditional mouse mutant therefore represents a novel model system for obesity that is associated with hyperphagia and underactivity, and sheds new light upon the roles of Ngn3 in the specification of hypothalamic neurons controlling energy balance.

  6. Tie-2Cre mediated deletion of the vitamin D receptor gene leads to improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Glenn, Denis J; Gardner, David G

    2016-11-01

    A variety of studies have suggested that vitamin D may play a palliative role in improving insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Endothelial cells of the microcirculation are thought to play an important role in regulating both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in target tissues. We have selectively deleted the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in endothelial cells of the murine vasculature. These mice demonstrate improved glucose tolerance, improved insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, but not in liver, and a reduction in expression and secretion of insulin in the pancreatic islets. Collectively, these data, taken within the context of recent publications in this field, suggest that the endothelial cell VDR plays a tonic inhibitory role in regulating glucose disposal and could prove to be a factor in controlling glucose homeostasis in the intact organism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR expression studies in the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum

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    Toth Ian K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time RT-PCR has become a powerful technique to monitor low-abundance mRNA expression and is a useful tool when examining bacterial gene expression inside infected host tissues. However, correct evaluation of data requires accurate and reliable normalisation against internal standards. Thus, the identification of reference genes whose expression does not change during the course of the experiment is of paramount importance. Here, we present a study where manipulation of cultural growth conditions and in planta experiments have been used to validate the expression stability of reference gene candidates for the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Results Of twelve reference gene candidates tested, four proved to be stably expressed both in six different cultural growth conditions and in planta. Two of these genes (recA and ffh, encoding recombinase A and signal recognition particle protein, respectively, proved to be the most stable set of reference genes under the experimental conditions used. In addition, genes proC and gyrA, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and DNA gyrase, respectively, also displayed relatively stable mRNA expression levels. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest recA and ffh as suitable candidates for accurate normalisation of real-time RT-PCR data for experiments investigating the plant pathogen P. atrosepticum and potentially other related pathogens.

  8. Members of Bitter Taste Receptor Cluster Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 Are Expressed in the Epithelium of Murine Airways and Other Non-gustatory Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuya; Lu, Shun; Xu, Rui; Atzberger, Ann; Günther, Stefan; Wettschureck, Nina; Offermanns, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) based transgenic mouse line, expressing CreERT2 under the control of the Tas2r143 promoter. After crossing this line with a mouse line expressing EGFP after Cre-mediated recombination, we were able to validate the Tas2r143-CreERT2 transgenic mouse line and monitor the expression of Tas2r143. EGFP-positive cells, indicating expression of members of the cluster, were found in about 47% of taste buds, and could also be found in several other organs. A population of EGFP-positive cells was identified in thymic epithelial cells, in the lamina propria of the intestine and in vascular smooth muscle cells of cardiac blood vessels. EGFP-positive cells were also identified in the epithelium of organs readily exposed to pathogens including lower airways, the gastrointestinal tract, urethra, vagina, and cervix. With respect to the function of cells expressing this bitter taste receptor cluster, RNA-seq analysis in EGFP-positive cells isolated from the epithelium of trachea and stomach showed expression of genes related to innate immunity. These data further support the concept that bitter taste receptors serve functions outside the gustatory system. PMID:29163195

  9. Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor II Regulates Renin Gene Expression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sandra; Roeser, Marc; Lachmann, Peter; Ishii, Sumiyashi; Suh, Jae Mi; Harlander, Sabine; Desch, Michael; Brunssen, Coy; Morawietz, Henning; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Todorov, Vladimir T.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible involvement of the orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) in the regulation of renin gene expression. COUP-TFII colocalized with renin in the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney, which are the main source of renin in vivo. Protein-DNA binding studies demonstrated that COUP-TFII binds to an imperfect direct repeat COUP-TFII recognition sequence (termed hereafter proxDR) in the proximal renin promoter. Because cAMP signaling plays a central role in the control of the renin gene expression, we suggested that COUP-TFII may modulate this cAMP effect. Accordingly, knockdown of COUP-TFII in the clonal renin-producing cell lines As4.1 and Calu-6 diminished the stimulation of the renin mRNA expression by cAMP agonists. In addition, the mutation of the proxDR element in renin promoter reporter gene constructs abrogated the inducibility by cAMP. The proxDR sequence was found to be necessary for the function of a proximal renin promoter cAMP-response element (CRE). Knockdown of COUP-TFII or cAMP-binding protein (CREB), which is the archetypal transcription factor binding to CRE, decreased the basal renin gene expression. However, the deficiency of COUP-TFII did not further diminish the renin expression when CREB was knocked down. In agreement with the cell culture studies, mutant mice deficient in COUP-TFII have lower renin expression than their control strain. Altogether our data show that COUP-TFII is involved in the control of renin gene expression. PMID:22645148

  10. Globally increased ultraconserved noncoding RNA expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinmai; Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P; Redis, Roxana S; Lee, Eun Joo; Gusev, Yuriy; Allard, David; Sutaria, Dhruvitkumar S; Badawi, Mohamed; Elgamal, Ola A; Lerner, Megan R; Brackett, Daniel J; Calin, George A; Schmittgen, Thomas D

    2016-08-16

    Transcribed ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs) are a class of non-coding RNAs with 100% sequence conservation among human, rat and mouse genomes. T-UCRs are differentially expressed in several cancers, however their expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has not been studied. We used a qPCR array to profile all 481 T-UCRs in pancreatic cancer specimens, pancreatic cancer cell lines, during experimental pancreatic desmoplasia and in the pancreases of P48Cre/wt; KrasLSL-G12D/wt mice. Fourteen, 57 and 29% of the detectable T-UCRs were differentially expressed in the cell lines, human tumors and transgenic mouse pancreases, respectively. The vast majority of the differentially expressed T-UCRs had increased expression in the cancer. T-UCRs were monitored using an in vitro model of the desmoplastic reaction. Twenty-five % of the expressed T-UCRs were increased in the HPDE cells cultured on PANC-1 cellular matrix. UC.190, UC.233 and UC.270 were increased in all three human data sets. siRNA knockdown of each of these three T-UCRs reduced the proliferation of MIA PaCa-2 cells up to 60%. The expression pattern among many T-UCRs in the human and mouse pancreases closely correlated with one another, suggesting that groups of T-UCRs are co-activated in PDAC. Successful knockout of the transcription factor EGR1 in PANC-1 cells caused a reduction in the expression of a subset of T-UCRs suggesting that EGR1 may control T-UCR expression in PDAC. We report a global increase in expression of T-UCRs in both human and mouse PDAC. Commonalties in their expression pattern suggest a similar mechanism of transcriptional upregulation for T-UCRs in PDAC.

  11. Assessment of CcpA-mediated catabolite control of gene expression in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

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    Buist Girbe

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catabolite control protein CcpA is a transcriptional regulator conserved in many Gram-positives, controlling the efficiency of glucose metabolism. Here we studied the role of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 CcpA in regulation of metabolic pathways and expression of enterotoxin genes by comparative transcriptome analysis of the wild-type and a ccpA-deletion strain. Results Comparative analysis revealed the growth performance and glucose consumption rates to be lower in the B. cereus ATCC 14579 ccpA deletion strain than in the wild-type. In exponentially grown cells, the expression of glycolytic genes, including a non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that mediates conversion of D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate in one single step, was down-regulated and expression of gluconeogenic genes and genes encoding the citric acid cycle was up-regulated in the B. cereus ccpA deletion strain. Furthermore, putative CRE-sites, that act as binding sites for CcpA, were identified to be present for these genes. These results indicate CcpA to be involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, thereby optimizing the efficiency of glucose catabolism. Other genes of which the expression was affected by ccpA deletion and for which putative CRE-sites could be identified, included genes with an annotated function in the catabolism of ribose, histidine and possibly fucose/arabinose and aspartate. Notably, expression of the operons encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe and hemolytic enterotoxin (Hbl was affected by ccpA deletion, and putative CRE-sites were identified, which suggests catabolite repression of the enterotoxin operons to be CcpA-dependent. Conclusion The catabolite control protein CcpA in B. cereus ATCC 14579 is involved in optimizing the catabolism of glucose with concomitant repression of gluconeogenesis and alternative metabolic pathways. Furthermore, the results point to metabolic control

  12. Fusion of Human Fetal Mesenchymal Stem Cells with "Degenerating" Cerebellar Neurons in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 1 Model Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fathul; Fan, Yiping; Suzuki, Mamiko; Konno, Ayumu; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Takahashi, Nobutaka; Chan, Jerry K Y; Hirai, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate to damaged tissues, where they participate in tissue repair. Human fetal MSCs (hfMSCs), compared with adult MSCs, have higher proliferation rates, a greater differentiation capacity and longer telomeres with reduced senescence. Therefore, transplantation of quality controlled hfMSCs is a promising therapeutic intervention. Previous studies have shown that intravenous or intracortical injections of MSCs result in the emergence of binucleated cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) containing an MSC-derived marker protein in mice, thus suggesting a fusion event. However, transdifferentiation of MSCs into PCs or transfer of a marker protein from an MSC to a PC cannot be ruled out. In this study, we unequivocally demonstrated the fusion of hfMSCs with murine PCs through a tetracycline-regulated (Tet-off) system with or without a Cre-dependent genetic inversion switch (flip-excision; FLEx). In the FLEx-Tet system, we performed intra-cerebellar injection of viral vectors expressing tetracycline transactivator (tTA) and Cre recombinase into either non-symptomatic (4-week-old) or clearly symptomatic (6-8-month-old) spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) mice. Then, the mice received an injection of 50,000 genetically engineered hfMSCs that expressed GFP only in the presence of Cre recombinase and tTA. We observed a significant emergence of GFP-expressing PCs and interneurons in symptomatic, but not non-symptomatic, SCA1 mice 2 weeks after the MSC injection. These results, together with the results obtained using age-matched wild-type mice, led us to conclude that hfMSCs have the potential to preferentially fuse with degenerating PCs and interneurons but not with healthy neurons.

  13. An efficient strategy for producing a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dingpei; Lu, Weijian; Zhang, Yuli; Bi, Lihui; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Zhao, Aichun

    2015-03-05

    We developed an efficient strategy that combines a method for the post-integration elimination of all transposon sequences, a site-specific recombination system, and an optimized fibroin H-chain expression system to produce a stable, replaceable, highly efficient transgene expression system in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) that overcomes the disadvantages of random insertion and post-integration instability of transposons. Here, we generated four different transgenic silkworm strains, and of one the transgenic strains, designated TS1-RgG2, with up to 16% (w/w) of the target protein in the cocoons, was selected. The subsequent elimination of all the transposon sequences from TS1-RgG2 was completed by the heat-shock-induced expression of the transposase in vivo. The resulting transgenic silkworm strain was designated TS3-g2 and contained only the attP-flanked optimized fibroin H-chain expression cassette in its genome. A phiC31/att-system-based recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) method could be used to integrate other genes of interest into the same genome locus between the attP sites in TS3-g2. Controlling for position effects with phiC31-mediated RMCE will also allow the optimization of exogenous protein expression and fine gene function analyses in the silkworm. The strategy developed here is also applicable to other lepidopteran insects, to improve the ecological safety of transgenic strains in biocontrol programs.

  14. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do...... species suitable for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and, in addition, for transgene analyses in the very early embryonic stages.......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon......-based docking vector harbouring a selection gene, an eGFP reporter gene, and an Flp recombinase site for locus-directed gene insertion. PFV cells have insertion of a single docking vector with stable eGFP expression and generated phenotypic normal blastocysts with transgene expression after somatic cell nuclear...

  15. The Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer Atlas (MMPCA) for classification of pancreatic cancer lesions: A large histological investigation of the Ptf1aCre/+;LSL-KrasG12D/+ transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veite-Schmahl, Michelle J; Rivers, Adam C; Regan, Daniel P; Kennedy, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the leading forms of cancer related deaths in the United States. With limited treatment options and unreliable diagnostic methods, long-term survival rates following a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer remain poor. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) are precancerous lesions that precede progression towards PDAC. PanIN occur in increasing complexity as the disease progresses and the description of PanIN plays a critical role in describing, staging and diagnosing PDAC. Inconsistencies in PanIN classifications exist even amongst leading pathologists. This has led to debate and confusion among researchers and pathologists involved in pancreatic cancer research, diagnosis and treatment. We have sought to initiate a discussion with leading pathologists with a goal of increasing consensus in the interpretation of PanIN and associated structures within the precancerous pancreas. Toward achieving this goal, we are in the process of conducting an extensive study of over 1000 male and female pancreata in varying stages of PanIN progression isolated from the Ptf1aCre/+;LSL-KrasG12D/+ transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Using this extensive database, we have established the Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer Atlas (MMPCA) to serve as a platform for meaningful and interactive discussion among researchers and pathologists who study pancreatic disease. We hope that the MMPCA will be an effective tool for promoting a more consistent and accurate consensus of PanIN classifications in the future.

  16. Kuru Tip (Non-Neovasküler) Yaşa Bağlı Maküla Dejenerasyonunda Kök Hücre Tedavisi, Gen Tedavisi ve Retinal Implant

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Uğur

    2017-01-01

    İleri yaş nüfusunda yasal körlüklerin en sık sebeplerinden biri olan kuru tip yaşa bağlı maküla dejenerasyonu (YBMD) hastaları için, günümüzde hastalık progresyonunu yavaşlatan antioksidan desteği dışında tedavi seçeneği bulunmamaktadır. Biyomühendislik alanında yaşanan gelişmeler ışığında son dönemde yapılan çalışmalarda kuru tip YBMD’de kök hücre tedavisi ve gen tedavisi ile umut verici sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca son dönem YBMD hastalarının fonksiyonel görmelerini tekrar kazanmaları i...

  17. Sensory Neuron-Specific Deletion of TRPA1 Results in Mechanical Cutaneous Sensory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The nonselective cation channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is known to be a key contributor to both somatosensation and pain. Recent studies have implicated TRPA1 in additional physiologic functions and have also suggested that TRPA1 is expressed in nonneuronal tissues. Thus, it has become necessary to resolve the importance of TRPA1 expressed in primary sensory neurons, particularly since previous research has largely used global knock-out animals and chemical TRPA1 antagonists. We therefore sought to isolate the physiological relevance of TRPA1 specifically within sensory neurons. To accomplish this, we used Advillin-Cre mice, in which the promoter for Advillin is used to drive expression of Cre recombinase specifically within sensory neurons. These Advillin-Cre mice were crossed with Trpa1fl/fl mice to generate sensory neuron-specific Trpa1 knock-out mice. Here, we show that tissue-specific deletion of TRPA1 from sensory neurons produced strong deficits in behavioral sensitivity to mechanical stimulation, while sensitivity to cold and heat stimuli remained intact. The mechanical sensory deficit was incomplete compared to the mechanosensory impairment of TRPA1 global knock-out mice, in line with the incomplete (∼80%) elimination of TRPA1 from sensory neurons in the tissue-specific Advillin-Cre knock-out mice. Equivalent findings were observed in tissue-specific knock-out animals originating from two independently-generated Advillin-Cre lines. As such, our results show that sensory neuron TRPA1 is required for mechanical, but not cold, responsiveness in noninjured skin. PMID:28303259

  18. A mouse model for inducible overexpression of Prdm14 results in rapid-onset and highly penetrant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi L. Carofino

    2013-11-01

    PRDM14 functions in embryonic stem cell (ESC maintenance to promote the expression of pluripotency-associated genes while suppressing differentiation genes. Expression of PRDM14 is tightly regulated and typically limited to ESCs and primordial germ cells; however, aberrant expression is associated with tumor initiation in a wide variety of human cancers, including breast cancer and leukemia. Here, we describe the generation of a Cre-recombinase-inducible mouse model for the spatial and temporal control of Prdm14 misexpression [ROSA26 floxed-stop Prdm14 (R26PR]. When R26PR is mated to either of two Cre lines, Mx1-cre or MMTV-cre, mice develop early-onset T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL with median overall survival of 41 and 64 days for R26PR;Mx1-cre and R26PR;MMTV-cre, respectively. T-ALL is characterized by the accumulation of immature single-positive CD8 cells and their widespread infiltration. Leukemia is preceded by a dramatic expansion of cells resembling hematopoietic stem cells and lymphoid-committed progenitors prior to disease onset, accompanied by a blockage in B-cell differentiation at the early pro-B stage. Rapid-onset PRDM14-induced T-ALL requires factors that are present in stem and progenitor cells: R26PR;dLck-cre animals, which express Prdm14 starting at the double-positive stage of thymocyte development, do not develop disease. PRDM14-induced leukemic cells contain high levels of activated NOTCH1 and downstream NOTCH1 targets, including MYC and HES1, and are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH1 with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT. Greater than 50% of human T-ALLs harbor activating mutations in NOTCH1; thus, our model carries clinically relevant molecular aberrations. The penetrance, short latency and involvement of the NOTCH1 pathway will make this hematopoietic R26PR mouse model ideal for future studies on disease initiation, relapse and novel therapeutic drug combinations. Furthermore, breeding R26PR to additional Cre

  19. YY1 Is Required for Germinal Center B Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Sindhava, Vishal; Vuyyuru, Raja; Jha, Vibha; Hodewadekar, Suchita; Manser, Tim; Atchison, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    YY1 has been implicated as a master regulator of germinal center B cell development as YY1 binding sites are frequently present in promoters of germinal center-expressed genes. YY1 is known to be important for other stages of B cell development including the pro-B and pre-B cells stages. To determine if YY1 plays a critical role in germinal center development, we evaluated YY1 expression during B cell development, and used a YY1 conditional knock-out approach for deletion of YY1 in germinal center B cells (CRE driven by the immunoglobulin heavy chain γ1 switch region promoter; γ1-CRE). We found that YY1 is most highly expressed in germinal center B cells and is increased 3 fold in splenic B cells activated by treatment with anti-IgM and anti-CD40. In addition, deletion of the yy1 gene by action of γ1-CRE recombinase resulted in significant loss of GC cells in both un-immunized and immunized contexts with corresponding loss of serum IgG1. Our results show a crucial role for YY1 in the germinal center reaction.

  20. Plxnd1 expression in thymocytes regulates their intrathymic migration while that in thymic endothelium impacts medullary topology

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    Young Il Choi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An important role for plexinD1 in thymic development is inferred from studies of germline Plxnd1 knockout (KO mice where mislocalized CD69+ thymocytes as well as ectopic thymic subcapsular medullary structures were observed. Given embryonic lethality of the Plxnd1-/- genotype, fetal liver transplantation was employed in these prior analyses. Such embryonic hematopoietic reconstitution may have transferred Plxnd1 KO endothelial and/or epithelial stem cells in addition to Plxnd1 KO lymphoid progenitors, thereby contributing to that phenotype. Here we use Plxnd1flox/flox mice crossed to pLck-Cre, pKeratin14-Cre or pTek-Cre transgenic animals to create cell-type specific conditional knockout (CKO lines involving thymocytes (D1ThyCKO, thymic epithelium (D1EpCKO and thymic endothelium (D1EnCKO, respectively. These CKOs allowed us to directly assess the role of plexinD1 in each lineage. Loss of plexinD1 expression on double positive (DP thymocytes leads to their aberrant migration and cortical retention after TCR-mediated positive selection. In contrast, ectopic medulla formation is a consequence of loss of plexinD1 expression on endothelial cells, in turn linked to dysregulation of thymic angiogenesis. D1EpCKO thymi manifest neither abnormality. Collectively, our findings underscore the non-redundant roles for plexinD1 on thymocytes and endothelium, including the dynamic nature of medulla formation resulting from crosstalk between these thymic cellular components.

  1. A vaccine grade of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian myostatin

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    Zhang Tingting

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely-used system for protein expression. We previously showed that heat-killed whole recombinant yeast vaccine expressing mammalian myostatin can modulate myostatin function in mice, resulting in increase of body weight and muscle composition in these animals. Foreign DNA introduced into yeast cells can be lost soon unless cells are continuously cultured in selection media, which usually contain antibiotics. For cost and safety concerns, it is essential to optimize conditions to produce quality food and pharmaceutical products. Results We developed a simple but effective method to engineer a yeast strain stably expressing mammalian myostatin. This method utilized high-copy-number integration of myostatin gene into the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the final step, antibiotic selection marker was removed using the Cre-LoxP system to minimize any possible side-effects for animals. The resulting yeast strain can be maintained in rich culture media and stably express mammalian myostatin for two years. Oral administration of the recombinant yeast was able to induce immune response to myostatin and modulated the body weight of mice. Conclusions Establishment of such yeast strain is a step further toward transformation of yeast cells into edible vaccine to improve meat production in farm animals and treat human muscle-wasting diseases in the future.

  2. Pericyte-expressed Tie2 controls angiogenesis and vessel maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Martin; Milde, Laura; Holm, Annegret; Stanicek, Laura; Gengenbacher, Nicolas; Savant, Soniya; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Hasanov, Zulfiyya; Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Hertel, Stella; Bartol, Arne; Schlereth, Katharina; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2017-07-18

    The Tie receptors with their Angiopoietin ligands act as regulators of angiogenesis and vessel maturation. Tie2 exerts its functions through its supposed endothelial-specific expression. Yet, Tie2 is also expressed at lower levels by pericytes and it has not been unravelled through which mechanisms pericyte Angiopoietin/Tie signalling affects angiogenesis. Here we show that human and murine pericytes express functional Tie2 receptor. Silencing of Tie2 in pericytes results in a pro-migratory phenotype. Pericyte Tie2 controls sprouting angiogenesis in in vitro sprouting and in vivo spheroid assays. Tie2 downstream signalling in pericytes involves Calpain, Akt and FOXO3A. Ng2-Cre-driven deletion of pericyte-expressed Tie2 in mice transiently delays postnatal retinal angiogenesis. Yet, Tie2 deletion in pericytes results in a pronounced pro-angiogenic effect leading to enhanced tumour growth. Together, the data expand and revise the current concepts on vascular Angiopoietin/Tie signalling and propose a bidirectional, reciprocal EC-pericyte model of Tie2 signalling.

  3. A SNP uncoupling Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shang L; Mihi, Belgacem; Koyanagi, Madoka; Nakayama, Toshinori; Bix, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Mina is a JmjC family 2-oxoglutarate oxygenase with pleiotropic roles in cell proliferation, cancer, T cell differentiation, pulmonary inflammation, and intestinal parasite expulsion. Although Mina expression varies according to cell-type, developmental stage and activation state, its transcriptional regulation is poorly understood. Across inbred mouse strains, Mina protein level exhibits a bimodal distribution, correlating with inheritance of a biallelic haplotype block comprising 21 promoter/intron 1-region SNPs. We previously showed that heritable differences in Mina protein level are transcriptionally regulated. Accordingly, we decided to test the hypothesis that at least one of the promoter/intron 1-region SNPs perturbs a Mina cis-regulatory element (CRE). Here, we have comprehensively scanned for CREs across a Mina locus-spanning 26-kilobase genomic interval. We discovered 8 potential CREs and functionally validated 4 of these, the strongest of which (E2), residing in intron 1, contained a SNP whose BALB/c-but not C57Bl/6 allele-abolished both Smad3 binding and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) responsiveness. Our results demonstrate the TGFβ signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating Mina expression and SNP rs4191790 controls heritable variation in Mina expression level, raising important questions regarding the evolution of an allele that uncouples Mina expression from the TGFβ signaling pathway. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The triterpenoid CDDO-imidazolide reduces immune cell infiltration and cytokine secretion in the KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Ana S; Sporn, Michael B; Pioli, Patricia A; Liby, Karen T

    2016-12-01

    Because the 5-year survival rate for pancreatic cancer remains under 10%, new drugs are needed for the prevention and treatment of this devastating disease. Patients with chronic pancreatitis have a 12-fold higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. LSL-KrasG12D/+;Pdx-1-Cre (KC) mice replicate the genetics, symptoms and histopathology found in human pancreatic cancer. Immune cells infiltrate into the pancreas of these mice and produce inflammatory cytokines that promote tumor growth. KC mice are particularly sensitive to the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as only 48% of KC mice survived an LPS challenge while 100% of wildtype (WT) mice survived. LPS also increased the percentage of CD45+ immune cells in the pancreas and immunosuppressive Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell in the spleen of these mice. The triterpenoid CDDO-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) not only reduced the lethal effects of LPS (71% survival) but also decreased the infiltration of CD45+ cells into the pancreas and the percentage of Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cell in the spleen of KC mice 4-8 weeks after the initial LPS challenge. While the levels of inflammatory cytokine levels were markedly higher in KC mice versus WT mice challenged with LPS, CDDO-Im significantly decreased the production of IL-6, CCL-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and G-CSF in the KC mice. All of these cytokines are prognostic markers in pancreatic cancer or play important roles in the progression of this disease. Disrupting the inflammatory process with drugs such as CDDO-Im might be useful for preventing pancreatic cancer, especially in high-risk populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A transgenic rat for investigating the anatomy and function of corticotrophin releasing factor circuits

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    Matthew B Pomrenze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF is a 41 amino acid neuropeptide that coordinates adaptive responses to stress. CRF projections from neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA to the brainstem are of particular interest for their role in motivated behavior. To directly examine the anatomy and function of CRF neurons, we generated a BAC transgenic Crh-Cre rat in which bacterial Cre recombinase is expressed from the Crh promoter. Using Cre-dependent reporters, we found that Cre expressing neurons in these rats are immunoreactive for CRF and are clustered in the lateral CeA (CeL and the oval nucleus of the BNST. We detected major projections from CeA CRF neurons to parabrachial nuclei and the locus coeruleus, dorsal and ventral BNST, and more minor projections to lateral portions of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and lateral hypothalamus. Optogenetic stimulation of CeA CRF neurons evoked GABA-ergic responses in 11% of non-CRF neurons in the medial CeA (CeM and 44% of non-CRF neurons in the CeL. Chemogenetic stimulation of CeA CRF neurons induced Fos in a similar proportion of non-CRF CeM neurons but a smaller proportion of non-CRF CeL neurons. The CRF1 receptor antagonist R121919 reduced this Fos induction by two-thirds in these regions. These results indicate that CeL CRF neurons provide both local inhibitory GABA and excitatory CRF signals to other CeA neurons, and demonstrate the value of the Crh-Cre rat as a tool for studying circuit function and physiology of CRF neurons.

  6. Inducible gene manipulations in serotonergic neurons

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    Tillmann Weber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available An impairment of the serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the considerable genetic evidence, the exact molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain largely unknown. To address the lack of instruments for the molecular dissection of gene function in serotonergic neurons we have developed a new mouse transgenic tool that allows inducible Cre-mediated recombination of genes selectively in 5-HT neurons of all raphe nuclei. In this transgenic mouse line, the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase is expressed under the regulatory control of the mouse tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2 gene locus (177kb. Tamoxifen treatment efficiently induced recombination selectively in serotonergic neurons with minimal background activity in vehicle-treated mice. These genetic manipulations can be initiated at any desired time during embryonic development, neonatal stage or adulthood. To illustrate the versatility of this new tool, we show that Brainbow-1.0LTPH2-CreERT2 mice display highly efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons with individual 5-HT neurons labelling with multiple distinct fluorescent colors. This labelling is well suited for visualization and tracing of serotonergic neurons and their network architecture. Finally, the applicability of TPH2-CreERT2 for loxP-flanked candidate gene manipulation is evidenced by our successful knockout induction of the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid-receptor (GR exclusively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. The TPH2-CreERT2 line will allow detailed analysis of gene function in both developing and adult serotonergic neurons

  7. Inducible Gene Manipulations in Serotonergic Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tillmann; Böhm, Gerald; Hermann, Elke; Schütz, Günther; Schönig, Kai; Bartsch, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    An impairment of the serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite the considerable genetic evidence, the exact molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain largely unknown. To address the lack of instruments for the molecular dissection of gene function in serotonergic neurons we have developed a new mouse transgenic tool that allows inducible Cre-mediated recombination of genes selectively in 5-HT neurons of all raphe nuclei. In this transgenic mouse line, the tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase is expressed under the regulatory control of the mouse tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene locus (177 kb). Tamoxifen treatment efficiently induced recombination selectively in serotonergic neurons with minimal background activity in vehicle-treated mice. These genetic manipulations can be initiated at any desired time during embryonic development, neonatal stage or adulthood. To illustrate the versatility of this new tool, we show that Brainbow-1.0LTPH2-CreERT2 mice display highly efficient recombination in serotonergic neurons with individual 5-HT neurons labeling with multiple distinct fluorescent colors. This labeling is well suited for visualization and tracing of serotonergic neurons and their network architecture. Finally, the applicability of TPH2-CreERT2 for loxP-flanked candidate gene manipulation is evidenced by our successful knockout induction of the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid-receptor exclusively in 5-HT neurons of adult mice. The TPH2-CreERT2 line will allow detailed analysis of gene function in both developing and adult serotonergic neurons. PMID:19936315

  8. Rapid and tunable method to temporally control gene editing based on conditional Cas9 stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Serif; Shirole, Nitin H; Nowak, Dawid G; Corbo, Vincenzo; Pal, Debjani; Vaughan, Alexander; Tuveson, David A; Trotman, Lloyd C; Kinney, Justin B; Sordella, Raffaella

    2017-02-22

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for studying gene function. Here, we describe a method that allows temporal control of CRISPR/Cas9 activity based on conditional Cas9 destabilization. We demonstrate that fusing an FKBP12-derived destabilizing domain to Cas9 (DD-Cas9) enables conditional Cas9 expression and temporal control of gene editing in the presence of an FKBP12 synthetic ligand. This system can be easily adapted to co-express, from the same promoter, DD-Cas9 with any other gene of interest without co-modulation of the latter. In particular, when co-expressed with inducible Cre-ER T2 , our system enables parallel, independent manipulation of alleles targeted by Cas9 and traditional recombinase with single-cell specificity. We anticipate this platform will be used for the systematic characterization and identification of essential genes, as well as the investigation of the interactions between functional genes.

  9. c-Kit-mediated functional positioning of stem cells to their niches is essential for maintenance and regeneration of adult hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kimura

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs through interaction with their niches maintain and reconstitute adult hematopoietic cells is unknown. To functionally and genetically track localization of HSPCs with their niches, we employed novel mutant loxPs, lox66 and lox71 and Cre-recombinase technology to conditionally delete c-Kit in adult mice, while simultaneously enabling GFP expression in the c-Kit-deficient cells. Conditional deletion of c-Kit resulted in hematopoietic failure and splenic atrophy both at steady state and after marrow ablation leading to the demise of the treated adult mice. Within the marrow, the c-Kit-expressing GFP(+ cells were positioned to Kit ligand (KL-expressing niche cells. This c-Kit-mediated cellular adhesion was essential for long-term maintenance and expansion of HSPCs. These results lay the foundation for delivering KL within specific niches to maintain and restore hematopoiesis.

  10. Cooperative interactions between CBP and TORC2 confer selectivity to CREB target gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjær, Kim; Kester, Henri; Liu, Yi

    2007-01-01

    A number of hormones and growth factors stimulate gene expression by promoting the phosphorylation of CREB (P-CREB), thereby enhancing its association with the histone acetylase paralogs p300 and CBP (CBP/p300). Relative to cAMP, stress signals trigger comparable amounts of CREB phosphorylation......, but have minimal effects on CRE-dependent transcription. Here, we show that the latent cytoplasmic coactivator TORC2 mediates target gene activation in response to cAMP signaling by associating with CBP/p300 and increasing its recruitment to a subset of CREB target genes. TORC2 is not activated in response......-mediated transcription in cells exposed to stress signals. Taken together, these results indicate that TORC2 is one of the long sought after cofactors that mediates the differential effects of cAMP and stress pathways on CREB target gene expression....

  11. Dkk1 haploinsufficiency requires expression of Bmp2 for bone anabolic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intini, Giuseppe; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures remain a serious health burden and prevention and enhanced healing of fractures has been obtained by augmenting either BMP or Wnt signaling. However, whether BMP and Wnt signaling are both required or are self-sufficient for anabolic and fracture healing activities has never been fully elucidated. Mice haploinsufficient for Dkk1 (Dkk1+/−) exhibit a high bone mass phenotype due to an up-regulation of canonical Wnt signaling while mice lacking Bmp2 expression in the limbs (Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre) succumb to spontaneous fracture and are unable to initiate fracture healing; combined, these mice offer an opportunity to examine the requirement for activated BMP signaling on the anabolic and fracture healing activity of Wnts. When Dkk1+/− mice were crossed with Bmp2c/c;Prx1::cre mice, the offspring bearing both genetic alterations were unable to increase bone mass and heal fractures, indicating that increased canonical Wnt signaling is unable to exploit its activity in absence of Bmp2. Thus, our data suggest that BMP signaling is required for Wnt-mediated anabolic activity and that therapies aimed at preventing fractures and fostering fracture repair may need to target both pathways for maximal efficacy. PMID:25603465

  12. Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available antibiotics and can be deadly—one report cites they can contribute to death in up to ... Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance Blood Safety Dialysis Safety Get Smart for Healthcare in Healthcare Facilities Hand Hygiene HICPAC ...

  13. Operant self-stimulation of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra.

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    Mark A Rossi

    Full Text Available We examined the contribution of the nigrostriatal DA system to instrumental learning and behavior using optogenetics in awake, behaving mice. Using Cre-inducible channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 in mice expressing Cre recombinase driven by the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter (Th-Cre, we tested whether selective stimulation of DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC, in the absence of any natural rewards, was sufficient to promote instrumental learning in naive mice. Mice expressing ChR2 in SNC DA neurons readily learned to press a lever to receive laser stimulation, but unlike natural food rewards the lever pressing did not decline with satiation. When the number of presses required to receive a stimulation was altered, mice adjusted their rate of pressing accordingly, suggesting that the rate of stimulation was a controlled variable. Moreover, extinction, i.e. the cessation of action-contingent stimulation, and the complete reversal of the relationship between action and outcome by the imposition of an omission contingency, rapidly abolished lever pressing. Together these results suggest that selective activation of SNC DA neurons can be sufficient for acquisition and maintenance of a new instrumental action.

  14. Identification of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in Primary Cilia and Their Possible Involvement in Body Weight Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Chaya, Taro; Yoshida, Satoyo; Irie, Shoichi; Tsujii, Toshinori; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that harbor various receptors such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We analyzed subcellular localization of 138 non-odorant GPCRs. We transfected GPCR expression vectors into NIH3T3 cells, induced ciliogenesis by serum starvation, and observed subcellular localization of GPCRs by immunofluorescent staining. We found that several GPCRs whose ligands are involved in feeding behavior, including prolactin-releasing hormone receptor (PRLHR), neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (NPFFR1), and neuromedin U receptor 1 (NMUR1), localized to the primary cilia. In addition, we found that a short form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2S) is efficiently transported to the primary cilia, while a long form of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2L) is rarely transported to the primary cilia. Using an anti-Prlhr antibody, we found that Prlhr localized to the cilia on the surface of the third ventricle in the vicinity of the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus. We generated the Npy2r-Cre transgenic mouse line in which Cre-recombinase is expressed under the control of the promoter of Npy2r encoding a ciliary GPCR. By mating Npy2r-Cre mice with Ift80 flox mice, we generated Ift80 conditional knockout (CKO) mice in which Npy2r-positive cilia were diminished in number. We found that Ift80 CKO mice exhibited a body weight increase. Our results suggest that Npy2r-positive cilia are important for body weight control.

  15. Hematopoietic stem cell-specific GFP-expressing transgenic mice generated by genetic excision of a pan-hematopoietic reporter gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cunningham, Jessica; Boyer, Scott W; Landon, Mark; Forsberg, E Camilla

    2016-08-01

    Selective labeling of specific cell types by expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) within the hematopoietic system would have great utility in identifying, localizing, and tracking different cell populations in flow cytometry, microscopy, lineage tracing, and transplantation assays. In this report, we describe the generation and characterization of a new transgenic mouse line with specific GFP labeling of all nucleated hematopoietic cells and platelets. This new "Vav-GFP" mouse line labels the vast majority of hematopoietic cells with GFP during both embryonic development and adulthood, with particularly high expression in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). With the exception of transient labeling of fetal endothelial cells, GFP expression is highly selective for hematopoietic cells and persists in donor-derived progeny after transplantation of HSPCs. Finally, we also demonstrate that the loxP-flanked reporter allows for specific GFP labeling of different hematopoietic cell subsets when crossed to various Cre reporter lines. By crossing Vav-GFP mice to Flk2-Cre mice, we obtained robust and highly selective GFP expression in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These data describe a new mouse model capable of directing GFP labeling exclusively of hematopoietic cells or exclusively of HSCs. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  17. Time-Course Analysis of Gene Expression During the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hypoxic Response

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    Nasrine Bendjilali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cells experience hypoxia, or low oxygen, and respond by dramatically altering gene expression. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes that respond are required for many oxygen-dependent cellular processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis, and redox regulation. To more fully characterize the global response to hypoxia, we exposed yeast to hypoxic conditions, extracted RNA at different times, and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis. Time-course statistical analysis revealed hundreds of genes that changed expression by up to 550-fold. The genes responded with varying kinetics suggesting that multiple regulatory pathways are involved. We identified most known oxygen-regulated genes and also uncovered new regulated genes. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that the lysine methyltransferase EFM6 and the recombinase DMC1, both conserved in humans, are indeed oxygen-responsive. Looking more broadly, oxygen-regulated genes participate in expected processes like respiration and lipid metabolism, but also in unexpected processes like amino acid and vitamin metabolism. Using principle component analysis, we discovered that the hypoxic response largely occurs during the first 2 hr and then a new steady-state expression state is achieved. Moreover, we show that the oxygen-dependent genes are not part of the previously described environmental stress response (ESR consisting of genes that respond to diverse types of stress. While hypoxia appears to cause a transient stress, the hypoxic response is mostly characterized by a transition to a new state of gene expression. In summary, our results reveal that hypoxia causes widespread and complex changes in gene expression to prepare the cell to function with little or no oxygen.

  18. Expression of Activated Ras in Gastric Chief Cells of Mice Leads to the Full Spectrum of Metaplastic Lineage Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunyoung; Hendley, Audrey M.; Bailey, Jennifer M.; Leach, Steven D.; Goldenring, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Gastric cancer develops in the context of parietal cell loss, spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), and intestinal metaplasia (IM). We investigated whether expression of the activated form of Ras in gastric chief cells of mice leads to development of SPEM, as well as progression of metaplasia. Methods We studied Mist1-CreERT2Tg/+;LSL-K-Ras(G12D)Tg/+ (Mist1-Kras) mice, which express the active form of Kras in chief cells upon tamoxifen exposure. We studied Mist1-CreERT2Tg/+;LSL-KRas (G12D)Tg/+;R26RmTmG/+ (Mist1-Kras-mTmG) mice to examine whether chief cells that express active Kras give rise to SPEM and IM. Some mice received intraperitoneal injections of the MEK inhibitor, selumetinib, for 14 consecutive days. Gastric tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative PCR. Results Mist1-Kras mice developed metaplastic glands, which completely replaced normal fundic lineages and progressed to IM within 3–4 months after tamoxifen injection. The metaplastic glands expressed markers of SPEM and IM, and were infiltrated by macrophages. Lineage tracing studies confirmed that the metaplasia developed directly from Kras (G12D)-induced chief cells. Selumetinib induced persistent regression of SPEM and IM and reestablished normal mucosal cells, which were derived from normal gastric progenitor cells. Conclusions Expression of activated Ras in chief cells of Mist1-Kras mice led to the full range of metaplastic lineage transitions, including SPEM and IM. Inhibition of Ras signaling by inhibition of MEK might reverse pre-neoplastic metaplasia in the stomach. PMID:26677984

  19. Characterisation of a stably integrated expression system for exogenous protein expression in DT40 [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliti Skouteri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of constitutive promoters to drive exogenous protein expression is an important tool for the study of diverse biological processes. To create and characterise a stably integrated expression system for DT40 cells, we constructed integration cassettes for three commonly used promoter elements; CMV, CBA or CAG, and used these to stably integrate a TOPBP1 transgene at the OVA locus, a transcriptionally silent locus commonly used in DT40. We next performed a comparative analysis of protein expression levels and identified CAG as the most efficient of the promoter elements we have tested in DT40 cells. To assess whether the site of integration affected the levels of transgene expression, a second chromosomal locus, immediately adjacent to the endogenous TOPBP1 gene, was tested for CAG. No major differences in TopBP1 overexpression were observed. This confirms that use of the OVA locus for integrating transgenes is a rational choice for DT40. Finally, we demonstrate that our stably integrated overexpression system (SIOS constructs can be efficiently excised by the induction of tamoxifen-regulated Cre expression. Taken together, SIOS is an easy-to-use and versatile system for constitutive, reversible exogenous protein production that provides a range of potential expression levels. This will be a useful experimental tool for future DT40 experiments.

  20. Characterisation of a stably integrated expression system for exogenous protein expression in DT40 [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliti Skouteri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constitutive promoters to drive exogenous protein expression is an important tool for the study of diverse biological processes. To create and characterise a stably integrated expression system for DT40 cells, we constructed integration cassettes for three commonly used promoter elements; CMV (cytomegalovirus, CBA (chicken beta actin or CAG (a hybrid promoter containing the CMV enhancer and chicken beta actin promoter, and used these to stably integrate a TOPBP1 transgene at the OVA locus, a transcriptionally silent locus commonly used in DT40. We next performed a comparative analysis of protein expression levels and identified CAG as the most efficient of the promoter elements we have tested in DT40 cells. To assess whether the site of integration affected the levels of transgene expression, a second chromosomal locus, immediately adjacent to the endogenous TOPBP1 gene, was tested for CAG. No major differences in TopBP1 overexpression were observed. This confirms that use of the OVA locus for integrating transgenes is a rational choice for DT40. Finally, we demonstrate that our stably integrated overexpression system (SIOS constructs can be efficiently excised by the induction of tamoxifen-regulated Cre expression. Taken together, SIOS is an easy-to-use and versatile system for constitutive, reversible exogenous protein production that provides a range of potential expression levels. This will be a useful tool for future DT40 experiments.

  1. Loss of the Keratin Cytoskeleton Is Not Sufficient to Induce Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in a Novel KRAS Driven Sporadic Lung Cancer Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Katharina; Meder, Lydia; Kröger, Cornelia; Diehl, Linda; Florin, Alexandra; Rommerscheidt-Fuss, Ursula; Kahl, Philip; Wardelmann, Eva; Magin, Thomas M.; Buettner, Reinhard; Heukamp, Lukas C.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the phenotypical change of cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal type, is thought to be a key event in invasion and metastasis of adenocarcinomas. These changes involve loss of keratin expression as well as loss of cell polarity and adhesion. We here aimed to determine whether the loss of keratin expression itself drives increased invasion and metastasis in adenocarcinomas and whether keratin loss leads to the phenotypic changes associated with EMT. Therefore, we employed a recently described murine model in which conditional deletion of the Keratin cluster II by Cre-recombinase leads to the loss of the entire keratinmultiprotein family. These mice were crossed into a newly generated Cre-recombinase inducible KRAS-driven murine lung cancer model to examine the effect of keratin loss on morphology, invasion and metastasis as well as expression of EMT related genes in the resulting tumors. We here clearly show that loss of a functional keratin cytoskeleton did not significantly alter tumor morphology or biology in terms of invasion, metastasis, proliferation or tumor burden and did not lead to induction of EMT. Further, tumor cells did not induce synchronously expression of vimentin, which is often seen in EMT, to compensate for keratin loss. In summary, our data suggest that changes in cell shape and migration that underlie EMT are dependent on changes in signaling pathways that cause secondary changes in keratin expression and organization. Thus, we conclude that loss of the keratin cytoskeleton per se is not sufficient to causally drive EMT in this tumor model. PMID:23536778

  2. Endothelial marker-expressing stromal cells are critical for kidney formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Elina; Maringer, Katherine; Papke, Emily; Bushnell, Daniel; Schaefer, Caitlin; Kramann, Rafael; Ho, Jacqueline; Humphreys, Benjamin D; Bates, Carlton; Sims-Lucas, Sunder

    2017-09-01

    Kidneys are highly vascularized and contain many distinct vascular beds. However, the origins of renal endothelial cells and roles of the developing endothelia in the formation of the kidney are unclear. We have shown that the Foxd1-positive renal stroma gives rise to endothelial marker-expressing progenitors that are incorporated within a subset of peritubular capillaries; however, the significance of these cells is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether deletion of Flk1 in the Foxd1 stroma was important for renal development. To that end, we conditionally deleted Flk1 (critical for endothelial cell development) in the renal stroma by breeding-floxed Flk1 mice (Flk1fl/fl ) with Foxd1cre mice to generate Foxd1cre; Flk1fl/fl (Flk1ST-/- ) mice. We then performed FACsorting, histological, morphometric, and metabolic analyses of Flk1ST-/- vs. control mice. We confirmed decreased expression of endothelial markers in the renal stroma of Flk1ST-/- kidneys via flow sorting and immunostaining, and upon interrogation of embryonic and postnatal Flk1ST-/- mice, we found they had dilated peritubular capillaries. Three-dimensional reconstructions showed reduced ureteric branching and fewer nephrons in developing Flk1ST-/- kidneys vs. Juvenile Flk1ST-/- kidneys displayed renal papillary hypoplasia and a paucity of collecting ducts. Twenty-four-hour urine collections revealed that postnatal Flk1ST-/- mice had urinary-concentrating defects. Thus, while lineage-tracing revealed that the renal cortical stroma gave rise to a small subset of endothelial progenitors, these Flk1-expressing stromal cells are critical for patterning the peritubular capillaries. Also, loss of Flk1 in the renal stroma leads to nonautonomous-patterning defects in ureteric lineages. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Ethanol synthesis from glycerol by Escherichia coli redox mutants expressing adhE from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikel, P I; Ramirez, M C; Pettinari, M J; Méndez, B S; Galvagno, M A

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of the physiology and metabolism of Escherichia coli arcA and creC mutants expressing a bifunctional alcohol-acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides growing on glycerol under oxygen-restricted conditions. The effect of an ldhA mutation and different growth medium modifications was also assessed. Expression of adhE in E. coli CT1061 [arcA creC(Con)] resulted in a 1.4-fold enhancement in ethanol synthesis. Significant amounts of lactate were produced during micro-oxic cultures and strain CT1061LE, in which fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was deleted, produced up to 6.5 +/- 0.3 g l(-1) ethanol in 48 h. Escherichia coli CT1061LE derivatives resistant to >25 g l(-1) ethanol were obtained by metabolic evolution. Pyruvate and acetaldehyde addition significantly increased both biomass and ethanol concentrations, probably by overcoming acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) shortage. Yeast extract also promoted growth and ethanol synthesis, and this positive effect was mainly attributable to its vitamin content. Two-stage bioreactor cultures were conducted in a minimal medium containing 100 microg l(-1) calcium d-pantothenate to evaluate oxic acetyl-CoA synthesis followed by a switch into fermentative conditions. Ethanol reached 15.4 +/- 0.9 g l(-1) with a volumetric productivity of 0.34 +/- 0.02 g l(-1) h(-1). Escherichia coli responded to adhE over-expression by funnelling carbon and reducing equivalents into a highly reduced metabolite, ethanol. Acetyl-CoA played a key role in micro-oxic ethanol synthesis and growth. Insight into the micro-oxic metabolism of E. coli growing on glycerol is essential for the development of efficient industrial processes for reduced biochemicals production from this substrate, with special relevance to biofuels synthesis.

  4. Proximal tubule glutamine synthetase expression is necessary for the normal response to dietary protein restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E; Verlander, Jill W; Weiner, I David

    2017-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion changes in parallel during changes in dietary protein intake. Dietary protein restriction decreases endogenous acid production and decreases urinary ammonia excretion, a major component of net acid excretion. Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the reaction of [Formula: see text] and glutamate, which regenerates the essential amino acid glutamine and decreases net ammonia generation. Because renal proximal tubule GS expression increases during dietary protein restriction, this could contribute to the decreased ammonia excretion. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of proximal tubule GS in the renal response to protein restriction. We generated mice with proximal tubule-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Cre-negative (Control) and PT-GS-KO mice in metabolic cages were provided 20% protein diet for 2 days and were then changed to low-protein (6%) diet for the next 7 days. Additional PT-GS-KO mice were maintained on 20% protein diet. Dietary protein restriction caused a rapid decrease in urinary ammonia excretion in both genotypes, but PT-GS-KO blunted this adaptive response significantly. This occurred despite no significant genotype-dependent differences in urinary pH or in serum electrolytes. There were no significant differences between Control and PT-GS-KO mice in expression of multiple other proteins involved in renal ammonia handling. We conclude that proximal tubule GS expression is necessary for the appropriate decrease in ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction.

  5. Temperature control of molecular circuit switch responsible for virulent phenotype expression in uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoilov, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The behavior and fate of biological organisms are to a large extent dictated by their environment, which can be often viewed as a collection of features and constraints governed by physics laws. Since biological systems comprise networks of molecular interactions, one such key physical property is temperature, whose variations directly affect the rates of biochemical reactions involved. For instance, temperature is known to control many gene regulatory circuits responsible for pathogenicity in bacteria. One such example is type 1 fimbriae (T1F) -- the foremost virulence factor in uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which accounts for 80-90% of all community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). The expression of T1F is randomly `phase variable', i.e. individual cells switch between virulent/fimbriate and avirulent/afimbriate phenotypes, with rates regulated by temperature. Our computational investigation of this process, which is based on FimB/FimE recombinase-mediated inversion of fimS DNA element, offers new insights into its discrete-stochastic kinetics. In particular, it elucidates the logic of T1F control optimization to the host temperature and contributes further understanding toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches to UPEC-caused UTIs.

  6. Combining Click Chemistry-Based Proteomics With Dox-Inducible Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, J; Schnölzer, M; Warnken, U; Kopitz, J

    2017-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in single genes can trigger, prevent, promote, or alleviate diseases. Identifying such disease-related genes is a main pillar of medical research. Since proteins play a crucial role in mediating these effects, their impact on the diseased cells' proteome including posttranslational modifications has to be elucidated for a detailed understanding of the role of these genes in the disease process. In complex disorders, like cancer, several genes contribute to the disease process, thereby hampering the assignment of a proteomic change to the corresponding causative gene. To enable comprehensive screening for the impact of inactivation of a gene, e.g., loss of a tumor suppressor in cancer, on the cellular proteome, we present a strategy based on combination of three technologies that is recombinase-mediated cassette exchange, click chemistry, and mass spectrometry. The methodology is exemplified by the analysis of the proteomic changes induced by the loss of a tumor suppressor gene in colorectal cancer cells. To demonstrate the applicability to screen for posttranslational modification changes, we also describe the analysis of protein glycosylation changes caused by the tumor suppressor inactivation. In principle, this strategy can be applied to analyze the effects of any gene of interest on protein expression as well as posttranslational modification by glycosylation. Moreover adaptation of the strategy to an appropriate cell culture model has the potential for application on a broad range of diseases where the disease-promoting mutations have been identified. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inactivation of mrcA gene derepresses the basal-level expression of L1 and L2 β-lactamases in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lin, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Yi-Wei; Chung, Tung-Ching; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2011-09-01

    To characterize the relationship between inactivation of the mrcA gene and β-lactamase expression and β-lactams resistance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ and to investigate the involvement of ampR, ampN-ampG, ampD(I) and creBC in this. The mrcA deletion mutant KJΔmrcA was constructed to investigate the role of this putative penicillin-binding protein 1a (PBP1a) in β-lactamase expression and β-lactam resistance. The ΔampR, ΔampNG, ΔampDI and ΔcreBC alleles were introduced into KJΔmrcA, and KJΔDIΔBC and KJΔDIΔmrcAΔBC were also constructed for comparison. All the mutants and their corresponding parent strains were assayed for β-lactamase activities and MICs of β-lactams. Inactivation of mrcA caused basal L1/L2 β-lactamase production to increase by ∼100-fold, but made little difference to cefuroxime-induced β-lactamase activity and the MICs of β-lactams. The ΔmrcA-derived basal β-lactamase hyperproduction was ampR and ampN-ampG dependent. Simultaneous inactivation of ampD(I) and mrcA did not augment β-lactamase production over and above that seen in an ampD(I) mutant alone. Furthermore, we could find no evidence for a role of the creBC two-component regulatory system in β-lactamase hyperproduction in a ΔampD(I) or ΔmrcA background. Inactivation of mrcA, predicted to encode PBP1a, causes basal L1/L2 β-lactamase hyperproduction in S. maltophilia.

  8. 20-hydroxyecdysone enhances the expression of the chitinase 5 via Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger 4 during metamorphosis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Zheng, S

    2017-04-01

    Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of both BmBR-C Z4 and BmBR-C Z2 during metamorphosis, and when induced by 20E, was anastomotic with the variations in BmCHT5 mRNA level. In contrast, BmE74A did not follow this trend. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay did not retrieve a binding partner for the two BR-C Z2 CREs in the BmN cell line nuclear extract, whereas BR-C Z4 CRE specifically bound to BmBR-C Z4. Besides, luciferase activity analysis confirmed that BmBR-C Z4 could enhance the activity of the BmCHT5 promoter with BR-C Z4 CRE and could not enhance the promoter activity by mutating BR-C Z4 CRE. Taken together, these data suggest that the transcription factor BmBR-C Z4 enhances the expression of BmCHT5 during metamorphosis. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  9. A novel system for simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple gene-loading vectors into a defined site of a human artificial chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhiko Suzuki

    Full Text Available Human artificial chromosomes (HACs are gene-delivery vectors suitable for introducing large DNA fragments into mammalian cells. Although a HAC theoretically incorporates multiple gene expression cassettes of unlimited DNA size, its application has been limited because the conventional gene-loading system accepts only one gene-loading vector (GLV into a HAC. We report a novel method for the simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple GLVs into a HAC vector (designated as the SIM system via combined usage of Cre, FLP, Bxb1, and φC31 recombinase/integrase. As a proof of principle, we first attempted simultaneous integration of three GLVs encoding EGFP, Venus, and TdTomato into a gene-loading site of a HAC in CHO cells. These cells successfully expressed all three fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microcell-mediated transfer of HACs enabled the expression of those fluorescent proteins in recipient cells. We next demonstrated that GLVs could be introduced into a HAC one-by-one via reciprocal usage of recombinase/integrase. Lastly, we introduced a fourth GLV into a HAC after simultaneous integration of three GLVs by FLP-mediated DNA recombination. The SIM system expands the applicability of HAC vectors and is useful for various biomedical studies, including cell reprogramming.

  10. Generation and validation of a Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 clone set for protein expression and phage display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichun Gao

    Full Text Available A comprehensive gene collection for S. oneidensis was constructed using the lambda recombinase (Gateway cloning system. A total of 3584 individual ORFs (85% have been successfully cloned into the entry plasmids. To validate the use of the clone set, three sets of ORFs were examined within three different destination vectors constructed in this study. Success rates for heterologous protein expression of S. oneidensis His- or His/GST-tagged proteins in E. coli were approximately 70%. The ArcA and NarP transcription factor proteins were tested in an in vitro binding assay to demonstrate that functional proteins can be successfully produced using the clone set. Further functional validation of the clone set was obtained from phage display experiments in which a phage encoding thioredoxin was successfully isolated from a pool of 80 different clones after three rounds of biopanning using immobilized anti-thioredoxin antibody as a target. This clone set complements existing genomic (e.g., whole-genome microarray and other proteomic tools (e.g., mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, and facilitates a wide variety of integrated studies, including protein expression, purification, and functional analyses of proteins both in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Transgenic mouse analysis of Sry expression during the pre- and peri-implantation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silversides, David W; Raiwet, Diana L; Souchkova, Ouliana; Viger, Robert S; Pilon, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    The SRY/Sry gene is expressed in pre-Sertoli cells of the male genital ridge and functions as the mammalian testis determining factor (TDF). In addition, expression of SRY/Sry outside the genital ridge has been reported, including preimplantation embryos, although the functional significance of this is not well understood. Using Cre-mediated lineage studies and transgenic reporter mouse models, we now show that promoter sequences of human, pig and mouse SRY drive robust reporter gene expression in epiblast cells of peri-implantation embryos between embryonic day (E) 4.5 and E6.5. Analysis of endogenous Sry expression revealed that linear transcripts are produced by means of multiple polyadenylation sites in E4.5 embryos. Within the epiblast, SRY reporter expression mimics the expression seen using a Gata4 reporter model, but is dissimilar to that seen using an Oct4 reporter model. In addition, we report that overexpression of mouse Sry in embryonic stem cells leads to down-regulation of the core pluripotency markers Sox2 and Nanog. We propose that SRY/Sry may function as a male-specific maturation factor in the peri-implantation mammalian embryo, providing a genetic mechanism to help explain the observation that male embryos are developmentally more advanced compared with female embryos, and suggesting a role for SRY beyond that of TDF. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. IP{sub 3}-dependent intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J. [Department of Pharmacology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda (United States); Lord, Rebecca L. [Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom); Chawla, Sangeeta, E-mail: sangeeta.chawla@york.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Biology, University of York (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The submembraneous Ca{sup 2+} pool derives from intracellular ER stores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP{sub 3}-metabolizing enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca{sup 2+}-responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP signals. Because Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP can influence each other's amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP{sub 3} levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements - the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP{sub 3} metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited

  13. Continued expression of GATA3 is necessary for cochlear neurosensory development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Duncan

    Full Text Available Hair cells of the developing mammalian inner ear are progressively defined through cell fate restriction. This process culminates in the expression of the bHLH transcription factor Atoh1, which is necessary for differentiation of hair cells, but not for their specification. Loss of several genes will disrupt ear morphogenesis or arrest of neurosensory epithelia development. We previously showed in null mutants that the loss of the transcription factor, Gata3, results specifically in the loss of all cochlear neurosensory development. Temporal expression of Gata3 is broad from the otic placode stage through the postnatal ear. It therefore remains unclear at which stage in development Gata3 exerts its effect. To better understand the stage specific effects of Gata3, we investigated the role of Gata3 in cochlear neurosensory specification and differentiation utilizing a LoxP targeted Gata3 line and two Cre lines. Foxg1(Cre∶Gata3(f/f mice show recombination of Gata3 around E8.5 but continue to develop a cochlear duct without differentiated hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. qRT-PCR data show that Atoh1 was down-regulated but not absent in the duct whereas other hair cell specific genes such as Pou4f3 were completely absent. In addition, while Sox2 levels were lower in the Foxg1(Cre:Gata3(f/f cochlea, Eya1 levels remained normal. We conclude that Eya1 is unable to fully upregulate Atoh1 or Pou4f3, and drive differentiation of hair cells without Gata3. Pax2-Cre∶Gata3(f/f mice show a delayed recombination of Gata3 in the ear relative to Foxg1(Cre:Gata3(f/f . These mice exhibited a cochlear duct containing patches of partially differentiated hair cells and developed only few and incorrectly projecting spiral ganglion neurons. Our conditional deletion studies reveal a major role of Gata3 in the signaling of prosensory genes and in the differentiation of cochlear neurosenory cells. We suggest that Gata3 may act in combination with Eya1, Six1, and

  14. Transcriptome analysis reveals absence of unintended effects in drought-tolerant transgenic plants overexpressing the transcription factor ABF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeen, Ashraf; Schnell, Jaimie; Miki, Brian

    2010-01-28

    Plants engineered for abiotic stress tolerance may soon be commercialized. The engineering of these plants typically involves the manipulation of complex multigene networks and may therefore have a greater potential to introduce pleiotropic effects than the simple monogenic traits that currently dominate the plant biotechnology market. While research on unintended effects in transgenic plant systems has been instrumental in demonstrating the substantial equivalence of many transgenic plant systems, it is essential that such analyses be extended to transgenic plants engineered for stress tolerance. Drought-tolerant Arabidopsis thaliana were engineered through overexpression of the transcription factor ABF3 in order to investigate unintended pleiotropic effects. In order to eliminate position effects, the Cre/lox recombination system was used to create control plant lines that contain identical T-DNA insertion sites but with the ABF3 transgene excised. This additionally allowed us to determine if Cre recombinase can cause unintended effects that impact the transcriptome. Microarray analysis of control plant lines that underwent Cre-mediated excision of the ABF3 transgene revealed only two genes that were differentially expressed in more than one plant line, suggesting that the impact of Cre recombinase on the transcriptome was minimal. In the absence of drought stress, overexpression of ABF3 had no effect on the transcriptome, but following drought stress, differences were observed in the gene expression patterns of plants overexpressing ABF3 relative to control plants. Examination of the functional distribution of the differentially expressed genes revealed strong similarity indicating that unintended pathways were not activated. The action of ABF3 is tightly controlled in Arabidopsis. In the absence of drought stress, ectopic activation of drought response pathways does not occur. In response to drought stress, overexpression of ABF3 results in a reprogramming of

  15. Tissue-Specific Contributions of Paternally Expressed Gene 3 in Lactation and Maternal Care of Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley D Frey

    Full Text Available Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3 is an imprinted gene that controls milk letdown and maternal-caring behaviors. In this study, a conditional knockout allele has been developed in Mus musculus to further characterize these known functions of Peg3 in a tissue-specific manner. The mutant line was first crossed with a germline Cre. The progeny of this cross displayed growth retardation phenotypes. This is consistent with those seen in the previous mutant lines of Peg3, confirming the usefulness of the new mutant allele. The mutant line was subsequently crossed individually with MMTV- and Nkx2.1-Cre lines to test Peg3's roles in the mammary gland and hypothalamus, respectively. According to the results, the milk letdown process was impaired in the nursing females with the Peg3 mutation in the mammary gland, but not in the hypothalamus. This suggests that Peg3's roles in the milk letdown process are more critical in the mammary gland than in the hypothalamus. In contrast, one of the maternal-caring behaviors, nest-building, was interrupted in the females with the mutation in both MMTV- and Nkx2.1-driven lines. Overall, this is the first study to introduce a conditional knockout allele of Peg3 and to further dissect its contribution to mammalian reproduction in a tissue-specific manner.

  16. Tissue-Specific Contributions of Paternally Expressed Gene 3 in Lactation and Maternal Care of Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Wesley D; Kim, Joomyeong

    2015-01-01

    Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3) is an imprinted gene that controls milk letdown and maternal-caring behaviors. In this study, a conditional knockout allele has been developed in Mus musculus to further characterize these known functions of Peg3 in a tissue-specific manner. The mutant line was first crossed with a germline Cre. The progeny of this cross displayed growth retardation phenotypes. This is consistent with those seen in the previous mutant lines of Peg3, confirming the usefulness of the new mutant allele. The mutant line was subsequently crossed individually with MMTV- and Nkx2.1-Cre lines to test Peg3's roles in the mammary gland and hypothalamus, respectively. According to the results, the milk letdown process was impaired in the nursing females with the Peg3 mutation in the mammary gland, but not in the hypothalamus. This suggests that Peg3's roles in the milk letdown process are more critical in the mammary gland than in the hypothalamus. In contrast, one of the maternal-caring behaviors, nest-building, was interrupted in the females with the mutation in both MMTV- and Nkx2.1-driven lines. Overall, this is the first study to introduce a conditional knockout allele of Peg3 and to further dissect its contribution to mammalian reproduction in a tissue-specific manner.

  17. Expression of arf tumor suppressor in spermatogonia facilitates meiotic progression in male germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Churchman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian Cdkn2a (Ink4a-Arf locus encodes two tumor suppressor proteins (p16(Ink4a and p19(Arf that respectively enforce the anti-proliferative functions of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb and the p53 transcription factor in response to oncogenic stress. Although p19(Arf is not normally detected in tissues of young adult mice, a notable exception occurs in the male germ line, where Arf is expressed in spermatogonia, but not in meiotic spermatocytes arising from them. Unlike other contexts in which the induction of Arf potently inhibits cell proliferation, expression of p19(Arf in spermatogonia does not interfere with mitotic cell division. Instead, inactivation of Arf triggers germ cell-autonomous, p53-dependent apoptosis of primary spermatocytes in late meiotic prophase, resulting in reduced sperm production. Arf deficiency also causes premature, elevated, and persistent accumulation of the phosphorylated histone variant H2AX, reduces numbers of chromosome-associated complexes of Rad51 and Dmc1 recombinases during meiotic prophase, and yields incompletely synapsed autosomes during pachynema. Inactivation of Ink4a increases the fraction of spermatogonia in S-phase and restores sperm numbers in Ink4a-Arf doubly deficient mice but does not abrogate γ-H2AX accumulation in spermatocytes or p53-dependent apoptosis resulting from Arf inactivation. Thus, as opposed to its canonical role as a tumor suppressor in inducing p53-dependent senescence or apoptosis, Arf expression in spermatogonia instead initiates a salutary feed-forward program that prevents p53-dependent apoptosis, contributing to the survival of meiotic male germ cells.

  18. Crucial role of alkaline sphingomyelinase in sphingomyelin digestion: a study on enzyme knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Yajun; Hansen, Gert H

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) hydrolyses sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide in the gut. To evaluate the physiological importance of the enzyme, we generated alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice by the Cre-recombinase-Locus of X-over P1(Cre-LoxP) system and studied SM digestion. Both wild-type (WT...... for crucial roles of alk-SMase in SM digestion and points to possible roles in regulating mucosal growth and alkaline phosphatase function....

  19. Lineage Tracing and Cell Ablation Identify a Post-Aire-Expressing Thymic Epithelial Cell Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C. Metzger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (mTECs play a critical role in enforcing central tolerance through expression and presentation of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs and deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. TSA expression requires autoimmune regulator (Aire, a transcriptional activator present in a subset of mTECs characterized by high CD80 and major histocompatibility complex II expression and a lack of potential for differentiation or proliferation. Here, using an Aire-DTR transgenic line, we show that short-term ablation specifically targets Aire+ mTECs, which quickly undergo RANK-dependent recovery. Repeated ablation also affects Aire− mTECs, and using an inducible Aire-Cre fate-mapping system, we find that this results from the loss of a subset of mTECs that showed prior expression of Aire, maintains intermediate TSA expression, and preferentially migrates toward the center of the medulla. These results clearly identify a distinct stage of mTEC development and underscore the diversity of mTECs that play a key role in maintaining tolerance.

  20. Lineage tracing and cell ablation identify a post-Aire-expressing thymic epithelial cell population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Todd C; Khan, Imran S; Gardner, James M; Mouchess, Maria L; Johannes, Kellsey P; Krawisz, Anna K; Skrzypczynska, Katarzyna M; Anderson, Mark S

    2013-10-17

    Thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (mTECs) play a critical role in enforcing central tolerance through expression and presentation of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) and deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. TSA expression requires autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional activator present in a subset of mTECs characterized by high CD80 and major histocompatibility complex II expression and a lack of potential for differentiation or proliferation. Here, using an Aire-DTR transgenic line, we show that short-term ablation specifically targets Aire(+) mTECs, which quickly undergo RANK-dependent recovery. Repeated ablation also affects Aire(-) mTECs, and using an inducible Aire-Cre fate-mapping system, we find that this results from the loss of a subset of mTECs that showed prior expression of Aire, maintains intermediate TSA expression, and preferentially migrates toward the center of the medulla. These results clearly identify a distinct stage of mTEC development and underscore the diversity of mTECs that play a key role in maintaining tolerance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lineage tracing and cell ablation identifies a post-Aire expressing thymic epithelial cell population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Todd C.; Khan, Imran S.; Gardner, James M.; Mouchess, Maria L.; Johannes, Kellsey P.; Krawisz, Anna K.; Skrzypczynska, Katarzyna M.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Thymic epithelial cells in the medulla (mTECs) play a critical role in enforcing central tolerance through expression and presentation of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) and deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. TSA expression requires autoimmune regulator (Aire), a transcriptional activator present in a subset of mTECs characterized by high CD80 and MHC II expression and a lack of potential for differentiation or proliferation. Here, using an Aire-DTR transgenic line, we show that short-term ablation specifically targets Aire+ mTECs, which quickly undergo RANK-dependent recovery. Repeated ablation also affects Aire− mTECs, and using an inducible Aire-Cre fate-mapping system, we find that this results from the loss of a subset of mTECs that showed prior expression of Aire, maintains intermediate TSA expression, and preferentially migrates towards the center of the medulla. These results clearly identify a distinct stage of mTEC development and underscore the diversity of mTECs that play a key role in maintaining tolerance. PMID:24095736

  2. An AAV9 coding for frataxin clearly improved the symptoms and prolonged the life of Friedreich ataxia mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is a genetic disease due to increased repeats of the GAA trinucleotide in intron 1 of the frataxin gene. This mutation leads to a reduced expression of frataxin. We have produced an adeno-associated virus (AAV9 coding for human frataxin (AAV9-hFXN. This AAV was delivered by intraperitoneal (IP injection to young conditionally knockout mice in which the frataxin gene had been knocked-out in some tissues during embryogenesis by breeding them with mice expressing the Cre recombinase gene under the muscle creatine kinase (MCK or the neuron-specific enolase (NSE promoter. In the first part of the study, different doses of virus were tested from 6 × 1011 v.p. to 6 × 109 v.p. in NSE-cre mice and all leading to an increase in life spent of the mice. The higher and the lower dose were also tested in MCK-cre mice. A single administration of the AAV9-hFXN at 6 × 1011 v.p. more than doubled the life of these mice. In fact the MCK-cre mice treated with the AAV9-hFXN were sacrificed for further molecular investigations at the age of 29 weeks without apparent symptoms. Echography analysis of the heart function clearly indicated that the cardiac systolic function was better preserved in the mice that received 6 × 1011 v.p. of AAV9-hFXN. The human frataxin protein was detected by ELISA in the heart, brain, muscles, kidney, and liver with the higher dose of virus in both mouse models. Thus, gene therapy with an AAV9-hFXN is a potential treatment of FRDA.

  3. AAV vector-mediated overexpression of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus protects against seizure-induced excitoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenhuber, Stephan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat; Klugmann, Matthias

    2010-12-21

    The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is the most abundant G-protein coupled receptor in the brain and a key regulator of neuronal excitability. There is strong evidence that CB1 receptor on glutamatergic hippocampal neurons is beneficial to alleviate epileptiform seizures in mouse and man. Therefore, we hypothesized that experimentally increased CB1 gene dosage in principal neurons would have therapeutic effects in kainic acid (KA)-induced hippocampal pathogenesis. Here, we show that virus-mediated conditional overexpression of CB1 receptor in pyramidal and mossy cells of the hippocampus is neuroprotective and moderates convulsions in the acute KA seizure model in mice. We introduce a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome with a short stop element flanked by loxP sites, for highly efficient attenuation of transgene expression on the transcriptional level. The presence of Cre-recombinase is strictly necessary for expression of reporter proteins or CB1 receptor in vitro and in vivo. Transgenic CB1 receptor immunoreactivity is targeted to glutamatergic neurons after stereotaxic delivery of AAV to the dorsal hippocampus of the driver mice NEX-cre. Increased CB1 receptor protein levels in hippocampal lysates of AAV-treated Cre-mice is paralleled by enhanced cannabinoid-induced G-protein activation. KA-induced seizure severity and mortality is reduced in CB1 receptor overexpressors compared with AAV-treated control animals. Neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA3 field is specifically absent from AAV-treated Cre-transgenics, but evident throughout cortical areas of both treatment groups. Our data provide further evidence for a role of increased CB1 signaling in pyramidal hippocampal neurons as a safeguard against the adverse effects of excessive excitatory network activity.

  4. AAV vector-mediated overexpression of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus protects against seizure-induced excitoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Guggenhuber

    Full Text Available The CB1 cannabinoid receptor is the most abundant G-protein coupled receptor in the brain and a key regulator of neuronal excitability. There is strong evidence that CB1 receptor on glutamatergic hippocampal neurons is beneficial to alleviate epileptiform seizures in mouse and man. Therefore, we hypothesized that experimentally increased CB1 gene dosage in principal neurons would have therapeutic effects in kainic acid (KA-induced hippocampal pathogenesis. Here, we show that virus-mediated conditional overexpression of CB1 receptor in pyramidal and mossy cells of the hippocampus is neuroprotective and moderates convulsions in the acute KA seizure model in mice. We introduce a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV genome with a short stop element flanked by loxP sites, for highly efficient attenuation of transgene expression on the transcriptional level. The presence of Cre-recombinase is strictly necessary for expression of reporter proteins or CB1 receptor in vitro and in vivo. Transgenic CB1 receptor immunoreactivity is targeted to glutamatergic neurons after stereotaxic delivery of AAV to the dorsal hippocampus of the driver mice NEX-cre. Increased CB1 receptor protein levels in hippocampal lysates of AAV-treated Cre-mice is paralleled by enhanced cannabinoid-induced G-protein activation. KA-induced seizure severity and mortality is reduced in CB1 receptor overexpressors compared with AAV-treated control animals. Neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA3 field is specifically absent from AAV-treated Cre-transgenics, but evident throughout cortical areas of both treatment groups. Our data provide further evidence for a role of increased CB1 signaling in pyramidal hippocampal neurons as a safeguard against the adverse effects of excessive excitatory network activity.

  5. Embryonic ablation of neuronal VGF increases energy expenditure and reduces body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Lin, Wei-Jye; Sadahiro, Masato; Shin, Andrew C; Buettner, Christoph; Salton, Stephen R

    2017-08-01

    Germline ablation of VGF, a secreted neuronal, neuroendocrine, and endocrine peptide precursor, results in lean, hypermetabolic, and infertile adult mice that are resistant to diet-, lesion-, and genetically-induced obesity and diabetes (Hahm et al., 1999, 2002). To assess whether this phenotype is predominantly driven by reduced VGF expression in developing and/or adult neurons, or in peripheral endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, we generated and analyzed conditional VGF knockout mice, obtained by mating loxP-flanked (floxed) Vgf mice with either pan-neuronal Synapsin-Cre- or forebrain alpha-CaMKII-Cre-recombinase-expressing transgenic mice. Adult male and female mice, with conditional ablation of the Vgf gene in embryonic neurons had significantly reduced body weight, increased energy expenditure, and were resistant to diet-induced obesity. Conditional forebrain postnatal ablation of VGF in male mice, primarily in adult excitatory neurons, had no measurable effect on body weight nor on energy expenditure, but led to a modest increase in adiposity, partially overlapping the effect of AAV-Cre-mediated targeted ablation of VGF in the adult ventromedial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus of floxed Vgf mice (Foglesong et al., 2016), and also consistent with results of icv delivery of the VGF-derived peptide TLQP-21 to adult mice, which resulted in increased energy expenditure and reduced adiposity (Bartolomucci et al., 2006). Because the lean, hypermetabolic phenotype of germline VGF knockout mice is to a great extent recapitulated in Syn-Cre+/-,Vgfflpflox/flpflox mice, we conclude that the metabolic profile of germline VGF knockout mice is largely the result of VGF ablation in embryonic CNS neurons, rather than peripheral endocrine and/or neuroendocrine cells, and that in forebrain structures such as hypothalamus, VGF and/or VGF-derived peptides play uniquely different roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Epigenetic Regulation of Inflammatory Gene Expression in Macrophages by Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Vivek; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Liao, Chang; Kaushal, Naveen; Carlson, Bradley A.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins by histone acetyltransferases plays a pivotal role in the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Given the importance of dietary selenium in mitigating inflammation, we hypothesized that selenium supplementation may regulate inflammatory gene expression at the epigenetic level. The effect of selenium towards histone acetylation was examined in both in vitro and in vivo models of inflammation by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and immunoblotting. Our results indicated that selenium supplementation, as selenite, decreased acetylation of histone H4 at K12 and K16 in COX-2 and TNF promoters, and of the p65 subunit of the redox sensitive transcription factor NFκB in primary and immortalized macrophages. On the other hand, selenomethionine had a much weaker effect. Selenite treatment of HIV-1 infected human monocytes also significantly decreased the acetylation of H4 at K12 and K16 on the HIV-1 promoter, supporting the downregulation of proviral expression by selenium. A similar decrease in histone acetylation was also seen in the colonic extracts of mice treated with dextran sodium sulfate that correlated well with the levels of selenium in the diet. Bone marrow-derived macrophages from Trspfl/flCreLysM mice that lack expression of selenoproteins in macrophages confirmed the important role of selenoproteins in the inhibition of histone H4 acetylation. Our studies suggest that the ability of selenoproteins to skew the metabolism of arachidonic acid to contribute, in part, to their ability to inhibit histone acetylation. In summary, our studies suggest a new role for selenoproteins in the epigenetic modulation of pro-inflammatory genes. PMID:25458528

  7. Simultaneous deletion of floxed genes mediated by CaMKIIα-Cre in the brain and in male germ cells: application to conditional and conventional disruption of Goα

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Chan-Il; Yoon, Sang-Phil; Choi, Jung-Mi; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Young-Don; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Suh-Kim, Haeyoung

    2014-01-01

    .... The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKIIα) promoter limits expression to specific regions of the forebrain and thus has been utilized for the brain-specific inactivation of the genes...

  8. Simultaneous deletion of floxed genes mediated by CaMKII[alpha]-Cre in the brain and in male germ cells: application to conditional and conventional disruption of Go[alpha

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chan-il Choi; Sang-phil Yoon; Jung-mi Choi; Sung-soo Kim; Young-don Lee; Lutz Birnbaumer; Haeyoung Suh-kim

    2014-01-01

    .... The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKIIα) promoter limits expression to specific regions of the forebrain and thus has been utilized for the brain-specific inactivation of the genes...

  9. miR-216 and miR-217 expression is reduced in transgenic mouse models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, knockout of miR-216/miR-217 host gene is embryonic lethal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Pouly, Ana Clara P; Sutaria, Dhruvitkumar S; Jiang, Jinmai; Elgamal, Ola A; Amari, Foued; Allard, David; Grippo, Paul J; Coppola, Vincenzo; Schmittgen, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    Mice harboring a G12D activating Kras mutation are among the most heavily studied models in the field of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) research. miRNAs are differentially expressed in PDAC from patients and mouse models of PDAC. To better understand the relationship that Kras activation has on miRNA expression, we profiled the expression of 629 miRNAs in RNA isolated from the pancreas of control, young, and old P48(+/Cre);LSL-KRAS(G12D) as well as PDX-1-Cre;LSL-KRAS(G12D) mice. One hundred of the differentially expressed miRNAs had increased expression in the advanced disease (old) P48(+/Cre);LSL-KRAS(G12D) compared to wild-type mice. Interestingly, the expression of three miRNAs, miR-216a, miR-216b, and miR-217, located within a ∼30-kbp region on 11qA3.3, decreased with age (and phenotype severity) in these mice. miR-216/-217 expression was also evaluated in another acinar-specific ELa-Kras(G12D) mouse model and was downregulated as well. As miR-216/-217 are acinar enriched, reduced in human PDAC and target KRAS, we hypothesized that they may maintain acinar differentiation or represent tumor suppressive miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, we deleted a 27.9-kbp region of 11qA3.3 containing the miR-216/-217 host gene in the mouse's germ line. We report that germ line deletion of this cluster is embryonic lethal in the mouse. We estimate that lethality occurs shortly after E9.5. qPCR analysis of the miR-216b and miR-217 expression in the heterozygous animals showed no difference in expression, suggesting haplosufficiency by some type of compensatory mechanism. We present the differential miRNA expression in Kras(G12D) transgenic mice and report lethality from deletion of the miR-216/-217 host gene in the mouse's germ line.

  10. Porcine SOX9 Gene Expression Is Influenced by an 18 bp Indel in the 5'-Untranslated Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Brenig

    Full Text Available Sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9 is an important regulator of sex and skeletal development and is expressed in a variety of embryonal and adult tissues. Loss or gain of function resulting from mutations within the coding region or chromosomal aberrations of the SOX9 locus lead to a plethora of detrimental phenotypes in humans and animals. One of these phenotypes is the so-called male-to-female or female-to-male sex-reversal which has been observed in several mammals including pig, dog, cat, goat, horse, and deer. In 38,XX sex-reversal French Large White pigs, a genome-wide association study suggested SOX9 as the causal gene, although no functional mutations were identified in affected animals. However, besides others an 18 bp indel had been detected in the 5'-untranslated region of the SOX9 gene by comparing affected animals and controls. We have identified the same indel (Δ18 between position +247 bp and +266 bp downstream the transcription start site of the porcine SOX9 gene in four other pig breeds; i.e., German Large White, Laiwu Black, Bamei, and Erhualian. These animals have been genotyped in an attempt to identify candidate genes for porcine inguinal and/or scrotal hernia. Because the 18 bp segment in the wild type 5'-UTR harbours a highly conserved cAMP-response element (CRE half-site, we analysed its role in SOX9 expression in vitro. Competition and immunodepletion electromobility shift assays demonstrate that the CRE half-site is specifically recognized by CREB. Both binding of CREB to the wild type as well as the absence of the CRE half-site in Δ18 reduced expression efficiency in HEK293T, PK-15, and ATDC5 cells significantly. Transfection experiments of wild type and Δ18 SOX9 promoter luciferase constructs show a significant reduction of RNA and protein levels depending on the presence or absence of the 18 bp segment. Hence, the data presented here demonstrate that the 18 bp indel in the porcine SOX9 5'-UTR is of functional

  11. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from June 27, 2002 about a disagreement between Semmaris company and Electricite de France, as manager of the public power distribution grid, relative to the conditions of consideration of the multiplicity of delivery points in the contractual system of access to the grid; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 27 juin 2002 sur un different, qui oppose la societe Semmaris a Electricite de France, en tant que gestionnaire du reseau public de distribution d'electricite, relatif aux conditions de prise en compte de la multiplicite des points de livraison dans le dispositif contractuel d'acces au reseau electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a disagreement between Semmaris company (Rungis, France) and Electricite de France (EdF) concerning the request by Semmaris for the subscription of a single contract of access to the grid for its 18 supply points instead of 9 contracts as proposed by EdF after acceptation of a partial regrouping of some supply points under the same contracts. After examination of the hearings, the CRE requested EdF to establish non-discriminatory objective criteria for the regrouping of different delivery points in a same contract before making a new examination of the disagreement between Semmaris and EdF. (J.S.)

  12. Optimisation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe urg1 expression system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam T Watson

    Full Text Available The ability to study protein function in vivo often relies on systems that regulate the presence and absence of the protein of interest. Two limitations for previously described transcriptional control systems that are used to regulate protein expression in fission yeast are: the time taken for inducing conditions to initiate transcription and the ability to achieve very low basal transcription in the "OFF-state". In previous work, we described a Cre recombination-mediated system that allows the rapid and efficient regulation of any gene of interest by the urg1 promoter, which has a dynamic range of approximately 75-fold and which is induced within 30-60 minutes of uracil addition. In this report we describe easy-to-use and versatile modules that can be exploited to significantly tune down Purg1 "OFF-levels" while maintaining an equivalent dynamic range. We also provide plasmids and tools for combining Purg1 transcriptional control with the auxin degron tag to help maintain a null-like phenotype. We demonstrate the utility of this system by improved regulation of HO-dependent site-specific DSB formation, by the regulation Rtf1-dependent replication fork arrest and by controlling Rhp18(Rad18-dependent post replication repair.

  13. Construction of chromosomally located T7 expression system for production of heterologous secreted proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po Ting; Shaw, Jei-Fu; Chao, Yun-Peng; David Ho, Tuan-Hua; Yu, Su-May

    2010-05-12

    Bacillus subtilis is most commonly employed for secretion of recombinant proteins. To circumvent the problems caused by using plasmids, the T7 expression system known for its high efficiency was rebuilt in B. subtilis. Accordingly, a markerless and replicon-free method was developed for genomic insertion of DNAs. By the act of homologous recombination via the guide DNA, a suicidal vector carrying the gene of interest was integrated into genomic loci of bacteria. Removal of the inserted selection marker and replicon flanked by FRT sites was mediated by the FLP recombinase. By using the mentioned system, B. subtilis strain PT5 was constructed to harbor a genomic copy of the spac promoter-regulated T7 gene 1 located at wprA (encoding the cell wall-associated protease). Similarly, the T7 promoter-driven nattokinase or endoglucanase E1 of Thermomonospora fusca genes were also integrated into mpr (encoding an extracellular protease) of strain PT5. Consequently, the integrant PT5/Mmp-T7N or PT5/MT1-E1 resulted in a "clean" producer strain deprived of six proteases. After 24 h, the strain receiving induction was able to secret nattokinase and endoglucanase E1 with the volumetric activity reaching 10860 CU/mL and 8.4 U/mL, respectively. This result clearly indicates the great promise of the proposed approach for high secretion of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis.

  14. Efficient delivery of genome-editing proteins using bioreducible lipid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A central challenge to the development of protein-based therapeutics is the inefficiency of delivery of protein cargo across the mammalian cell membrane, including escape from endosomes. Here we report that combining bioreducible lipid nanoparticles with negatively supercharged Cre recombinase or an...

  15. Induction of a menopausal state alters the growth and histology of ovarian tumors in a mouse model of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviolette, Laura A; Ethier, Jean-François; Senterman, Mary K; Devine, Patrick J; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2011-05-01

    Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed in women after menopause when the levels of the serum gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are increased because of the depletion of growing follicles within the ovary. The ability of FSH and LH to modulate the disease has not been well studied owing to a lack of physiologically relevant models of ovarian cancer. In this study, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) was used to deplete ovarian follicles and increase the levels of circulating FSH and LH in the tgCAG-LS-TAg mouse model of ovarian cancer. VCD-induced follicle depletion was performed either before or after induction of the oncogene SV40 large and small T-antigens in the ovarian surface epithelial cells of tgCAG-LS-TAg mice, which was mediated by the intrabursal delivery of an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase (AdCre). tgCAG-LS-TAg mice injected with AdCre developed undifferentiated ovarian tumors with mixed epithelial and stromal components and some features of sex cord stromal tumors. Treatment with VCD before or after AdCre injection yielded tumors of similar histology, but with the unique appearance of Sertoli cell nests. In mice treated with VCD before the induction of tumorigenesis, the ovarian tumors tended to grow more slowly. The human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and OVCAR3 responded similarly to increased levels of gonadotropins in a second model of menopause, growing more slowly in ovariectomized mice compared with cycling controls. These results suggest that follicle depletion and increased gonadotropin levels can alter the histology and the rate of growth of ovarian tumors.

  16. Genetic tracing of Nav1.8-expressing vagal afferents in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautron, Laurent; Sakata, Ichiro; Udit, Swalpa; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Wood, John N; Elmquist, Joel K

    2011-10-15

    Nav1.8 is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel present in large subsets of peripheral sensory neurons, including both spinal and vagal afferents. In spinal afferents, Nav1.8 plays a key role in signaling different types of pain. Little is known, however, about the exact identity and role of Nav1.8-expressing vagal neurons. Here we generated mice with restricted expression of tdTomato fluorescent protein in all Nav1.8-expressing afferent neurons. As a result, intense fluorescence was visible in the cell bodies, central relays, and sensory endings of these neurons, revealing the full extent of their innervation sites in thoracic and abdominal viscera. For instance, vagal and spinal Nav1.8-expressing endings were seen clearly within the gastrointestinal mucosa and myenteric plexus, respectively. In the gastrointestinal muscle wall, labeled endings included a small subset of vagal tension receptors but not any stretch receptors. We also examined the detailed innervation of key metabolic tissues such as liver and pancreas and evaluated the anatomical relationship of Nav1.8-expressing vagal afferents with select enteroendocrine cells (i.e., ghrelin, glucagon, GLP-1). Specifically, our data revealed the presence of Nav1.8-expressing vagal afferents in several metabolic tissues and varying degrees of proximity between Nav1.8-expressing mucosal afferents and enteroendocrine cells, including apparent neuroendocrine apposition. In summary, this study demonstrates the power and versatility of the Cre-LoxP technology to trace identified visceral afferents, and our data suggest a previously unrecognized role for Nav1.8-expressing vagal neurons in gastrointestinal functions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Targeted knock-down of cellular prion protein expression in myelinating Schwann cells does not alter mouse prion pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Sophie; Chesnais, Nathalie; Mallucci, Giovanna; Vilotte, Marthe; Langevin, Christelle; Jaumain, Emilie; Laude, Hubert; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent

    2013-06-01

    In naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the pathogenic agents or prions spread from the sites of initial peripheral uptake or replication to the brain where they cause progressive and fatal neurodegeneration. Routing via the peripheral nervous system is considered to be one of the main pathways to the central nervous system. Replication of prions in Schwann cells is viewed as a potentially important mechanism for efficient prion spread along nerves. Here we used a Cre-loxP mouse transgenetic approach to disrupt host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)) specifically in myelinating Schwann cells. Despite the use of infection routes targeting highly myelinated nerves, there was no alteration in mouse prion pathogenesis, suggesting that conversion-dependent, centripetal spread of prions does not crucially rely on PrP(C) expressed by myelinating Schwann cells.

  18. Practical use of advanced mouse models for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghaiyeh; Meuwissen, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    recombinase activity into pulmonary tissues, and we discuss here the different techniques underlying these applications. Concomitant with Cre/Flp recombinase-based models are the tetracycline (Tet)-inducible bitransgenic systems in which presence or absence of doxycycline can turn the expression of a specific oncogene on or off. The use of several Tet-inducible lung cancer models for NSCLC is presented here in which the reversal of oncogene expression led to complete tumor regression and provided us with important insight of how oncogene dependence influence lung cancer survival and growth. As alternative to Tet-inducible models, we discuss the application of reversible expressed, transgenic mutant estrogen receptor (ER) fusion proteins, which are regulated via systemic tamoxifen administration. Most of the various lung cancer models can be combined through the generation of transgenic compound mice so that the use of these somatic mouse models can be even more enhanced for the study of specific molecular pathways that facilitate growth and maintenance of lung cancer. Finally, this description of the practical application and methodology of mouse models for lung cancer should be helpful in assisting researchers to make the best choices and optimal use of (existing) somatic models that suits the specific experimental needs in their study of lung cancer.

  19. Time-resolved functional analysis of acute impairment of frataxin expression in an inducible cell model of Friedreich ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörte Poburski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a GAA triplet repeat expansion in the first intron of the frataxin gene, which results in reduced expression levels of the corresponding protein. Despite numerous animal and cellular models, therapeutic options that mechanistically address impaired frataxin expression are lacking. Here, we have developed a new mammalian cell model employing the Cre/loxP recombination system to induce a homozygous or heterozygous frataxin knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Induction of Cre-mediated disruption by tamoxifen was successfully tested on RNA and protein levels. After loss of frataxin protein, cell division, aconitase activity and oxygen consumption rates were found to be decreased, while ROS production was increased in the homozygous state. By contrast, in the heterozygous state no such changes were observed. A time-resolved analysis revealed the loss of aconitase activity as an initial event after induction of complete frataxin deficiency, followed by secondarily elevated ROS production and a late increase in iron content. Initial impairments of oxygen consumption and ATP production were found to be compensated in the late state and seemed to play a minor role in Friedreich ataxia pathophysiology. In conclusion and as predicted from its proposed role in iron sulfur cluster (ISC biosynthesis, disruption of frataxin primarily causes impaired function of ISC-containing enzymes, whereas other consequences, including elevated ROS production and iron accumulation, appear secondary. These parameters and the robustness of the newly established system may additionally be used for a time-resolved study of pharmacological candidates in a HTS manner.

  20. Characterization of platelet-derived growth factor-A expression in mouse tissues using a lacZ knock-in approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Andrae

    Full Text Available Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain gene (Pdgfa occurs widely in the developing mouse, where it is mainly localized to various epithelial and neuronal structures. Until now, in situ mRNA hybridization (ISH has been the only reliable method to identify Pdgfa expression in tissue sections or whole mount preparations. Validated protocols for in situ detection of PDGF-A protein by immunohistochemistry is lacking. In particular, this has hampered understanding of Pdgfa expression pattern in adult tissues, where ISH is technically challenging. Here, we report a gene targeted mouse Pdgfa allele, Pdgfaex4COIN, which is a combined conditional knockout and reporter allele. Cre-mediated inversion of the COIN cassette inactivates Pdgfa coding while simultaneously activating a beta-galactosidase (lacZ reporter under endogenous Pdgfa transcription control. The generated Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ allele can next be used to identify cells carrying a Pdgfa null allele, as well as to map endogenous Pdgfa expression. We evaluated the Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ allele as a reporter for endogenous Pdgfa expression patterns in mouse embryos and adults. We conclude that the expression pattern of Pdgfaex4COIN-INV-lacZ recapitulates known expression patterns of Pdgfa. We also report on novel embryonic and adult Pdgfa expression patterns in the mouse and discuss their implications for Pdgfa physiology.

  1. K-Ras and β-catenin mutations cooperate with Fgfr3 mutations in mice to promote tumorigenesis in the skin and lung, but not in the bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 gene is frequently mutated in superficial urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC. To test the functional significance of FGFR3 activating mutations as a ‘driver’ of UCC, we targeted the expression of mutated Fgfr3 to the murine urothelium using Cre-loxP recombination driven by the uroplakin II promoter. The introduction of the Fgfr3 mutations resulted in no obvious effect on tumorigenesis up to 18 months of age. Furthermore, even when the Fgfr3 mutations were introduced together with K-Ras or β-catenin (Ctnnb1 activating mutations, no urothelial dysplasia or UCC was observed. Interestingly, however, owing to a sporadic ectopic Cre recombinase expression in the skin and lung of these mice, Fgfr3 mutation caused papilloma and promoted lung tumorigenesis in cooperation with K-Ras and β-catenin activation, respectively. These results indicate that activation of FGFR3 can cooperate with other mutations to drive tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner, and support the hypothesis that activation of FGFR3 signaling contributes to human cancer.

  2. K-Ras and β-catenin mutations cooperate with Fgfr3 mutations in mice to promote tumorigenesis in the skin and lung, but not in the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Singh, Lukram Babloo; Foth, Mona; Morris, Carol-Ann; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Wu, Xue-Ru; Leung, Hing Y; Sansom, Owen J; Iwata, Tomoko

    2011-07-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene is frequently mutated in superficial urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). To test the functional significance of FGFR3 activating mutations as a 'driver' of UCC, we targeted the expression of mutated Fgfr3 to the murine urothelium using Cre-loxP recombination driven by the uroplakin II promoter. The introduction of the Fgfr3 mutations resulted in no obvious effect on tumorigenesis up to 18 months of age. Furthermore, even when the Fgfr3 mutations were introduced together with K-Ras or β-catenin (Ctnnb1) activating mutations, no urothelial dysplasia or UCC was observed. Interestingly, however, owing to a sporadic ectopic Cre recombinase expression in the skin and lung of these mice, Fgfr3 mutation caused papilloma and promoted lung tumorigenesis in cooperation with K-Ras and β-catenin activation, respectively. These results indicate that activation of FGFR3 can cooperate with other mutations to drive tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner, and support the hypothesis that activation of FGFR3 signaling contributes to human cancer.

  3. Optimizing a 3D model system for molecular manipulation of tenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chun; Pryce, Brian; Tufa, Sara F; Keene, Douglas R; Huang, Alice H

    2017-09-22

    Tendon injuries are clinically challenging due to poor healing. A better understanding of the molecular events that regulate tendon differentiation would improve current strategies for repair. The mouse model system has been instrumental to tendon studies and several key molecules were initially established in mouse. However, the study of gene function has been limited by the absence of a standard in vitro tendon system for efficiently testing multiple mutations, physical manipulations, and mis-expression. The purpose of this study is therefore to establish such a system. We adapted an existing design for generating three-dimensional (3D) tendon constructs for use with mouse progenitor cells harboring the ScxGFP tendon reporter and the Rosa26-TdTomato Cre reporter. Using these cells, we optimized the parameters for construct formation, inducing tenogenesis via transforming growth factor-β2 (TGFβ2), and genetic recombination via an adenovirus encoding Cre recombinase. Finally, for proof of concept, we used Smad4 floxed cells and tested the robustness of the system for gene knockdown. We found that TGFβ2 treatment induced a tenogenic phenotype depending on the timing of initiation. Addition of TGFβ2 after 3D "tensioning" enhanced tendon differentiation. Interestingly, while TGFβ2-induced proliferation depended on Smad4, tenogenic parameters such as ScxGFP expression and fibril diameter were independent of Smad4. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of this optimized system for harnessing the power of mouse genetics for in vitro applications.

  4. Engineering of Systematic Elimination of a Targeted Chromosome in Human Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic trisomy leads to abortion or congenital genetic disorders in humans. The most common autosomal chromosome abnormalities are trisomy of chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. Although alteration of gene dosage is thought to contribute to disorders caused by extra copies of chromosomes, genes associated with specific disease phenotypes remain unclear. To generate a normal cell from a trisomic cell as a means of etiological analysis or candidate therapy for trisomy syndromes, we developed a system to eliminate a targeted chromosome from human cells. Chromosome 21 was targeted by integration of a DNA cassette in HeLa cells that harbored three copies of chromosome 21. The DNA cassette included two inverted loxP sites and a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk gene. This system causes missegregation of chromosome 21 after expression of Cre recombinase and subsequently enables the selection of cells lacking the chromosome by culturing in a medium that includes ganciclovir (GCV. Cells harboring only two copies of chromosome 21 were efficiently induced by transfection of a Cre expression vector, indicating that this approach is useful for eliminating a targeted chromosome.

  5. Engineering of Systematic Elimination of a Targeted Chromosome in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Kato, Hiroki; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Masuda, Keiji; Nguyen, Huong Thi Nguyen; Pham, Thanh Thi Mai; Han, Xu; Hirofuji, Yuta; Nonaka, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Embryonic trisomy leads to abortion or congenital genetic disorders in humans. The most common autosomal chromosome abnormalities are trisomy of chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. Although alteration of gene dosage is thought to contribute to disorders caused by extra copies of chromosomes, genes associated with specific disease phenotypes remain unclear. To generate a normal cell from a trisomic cell as a means of etiological analysis or candidate therapy for trisomy syndromes, we developed a system to eliminate a targeted chromosome from human cells. Chromosome 21 was targeted by integration of a DNA cassette in HeLa cells that harbored three copies of chromosome 21. The DNA cassette included two inverted loxP sites and a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene. This system causes missegregation of chromosome 21 after expression of Cre recombinase and subsequently enables the selection of cells lacking the chromosome by culturing in a medium that includes ganciclovir (GCV). Cells harboring only two copies of chromosome 21 were efficiently induced by transfection of a Cre expression vector, indicating that this approach is useful for eliminating a targeted chromosome.

  6. Dynamic Expression of Lgr6 in the Developing and Mature Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in mammalian inner ear development. Lgr5, one of the downstream target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has been reported to be a marker for inner ear hair cell progenitors. Lgr6 shares approximately 50% sequence homology with Lgr5 and has been identified as a stem cell marker in several organs. However, the detailed expression profiles of Lgr6 have not yet been investigated in the mouse inner ear. Here, we first used Lgr6-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2 mice to examine the spatiotemporal expression of Lgr6 protein in the cochlear duct during embryonic and postnatal development. Lgr6-EGFP was first observed in one row of prosensory cells in the middle and basal turn at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5. From E18.5 to postnatal day 3 (P3, the expression of Lgr6-EGFP was restricted to the inner pillar cells (IPCs. From P7 to P15, the Lgr6-EGFP expression level gradually decreased in the IPCs and gradually increased in the inner border cells (IBCs. At P20, Lgr6-EGFP was only expressed in the IBCs, and by P30 Lgr6-EGFP expression had completely disappeared. Next, we demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required to maintain the Lgr6-EGFP expression in vitro. Finally, we demonstrated that the Lgr6-EGFP-positive cells isolated by flow cytometry could differentiate into myosin 7a-positive hair cells after 10 days in-culture, and this suggests that the Lgr6-positive cells might serve as the hair cell progenitor cells in the cochlea.

  7. Expression, regulation and putative nutrient-sensing function of taste GPCRs in the heart.

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    Simon R Foster

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are critical for cardiovascular physiology. Cardiac cells express >100 nonchemosensory GPCRs, indicating that important physiological and potential therapeutic targets remain to be discovered. Moreover, there is a growing appreciation that members of the large, distinct taste and odorant GPCR families have specific functions in tissues beyond the oronasal cavity, including in the brain, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. To date, these chemosensory GPCRs have not been systematically studied in the heart. We performed RT-qPCR taste receptor screens in rodent and human heart tissues that revealed discrete subsets of type 2 taste receptors (TAS2/Tas2 as well as Tas1r1 and Tas1r3 (comprising the umami receptor are expressed. These taste GPCRs are present in cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, and by in situ hybridization can be visualized across the myocardium in isolated cardiac cells. Tas1r1 gene-targeted mice (Tas1r1(Cre/Rosa26(tdRFP strikingly recapitulated these data. In vivo taste receptor expression levels were developmentally regulated in the postnatal period. Intriguingly, several Tas2rs were upregulated in cultured rat myocytes and in mouse heart in vivo following starvation. The discovery of taste GPCRs in the heart opens an exciting new field of cardiac research. We predict that these taste receptors may function as nutrient sensors in the heart.

  8. A Chemical-Induced, Seed-Soaking Activation Procedure for Regulated Gene Expression in Rice

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    Zaijie Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inducible gene expression has emerged as a powerful tool for plant functional genomics. The estrogen receptor-based, chemical-inducible system XVE has been used in many plant species, but the limited systemic movement of inducer β-estradiol in transgenic rice plants has prohibited a wide use of the XVE system in this important food crop. Here, we constructed an improved chemical-regulated, site-specific recombination system by employing the XVE transactivator in combination with a Cre/loxP-FRT system, and optimized a seed-soaking procedure for XVE induction in rice. By using a gus gene and an hpRNAi cassette targeted for OsPDS as reporters, we demonstrated that soaking transgenic seeds with estradiol solution could induce highly efficient site-specific recombination in germinating embryos, resulting in constitutive and high-level expression of target gene or RNAi cassette in intact rice plants from induced seeds. The strategy reported here thereby provides a useful gene activation approach for effectively regulating gene expression in rice.

  9. Global Deletion of TSPO Does Not Affect the Viability and Gene Expression Profile.

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    Huaishan Wang

    Full Text Available Translocator Protein (18kDa, TSPO is a mitochondrial outer membrane transmembrane protein. Its expression is elevated during inflammation and injury. However, the function of TSPO in vivo is still controversial. Here, we constructed a TSPO global knockout (KO mouse with a Cre-LoxP system that abolished TSPO protein expression in all tissues and showed normal phenotypes in the physiological condition. The birth rates of TSPO heterozygote (Het x Het or KO x KO breeding were consistent with Mendel's Law, suggesting a normal viability of TSPO KO mice at birth. RNA-seq analysis showed no significant difference in the gene expression profile of lung tissues from TSPO KO mice compared with wild type mice, including the genes associated with bronchial alveoli immune homeostasis. The alveolar macrophage population was not affected by TSPO deletion in the physiological condition. Our findings contradict the results of Papadopoulos, but confirmed Selvaraj's findings. This study confirms TSPO deficiency does not affect viability and bronchial alveolar immune homeostasis.

  10. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  11. Spare PRELI gene loci: failsafe chromosome insurance?

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    Wenbin Ma

    Full Text Available LEA (late embryogenesis abundant proteins encode conserved N-terminal mitochondrial signal domains and C-terminal (A/TAEKAK motif repeats, long-presumed to confer cell resistance to stress and death cues. This prompted the hypothesis that LEA proteins are central to mitochondria mechanisms that connect bioenergetics with cell responses to stress and death signaling. In support of this hypothesis, recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian LEA protein PRELI can act as a biochemical hub, which upholds mitochondria energy metabolism, while concomitantly promoting B cell resistance to stress and induced death. Hence, it is important to define in vivo the physiological relevance of PRELI expression.Given the ubiquitous PRELI expression during mouse development, embryo lethality could be anticipated. Thus, conditional gene targeting was engineered by insertion of flanking loxP (flox/Cre recognition sites on PRELI chromosome 13 (Chr 13 locus to abort its <