Sample records for expressed alpha domain

  1. Developmental expression of the alpha-skeletal actin gene

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    Vonk Freek J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is a cytoskeletal protein which exerts a broad range of functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. In higher vertebrates, six primary actin isoforms can be distinguished: alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth muscle, gamma-smooth muscle, beta-cytoplasmic and gamma-cytoplasmic isoactin. Expression of these actin isoforms during vertebrate development is highly regulated in a temporal and tissue-specific manner, but the mechanisms and the specific differences are currently not well understood. All members of the actin multigene family are highly conserved, suggesting that there is a high selective pressure on these proteins. Results We present here a model for the evolution of the genomic organization of alpha-skeletal actin and by molecular modeling, illustrate the structural differences of actin proteins of different phyla. We further describe and compare alpha-skeletal actin expression in two developmental stages of five vertebrate species (mouse, chicken, snake, salamander and fish. Our findings confirm that alpha-skeletal actin is expressed in skeletal muscle and in the heart of all five species. In addition, we identify many novel non-muscular expression domains including several in the central nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that the high sequence homology of alpha-skeletal actins is reflected by similarities of their 3 dimensional protein structures, as well as by conserved gene expression patterns during vertebrate development. Nonetheless, we find here important differences in 3D structures, in gene architectures and identify novel expression domains for this structural and functional important gene.

  2. Human alpha2-macroglobulin is composed of multiple domains, as predicted by homology with complement component C3. (United States)

    Doan, Ninh; Gettins, Peter G W


    Human alpha2M (alpha2-macroglobulin) and the complement components C3 and C4 are thiol ester-containing proteins that evolved from the same ancestral gene. The recent structure determination of human C3 has allowed a detailed prediction of the location of domains within human alpha2M to be made. We describe here the expression and characterization of three alpha(2)M domains predicted to be involved in the stabilization of the thiol ester in native alpha2M and in its activation upon bait region proteolysis. The three newly expressed domains are MG2 (macroglobulin domain 2), TED (thiol ester-containing domain) and CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain. Together with the previously characterized RBD (receptor-binding domain), they represent approx. 42% of the alpha2M polypeptide. Their expression as folded domains strongly supports the predicted domain organization of alpha2M. An X-ray crystal structure of MG2 shows it to have a fibronectin type-3 fold analogous to MG1-MG8 of C3. TED is, as predicted, an alpha-helical domain. CUB is a spliced domain composed of two stretches of polypeptide that flank TED in the primary structure. In intact C3 TED interacts with RBD, where it is in direct contact with the thiol ester, and with MG2 and CUB on opposite, flanking sides. In contrast, these alpha2M domains, as isolated species, show negligible interaction with one another, suggesting that the native conformation of alpha2M, and the consequent thiol ester-stabilizing domain-domain interactions, result from additional restraints imposed by the physical linkage of these domains or by additional domains in the protein.

  3. DNA-binding site of major regulatory protein alpha 4 specifically associated with promoter-regulatory domains of alpha genes of herpes simplex virus type 1.


    Kristie, T M; Roizman, B


    Herpes simplex virus type 1 genes form at least five groups (alpha, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 1, and gamma 2) whose expression is coordinately regulated and sequentially ordered in a cascade fashion. Previous studies have shown that functional alpha 4 gene product is essential for the transition from alpha to beta protein synthesis and have suggested that alpha 4 gene expression is autoregulatory. We have previously reported that labeled DNA fragments containing promoter-regulatory domains of thr...

  4. Resolution of G(s)alpha and G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins in membrane domains by two-dimensional electrophoresis: the effect of long-term agonist stimulation. (United States)

    Matousek, P; Novotný, J; Svoboda, P


    Low-density membrane-domain fractions were prepared from S49 lymphoma cells and clone e2m11 of HEK293 cells expressing a large number of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R) and G(11)alpha by flotation on sucrose density gradients. The intact cell structure was broken by detergent-extraction, alkaline-treatment or drastic homogenization. Three types of low-density membranes were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed for G(s)alpha (S49) or G(q)alpha/G11) (e2m11) content. Four individual immunoblot signals of Gsalpha protein were identified in S49 lymphoma cells indicating complete resolution of the long G(s)alpha L+/-ser and short G(s)alpha S+/-ser variants of G(s)alpha. All these were diminished by prolonged agonist (isoprenaline) stimulation. In e2m11-HEK cells, five different immunoblot signals were detected indicating post-translational modification of G proteins of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha family. The two major spots corresponding to exogenously (over)expressed G(11)alpha and endogenous G(q)alpha were reduced; the minor spots diminished by hormonal stimulation. Parallel analysis by silver staining of the total protein content indicated that no major changes in protein composition occurred under these conditions. Our data thus indicate that agonist-stimulation of target cells results in down-regulation of all different members of G(s) and G(q)/G(11) families. This agonist-specific effect may be demonstrated in crude membrane as well as domain/raft preparations and it is not accompanied by changes in overall protein composition.

  5. SH2 domains of the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulate binding to growth factor receptors. (United States)

    McGlade, C J; Ellis, C; Reedijk, M; Anderson, D; Mbamalu, G; Reith, A D; Panayotou, G; End, P; Bernstein, A; Kazlauskas, A


    The binding of cytoplasmic signaling proteins such as phospholipase C-gamma 1 and Ras GTPase-activating protein to autophosphorylated growth factor receptors is directed by their noncatalytic Src homology region 2 (SH2) domains. The p85 alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, which associates with several receptor protein-tyrosine kinases, also contains two SH2 domains. Both p85 alpha SH2 domains, when expressed individually as fusion proteins in bacteria, bound stably to the activated beta receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Complex formation required PDGF stimulation and was dependent on receptor tyrosine kinase activity. The bacterial p85 alpha SH2 domains recognized activated beta PDGF receptor which had been immobilized on a filter, indicating that SH2 domains contact autophosphorylated receptors directly. Several receptor tyrosine kinases within the PDGF receptor subfamily, including the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and the Steel factor receptor (Kit), also associate with PI 3-kinase in vivo. Bacterially expressed SH2 domains derived from the p85 alpha subunit of PI 3-kinase bound in vitro to the activated colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor and to Kit. We infer that the SH2 domains of p85 alpha bind to high-affinity sites on these receptors, whose creation is dependent on receptor autophosphorylation. The SH2 domains of p85 are therefore primarily responsible for the binding of PI 3-kinase to activated growth factor receptors. Images PMID:1372092

  6. Isothermal and aniso-thermal creep in the {alpha} phase domain, {beta} phase domain and {alpha}+{beta} two phase domain in a Zr-1%NbO alloy; Fluage isotherme et anisotherme dans les domaines monophases ({alpha} et {beta}) et biphases ({alpha} et {beta}) d'un alliage Zr-1%NbO

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    Kaddour, D


    The coupling between phase transformation and mechanical behaviour of a Zr-1%NbO alloy was studied using an original experimental device already used in a previous study devoted to the Zy-4 alloy. The Zr-1%NbO alloy undergoes a phase transformation {alpha} (hc) {r_reversible} (cc) typically between 750 and 1000 C. The transformation temperatures were measured in situ by using the resistivity and dilatometry techniques. The isothermal creep behaviour of fuel cladding tubes was studied, first after heating, in the {alpha} phase domain between 650 and 760 C, in the {beta} phase domain between 960 and 1100 C, as well as in the ({alpha} + {beta}) two phase domain between 800 and 900 C. The results are summarized in Ashby deformation mechanism maps. It is confirmed that the {beta} phase is much more sensitive to creep flow than the {alpha} phase. The effect of microstructure on the isothermal creep flow behaviour was then investigated by first applying a thermal cycle involving either a full or a partial transformation from {alpha} to {beta}. It was investigated both in the {alpha} phase domain, and after direct cooling into the ({alpha} + {beta}) phase domain. The behaviour in aniso-thermal conditions was finally studied at heating and cooling rates of 10 and 200 C/min. In both cases, we showed that there is no significant transformation plasticity in the stress range under investigation ({<=} 5 MPa). A finite element model using Voronoi polyhedra and eventually meshing a film of intergranular {beta} phase was used to describe the behaviour of material in the ({alpha} + {beta}) domain in various microstructural states. The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results for the microstructure obtained after cooling, but the model underestimates creep deformation in the as-received state. This difference is probably related to the fact that interface sliding is not taken into account in the model. (author)

  7. Imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by a bifunctional chimeric RGD peptide not cross-reacting with alpha(v)beta(5). (United States)

    Zannetti, Antonella; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Iommelli, Francesca; Del Gatto, Annarita; De Luca, Stefania; Zaccaro, Laura; Papaccioli, Angela; Sommella, Jvana; Panico, Mariarosaria; Speranza, Antonio; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco


    To test whether a novel bifunctional chimeric peptide comprising a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp pentapeptide covalently bound to an echistatin domain can discriminate alpha(v)beta(3) from alpha(v)beta(5) integrin, thus allowing the in vivo selective visualization of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by single-photon and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The chimeric peptide was preliminarily tested for inhibition of alpha(v)beta(3)-dependent cell adhesion and competition of 125I-echistatin binding to membrane of stably transfected K562 cells expressing alpha(v)beta(3) (Kalpha(v)beta(3)) or alpha(v)beta(5) (Kalpha(v)beta(5)) integrin. The chimeric peptide was then conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and labeled with 111In for single-photon imaging, whereas a one-step procedure was used for labeling the full-length peptide and a truncated derivative, lacking the last five C-terminal amino acids, with 18F for PET imaging. Nude mice bearing tumors from Kalpha(v)beta(3), Kalpha(v)beta(5), U87MG human glioblastoma, and A431 human epidermoid cells were subjected to single-photon and PET imaging. Adhesion and competitive binding assays showed that the novel chimeric peptide selectively binds to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and does not cross-react with alpha(v)beta(5). In agreement with in vitro findings, single-photon and PET imaging studies showed that the radiolabeled chimeric peptide selectively localizes in tumor xenografts expressing alphavbeta3 and fails to accumulate in those expressing alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. When 18F-labeled truncated derivative was used for PET imaging, alphavbeta3- and alpha(v)beta(5)-expressing tumors were visualized, indicating that the five C-terminal amino acids are required to differentially bind the two integrins. Our findings indicate that the novel chimeric Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, having no cross-reaction with alphavbeta5 integrin, allows highly selective alphavbeta3 expression imaging and monitoring.

  8. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines. (United States)

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon


    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  9. Expression and localization of sterile alpha motif domain containing 5 is associated with cell type and malignancy of biliary tree.

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    Tomoki Yagai

    Full Text Available Cholangiocarcinoma (CC is a type of relatively rare neoplasm in adenocarcinoma. The characteristics of CCs as well as biliary epithelial cells are heterogeneous at the different portion of the biliary tree. There are two candidate stem/progenitor cells of the biliary tree, i.e., biliary tree stem/progenitor cell (BTSC at the peribiliary gland (PBG of large bile ducts and liver stem/progenitor cell (LPC at the canals of Hering of peripheral small bile duct. Although previous reports suggest that intrahepatic CC (ICC can arise from such stem/progenitor cells, the characteristic difference between BTSC and LPC in pathological process needs further investigation, and the etiology of CC remains poorly understood. Here we show that Sterile alpha motif domain containing 5 (SAMD5 is exclusively expressed in PBGs of large bile ducts in normal mice. Using a mouse model of cholestatic liver disease, we demonstrated that SAMD5 expression was upregulated in the large bile duct at the hepatic hilum, the extrahepatic bile duct and PBGs, but not in proliferating intrahepatic ductules, suggesting that SAMD5 is expressed in BTSC but not LPC. Intriguingly, human ICCs and extrahepatic CCs exhibited striking nuclear localization of SAMD5 while the normal hilar large bile duct displayed slight-to-moderate expression in cytoplasm. In vitro experiments using siRNA for SAMD5 revealed that SAMD5 expression was associated with the cell cycle regulation of CC cell lines.SAMD5 is a novel marker for PBG but not LPC in mice. In humans, the expression and location of SAMD5 could become a promising diagnostic marker for the cell type as well as malignancy of bile ducts and CCs.

  10. Nicotinic Receptor Alpha7 Expression during Tooth Morphogenesis Reveals Functional Pleiotropy (United States)

    Rogers, Scott W.; Gahring, Lorise C.


    The expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype, alpha7, was investigated in the developing teeth of mice that were modified through homologous recombination to express a bi-cistronic IRES-driven tau-enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP); alpha7GFP) or IRES-Cre (alpha7Cre). The expression of alpha7GFP was detected first in cells of the condensing mesenchyme at embryonic (E) day E13.5 where it intensifies through E14.5. This expression ends abruptly at E15.5, but was again observed in ameloblasts of incisors at E16.5 or molar ameloblasts by E17.5–E18.5. This expression remains detectable until molar enamel deposition is completed or throughout life as in the constantly erupting mouse incisors. The expression of alpha7GFP also identifies all stages of innervation of the tooth organ. Ablation of the alpha7-cell lineage using a conditional alpha7Cre×ROSA26-LoxP(diphtheria toxin A) strategy substantially reduced the mesenchyme and this corresponded with excessive epithelium overgrowth consistent with an instructive role by these cells during ectoderm patterning. However, alpha7knock-out (KO) mice exhibited normal tooth size and shape indicating that under normal conditions alpha7 expression is dispensable to this process. The function of ameloblasts in alpha7KO mice is altered relative to controls. High resolution micro-computed tomography analysis of adult mandibular incisors revealed enamel volume of the alpha7KO was significantly reduced and the organization of enamel rods was altered relative to controls. These results demonstrate distinct and varied spatiotemporal expression of alpha7 during tooth development, and they suggest that dysfunction of this receptor would have diverse impacts upon the adult organ. PMID:22666322

  11. Structural requirement of carboxyl-terminal globular domains of laminin alpha 3 chain for promotion of rapid cell adhesion and migration by laminin-5. (United States)

    Hirosaki, T; Mizushima, H; Tsubota, Y; Moriyama, K; Miyazaki, K


    The basement membrane protein laminin-5, a heterotrimer of laminin alpha3, beta3, and gamma2 chains, potently promotes cellular adhesion and motility. It has been supposed that the carboxyl-terminal globular region of the alpha3 chain consisting of five distinct domains (G1 to G5) is important for its interaction with integrins. To clarify the function of each G domain, we transfected cDNAs for the full-length (wild type (WT)) and five deletion derivatives (DeltaGs) of the alpha3 chain into human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080, which expressed and secreted the laminin beta3 and gamma2 chains but not the alpha3 chain. The transfectants with the alpha3 chain cDNAs lacking G5 (DeltaG(5)), G4-5 (DeltaG(4-5)), G3-5 (DeltaG(3-5)), and G2-5 (DeltaG(2-5)) secreted laminin-5 variants at levels comparable to that with WT cDNA. However, the transfectant with the cDNA without any G domains (DeltaG(1-5)) secreted little laminin-5, suggesting that the G domains are essential for the efficient assembly and secretion of the heterotrimer alpha3beta3gamma2. The transfectants with WT, DeltaG(5), and DeltaG(4-5) cDNAs survived in serum-free medium longer than those with DeltaG(3-5), DeltaG(2-5), and DeltaG(1-5) cDNAs. The transfectants with WT, DeltaG(5), and DeltaG(4-5) cDNAs secreted apparently the same size of laminin-5, which lacked G4 and G5 due to proteolytic cleavage between G3 and G4, and these laminin-5 forms potently promoted integrin alpha(3)beta(1)-dependent cell adhesion and migration. However, the laminin-5 forms of DeltaG(3-5) and DeltaG(2-5) hardly promoted the cell adhesion and motility. These findings demonstrate that the G3 domain, but not the G4 and G5 domains, of the alpha3 chain is essential for the potent promotion of cell adhesion and motility by laminin-5.

  12. Expression and functional importance of collagen-binding integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, on virus-activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Susanne Ø; Thomsen, Allan R; Koteliansky, Victor E


    decreased responses were seen upon transfer of alpha(1)-deficient activated/memory T cells. Thus, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins on activated T cells is directly functionally important for generation of inflammatory responses within tissues. Finally, the inhibitory effect......Adhesive interactions are crucial to cell migration into inflammatory sites. Using murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as an Ag model system, we have investigated expression and function of collagen-binding integrins, alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1), on activated and memory T cells. Using...... this system and MHC tetramers to define Ag-specific T cells, we demonstrate that contrary to being VLAs, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) can be rapidly induced on acutely activated T cells, that expression of alpha(1)beta(1) remains elevated on memory T cells, and that expression of alpha(1...

  13. Expression of POEM, a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation, is suppressed by TNF-{alpha}

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    Tsukasaki, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Yamada, Atsushi, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Suzuki, Dai [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Aizawa, Ryo [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyazono, Agasa [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Miyamoto, Yoichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Takami, Masamichi; Yoshimura, Kentaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan); Morimura, Naoko [Laboratory for Comparative Neurogenesis, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 2-1-1 Kitasenzoku, Ohta, Tokyo 145-8515 (Japan); Kamijo, Ryutaro [Department of Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555 (Japan)


    Highlights: {yields} TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM gene expression. {yields} Inhibition of POEM gene expression is caused by NF-{kappa}B activation by TNF-{alpha}. {yields} Over-expression of POEM recovers inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: POEM, also known as nephronectin, is an extracellular matrix protein considered to be a positive regulator of osteoblast differentiation. In the present study, we found that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a key regulator of bone matrix properties and composition that also inhibits terminal osteoblast differentiation, strongly inhibited POEM expression in the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. TNF-{alpha}-induced down-regulation of POEM gene expression occurred in both time- and dose-dependent manners through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. In addition, expressions of marker genes in differentiated osteoblasts were down-regulated by TNF-{alpha} in a manner consistent with our findings for POEM, while over-expression of POEM recovered TNF-{alpha}-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. These results suggest that TNF-{alpha} inhibits POEM expression through the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway and down-regulation of POEM influences the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation by TNF-{alpha}.

  14. Liver alpha-amylase gene expression as an early obesity biomarker. (United States)

    Mojbafan, Marzieh; Afsartala, Zohreh; Amoli, Mahsa M; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh


    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, for which preventive and therapeutic means are still needed. Alpha-amylase is a digestive enzyme whose inhibition has been targeted as a potential anti-obesity strategy. However, alpha-amylase gene expression has not been particularly attended to, and in contrast with pancreatic and salivary amylases, fewer studies have focused on liver alpha-amylase. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of alpha-amylase gene in obese and normal mice at RNA and protein level as well as acarbose effect on this gene expression in hepatocyte cell culture. Control and case groups were fed by normal mouse pellet and high-fat diet respectively, during 8 weeks. After this period, serum biochemical parameters including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT and alpha-amylase were assayed. Liver alpha-amylase gene was analyzed by real time PCR, and liver enzyme was assayed with Bernfeld and ELISA methods Hepatocyte cell culture derived from both group were also treated by acarbose and alpha-amylase activity and gene expression was analyzed by above mentioned methods. All biochemical factors showed an increase in obese mice, but the increase in ALT and AST were not statistically significant. Alpha-amylase levels were also increased in obese mice, both at RNA and protein level, while a decrease was seen in obese mice derived hepatocytes after acarbose treatment. Elevated liver alpha-amylase levels may be indicative of initial stages of obesity and the use of acarbose could be considered as a treatment of obesity which could be potentially effective at multiple levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  15. Compensatory increase in alpha 1-globin gene expression in individuals heterozygous for the alpha-thalassemia-2 deletion.


    Liebhaber, S A; Cash, F E; Main, D M


    alpha-Globin is encoded by the two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Although it is clearly established that both alpha-globin genes are expressed, their relative contributions to alpha-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein synthesis are not fully defined. Furthermore, changes that may occur in alpha-globin gene activity secondarily to the loss of function of one or more of these genes (alpha-thalassemia [Thal]) have not been directly investigated. This study further defines the expressi...

  16. Posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin in germinating rice seeds. (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Asatsuma, Satoru; Itoh, Kimiko; Hori, Hidetaka; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Yukiko


    Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains GARE, although these were distinguishable in the embryo tissues at the early stage of germination. The gibberellin-responsible expression of alpha-amylase II-4 was also similar to that of alpha-amylase I-1. However, the level of alpha-amylase II-4 mRNA was not increased by gibberellin, indicating that the transcriptional enhancement of alpha-amylase II-4 expression did not occur in the aleurone. Gibberellin stimulated the accumulation of 45Ca2+ into the intracellular secretory membrane system. In addition, several inhibitors for Ca2+ signaling, such as EGTA, neomycin, ruthenium red (RuR), and W-7 prevented the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 effectively. While the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 occurred normally in the aleurone layer of a rice dwarf mutant d1 which is defective in the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Based on these results, it was concluded that the posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin operates in the aleurone layer of germinating rice seed, which is mediated by Ca2+ but not the G protein.

  17. Low resolution solution structure of HAMLET and the importance of its alpha-domains in tumoricidal activity. (United States)

    Ho, C S James; Rydstrom, Anna; Manimekalai, Malathy Sony Subramanian; Svanborg, Catharina; Grüber, Gerhard


    HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is the first member in a new family of protein-lipid complexes with broad tumoricidal activity. Elucidating the molecular structure and the domains crucial for HAMLET formation is fundamental for understanding its tumoricidal function. Here we present the low-resolution solution structure of the complex of oleic acid bound HAMLET, derived from small angle X-ray scattering data. HAMLET shows a two-domain conformation with a large globular domain and an extended part of about 2.22 nm in length and 1.29 nm width. The structure has been superimposed into the related crystallographic structure of human α-lactalbumin, revealing that the major part of α-lactalbumin accommodates well in the shape of HAMLET. However, the C-terminal residues from L105 to L123 of the crystal structure of the human α-lactalbumin do not fit well into the HAMLET structure, resulting in an extended conformation in HAMLET, proposed to be required to form the tumoricidal active HAMLET complex with oleic acid. Consistent with this low resolution structure, we identified biologically active peptide epitopes in the globular as well as the extended domains of HAMLET. Peptides covering the alpha1 and alpha2 domains of the protein triggered rapid ion fluxes in the presence of sodium oleate and were internalized by tumor cells, causing rapid and sustained changes in cell morphology. The alpha peptide-oleate bound forms also triggered tumor cell death with comparable efficiency as HAMLET. In addition, shorter peptides corresponding to those domains are biologically active. These findings provide novel insights into the structural prerequisites for the dramatic effects of HAMLET on tumor cells.

  18. [Expression in E.coli and bioactivity assay of Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor domain and its mutants]. (United States)

    Yue, Chen-Li; Shi, Jie-Ran; Shi, Chang-Hong; Zhang, Hai; Zhao, Lei; Zhang, Ting-Fen; Zhao, Yong; Xi, Li


    To express Micrococcus luteus resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) domain and its mutants in prokaryotic cells, and to investigate their bioactivity. The gene of Rpf domain and its mutants (E54K, E54A) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the genome of Micrococcus luteus and cloned into pMD18-T vector. After sequenced, the Rpf domain and its mutant gene were subcloned into expression vector PGEX-4T-1, and transfected into E. coli DH5alpha. The expressed product was purified by affinity chromatography using GST Fusion Protein Purification bead. The aim proteins were identified by SDS-PAGE analysis and by Western blot with monoclonal antibodies against Rpf domain (mAb). The bioactivity of the proteins was analyzed by stimulating the resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. The sequences of the PCR products were identical to those of the Rpf domain and its mutant gene in GenBank. The relative molecular mass identified by SDS-PAGE analysis was consistent with that had been reported, which was also confirmed by Western blot analysis that there were specific bindings at 32 000 with Rpf domain mAb. The purified GST-Rpf domain could stimulate resuscitation of Mycobacterium smegmatis. Replacements E54A and especially E54K resulted in inhibition of Rpf resuscitation activity. Rpf domain and two kinds of its mutant protein were obtained, and its effects on the resuscitation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis were clarified.

  19. Expression of GDNF and GFR alpha 1 in mouse taste bud cells. (United States)

    Takeda, Masako; Suzuki, Yuko; Obara, Nobuko; Uchida, Nobuhiko; Kawakoshi, Kentaro


    GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor) affects the survival and maintenance of central and peripheral neurons. Using an immunocytochemical method, we examined whether the taste bud cells in the circumvallate papillae of normal mice expressed GDNF and its GFR alpha 1 receptor. Using double immunostaining for either of them and NCAM, PGP 9.5, or alpha-gustducin, we additionally sought to determine what type of taste bud cells expressed GDNF or GFR alpha 1, because NCAM is reported to be expressed in type-III cells, PGP 9.5, in type-III and some type-II cells, and alpha-gustducin, in some type-II cells. Normal taste bud cells expressed both GDNF and GFR alpha 1. The percentage of GDNF-immunoreactive cells among all taste bud cells was 31.63%, and that of GFR alpha 1-immunoreactive cells, 83.21%. Confocal laser scanning microscopic observations after double immunostaining showed that almost none of the GDNF-immunoreactive cells in the taste buds were reactive with anti-NCAM or anti-PGP 9.5 antibody, but could be stained with anti-alpha-gustducin antibody. On the other hand, almost all anti-PGP 9.5- or anti-alpha-gustducin-immunoreactive cells were positive for GFR alpha 1. Thus, GDNF-immunoreactive cells did not include type-III cells, but type-II cells, which are alpha-gustducin-immunoreactive; on the other hand, GFR alpha 1-immunoreactive cells included type-II and -III cells, and perhaps type-I cells. We conclude that GDNF in the type-II cells may exert trophic actions on type-I, -II, and -III taste bud cells by binding to their GFR alpha 1 receptors.

  20. PGC-1alpha mediates exercise-induced skeletal muscle VEGF expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Hellsten, Ylva; Fentz, Joachim


    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGC-1alpha is required for exercise-induced VEGF expression in both young and old mice and that AMPK activation leads to increased VEGF expression through a PGC-1alpha-dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO......) and littermate wild-type (WT) mice were submitted to either 1) 5 wk of exercise training, 2) lifelong (from 2 to 13 mo of age) exercise training in activity wheel, 3) a single exercise bout, or 4) 4 wk of daily subcutaneous AICAR or saline injections. In skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha KO mice, VEGF protein...... expression was approximately 60-80% lower and the capillary-to-fiber ratio approximately 20% lower than in WT. Basal VEGF mRNA expression was similar in WT and PGC-1alpha KO mice, but acute exercise and AICAR treatment increased the VEGF mRNA content in WT mice only. Exercise training of young mice increased...

  1. Unintended changes in protein expression revealed by proteomic analysis of seeds from transgenic pea expressing a bean alpha-amylase inhibitor gene. (United States)

    Chen, Hancai; Bodulovic, Greg; Hall, Prudence J; Moore, Andy; Higgins, Thomas J V; Djordjevic, Michael A; Rolfe, Barry G


    Seeds of genetically modified (GM) peas (Pisum sativum L.) expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alphaAI1) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Tendergreen) exhibit resistance to the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum). A proteomic analysis was carried out to compare seeds from GM pea lines expressing the bean alphaAI1 protein and the corresponding alphaAI1-free segregating lines and non-GM parental line to identify unintended alterations to the proteome of GM peas due to the introduction of the gene for alphaAI1. Proteomic analysis showed that in addition to the presence of alphaAI1, 33 other proteins were differentially accumulated in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines compared with their non-GM parental line and these were grouped into five expression classes. Among these 33 proteins, only three were found to be associated with the expression of alphaAI1 in the GM pea lines. The accumulation of the remaining 30 proteins appears to be associated with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation events. Sixteen proteins were identified after MALDI-TOF-TOF analysis. About 56% of the identified proteins with altered accumulation in the GM pea were storage proteins including legumin, vicilin or convicilin, phaseolin, cupin and valosin-containing protein. Two proteins were uniquely expressed in the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and one new protein was present in both the alphaAI1-expressing GM lines and their alphaAI1-free segregating lines, suggesting that both transgenesis and transformation events led to demonstrable changes in the proteomes of the GM lines tested.

  2. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit. (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S


    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  3. Expression of human lymphotoxin alpha in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krasevec, N.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van de; Komel, R.


    A gene-fusion expression strategy was applied for heterologous expression of human lymphotoxin alpha (LTα) in the Aspergillus niger AB1.13 protease-deficient strain. The LTα gene was fused with the A. niger glucoamylase GII-form as a carrier-gene, behind its transcription control and secretion

  4. Structural characterization by NMR of the natively unfolded extracellular domain of beta-dystroglycan: toward the identification of the binding epitope for alpha-dystroglycan. (United States)

    Bozzi, Manuela; Bianchi, Marzia; Sciandra, Francesca; Paci, Maurizio; Giardina, Bruno; Brancaccio, Andrea; Cicero, Daniel O


    Dystroglycan (DG) is an adhesion molecule playing a crucial role for tissue stability during both early embriogenesis and adulthood and is composed by two tightly interacting subunits: alpha-DG, membrane-associated and highly glycosylated, and the transmembrane beta-DG. Recently, by solid-phase binding assays and NMR experiments, we have shown that the C-terminal domain of alpha-DG interacts with a recombinant extracellular fragment of beta-DG (positions 654-750) independently from glycosylation and that the linear binding epitope is located between residues 550 and 565 of alpha-DG. In order to elucidate which moieties of beta-DG are specifically involved in the complex with alpha-DG, the ectodomain has been recombinantly expressed and purified in a labeled ((13)C,(15)N) form and studied by multidimensional NMR. Although it represents a natively unfolded protein domain, we obtained an almost complete backbone assignment. Chemical shift index, (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and nuclear Overhauser effect (HSQC-NOESY) spectra and (3)J(HN,H)(alpha) coupling constant values confirm that this protein is highly disordered, but (1)H-(15)N steady-state NOE experiments indicate that the protein presents two regions of different mobility. The first one, between residues 659 and 722, is characterized by a limited degree of mobility, whereas the C-terminal portion, containing about 30 amino acids, is highly flexible. The binding of beta-DG(654-750) to the C-terminal region of the alpha subunit, alpha-DG(485-620), has been investigated, showing that the region of beta-DG(654-750) between residues 691 and 719 is involved in the interaction.

  5. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J


    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  6. Cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha expression in breast cancer is associated with EGFR expression and correlates with an adverse prognosis in luminal tumours.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caiazza, F


    BACKGROUND: The eicosanoid signalling pathway promotes the progression of malignancies through the production of proliferative prostaglandins (PGs). Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) activity provides the substrate for cyclooxygenase-dependent PG release, and we have previously found that cPLA(2)alpha expression correlated with EGFR\\/HER2 over-expression in a small number of breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: The importance of differential cPLA(2)alpha activity in clinical breast cancer was established by relating the expression of cPLA(2)alpha in tissue samples from breast cancer patients, and two microarray-based gene expression datasets to different clinicopathological and therapeutic parameters. RESULTS: High cPLA(2)alpha mRNA expression correlated with clinical parameters of poor prognosis, which are characteristic of highly invasive tumours of the HER2-positive and basal-like subtype, including low oestrogen receptor expression and high EGFR expression. High cPLA(2)alpha expression decreased overall survival in patients with luminal cancers, and correlated with a reduced effect of tamoxifen treatment. The cPLA(2)alpha expression was an independent predictive parameter of poor response to endocrine therapy in the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows a role of cPLA(2)alpha in luminal breast cancer progression, in which the enzyme could represent a novel therapeutic target and a predictive marker.

  7. Expression and function of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in human melanoma under non-hypoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Sandeep S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α protein is rapidly degraded under normoxic conditions. When oxygen tensions fall HIF-1α protein stabilizes and transactivates genes involved in adaptation to hypoxic conditions. We have examined the normoxic expression of HIF-1α RNA and protein in normal human melanocytes and a series of human melanoma cell lines isolated from radial growth phase (RGP, vertical growth phase (VGP and metastatic (MET melanomas. Results HIF-1α mRNA and protein was increased in RGP vs melanocytes, VGP vs RGP and MET vs VGP melanoma cell lines. We also detected expression of a HIF-1α mRNA splice variant that lacks part of the oxygen-dependent regulation domain in WM1366 and WM9 melanoma cells. Over-expression of HIF-1α and its splice variant in the RGP cell line SbCl2 resulted in a small increase in soft agar colony formation and a large increase in matrigel invasion relative to control transfected cells. Knockdown of HIF-1α expression by siRNA in the MET WM9 melanoma cell line resulted in a large decrease in both soft agar colony formation and matrigel invasion relative to cells treated with non-specific siRNA. There is a high level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in WM9 cells, indicating an activated Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway. Treatment of WM9 cells with 30 μM U0126 MEK inhibitor, decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and resulted in a decrease in HIF-1α expression. However, a 24 h treatment with 10 μM U0126 totally eliminated Erk1/2 phosphorylation, but did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of MEK siRNA did not change HIF-1alpha levels. Conclusion We speculate that metabolic products of U0126 decrease HIF-1alpha expression through "off target" effects. Overall our data suggest that increased HIF-1α expression under normoxic conditions contributes to some of the malignant phenotypes exhibited by human melanoma cells. The expanded role of HIF-1α in melanoma biology increases

  8. Calcineurin signaling and PGC-1alpha expression are suppressed during muscle atrophy due to diabetes. (United States)

    Roberts-Wilson, Tiffany K; Reddy, Ramesh N; Bailey, James L; Zheng, Bin; Ordas, Ronald; Gooch, Jennifer L; Price, S Russ


    PGC-1alpha is a transcriptional coactivator that controls energy homeostasis through regulation of glucose and oxidative metabolism. Both PGC-1alpha expression and oxidative capacity are decreased in skeletal muscle of patients and animals undergoing atrophy, suggesting that PGC-1alpha participates in the regulation of muscle mass. PGC-1alpha gene expression is controlled by calcium- and cAMP-sensitive pathways. However, the mechanism regulating PGC-1alpha in skeletal muscle during atrophy remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the mechanism responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression using a rodent streptozotocin (STZ) model of chronic diabetes and atrophy. After 21days, the levels of PGC-1alpha protein and mRNA were decreased. We examined the activation state of CREB, a potent activator of PGC-1alpha transcription, and found that phospho-CREB was paradoxically high in muscle of STZ-rats, suggesting that the cAMP pathway was not involved in PGC-1alpha regulation. In contrast, expression of calcineurin (Cn), a calcium-dependent phosphatase, was suppressed in the same muscles. PGC-1alpha expression is regulated by two Cn substrates, MEF2 and NFATc. Therefore, we examined MEF2 and NFATc activity in muscles from STZ-rats. Target genes MRF4 and MCIP1.4 mRNAs were both significantly reduced, consistent with reduced Cn signaling. Moreover, levels of MRF4, MCIP1.4, and PGC-1alpha were also decreased in muscles of CnAalpha-/- and CnAbeta-/- mice without diabetes indicating that decreased Cn signaling, rather than changes in other calcium- or cAMP-sensitive pathways, were responsible for decreased PGC-1alpha expression. These findings demonstrate that Cn activity is a major determinant of PGC-1alpha expression in skeletal muscle during diabetes and possibly other conditions associated with loss of muscle mass.

  9. TNF-{alpha} mediates the stimulation of sclerostin expression in an estrogen-deficient condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom-Jun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sung Jin [Health Promotion Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sun-Young; Lee, Young-Sun; Baek, Ji-Eun; Park, Sook-Young [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Hun [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Jung-Min, E-mail: [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ghi Su [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1 Poongnap2-Dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estrogen deprivation stimulates the bony sclerostin levels with reversal by estrogen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increases the activity and expression of MEF2 in UMR-106 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} blocker prevents the stimulation of bony sclerostin expression by ovariectomy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No difference in bony sclerostin expression between sham-operated and ovariectomized nude mice. -- Abstract: Although recent clinical studies have suggested a possible role for sclerostin, a secreted Wnt antagonist, in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the detailed mechanisms how estrogen deficiency regulates sclerostin expression have not been well-elucidated. Bilateral ovariectomy or a sham operation in female C57BL/6 mice and BALB/c nude mice was performed when they were seven weeks of age. The C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with phosphate-buffered serum (PBS), 5 {mu}g/kg {beta}-estradiol five times per week for three weeks, or 10 mg/kg TNF-{alpha} blocker three times per week for three weeks. Bony sclerostin expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining in their femurs. The activity and expression of myocyte enhancer factors 2 (MEF2), which is essential for the transcriptional activation of sclerostin, in rat UMR-106 osteosarcoma cells were determined by luciferase reporter assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Bony sclerostin expression was stimulated by estrogen deficiency and it was reversed by estradiol supplementation. When the UMR-106 cells were treated with well-known, estrogen-regulated cytokines, only TNF-{alpha}, but not IL-1 and IL-6, increased the MEF2 activity. Consistently, TNF-{alpha} also increased the nuclear MEF2 expression. Furthermore, the TNF-{alpha} blocker prevented the stimulation of bony sclerostin expression by ovariectomy. We also found that there was no difference in sclerostin expression between ovariectomized

  10. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D


    We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  11. Lack of co-ordinate expression of the alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen genes in fibroblast clonal cultures. (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y; Crane, S; Zhou, L; Ochoa, S M; Falanga, V


    Several extracellular matrix genes, most notably alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen, are reported to be co-ordinately expressed in cultures of dermal fibroblasts. However, it remains unclear whether the expression of these genes is truly co-ordinate or whether it may be the result of averaging the phenotypic expression of different fibroblast subpopulations present within each culture. Objectives To determine by Northern analysis the correlation between alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen mRNA levels in clonal populations of human dermal fibroblasts. As previously described, clonal cultures were derived from parent strains of human dermal fibroblasts by a microscopically controlled dilution technique and by stimulation of single cells with low oxygen tension in the early phases of clonal growth. In agreement with previous reports, we found that baseline steady-state levels of alpha1(I) procollagen mRNA were co-ordinately regulated with the alpha1(III) procollagen mRNA in 26 parent strains (r = 0. 9003; P ordinate regulation observed in non-clonal cultures, suggesting that these two genes operate under different sets of regulatory controls. This clonal heterogeneity may provide additional flexibility to the process of tissue repair and fibroblast clonal expansion.

  12. alpha-helical structural elements within the voltage-sensing domains of a K(+) channel. (United States)

    Li-Smerin, Y; Hackos, D H; Swartz, K J


    Voltage-gated K(+) channels are tetramers with each subunit containing six (S1-S6) putative membrane spanning segments. The fifth through sixth transmembrane segments (S5-S6) from each of four subunits assemble to form a central pore domain. A growing body of evidence suggests that the first four segments (S1-S4) comprise a domain-like voltage-sensing structure. While the topology of this region is reasonably well defined, the secondary and tertiary structures of these transmembrane segments are not. To explore the secondary structure of the voltage-sensing domains, we used alanine-scanning mutagenesis through the region encompassing the first four transmembrane segments in the drk1 voltage-gated K(+) channel. We examined the mutation-induced perturbation in gating free energy for periodicity characteristic of alpha-helices. Our results are consistent with at least portions of S1, S2, S3, and S4 adopting alpha-helical secondary structure. In addition, both the S1-S2 and S3-S4 linkers exhibited substantial helical character. The distribution of gating perturbations for S1 and S2 suggest that these two helices interact primarily with two environments. In contrast, the distribution of perturbations for S3 and S4 were more complex, suggesting that the latter two helices make more extensive protein contacts, possibly interfacing directly with the shell of the pore domain.

  13. Prognostic impact of HIF-1{alpha} expression in patients with definitive radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellas, K.; Bache, M.; Kappler, M.; Haensgen, G. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Pigorsch, S.U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Taubert, H.; Holzhausen, H.J. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Pathology; Holzapfel, D.; Zorn, E. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Pathology


    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the hypoxia-inducible factor-(HIF-)1{alpha} expression in tumor tissue, tumor oxygenation and hemoglobin levels in patients with advanced cervical cancers prior to radiotherapy and the effect on clinical outcome. Patients and Methods: The investigation included 44 patients who underwent definitive radiotherapy for advanced cervical cancers between May 1995 and March 1999. Tumor biopsies were taken prior to treatment, and HIF-1{alpha} expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. In the same tumor area, tumor tissue oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) was measured using the Eppendorf device. Results: The 5-year cancer-specific survival of all patients was 60%. Twelve of 44 tumor specimens were HIF-1{alpha}-negative with a significantly better 5-year survival (92 {+-} 8%) versus 32 patients who were HIF-1{alpha}-positive (45 {+-} 10%; p < 0.02). There was no correlation between HIF-1{alpha} expression and tumor oxygenation (p = 0.57 both for pO{sub 2} median and hypoxic fraction < 5 mmHg vs. HIF-1{alpha} expression). However, patients with hemoglobin levels < 11 g/dl showed elevated HIF-1{alpha} expression compared to patients with hemoglobin levels > 12.5 g/dl (p = 0.04). Furthermore, HIF-1{alpha} correlated with vascular endothelial growth factor expression (p = 0.002). In a multivariate Cox regression model, HIF-1{alpha} expression (relative risk [RR] = 7.5; p = 0.05) revealed an increased risk of tumor-related death. Conclusion: The study indicates, that endogenous tumor markers such as HIF-1{alpha} may serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome concerning cervical cancer after primary radiotherapy. (orig.)

  14. Tamoxifen induces the expression of maspin through estrogen receptor-alpha. (United States)

    Liu, Zesheng; Shi, Heidi Y; Nawaz, Zafar; Zhang, Ming


    Maspin (mammary serine protease inhibitor) is a tumor suppressor gene that plays an important role in inhibiting tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Maspin expression is down regulated at transcription level in primary and metastatic breast tumor cells. Previous studies on hormonal regulation of maspin prompt us to test whether an estrogen antagonist tamoxifen (TAM) can exert its anti-tumor function by up regulating maspin gene expression. For this purpose, we first tested whether maspin promoter could be activated in normal and several breast tumor cells. We then carried out a series of promoter analysis in which estrogen receptors and TAM were reconstituted in an in vitro cell culture system. Here we report our new finding that tumor suppresser gene maspin is one of the TAM target genes. TAM induces a maspin/luciferase reporter in cell culture and this induction requires the presence of (estrogen receptor alpha) ERalpha but not estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta). Maspin promoter deletion and mutation analysis showed that the cis element(s) within a region between -90and+87 bp but not the HRE site (-272 bp) was involved in TAM induction of maspin expression. TAM bound ERalpha may directly control maspin gene expression through the interaction with cofactor (s). Analysis using several ERalpha mutants showed that the N-terminal A/B motif (AF-1) was critical for maspin basal level transcription activation. An ERalpha mutant with point mutations at DNA binding domain abolished estrogen induction of an ERE-luciferase reporter but was still active in activating maspin promoter by TAM. LBD-AF2 domain was required for ERalpha-dependent TAM induction. Deletion of LBD-AF2 or a point mutation in the ERalpha LBD-AF2 region (LBDmtL539A) completely abolished the activation of maspin promoter, suggesting that TAM induction of maspin involves the recruitment of cofactor(s) by ERalpha to the maspin promoter region. This finding indicates that one of the pathways for cancer

  15. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W


    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...... the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin function...

  16. Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia: Immunohistochemical Analysis. ... Additionally, ER-α was not expressed in either luminal or basal cells in any of the 35 BPH cases. However ... Key Words: ER-α, ER-β, prostate, hyperplasia, premalignant, cancer, immunohistochemistry ...

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations from putative transition states of alpha-spectrin SH3 domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periole, Xavier; Vendruscolo, Michele; Mark, Alan E.


    A series of molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent were started from nine structural models of the transition state of the SH3 domain of alpha-spectrin, which were generated by Lindorff Larsen et al. (Nat Struct Mol Biol 2004;11:443-449) using molecular dynamics simulations in which

  18. Ligand Binding Domain Protein in Tetracycline-Inducible Expression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate tetracycline-inducible expression system for producing clinically usable, highquality liver X receptor ligand-binding domain recombinant protein. Methods: In this study, we have expressed and purified the recombinant liver X receptor β-ligand binding domain proteins in E. coli using a tetracycline ...

  19. Activation of the alpha-globin gene expression correlates with dramatic upregulation of nearby non-globin genes and changes in local and large-scale chromatin spatial structure. (United States)

    Ulianov, Sergey V; Galitsyna, Aleksandra A; Flyamer, Ilya M; Golov, Arkadiy K; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Imakaev, Maxim V; Abdennur, Nezar A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Razin, Sergey V


    In homeotherms, the alpha-globin gene clusters are located within permanently open genome regions enriched in housekeeping genes. Terminal erythroid differentiation results in dramatic upregulation of alpha-globin genes making their expression comparable to the rRNA transcriptional output. Little is known about the influence of the erythroid-specific alpha-globin gene transcription outburst on adjacent, widely expressed genes and large-scale chromatin organization. Here, we have analyzed the total transcription output, the overall chromatin contact profile, and CTCF binding within the 2.7 Mb segment of chicken chromosome 14 harboring the alpha-globin gene cluster in cultured lymphoid cells and cultured erythroid cells before and after induction of terminal erythroid differentiation. We found that, similarly to mammalian genome, the chicken genomes is organized in TADs and compartments. Full activation of the alpha-globin gene transcription in differentiated erythroid cells is correlated with upregulation of several adjacent housekeeping genes and the emergence of abundant intergenic transcription. An extended chromosome region encompassing the alpha-globin cluster becomes significantly decompacted in differentiated erythroid cells, and depleted in CTCF binding and CTCF-anchored chromatin loops, while the sub-TAD harboring alpha-globin gene cluster and the upstream major regulatory element (MRE) becomes highly enriched with chromatin interactions as compared to lymphoid and proliferating erythroid cells. The alpha-globin gene domain and the neighboring loci reside within the A-like chromatin compartment in both lymphoid and erythroid cells and become further segregated from the upstream gene desert upon terminal erythroid differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of tissue-specific transcription activation are not restricted to the host genomic locus but affect the overall chromatin structure and transcriptional output of the encompassing

  20. [Expression, crystallization and crystallographic study of the 1st IgV domain of human CD96]. (United States)

    Jiang, Wenjing; Zhang, Shuijun; Yan, Jinghua; Guo, Ning


    CD96 (Tactile) is an adhesion receptor expressed mainly on activated T cells, NK cells. As a family member of the immunoglobulin-like cell receptor, CD96 consists of three immunoglobulin-like domains (V1, V2/C and C) in the extracellular region. Recent studies have shown that the 1st IgV domain of CD96 (CD96V1) plays an essential role in cell adhesion and NK cell-mediated killing. In this study, the 1st IgV domain of human CD96 (hCD96V1) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (BL21). The soluble protein was obtained by refolding of the hCD96V1 inclusion bodies. From analytical ultracentrifugation, we could predict that CD96 V1 maily exists as dimer with approximate molecular weight of 26.9 kDa. The protein was then successfully crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.9 angstrom resolution and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 35.1, b = 69.5, c = 49.6A, alpha=gamma=90 degrees, beta=105.4 degrees.

  1. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen. (United States)

    Schulmeister, Ulrike; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Geller, Beate; Nystrand, Mats; Härlin, Annika; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Keller, Walter; Niggemann, Bodo; Quirce, Santiago; Ebner, Christoph; Mari, Adriano; Pauli, Gabrielle; Herz, Udo; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne


    Milk is one of the first components introduced into human diet. It also represents one of the first allergen sources, which induces IgE-mediated allergies in childhood ranging from gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory manifestations to severe life-threatening manifestations, such as anaphylaxis. Here we isolated a cDNA coding for a major cow's milk allergen, alphaS1-casein, from a bovine mammary gland cDNA library with allergic patients' IgE Abs. Recombinant alphaS1-casein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by circular dichroism as a folded protein. IgE epitopes of alphaS1-casein were determined with recombinant fragments and synthetic peptides spanning the alphaS1-casein sequence using microarrayed components and sera from 66 cow's milk-sensitized patients. The allergenic activity of ralphaS1-casein and the alphaS1-casein-derived peptides was determined using rat basophil leukemia cells transfected with human FcepsilonRI, which had been loaded with the patients' serum IgE. Our results demonstrate that ralphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides exhibit IgE reactivity, but mainly the intact ralphaS1-casein induced strong basophil degranulation. These results suggest that primarily intact alphaS1-casein or larger IgE-reactive portions thereof are responsible for IgE-mediated symptoms of food allergy. Recombinant alphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides may be used in clinical studies to further explore pathomechanisms of food allergy as well as for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for milk allergy.

  2. Alpha particle effects as a test domain for PAP, a Plasma Apprentice Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.


    A new type of computational tool under development, employing techniques of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence to automate as far as possible the research activities of a human plasma theorist, is described. Its present and potential uses are illustrated using the area of the theory of alpha particle effects in fusion plasmas as a sample domain. (orig.)

  3. Thy-1 attenuates TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts via Src family kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shan

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous surface expression of Thy-1 in fibroblasts modulates inflammation and may thereby modulate injury and repair. As a paradigm, patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a disease with pathologic features of chronic inflammation, demonstrate an absence of Thy-1 immunoreactivity within areas of fibrotic activity (fibroblast foci in contrast to the predominant Thy-1 expressing fibroblasts in the normal lung. Likewise, Thy-1 deficient mice display more severe lung fibrosis in response to an inflammatory injury than wildtype littermates. We investigated the role of Thy-1 in the response of fibroblasts to the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Our study demonstrates distinct profiles of TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in Thy-1 positive (Thy-1+ and negative (Thy-1- subsets of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. TNF-alpha induced a robust activation of MMP-9, ICAM-1, and the IL-8 promoter driven reporter in Thy-1- MEFs, in contrast to only a modest increase in Thy-1+ counterparts. Consistently, ectopic expression of Thy-1 in Thy-1- MEFs significantly attenuated TNF-alpha-activated gene expression. Mechanistically, TNF-alpha activated Src family kinase (SFK only in Thy-1- MEFs. Blockade of SFK activation abrogated TNF-alpha-activated gene expression in Thy-1- MEFs, whereas restoration of SFK activation rescued the TNF-alpha response in Thy-1+ MEFs. Our findings suggest that Thy-1 down-regulates TNF-alpha-activated gene expression via interfering with SFK- and NF-kappaB-mediated transactivation. The current study provides a novel mechanistic insight to the distinct roles of fibroblast Thy-1 subsets in inflammation.

  4. Expression by Streptomyces lividans of the Rat α Integrin CD11b A-Domain as a Secreted and Soluble Recombinant Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Zouari Ayadi


    Full Text Available We already reported the use of a long synthetic signal peptide (LSSP to secrete the Streptomyces sp. TO1 amylase by Streptomyces lividans strain. We herein report the expression and secretion of the rat CD11b A-domain using the same LSSP and S. lividans as host strain. We have used the Escherichia coli/Streptomyces shuttle vector pIJ699 for the cloning of the A-domain DNA sequence downstream of LSSP and under the control of the constitutive ermE-up promoter of Streptomyces erythraeus. Using this construct and S. lividans as a host strain, we achieved the expression of 8 mg/L of soluble secreted recombinant form of the A-domain of the rat leukocyte β2 integrin CD11/CD18 alpha M subunit (CD11b. This secreted recombinant CD11b A-domain reacted with a function blocking antibody showing that this protein is properly folded and probably functional. These data support the capability of Streptomyces to produce heterologous recombinant proteins as soluble secreted form using the “LSSP” synthetic signal peptide.

  5. PANP is a novel O-glycosylated PILR{alpha} ligand expressed in neural tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogure, Amane [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shiratori, Ikuo [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Jing [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Lanier, Lewis L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Arase, Hisashi, E-mail: [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST CREST, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} A Novel molecule, PANP, was identified to be a PILR{alpha} ligand. {yields} Sialylated O-glycan structures on PANP were required for PILR{alpha} recognition. {yields} Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. {yields} PANP seems to be involved in immune regulation as a ligand for PILR{alpha}. -- Abstract: PILR{alpha} is an immune inhibitory receptor possessing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic domain enabling it to deliver inhibitory signals. Binding of PILR{alpha} to its ligand CD99 is involved in immune regulation; however, whether there are other PILR{alpha} ligands in addition to CD99 is not known. Here, we report that a novel molecule, PILR-associating neural protein (PANP), acts as an additional ligand for PILR{alpha}. Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. PILR{alpha}-Ig fusion protein bound cells transfected with PANP and the transfectants stimulated PILR{alpha} reporter cells. Specific O-glycan structures on PANP were found to be required for PILR recognition of this ligand. These results suggest that PANP is involved in immune regulation as a ligand of the PILR{alpha}.

  6. Alpha particles induce expression of immunogenic markers on tumour cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorin, J.B.; Gouard, S.; Cherel, M.; Davodeau, F.; Gaschet, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Bruchertseifer, F.


    The full text of the publication follows. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is an approach aiming at targeting the radioelements to tumours, usually through the use of antibodies specific for tumour antigens. The radiations emitted by the radioelements then induce direct killing of the targeted cells as well as indirect killing through bystander effect. Interestingly, it has been shown that ionizing radiations, in some settings of external radiotherapy, can foster an immune response directed against tumour cells. Our research team is dedicated to the development of alpha RIT, i.e RIT using alpha particle emitters, we therefore decided to study the effects of such particles on tumour cells in regards to their immunogenicity. First, we studied the effects of bismuth 213, an alpha emitter, on cellular death and autophagy in six different tumour cell lines. Then, we measured the expression of 'danger' signals and MHC molecules at the cell surface to determine whether irradiation with 213 Bi could cause the tumour cells to be recognized by the immune system. Finally a co-culture of dendritic cells with irradiated tumour cells was performed to test whether it would induce dendritic cells to mature. No apoptosis was detected within 48 hours after irradiation in any cell line, however half of them exhibited signs of autophagy. No increase in membrane expression of 'danger' signals was observed after treatment with 213 Bi, but we showed an increase in expression of MHC class I and II for some cell lines. Moreover, the co-culture experiment indicated that the immunogenicity of a human adenocarcinoma cell line (LS 174T) was enhanced in vitro after irradiation with alpha rays. These preliminary data suggest that alpha particles could be of interest in raising an immune response associated to RIT. (authors)

  7. Cloning of a yeast alpha-amylase promoter and its regulated heterologous expression (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR; Hooker, Brian S [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Daniel B [Pasco, WA


    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  8. Expression of G(alpha)(s) proteins and TSH receptor signalling in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with TSH receptor mutations. (United States)

    Holzapfel, Hans-Peter; Bergner, Beate; Wonerow, Peter; Paschke, Ralf


    Constitutively activating mutations of the thyrotrophin receptor (TSHR) are the main molecular cause of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (HTNs). The G protein coupling is an important and critical step in the TSHR signalling which mainly includes G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins. We investigated the in vitro consequences of overexpressing G(alpha) proteins on signalling of the wild-type (WT) or mutated TSHR. Moreover, we investigated whether changes in G(alpha) protein expression are pathophysiologically relevant in HTNs or cold thyroid nodules (CTNs). Wild-type TSH receptor and mutated TSH receptors were coexpressed with G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) or G(alpha)(q)/11, and cAMP and inositol phosphate (IP) production was measured after stimulation with TSH. The expression of G(alpha)(s), G(alpha)(i) and G(alpha)(q)/11 proteins was examined by Western blotting in 28 HTNs and 14 CTNs. Coexpression of G(alpha)(s) with the WT TSH receptor in COS 7 cells significantly increased the basal and TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation while coexpression of the G(alpha)(q) or G(alpha)11 protein significantly increased the production of cAMP and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)). The coexpression of the TSH receptor mutants (I486F, DEL613-621), known to couple constitutively to G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q) with G(alpha)(s) and G(alpha)(q)/11, significantly increased the basal and stimulated cAMP and IP(3) accumulation. Coexpression of the TSH receptor mutant V556F with G(alpha)(s) only increased the basal and stimulated cAMP production while its coexpression with G(alpha)(q)/11 increased the basal and stimulated IP(3) signalling. The expression of G(alpha)(s) protein subunits determined by Western blotting was significantly decreased in 14 HTNs with a constitutively activating TSH receptor mutation in comparison with the corresponding surrounding tissue, while in 14 HTNs without TSH receptor or G(alpha)(s) protein mutation and in 14 CTNs the expression of G(alpha

  9. Age-dependent changes in expression of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in rat myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, W.; Williams, R.S.


    The expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors within ventricular myocardium of rats ranging in age from 21 days of fetal life to 24 months after birth was measured from [ 125 I] 2-(β hydroxy phenyl) ethylaminomethyl tetralone binding isotherms. No difference was observed in binding affinity between any of the age groups studied. The number of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors was found to be 60-120% higher in membranes from fetal or immature rats up to 25 days of age when compared with adult animals. The increased expression of alpha 1 -adrenergic receptors in the developing heart relative to that observed in adult heart is consistent with the hypothesis that alpha 1 -adrenergic receptor stimulation may modulate protein synthesis and growth in mammalian myocardium

  10. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene


    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...

  11. Retinal neuroprotection by hypoxic preconditioning is independent of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression in photoreceptors. (United States)

    Thiersch, Markus; Lange, Christina; Joly, Sandrine; Heynen, Severin; Le, Yun Zheng; Samardzija, Marijana; Grimm, Christian


    Hypoxic preconditioning stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 alpha in the retina and protects photoreceptors against light-induced cell death. HIF-1 alpha is one of the major transcription factors responding to low oxygen tension and can differentially regulate a large number of target genes. To analyse whether photoreceptor-specific expression of HIF-1 alpha is essential to protect photoreceptors by hypoxic preconditioning, we knocked down expression of HIF-1 alpha specifically in photoreceptor cells, using the cyclization recombinase (Cre)-lox system. The Cre-mediated knockdown caused a 20-fold reduced expression of Hif-1 alpha in the photoreceptor cell layer. In the total retina, RNA expression was reduced by 65%, and hypoxic preconditioning led to only a small increase in HIF-1 alpha protein levels. Accordingly, HIF-1 target gene expression after hypoxia was significantly diminished. Retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown animals did not show any pathological alterations, and tolerated hypoxic exposure in a comparable way to wild-type retinas. Importantly, the strong neuroprotective effect of hypoxic preconditioning against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration persisted in knockdown mice, suggesting that hypoxia-mediated survival of light exposure does not depend on an autocrine action of HIF-1 alpha in photoreceptor cells. Hypoxia-mediated stabilization of HIF-2 alpha and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT 3) were not affected in the retinas of Hif-1 alpha knockdown mice. Thus, these factors are candidates for regulating the resistance of photoreceptors to light damage after hypoxic preconditioning, along with several potentially neuroprotective genes that were similarly induced in hypoxic knockdown and control mice.

  12. Actin isoform and alpha 1B-adrenoceptor gene expression in aortic and coronary smooth muscle is influenced by cyclical stretch. (United States)

    Lundberg, M S; Sadhu, D N; Grumman, V E; Chilian, W M; Ramos, K S


    The occurrence of vascular domains with specific biological and pharmacological characteristics suggests that smooth muscle cells in different arteries may respond differentially to a wide range of environmental stimuli. To determine if some of these vessel-specific differences may be attributable to mechano-sensitive gene regulation, the influence of cyclical stretch on the expression of actin isoform and alpha 1B-adrenoceptor genes was examined in aortic and coronary smooth muscle cells. Cells were seeded on an elastin substrate and subjected to maximal stretching (24% elongation) and relaxation cycles at a frequency of 120 cycles/min in a Flexercell strain unit for 72 h. Total RNA was extracted and hybridized to radiolabeled cDNA probes to assess gene expression. Stretch caused a greater reduction of actin isoform mRNA levels in aortic smooth muscle cells as compared to cells from the coronary artery. Steady-state mRNA levels of alpha 1B-adrenoceptor were also decreased by cyclical stretch in both cell types but the magnitude of the response was greater in coronary smooth muscle cells. No changes in alpha 1B-adrenoceptor or beta/gamma-actin steady-state mRNA levels were observed in H4IIE cells, a nonvascular, immortalized cell line. The relative gene expression of heat shock protein 70 was not influenced by the cyclic stretch regimen in any of these cell types. These results suggest that stretch may participate in the regulation of gene expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and that this response exhibits some degree of cell-specificity.

  13. Change of expression of renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor and angiotensin II receptor subtypes with aging in rats. (United States)

    Li, Yan-Fang; Cao, Xiao-Jing; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Lin, Shu-Peng; Shi, Shu-Tian


    It has been considered that the functional decline of renal vasoconstriction during senescence is associated with an alteration in renal alpha1-adrenergic receptor (alpha1-AR) expression. While alterations in renal angiotensin II receptor (ATR) expression was considered to have an effect on renal structure and function, until now little information has been available concerning alpha1-AR and ATR expression variations over the entire aging continuum. The present study was undertaken to examine the expression levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue during the spectrum running from young adulthood, to middle age, to the presenium, and to the senium. Semiquantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot were used to quantify the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes in renal tissue in 3-month-old (young adult), 12-month-old (middle age), 18-month-old (presenium) and 24-month-old (senium) Wistar rats. alpha1A-AR expression decreased gradually with aging: it was decreased during middle age, the presenium and the senium, compared, respectively, with young adult values (page and in the senium with respect to the presenium. alpha1B-AR and alpha1D-AR expression were unmodified during senescence. AT1R expression was unaffected by aging during young adulthood and middle age, but exhibited a remarkable downregulation in the presenium and senium periods (prenal alpha1-AR and ATR subtypes during aging. alpha1A-AR expression downregulation may account for the reduced reactivity of renal alpha1-AR to vasoconstrictors and to renal function decline in the senium. Both the downregulation of AT1R and the upregulation of AT2R may be influential in maintaining normal physiological renal function during aging.

  14. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Xia, E-mail: [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China); Shang, Deya, E-mail: [Department of Emergency, Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan 250021 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  15. Bacterial expression and one-step purification of an isotope-labeled heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha}-subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulaev, Najmoutin G. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States); Zhang Cheng; Dinh, Andy [University of Texas Health Science Center, Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United States); Ngo, Tony; Bryan, Philip N. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States); Brabazon, Danielle M. [Loyola College in Maryland, Department of Chemistry (United States); Marino, John P. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States)], E-mail:; Ridge, Kevin D. [University of Texas Health Science Center, Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United States)


    Heterologous expression systems are often employed to generate sufficient quantities of isotope-labeled proteins for high-resolution NMR studies. Recently, the interaction between the prodomain region of subtilisin and an active, mutant form of the mature enzyme has been exploited to develop a cleavable affinity tag fusion system for one-step generation and purification of full-length soluble proteins obtained by inducible prokaryotic expression. As a first step towards applying high-resolution NMR methods to study heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha}-subunit (G{sub {alpha}}) conformation and dynamics, the utility of this subtilisin prodomain fusion system for expressing and purifying an isotope-labeled G{sub {alpha}} chimera ({approx}40 kDa polypeptide) has been tested. The results show that a prodomain fused G{sub {alpha}} chimera can be expressed to levels approaching 6-8 mg/l in minimal media and that the processed, mature protein exhibits properties similar to those of G{sub {alpha}} isolated from natural sources. To assay for the functional integrity of the purified G{sub {alpha}} chimera at NMR concentrations and probe for changes in the structure and dynamics of G{sub {alpha}} that result from activation, {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra of the GDP/Mg{sup 2+} bound form of G{sub {alpha}} obtained in the absence and presence of aluminum fluoride, a well known activator of the GDP bound state, have been acquired. Comparisons of the {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra reveals a number of changes in chemical shifts of the {sup 1}HN, {sup 15}N crosspeaks that are discussed with respect to expected changes in the protein conformation associated with G{sub {alpha}} activation.

  16. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Katsutaka, E-mail: [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, Daisuke [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohkura, Naoki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Horie, Shuichi [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakado, Saitama (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR{alpha

  17. SDF-1 alpha expression during wound healing in the aged is HIF dependent. (United States)

    Loh, Shang A; Chang, Edward I; Galvez, Michael G; Thangarajah, Hariharan; El-ftesi, Samyra; Vial, Ivan N; Lin, Darius A; Gurtner, Geoffrey C


    Age-related impairments in wound healing are associated with decreased neovascularization, a process that is regulated by hypoxia-responsive cytokines, including stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 alpha. Interleukin-1 beta is an important inflammatory cytokine involved in wound healing and is believed to regulate SDF-1 alpha expression independent of hypoxia signaling. Thus, the authors examined the relative importance of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha on SDF-1 alpha expression in aged wound healing. Young and aged mice (n = 4 per group) were examined for wound healing using a murine excisional wound model. Wounds were harvested at days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 for histologic analysis, immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot. An engineered wild-type and mutated SDF luciferase reporter construct were used to determine HIF transactivation. Aged mice demonstrated significantly impaired wound healing, reduced granulation tissue, and increased epithelial gap compared with young controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated reduced SDF-1 alpha levels in aged wounds that correlated with reduced CD31+ neovessels. Western blots revealed decreased HIF-1 alpha protein in aged wounds. However, both IL-1 beta and macrophage infiltrate were unchanged between young and aged animals. Using the wild-type and mutated SDF luciferase reporter construct in which the hypoxia response element was deleted, only young fibroblasts were able to respond to IL-1 beta stimulation, and this response was abrogated by mutating the HIF-binding sites. This suggests that HIF binding is essential for SDF-1 transactivation in response to both inflammatory and hypoxic stimuli. SDF-1 alpha deficiency observed during aged wound healing is attributable predominantly to decreased HIF-1 alpha levels rather than impaired IL-1 beta expression.

  18. Expression and characterization of a recombinant maize CK-2 alpha subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Dobrowolska, G


    to support the immunological data also by biochemical and biophysical experiments the availability of a recombinant CK-2 alpha from maize was a prerequisite. A maize cDNA clone of maize CK-2 alpha was expressed in the bacterial strain BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity; its......CKIIB, one of the CK-2 like enzymes which have been isolated from maize, has been shown to be a monomeric enzyme that cross-reacts with anti CK-2 alpha specific antibodies suggesting a possible relationship between the two proteins (Dobrowolska et al. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 299-303). In order...... molecular mass on one-dimensional SDS PAGE was estimated to be 36.5 kDa. The calculated molecular mass according to the amino acid composition is 39,228 Da (332 amino acids). The recombinant maize CK-2 alpha (rmCK-2 alpha) exhibited mostly the same properties as the recombinant human CK-2 alpha (rhCK-2...

  19. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  20. Induction of VEGF expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate via PI3Kgamma/PKB and hTAP1/SEC14L2-mediated lipid exchange (United States)

    In several studies, vitamin E has been observed to influence angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. We recently showed that the phosphorylated form of alpha-tocopherol (alphaT), alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), increases the expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Thus, alphaTP m...

  1. Vibration induced hearing loss in guinea pig cochlea: expression of TNF-alpha and VEGF. (United States)

    Zou, Jing; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Sutinen, Päivi; Toppila, Esko


    Transcranial vibration was applied for seven animals at a frequency of 250 Hz for 15 min, and five animals were used as normal controls to investigate cellular and molecular mechanism linked to vibration-induced hearing loss in animal model. Compound action potential (CAP) thresholds were measured by round window niche electrode. The expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and its receptors (TNF R1, TNF R2), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors (VEGF R1, VEGF R2) were analysed by immunohistochemistry. Transcranial vibration caused expression of TNF-alpha, TNF R1 and TNF R2 in the cochlea and the expression of TNF R2 was stronger than that of TNF R1. Vibration also induced VEGF and VEGF R2 expression in the cochlea. The average immediate hearing loss was 62 dB and after three days still 48 dB. It is concluded that transcranial vibration as during temporal bone drilling produces cochlear shear stress that is connected with up-regulation of TNF-alpha and its receptors. Also VEGF and VEGF R2 are up-regulated. These responses may be linked to both the damage and repair process of the cochlea.

  2. Conditional expression of constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} in chondrocytes impairs longitudinal bone growth in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Tsukui, Tohru [Experimental Animal Laboratory, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Imazawa, Yukiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Inoue, Satoshi, E-mail: [Division of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Anti-Aging Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional transgenic mice expressing constitutively active estrogen receptor {alpha} (caER{alpha}) in chondrocytes were developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of caER{alpha} in chondrocytes impaired longitudinal bone growth in mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer caER{alpha} affects chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This mouse model is useful for understanding the physiological role of ER{alpha}in vivo. -- Abstract: Estrogen plays important roles in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, which are essential steps for longitudinal bone growth; however, the mechanisms of estrogen action on chondrocytes have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we generated conditional transgenic mice, designated as caER{alpha}{sup ColII}, expressing constitutively active mutant estrogen receptor (ER) {alpha} in chondrocytes, using the chondrocyte-specific type II collagen promoter-driven Cre transgenic mice. caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice showed retardation in longitudinal growth, with short bone lengths. BrdU labeling showed reduced proliferation of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the proliferating layer of the growth plate of tibia in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. In situ hybridization analysis of type X collagen revealed that the maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes was impaired in caER{alpha}{sup ColII} mice. These results suggest that ER{alpha} is a critical regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and maturation during skeletal development, mediating longitudinal bone growth in vivo.

  3. Unexpected tolerance of alpha-cleavage of the prion protein to sequence variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José B Oliveira-Martins

    Full Text Available The cellular form of the prion protein, PrP(C, undergoes extensive proteolysis at the alpha site (109K [see text]H110. Expression of non-cleavable PrP(C mutants in transgenic mice correlates with neurotoxicity, suggesting that alpha-cleavage is important for PrP(C physiology. To gain insights into the mechanisms of alpha-cleavage, we generated a library of PrP(C mutants with mutations in the region neighbouring the alpha-cleavage site. The prevalence of C1, the carboxy adduct of alpha-cleavage, was determined for each mutant. In cell lines of disparate origin, C1 prevalence was unaffected by variations in charge and hydrophobicity of the region neighbouring the alpha-cleavage site, and by substitutions of the residues in the palindrome that flanks this site. Instead, alpha-cleavage was size-dependently impaired by deletions within the domain 106-119. Almost no cleavage was observed upon full deletion of this domain. These results suggest that alpha-cleavage is executed by an alpha-PrPase whose activity, despite surprisingly limited sequence specificity, is dependent on the size of the central region of PrP(C.

  4. [Cloning of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin gene and extracellular expression in Escherichia coli]. (United States)

    Inoue, Masaharu; Kikuchi, Maho; Komoriya, Tomoe; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Kouno, Hideki


    Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a Gram-positive bacterial pathogen that widely propagets in the soil and the gastrointestinal tract of human and animals. This bacteria causes food poisoning, gas gangrene and other various range of infectious diseases. But there is no standard diagnosis method of C. perfringens. In order to develop a new type of immunoassay for clinical purpose, we studied expression and extracellular secretion of recombinant alpha-toxin having enzyme activity in E. coli expression system. Cloning was carried out after PCR amplification from C. perfringens GAI 94074 which was clinical isolate. Three kinds of fragment were cloned using pET100/D-TOPO vector. These fragments coded for ribosome binding site, signal peptide, and alpha-toxin gene respectively. Recombinant pET100 plasmid transformed into TOP 10 cells and the obtained plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) cells. Then, the transformants were induced expression with IPTG. In conclusion, we successfully cloned, expressed and exteracellular secreted C. perfringens alpha-toxin containing signal peptide. Biologically, the obtained recombinant protein was positive for phospholipase C activity.

  5. The relative influence of metal ion binding sites in the I-like domain and the interface with the hybrid domain on rolling and firm adhesion by integrin alpha4beta7. (United States)

    Chen, JianFeng; Takagi, Junichi; Xie, Can; Xiao, Tsan; Luo, Bing-Hao; Springer, Timothy A


    We examined the effect of conformational change at the beta(7) I-like/hybrid domain interface on regulating the transition between rolling and firm adhesion by integrin alpha(4)beta(7). An N-glycosylation site was introduced into the I-like/hybrid domain interface to act as a wedge and to stabilize the open conformation of this interface and hence the open conformation of the alpha(4) beta(7) headpiece. Wild-type alpha(4)beta(7) mediates rolling adhesion in Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) but firm adhesion in Mg(2+) and Mn(2+). Stabilizing the open headpiece resulted in firm adhesion in all divalent cations. The interaction between metal binding sites in the I-like domain and the interface with the hybrid domain was examined in double mutants. Changes at these two sites can either counterbalance one another or be additive, emphasizing mutuality and the importance of multiple interfaces in integrin regulation. A double mutant with counterbalancing deactivating ligand-induced metal ion binding site (LIMBS) and activating wedge mutations could still be activated by Mn(2+), confirming the importance of the adjacent to metal ion-dependent adhesion site (ADMIDAS) in integrin activation by Mn(2+). Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of headpiece allostery in the conversion of rolling to firm adhesion.

  6. Estrogen increases smooth muscle expression of alpha2C-adrenoceptors and cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries. (United States)

    Eid, A H; Maiti, K; Mitra, S; Chotani, M A; Flavahan, S; Bailey, S R; Thompson-Torgerson, C S; Flavahan, N A


    Raynaud's phenomenon, which is characterized by intense cold-induced constriction of cutaneous arteries, is more common in women compared with men. Cold-induced constriction is mediated in part by enhanced activity of alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2C)-ARs) located on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMs). Experiments were therefore performed to determine whether 17beta-estradiol regulates alpha(2C)-AR expression and function in cutaneous VSMs. 17beta-Estradiol (0.01-10 nmol/l) increased expression of the alpha(2C)-AR protein and the activity of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter in human cultured dermal VSMs, which was assessed following transient transfection of the cells with a promoter-reporter construct. The effect of 17beta-estradiol was associated with increased accumulation of cAMP and activation of the cAMP-responsive Rap2 GTP-binding protein. Transient transfection of VSMs with a dominant-negative mutant of Rap2 inhibited the 17beta-estradiol-induced activation of the alpha(2C)-AR gene promoter, whereas a constitutively active mutant of Rap2 increased alpha(2C)-AR promoter activity. The effects of 17beta-estradiol were inhibited by the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI-182780 (1 micromol/l), and were mimicked by a cell-impermeable form of the hormone (estrogen:BSA) or by the selective ER-alpha receptor agonist 4,4',4'''-(4-propyl-[(1)H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT; 10 nmol/l) or the selective ER-beta receptor agonist 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN; 10 nmol/l). Therefore, 17beta-estradiol increased expression of alpha(2C)-ARs by interacting with cell surface receptors to cause a cAMP/Rap2-dependent increase in alpha(2C)-AR transcription. In mouse tail arteries, 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/l) increased alpha(2C)-AR expression and selectively increased the cold-induced amplification of alpha(2)-AR constriction, which is mediated by alpha(2C)-ARs. An estrogen-dependent increase in expression of cold-sensitive alpha(2C)-ARs may contribute

  7. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera (United States)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  8. Liver-targeting of interferon-alpha with tissue-specific domain antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Coulstock

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFNα is used for the treatment of hepatitis C infection and whilst efficacious it is associated with multiple adverse events including reduced leukocyte, erythrocyte, and platelet counts, fatigue, and depression. These events are most likely caused by systemic exposure to interferon. We therefore hypothesise that targeting the therapeutic directly to the intended site of action in the liver would reduce exposure in blood and peripheral tissue and hence improve the safety and tolerability of IFNα therapy. We genetically fused IFN to a domain antibody (dAb specific to a hepatocyte restricted antigen, asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR. Our results show that the murine IFNα2 homolog (mIFNα2 fused to an ASGPR specific dAb, termed DOM26h-196-61, could be expressed in mammalian tissue culture systems and retains the desirable biophysical properties and activity of both fusion partners when measured in vitro. Furthermore a clear increase in in vivo targeting of the liver by mIFNα2-ASGPR dAb fusion protein, compared to that observed with either unfused mIFNα2 or mIFNα2 fused to an isotype control dAb VHD2 (which does not bind ASGPR was demonstrated using microSPECT imaging. We suggest that these findings may be applicable in the development of a liver-targeted human IFN molecule with improved safety and patient compliance in comparison to the current standard of care, which could ultimately be used as a treatment for human hepatitis virus infections.

  9. Increased Expression of the Na,K-ATPase alpha4 Isoform Enhances Sperm Motility in Transgenic Mice1 (United States)

    Jimenez, Tamara; Sanchez, Gladis; McDermott, Jeffrey P.; Nguyen, Anh-Nguyet; Kumar, T. Rajendra; Blanco, Gustavo


    The Na,K-ATPase alpha4 (ATP1A4) isoform is specifically expressed in male germ cells and is highly prevalent in spermatozoa. Although selective inhibition of alpha4 activity with ouabain has been shown to affect sperm motility, a more direct analysis of the role of this isoform in sperm movement has not yet been demonstrated. To establish this, we engineered transgenic mice that express the rat alpha4 isoform fused to green fluorescent protein in male germ cells, under the control of the mouse protamine 1 promoter. We showed that the rat Atp1a4 transgene is expressed in mouse spermatozoa and that it is localized to the sperm flagellum. In agreement with increased expression of the alpha4 isoform, sperm from transgenic mice displayed higher alpha4-specific Na,K-ATPase activity and binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain than wild-type mice. In contrast, expression and activity of ATP1A1 (alpha1), the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, remained unchanged. Similar to wild-type mice, mice expressing the alpha4 transgene exhibited normal testis and sperm morphology and no differences in fertility. However, compared to wild-type mice, sperm from transgenic mice displayed plasma membrane hyperpolarization and higher total and progressive motility. Other parameters of motility also increased, including straight-line, curvilinear, and average path velocities and amplitude of lateral head displacement. In addition, sperm from the transgenic mice showed enhanced sperm hyperactive motility, but no changes in progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for the role of the ATP1A4 isoform in sperm motility, under both noncapacitating and capacitating conditions. PMID:20826726

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie


    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)-induced changes in synaptic transmission are one of the effects of their neurotoxicity but the mechanism remains unknown. We assessed the in vivo effects of the PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 on the expression of neuronal proteins that are involved in the synaptic...... function and/or are associated with neurodegeneration. Wistar rats were treated orally with repeated doses of Aroclor 1254 and the levels of soluble alpha-synuclein, parkin, synaptophysin and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Aroclor...... did not cause changes in the expression and processing of APP but at a dose 100 microg/g/day repeated for 6 days caused a decrease in the expression of alpha-synuclein in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the animals sacrificed 2 days after treatment. The decrease in alpha...

  11. Identification of distal regulatory regions in the human alpha IIb gene locus necessary for consistent, high-level megakaryocyte expression. (United States)

    Thornton, Michael A; Zhang, Chunyan; Kowalska, Maria A; Poncz, Mortimer


    The alphaIIb/beta3-integrin receptor is present at high levels only in megakaryocytes and platelets. Its presence on platelets is critical for hemostasis. The tissue-specific nature of this receptor's expression is secondary to the restricted expression of alphaIIb, and studies of the alphaIIb proximal promoter have served as a model of a megakaryocyte-specific promoter. We have examined the alphaIIb gene locus for distal regulatory elements. Sequence comparison between the human (h) and murine (m) alphaIIb loci revealed high levels of conservation at intergenic regions both 5' and 3' to the alphaIIb gene. Additionally, deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I sensitivity mapping defined tissue-specific hypersensitive (HS) sites that coincide, in part, with these conserved regions. Transgenic mice containing various lengths of the h(alpha)IIb gene locus, which included or excluded the various conserved/HS regions, demonstrated that the proximal promoter was sufficient for tissue specificity, but that a region 2.5 to 7.1 kb upstream of the h(alpha)IIb gene was necessary for consistent expression. Another region 2.2 to 7.4 kb downstream of the gene enhanced expression 1000-fold and led to levels of h(alpha)IIb mRNA that were about 30% of the native m(alpha)IIb mRNA level. These constructs also resulted in detectable h(alpha)IIb/m(beta)3 on the platelet surface. This work not only confirms the importance of the proximal promoter of the alphaIIb gene for tissue specificity, but also characterizes the distal organization of the alphaIIb gene locus and provides an initial localization of 2 important regulatory regions needed for the expression of the alphaIIb gene at high levels during megakaryopoiesis.

  12. SU-C-303-02: Correlating Metabolic Response to Radiation Therapy with HIF-1alpha Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, D; Peeters, W; Nickel, K; Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R; Van Der Kogel, A; Kissick, M


    Purpose: To understand radiation induced alterations in cellular metabolism which could be used to assess treatment or normal tissue response to aid in patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. This work aims to compare the metabolic response of two head and neck cell lines, one malignant (UM-SCC-22B) and one benign (Normal Oral Keratinocyte), to ionizing radiation. Responses are compared to alterations in HIF-1alpha expression. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Measurements of metabolism and HIF-1alpha expression were taken before and X minutes after a 10 Gy dose of radiation delivered via an orthovoltage x-ray source. In vitro changes in metabolic activity were measured via fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to assess the mean lifetime of NADH autofluorescence following a dose of 10 Gy. HIF-1alpha expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining of in vitro treated cells and expression was quantified using the FIJI software package. Results: FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways for malignant cells; whereas this benign cell line showed little change in metabolic signature. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant changes in HIF-1alpha expression in response to 10 Gy of radiation that correlate to metabolic profiles. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in metabolic activity and HIF-1alpha expression. These alterations occur on time scales approximating the duration of common radiation treatments (approximately tens of minutes). Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response

  13. SU-C-303-02: Correlating Metabolic Response to Radiation Therapy with HIF-1alpha Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, D [University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Peeters, W [Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, GA (United States); Nickel, K [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Eliceiri, K; Kimple, R; Van Der Kogel, A; Kissick, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)


    Purpose: To understand radiation induced alterations in cellular metabolism which could be used to assess treatment or normal tissue response to aid in patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. This work aims to compare the metabolic response of two head and neck cell lines, one malignant (UM-SCC-22B) and one benign (Normal Oral Keratinocyte), to ionizing radiation. Responses are compared to alterations in HIF-1alpha expression. These dynamics can potentially serve as biomarkers in assessing treatment response allowing for patient-specific adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Measurements of metabolism and HIF-1alpha expression were taken before and X minutes after a 10 Gy dose of radiation delivered via an orthovoltage x-ray source. In vitro changes in metabolic activity were measured via fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) to assess the mean lifetime of NADH autofluorescence following a dose of 10 Gy. HIF-1alpha expression was measured via immunohistochemical staining of in vitro treated cells and expression was quantified using the FIJI software package. Results: FLIM demonstrated a decrease in the mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH by 100 ps following 10 Gy indicating a shift towards glycolytic pathways for malignant cells; whereas this benign cell line showed little change in metabolic signature. Immunohistochemical analysis showed significant changes in HIF-1alpha expression in response to 10 Gy of radiation that correlate to metabolic profiles. Conclusion: Radiation induces significant changes in metabolic activity and HIF-1alpha expression. These alterations occur on time scales approximating the duration of common radiation treatments (approximately tens of minutes). Further understanding these dynamics has important implications with regard to improvement of therapy and biomarkers of treatment response.

  14. Fluorescent fusion proteins of soluble guanylyl cyclase indicate proximity of the heme nitric oxide domain and catalytic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Haase

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine the structural organisation of heterodimeric soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET was measured between fluorescent proteins fused to the amino- and carboxy-terminal ends of the sGC beta1 and alpha subunits. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as FRET donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP as FRET acceptor. After generation of recombinant baculovirus, fluorescent-tagged sGC subunits were co-expressed in Sf9 cells. Fluorescent variants of sGC were analyzed in vitro in cytosolic fractions by sensitized emission FRET. Co-expression of the amino-terminally tagged alpha subunits with the carboxy-terminally tagged beta1 subunit resulted in an enzyme complex that showed a FRET efficiency of 10% similar to fluorescent proteins separated by a helix of only 48 amino acids. Because these findings indicated that the amino-terminus of the alpha subunits is close to the carboxy-terminus of the beta1 subunit we constructed fusion proteins where both subunits are connected by a fluorescent protein. The resulting constructs were not only fluorescent, they also showed preserved enzyme activity and regulation by NO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on the ability of an amino-terminal fragment of the beta1 subunit to inhibit activity of an heterodimer consisting only of the catalytic domains (alphacatbetacat, Winger and Marletta (Biochemistry 2005, 44:4083-90 have proposed a direct interaction of the amino-terminal region of beta1 with the catalytic domains. In support of such a concept of "trans" regulation of sGC activity by the H-NOX domains our results indicate that the domains within sGC are organized in a way that allows for direct interaction of the amino-terminal regulatory domains with the carboxy-terminal catalytic region. In addition, we constructed "fluorescent-conjoined" sGC's by fusion of the alpha amino-terminus to the beta1 carboxy-terminus leading to a

  15. The activity of barley alpha-amylase on starch granules is enhanced by fusion of a starch binding domain from Aspergillus niger glucoamylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Nøhr, J.; Le Gal-Coëffet, M.-F.


    High affinity for starch granules of certain amylolytic enzymes is mediated by a separate starch binding domain (SBD). In Aspergillus niger glucoamylase (GA-I), a 70 amino acid O-glycosylated peptide linker connects SBD with the catalytic domain. A gene was constructed to encode barley alpha......-amylase 1 (AMY1) fused C-terminally to this SBD via a 37 residue GA-I linker segment. AMY1-SBD was expressed in A. niger, secreted using the AMY1 signal sequence at 25 mg x L(-1) and purified in 50% yield. AMY1-SBD contained 23% carbohydrate and consisted of correctly N-terminally processed multiple forms...... in A. niger). AMY1-SBD showed a 2-fold increased activity for soluble starch at low (0.5%) but not at high (1%) concentration. AMY1-SBD hydrolysed amylose DP440 with an increased degree of multiple attack of 3 compared to 1.9 for rAMY1. Remarkably, at low concentration (2 nM), AMY1-SBD hydrolysed...

  16. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha in early-stage and in metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maisa; Teixeira, Sarah R; Azevedo, Monarko N; Fraga, Ailton C; Gontijo, Antônio Pm; Vêncio, Eneida F


    To investigate hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression in distinct oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies and correlate with clinicopathological data. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 93 cases of OSCC. Clinical and histopathological data were reviewed from medical records. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha status was distinct according to tumor location, subtype and topography affect. In superficial oral squamous cell carcinomas, most tumor cells overexpressed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha, whereas hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha was restricted to the intratumoral region in conventional squamous cell carcinomas. All basaloid squamous cell carcinomas exhibited downregulation of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha. Interestingly, metastatic lymph nodes (91.7%, p = 0.001) and the intratumoral regions of corresponding primary tumors (58.3%, p = 0.142) showed hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha-positive tumor cells. Overall survival was poor in patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha has distinct expression patterns in different oral squamous cell carcinoma subtypes and topographies, suggesting that low oxygen tension promotes the growth pattern of superficial and conventional squamous cell carcinoma, but not basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Indeed, a hypoxic environment may facilitate regional metastasis, making it a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker in primary tumors.

  17. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Rajabi


    Full Text Available Background: Features of malignant melanoma (MM vary in the different geographic regions of the world. This may be attributable to environmental, ethnic, and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α in MM in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was planned as a descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional investigation. During this study, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of patients with a histopathologic diagnosis of MM was studied for ER-α using immunohistochemistry (IHC. Results: In this study, 38 patients (female/male; 20/18 with a definite diagnosis of malignant cutaneous melanoma and mean age of 52.4 ± 11.2 years were investigated. Using envision IHC staining, there were not any cases with ER-α expression. Conclusion: In confirmation to the most previous studies, expression of ER-α was negative in MM. It is recommended to investigate the expression of estrogen receptor beta and other markers in MM.

  18. Exercise preconditioning reduces brain damage and inhibits TNF-alpha receptor expression after hypoxia/reoxygenation: an in vivo and in vitro study. (United States)

    Ding, Yun-Hong; Mrizek, Michael; Lai, Qin; Wu, Yimin; Reyes, Raul; Li, Jie; Davis, William W; Ding, Yuchuan


    Exercise reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat stroke models. We investigated whether gradual increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) reported during exercise down-regulates expression of TNF-alpha receptors I and II (TNFRI and II) in stroke, leading to reduced brain damage. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 30 minutes of exercise on a treadmill each day for 3 weeks. Then, stroke was induced by a 2-hour middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion using an intra-luminal filament. Expressions of TNFRI and II mRNA in the brain were detected using a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein expressions of TNFRI and II were determined by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA) in serum and brain homogenates. Spatial distribution of TNF-alpha receptors in brain regions was determined with immunocytochemistry. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), we addressed the causal effect of TNF-alpha pretreatment on TNF I and II expression using ELISA and real-time PCR. In exercised rats after stroke, brain infarct was significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the entire MCA supplied regions, associated with a mild expression of TNFRI and II mRNA and protein. The TNF-alpha receptors were restricted to the ischemic core. In contrast, a robust expression of TNFRI and II molecules was found in non-exercised rats subjected to similar ischemia/reperfusion insults. An in vitro study revealed a causal link between TNF-alpha pretreatment and reduced cellular expression of TNF-alpha receptors under hypoxic/reoxygenated conditions. Our results suggest that reduced-brain damage in ischemic rats after exercise preconditioning may be attributable to the reduced expression of TNF-alpha receptors. Chronically increased TNF-alpha expression was also found to reduce TNFI and II responding to acute ischemia/reperfusion insult.

  19. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H


    Phosphoinositide-3-kinases are important targets for drug development because many proteins in the PI3 kinase signaling pathway are mutated, hyperactivated, or overexpressed in human cancers. Here, the authors coexpressed the human class Ia PI3 kinase p110alpha catalytic domain with an N-terminal....... In parallel, a second assay format using the AlphaScreen technology was optimized to measure PI3 kinase activity. Both assay formats used should be suitable for high-throughput screening for the identification of PI3 kinase inhibitors. (Journal of Biomolecular Screening XXXX:xx-xx)....

  20. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Perrin


    Full Text Available Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1 gene is expressed only during embryogenesis. We thus developed an alternative method to laminin-111 protein repeated administration by inducing expression of the endogenous mouse Lama1 gene. This was done with the CRSPR/Cas9 system, i.e., by targeting the Lama1 promoter with one or several gRNAs and a dCas9 coupled with the VP160 transcription activation domain. Lama1 mRNA (qRT-PCR and proteins (immunohistochemistry and western blot were not detected in the control C2C12 myoblasts and in control muscles. However, significant expression was observed in cells transfected and in mouse muscles electroporated with plasmids coding for dCas9-VP160 and a gRNA. Larger synergic increases were observed by using two or three gRNAs. The increased Lama1 expression did not modify the expression of the α7 and β1 integrins. Increased expression of Lama1 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system will have to be further investigated by systemic delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to verify whether this could be a treatment for several myopathies.

  1. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R


    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  2. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Keisuke, E-mail: [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamasaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ishimoto, Kenji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Laboratory for System Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Doi, Takefumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  3. 17-AAG, a Hsp90 inhibitor, attenuates the hypoxia-induced expression of SDF-1alpha and ILK in mouse RPE cells. (United States)

    Wang, Ye Qing; Zhang, Xiao Mei; Wang, Xiao Dan; Wang, Bin Jie; Wang, Wei


    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in mouse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in response to hypoxia, and the effect of 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor, on the hypoxia-induced expression of SDF-1alpha and ILK. RPE cells were cultured with 200 micromol/L cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) for different times (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 72 h) to imitate chemical hypoxia. Pretreatment of 17-AAG was 1 h prior to hypoxic insult. Cellular viability after 17-AAG treatment was assessed by MTT assay, and the changes of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Up-regulation of SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in response to hypoxia was observed. One hour pretreatment of 17-AAG could remarkably decreased the hypoxia-induced SDF-1alpha and ILK expression in vitro. Our results indicated that SDF-1alpha and ILK involved in the hypoxic response of RPE cells, and 1 h pretreatment of 17-AAG had an inhibitive effect on the hypoxia-induced SDF-1alpha and ILK expression.

  4. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.


    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the biom......The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations...... and the biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. Overexpression of the creA gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase production during conditions with high glucose concentration. No expression of creA also resulted...... in a decreased maximum specific growth rate, but also in drastic changes in morphology. Furthermore, the expression of alpha-amylase was completely derepressed and creA thus seems to be the only regulatory protein responsible for glucose repression of alpha-amylase expression. The effect of different carbon...

  5. The group B streptococcal alpha C protein binds alpha1beta1-integrin through a novel KTD motif that promotes internalization of GBS within human epithelial cells. (United States)

    Bolduc, Gilles R; Madoff, Lawrence C


    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis among neonates and a cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. GBS epithelial cell invasion is associated with expression of alpha C protein (ACP). Loss of ACP expression results in a decrease in GBS internalization and translocation across human cervical epithelial cells (ME180). Soluble ACP and its 170 amino acid N-terminal region (NtACP), but not the repeat protein RR', bind to ME180 cells and reduce internalization of wild-type GBS to levels obtained with an ACP-deficient isogenic mutant. In the current study, ACP colocalized with alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin, resulting in integrin clustering as determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. NtACP contains two structural domains, D1 and D2. D1 is structurally similar to fibronectin's integrin-binding region (FnIII10). D1's (KT)D146 motif is structurally similar to the FnIII10 (RG)D1495 integrin-binding motif, suggesting that ACP binds alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin via the D1 domain. The (KT)D146A mutation within soluble NtACP reduced its ability to bind alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin and inhibit GBS internalization within ME180 cells. Thus ACP binding to human epithelial cell integrins appears to contribute to GBS internalization within epithelial cells.

  6. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S


    Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gamma......, as opposed to the staining of the (gamma2/alpha1)-containing receptors, which was only slightly higher than background. To explain this, the (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeras may act like alpha1 and gamma2 subunits, respectively, indicating that the extracellular N-terminal segment is important...... for assembly. However, the (alpha1/gamma2) chimeric subunit had characteristics different from the alpha1 subunit, since the (alpha1/gamma2) chimera gave rise to no desensitization after GABA stimulation in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, which was independent of whether the chimera was expressed...

  7. In vivo binding properties of SH2 domains from GTPase-activating protein and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. (United States)

    Cooper, J A; Kashishian, A


    We have used a transient expression system and mutant platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors to study the binding specificities of the Src homology 2 (SH2) regions of the Ras GTPase-activator protein (GAP) and the p85 alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 kinase). A number of fusion proteins, each tagged with an epitope allowing recognition by a monoclonal antibody, were expressed at levels comparable to those of endogenous GAP. Fusion proteins containing the central SH2-SH3-SH2 region of GAP or the C-terminal region of p85 alpha, which includes two SH2 domains, bound to PDGF receptors in response to PDGF stimulation. Both fusion proteins showed the same requirements for tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the PDGF receptor as the full-length proteins from which they were derived, i.e., binding of the GAP fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-771, and binding of the p85 fusion protein was reduced by mutation of Tyr-740, Tyr-751, or both residues. Fusion proteins containing single SH2 domains from either GAP or p85 alpha did not bind detectably to PDGF receptors in this system, suggesting that two SH2 domains in a single polypeptide cooperate to raise the affinity of binding. The sequence specificities of individual SH2 domains were deduced from the binding properties of fusion proteins containing one SH2 domain from GAP and another from p85. The results suggest that the C-terminal GAP SH2 domain specifies binding to Tyr-771, the C-terminal p85 alpha SH2 domain binds to either Tyr-740 or Tyr-751, and each protein's N-terminal SH2 domain binds to unidentified phosphorylation sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8382774

  8. Comparative study of TGF-alpha and P53 markers′ expression in odontogenic keratocyst and orthokeratinaized odontogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Deyhimi


    Full Text Available Background: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC is an aggressive cyst and its recurrence is higher than other odontogenic cysts, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst (OOC is a cyst with moderate biological behavior in comparison with OKC, but with the probability of carcinomatous changes. The present study aims to evaluate the quantity and intensity of the expression of P53 protein and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha in OKC and OOC in order to compare the biologic behavior of these two cysts. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The samples include 30 cysts (15 OKC and 15 OOC, all stained immunohistochemically for P53 protein and TGF-alpha by the Novolinke polymer method. Then, all the cases were examined with an optical microscope with Χ400 magnification and the stained cells were counted in the basal and parabasal layers. Finally the results were analyzed by the Mann–and Wilcoxon tests (P value < 0.05. Results: The difference between the expression of P53 protein in the basal layer in OKC and OOC was not statistically significant (P value = 0.076. The difference between the expression of P53 protein in the parabasal layer in OKC and OOC was statistically significant (P value = 0.003; moreover, the difference between the expression of TGF-alpha in the basal layer in OKC and OOC was not statistically significant (P value = 0.284. The difference between the expression of TGF-alpha in the parabasal layer in OKC and OOC was statistically significant (P value = 0.015. Conclusion: Since there was a higher expression of P53 protein and TGF-alpha in OKC compared to those in OOC, the probability of carcinomatous changes was at least theoretically higher in OKC than in OOC.

  9. [Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Micrococcus luteus Rpf domain]. (United States)

    Fan, Ai-lin; Shi, Chang-hong; Su, Ming-quan; Ma, Jing; Bai, Yin-lan; Cheng, Xiao-dong; Xu, Zhi-kai; Hao, Xiao-ke


    To express Micrococcus luteus Rpf domain in prokaryotic cells and prepare monoclonal antibodies against Rpf domain. The gene encoding Micrococcus luteus Rpf domain was amplified from genome of Micrococcus luteus by polymerase chain reaction(PCR), and inserted into cloning vector pUC-19. After sequenced, Micrococcus luteus Rpf domain gene was subcloned into the expression vector pPro-EXHT and transfected into E.coli DH5alpha. After induced by IPTG, the bacteria controlled by T7 promoter expressed the fused Micrococcus luteus Rpf domain protein with a hexahistidine tail at its N-terminal and the target protein was purified under denaturing conditions. Using this protein as antigen to immunize the BALB/c mice and prepare monoclonal antibodies against Micrococcus luteus Rpf domain. Then specifities and relative affinities of mAbs were identified by ELISA. The fusion protein was purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography under denaturing condition. Three cloned mAbs were prepared from the mice immunized by Rpf domain. All of them could recognize Rpf domain. specifically. The prepared mAbs against Rpf domain have strong specificity with high titers, which provides useful tools for further study of the function of Rpf domain in TB prevention.

  10. Laminin alpha2 deficiency and muscular dystrophy; genotype-phenotype correlation in mutant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, L T; Zhang, X U; Kuang, W


    2, lacking domain VI. Interestingly, all mutants lack laminin alpha2 in peripheral nerve. We have demonstrated previously, that overexpression of the human laminin alpha2 in skeletal muscle in dy(2J)/dy(2J) and dy(W)/dy(W) mice under the control of a striated muscle-specific creatine kinase promoter......Deficiency of laminin alpha2 is the cause of one of the most severe muscular dystrophies in humans and other species. It is not yet clear how particular mutations in the laminin alpha2 chain gene affect protein expression, and how abnormal levels or structure of the protein affect disease. Animal...

  11. Expression and Production of SH2 Domain Proteins. (United States)

    Liu, Bernard A; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Machida, Kazuya


    The Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain lies at the heart of phosphotyrosine signaling, coordinating signaling events downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), adaptors, and scaffolds. Over a hundred SH2 domains are present in mammals, each having a unique specificity which determines its interactions with multiple binding partners. One of the essential tools necessary for studying and determining the role of SH2 domains in phosphotyrosine signaling is a set of soluble recombinant SH2 proteins. Here we describe methods, based on a broad experience with purification of all SH2 domains, for the production of SH2 domain proteins needed for proteomic and biochemical-based studies such as peptide arrays, mass-spectrometry, protein microarrays, reverse-phase microarrays, and high-throughput fluorescence polarization (HTP-FP). We describe stepwise protocols for expression and purification of SH2 domains using GST or poly His-tags, two widely adopted affinity tags. In addition, we address alternative approaches, challenges, and validation studies for assessing protein quality and provide general characteristics of purified human SH2 domains.

  12. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata (United States)


    Background The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Expression patterns of cnc from two non-holometabolous insects and a millipede have suggested conservation of the labral and mandibular domains within Mandibulata. However, the activity of cnc is unknown in crustaceans and chelicerates, precluding understanding of a complete scenario for the evolution of patterning of this appendage within arthropods. To redress these lacunae, here we investigate the gene expression of the ortholog of cnc in Parhyale hawaiensis, a malacostracan crustacean, and two chelicerates: the harvestman Phalangium opilio, and the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. Results In the crustacean P. hawaiensis, the segmental expression of Ph-cnc is the same as that reported previously in hexapods and myriapods, with two distinct head domains in the labrum and the mandibular segment. In contrast, Po-cnc and Cs-cnc expression is not enriched in the labrum of either chelicerate, but instead is expressed at comparable levels in all appendages. In further contrast to mandibulate orthologs, the expression domain of Po-cnc posterior to the labrum is not confined within the expression domain of Po-Dfd. Conclusions Expression data from two chelicerate outgroup taxa suggest that the signature two-domain head expression pattern of cnc evolved at the base of Mandibulata. The observation of the archetypal labral and mandibular segment domains in a crustacean exemplar supports the synapomorphic nature of mandibulate cnc

  13. Increased Expression of Laminin Subunit Alpha 1 Chain by dCas9-VP160. (United States)

    Perrin, Arnaud; Rousseau, Joël; Tremblay, Jacques P


    Laminin-111 protein complex links the extracellular matrix to integrin α7β1 in sarcolemma, thus replacing in dystrophic muscles links normally insured by the dystrophin complex. Laminin-111 injection in mdx mouse stabilized sarcolemma, restored serum creatine kinase to wild-type levels, and protected muscles from exercised-induced damages. These results suggested that increased laminin-111 is a potential therapy for DMD. Laminin subunit beta 1 and laminin subunit gamma 1 are expressed in adult human muscle, but laminin subunit alpha 1 (LAMA1) gene is expressed only during embryogenesis. We thus developed an alternative method to laminin-111 protein repeated administration by inducing expression of the endogenous mouse Lama1 gene. This was done with the CRSPR/Cas9 system, i.e., by targeting the Lama1 promoter with one or several gRNAs and a dCas9 coupled with the VP160 transcription activation domain. Lama1 mRNA (qRT-PCR) and proteins (immunohistochemistry and western blot) were not detected in the control C2C12 myoblasts and in control muscles. However, significant expression was observed in cells transfected and in mouse muscles electroporated with plasmids coding for dCas9-VP160 and a gRNA. Larger synergic increases were observed by using two or three gRNAs. The increased Lama1 expression did not modify the expression of the α7 and β1 integrins. Increased expression of Lama1 by the CRISPR/Cas9 system will have to be further investigated by systemic delivery of the CRISPR/Cas9 components to verify whether this could be a treatment for several myopathies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estrogen receptor alpha regulates expression of the breast cancer 1 associated ring domain 1 (BARD1) gene through intronic DNA sequence. (United States)

    Creekmore, Amy L; Ziegler, Yvonne S; Bonéy, Jamie L; Nardulli, Ann M


    We have used a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-based cloning strategy to isolate and identify genes associated with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. One of the gene regions isolated was a 288bp fragment from the ninth intron of the breast cancer 1 associated ring domain (BARD1) gene. We demonstrated that ERalpha associated with this region of the endogenous BARD 1 gene in MCF-7 cells, that ERalpha bound to three of five ERE half sites located in the 288bp BARD1 region, and that this 288bp BARD1 region conferred estrogen responsiveness to a heterologous promoter. Importantly, treatment of MCF-7 cells with estrogen increased BARD1 mRNA and protein levels. These findings demonstrate that ChIP cloning strategies can be utilized to successfully isolate regulatory regions that are far removed from the transcription start site and assist in identifying cis elements involved in conferring estrogen responsiveness.

  15. PGC-1{alpha} is required for AICAR induced expression of GLUT4 and mitochondrial proteins in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Biensø, Rasmus S


    We tested the hypothesis that repeated activation of AMPK induces mitochondrial and glucose membrane transporter gene/protein expression via a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor Upsilon co-activator (PGC)-1alpha dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and littermate wild...... GLUT4, cytochrome c oxidase (COX)I and cytochrome (cyt) c protein expression ~10-40% relative to saline in white muscles of the WT mice, but not of the PGC-1alpha KO mice. In line, GLUT4 and cyt c mRNA content increased 30-60% 4h after a single AICAR injection relative to saline only in WT mice. One...... and PGC-1alpha KO mice. In conclusion, we here provide genetic evidence for a major role of PGC-1alpha in AMPK mediated regulation of mitochondrial and glucose membrane transport protein expression in skeletal muscle....

  16. Type-I interferon receptor expression: its circadian rhythm and downregulation after interferon-alpha administration in peripheral blood cells from renal cancer patients. (United States)

    Shiba, Masahiro; Nonomura, Norio; Nakai, Yasutomo; Nakayama, Masashi; Takayama, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nishimura, Kazuo; Okuyama, Akihiko


    To investigate the regulation of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) receptor expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after IFN-alpha administration. Blood sampling was carried out in eight patients with metastatic RCC and six healthy volunteers. Flow-cytometric analysis using a monoclonal antibody against the active subunit of the type-I IFN-alpha receptor (IFNAR2) was carried out to examine the circadian rhythm of IFNAR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as its downregulation after IFN-alpha administration. According to its circadian rhythm IFNAR2 in PBMC had a peak expression at night. Once IFN-alpha is administered, IFNAR2 levels in PBMC showed downregulation within 48 h and recovered within another 48 h. Our findings might support the establishment of an optimal schedule for IFN-alpha administration.

  17. [Expression and distribution of xenoantigen alpha-Gal in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line]. (United States)

    Shou, Jian-guo; Mi, Jian-hong; Ying, Da-jun


    To investigate the expression and distribution of xenoantigen in intervertebral disk of Chinese banna minipig inbred line, and to study the availability of xenograft transplantation of intervertebral disk. Samples of intervertebral disk were collected from six Banna pigs of 8 to 11-month-old. The fixation, embedment and slice were performed. alpha-Gal specific binding lection (BSI-B4) were used as affinity reagents and affinity-immunohistochemistry assays (SABC methods and DAB stain) were conducted to detect the expression and distribution of xenoantigen (alpha-Gal). alpha-Gal was found in chondrocyte cell and chondrocyte-like cell in intervertebral disk which have the positive yellow-stained particulate aggradation. There was no stain in the matrix, elastic fiber and collagen fiber. The distribution of xenoantigen is locally in the tissue of intervertebral disk and its expression is weak. This suggests that the intervertebral disk of Banna pig may be alternative donor for xenotransplantation.

  18. Differential expression of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) estrogen receptor isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma by estradiol. (United States)

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D


    The expression levels of three estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes alpha, beta, and gamma were quantified in female largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (LMB) liver, ovary, brain, and pituitary tissues. ER alpha and beta expression predominated in the liver, while ERs beta and gamma predominated in the other tissues. Temporally in females, ER alpha was highly up-regulated, ER gamma was slightly up-regulated, and ER beta levels remained unchanged in the liver when plasma 17-beta estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) levels were elevated in the spring. In ovarian tissue from these same fish, all three ERs were maximally expressed in the fall, during early oocyte development and prior to peak plasma E2 levels. When males were injected with E2, ER alpha was highly inducible, ER gamma was moderately up-regulated, and ER beta levels were not affected. None of the ER isotypes were induced by E2 in gonadal tissues. These results combined suggest that the ERs themselves are not regulated in the same manner by E2, and furthermore, do not contribute equally to the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in fish reproduction such as Vtg.

  19. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin by squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas: possible relation to invasive potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, K; Dahlstrøm, K K; Mercurio, A M


    We have studied the expression of alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, a carcinoma laminin receptor in ten squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and ten basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the skin in order to examine whether changes in alpha 6 beta 4 integrin expression may be related to invasive and metastatic...... potential. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each subunit were applied on cryosections, using a three step indirect peroxidase technique. In normal epidermis the basal cells expressed both the alpha 6 and the beta 4 subunits, and the expression was polarized against the basement membrane. In SCCs...

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activates signal transduction in hypothalamus and modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and orexigenic/anorexigenic neurotransmitters. (United States)

    Amaral, Maria E; Barbuio, Raquel; Milanski, Marciane; Romanatto, Talita; Barbosa, Helena C; Nadruz, Wilson; Bertolo, Manoel B; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mario J A; Franchini, Kleber G; Velloso, Licio A


    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to participate in the wastage syndrome that accompanies cancer and severe infectious diseases. More recently, a role for TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has been shown. Much of the regulatory action exerted by TNF-alpha upon the control of energy stores depends on its action on the hypothalamus. In this study, we show that TNF-alpha activates canonical pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways in the hypothalamus of rats. These signaling events lead to the transcriptional activation of an early responsive gene and to the induction of expression of cytokines and a cytokine responsive protein such as interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-3, respectively. In addition, TNF-alpha induces the expression of neurotransmitters involved in the control of feeding and thermogenesis. Thus, TNF-alpha may act directly in the hypothalamus inducing a pro-inflammatory response and the modulation of expression of neurotransmitters involved in energy homeostasis.

  1. Canine placental prostaglandin E2 synthase: expression, localization, and biological functions in providing substrates for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis. (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Fox, Barbara; Büchler, Urs; Boos, Alois; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kowalewski, Mariusz P


    The prepartum output of PGF2alpha in the bitch is associated with increased placental PGE2-synthase (PTGES) mRNA levels. Contrasting with this is a decreased expression of PGF2alpha-synthase (PGFS/AKR1C3) in uteroplacental compartments during prepartum luteolysis, suggesting an involvement of alternative synthetic pathways in PGF2alpha synthesis, for example, conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha. However, because the expression and possible functions of the respective PTGES proteins remained unknown, no further conclusion could be drawn. Therefore, a canine-specific PTGES antibody was generated and used to investigate the expression, cellular localization, and biochemical activities of canine uteroplacental PTGES throughout pregnancy and at prepartum luteolysis. Additionally, the biochemical activities of these tissues involved in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha were investigated. The endometrial PTGES was localized in the uterine surface epithelium at preimplantation and in superficial and deep uterine glands, endothelial cells, and myometrium throughout pregnancy and at parturition. Placental signals were mostly in the trophoblast. The biochemical properties of recombinant PTGES protein were confirmed. Additionally, expression of two PGE2-receptors, PTGER2/EP2 and PTGER4/EP4, revealed their decreasing expression during luteolysis. In contrast, the uteroplacental expression of prostaglandin transporter (PGT) was strongly elevated prior to parturition. These localization patterns resembled that of PTGES. The increased expression of PTGES and PGT at parturition, together with the accompanying decreased levels of PGE2-receptors and the capability of canine uterine and placental homogenates to take part in the conversion of PGE2 to PGF2alpha, as found in this study, suggest that PGE2 could be used locally as a substrate for prepartum PGF2alpha synthesis in the dog. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Oracle, a novel PDZ-LIM domain protein expressed in heart and skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Passier, R; Richardson, J A; Olson, E N


    In order to identify novel genes enriched in adult heart, we performed a subtractive hybridization for genes expressed in mouse heart but not in skeletal muscle. We identified two alternative splicing variants of a novel PDZ-LIM domain protein, which we named Oracle. Both variants contain a PDZ domain at the amino-terminus and three LIM domains at the carboxy-terminus. Highest homology of Oracle was found with the human and rat enigma proteins in the PDZ domain (62 and 61%, respectively) and in the LIM domains (60 and 69%, respectively). By Northern hybridization analysis, we showed that expression is highest in adult mouse heart, low in skeletal muscle and undetectable in other adult mouse tissues. In situ hybridization in mouse embryos confirmed and extended these data by showing high expression of Oracle mRNA in atrial and ventricular myocardial cells from E8.5. From E9.5 low expression of Oracle mRNA was detectable in myotomes. These data suggest a role for Oracle in the early development and function of heart and skeletal muscle.

  3. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine


    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  4. Biased mutagenesis in the N-terminal region by degenerate oligonucleotide gene shuffling enhances secretory expression of barley alpha-amylase 2 in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Kenji; Jensen, Malene Hillerup; Aghajari, Nushin


    Recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 (rAMY1) and 2 (rAMY2), despite 80% sequence identity, are produced in very different amounts of 1.1 and alpha loop 2 that interacts with domain B (beta-->alpha loop 3) protruding from the catalytic (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. Most remarkably Pichia pastoris strain G...... residue. Moreover, the G to C substitution for the A42P mutation might have a positive impact on protein translation....

  5. Expression of active recombinant human alpha 1-antitrypsin in transgenic rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massoud, M.; Bischoff, Rainer; Dalemans, W.; Pointu, H.; Attal, J.; Schultz, H.; Clesse, D.; Stinnakre, M.G.; Pavirani, A.; Houdebine, L.M.


    A DNA construct containing the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene including 1.5 and 4 kb of 5' and 3' flanking sequences, was microinjected into the pronucleus of rabbit embryos. The recombinant human protein was (a) expressed in the blood circulation of F0 and F1 transgenic rabbits at an average

  6. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.


    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L


    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  7. Efficient expression of SRK intracellular domain by a modeling-based protein engineering. (United States)

    Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Takayama, Seiji; Hakoshima, Toshio


    S-locus protein kinase (SRK) is a receptor kinase that plays a critical role in self-recognition in the Brassicaceae self-incompatibility (SI) response. SRK is activated by binding of its ligand S-locus protein 11 (SP11) and subsequently induced phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain. However, a detailed activation mechanism of SRK is still largely unknown because of the difficulty in stably expressing SRK recombinant proteins. Here, we performed modeling-based protein engineering of the SRK kinase domain for stable expression in Escherichia coli. The engineered SRK intracellular domain was expressed about 54-fold higher production than wild type SRK, without loss of the kinase activity, suggesting it could be useful for further biochemical and structural studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystal Structure of the N-terminal Domain of the Group B Streptococcus Alpha C Protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auperin,T.; Bolduc, G.; Baron, M.; Heroux, A.; Filman, D.; Madoff, L.; Hogle, J.


    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis among neonates and an important cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. Invasive diseases due to GBS are attributed to the ability of the pathogen to translocate across human epithelial surfaces. The alpha C protein (ACP) has been identified as an invasin that plays a role in internalization and translocation of GBS across epithelial cells. The soluble N-terminal domain of ACP (NtACP) blocks the internalization of GBS. We determined the 1.86-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of NtACP comprising residues Ser{sup 52} through Leu{sup 225} of the full-length ACP. NtACP has two domains, an N-terminal {beta}-sandwich and a C-terminal three-helix bundle. Structural and topological alignments reveal that the {beta}-sandwich shares structural elements with the type III fibronectin fold (FnIII), but includes structural elaborations that make it unique. We have identified a potential integrin-binding motif consisting of Lys-Thr-Asp{sup 146}, Arg{sup 110}, and Asp{sup 118}. A similar arrangement of charged residues has been described in other invasins. ACP shows a heparin binding activity that requires NtACP. We propose a possible heparin-binding site, including one surface of the three-helix bundle, and nearby portions of the sandwich and repeat domains. We have validated this prediction using assays of the heparin binding and cell-adhesion properties of engineered fragments of ACP. This is the first crystal structure of a member of the highly conserved Gram-positive surface alpha-like protein family, and it will enable the internalization mechanism of GBS to be dissected at the atomic level.

  9. Engineering of kinase-based protein interacting devices: active expression of tyrosine kinase domains

    KAUST Repository

    Diaz Galicia, Miriam Escarlet


    Protein-protein interactions modulate cellular processes in health and disease. However, tracing weak or rare associations or dissociations of proteins is not a trivial task. Kinases are often regulated through interaction partners and, at the same time, themselves regulate cellular interaction networks. The use of kinase domains for creating a synthetic sensor device that reads low concentration protein-protein interactions and amplifies them to a higher concentration interaction which is then translated into a FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer) signal is here proposed. To this end, DNA constructs for interaction amplification (split kinases), positive controls (intact kinase domains), scaffolding proteins and phosphopeptide - SH2-domain modules for the reading of kinase activity were assembled and expression protocols for fusion proteins containing Lyn, Src, and Fak kinase domains in bacterial and in cell-free systems were optimized. Also, two non-overlapping methods for measuring the kinase activity of these proteins were stablished and, finally, a protein-fragment complementation assay with the split-kinase constructs was tested. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that features such as codon optimization, vector design and expression conditions have an impact on the expression yield and activity of kinase-based proteins. Furthermore, it has been found that the defined PURE cell-free system is insufficient for the active expression of catalytic kinase domains. In contrast, the bacterial co-expression with phosphatases produced active kinase fusion proteins for two out of the three tested Tyrosine kinase domains.

  10. Alterations of type IV collagen alpha chains in patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies: mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary loss. (United States)

    Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Martorana, Davide; Cravedi, Paolo; Maggiore, Umberto; Alinovi, Rossella; Bovino, Achiropita; Mattei, Silvia; Orlandini, Guido; Gatti, Rita; Savi, Mario; Sado, Yoshikazu; Neri, Tauro M; Allegri, Landino


    Type IV collagen is a major structural component of the normal kidney glomerulus. However, its role in chronic acquired glomerulopathies has been only partially elucidated. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3 and col(IV)alpha5 collagen chains were analyzed in 107 patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies. In a subgroup of 33 patients, tissue mRNA levels, protein expression and urinary excretion were evaluated for all col(IV)alpha chains, from col(IV)alpha1 to col(IV)alpha5. The renal specimens were examined to get a semiquantitative score of the acute and chronic activity of the histological lesions. Urines obtained from 13 healthy subjects and 10 normal renal tissue samples were used as controls. Urinary levels of col(IV)alpha1, col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha5 chains were significantly higher in patients than in controls [p < 0.01 for all], while only col(IV)alpha1 and col(IV)alpha3 urinary excretion correlated with the degree of chronic histological damage [col(IV)alpha1 R = 0.44, p < 0.001; col(IV)alpha3: R = 0.47, p < 0.001]. Compared with controls, patients showed a renal expression of mRNA for col(IV)alpha5 chain significantly higher [p = 0.001], while having a significantly lower protein expression of col(IV)alpha3, col(IV)alpha4 and col(IV)alpha5 chains [p < 0.01 for all]. Patients with chronic acquired glomerulopathies show important alterations in the col(IV)alpha chain network mimicking some molecular features of the X-linked Alport's syndrome. Further studies are needed to show whether urinary levels of the col(IV)alpha chains may be used as markers for monitoring renal injury. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))


    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  12. Increased expression of protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha) and decreased PKA-regulated genes in chronic intermittent alcohol exposure. (United States)

    Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Lutjens, Robert; van der Stap, Lena D; Sanna, Pietro Paolo


    Intermittent models of alcohol exposure that mimic human patterns of alcohol consumption produce profound physiological and biochemical changes and induce rapid increases in alcohol self-administration. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate gene expression changes during chronic intermittent alcohol exposure in three brain regions that receive mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic projections and that are believed to be involved in alcohol's reinforcing actions: the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens and the amygdala. An independent replication of the experiment was used for RT-PCR validation of the microarray results. The protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha, Pkia), a member of the endogenous PKI family implicated in reducing nuclear PKA activity, was found to be increased in all three regions tested. Conversely, we observed a downregulation of the expression of several PKA-regulated transcripts in one or more of the brain regions studied, including the activity and neurotransmitter-regulated early gene (Ania) - 1, -3, -7, -8, the transcription factors Egr1 and NGFI-B (Nr4a1) and the neuropeptide NPY. Reduced expression of PKA-regulated genes in mesocorticolimbic projection areas may have motivational significance in the rapid increase in alcohol self-administration induced by intermittent alcohol exposure.

  13. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yao, Jin, E-mail: [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  14. Co-receptor choice by V alpha14i NKT cells is driven by Th-POK expression rather than avoidance of CD8-mediated negative selection. (United States)

    Engel, Isaac; Hammond, Kirsten; Sullivan, Barbara A; He, Xi; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kappes, Dietmar; Kronenberg, Mitchell


    Mouse natural killer T (NKT) cells with an invariant V alpha14-J alpha18 rearrangement (V alpha14 invariant [V alpha14i] NKT cells) are either CD4(+)CD8(-) or CD4(-)CD8(-). Because transgenic mice with forced CD8 expression in all T cells exhibited a profound NKT cell deficit, the absence of CD8 has been attributed to negative selection. We now present evidence that CD8 does not serve as a coreceptor for CD1d recognition and that the defect in development in CD8 transgene homozygous mice is the result of a reduction in secondary T cell receptor alpha rearrangements. Thymocytes from mice hemizygous for the CD8 transgene have a less severe rearrangement defect and have functional CD8(+) V alpha14i NKT cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transcription factor Th, Poxviruses and Zinc finger, and Krüppel family (Th-POK) is expressed by V alpha14i NKT cells throughout their differentiation and is necessary both to silence CD8 expression and for the functional maturity of V alpha14i NKT cells. We therefore suggest that Th-POK expression is required for the normal development of V alpha14i NKT cells and that the absence of CD8 expression by these cells is a by-product of such expression, as opposed to the result of negative selection of CD8-expressing V alpha14i NKT cells.

  15. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS-CoV macro domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, Hélène; Dalle, Karen; Brémond, Nicolas; Tocque, Fabienne; Blangy, Stéphanie; Campanacci, Valérie; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre


    The SARS-CoV macro domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. Selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1′′-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182–355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 Å, β = 91.4°, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 Å

  16. Expression, purification and crystallization of the SARS-CoV macro domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, Hélène; Dalle, Karen; Brémond, Nicolas; Tocque, Fabienne; Blangy, Stéphanie; Campanacci, Valérie; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre, E-mail: [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and Universités d’Aix-Marseille I et II, UMR 6098, Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098-Case 932, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille CEDEX 9 (France)


    The SARS-CoV macro domain was expressed, purified and crystallized. Selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Macro domains or X domains are found as modules of multidomain proteins, but can also constitute a protein on their own. Recently, biochemical and structural studies of cellular macro domains have been performed, showing that they are active as ADP-ribose-1′′-phosphatases. Macro domains are also present in a number of positive-stranded RNA viruses, but their precise function in viral replication is still unknown. The major human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes 16 non-structural proteins (nsps), one of which (nsp3) encompasses a macro domain. The SARS-CoV nsp3 gene region corresponding to amino acids 182–355 has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.5, b = 55.6, c = 108.9 Å, β = 91.4°, and the asymmetric unit contains either two or three molecules. Both native and selenomethionine-labelled crystals diffract to 1.8 Å.

  17. Expression and Hydroxylamine Cleavage of Thymosin Alpha 1 Concatemer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Zhou


    Full Text Available Human thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1 is an important peptide in the development and senescence of immunological competence in human, and many studies have reported the expression of this peptide. In this study, we designed and synthesized the Tα1 gene according to the E. coli codon usage preference and constructed a 6×Tα1 concatemer. The latter was inserted into an E. coli expression vector pET-22b (+, and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3. After induction with IPTG, the concatemer protein was successfully expressed in E. coli then cleaved by hydroxylamine to release the Tα1 monomer. Gly-SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry confirmed that the recombinant protein was cleaved as intended. The bioactivity of the Tα1 monomer was analyzed by lymphocyte proliferation and by mitochondrial activity in two different tumor cell lines. This study provides a description of the preparation of a bioactive Tα1, which may prove useful in future biomedical research.

  18. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Xiang Hua [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Ho [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak-Ju [Division of Green Business Management, Department of Forest Resources Utilization, Korean Forest Research Institute, Seoul 130-712 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Bang Yeon, E-mail: [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Joon, E-mail: [Division of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  19. Characterization, cell-surface expression and ligand-binding properties of different truncated N-terminal extracellular domains of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit GluR1. (United States)

    McIlhinney, R A; Molnár, E


    To identify the location of the first transmembrane segment of the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit artificial stop codons have been introduced into the N-terminal domain at amino acid positions 442, 510, and 563, namely just before and spanning the proposed first two transmembrane regions. The resultant truncated N-terminal fragments of GluR1, termed NT1, NT2, and NT3 respectively were expressed in Cos-7 cells and their cellular distribution and cell-surface expression analysed using an N-terminal antibody to GluR1. All of the fragments were fully glycosylated and were found to be associated with cell membranes but none was secreted. Differential extraction of the cell membranes indicated that both NT1 and NT2 behave as peripheral membrane proteins. In contrast NT3, like the full subunit, has integral membrane protein properties. Furthermore only NT3 is expressed at the cell surface as determined by immunofluorescence and cell-surface biotinylation. Protease protection assays indicated that only NT3 had a cytoplasmic tail. Binding studies using the selective ligand [(3)H]alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate ([(3)H]AMPA) demonstrated that NT3 does not bind ligand. Together these results indicate that the first transmembrane domain of the GluR1 subunit lies between residues 509 and 562, that the N-terminal domain alone cannot form a functional ligand-binding site and that this domain can be targeted to the cell surface provided that it has a transmembrane-spanning region.

  20. Time-Domain Analytical Expression for Near Fields of Arbitrarily Oriented Electric Dipole and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yang


    Full Text Available The near fields of electric dipole are commonly used in wide-band analysis of complex electromagnetic problems. In this paper, we propose new near field time-domain expressions for electric dipole. The analytical expressions for the frequency-domain of arbitrarily oriented electric dipole are given at first; next we give the time-domain expressions by time-frequency transformation. The proposed expressions are used in hybrid TDIE/DGTD method for analysis of circular antenna with radome. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified by numerical examples.

  1. Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} regulates interleukin-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} mRNA expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eric; Jakinovich, Paul; Bae, Aekyung [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Rebecchi, Mario, E-mail: [Department of Anesthesiology, Health Sciences Center L4 Rm 081, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)


    Phospholipase C-{delta}{sub 1} (PLC{delta}{sub 1}) is a widely expressed highly active PLC isoform, modulated by Ca{sup 2+} that appears to operate downstream from receptor signaling and has been linked to regulation of cytokine production. Here we investigated whether PLC{delta}{sub 1} modulated expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rat C6 glioma cells. Expression of PLC{delta}{sub 1} was specifically suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the effects on cytokine mRNA expression, stimulated by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results showed that PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown enhanced expression IL-1{beta} and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) mRNA by at least 100 fold after 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA treatment. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knock down caused persistently high Nf{kappa}b levels at 4 h of LPS stimulation compared to control siRNA-treated cells. PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown was also associated with elevated nuclear levels of c-Jun after 30 min of LPS stimulation, but did not affect LPS-stimulated p38 or p42/44 MAPK phosphorylation, normally associated with TLR activation of cytokine gene expression; rather, enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of cellular proteins was observed in the absence of LPS stimulation. An inhibitor of PKC, bisindolylmaleimide II (BIM), reversed phosphorylation, prevented elevation of nuclear c-Jun levels, and inhibited LPS-induced increases of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} mRNA's induced by PLC{delta}{sub 1} knockdown. Our results show that loss of PLC{delta}{sub 1} enhances PKC/c-Jun signaling and up-modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in concert with the TLR-stimulated p38MAPK/Nf{kappa}b pathway. Our findings are consistent with the idea that PLC{delta}{sub 1} is a

  2. Thermomechanical treatment of {beta}-treated Zircaloy-4 within the upper {alpha}-range; Traitements thermomecaniques dans le haut domaine {alpha} du zircaloy-4 trempe-{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvy, C


    Zircaloy-4 is a Zr base alloy mainly used for nuclear applications. This study deals with its behaviour during forming, with a special interest for physical mechanisms acting in the upper {alpha}-range. The {beta}-treated Zircaloy-4 is first described in terms of microstructure and texture. The {alpha} plates are organised in colonies with alternating crystallographic orientations. The Burgers relationships have also been checked. The mechanical behaviour shows two distinct domains (with or without hardening). This could be linked to interactions between the solutes (Sn, O) and mobile dislocations. The evolution of crystallographic texture is characterised by X-ray diffraction. At 550 C, twinning is shown to be the main deformation mechanism under specific experimental conditions. Globularization of the initial lamellar structure is identified as a continuous dynamic recrystallization process, more efficient at higher temperature. High strains are necessary to achieve this phenomenon but meta-dynamic recrystallization can also be used to obtain an equiaxed microstructure after limited strains. (author)

  3. Deletion of Repeats in the Alpha C Protein Enhances the Pathogenicity of Group B Streptococci in Immune Mice


    Gravekamp, C.; Rosner, Bernard; Madoff, L. C.


    The alpha C protein is a protective surface-associated antigen of group B streptococci (GBS). The prototype alpha C protein of GBS (strain A909) contains nine identical tandem repeats, each comprising 82 amino acids, flanked by N- and C-terminal domains. Clinical isolates of GBS show variable numbers of repeats with a normal distribution and a median of 9 to 10 repeats. Here, we show that escape mutants of GBS expressing one-repeat alpha C protein were 100-fold more pathogenic than GBS expres...

  4. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kudret Sariyer

    Full Text Available PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV, which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs. We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF. SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen.Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins.Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral reactivation leading to

  5. Molecular characterization of the alpha subunit of complement component C8 (GcC8alpha) in the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum). (United States)

    Aybar, Lydia; Shin, Dong-Ho; Smith, Sylvia L


    Target cell lysis by complement is achieved by the assembly and insertion of the membrane attack complex (MAC) composed of glycoproteins C5b through C9. The lytic activity of shark complement involves functional analogues of mammalian C8 and C9. Mammalian C8 is composed of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The subunit structure of shark C8 is not known. This report describes a 2341 nucleotide sequence that translates into a polypeptide of 589 amino acid residues, orthologue to mammalian C8alpha and has the same modular architecture with conserved cysteines forming the peptide bond backbone. The C8gamma-binding cysteine is conserved in the perforin-like domain. Hydrophobicity profile indicates the presence of hydrophobic residues essential for membrane insertion. It shares 41.1% and 47.4% identity with human and Xenopus C8alpha respectively. Southern blot analysis showed GcC8alpha exists as a single copy gene expressed in most tissues except the spleen with the liver being the main site of synthesis. Phylogenetic analysis places it in a clade with C8alpha orthologs and as a sister taxa to the Xenopus. 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Detailed Analysis of the Expression of an Alpha-gliadin Promoter and the Deposition of Alpha-gliadin Protein During Wheat Grain Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van T.W.J.M.; Riley, M.; Sparks, C.; Jones, H.D.; Gritsch, C.; Dekking, E.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Bosch, H.J.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Shewry, P.R.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.


    Background and Aims: Alpha-gliadin proteins are important for the industrial quality of bread wheat flour, but they also contain many epitopes that can trigger celiac (c¿liac) disease (CD). The B-genome-encoded -gliadin genes, however, contain very few epitopes. Controlling -gliadin gene expression

  7. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit


    of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS: The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol...... patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression...

  8. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe


    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell......-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However......, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell...

  9. Insights into Alpha-Hemolysin (Hla) Evolution and Expression among Staphylococcus aureus Clones with Hospital and Community Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Ana; Nielsen, Jesper B; Boye, Kit


    BACKGROUND: Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infection, being active against a wide range of host cells. Although hla is ubiquitous in S. aureus, its genetic diversity and variation in expression in different genetic backgrounds...... and SCCmec typing. The internal regions of hla and the hla promoter were sequenced and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Alpha-hemolysin encoding- and promoter sequences were diverse, with 12 and 23 different alleles, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we suggest that hla may have...... in the RNAIII binding site were not associated to hla expression. Although expression rates of hla were in general strain-specific, we observed CA clones showed significantly higher hla expression (p = 0.003) when compared with HA clones. CONCLUSION: We propose that the hla gene has evolved together...

  10. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells. (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G


    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  11. Expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and accumulation of fibronectin in coronary artery restenotic lesions retrieved by atherectomy. (United States)

    Clausell, N.; de Lima, V. C.; Molossi, S.; Liu, P.; Turley, E.; Gotlieb, A. I.; Adelman, A. G.; Rabinovitch, M.


    BACKGROUND--The formation of coronary artery neointima experimentally induced in piglets after cardiac transplantation is related to an immune-inflammatory reaction associated with increased expression of T cells and inflammatory mediators (tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta) and upregulation of fibronectin. In vivo blockade of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rabbits after cardiac transplantation results in reduced neointimal formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that coronary restenosis after atherectomy or percutaneous balloon angioplasty is associated with a similar inflammatory cascade initiated by mechanical injury. METHODS--Specimens taken at coronary atherectomy were analysed from 16 patients. Nine had had the procedure performed twice, firstly, to remove a primary lesion, and secondly, to remove a restenotic lesion. Seven had percutaneous balloon angioplasty after removal of restenotic tissue. Coronary atherectomy specimens were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of T cells, macrophages, major histocompatibility complex II, interleukin 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibronectin, and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility. RESULTS--The groups were clinically and angiographically similar with equivalent lumens before and after atherectomy. Restenotic lesions had increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin compared with the primary lesions (P < 0.05 for both). There was also a trend towards a greater number of T cells and increased expression of interleukin 1 beta. CONCLUSIONS--Restenosis is associated with increased expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha and fibronectin, suggesting that an immune-inflammatory reaction probably contributes to neointimal formation and may represent a form of wound healing and repair secondary to mechanical injury. Images PMID:7626352

  12. Mutations in the estrogen receptor alpha hormone binding domain promote stem cell phenotype through notch activation in breast cancer cell lines. (United States)

    Gelsomino, L; Panza, S; Giordano, C; Barone, I; Gu, G; Spina, E; Catalano, S; Fuqua, S; Andò, S


    The detection of recurrent mutations affecting the hormone binding domain (HBD) of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα/ESR1) in endocrine therapy-resistant and metastatic breast cancers has prompted interest in functional characterization of these genetic alterations. Here, we explored the role of HBD-ESR1 mutations in influencing the behavior of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), using various BC cell lines stably expressing wild-type or mutant (Y537 N, Y537S, D538G) ERα. Compared to WT-ERα clones, mutant cells showed increased CD44 + /CD24 - ratio, mRNA levels of stemness genes, Mammosphere Forming Efficiency (MFE), Self-Renewal and migratory capabilities. Mutant clones exhibited high expression of NOTCH receptors/ligands/target genes and blockade of NOTCH signaling reduced MFE and migratory potential. Mutant BCSC activity was dependent on ERα phosphorylation at serine 118, since its inhibition decreased MFE and NOTCH4 activation only in mutant cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that the expression of HBD-ESR1 mutations may drive BC cells to acquire stem cell traits through ER/NOTCH4 interplay. We propose the early detection of HBD-ESR1 mutations as a challenge in precision medicine strategy, suggesting the development of tailored-approaches (i.e. NOTCH inhibitors) to prevent disease development and metastatic spread in BC mutant-positive patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin loci in normals and alpha-thalassemics.


    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W


    The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expressi...

  14. High Affinity IgE-Fc Receptor alpha and gamma Subunit Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Housden, J. E. M.; Sabban, S.; Helm, B.


    Objective: To explore the relationships between the subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc and RI) and its ability to mediate transmembrane signaling. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: The approach employed was to create a chimera (human alpha-gamma-gamma) using the extracellular (EC) domain of the human high affinity IgE receptor. The alpha subunit (huFc and RIalpha) of IgE receptor was spliced onto the rodent gamma TM and cytoplasmic domain (CD). This was transfected into the Rat Basophilic Leukemia cell line in order to assess the possibility of selectively activating cells transfected with this single pass construct for antigen induced mediator release. Results: The RBLs cell lines transfected with the huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA constructs were assessed for the cell surface expression of the huFc and RIalpha subunit and the response to the antigenic stimulus by looking for degranulation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilisation. The results obtained showed the absence of huFc and RIalpha subunit expression on the surface of transfected cells as seen by flowcytometric studies, beta-hexosaminidase assays and intracellular calcium mobilisation studies. Conclusion: In the present study the grounds for non-expression of huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA remains elusive but may be due to the fact that the human-rodent chimeric receptors are assembled differently than the endogenous rodent receptors as seen in study in which COS 7 cells were transfected with human/rat chimeric complexes. (author)

  15. Behavior of a cloned murine interferon alpha/beta receptor expressed in homospecific or heterospecific background. (United States)

    Uzé, G; Lutfalla, G; Bandu, M T; Proudhon, D; Mogensen, K E


    A murine interferon (IFN) alpha/beta receptor was cloned from the IFN-sensitive L1210 cell line on the basis of its homology with the human receptor. A combination of methods that includes the screening of random-primed and oligo(dT)-primed cDNA libraries and polymerase chain reactions with a single-side specificity was used. At the amino acid level, the murine IFN-alpha/beta shows 46% identity with its human counterpart. Both human WISH cells presenting a low sensitivity to mouse IFN and a murine L1210 mutant subline that does not express the receptor have been stably transfected with the murine IFN-alpha/beta receptor. Whereas transfected human cells became sensitive to a limited number of mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes, the transfected murine L1210 mutant was found to be fully complemented and became sensitive to all mouse IFN-alpha/beta subtypes tested, including those that were not active on transfected human cells. These results strongly suggest that the receptor described here is implicated in the mediation of the activities of all murine IFN-alpha/beta subtypes.

  16. Mild prenatal protein malnutrition increases alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the rat cerebral cortex during postnatal life. (United States)

    Sierralta, Walter; Hernández, Alejandro; Valladares, Luis; Pérez, Hernán; Mondaca, Mauricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén


    Mild reduction in the protein content in the diet of pregnant rats from 25 to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, does not alter body and brain weights of rat pups at birth, but results in significant changes of the concentration and release of cortical noradrenaline during postnatal life, together with impaired long-term potentiation and memory formation. Since some central noradrenergic receptors are critically involved in neuroplasticity, the present study evaluated, by utilizing immunohistochemical methods, the effect of mild prenatal protein malnutrition on the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the frontal and occipital cortices of 8- and 60-day-old rats. At day 8 of postnatal age, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a three-fold increase of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in both the frontal and the occipital cortices, as compared to well-nourished controls. At 60 days of age, prenatally malnourished rats showed normal expression levels scores of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor in the neocortex. Results suggest that overexpression of neocortical alpha 2C-adrenoceptors during early postnatal life, subsequent to mild prenatal protein malnutrition, could in part be responsible for neural and behavioral disturbances showing prenatally malnourished animals during the postnatal life.

  17. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells. (United States)

    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Dussaud, Sébastien; Billestrup, Nils; Madsen, Ole D; Serup, Palle; Heimberg, Harry; Mansouri, Ahmed


    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell mass and curing diabetes in animals that have been chemically depleted of beta cells.

  18. Frequency of alpha- and beta-haemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus of bovine and human origin - A comparison between pheno- and genotype and variation in phenotypic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Larsen, H.D.; Eriksen, N.H.R.


    The phenotypic expression of haemolysins and the presence of genes encoding alpha and beta-haemolysin were determined in 105 Sraphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis, 100 isolates from the nostrils of healthy humans, and 60 isolates from septicaemia in humans. Furthermore, the possible...... change in expression of haemolysins after subcultivation in human and bovine blood and milk was studied in selected isolates. alpha-haemolysin was expressed phenotypically in 39 (37%) of the bovine isolates, in 59 (59%) of the human carrier isolates, and in 40 (67%) of the isolates from septicaemia. beta......-haemolysin was expressed in 76 (72%) bovine, 11 (11%) carrier, and 8 (13%) septicaemia isolates. Significantly more bovine than human isolates expressed beta-haemolysin and significantly fewer expressed alpha-haemolysin. Genotypically, the gene encoding alpha-haemolysin was detected in all isolates. A significant...

  19. Experimentally nonylphenol-polluted diet induces the expression of silent genes VTG and ER{alpha} in the liver of male lizard Podarcis sicula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderame, Mariailaria; Prisco, Marina; Andreuccetti, Piero [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Aniello, Francesco [Department of Biological Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Limatola, Ermelinda, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, Evolutionary and Comparative Biology Division, University Federico II of Naples, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy)


    Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) with estrogen-like properties i.e nonylphenol (NP) induce vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis in males of aquatic and semi-aquatic specie. In the oviparous species VTG is a female-specific oestrogen dependent protein. Males are unable to synthesize VTG except after E{sub 2} treatment. This study aimed to verify if NP, administered via food and water, is able to induce the expression of VTG even in males of vertebrates with a terrestrial habitat such as the lizard Podarcis. By means of ICC, ISH, W/B and ELISA we demonstrated that NP induces the presence of VTG in the plasma and its expression in the liver. VTG, undetectable in untreated males, reaches the value of 4.34 {mu}g/{mu}l in the experimental ones. Expression analysis and ISH in the liver showed that an NP-polluted diet also elicits the expression of ER{alpha} in the liver which is known to be related to VTG synthesis in Podarcis. - Highlights: > Nonylphenol (NP) polluted diet induces VTG synthesis in a terrestrial vertebrate. > VTG and ER{alpha} genes are unexpressed in the liver of untreated male lizards Podarcis. > In the liver cells of NP-treated males the expression of both VTG and ER{alpha} occurs. > In treated males VTG synthesis is coupled with ER{alpha} expression as in breeding females. - NP-polluted diet induces the expression of ER{alpha} and VTG in the liver.

  20. Hydrophobic interaction between the SH2 domain and the kinase domain is required for the activation of Csk. (United States)

    Mikkola, Esa T; Gahmberg, Carl G


    The protein tyrosine kinase C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) is activated by the engagement of its Src homology (SH) 2 domain. However, the molecular mechanism required for this is not completely understood. The crystal structure of the active Csk indicates that Csk could be activated by contact between the SH2 domain and the beta3-alphaC loop in the N-terminal lobe of the kinase domain. To study the importance of this interaction for the SH2-domain-mediated activation of Csk, we mutated the amino acid residues forming the contacts between the SH2 domain and the beta3-alphaC loop. The mutation of the beta3-alphaC loop Ala228 to glycine and of the SH2 domain Tyr116, Tyr133, Leu138, and Leu149 to alanine resulted in the inability of the SH2 domain ligand to activate Csk. Furthermore, the overexpressed Csk mutants A228G, Y133A/Y116A, L138A, and L149A were unable to efficiently inactivate endogenous Src in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The results suggest that the SH2-domain-mediated activation of Csk is dependent on the binding of the beta3-alphaC loop Ala228 to the hydrophobic pocket formed by the side chains of Tyr116, Tyr133, Leu138, and Leu149 on the surface of the SH2 domain. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tyr721 regulates specific binding of the CSF-1 receptor kinase insert to PI 3'-kinase SH2 domains: a model for SH2-mediated receptor-target interactions. (United States)

    Reedijk, M; Liu, X; van der Geer, P; Letwin, K; Waterfield, M D; Hunter, T; Pawson, T


    Efficient binding of active phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3'-kinase to the autophosphorylated macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R) requires the noncatalytic kinase insert (KI) region of the receptor. To test whether this region could function independently to bind PI 3'-kinase, the isolated CSF-1R KI was expressed in Escherichia coli, and was inducibly phosphorylated on tyrosine. The tyrosine phosphorylated form of the CSF-1R KI bound PI 3'-kinase in vitro, whereas the unphosphorylated form had no binding activity. The p85 alpha subunit of PI 3'-kinase contains two Src homology (SH)2 domains, which are implicated in the interactions of signalling proteins with activated receptors. Bacterially expressed p85 alpha SH2 domains complexed in vitro with the tyrosine phosphorylated CSF-1R KI. Binding of the CSF-1R KI to PI 3'-kinase activity, and to the p85 alpha SH2 domains, required phosphorylation of Tyr721 within the KI domain, but was independent of phosphorylation at Tyr697 and Tyr706. Tyr721 was also critical for the association of activated CSF-1R with PI 3'-kinase in mammalian cells. Complex formation between the CSF-1R and PI 3'-kinase can therefore be reconstructed in vitro in a specific interaction involving the phosphorylated receptor KI and the SH2 domains of p85 alpha. Images PMID:1314163

  2. Unraveling double stranded alpha-helical coiled coils: an x-ray diffraction study on hard alpha-keratin fibers. (United States)

    Kreplak, L; Doucet, J; Briki, F


    Transformations of proteins secondary and tertiary structures are generally studied in globular proteins in solution. In fibrous proteins, such as hard alpha-keratin, that contain long and well-defined double stranded alpha-helical coiled coil domains, such study can be directly done on the native fibrous tissue. In order to assess the structural behavior of the coiled coil domains under an axial mechanical stress, wide angle x-ray scattering and small angle x-ray scattering experiments have been carried out on stretched horse hair fibers at relative humidity around 30%. Our observations of the three major axial spacings as a function of the applied macroscopic strain have shown two rates. Up to 4% macroscopic strain the coiled coils were slightly distorted but retained their overall conformation. Above 4% the proportion of coiled coil domains progressively decreased. The main and new result of our study is the observation of the transition from alpha-helical coiled coils to disordered chains instead of the alpha-helical coiled coil to beta-sheet transition that occurs in wet fibers.

  3. Complete primary structure of rainbow trout type I collagen consisting of alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) heterotrimers. (United States)

    Saito, M; Takenouchi, Y; Kunisaki, N; Kimura, S


    The subunit compositions of skin and muscle type I collagens from rainbow trout were found to be alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) and [alpha1(I)](2)alpha2(I), respectively. The occurrence of alpha3(I) has been observed only for bonyfish. The skin collagen exhibited more susceptibility to both heat denaturation and MMP-13 digestion than the muscle counterpart; the former had a lower denaturation temperature by about 0.5 degrees C than the latter. The lower stability of skin collagen, however, is not due to the low levels of imino acids because the contents of Pro and Hyp were almost constant in both collagens. On the other hand, some cDNAs coding for the N-terminal and/or a part of triple-helical domains of proalpha(I) chains were cloned from the cDNA library of rainbow trout fibroblasts. These cDNAs together with the previously cloned collagen cDNAs gave information about the complete primary structure of type I procollagen. The main triple-helical domain of each proalpha(I) chain had 338 uninterrupted Gly-X-Y triplets consisting of 1014 amino acids and was unique in its high content of Gly-Gly doublets. In particular, the bonyfish-specific alpha(I) chain, proalpha3(I) was characterized by the small number of Gly-Pro-Pro triplets, 19, and the large number of Gly-Gly doublets, 38, in the triple-helical domain, compared to 23 and 22, respectively, for proalpha1(I). The small number of Gly-Pro-Pro and the large number of Gly-Gly in proalpha3(I) was assumed to partially loosen the triple-helical structure of skin collagen, leading to the lower stability of skin collagen mentioned above. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that proalpha3(I) had diverged from proalpha1(I). This study is the first report of the complete primary structure of fish type I procollagen.

  4. Attenuation of alpha2A-adrenergic receptor expression in neonatal rat brain by RNA interference or antisense oligonucleotide reduced anxiety in adulthood. (United States)

    Shishkina, G T; Kalinina, T S; Dygalo, N N


    Brain alpha2-adrenergic receptors (alpha2-ARs) have been implicated in the regulation of anxiety, which is associated with stress. Environmental treatments during neonatal development could modulate the level of brain alpha2-AR expression and alter anxiety in adults, suggesting possible involvement of these receptors in early-life programming of anxiety state. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the reduction of the expression of A subtype of these receptors most abundant in the neonatal brain affects anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. We attenuated the expression of alpha2A-ARs during neonatal life by two different sequence specific approaches, antisense technology and RNA interference. Treatment of rats with the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide or short interfering RNA (siRNA) against alpha2A-ARs on the days 2-4 of their life, produced a marked acute decrease in the levels of both alpha2A-AR mRNA and [3H]RX821002 binding sites in the brainstem into which drugs were injected. The decrease of alpha2A-AR expression in the neonatal brainstem influenced the development of this receptor system in the brain regions as evidenced by the increased number of [3H]RX821002 binding sites in the hypothalamus of adult animals with both neonatal alpha2A-AR knockdown treatments; also in the frontal cortex of antisense-treated, and in the hippocampus of siRNA-treated adult rats. These adult animals also demonstrated a decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze as evidenced by an increased number of the open arm entries, greater proportion of time spent in the open arms, and more than a two-fold increase in the number of exploratory head dips. The results provide the first evidence that the reduction in the brain expression of a gene encoding for alpha2A-AR during neonatal life led to the long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. The data suggests that alterations in the expression of the receptor-specific gene during critical periods of brain

  5. Amylosucrase, a glucan-synthesizing enzyme from the alpha-amylase family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L K; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A


    Amylosucrase (E.C. is a member of Family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases (the alpha-amylases), although its biological function is the synthesis of amylose-like polymers from sucrose. The structure of amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea is divided into five domains: an all helical N...... of amylosucrase is at the bottom of a pocket at the molecular surface. A substrate binding site resembling the amylase 2 subsite is not found in amylosucrase. The site is blocked by a salt bridge between residues in the second and eight loops of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. The result is an exo-acting enzyme. Loop......-terminal domain that is not similar to any known fold, a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel A-domain, B- and B'-domains displaying alpha/beta-structure, and a C-terminal eight-stranded beta-sheet domain. In contrast to other Family 13 hydrolases that have the active site in the bottom of a large cleft, the active site...

  6. Evaluating Algorithms for the Generation of Referring Expressions: Going beyond Toy Domains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Gatt, A.; van Deemter, K.


    We describe a corpus-based evaluation method- ology, applied to a number of classic algorithms in the generation of referring expressions. Fol- lowing up on earlier work involving very simple domains, this paper deals with the issues asso- ciated with domains that contain ‘real-life’ ob- jects of

  7. In vitro bioactivity of 17alpha-estradiol. (United States)

    Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella


    A miniaturised short-term in vitro assay based on the activation of the human estrogen receptor alpha and genetically modified yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells was performed to explore the capacity of this system to monitor the bioactivity of estrogenic compounds, particularly 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol. Together with the human estrogen receptor (hER)-alpha plasmid, the reporter plasmid containing a yeast-optimised version of the green fluorescent protein (yEGFP) linked to three repeats of the cis-acting estrogen hormone-responsive element (ERE) were expressed in a strain being deleted in the pleiotropic drug resistance transporters Pdr5, Snq2 and Yor1, known to facilitate efflux of organic compounds including steroids and chemotherapeutics. Agonists that bind to hER in vitro trigger estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the GFP reporter gene monitored by fluorescence emission at 535 nm. The sensitivity of the assay was tested with various 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol concentrations, yielding a detection limit of 5 pg/ml (0.018 nM) for the agonist 17beta-E2 in solvent and in human charcoal-stripped serum using a S. cerevisiae pdr5, snq2 and yor1 mutant strain. For 17alpha-estradiol only, at approximately 1500 pg/ml a similar fluorescence response compared to 100 pg/ml 17beta-E2 was observed implicating a much weaker potency of this stereoisomer. The specificity of the system was tested by expression of a truncated hER lacking the ligand-binding domain E and by administration of the androgen, 4-androsten 3,17 dione. Both controls did not yield an increase in fluorescence emission. This fluorescence emission assay enables detection of estrogenic biological activity induced by direct agonists, such as 17beta-E2 at concentrations similar to those found in human sera or by estrogen-like chemicals.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-independent downregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in mice treated with lead nitrate. (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni


    We previously reported that lead nitrate (LN), an inducer of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), downregulated gene expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Herein, to clarify the role of TNF-alpha in LN-induced downregulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, effects of LN on gene expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) in TNF-alpha-knockout (KO) and TNF-alpha-wild-type (WT) mice were comparatively examined. Gene expression of hepatic Cyp7a1 in both WT and KO mice decreased to less than 5% of the corresponding controls at 6-12 h after treatment with LN (100 mumol/kg body weight, iv). Levels of hepatic TNF-alpha protein in either WT or KO mice were below the detection limit, although expression levels of the TNF-alpha gene markedly increased at 6 h in WT mice by LN treatment, but not in KO mice. In contrast, in both WT and KO mice, levels of hepatic IL-1beta protein, which is known to be a suppressor of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in hamsters, were significantly increased 3-6 h after LN treatment. Furthermore, LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene did not necessarily result from altered gene expression of hepatic transcription factors, including positive regulators (liver X receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, fetoprotein transcription factor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) and a negative regulator small heterodimer partner responsible for expression of the Cyp7a1 gene. The present findings indicated that LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene in mice did not necessarily occur through a TNF-alpha-dependent pathway and might occur mainly through an IL-1beta-dependent pathway.

  9. Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing protein 1 (Tmub1/HOPS facilitates surface expression of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjeong Yang

    Full Text Available Some ubiquitin-like (UBL domain-containing proteins are known to play roles in receptor trafficking. Alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPARs undergo constitutive cycling between the intracellular compartment and the cell surface in the central nervous system. However, the function of UBL domain-containing proteins in the recycling of the AMPARs to the synaptic surface has not yet been reported.Here, we report that the Transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 1 (Tmub1 protein, formerly known as the Hepatocyte Odd Protein Shuttling (HOPS protein, which is abundantly expressed in the brain and which exists in a synaptosomal membrane fraction, facilitates the recycling of the AMPAR subunit GluR2 to the cell surface. Neurons transfected with Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi plasmids showed a significant reduction in the AMPAR current as compared to their control neurons. Consistently, the synaptic surface expression of GluR2, but not of GluR1, was significantly decreased in the neurons transfected with the Tmub1/HOPS-RNAi and increased in the neurons overexpressing EGFP-Tmub1/HOPS. The altered surface expression of GluR2 was speculated to be due to the altered surface-recycling of the internalized GluR2 in our recycling assay. Eventually, we found that GluR2 and glutamate receptor interacting protein (GRIP were coimmunoprecipitated by the anti-Tmub1/HOPS antibody from the mouse brain. Taken together, these observations show that the Tmub1/HOPS plays a role in regulating basal synaptic transmission; it contributes to maintain the synaptic surface number of the GluR2-containing AMPARs by facilitating the recycling of GluR2 to the plasma membrane.

  10. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance (United States)

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.


    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  11. Expansion of microsatellite in the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene linked to increased receptor expression and less aggressive thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onda, Masamitsu; Li, Daisy; Suzuki, Shinichi


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the length of the THRA1 microsatellite, which resides in a noncoding portion of the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene, affects receptor expression and is linked to clinicopathological parameters in thyroid cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN......: In 30 cases of surgically resected sporadic thyroid cancer, the length of the THRA1 microsatellite was determined by DNA sequence analysis, and expression of thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 was assessed immunohistochemically in thin sections cut from tumor blocks. The length of THRA1 and expression...... of thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 were also assessed in seven cancer cell lines. Regression analysis was used to gauge the correlation between the size of THRA1 and receptor expression. Multivariate analysis was used to test for links to the clinical parameters of gender, age, histology, stage, nodal...

  12. Prolactin, TNF alpha and nitric oxide expression in nitroso-N-methylurea-induced-mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegh Irene


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-Nitrosomethylurea breast cancer model induced in rats is used for the study of carcinogenesis in mammary cancer, prostate, pancreas, etc. This model is very similar to human neoplastic disease. Methods The present experimental study was designed to assess whether metoclopramide administration has any effect on development of MNU-induced tumours, and evaluate the treatment of goserelin acetate on PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression. NMU was administered to female Wistar rats on 2 occasions (5 mg/100 g body w/rat. PRL and TNF alpha were performed by immune-assay. Nitric Oxide by semi automated-assay and ploidy analyses by flow cytometry. Results The administration of metoclopramide made the induction time shorter and increased the incidence and average of tumours per rat. Tumours development was inhibited by a goserelin chronic administration. The ploidy of adenocarcinoma was polyploid-aneuploid type (average S = 60%. It was higher basal PRL plasma levels in rats with NMU induced tumours than in basal controls without tumour (p Conclusion The increase of blood PRL levels in NMU-induced rats may be an indicator of a poor prognosis of mammary cancer evolution. The metoclopramide administration accelerates tumour growth. However goserelin administration achieves regression in tumour development associated to inhibition PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression.

  13. Correlated alpha activity with the facial expression processing network in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiment. (United States)

    Simoes, Marco; Direito, Bruno; Lima, Joao; Castelhano, Joao; Ferreira, Carlos; Couceiro, Ricardo; Carvalho, Paulo; Castelo-Branco, Miguel


    The relationship between EEG and fMRI data is poorly covered in the literature. Extensive work has been conducted in resting-state and epileptic activity, highlighting a negative correlation between the alpha power band of the EEG and the BOLD activity in the default-mode-network. The identification of an appropriate task-specific relationship between fMRI and EEG data for predefined regions-of-interest, would allow the transfer of interventional paradigms (such as BOLD-based neurofeedback sessions) from fMRI to EEG, enhancing its application range by lowering its costs and improving its flexibility. In this study, we present an analysis of the correlation between task-specific alpha band fluctuations and BOLD activity in the facial expressions processing network. We characterized the network ROIs through a stringent localizer and identified two clusters on the scalp (one frontal, one parietal-occipital) with marked alpha fluctuations, related to the task. We then check whether such power variations throughout the time correlate with the BOLD activity in the network. Our results show statistically significant negative correlations between the alpha power in both clusters and for all the ROIs of the network. The correlation levels have still not met the requirements for transferring the protocol to an EEG setup, but they pave the way towards a better understand on how frontal and parietal-occipital alpha relates to the activity of the facial expressions processing network.

  14. Post-transcriptional regulation of osteoblastic platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha expression by co-cultured primary endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkenzeller, Günter; Mehlhorn, Alexander T; Schmal, Hagen


    -alpha downregulation is dependent on time and cell number. This effect was specific to endothelial cells and was not observed when hOBs were co-cultured with human primary chondrocytes or fibroblasts. Likewise, HUVEC-mediated suppression of PDGFR-alpha expression was only seen in hOBs and mesenchymal stem cells......Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling plays an important role in osteoblast function. Inhibition of PDGFR activity leads to a suppression of osteoblast proliferation, whereas mineralized matrix production is enhanced. In previous experiments, we showed that co......-cultivation of human primary endothelial cells and human primary osteoblasts (hOBs) leads to a cell contact-dependent downregulation of PDGFR-alpha expression in the osteoblasts. In this study, we investigated this effect in more detail, revealing that human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC)-mediated PDGFR...

  15. TNF-alpha, produced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-infected macrophages, upregulates expression of type II FIPV receptor feline aminopeptidase N in feline macrophages. (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu; Toda, Ayako; Tanabe, Maki; Koyama, Hiroyuki


    The pathogenicity of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is known to depend on macrophage tropism, and this macrophage infection is enhanced by mediation via anti-S antibody (antibody-dependent enhancement, ADE). In this study, we found that TNF-alpha production was increased with viral replication in macrophages inoculated with a mixture of FIPV and anti-S antibody, and demonstrated that this culture supernatant had feline PBMC apoptosis-inducing activity. We also demonstrated that the expression level of the FIPV virus receptor, feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN), was increased in macrophages of FIP cats. For upregulation of TNF-alpha and fAPN in macrophages, viral replication in macrophages is necessary, and their expressions were increased by ADE of FIPV infection. It was demonstrated that a heat-resistant fAPN-inducing factor was present in the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages, and this factor was TNF-alpha: fAPN expression was upregulated in recombinant feline TNF-alpha-treated macrophages, and FIPV infectivity was increased in these macrophages. These findings suggested that FIPV replication in macrophages increases TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and the produced TNF-alpha acts and upregulates fAPN expression, increasing FIPV sensitivity.

  16. PET imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expression in tumours with Ga-68-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Yim, Cheng-Bin; Franssen, Gerben M.; Schuit, Robert C.; Luurtsema, Gert; Liu, Shuang; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    Due to the restricted expression of alpha(v)beta(3) in tumours, alpha(v)beta(3) is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the alpha(v)beta(3)-binding characteristics of Ga-68-labelled monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric RGD peptides were determined and compared with their

  17. Fast identification of folded human protein domains expressed in E. coli suitable for structural analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Brigitte


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput protein structure analysis of individual protein domains requires analysis of large numbers of expression clones to identify suitable constructs for structure determination. For this purpose, methods need to be implemented for fast and reliable screening of the expressed proteins as early as possible in the overall process from cloning to structure determination. Results 88 different E. coli expression constructs for 17 human protein domains were analysed using high-throughput cloning, purification and folding analysis to obtain candidates suitable for structural analysis. After 96 deep-well microplate expression and automated protein purification, protein domains were directly analysed using 1D 1H-NMR spectroscopy. In addition, analytical hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC was used to detect natively folded protein. With these two analytical methods, six constructs (representing two domains were quickly identified as being well folded and suitable for structural analysis. Conclusion The described approach facilitates high-throughput structural analysis. Clones expressing natively folded proteins suitable for NMR structure determination were quickly identified upon small scale expression screening using 1D 1H-NMR and/or analytical HIC. This procedure is especially effective as a fast and inexpensive screen for the 'low hanging fruits' in structural genomics.

  18. Collagen gel contraction serves to rapidly distinguish epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived cells irrespective of alpha-smooth muscle actin expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René


    Mesenchymal-like cells in the stroma of breast cancer may arise as a consequence of plasticity within the epithelial compartment, also referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition, or by recruitment of genuine mesenchymal cells from the peritumoral stroma. Cells of both the epithelial...... compartment and the stromal compartment express alpha smooth muscle actin (alpha-sm actin) as part of a myoepithelial or a myofibroblastic differentiation program, respectively. Moreover, because both epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived cells are nontumorigenic, other means of discrimination are warranted....... Here, we describe the contraction of hydrated collagen gels as a rapid functional assay for the distinction between epithelial- and mesenchymal-derived stromal-like cells irrespective of the status of alpha-sm actin expression. Three epithelial-derived cell lines and three genuine mesenchymal...

  19. TR{alpha}- and TSH-mRNA levels after temporal exposition with methimazole in zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, A.E.I.; Stocker, A.; Hollosi, L.; Schramm, K.W. [Inst. of Ecological Chemistry, GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health (Germany)


    The group of dioxin and dioxin-like substances are highly persistent in the environment. There are evidences from present investigations that a variety of substances are capable of disrupting the endocrine system in the aquatic environment. These substances are called endocrine disruptors. Dioxin and related compounds can act as endocrine disruptors. Aquatic animals like amphibian and fish are especially affected of the impact of these compounds. Investigations concerned so far in particular the domain of reproduction biology and the thyroid axis especially. Recent investigations showed that the TR{alpha}-mRNA level change after a short temporal expression with T3, methimazole and amiodarone. The objective of the project is to identify effects of thyroid endocrine disruptors on the regulation of gene expression of the thyroid receptors TR{alpha}a, TR{beta} and thyroid stimulating hormone TSH and associated effects on other system. In preliminary studies the effects of the drug methimazole as model substance on gene expression of TR{alpha} and TSH were investigated. Methimazole is an inhibitor of the thyroid peroxidase so that the formation of thyroid hormones is disrupted.

  20. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin. (United States)

    Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B


    The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing determinant in alpha

  1. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Oscherwitz

    Full Text Available The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing

  2. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina H; Lambertsen, Kate L; Babcock, Alicia A


    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We inv...

  3. High expression of hexokinase domain containing 1 is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype in hepatocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zijian; Huang, Shanzhou [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Wang, Huanyu [Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Nanshan District People’s Hospital, Shenzhen, 518000 (China); Wu, Jian [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Chen, Dong [Department of Biliopancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Peng, Baogang [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China); Zhou, Qi, E-mail: [Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510080 (China)


    Rapid progress and metastasis remain the major treatment failure modes of hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatoma cell proliferation and migration are poorly understood. Metabolic abnormalities play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. However, the functions and mechanisms of HKDC1 in cancer remain unknown. In this study, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to detect the HKDC1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines. The Oncomine™ Cancer Microarray Database was applied to analysis the correlations between HKDC1 expression and HCC clinical characteristics. MTT and Transwell migration assays were performed to determine the functions of HKDC1 in HCC cells. The effect of HKDC1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using Western blotting assay. In this study, we found that HKDC1 expression levels were elevated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. HCC patients with high expression levels of HKDC1 had poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, higher HKDC1 levels also predicted a worse OS of patients within solitary, elevated pre-operated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level and higher tumor diameter. Moreover, silencing HKDC1 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration in vitro. Downregulated HKDC1 expression repressed β-Catenin and c-Myc expression, which indicates that silencing HKDC1 may reduce proliferation and migration via inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCC. In summary, HKDC1 provides further insight into HCC tumor progression and may provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. -- Highlights: •HKDC1 is upregulated in HCC. •Patients with high HKDC1 expressions perform worse OS. •Silencing HKDC1 suppresses proliferation and migration. •Silencing HKDC1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  4. High expression of hexokinase domain containing 1 is associated with poor prognosis and aggressive phenotype in hepatocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zijian; Huang, Shanzhou; Wang, Huanyu; Wu, Jian; Chen, Dong; Peng, Baogang; Zhou, Qi


    Rapid progress and metastasis remain the major treatment failure modes of hepatocarcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, the underlying molecular mechanisms of hepatoma cell proliferation and migration are poorly understood. Metabolic abnormalities play critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Hexokinase domain containing 1 (HKDC1) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose. However, the functions and mechanisms of HKDC1 in cancer remain unknown. In this study, real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting assays were used to detect the HKDC1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines. The Oncomine™ Cancer Microarray Database was applied to analysis the correlations between HKDC1 expression and HCC clinical characteristics. MTT and Transwell migration assays were performed to determine the functions of HKDC1 in HCC cells. The effect of HKDC1 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was assessed using Western blotting assay. In this study, we found that HKDC1 expression levels were elevated in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. HCC patients with high expression levels of HKDC1 had poor overall survival (OS). Furthermore, higher HKDC1 levels also predicted a worse OS of patients within solitary, elevated pre-operated serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level and higher tumor diameter. Moreover, silencing HKDC1 suppressed HCC cells proliferation and migration in vitro. Downregulated HKDC1 expression repressed β-Catenin and c-Myc expression, which indicates that silencing HKDC1 may reduce proliferation and migration via inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HCC. In summary, HKDC1 provides further insight into HCC tumor progression and may provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for HCC treatment. -- Highlights: •HKDC1 is upregulated in HCC. •Patients with high HKDC1 expressions perform worse OS. •Silencing HKDC1 suppresses proliferation and migration. •Silencing HKDC1 represses Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  5. The YARHG domain: an extracellular domain in search of a function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Coggill

    Full Text Available We have identified a new bacterial protein domain that we hypothesise binds to peptidoglycan. This domain is called the YARHG domain after the most highly conserved sequence-segment. The domain is found in the extracellular space and is likely to be composed of four alpha-helices. The domain is found associated with protein kinase domains, suggesting it is associated with signalling in some bacteria. The domain is also found associated with three different families of peptidases. The large number of different domains that are found associated with YARHG suggests that it is a useful functional module that nature has recombined multiple times.

  6. Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. (United States)

    Fatmawati, Ni Nengah Dwi; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Oda, Masataka; Shimizu, Kenta; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Sakurai, Jun; Matsushita, Osamu; Oguma, Keiji


    Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs), the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  7. Engineering N-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 to be a better inhibitor against tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme. (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Huee; Verma, Vandana; Maskos, Klaus; Nath, Deepa; Knäuper, Vera; Dodds, Philippa; Amour, Augustin; Murphy, Gillian


    We previously reported that full-length tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) and its N-terminal domain form (N-TIMP-3) displayed equal binding affinity for tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-converting enzyme (TACE). Based on the computer graphic of TACE docked with a TIMP-3 model, we created a number of N-TIMP-3 mutants that showed significant improvement in TACE inhibition. Our strategy was to select those N-TIMP-3 residues that were believed to be in actual contact with the active-site pockets of TACE and mutate them to amino acids of a better-fitting nature. The activities of these mutants were examined by measuring their binding affinities (K(app)(i)) and association rates (k(on)) against TACE. Nearly all mutants at position Thr-2 exhibited slightly impaired affinity as well as association rate constants. On the other hand, some Ser-4 mutants displayed a remarkable increase in their binding tightness with TACE. In fact, the binding affinities of several mutants were less than 60 pM, beyond the sensitivity limits of fluorimetric assays. Further studies on cell-based processing of pro-TNF-alpha demonstrated that wild-type N-TIMP-3 and one of its tight-binding mutants, Ser-4Met, were capable of inhibiting the proteolytic shedding of TNF-alpha. Furthermore, the Ser-4Met mutant was also significantly more active (P<0.05) than the wild-type N-TIMP-3 in its cellular inhibition. Comparison of N-TIMP-3 and full-length TIMP-3 revealed that, despite their identical TACE-interaction kinetics, the latter was nearly 10 times more efficient in the inhibition of TNF-alpha shedding, with concomitant implications for the importance of the TIMP-3 C-terminal domain in vivo. PMID:11988096

  8. Expression, purification and insights into structure and folding of the ADAM22 pro domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Jacobsen, Jonas; Nielbo, Steen


    . To understand the functions of human ADAM pro domains and to determine three-dimensional structures, we have screened promising targets for expression and purification properties when using Escherichia coli as the host. The pro domain of ADAM22 (ADAM22-P) expressed in E. coli was folded, as determined by CD...... and NMR spectroscopy. An ADAM22-P fragment encoding residues 26-199 could be expressed in high amounts, remained soluble above 1 mM, and was suitable for structural studies by NMR spectroscopy. CD spectroscopy and predictions suggest that the secondary structure in ADAM22-P consists of beta...

  9. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L. (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro


    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  10. hnRNP L regulates differences in expression of mouse integrin alpha2beta1. (United States)

    Cheli, Yann; Kunicki, Thomas J


    There is a 2-fold variation in platelet integrin alpha2beta1 levels among inbred mouse strains. Decreased alpha2beta1 in 4 strains carrying Itga2 haplotype 2 results from decreased affinity of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein L (hnRNP L) for a 6 CA repeat sequence (CA6) within intron 1. Seven strains bearing haplotype 1 and a 21 CA repeat sequence at this position (CA21) express twice the level of platelet alpha2beta1 and exhibit an equivalent gain of platelet function in vitro. By UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation, hnRNP L binds more avidly to CA21, relative to CA6. By cell-free, in vitro mRNA splicing, decreased binding of hnRNP L results in decreased splicing efficiency and an increased proportion of alternatively spliced product. The splicing enhancer activity of CA21 in vivo is abolished by prior treatment with hnRNP L-specific siRNA. Thus, decreased surface alpha2beta1 results from decreased Itga2 pre-mRNA splicing regulated by hnRNP L and depends on CA repeat length at a specific site in intron 1.

  11. Over-expression of two different forms of the alpha-secretase ADAM10 affects learning and memory in mice. (United States)

    Schmitt, Ulrich; Hiemke, Christoph; Fahrenholz, Falk; Schroeder, Anja


    Members of the ADAM family (adisintegrin and metalloprotease) are the main candidates for physiologically relevant alpha-secretases. The alpha-secretase cleaves in the non-amyloidogenic pathway the amyloid precursor protein within the region of the Abeta peptides preventing their aggregation in the brain. The increase of alpha-secretase activity in the brain provides a plausible strategy to prevent Abeta formation. Concerning this possibility two transgenic mouse lines (FVB/N) have been created: mice over-expressing the bovine form of the alpha-secretase (ADAM10) and mice over-expressing an inactive form of the alpha-secretase (ADAM10-E348A-HA; ADAM10-dn). For behavioral examination a F1 generation of transgenic mice (C57Bl/6 x FVB/N (tg)) was generated and compared to wild type F1 generation (C57Bl/6 x FVB/N). Behavior was characterized in the following tasks: standard open field, enriched open field, elevated plus-maze, and the Morris water maze hidden platform task. Concerning basal activity, exploration, and anxiety, transgenic mice behaved similar to controls. With respect to learning and memory both transgenic lines showed a significant deficit compared to controls. ADAM10 mice however, showed thigmotaxis with passive floating behavior in the Morris water maze indicating differences in motivation, whereas, ADAM10-dn mice displayed an inconspicuous but limited goal-directed search pattern. Thus variation of the enzymatic activity of alpha-secretase ADAM10 alters learning and memory differentially. Nevertheless, it could be concluded that both, ADAM10 and ADAM10-dn mice are suitable control mice for the assessment of alpha-secretase-related effects in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Intrabody construction and expression. I. The critical role of VL domain stability. (United States)

    Ohage, E; Steipe, B


    We have constructed a panel of hyperstable immunoglobulin VL domains by a rational approach of consensus sequence engineering and combining stabilizing point mutations. These prototype domains unfold fully reversibly, even when the conserved structural disulfide bridge is reduced. This has allowed us to probe the factors that limit the expression yield of soluble immunoglobulin domains in the reducing environment of the cytoplasm (intrabodies). The most important factor is thermodynamic stability, and there is an excellent quantitative correlation between stability and yield. Surprisingly, an unprocessed N-terminal methionine residue can severely compromise VL stability, but this problem can be overcome by changing the amino acid following the initiator methionine residue. Transcription from the strong T7 promoter does not increase the amount of soluble material over that obtained from the tetA promoter, but large amounts of inclusions bodies can be obtained. Elevated temperature shifts protein from a productive folding pathway to aggregation. The structural disulfide bridge does not form in the cytoplasm, but the two consensus cysteine residues can be quantitatively oxidized in vitro. In summary, stability engineering provides a plannable route to the high-yield cytoplasmic expression of functional intrabody domains.

  13. Structure and dynamics of the human pleckstrin DEP domain: distinct molecular features of a novel DEP domain subfamily. (United States)

    Civera, Concepcion; Simon, Bernd; Stier, Gunter; Sattler, Michael; Macias, Maria J


    Pleckstrin1 is a major substrate for protein kinase C in platelets and leukocytes, and comprises a central DEP (disheveled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domain, which is flanked by two PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. DEP domains display a unique alpha/beta fold and have been implicated in membrane binding utilizing different mechanisms. Using multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree reconstructions, we find that 6 subfamilies of the DEP domain exist, of which pleckstrin represents a novel and distinct subfamily. To clarify structural determinants of the DEP fold and to gain further insight into the role of the DEP domain, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the pleckstrin DEP domain using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Pleckstrin DEP shares main structural features with the DEP domains of disheveled and Epac, which belong to different DEP subfamilies. However, the pleckstrin DEP fold is distinct from these structures and contains an additional, short helix alpha4 inserted in the beta4-beta5 loop that exhibits increased backbone mobility as judged by NMR relaxation measurements. Based on sequence conservation, the helix alpha4 may also be present in the DEP domains of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which are members of the same DEP subfamily. In pleckstrin, the DEP domain is surrounded by two PH domains. Structural analysis and charge complementarity suggest that the DEP domain may interact with the N-terminal PH domain in pleckstrin. Phosphorylation of the PH-DEP linker, which is required for pleckstrin function, could regulate such an intramolecular interaction. This suggests a role of the pleckstrin DEP domain in intramolecular domain interactions, which is distinct from the functions of other DEP domain subfamilies found so far.

  14. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat


    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators.We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO.Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation plays a key role in regulating the response of Müller glia to hypoxia.

  15. The Effect of Bladder Outlet Obstruction on alpha(1)- and beta-Adrenoceptor Expression and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Frazier, Elfaridah P.; Vrydag, Wim; Alewijnse, Astrid E.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.


    Aims: To explore possible changes in expression and/or function of alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor subtypes as a cause for bladder dysfunction in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Methods: BOO was induced in rats by partial urethral ligature. Contraction and relaxation experiments

  16. Secondary reduction of alpha7B integrin in laminin alpha2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy supports an additional transmembrane link in skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Cohn, R D; Mayer, U; Saher, G; Herrmann, R; van der Flier, A; Sonnenberg, A; Sorokin, L; Voit, T


    The integrins are a large family of heterodimeric transmembrane cellular receptors which mediate the association between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cytoskeletal proteins. The alpha7beta1 integrin is a major laminin binding integrin in skeletal and cardiac muscle and is thought to be involved in myogenic differentiation and migration processes. The main binding partners of the alpha7 integrin are laminin-1 (alpha1-beta1-gamma1), laminin-2 (alpha2-beta1-gamma1) and laminin-4 (alpha2-beta2-gamma1). Targeted deletion of the gene for the alpha7 integrin subunit (ITGA7) in mice leads to a novel form of muscular dystrophy. In the present study we have investigated the expression of two alternative splice variants, the alpha7B and beta1D integrin subunits, in normal human skeletal muscle, as well as in various forms of muscular dystrophy. In normal human skeletal muscle the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit appeared to be developmentally regulated: it was first detected at 2 years of age. In contrast, the beta1D integrin could be detected in immature and mature muscle in the sarcolemma of normal fetal skeletal muscle at 18 weeks gestation. The expression of alpha7B integrin was significantly reduced at the sarcolemma in six patients with laminin alpha2 chain deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) (age >2 years). However, this reduction was not correlated with the amount of laminin alpha2 chain expressed. In contrast, the expression of the laminin alpha2 chain was not altered in the skeletal muscle of the alpha7 knock-out mice. These data argue in favor that there is not a tight correlation between the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit and that of the laminin alpha2 chain in either human or murine dystrophic muscle. Interestingly, in dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy; DMD/BMD) expression of alpha7B was upregulated irrespective of the level of dystrophin expression as shown by a strong sarcolemmal staining pattern even

  17. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma. (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene's expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment.

  18. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 40; Issue 1. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica invasin enhances the efficacy of classical swine-fever-vectored vaccine based on human adenovirus. Helin Li Pengbo Ning Zhi Lin Wulong Liang Kai Kang Lei He Yanming Zhang. Articles Volume ...

  19. Karyopherin alpha7 (KPNA7), a divergent member of the importin alpha family of nuclear import receptors. (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B; Talley, Ashley M; Spencer, Adam; Gioeli, Daniel; Paschal, Bryce M


    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) dependent nuclear import is carried out by a heterodimer of importin alpha and importin beta. NLS cargo is recognized by importin alpha, which is bound by importin beta. Importin beta mediates translocation of the complex through the central channel of the nuclear pore, and upon reaching the nucleus, RanGTP binding to importin beta triggers disassembly of the complex. To date, six importin alpha family members, encoded by separate genes, have been described in humans. We sequenced and characterized a seventh member of the importin alpha family of transport factors, karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), which is most closely related to KPNA2. The domain of KPNA7 that binds Importin beta (IBB) is divergent, and shows stronger binding to importin beta than the IBB domains from of other importin alpha family members. With regard to NLS recognition, KPNA7 binds to the retinoblastoma (RB) NLS to a similar degree as KPNA2, but it fails to bind the SV40-NLS and the human nucleoplasmin (NPM) NLS. KPNA7 shows a predominantly nuclear distribution under steady state conditions, which contrasts with KPNA2 which is primarily cytoplasmic. KPNA7 is a novel importin alpha family member in humans that belongs to the importin alpha2 subfamily. KPNA7 shows different subcellular localization and NLS binding characteristics compared to other members of the importin alpha family. These properties suggest that KPNA7 could be specialized for interactions with select NLS-containing proteins, potentially impacting developmental regulation.

  20. The chicken c-erbA alpha-product induces expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine receptor-deficient rat hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, A; Höppner, W; Sap, J


    To determine the capacity of the chicken c-erbA (cTR-alpha) gene product in regulating expression of known thyroid hormone-responsive genes, both the cTR-alpha and the viral v-erbA genes were expressed in FAO cells, a rat hepatoma cell line defective for functional thyroid hormone receptors. Upon...

  1. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    IFN-α and IFN-α Receptor mRNA expression in the liver. All the patients showed IFN-α gene expression except one patient who had the highest degree of fibrosis (fibrosis grade 5) and HAI Index of 9. IFN- α Receptor mRNA was expressed in 30% (9/30). (Figure 4). Non of the patients with HCC had. IFNα-Rc expression and ...

  2. Seed-specific stable expression of the alpha-AI1 inhibitor in coffee grains and the in vivo implications for the development of the coffee berry borer


    Albuquerque, E. V. S.; Bezerra, C. A.; Romero, J. V.; Valencia, J. W. A.; Valencia-Jimenez, A.; Pimenta, L. M.; Barbosa, Aead; Silva, M. C. M.; Meneguim, A. M.; Sa, M. E. L.; Engler, G.; de Almeida-Engler, J.; Fernandez, Diana; Grossi-de-Sa, M. F.


    Genetic transformation of coffee (Coffea spp.), the second most traded commodity worldwide, is an alternative approach to introducing features that cannot be introgressed by traditional crossings. The transgenic stability, heritability and quantitative and spatial expression patterns of the seed-specific promoter phytohemagglutinin (PHA-L) from Phaseolus vulgaris were characterized in genetically modified C. arabica expressing the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (alpha-AI1) gene. The alpha-AI1 inhi...

  3. Functional and genomic analyses of alpha-solenoid proteins. (United States)

    Fournier, David; Palidwor, Gareth A; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Szengel, Angelika; Schaefer, Martin H; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A


    Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others). While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at

  4. How to find soluble proteins: a comprehensive analysis of alpha/beta hydrolases for recombinant expression in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Sandra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In screening of libraries derived by expression cloning, expression of active proteins in E. coli can be limited by formation of inclusion bodies. In these cases it would be desirable to enrich gene libraries for coding sequences with soluble gene products in E. coli and thus to improve the efficiency of screening. Previously Wilkinson and Harrison showed that solubility can be predicted from amino acid composition (Biotechnology 1991, 9(5:443–448. We have applied this analysis to members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family to predict their solubility in E. coli. alpha/beta hydrolases are a highly diverse family with more than 1800 proteins which have been grouped into homologous families and superfamilies. Results The predicted solubility in E. coli depends on hydrolase size, phylogenetic origin of the host organism, the homologous family and the superfamily, to which the hydrolase belongs. In general small hydrolases are predicted to be more soluble than large hydrolases, and eukaryotic hydrolases are predicted to be less soluble in E. coli than prokaryotic ones. However, combining phylogenetic origin and size leads to more complex conclusions. Hydrolases from prokaryotic, fungal and metazoan origin are predicted to be most soluble if they are of small, medium and large size, respectively. We observed large variations of predicted solubility between hydrolases from different homologous families and from different taxa. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of all alpha/beta hydrolase sequences allows more efficient screenings for new soluble alpha/beta hydrolases by the use of libraries which contain more soluble gene products. Screening of hydrolases from families whose members are hard to express as soluble proteins in E. coli should first be done in coding sequences of organisms from phylogenetic groups with the highest average of predicted solubility for proteins of this family. The tools developed here can be used

  5. Recombinant human B7.2 IgV-like domain expressed in bacteria maintains its co-stimulatory activity in vitro. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaocai; Ma, Jun; Zheng, Jin; Lai, Baochang; Geng, Yiping; Wang, Yili; Si, Lüsheng


    To investigate which of the two immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, the immunoglobulin variable region homologous domain IgV (hB7.2 IgV) and the immunoglobulin constant region homologous domain IgC (hB7.2 IgC) on the human B7.2 molecule contains receptor binding sites, and to evaluate whether the B7.2 protein expressed in bacteria has biological activity in vitro. Three fragments of hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and the complete extracellular region of human B7.2 containing both the IgV and IgC domains,hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were amplified by PCR and subcloned into pGEM-Teasy. Three recombinants,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgV,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgC and pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were generated by cloning the fragments into a prokaryote expression plasmid (pGEX-4T-3) and transformed into the host strain E. coli DH5alpha. The relevant target fusion proteins consisting of GST and hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. With the presence of the first signal imitated by anti-CD3 antibody, T cell activation was observed by exposing purified T lymphocytes to each soluble form of the three bacterially-produced human B7.2 fusion proteins by [(3)H]-TdR incorporation. Three recombinant fusion proteins of human B7.2, GST-hB7.2 IgV, GST-hB7.2 IgC and GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) were produced and detected in inclusion body form from engineered bacteria. With the first signal present,T lymphocytes proliferated when co-stimulated by bacterially-produced either GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) or GST-hB7.2 IgV fusion proteins, but not by GST-hB7.2 IgC. Functional human B7.2 fusion protein can be produced in bacteria. The IgV-like domain of human B7.2 is sufficient for B7.2 to interact with its counter-receptors and co-stimulate T lymphocytes.

  6. [Characteristics of sublingual vein and expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with portal hypertension]. (United States)

    Li, Bai-yu; Wang, Li-na; Yue, Xiao-qiang; Li, Bai


    To observe sublingual vein characteristics and the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) proteins in sublingual tissues of Beagle dogs with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Twelve Beagle dogs were randomly divided into normal control group and cirrhotic portal hypertension group. There were 6 dogs in each group. A canine model of cirrhosis portal hypertension was established by injecting dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) into portal vein once a week for 7 weeks. The characteristics of sublingual vein were observed. Portal venous pressure was measured by using bioelectric recording techniques. The expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual vein were detected by immunohistochemical method. The shape and color of sublingual vein in beagle dogs in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group changed obviously as compared with the normal control group. Immunohistochemical results showed that there were almost no expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the normal control group; however, the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in the cirrhotic portal hypertension group significantly increased. Changes of portal pressure may lead to the formation of the abnormal sublingual vein by increasing the expressions of VEGF and HIF-1alpha proteins in sublingual tissues in Beagle dogs with portal hypertension.

  7. Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain inhibits FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Jiang, Yuan; An, Yuan; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Yu, Chundong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Stress Cell Biology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)


    Highlights: {yields} Soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) was effectively expressed. {yields} FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced palmitic acid-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells. {yields} FGFR4-ECD reduced tetracycline-induced fatty liver in mice. {yields} FGFR4-ECD partially restored tetracycline-repressed PPAR{alpha} expression. -- Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hepatic bile acid and lipid metabolism. FGFR4 underlies high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis, suggesting that inhibition of FGFR4 activation may be an effective way to prevent or treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To determine whether neutralization of FGFR4 ligands by soluble FGFR4 extracellular domain (FGFR4-ECD) can inhibit the activation of FGFR4, we constructed FGFR4-ECD expression vector and showed that FGFR4-ECD was effectively expressed in cells and secreted into culture medium. FGFR4-ECD inhibited FGF19-induced activation of FGFR4 signaling and reduced steatosis of HepG2 induced by palmitic acid in vitro. Furthermore, in a tetracycline-induced fatty liver model, expression of FGFR4-ECD in mouse liver reduced the accumulation of hepatic lipids and partially restored the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), which promotes the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation but is repressed by tetracycline. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FGFR4-ECD can block FGFR4 signaling and prevent hepatic steatosis, highlighting the potential value of inhibition of FGFR4 signaling as a method for therapeutic intervention against NAFLD.

  8. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promotes the expression of immunosuppressive proteins and enhances the cell growth in a human bone marrow-derived stem cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miettinen, Johanna A., E-mail: [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Pietilae, Mika [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Salonen, Riikka J. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ohlmeier, Steffen [Proteomics Core Facility, Biocenter Oulu, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Ylitalo, Kari; Huikuri, Heikki V. [Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Lehenkari, Petri [Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)


    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in experimental treatments for various conditions that involve normal tissue regeneration via inflammatory repair. It is known that MSCs can secrete multiple soluble factors and suppress inflammation. Even though the effect of MSCs on inflammation has been extensively studied, the effect of inflammation on MSCs is poorly understood. One of the major cytokines released at the site of inflammation is tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) which is known to induce MSC invasion and proliferation. Therefore, we wanted to test the effects of TNF-{alpha} exposure on MSCs derived from human bone marrow. We found, as expected, that cell proliferation was significantly enhanced during TNF-{alpha} exposure. However, according to the cell surface marker analysis, the intensity of several antigens in the minimum criteria panel for MSCs proposed by International Society of Cellular Therapy (ISCT) was decreased dramatically, and in certain cases, the criteria for MSCs were not fulfilled. In addition, TNF-{alpha} exposure resulted in a significant but transient increase in human leukocyte antigen and CD54 expression. Additional proteomic analysis by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry revealed three proteins whose expression levels decreased and 8 proteins whose expression levels increased significantly during TNF-{alpha} exposure. The majority of these proteins could be linked to immunosuppressive and signalling pathways. These results strongly support reactive and immunosuppressive activation of MSCs during TNF-{alpha} exposure, which might influence MSC differentiation stage and capacity.

  9. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten


    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect...... cells, all others in Escherichia coli. IC(50) studies involving the established CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBBt, TBBz, apigenin and emodin were carried out and the K(i) values calculated. Although the differences in the K(i) values found were modest, there was a general tendency showing that the CK2...... holoenzymes were more sensitive towards the inhibitors than the free catalytic subunits. Thermal inactivation experiments involving the individual catalytic subunits showed an almost complete loss of activity after only 2 min at 45 degrees C. In the case of the two holoenzymes, the CK2alpha...

  10. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha. (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas


    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  11. Acrolein inhibits cytokine gene expression by alkylating cysteine and arginine residues in the NF-kappaB1 DNA binding domain. (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; Li, Jimei; Jonscher, Karen; Yang, Teng-Chieh; Reigan, Philip; Quintana, Megan; Harvey, Jean; Freed, Brian M


    Cigarette smoke is a potent inhibitor of pulmonary T cell responses, resulting in decreased immune surveillance and an increased incidence of respiratory tract infections. The alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke (acrolein and crotonaldehyde) inhibited production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by human T cells but did not inhibit production of IL-8. The saturated aldehydes (acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde) in cigarette smoke were inactive. Acrolein inhibited induction of NF-kappaB DNA binding activity after mitogenic stimulation of T cells but had no effect on induction of NFAT or AP-1. Acrolein inhibited NF-kappaB1 (p50) binding to the IL-2 promoter in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay by >99%. Using purified recombinant p50 in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that acrolein was 2000-fold more potent than crotonaldehyde in blocking DNA binding to an NF-kappaB consensus sequence. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and tandem mass spectrometry demonstrated that acrolein alkylated two amino acids (Cys-61 and Arg-307) in the DNA binding domain. Crotonaldehyde reacted with Cys-61, but not Arg-307, whereas the saturated aldehydes in cigarette smoke did not react with p50. These experiments demonstrate that aldehydes in cigarette smoke can regulate gene expression by direct modification of a transcription factor.

  12. Recombinant expression in E. coli of human FGFR2 with its transmembrane and extracellular domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bajinting


    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases containing three domains: an extracellular receptor domain, a single transmembrane helix, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. FGFRs are activated by fibroblast growth factors (FGFs as part of complex signal transduction cascades regulating angiogenesis, skeletal formation, cell differentiation, proliferation, cell survival, and cancer. We have developed the first recombinant expression system in E. coli to produce a construct of human FGFR2 containing its transmembrane and extracellular receptor domains. We demonstrate that the expressed construct is functional in binding heparin and dimerizing. Size exclusion chromatography demonstrates that the purified FGFR2 does not form a complex with FGF1 or adopts an inactive dimer conformation. Progress towards the successful recombinant production of intact FGFRs will facilitate further biochemical experiments and structure determination that will provide insight into how extracellular FGF binding activates intracellular kinase activity.

  13. Interferon beta 1, an intermediate in the tumor necrosis factor alpha- induced increased MHC class I expression and an autocrine regulator of the constitutive MHC class I expression



    In conclusion, our observations indicate that the constitutive MHC class I expression is regulated by autocrine production of IFN-beta 1. TNF-alpha acts as an enhancer of the autocrine production of IFN-beta 1, and consequently as an enhancer of the MHC class I expression and viral protection.

  14. PPAR-alpha agonist treatment increases trefoil factor family-3 expression and attenuates apoptosis in the liver tissue of bile duct-ligated rats. (United States)

    Karakan, Tarkan; Kerem, Mustafa; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Engin, Doruk; Alper, Murat; Akın, Okan


    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha activation modulates cholesterol metabolism and suppresses bile acid synthesis. The trefoil factor family comprises mucin-associated proteins that increase the viscosity of mucins and help protect epithelial linings from insults. We evaluated the effect of short-term administration of fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha agonist, on trefoil factor family-3 expression, degree of apoptosis, generation of free radicals, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the liver tissue of bile duct-ligated rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1 = sham operated, 2 = bile duct ligation, 3 = bile duct-ligated + vehicle (gum Arabic), and 4 = bile duct-ligated + fenofibrate (100 mg/kg/day). All rats were sacrificed on the 7 th day after obtaining blood samples and liver tissue. Liver function tests, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1 beta in serum, and trefoil factor family-3 mRNA expression, degree of apoptosis (TUNEL) and tissue malondialdehyde (malondialdehyde, end-product of lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species) in liver tissue were evaluated. Fenofibrate administration significantly reduced serum total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1β levels. Apoptosis and malondialdehyde were significantly reduced in the fenofibrate group. Trefoil factor family-3 expression increased with fenofibrate treatment in bile duct-ligated rats. The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha agonist fenofibrate significantly increased trefoil factor family-3 expression and decreased apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in the liver and attenuated serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in bile duct-ligated rats. Further studies are needed to determine the protective role of fenofibrate in human cholestatic disorders.

  15. Identification of the gamma subunit-interacting residues on photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase, PDE6alpha '. (United States)

    Granovsky, A E; Artemyev, N O


    Photoreceptor cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) is the effector enzyme in the G protein-mediated visual transduction cascade. In the dark, the activity of PDE6 is shut off by the inhibitory gamma subunit (Pgamma). Chimeric proteins between cone PDE6alpha' and cGMP-binding and cGMP-specific PDE (PDE5) have been constructed and expressed in Sf9 cells to study the mechanism of inhibition of PDE6 catalytic activity by Pgamma. Substitution of the segment PDE5-(773-820) by the corresponding PDE6alpha'-(737-784) sequence in the wild-type PDE5 or in a PDE5/PDE6alpha' chimera containing the catalytic domain of PDE5 results in chimeric enzymes capable of inhibitory interaction with Pgamma. The catalytic properties of the chimeric PDEs remained similar to those of PDE5. Ala-scanning mutational analysis of the Pgamma-binding region, PDE6alpha'-(750-760), revealed PDE6alpha' residues essential for the interaction. The M758A mutation markedly impaired and the Q752A mutation moderately impaired the inhibition of chimeric PDE by Pgamma. The analysis of the catalytic properties of mutant PDEs and a model of the PDE6 catalytic domain suggest that residues Met(758) and Gln(752) directly bind Pgamma. A model of the PDE6 catalytic site shows that PDE6alpha'-(750-760) forms a loop at the entrance to the cGMP-binding pocket. Binding of Pgamma to Met(758) would effectively block access of cGMP to the catalytic cavity, providing a structural basis for the mechanism of PDE6 inhibition.

  16. Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang


    Full Text Available The development of human benign or malignant prostatic diseases is closely associated with androgens, primarily testosterone (T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. T is converted to DHT by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR isozymes. Differential expression of 5-AR isozymes is observed in both human benign and malignant prostatic tissues. 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARI are commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and were once promoted as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer (PCa. This review discusses the role of the differential expression of 5-AR in the normal development of the human prostate and in the pathogenesis and progression of BPH and PCa.

  17. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopic analysis of depolarization-induced expression of PGC-1alpha in cultured rat visual cortical neurons. (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret


    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC- 1alpha) is a coactivator of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors that regulate several metabolic processes, including mitochondrial biogenesis, energy homeostasis, respiration, and gluconeogenesis. PGC-1alpha plays a vital role in stimulating genes that are important to oxidative metabolism and other mitochondrial functions in brown adipose tissue and skeleton muscles, but the significance of PGC-1alpha in the brain remains elusive. The goal of our present study was to determine by means of quantitative immuno-electron microscopy the expression of PGC-1alpha in cultured rat visual cortical neurons under normal conditions as well as after depolarizing stimulation for varying periods of time. Our results showed that: (a) PGC-1alpha was normally located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. In the nucleus, PGC-1alpha was associated mainly with euchromatin rather than heterochromatin, consistent with active involvement in transcription. In the cytoplasm, it was associated mainly with free ribosomes. (b) Neuronal depolarization by KCl for 0.5 h induced a significant increase in PGC-1alpha labeling density in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm (Pneuronal activity by synthesizing more proteins in the cytoplasm and translocating them to the nucleus for gene activation. PGC-1alpha level in neurons is, therefore, tightly regulated by neuronal activity.

  18. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and its downstream targets in fibroepithelial tumors of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno; Groep, P. van der; Wall, E. van der; Diest, P.J. van


    INTRODUCTION Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha and its downstream targets carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are key factors in the survival of proliferating tumor cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. We studied the expression and prognostic relevance

  19. Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis (United States)


    future predictive modeling toolkits. 1 1. Introduction The use of Bacillus anthracis as a bio - weapon in the United States in 2001 affirmed the need...for improved sensing and detection of biological weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Protective Antigen (PA) protein of Bacillus anthracis is the...Cloning and Expressing Recombinant Protective Antigen Domains of B. anthracis by Deborah A. Sarkes, Joshua M. Kogot, Irene Val-Addo

  20. Evidence for Alpha Receptors in the Human Ureter (United States)

    Madeb, Ralph; Knopf, Joy; Golijanin, Dragan; Bourne, Patricia; Erturk, Erdal


    An immunohistochemical and western blot expression analysis of human ureters was performed in order to characterize the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor distribution along the length of the human ureteral wall. Mapping the distribution will assist in understanding the potential role alpha -1-adrenergic receptors and their subtype density might have in the pathophysiology of ureteral colic and stone passage. Patients diagnosed with renal cancer or bladder cancer undergoing nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, or cystectomy had ureteral specimens taken from the proximal, mid, distal and tunneled ureter. Tissues were processed for fresh frozen examination and fixed in formalin. None of the ureteral specimens were involved with cancer. Serial histologic sections and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies specific for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1a, alpha 1b, alpha 1d). The sections were examined under a light microscope and scored as positive or negative. In order to validate and quantify the alpha receptor subtypes along the human ureter. Western blotting techniques were applied. Human ureter stained positively for alpha -1-adrenergic receptors. Immunostaining appeared red, with intense reaction in the smooth muscle of the ureter and endothelium of the neighboring blood vessels. There was differential expression between all the receptors with the highest staining for alpha-1D subtype. The highest protein expression for all three subtypes was in the renal pelvis and decreased with advancement along the ureter to the distal ureter. At the distal ureter, there was marked increase in expression as one progressed towards the ureteral orifice. The same pattern of protein expression was exhibited for all three alpha -1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. We provide preliminary evidence for the ability to detect and quantify the alpha-1-receptor subtypes along the human ureter which to the best of our knowledge has never been done with

  1. Topology characterization of a benzodiazepine-binding beta-rich domain of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit. (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwen; Fang, Shisong; Shi, Haifeng; Li, Hoiming; Deng, Yiqun; Liao, Yinglei; Wu, Jiun-Ming; Zheng, Hui; Zhu, Huaimin; Chen, Hueih-Min; Tsang, Shui Ying; Xue, Hong


    Structural investigation of GABAA receptors has been limited by difficulties imposed by its trans-membrane-complex nature. In the present study, the topology of a membrane-proximal beta-rich (MPB) domain in the C139-L269 segment of the receptor alpha1 subunit was probed by mapping the benzodiazepine (BZ)-binding and epitopic sites, as well as fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. Ala-scanning and semiconservative substitutions within this segment revealed the contribution of the phenyl rings of Y160 and Y210, the hydroxy group of S186 and the positive charge on R187 to BZ-binding. FRET with the bound BZ ligand indicated the proximity of Y160, S186, R187, and S206 to the BZ-binding site. On the other hand, epitope-mapping using the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the MPB domain established a clustering of T172, R173, E174, Q196, and T197. Based on the lack of FRET between Trp substitutionally placed at R173 or V198 and bound BZ, this epitope-mapped cluster is located on a separate end of the folded protein from the BZ-binding site. Mutations of the five conserved Cys and Trp residues in the MPB domain gave rise to synergistic and rescuing effects on protein secondary structures and unfolding stability that point to a CCWCW-pentad, reminiscent to the CWC-triad "pin" of immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, important for the structural maintenance. These findings, together with secondary structure and fold predictions suggest an anti-parallel beta-strand topology with resemblance to Ig-like fold, having the BZ-binding and the epitopic residues being clustered at two different ends of the fold.

  2. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats


    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. METHODS: One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fe...

  3. The Structure of Neurexin 1[alpha] Reveals Features Promoting a Role as Synaptic Organizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Fang; Venugopal, Vandavasi; Murray, Beverly; Rudenko, Gabby (Michigan)


    {alpha}-Neurexins are essential synaptic adhesion molecules implicated in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The {alpha}-neurexin extracellular domain consists of six LNS domains interspersed by three EGF-like repeats and interacts with many different proteins in the synaptic cleft. To understand how {alpha}-neurexins might function as synaptic organizers, we solved the structure of the neurexin 1{alpha} extracellular domain (n1{alpha}) to 2.65 {angstrom}. The L-shaped molecule can be divided into a flexible repeat I (LNS1-EGF-A-LNS2), a rigid horseshoe-shaped repeat II (LNS3-EGF-B-LNS4) with structural similarity to so-called reelin repeats, and an extended repeat III (LNS5-EGF-B-LNS6) with controlled flexibility. A 2.95 {angstrom} structure of n1{alpha} carrying splice insert SS3 in LNS4 reveals that SS3 protrudes as a loop and does not alter the rigid arrangement of repeat II. The global architecture imposed by conserved structural features enables {alpha}-neurexins to recruit and organize proteins in distinct and variable ways, influenced by splicing, thereby promoting synaptic function.

  4. Expression and kinetic properties of a recombinant 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isoenzyme of human liver. (United States)

    Deyashiki, Y; Tamada, Y; Miyabe, Y; Nakanishi, M; Matsuura, K; Hara, A


    Human liver cytosol contains multiple forms of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase with hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity, and multiple cDNAs for the enzymes have been cloned from human liver cDNA libraries. To understand the relationship of the multiple enzyme froms to the genes, a cDNA, which has been reported to code for an isoenzyme of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme showed structural and functional properties almost identical to those of the isoenzyme purified from human liver. In addition, the recombinant isoenzyme efficiently reduced 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone and 5 beta-dihydrocortisone, the known substrates of human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and chlordecone reductase previously purified, which suggests that these human liver enzymes are identical. Furthermore, the steady-state kinetic data for NADP(+)-linked (S)-1-indanol oxidation by the recombinant isoenzyme were consistent with a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADP+ binds first. Phenolphthalein inhibited this isoenzyme much more potently than it did the other human liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenases, and was a competitive inhibitor (Ki = 20 nM) that bound to the enzyme-NADP+ complex.

  5. Binding of alpha2ML1 to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 reveals a new role for LRP1 in the human epidermis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Florence Galliano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The multifunctional receptor LRP1 has been shown to bind and internalize a large number of protein ligands with biological importance such as the pan-protease inhibitor alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M. We recently identified Alpha2ML1, a new member of the alpha2M gene family, expressed in epidermis. alpha2ML1 might contribute to the regulation of desquamation through its inhibitory activity towards proteases of the chymotrypsin family, notably KLK7. The expression of LRP1 in epidermis as well as its ability to internalize alpha2ML1 was investigated. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In human epidermis, LRP1 is mainly expressed within the granular layer of the epidermis, which gathers the most differentiated keratinocytes, as shown by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence using two different antibodies. By using various experimental approaches, we show that the receptor binding domain of alpha2ML1 (RBDl is specifically internalized into the macrophage-like cell line RAW and colocalizes with LRP1 upon internalization. Coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that RBDl binds LRP1 at the cell surface. Addition of RAP, a universal inhibitor of ligand binding to LRP1, prevents RBDl binding at the cell surface as well as internalization into RAW cells. Silencing Lrp1 expression with specific siRNA strongly reduces RBDl internalization. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Keratinocytes of the upper differentiated layers of epidermis express LRP1 as well as alpha2ML1. Our study also reveals that alpha2ML1 is a new ligand for LRP1. Our findings are consistent with endocytosis by LRP1 of complexes formed between alpha2ML1 and proteases. LRP1 may thus control desquamation by regulating the biodisponibility of extracellular proteases.

  6. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium (United States)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun


    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  7. Expression of SCM-1alpha/lymphotactin and SCM-1beta in natural killer cells is upregulated by IL-2 and IL-12. (United States)

    Hennemann, B; Tam, Y K; Tonn, T; Klingemann, H G


    Recruitment of lymphocytes is an important feature of the host immune response against pathogens. However, the mechanisms by which lymphocytes are attracted are not yet fully understood. Recently, the cDNA of a lymphocyte-specific chemokine, lymphotactin (Lptn), was isolated from murine and human T cells and was also found to be expressed in murine NK cells and human NK cell clones. This study investigated the influence of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12 on the expression of Lptn, also known as SCM (single cysteine motif)-1alpha, and SCM-1beta, a 97% homolog of Lptn, in freshly isolated human NK cells and the human NK cell line NK-92. Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR confirmed that nonactivated human NK cells expressed both genes at low level. After activation with IL-2 or IL-12, the expression of both Lptn and SCM-1beta was upregulated within hours. NK-92 cells maintained in medium supplemented with IL-2 constitutively expressed SCM-1 mRNA. However, after 24 h of IL-2 starvation and subsequent culturing at various IL-2 concentrations, the expression of Lptn/SCM-1alpha was upregulated in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the expression of SCM-1beta remained consistently high. These observations indicate that NK cells, in addition to T lymphocytes, express Lptn/SCM-1alpha and SCM-1beta after cytokine activation. The upregulation of these chemokines in NK cells on activation likely acts to increase the number of effector cells reaching the site of an immune response such as inflammation.

  8. Differential Recognition of CD1d-[alpha]-Galactosyl Ceramide by the V[beta]8.2 and V[beta]7 Semi-invariant NKT T Cell Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellicci, Daniel G.; Patel, Onisha; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Pang, Siew Siew; Sullivan, Lucy C.; Kyparissoudis, Konstantinos; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reid, Hugh H.; Gras, Stephanie; Lucet, Isabelle S.; Koh, Ruide; Smyth, Mark J.; Mallevaey, Thierry; Matsuda, Jennifer L.; Gapin, Laurent; McCluskey, James; Godfrey, Dale I.; Rossjohn, Jamie; PMCI-A; Monash; UCHSC; Melbourne


    The semi-invariant natural killer T cell receptor (NKT TCR) recognizes CD1d-lipid antigens. Although the TCR{alpha} chain is typically invariant, the {beta} chain expression is more diverse, where three V{beta} chains are commonly expressed in mice. We report the structures of V{alpha}14-V{beta}8.2 and V{alpha}14-V{beta}7 NKT TCRs in complex with CD1d-{alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and the 2.5 {angstrom} structure of the human NKT TCR-CD1d-{alpha}-GalCer complex. Both V{beta}8.2 and V{beta}7 NKT TCRs and the human NKT TCR ligated CD1d-{alpha}-GalCer in a similar manner, highlighting the evolutionarily conserved interaction. However, differences within the V{beta} domains of the V{beta}8.2 and V{beta}7 NKT TCR-CD1d complexes resulted in altered TCR{beta}-CD1d-mediated contacts and modulated recognition mediated by the invariant {alpha} chain. Mutagenesis studies revealed the differing contributions of V{beta}8.2 and V{beta}7 residues within the CDR2{beta} loop in mediating contacts with CD1d. Collectively we provide a structural basis for the differential NKT TCR V{beta} usage in NKT cells.

  9. Genome-wide survey and developmental expression mapping of zebrafish SET domain-containing genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jian Sun

    Full Text Available SET domain-containing proteins represent an evolutionarily conserved family of epigenetic regulators, which are responsible for most histone lysine methylation. Since some of these genes have been revealed to be essential for embryonic development, we propose that the zebrafish, a vertebrate model organism possessing many advantages for developmental studies, can be utilized to study the biological functions of these genes and the related epigenetic mechanisms during early development. To this end, we have performed a genome-wide survey of zebrafish SET domain genes. 58 genes total have been identified. Although gene duplication events give rise to several lineage-specific paralogs, clear reciprocal orthologous relationship reveals high conservation between zebrafish and human SET domain genes. These data were further subject to an evolutionary analysis ranging from yeast to human, leading to the identification of putative clusters of orthologous groups (COGs of this gene family. By means of whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization strategy, we have also carried out a developmental expression mapping of these genes. A group of maternal SET domain genes, which are implicated in the programming of histone modification states in early development, have been identified and predicted to be responsible for all known sites of SET domain-mediated histone methylation. Furthermore, some genes show specific expression patterns in certain tissues at certain stages, suggesting the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the development of these systems. These results provide a global view of zebrafish SET domain histone methyltransferases in evolutionary and developmental dimensions and pave the way for using zebrafish to systematically study the roles of these genes during development.

  10. Identification of the NC1 domain of {alpha}3 chain as critical for {alpha}3{alpha}4{alpha}5 type IV collagen network assembly. (United States)

    LeBleu, Valerie; Sund, Malin; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Birrane, Gabriel; Kanasaki, Keizo; Finan, Elizabeth; Miller, Caroline A; Gattone, Vincent H; McLaughlin, Heather; Shield, Charles F; Kalluri, Raghu


    The network organization of type IV collagen consisting of α3, α4, and α5 chains in the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is speculated to involve interactions of the triple helical and NC1 domain of individual α-chains, but in vivo evidence is lacking. To specifically address the contribution of the NC1 domain in the GBM collagen network organization, we generated a mouse with specific loss of α3NC1 domain while keeping the triple helical α3 chain intact by connecting it to the human α5NC1 domain. The absence of α3NC1 domain leads to the complete loss of the α4 chain. The α3 collagenous domain is incapable of incorporating the α5 chain, resulting in the impaired organization of the α3α4α5 chain-containing network. Although the α5 chain can assemble with the α1, α2, and α6 chains, such assembly is incapable of functionally replacing the α3α4α5 protomer. This novel approach to explore the assembly type IV collagen in vivo offers novel insights in the specific role of the NC1 domain in the assembly and function of GBM during health and disease.

  11. Enhanced expression in vivo of HLA-ABC antigens and beta 2-microglobulin on human lymphoid cells induced by human interferon-alpha in patients with lung cancer. Enhanced expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens prior to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Plesner, T; Larsen, J K


    than 0.5, respectively) by day-to-day analysis of an untreated healthy control group. An increased expression of both HLA-ABC (mean 55%, P less than 0.0005) and beta 2m (mean 23%, P less than 0.01) was also observed prior to treatment in the lung cancer patients when compared to a group of age matched......The effect of cloned human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on the expression of HLA-ABC antigens (HLA-ABC) and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) on human peripheral lymphoid cells in vivo was studied by cytofluorometry using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescein-labelled rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin....... A significant increase in the mean fluorescence intensity of HLA-ABC (median 59%, P less than 0.001) and beta 2m (median 57%, P less than 0.001) on small lymphoid cells was observed 24 h after initiation of IFN-alpha treatment (50 X 10(6) units IFN-alpha/m2 three times a week). The enhanced expression...

  12. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansing, Hope A. [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R. [Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berrier, Allison L., E-mail: [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States)


    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  13. Endocytosis of GPI-linked membrane folate receptor-alpha. (United States)

    Rijnboutt, S; Jansen, G; Posthuma, G; Hynes, J B; Schornagel, J H; Strous, G J


    GPI-linked membrane folate receptors (MFRs) have been implicated in the receptor-mediated uptake of reduced folate cofactors and folate-based chemotherapeutic drugs. We have studied the biosynthetic transport to and internalization of MFR isoform alpha in KB-cells. MFR-alpha was synthesized as a 32-kD protein and converted in a maturely glycosylated 36-38-kD protein 1 h after synthesis. 32-kD MFR-alpha was completely soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. In contrast, only 33% of the 36-38-kD species could be solubilized at these conditions whereas complete solubilization was obtained in Triton X-100 at 37 degrees C or in the presence of saponin at 0 degree C. Similar solubilization characteristics were found when MFR-alpha at the plasma membrane was labeled with a crosslinkable 125I-labeled photoaffinity-analog of folic acid as a ligand. Triton X-100-insoluble membrane domains containing MFR-alpha could be separated from soluble MFR-alpha on sucrose flotation gradients. Only Triton X-100 soluble MFR-alpha was internalized from the plasma membrane. The reduced-folate-carrier, an integral membrane protein capable of translocating (anti-)folates across membranes, was completely excluded from the Triton X-100-resistant membrane domains. Internalized MFR-alpha recycled slowly to the cell surface during which it remained soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found MFR-alpha along the entire endocytic pathway: in clathrin-coated buds and vesicles, and in small and large endosomal vacuoles. In conclusion, our data indicate that a large fraction, if not all, of internalizing MFR-alpha bypasses caveolae.

  14. Enhanced expression and purification of camelid single domain VHH antibodies from classical inclusion bodies. (United States)

    Maggi, Maristella; Scotti, Claudia


    Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) are small antigen-binding domains derived from naturally occurring, heavy chain-only immunoglobulins isolated from camelid and sharks. They maintain the same binding capability of full-length IgGs but with improved thermal stability and permeability, which justifies their scientific, medical and industrial interest. Several described recombinant forms of sdAbs have been produced in different hosts and with different strategies. Here we present an optimized method for a time-saving, high yield production and extraction of a poly-histidine-tagged sdAb from Escherichia coli classical inclusion bodies. Protein expression and extraction were attempted using 4 different methods (e.g. autoinducing or IPTG-induced soluble expression, non-classical and classical inclusion bodies). The best method resulted to be expression in classical inclusion bodies and urea-mediated protein extraction which yielded 60-70 mg/l bacterial culture. The method we here describe can be of general interest for an enhanced and efficient heterologous expression of sdAbs for research and industrial purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. p55PIK regulates alpha-fetoprotein expression through the NF-κB signaling pathway. (United States)

    Ye, Guoguo; Sun, Ge; Cheng, Zhikui; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Kanghong; Xia, Xianmin; Zhou, Yin


    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is regarded as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the regulation of AFP expression in HCC remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which AFP expression is regulated by p55PIK, an isoform of PI3K. Human HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Huh-7) were treated with p55PIK specific competitive inhibitor or shRNA, or p55PIK overexpression vector, in the absence or presence of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC. AFP expression was detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. NF-κB responsive elements in AFP enhancer region were characterized by luciferase reporter assay. p55PIK significantly stimulated the expression of AFP by activating NF-κB signaling pathway in HCC cells. Furthermore, two NF-κB binding sites in AFP enhancer region were identified to be primarily responsible for p55PIK mediated upregulation of AFP expression. p55PIK/NF-κB signaling plays an important role in the upregulation of AFP expression in HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Astrocyte-targeted expression of interleukin-3 and interferon-alpha causes region-specific changes in metallothionein expression in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giralt, M; Carrasco, J; Penkowa, M


    Transgenic mice expressing IL-3 and IFN-alpha under the regulatory control of the GFAP gene promoter (GFAP-IL3 and GFAP-IFNalpha mice) exhibit a cytokine-specific, late-onset chronic-progressive neurological disorder which resemble many of the features of human diseases such as multiple sclerosis...... was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. MT-III immunoreactivity was present in cells that were mainly round or amoeboid monocytes/macrophages and in astrocytes. MT-I+II induction was more generalized in the GFAP-IFNalpha (GIFN12 and GIFN39 lines) mice, with significant increases in the cerebellum, thalamus...

  17. An X11alpha/FSBP complex represses transcription of the GSK3beta gene promoter.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lau, Kwok-Fai


    X11alpha is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a centrally located phosphotyrosine binding domain to inhibit the production of Abeta peptide that is deposited in Alzheimer\\'s disease brains. X11alpha also contains two C-terminal postsynaptic density-95, large discs, zona occludens 1 (PDZ) domains, and we show here that through its PDZ domains, X11alpha interacts with a novel transcription factor, fibrinogen silencer binding protein. Moreover, we show that an X11alpha\\/fibrinogen silencer binding protein complex signals to the nucleus to repress glycogen synthase kinase-3beta promoter activity. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is a favoured candidate kinase for phosphorylating tau in Alzheimer\\'s disease. Our findings show a new function for X11alpha that may impact on Alzheimer\\'s disease pathogenesis.

  18. Apoptosis of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells induced by quercetin targeting mitochondria, inhibiting expression of PKC-alpha and translocating PKC-delta. (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Ming; Chen, Jia; Xia, Yu-Gui; Xu, Qiang


    In our previous study, quercetin was found to induce apoptosis of murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells. The cellular and molecular mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis was investigated in the present study. Nuclear morphology was determined by fluorescence microscopy. DNA fragmentation was analyzed by electrophoresis and quantified by the diphenylamine method. The transmembrane potential of mitochondria was measured by flow cytometry. Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and PKC-delta were detected by Western blotting. Caspase activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin induced the condensation of nuclei of B16-BL6 cells in a dose-dependent pattern as visualized by Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide dying. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, significantly enhanced apoptosis induced by quercetin, while doxorubicin, a PKC inhibitor, markedly decreased it. Both PMA and doxorubicin showed a consistent effect on the fragmentation of nuclear DNA caused by various dosages of quercetin. Quercetin dose-dependently led to loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, which was also significantly reinforced or antagonized by PMA and doxorubicin, respectively. Moreover, PMA showed reinforcement, while doxorubicin showed significant antagonization, of the quercetin-mediated decrease in the expression of Bcl-2. Quercetin promoted caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner, which was also regulated by PMA and doxorubicin with a pattern similar to that seen in their effect on apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential and Bcl-2 expression, but none of these were directly affected by PMA and doxorubicin. Free fatty acid and chlorpromazine, a PKC activator and inhibitor, respectively, did not interfere with these effects of quercetin. B16-BL6 cells expressed PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and PKC-delta. Quercetin dose-dependently inhibited the expression of PKC-alpha but not that of PKC-beta and PKC-delta. Doxorubicin almost completely blocked the effect of

  19. High Resistance of Human Parainfluenza Type 2 Virus Protein-Expressing Cells to the Antiviral and Anti-Cell Proliferative Activities of Alpha/Beta Interferons: Cysteine-Rich V-Specific Domain Is Required for High Resistance to the Interferons


    Nishio, Machiko; Tsurudome, Masato; Ito, Morihiro; Kawano, Mitsuo; Komada, Hiroshi; Ito, Yasuhiko


    Human parainfluenza type 2 virus (hPIV-2)-infected HeLa (HeLa-CA) cells and hPIV-2 V-expressing HeLa (HeLa-V) cells show high resistance to alpha/beta interferons (IFN-α/β) irrespective of whether vesicular stomatitis virus or Sindbis virus is used as a challenge virus. When Sindbis virus is used, these cells show high susceptibility to human IFN-γ. Furthermore, the multiplication of HeLa-V cells is not inhibited by IFN-α/β. HeLa cells expressing the N-terminally truncated V protein show resi...

  20. Induced expression of mRNA for IL-5, IL-6, TNF-alpha, MIP-2 and IFN-gamma in immunologically activated rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by dexamethasone and cyclosporin A. (United States)

    Williams, C M; Coleman, J W


    We examined the capacity of purified rat peritoneal connective tissue-type mast cells (PMC) to express mRNA for several cytokines. Stimulation of PMC with anti-IgE for 4 hr induced the expression of mRNA encoding interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Unstimulated PMC expressed detectable mRNA for TNF-alpha but not for the other four cytokines. Incubation of PMC with cyclosporin A (CsA) or dexamethasone (DEX), each at 10(-6) M for 24 hr, significantly inhibited the induced expression of mRNA for each of the five cytokines, and also inhibited release of biologically active TNF-alpha. Throughout these experiments mRNA levels of the housekeeping gene G3PDH were not altered by stimulation with anti-IgE or incubation with CsA or DEX. We conclude that immunological activation of rat PMC induces gene expression of several cytokines and that expression of these genes can be inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs.

  1. T cell Ig domain and mucin domain 1 engagement on invariant NKT cells in the presence of TCR stimulation enhances IL-4 production but inhibits IFN-gamma production. (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Doo Hyun


    The T cell Ig domain and mucin domain (TIM)1 protein expressed on the surface of Th2 cells regulates the immune response by modulating cytokine production. However, the functional roles of TIM1 have not been examined in NKT cells. Therefore, we investigated the immunologic effects of TIM1 on NKT cells. We found that mouse NK1.1(+)TCR-beta(+), alpha-galactosyl ceramide/CD1d dimer(+) NKT, and NKT hybridoma (DN32.D3) cells constitutively express TIM1 and TIM4 on their surface. Engagement of TIM1 on NKT cells by any of several anti-TIM1 mAbs suppressed the production of IFN-gamma in the presence of TCR stimulation in vitro and in vivo, whereas the effects of such engagement on Th2 cytokine production by the NKT cells varied with the particular anti-TIM1 Ab clone. Moreover, in DN32.D3 TIM4-knockdown NKT hybridoma cells, TIM1 engagement by rTIM1 or TIM4 enhanced IL-4 production while inhibiting IFN-gamma production in the presence of alpha-galactosyl ceramide stimulation. TIM1 engagement increased GATA-3 expression but reduced T-bet expression in NKT cells in the presence of TCR engagement. The adoptive transfer of NKT cells preincubated with anti-TIM1 mAbs into Jalpha18(-/-) mice aggravated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing IFN-gamma production. Taken together, these results suggest that TIM1 costimulation on NKT cells enhances the cellular production of IL-4 while inhibiting the production of IFN-gamma. Thus, as a differential regulator of the immune response, TIM1 on NKT cells may be a useful therapeutic target for immune diseases.

  2. Inhibition of HIF-2.alpha. heterodimerization with HIF1.beta. (ARNT) (United States)

    Bruick, Richard K.; Caldwell, Charles G.; Frantz, Doug E.; Gardner, Kevin H.; MacMillan, John B.; Scheuermann, Thomas H.; Tambar, Uttam K.


    Provided is a method of inhibiting heterodimerization of HIF-2.alpha. to HIF1.beta. (ARNT) comprising binding certain small molecules to the HIF-2.alpha. PAS-B domain cavity but not to HIF1.alpha. and inhibiting HIF-2.alpha. heterodimerization to HIF1.beta. (ARNT) but not inhibiting HIF1.alpha. heterodimerization to HIF1.beta. (ARNT). Those certain small molecules are also referenced synonymously as HIF2-HDI and HIF2.alpha. heterodimerization inhibitors and also simply as certain small molecules.

  3. [Expression of glomerular heparan sulfate domains in pediatric patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome]. (United States)

    Dong, Li-Qun; Wang, Zheng; Yu, Ping; Guo, Yan-Nan; Wu, Jin; Feng, Shi-Pin; Li, Sha


    To investigate the expression of glomerular heparin sulfate (HS) in paediatric patients with minimal change nephritic syndrome (MCNS). The kidyney tissues were collected by biopsy from 13 paediatric patients with MCNS, while 5 normal renal biopsy samples were used as control. HS in glomeruli was analysed by indirect immunofluorescence staining using four different monoclonal antibodies, Hepss1, 3G10, JM403 and 10E4, which all recognize distinct HS species and each interacts with a specific HS domain. The concentrations of urine heparan sulfate also were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa). Expression of HS fine domains was aberrant in paediatric patients compared with control subjects. Children with MCNS in replase showed a decreased glomerular expression of 10E4, JM403 and Hepss1 (P peadiatric patients with MCNS when compared with that in control subjects (P < 0.01). These results suggest that loss of heparan sulphate in renal tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of MCNS proteinuria.

  4. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Thokala

    Full Text Available Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs. The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb, coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR's in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies.

  5. Human pro. cap alpha. 1)(I) collagen: cDNA sequence for the C-propeptide domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, J K; Raassina, M; Virta, A; Vuorio, E


    The authors have previously constructed a cDNA clone pHCAL1, covering most of the C-terminal propeptide domain of human pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen mRNA,by inserting a 678 bp EcoRI-XhoI fragment of cDNA into pBR322. Since the XhoI/SalI ligation prevented removal of the insert, they used the same strategy to obtain a similar clone in pUC8. RNA was isolated from fetal calvarial bones. The cDNA was digested with EcoRI and XhoI and fractionated on a 1 % agarose gel. Fragments of 650-700 bp were cloned in pUC8 at the polylinker site, which now permits easy removal of the insert. The new clone was named pHCAL1U since the RNA was isolated from another individual. The approach outlined is useful for studies on individual variation which is important to recognize when searching for disease-related mutations in type I collagen.

  6. A transmembrane polar interaction is involved in the functional regulation of integrin alpha L beta 2. (United States)

    Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Chng, Choon-Peng; Parthasarathy, Krupakar; Tang, Xiao-Yan; Torres, Jaume; Tan, Suet-Mien


    Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane (TM) receptors formed by noncovalent associations of alpha and beta subunits. Each subunit contains a single alpha-helical TM domain. Inside-out activation of an integrin involves the separation of its cytoplasmic tails, leading to disruption of alphabeta TM packing. The leukocyte integrin alpha L beta 2 is required for leukocyte adhesion, migration, proliferation, cytotoxic function, and antigen presentation. In this study, we show by mutagenesis experiments that the packing of alpha L beta 2 TMs is consistent with that of the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 TMs. However, molecular dynamics simulations of alpha L beta 2 TMs in lipids predicted a polar interaction involving the side chains of alpha L Ser1071 and beta2 Thr686 in the outer-membrane association clasp (OMC). This is supported by carbonyl vibrational shifts observed in isotope-labeled alpha L beta 2 TM peptides that were incorporated into lipid bilayers. Molecular dynamics studies simulating the separation of alpha L beta 2 tails showed the presence of polar interaction during the initial perturbation of the inner-membrane association clasp. When the TMs underwent further separation, the polar interaction was disrupted. OMC polar interaction is important in regulating the functions of beta2 integrins because mutations that disrupt the OMC polar interaction generated constitutively activated alpha L beta 2, alpha M beta 2, and alpha X beta 2 in 293T transfectants. We also show that the expression of mutant beta2 Thr686Gly in beta2-deficient T cells rescued cell adhesion to intercellular adhesion molecule 1, but the cells showed overt elongated morphologies in response to chemokine stromal-cell-derived factor 1 alpha treatment as compared to wild-type beta2-expressing cells. These two TM polar residues are totally conserved in other members of the beta2 integrins in humans and across different species. Our results provide an example of the stabilizing effect of polar

  7. Human Alpha Defensin 5 Expression in the Human Kidney and Urinary Tract (United States)

    Porter, Edith; Bevins, Charles L.; DiRosario, Julianne; Becknell, Brian; Wang, Huanyu


    Background The mechanisms that maintain sterility in the urinary tract are incompletely understood. Recent studies have implicated the importance of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Here, we characterize the expression and relevance of the AMP human alpha-defensin 5 (HD5) in the human kidney and urinary tract in normal and infected subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RNA isolated from human kidney, ureter, and bladder tissue, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to show that DEFA5, the gene encoding HD5, is constitutively expressed throughout the urinary tract. With pyelonephritis, DEFA5 expression significantly increased in the kidney. Using immunoblot analysis, HD5 production also increased with pyelonephritis. Immunostaining localized HD5 to the urothelium of the bladder and ureter. In the kidney, HD5 was primarily produced in the distal nephron and collecting tubules. Using immunoblot and ELISA assays, HD5 was not routinely detected in non-infected human urine samples while mean urinary HD5 production increased with E.coli urinary tract infection. Conclusions/Significance DEFA5 is expressed throughout the urinary tract in non-infected subjects. Specifically, HD5 is expressed throughout the urothelium of the lower urinary tract and in the collecting tubules of the kidney. With infection, HD5 expression increases in the kidney and levels become detectable in the urine. To our knowledge, our findings represent the first to quantitate HD5 expression and production in the human kidney. Moreover, this is the first report to detect the presence of HD5 in infected urine samples. Our results suggest that HD5 may have an important role in maintaining urinary tract sterility. PMID:22359618

  8. Skn-1a/Oct-11 and {Delta}Np63{alpha} exert antagonizing effects on human keratin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lena, Anna Maria; Cipollone, Rita; Amelio, Ivano; Catani, Maria Valeria; Ramadan, Safaa [Biochemistry IDI-IRCCS Laboratory and Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , 00133, Rome (Italy); Browne, Gareth [MRC Toxicology Unit, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Melino, Gerry [Biochemistry IDI-IRCCS Laboratory and Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , 00133, Rome (Italy); MRC Toxicology Unit, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Candi, Eleonora, E-mail: [Biochemistry IDI-IRCCS Laboratory and Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , 00133, Rome (Italy)


    Research highlights: {yields} Skn-1a markedly downregulates {Delta}Np63-driven K14 expression. {yields} {Delta}Np63 inhibits Skn-1a-mediated K10 expression. {yields} {Delta}Np63, mutated in SAM domain, is less effecting in K10 downregulation. {yields} Immunolocalization in human skin of the two transcription factors is partially overlapping. {yields} The antagonistic effects of Skn-1a and p63 is through competition for overlapping responsive elements or through an indirect interaction. -- Abstract: The formation of a stratified epidermis requires a carefully controlled balance between keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we report the reciprocal effect on keratin expression of {Delta}Np63, pivotal in normal epidermal morphogenesis and maintenance, and Skn-1a/Oct-11, a POU transcription factor that triggers and regulates the differentiation of keratinocytes. The expression of Skn-1a markedly downregulated {Delta}Np63-driven K14 expression in luciferase reporter assays. The extent of downregulation was comparable to the inhibition of Skn-1a-mediated K10 expression upon expression of {Delta}Np63. {Delta}Np63, mutated in the protein-protein interaction domain (SAM domain; mutated in human ectodermal dysplasia syndrome), was significantly less effecting in downregulating K10, raising the possibility of a direct interaction among Skn-1a and {Delta}Np63. Immunolocalization in human skin biopsies revealed that the expression of the two transcription factors is partially overlapping. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments did not, however, demonstrate a direct interaction between {Delta}Np63 and Skn-1a, suggesting that the antagonistic effects of Skn-1a and p63 on keratin promoter transactivation is probably through competition for overlapping binding sites on target gene promoter or through an indirect interaction.

  9. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork


    challenged with phenylephrine (EC(50)=1.61x10(-8) M). From Schild analysis, prazosin, sertindole, risperidone, and haloperidol caused a concentration-dependent, rightward shift of the cumulative concentration-response curves for phenylephrine in cells expressing human recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors...... human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In summary, it can be concluded that there is an approximately 10-fold higher adrenoceptor affinity of risperidone and sertindole...... for human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors compared to haloperidol. These findings are consistent with the observation that risperidone and sertindole have a higher incidence of orthostatic hypotension than haloperidol....

  10. Inducible alpha-synuclein expression affects human Neural Stem Cell behavior. (United States)

    Zasso, Jacopo; Mastad, Ahmed; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Conti, Luciano


    Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular systems is a crucial step. Here we present a novel human Tet-on hNSC cell line, in which aSyn timing and level of expression can be tightly experimentally tuned. Induction of aSyn in self-renewing hNSCs leads to progressive formation of aSyn aggregates and impairs their proliferation and cell survival. Furthermore, aSyn induction during the neuronal differentiation process results in reduced neuronal differentiation and increased number astrocytes and undifferentiated cells in culture. Finally, acute aSyn induction in hNSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures results in cell toxicity. This novel conditional in vitro cell model system may be a valuable tool for dissecting of aSyn pathogenic effects in hNSCs and neurons and in developing new potential therapeutic strategies.

  11. Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees. (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Pascal, Thierry; Tabb, Amy; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris


    Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325 , having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP , was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-Alpha-Hydroxylase-Dependent Stimulation of Renal Klotho Expression by Spironolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Alesutan


    Full Text Available Background: Klotho, a transmembrane protein, protease and hormone mainly expressed in kidney, is required for the suppression of 1,25(OH2D3-generating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1 by FGF23. Conversely, 1,25(OH2D3 stimulates, by activating the vitamin D3 receptor (Vdr, the expression of klotho, thus establishing a negative feedback loop. Klotho protects against renal and vascular injury. Klotho deficiency accelerates aging and early death, effects at least partially due to excessive formation of 1,25(OH2D3 and subsequent hyperphosphatemia. Klotho expression is inhibited by aldosterone. The present study explored the interaction of aldosterone and DOCA as well as the moderately selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone on klotho expression. Methods: mRNA levels were determined utilizing quantitative RT-PCR in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293 or in renal tissues from mice without or with prior mineralocorticoid (aldosterone or DOCA and/or spironolactone treatment. In HEK293 cells, protein levels were determined by western blotting. The experiments in HEK293 cells were performed without or with silencing of CYP27B1, of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR or of mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2. Results: In HEK293 cells aldosterone and in mice DOCA significantly decreased KLOTHO gene expression, effects opposed by spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone treatment alone significantly increased KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in HEK293 cells (24 hours and mice (8 hours or 5 days. Moreover, spironolactone significantly increased klotho and CYP27B1 protein levels in HEK293 cells (48 hours. Reduced NR3C2 expression following silencing did not significantly affect KLOTHO and CYP27B1 transcript levels in presence or absence of spironolactone. Silencing of CYP27B1 and VDR significantly blunted the stimulating effect of spironolactone on KLOTHO mRNA levels in HEK293 cells. Conclusion: Besides blocking the effects of

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)


    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  14. Noninvasive visualization and quantification of tumor {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin expression using a novel positron emission tomography probe, {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhao-Hui [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako, E-mail: tfuru@nirs.go.j [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Galibert, Mathieu; Boturyn, Didier [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5250, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coll, Jean-Luc [INSERM U823, Institut Albert Bonniot and Universite Joseph Fourier, 38706 La Tronche Cedex, Grenoble (France); Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Saga, Tsuneo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Dumy, Pascal [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5250, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)


    Introduction: The {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin is a well-known transmembrane receptor involved in tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our aim was to evaluate a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe, {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}, for noninvasive visualization and quantification of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin expression. Methods: RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}, a tetrameric cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-based peptide, was conjugated with a bifunctional chelator, 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam), radiolabeled with the positron emitter {sup 64}Cu and evaluated in vitro by cell binding and competitive inhibition assays and in vivo by biodistribution and receptor blocking studies, and PET imaging. The following cell lines, human embryonic kidney HEK293({beta}{sub 1}) [{alpha}{sub V{beta}3}-negative] and HEK293({beta}{sub 3}) [{alpha}{sub V{beta}3}-overexpressing] and human glioblastoma U87MG [naturally expressing {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}], together with their subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice, were used for the present study. The expression levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} on these cell lines and tumor xenografts were analyzed by flow cytometry and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, respectively. Results: {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4} demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo specificity for the {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin and displayed rapid blood clearance, predominantly renal excretion and low uptake in nontumor tissues. Tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4} (3 h postinjection) in HEK293({beta}{sub 3}) (high levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}), U87MG (moderate levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}) and HEK293({beta}{sub 1}) (undetectable levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}) tumors was 9.35%{+-}1.19%, 3.46%{+-}0.45% and 1.18%{+-}0.30% injected dose per gram, respectively, with a strong and positive correlation with the tumor {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} expression levels

  15. Prothymosin-alpha and Ki-67 expression in pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Wierzbicka-Tutka


    Full Text Available Introduction: Prothymosin alpha (PTMA, a nuclear oncoprotein involved in cell cycle regulation, is used as a prognostic marker in many cancers. The histopathology of pituitary carcinomas and locally invasive adenomas is indistinguishable from that of benign tumors. A new marker is needed to differentiate these lesions. We evaluated PTMA in pituitary adenomas to determine its usefulness as a prognostic factor of tumor proliferation.Material/Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a group of 27 patients, including 15 females (56% and 12 males (44% with a mean age of 58.6±12 years, who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012. The Ki-67 and PTMA-nuclear (PTMA-n and PTMA-cytoplasmic (PTMA-c indices were determined by immunohistochemical staining. We studied histopathological features, clinical symptoms, and magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography performed before surgery and one year following surgery to evaluate tumor size and progression.Results: The expression of Ki-67 was revealed in 77.8% of adenomas, PTMA-n in 81.5% and PTMA-c in 92.6%. The mean value of the Ki-67 index was 1.8%, PTMA-n was 1.84%, and PTMA-c was 35.6%. There was a significant positive correlation between Ki-67 and PTMA-n (p=0.009. We did not find any correlation between Ki-67, PTMA-c, and tumor progression. PTMA-n was found to be correlated with tumor size (p=0.045 and was higher in the case of gonadotropinomas (p=0.026.Conclusions: The positive nuclear expression of Ki-67 and PTMA was observed in the majority of pituitary adenomas. Neither the expression of Ki-67 nor that of PTMA-c was related to tumor recurrence or local invasion.

  16. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A [Livermore, CA; Mitchell, Alexander R [Livermore, CA; De Yoreo, James J [Clayton, CA


    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  17. Expression of HIF-1{alpha} in irradiated tissue is altered by topical negative-pressure therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, A.; Stange, S.; Labanaris, A.; Horch, R.E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Plastic and Hand Surgery; Dimmler, A. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Pathology; Sauer, R.; Grabenbauer, G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology


    Background and Purpose: Despite the enormous therapeutic potential of modern radiotherapy, common side effects such as radiation-induced wound healing disorders remain a well-known clinical phenomenon. Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) is a novel tool to alleviate intraoperative, percutaneous irradiation or brachytherapy. Since TNP has been shown to positively influence the perfusion of chronic, poorly vascularized wounds, the authors applied this therapeutic method to irradiated wounds and investigated the effect on tissue oxygenation in irradiated tissue in five patients. Material and Methods: With informed patients' consent, samples prior to and 4 and 8 days after continuous TNP with -125 mmHg were obtained during routine wound debridements. Granulation tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and additionally with CD31, HIF-1{alpha} (hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}), and D2-40 to detect blood vessels, measure indirect signs of hypoxia, and lymph vessel distribution within the pre- and post-TNP samples. Results: In this first series of experiments, a positive influence of TNP onto tissue oxygenation in radiation-induced wounds could be demonstrated. TNP led to a significant decrease of 53% HIF-1{alpha}-positive cell nuclei. At the same time, a slight reduction of CD31-stained capillaries was seen in comparison to samples before TNP. Immunostaining with D2-40 revealed an increased number of lymphatic vessels with distended lumina and an alteration of the parallel orientation within the post-TNP samples. Conclusion: This study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report on a novel previously not described histological marker to demonstrate the effects of TNP on HIF-1{alpha} expression as an indirect marker of tissue oxygenation in irradiated wounds, as demonstrated by a reduction of HIF-1{alpha} concentration after TNP. Since this observation may be of significant value to develop possible new strategies to treat radiation-induced tissue

  18. The alpha-fetoprotein third domain receptor binding fragment: in search of scavenger and associated receptor targets. (United States)

    Mizejewski, G J


    Recent studies have demonstrated that the carboxyterminal third domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-CD) binds with various ligands and receptors. Reports within the last decade have established that AFP-CD contains a large fragment of amino acids that interact with several different receptor types. Using computer software specifically designed to identify protein-to-protein interaction at amino acid sequence docking sites, the computer searches identified several types of scavenger-associated receptors and their amino acid sequence locations on the AFP-CD polypeptide chain. The scavenger receptors (SRs) identified were CD36, CD163, Stabilin, SSC5D, SRB1 and SREC; the SR-associated receptors included the mannose, low-density lipoprotein receptors, the asialoglycoprotein receptor, and the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE). Interestingly, some SR interaction sites were localized on the AFP-derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) segment at amino acids #480-500. Following the detection studies, a structural subdomain analysis of both the receptor and the AFP-CD revealed the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats, extracellular matrix-like protein regions, amino acid-rich motifs and dimerization subdomains. For the first time, it was reported that EGF-like sequence repeats were identified on each of the three domains of AFP. Thereafter, the localization of receptors on specific cell types were reviewed and their functions were discussed.

  19. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH) from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi. (United States)

    Cuebas-Irizarry, Mara F; Irizarry-Caro, Ricardo A; López-Morales, Carol; Badillo-Rivera, Keyla M; Rodríguez-Minguela, Carlos M; Montalvo-Rodríguez, Rafael


    We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi . A 2349 bp region ( Hqrw_2071 ) from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+), expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3-4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3-4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41%) to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum . Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  20. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of an Alpha-Glucosidase (MalH from the Halophilic Archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara F. Cuebas-Irizarry


    Full Text Available We report the heterologous expression and molecular characterization of the first extremely halophilic alpha-glucosidase (EC from the archaeon Haloquadratum walsbyi. A 2349 bp region (Hqrw_2071 from the Hqr. walsbyi C23 annotated genome was PCR-amplified and the resulting amplicon ligated into plasmid pET28b(+, expressed in E. coli Rosetta cells, and the resulting protein purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein showed an estimated molecular mass of 87 kDa, consistent with the expected value of the annotated protein, and an optimal activity for the hydrolysis of α-PNPG was detected at 40 °C, and at pH 6.0. Enzyme activity values were the highest in the presence of 3 M NaCl or 3–4 M KCl. However, specific activity values were two-fold higher in the presence of 3–4 M KCl when compared to NaCl suggesting a cytoplasmic localization. Phylogenetic analyses, with respect to other alpha-glucosidases from members of the class Halobacteria, showed that the Hqr. walsbyi MalH was most similar (up to 41% to alpha-glucosidases and alpha-xylosidases of Halorubrum. Moreover, computational analyses for the detection of functional domains, active and catalytic sites, as well as 3D structural predictions revealed a close relationship with an E. coli YicI-like alpha-xylosidase of the GH31 family. However, the purified enzyme did not show alpha-xylosidase activity. This narrower substrate range indicates a discrepancy with annotations from different databases and the possibility of specific substrate adaptations of halophilic glucosidases due to high salinity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from the halophilic Archaea, which could serve as a new model to gain insights into carbon metabolism in this understudied microbial group.

  1. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by dihydroxyphenylethanol, a product from olive oil, blocks microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1/vascular endothelial growth factor expression and reduces tumor angiogenesis. (United States)

    Terzuoli, Erika; Donnini, Sandra; Giachetti, Antonio; Iñiguez, Miguel A; Fresno, Manuel; Melillo, Giovanni; Ziche, Marina


    2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenil)-ethanol (DPE), a polyphenol present in olive oil, has been found to attenuate the growth of colon cancer cells, an effect presumably related to its anti-inflammatory activity. To further explore the effects of DPE on angiogenesis and tumor growth we investigated the in vivo efficacy of DPE in a HT-29 xenograft model and in vitro activities in colon cancer cells exposed to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE-2). DPE (10 mg/kg/day for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth, reducing vessel lumina and blood perfusion to tumor, and diminished expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microsomal prostaglandin-E synthase-1 (mPGEs-1). In vitro, DPE (100 mumol/L) neither affected cell proliferation nor induced apoptosis in HT-29 and WiDr cells. DPE prevented the IL-1beta-mediated increase of mPGEs-1 expression and PGE-2 generation, as it did the silencing of HIF-1alpha. Moreover, DPE blocked mPGEs-1-dependent expression of VEGF and inhibited endothelial sprouting induced by tumor cells in a coculture system. PGE-2 triggers a feed-forward loop involving HIF-1alpha, which impinges on mPGEs-1 and VEGF expression, events prevented by DPE via extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. The reduction of PGE-2 and VEGF levels, caused by DPE, was invariably associated with a marked decrease in HIF-1alpha expression and activity, independent of proteasome activity, indicating that the DPE effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis are dependent on the inhibition of HIF-1alpha translation. We show that the in vivo DPE antitumor effect is associated with anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities resulting from the downregulation of the HIF-1alpha/mPGEs-1/VEGF axis.

  2. Pharmacological characterisation of strychnine and brucine analogues at glycine and alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Gharagozloo, Parviz; Birdsall, Nigel J M


    of tertiary and quaternary analogues as well as bisquaternary dimers of strychnine and brucine at human alpha1 and alpha1beta glycine receptors and at a chimera consisting of the amino-terminal domain of the alpha7 nicotinic receptor (containing the orthosteric ligand binding site) and the ion channel domain...... of strychnine and brucine, none of the analogues displayed significant selectivity between the alpha1 and alpha1beta subtypes. The structure-activity relationships for the compounds at the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera were significantly different from those at the glycine receptors. Most strikingly, quaternization...... of strychnine and brucine with substituents possessing different steric and electronic properties completely eliminated the activity at the glycine receptors, whereas binding affinity to the alpha7/5-HT3 chimera was retained for the majority of the quaternary analogues. This study provides an insight...

  3. Visfatin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression is increased in mononuclear cells from type 2 diabetic women. (United States)

    Tsiotra, P C; Tsigos, C; Yfanti, E; Anastasiou, E; Vikentiou, M; Psarra, K; Papasteriades, C; Raptis, S A


    Visfatin, is a new adipokine, highly expressed in the visceral fat of both mice and humans. To examine whether visfatin is expressed in human peripheral monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells and whether its expression is altered in type 2 diabetes (DM2), we compared 24 DM2 women [17 overweight (BMI >25) and 7 lean (BMIwomen (14 overweight and 12 lean), all premenopausal. Relative visfatin mRNA levels were significantly higher (approximately 3-fold) in DM2 compared to healthy control women (pDM2 compared to control women (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively), an increase observed in both lean and overweight DM2 women. By contrast, circulating visfatin, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 levels showed no difference between DM2 and control women, while adiponectin plasma levels were significantly decreased in the DM2 women (pDM2 and control women, while IL-6 plasma levels were significantly higher in both overweight subgroups compared to their lean counterparts. In conclusion, visfatin, TNF-alpha, and IL-6 mRNA expressions are increased in peripheral mononuclear-monocytic cells from women with type 2 diabetes, independent of their BMI, which may enhance the effects of their adipose-derived levels and may contribute to the increased insulin resistance and atherogenic risk of these patients.

  4. Energy landscape, structure and rate effects on strength properties of alpha-helical proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaud, Jeremie; Hester, Joshua; Jimenez, Daniel D; Buehler, Markus J


    The strength of protein domains is crucial to identify the mechanical role of protein domains in biological processes such as mechanotransduction, tissue mechanics and tissue remodeling. Whereas the concept of strength has been widely investigated for engineered materials, the strength of fundamental protein material building blocks and how it depends on structural parameters such as the chemical bonding, the protein filament length and the timescale of observation or deformation velocity remains poorly understood. Here we report a systematic analysis of the influence of key parameters that define the energy landscape of the strength properties of alpha-helical protein domains, including energy barriers, unfolding and refolding distances, the locations of folded and unfolded states, as well as variations of the length and pulling velocity of alpha-helical protein filaments. The analysis is facilitated by the development of a double-well mesoscale potential formulation, utilized here to carry out a systematic numerical analysis of the behavior of alpha-helices. We compare the results against widely used protein strength models based on the Bell model, one of the simplest models used to characterize the strength of protein filaments. We find that, whereas Bell-type models are a reasonable approximation to describe the rupture of alpha-helical protein domains for a certain range of pulling speeds and values of energy barriers, the model ceases to hold for very large energy barriers and for very small pulling speeds, in agreement with earlier findings. We conclude with an application of our mesoscale model to investigate the effect of the length of alpha-helices on their mechanical strength. We find a weakening effect as the length of alpha-helical proteins increases, followed by an asymptotic regime in which the strength remains constant. We compare strand lengths found in biological proteins with the scaling law of strength versus alpha-helix filament length. The

  5. Reduction of N-linked xylose and fucose by expression of rat beta1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III in tobacco BY-2 cells depends on Golgi enzyme localization domain and genetic elements used for expression. (United States)

    Karg, Saskia R; Frey, Alexander D; Kallio, Pauli T


    Plant-specific N-glycosylation, such as the introduction of core alpha1,3-fucose and beta1,2-xylose residues, is a major obstacle to the utilization of plant cell- or plant-derived recombinant therapeutic proteins. The beta1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnTIII) introduces a bisecting GlcNAc residue into N-glycans, which exerts a high level of substrate mediated control over subsequent modifications, for example inhibiting mammalian core fucosylation. Based on similar findings in plants, we used Nicotianatabacum BY-2 cells to study the effects of localization and expression levels of GnTIII in the remodeling of the plant N-glycosylation pathway. The N-glycans produced by the cells expressing GnTIII were partially bisected and practically devoid of the paucimannosidic type which is typical for N-glycans produced by wildtype BY-2 suspension cultured cells. The proportion of human-compatible N-glycans devoid of fucose and xylose could be increased from an average of 4% on secreted protein from wildtype cells to as high as 59% in cells expressing chimeric GnTIII, named GnTIII( replacing its native localization domain with the cytoplasmic tail, transmembrane, and stem region of Arabidopsis thaliana mannosidase II. The changes in N-glycosylation observed were dependent on the catalytic activity of GnTIII, as the expression of catalytically inactive GnTIII mutants did not show a significant effect on N-glycosylation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Induction of divalent cation permeability by heterologous expression of a voltage sensor domain. (United States)

    Arima, Hiroki; Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Ayako; Yoshida, Manabu; Okamura, Yasushi


    The voltage sensor domain (VSD) is a protein domain that confers sensitivity to membrane potential in voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-sensing phosphatase. Although VSDs have long been considered to function as regulatory units acting on adjacent effectors, recent studies have revealed the existence of direct ion permeation paths in some mutated VSDs and in the voltage-gated proton channel. In this study, we show that calcium currents are evoked upon membrane hyperpolarization in cells expressing a VSD derived from an ascidian voltage-gated ion channel superfamily. Unlike the previously reported omega-pore in the Shaker K + channel and rNav1.4, mutations are not required. From electrophysiological experiments in heterologous expression systems, we found that the conductance is directly mediated by the VSD itself and is carried by both monovalent and divalent cations. This is the first report of divalent cation permeation through a VSD-like structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human NORE1 SARAH domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Eunha; Han, Young-Hyun; Choi, Saehae; Lee, Woo Cheol; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Jeon, Young Ho; Cheong, Chaejoon; Cheong, Hae-Kap


    The crystallization of the human NORE1 SARAH domain is reported. NORE1 is an important tumour suppressor in human cancers that interacts with the pro-apoptotic protein kinase MST1/2 through SARAH domains. The SARAH domain (residues 366–413) of human NORE1 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.041, c = 66.092 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°

  8. Choline kinase alpha and hexokinase-2 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma: association with survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandi A Kwee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hexokinase-2 (HK2 and more recently choline kinase alpha (CKA expression has been correlated with clinical outcomes in several major cancers. This study examines the protein expression of HK2 and CKA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in association with patient survival and other clinicopathologic parameters. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis for HK2 and CKA expression was performed on a tissue microarray of 157 HCC tumor samples. Results were analyzed in relation to clinicopathologic data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Program registries. Mortality rates were assessed by Kaplan-Meier estimates and compared using log-rank tests. Predictors of overall survival were assessed using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical expression of HK2 and CKA was detected in 71 (45% and 55 (35% tumor samples, respectively. Differences in tumor HK2 expression were associated with tumor grade (p = 0.008 and cancer stage (p = 0.001, while CKA expression differed significantly only across cancer stage (p = 0.048. Increased mortality was associated with tumor HK2 expression (p = 0.003 as well as CKA expression (p = 0.03 with hazard ratios of 1.86 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.23-2.83 and 1.59 (95% CI 1.04-2.41, respectively. Similar effects on overall survival were noted in a subset analysis of early stage (I and II HCC. Tumor HK2 expression, but not CKA expression, remained a significant predictor of survival in multivariable analyses. CONCLUSION: HK2 and CKA expression may have biologic and prognostic significance in HCC, with tumor HK2 expression being a potential independent predictor of survival.

  9. Interactive domains in the molecular chaperone human alphaB crystallin modulate microtubule assembly and disassembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy G Ghosh


    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins regulate microtubule assembly during cell proliferation and in response to stress through interactions that are poorly understood.Novel functions for five interactive sequences in the small heat shock protein and molecular chaperone, human alphaB crystallin, were investigated in the assembly/disassembly of microtubules and aggregation of tubulin using synthetic peptides and mutants of human alphaB crystallin.The interactive sequence (113FISREFHR(120 exposed on the surface of alphaB crystallin decreased microtubule assembly by approximately 45%. In contrast, the interactive sequences, (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, corresponding to the beta8 strand and the C-terminal extension respectively, which are involved in complex formation, increased microtubule assembly by approximately 34-45%. The alphaB crystallin peptides, (113FISREFHR(120 and (156ERTIPITRE(164, inhibited microtubule disassembly by approximately 26-36%, and the peptides (113FISREFHR(120 and (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 decreased the thermal aggregation of tubulin by approximately 42-44%. The (131LTITSSLSSDGV(142 and (156ERTIPITRE(164 peptides were more effective than the widely used anti-cancer drug, Paclitaxel, in modulating tubulinmicrotubule dynamics. Mutagenesis of these interactive sequences in wt human alphaB crystallin confirmed the effects of the alphaB crystallin peptides on microtubule assembly/disassembly and tubulin aggregation. The regulation of microtubule assembly by alphaB crystallin varied over a narrow range of concentrations. The assembly of microtubules was maximal at alphaB crystallin to tubulin molar ratios between 1:4 and 2:1, while molar ratios >2:1 inhibited microtubule assembly.Interactive sequences on the surface of human alphaB crystallin collectively modulate microtubule assembly through a dynamic subunit exchange mechanism that depends on the concentration and ratio of alphaB crystallin to tubulin. These are the first

  10. Structure-function relationships in the Na,K-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine-111 to arginine and asparagine-122 to aspartic acid generates a ouabain-resistant enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, E.M.; Lingrel, J.B.


    Na,K-ATPases from various species differ greatly in their sensitivity to cardiac glycosides such as ouabain. The sheep and human enzymes are a thousand times more sensitive than the corresponding ones from rat and mouse. To define the region of the ..cap alpha..1 subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity, chimeric cDNAs of sheep and rat were constructed and expressed in ouabain-sensitive HeLa cells. The construct containing the amino-terminal half of the rat ..cap alpha..1 subunit coding region and carboxyl-terminal half of the sheep conferred the ouabain-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells while the reverse construct did not. This indicates that the determinants involved in ouabain sensitivity are located in the amino-terminal half of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, the amino acid sequence of the first extracellular domain (H1-H2) of the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit was changed to that of the rat. When expressed in HeLa cells, this mutated sheep ..cap alpha..1 construct, like the rat/sheep chimera, was able to confer ouabain resistance to these cells. Furthermore, similar results were observed when HeLa cells were transfected with a sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNA containing only two amino acid substitutions. The resistant cells, whether transfected with the rat ..cap alpha..1 cDNA, the rat/sheep chimera, or the mutant sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNAs, exhibited identical biochemical characteristics including ouabain-inhibitable cell growth, /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake, and Na,K-ATPase activity. These results demonstrate that the presence of arginine and aspartic acid on the amino end and carboxyl end, respectively, of the H1-H2 extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit together is responsible for the ouabain-resistant character of the rat enzyme and the corresponding residues in the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit (glutamine and asparagine) are somehow involved in ouabain binding.

  11. Delayed changes in gene expression in human fibroblasts after alpha irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, A.; Peraelae, M.; Mustonen, R.; Kadhim, M.; Marsden, S.; Sabatier, L.; Martins, L.


    endpoints with radiation-induced cancer. Gene expression changes in human fibroblast cells at delayed time points after alpha particle irradiation were studied. The aim was to identify genes playing pivotal role in inducing genomic instability. (orig.)

  12. The impact of the human DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain on activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Meczes


    Full Text Available Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity.We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity.In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro data with chimeric human topoIIs.

  13. Expression and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase by using the yeast pheromone alpha-factor promoter and leader sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.


    Southgate, V J; Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S; Van Vuuren, H J


    Replacement of the regulatory and secretory signals of the alpha-amylase gene (AMY) from Bacillus amylolique-faciens with the complete yeast pheromone alpha-factor prepro region (MF alpha 1p) resulted in increased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the removal of the (Glu-Ala)2 peptide from the MF alpha 1 spacer region (Lys-Arg-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala) yielded decreased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase.

  14. HSP72 protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis via enhancement of IRE1alpha-XBP1 signaling through a physical interaction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gupta, Sanjeev


    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Enhanced expression of Hsp72 has been shown to reduce tissue injury in response to stress stimuli and improve cell survival in experimental models of stroke, sepsis, renal failure, and myocardial ischemia. Hsp72 inhibits several features of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp72 expression inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis are not clearly understood. Here we show that Hsp72 enhances cell survival under ER stress conditions. The UPR signals through the sensor IRE1alpha, which controls the splicing of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1. We show that Hsp72 enhances XBP1 mRNA splicing and expression of its target genes, associated with attenuated apoptosis under ER stress conditions. Inhibition of XBP1 mRNA splicing either by dominant negative IRE1alpha or by knocking down XBP1 specifically abrogated the inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis by Hsp72. Regulation of the UPR was associated with the formation of a stable protein complex between Hsp72 and the cytosolic domain of IRE1alpha. Finally, Hsp72 enhanced the RNase activity of recombinant IRE1alpha in vitro, suggesting a direct regulation. Our data show that binding of Hsp72 to IRE1alpha enhances IRE1alpha\\/XBP1 signaling at the ER and inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results provide a physical connection between cytosolic chaperones and the ER stress response.

  15. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain [alpha]-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T. (AS); (UTSMC)


    The purified mammalian branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain {alpha}-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes.

  16. Expression and regulation of HIF-1 alpha in macrophages under inflammatory conditions; significant reduction of VEGF by CaMKII inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Johanna; Brouwer, Elisabeth; van Roosmalen, Ingrid A. M.; Doornbos-van der Meer, Berber; van Leeuwen, Miek A.; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.


    Background: Macrophages expressing the pro-angiogenic transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha have been demonstrated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the synovial tissue. Aim of the present study was to investigate intracellular signal transduction regulation of pro-inflammatory

  17. Molecular imaging of alpha v beta3 integrin expression in atherosclerotic plaques with a mimetic of RGD peptide grafted to Gd-DTPA. (United States)

    Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Murariu, Oltea; Rattat, Dirk; Toubeau, Gérard; Verbruggen, Alfons; Vansthertem, David; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N


    The integrin alpha v beta3 is highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques by medial and intimal smooth muscle cells and by endothelial cells of angiogenic microvessels. In this study, we have assessed non-invasive molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of plaque-associated alpha v beta3 integrin expression on transgenic ApoE-/- mice with a low molecular weight peptidomimetic of Arg-Gly-Asp (mimRGD) grafted to gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD). The analogous compound Eu-DTPA-g-mimRGD was employed for an in vivo competition experiment and to confirm the molecular targeting. The specific interaction of mimRGD conjugated to Gd-DTPA or to 99mTc-DTPA with alpha v beta3 integrin was furthermore confirmed on Jurkat T lymphocytes. The mimRGD was synthesized and conjugated to DTPA. DTPA-g-mimRGD was complexed with GdCl3.6H2O, EuCl3.6H2O, or with [99mTc(CO)3(H2O)3]+. MRI evaluation was performed on a 4.7 T Bruker imaging system. Blood pharmacokinetics of Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD were assessed in Wistar rats and in c57bl/6j mice. The presence of angiogenic blood vessels and the expression of alpha v beta3 integrin were confirmed in aorta specimens by immunohistochemistry. Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD produced a strong enhancement of the external structures of the aortic wall and of the more profound layers (possibly tunica media and intima). The aortic lumen seemed to be restrained and distorted. Pre-injection of Eu-DTPA-g-mimRGD diminished the Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD binding to atherosclerotic plaque and confirmed the specific molecular targeting. A slower blood clearance was observed for Gd-DTPA-g-mimRGD, as indicated by a prolonged elimination half-life and a diminished total clearance. The new compound is potentially useful for the diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques and of other pathologies characterized by alpha v beta3 integrin expression, such as cancer and inflammation. The delayed blood clearance, the significant enhancement of the signal

  18. Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) repress reciprocally to regulate hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice. (United States)

    Cai, Wang-Yu; Lin, Ling-Yun; Hao, Han; Zhang, Sai-Man; Ma, Fei; Hong, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qing-Feng; Ye, Guo-Dong; Sun, Guang-Bin; Liu, Yun-Jia; Li, Sheng-Nan; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Cai, Jian-Chun; Li, Bo-An


    Great progress has been achieved in the study of Hippo signaling in regulating tumorigenesis; however, the downstream molecular events that mediate this process have not been completely defined. Moreover, regulation of Hippo signaling during tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. In the present study, we systematically investigated the relationship between Yes-associated protein/TEA domain family member (YAP-TEAD) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) in the hepatocarcinogenesis of HCC cells. Our results indicated that HNF4α expression was negatively regulated by YAP1 in HCC cells by a ubiquitin proteasome pathway. By contrast, HNF4α was found to directly associate with TEAD4 to compete with YAP1 for binding to TEAD4, thus inhibiting the transcriptional activity of YAP-TEAD and expression of their target genes. Moreover, overexpression of HNF4α was found to significantly compromise YAP-TEAD-induced HCC cell proliferation and stem cell expansion. Finally, we documented the regulatory mechanism between YAP-TEAD and HNF4α in rat and mouse tumor models, which confirmed our in vitro results. There is a double-negative feedback mechanism that controls TEAD-YAP and HNF4α expression in vitro and in vivo, thereby regulating cellular proliferation and differentiation. Given that YAP acts as a dominant oncogene in HCC and plays a crucial role in stem cell homeostasis and tissue regeneration, manipulating the interaction between YAP, TEADs, and HNF4α may provide a new approach for HCC treatment and regenerative medicine. (Hepatology 2017;65:1206-1221). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. The upregulation of receptor activator NF-kappaB ligand expression by interleukin-1alpha and Porphyromonas endodontalis in human osteoblastic cells. (United States)

    Chen, S-C; Huang, F-M; Lee, S-S; Li, M-Z; Chang, Y-C


    To investigate the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) in osteoblastic cells stimulated with inflammatory mediators. The expression of RANKL in human osteoblastic cell line U2OS stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1alpha and black-pigmented bacteria Porphyromonas endodontalis was investigated by Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The significance of the results obtained from control and treated groups was statistically analysed by the paired Student's t-test. IL-1alpha was found to upregulate RANKL production in U2OS cells (P endodontalis also increased RANKL expression in U2OS cells after 4-h incubation period demonstrated by Western blot and ELISA (P endodontalis may be involved in developing apical periodontitis through the stimulation of RANKL production.

  20. Cytokine production in the central nervous system of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: dynamics of mRNA expression for interleukin-10, interleukin-12, cytolysin, tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Ljungdahl, A; Höjeberg, B


    in cryosections of spinal cords using in situ hybridization technique with synthetic oligonucleotide probes. Three stages of cytokine mRNA expression could be distinguished: (i) interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-beta (= lymphotoxin-alpha) and cytolysin appeared early and before onset of clinical...... signs of EAE; (ii) TNF-alpha peaked at height of clinical signs of EAE; (iii) IL-10 appeared increasingly at and after clinical recovery. The early expression of IL-12 prior to the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA shown previously is consistent with a role of IL-12 in promoting...... proliferation and activation of T helper 1 (Th1) type cells producing IFN-gamma. The TNF-beta mRNA expression prior to onset of clinical signs favours a role for this cytokine in disease initiation. A pathogenic effector role of TNF-alpha was suggested from these observations that TNF-alpha mRNA expression...

  1. Point mutations in the post-M2 region of human alpha-ENaC regulate cation selectivity. (United States)

    Ji, H L; Parker, S; Langloh, A L; Fuller, C M; Benos, D J


    We tested the hypothesis that an arginine-rich region immediately following the second transmembrane domain may constitute part of the inner mouth of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) pore and, hence, influence conduction and/or selectivity properties of the channel by expressing double point mutants in Xenopus oocytes. Double point mutations of arginines in this post-M2 region of the human alpha-ENaC (alpha-hENaC) led to a decrease and increase in the macroscopic conductance of alphaR586E,R587Ebetagamma- and alphaR589E,R591Ebetagamma-hENaC, respectively, but had no effect on the single-channel conductance of either double point mutant. However, the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant for Na+ was decreased for both alphaR586E,R587Ebetagamma- and alphaR589E,R591Ebetagamma-hENaC, and the maximum amiloride-sensitive Na+ current was decreased for alphaR586E,R587Ebetagamma-hENaC and increased for alphaR589E,R591Ebetagamma-hENaC. The relative permeabilities of Li+ and K+ vs. Na+ were increased 11.25- to 27.57-fold for alphaR586E,R587Ebetagamma-hENaC compared with wild type. The relative ion permeability of these double mutants and wild-type ENaC was inversely related to the crystal diameter of the permeant ions. Thus the region of positive charge is important for the ion permeation properties of the channel and may form part of the pore itself.

  2. The membrane-cytoplasm interface of integrin alpha subunits is critical for receptor latency.


    Briesewitz, R; Kern, A; Smilenov, L B; David, F S; Marcantonio, E E


    Localization of integrin receptors to focal contact sites occurs upon ligand binding. This activity is latent, since unoccupied integrin receptors do not localize to focal contacts. Deletion analysis has revealed that the alpha cytoplasmic domains is required for the maintenance of integrin receptor latency. Our current hypothesis for the mechanism of integrin post-ligand binding events is that there is a change in relationship of alpha and beta cytoplasmic domains, which overcomes receptor l...

  3. Myc-nick: a cytoplasmic cleavage product of Myc that promotes alpha-tubulin acetylation and cell differentiation. (United States)

    Conacci-Sorrell, Maralice; Ngouenet, Celine; Eisenman, Robert N


    The Myc oncoprotein family comprises transcription factors that control multiple cellular functions and are widely involved in oncogenesis. Here we report the identification of Myc-nick, a cytoplasmic form of Myc generated by calpain-dependent proteolysis at lysine 298 of full-length Myc. Myc-nick retains conserved Myc box regions but lacks nuclear localization signals and the bHLHZ domain essential for heterodimerization with Max and DNA binding. Myc-nick induces alpha-tubulin acetylation and altered cell morphology by recruiting histone acetyltransferase GCN5 to microtubules. During muscle differentiation, while the levels of full-length Myc diminish, Myc-nick and acetylated alpha-tubulin levels are increased. Ectopic expression of Myc-nick accelerates myoblast fusion, triggers the expression of myogenic markers, and permits Myc-deficient fibroblasts to transdifferentiate in response to MyoD. We propose that the cleavage of Myc by calpain abrogates the transcriptional inhibition of differentiation by full-length Myc and generates Myc-nick, a driver of cytoplasmic reorganization and differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the extracellular IgV-like domain of the human natural killer cell inhibitory receptor p75/AIRM1. (United States)

    Dimasi, Nazzareno; Moretta, Lorenzo; Biassoni, Roberto; Mariuzza, Roy A


    p75/AIRM1 (Siglec-7) is a sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin recently identified as an inhibitory receptor on natural killer cells. The expression, in vitro folding, circular-dichroism spectroscopy, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the Ig-V like domain of p75/AIRM1 are reported. X-ray data were collected from a single crystal at 100 K, with a maximum useful diffraction pattern extending to 1.45 A resolution on a synchrotron source. The crystal belongs to a primitive monoclinic space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 32.65, b = 49.72, c = 39.79 A, alpha = gamma = 90, beta = 113 degrees. The systematic absences indicate that the space group is P2(1). Assuming one molecule per asymmetric unit, V(M) (the Matthews coefficient) was calculated to be 1.879 A(3) Da(-1) and the solvent content was estimated to be 32.01%.

  5. Expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and receptor I(P55in pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wu


    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the expression of tumor necrosis factor- alpha(TNF-αand its receptor I(P55in different pterygium and discuss the role of TNF-α and receptor I(P55in pterygium.METHODS: Immunohistochemistical staining method(PVwas adopted to detect the expression of TNF-α and receptor I in pterygium(72 eyesand para-pterygium conjunctival tissue(30 eyes. The relationship between the expression and clinical-pathological parameters was also analyzed. RESULTS: The positive rates of TNF-α were 65.3%(47/72, 26.7%(8/30in pterygium and para-pterygium conjunctival tissue. The positive expression of TNF-α had statistic difference between the two groups(χ2=12.706, Pχ2=13.875, Pχ2=6.547, P=0.011. There had no statistically significance of the expression intensity between the two groups(F=1.288, P=0.393; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than quiescent pterygium group(χ2=4.082, P=0.043. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.489, P=0.708. The positive rate of P55 in recurrent pterygium group was higher than primary pterygium group(χ2=9.907, P=0.002. There had no statistically significance of the two group's expression intensity(F=1.175, P=0.424; the positive rate in advanced pterygium group was higher than in quiescent pterygium group(χ2=11.140, P=0.001. The expression intensity had no statistically significance between the two groups(F=0.665, P=0.621. CONCLUSION:The expression of TNF-α and P55 are changing according to the development of clinical staging and onset. The expression of TNF-α and P55 may be related to clinical classification, staging and patient's working conditions of pterygium. There has no significant difference expression intensity of TNF-α and P55 in clinical staging and onset of pterygium.

  6. Analysis of Maxi-K alpha subunit splice variants in human myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison John J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (Maxi-K channels are implicated in the modulation of human uterine contractions and myometrial Ca2+ homeostasis. However, the regulatory mechanism(s governing the expression of Maxi-K channels with decreased calcium sensitivity at parturition are unclear. The objectives of this study were to investigate mRNA expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, in human non-pregnant and pregnant myometrium, prior to and after labour onset, to determine whether altered expression of these splice variants is associated with decreased calcium sensitivity observed at labour onset. Methods Myometrial biopsies were obtained at hysterectomy (non-pregnant, NP, and at Caesarean section, at elective (pregnant not-in-labour, PNL and intrapartum (pregnant in-labour, PL procedures. RNA was extracted from all biopsies and quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate for possible differential expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit, and that of its splice variants, between these functionally-distinct myometrial tissue sets. Results RT-PCR analysis identified the presence of a 132 bp and an 87 bp spliced exon of the Maxi-K alpha subunit in all three myometrial tissue sets. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a decrease in the expression of the Maxi-K alpha subunit with labour onset. While there was no change in the proportion of Maxi-K alpha subunits expressing the 87 bp spliced exon, the proportion of alpha subunits expressing the 132 bp spliced exon was significantly increased with labour onset, compared to both non-pregnant and pregnant not-in-labour tissues. An increased proportion of 132 bp exon-containing alpha subunit variants with labour onset is of interest, as channels expressing this spliced exon have decreased calcium and voltage sensitivities. Conclusions Our findings suggest that decreased Maxi-K alpha subunit mRNA expression in human myometrium at

  7. Female-biased expression of long non-coding RNAs in domains that escape X-inactivation in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual dimorphism in brain gene expression has been recognized in several animal species. However, the relevant regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. To investigate whether sex-biased gene expression in mammalian brain is globally regulated or locally regulated in diverse brain structures, and to study the genomic organisation of brain-expressed sex-biased genes, we performed a large scale gene expression analysis of distinct brain regions in adult male and female mice. Results This study revealed spatial specificity in sex-biased transcription in the mouse brain, and identified 173 sex-biased genes in the striatum; 19 in the neocortex; 12 in the hippocampus and 31 in the eye. Genes located on sex chromosomes were consistently over-represented in all brain regions. Analysis on a subset of genes with sex-bias in more than one tissue revealed Y-encoded male-biased transcripts and X-encoded female-biased transcripts known to escape X-inactivation. In addition, we identified novel coding and non-coding X-linked genes with female-biased expression in multiple tissues. Interestingly, the chromosomal positions of all of the female-biased non-coding genes are in close proximity to protein-coding genes that escape X-inactivation. This defines X-chromosome domains each of which contains a coding and a non-coding female-biased gene. Lack of repressive chromatin marks in non-coding transcribed loci supports the possibility that they escape X-inactivation. Moreover, RNA-DNA combined FISH experiments confirmed the biallelic expression of one such novel domain. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the amount of genes with sex-biased expression varies between individual brain regions in mouse. The sex-biased genes identified are localized on many chromosomes. At the same time, sexually dimorphic gene expression that is common to several parts of the brain is mostly restricted to the sex chromosomes. Moreover, the study uncovered

  8. Expression and Regulation of the Bile Acid Transporter, OST alpha-OST beta in Rat and Human Intestine and Liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Ansar A.; Chow, Edwin C. Y.; Porte, Robert J.; Pang, K. Sandy; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The regulation of the OST alpha and OST beta expression was studied in the rat jejunum, ileum, colon and liver and in human ileum and liver by ligands for the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) using precision cut tissue

  9. A clip domain serine protease involved in moulting in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: cloning, characterization, expression patterns and functional analysis. (United States)

    Liu, H-W; Wang, L-L; Meng, Z; Tang, X; Li, Y-S; Xia, Q-Y; Zhao, P


    Clip domain serine proteases (CLIPs), characterized by one or more conserved clip domains, are essential components of extracellular signalling cascades in various biological processes, especially in innate immunity and the embryonic development of insects. Additionally, CLIPs may have additional non-immune functions in insect development. In the present study, the clip domain serine protease gene Bombyx mori serine protease 95 (BmSP95), which encodes a 527-residue protein, was cloned from the integument of B. mori. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that BmSP95 is a typical CLIP of the subfamily D and possesses a clip domain at the N terminus, a trypsin-like serine protease (tryp_spc) domain at the C terminus and a conserved proline-rich motif between these two domains. At the transcriptional level, BmSP95 is expressed in the integument during moulting and metamorphosis, and the expression pattern is consistent with the fluctuating 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) titre in B. mori. At the translational level, BmSP95 protein is synthesized in the epidermal cells, secreted as a zymogen and activated in the moulting fluid. Immunofluorescence revealed that BmSP95 is distributed into the old endocuticle in the moulting stage. The expression of BmSP95 was upregulated by 20E. Moreover, expression of BmSP95 was downregulated by pathogen infection. RNA interference-mediated silencing of BmSP95 led to delayed moulting from pupa to moth. These results suggest that BmSP95 is involved in integument remodelling during moulting and metamorphosis. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija


    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032

  11. Identification and quantification of N alpha-acetylated Y. pestis fusion protein F1-V expressed in Escherichia coli using LCMS E. (United States)

    Bariola, Pauline A; Russell, Brett A; Monahan, Steven J; Stroop, Steven D


    N-terminal acetylation in E coli is a rare event catalyzed by three known N-acetyl-transferases (NATs), each having a specific ribosomal protein substrate. Multiple, gram-scale lots of recombinant F1-V, a fusion protein constructed from Y. Pestis antigens, were expressed and purified from a single stably transformed E. coli cell bank. A variant form of F1-V with mass increased by 42-43 Da was detected in all purified lots by electrospray orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide mapping LCMS localized the increased mass to an N-terminal Lys-C peptide, residues 1-24, and defined it as +42.0308+/-0.0231 Da using a LockSpray exact mass feature and a leucine enkaphalin mass standard. Sequencing of the variant 1-24 peptide by LCMS and high-energy collision induced dissociation (LCMS(E)) further localized the modification to the amino terminal tri-peptide ADL and identified the modification as N(alpha)-acetylation. The average content of N(alpha)-acetylated F1-V in five lots was 24.7+/-2.6% indicating that a stable acetylation activity for F1-V was established in the E. coli expression system. Alignment of the F1-V N-terminal sequence with those of other known N(alpha)-acetylated ectopic proteins expressed in E. coli reveals a substrate motif analogous to the eukaryote NatA' acetylation pathway and distinct from endogenous E. coli NAT substrates.

  12. Alpha-tryptophan synthase of Isatis tinctoria: gene cloning and expression. (United States)

    Salvini, M; Boccardi, T M; Sani, E; Bernardi, R; Tozzi, S; Pugliesi, C; Durante, M


    Indole producing reaction is a crux in the regulation of metabolite flow through the pathways and the coordination of primary and secondary product biosynthesis in plants. Indole is yielded transiently from indole-3-glycerol phosphate and immediately condensed with serine to give tryptophan, by the enzyme tryptophan synthase (TS). There is evidence that plant TS, like the bacterial complex, functions as an alpha beta heteromer. In few species, e.g. maize, are known enzymes, related with the TS alpha-subunit (TSA), able to catalyse reaction producing indole, which is free to enter the secondary metabolite pathways. In this contest, we searched for TSA and TSA related genes in Isatis tinctoria, a species producing the natural blue dye indigo. The It-TSA cDNA and the full-length exons/introns genomic region were isolated. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that It-TSA is more closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana At-T14E10.210 TSA (95.7% identity at the amino acid level) with respect to A. thaliana At-T10P11.11 TSA1-like (63%), Zea mays indole-3-glycerol phosphate lyase (54%), Z. mays TSA (53%), and Z. mays indole synthase (50%). The It-TSA cDNA was also able to complement an Escherichia coli trpA mutant. To examine the involvement of It-TSA in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolism compounds, It-TSA expression was tested in seedling grown under different light conditions. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed an increase in the steady-state level of It-TSA mRNA, paralleled by an increase of indigo and its precursor isatan B. Our results appear to indicate an involvement for It-TSA in indigo precursor synthesis and/or tryptophan biosynthesis.

  13. Quantitative gene-expression of the tumor angiogenesis markers vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin alphaV and integrin beta3 in human neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxboel, Jytte; Binderup, Tina; Knigge, Ulrich


    , in neuroendocrine tumors. We used quantitative real-time PCR for measuring mRNA gene-expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), integrin alphaV, and integrin beta3, and CD34 for a group of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (n=13). Tissue from patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases (n=14...... compared to both colorectal liver metastases (p=0.10) and normal liver tissue (p=0.06). In neuroendocrine tumors, gene-expression was highly variable of VEGF (530-fold), integrin alphaV (23-fold) and integrin beta3 (106-fold). Quantitative gene-expression levels of the key angiogenesis molecules VEGF......Anti-angiogenesis treatment is a promising new therapy for cancer that recently has also been suggested for patients with neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the level of tumor angiogenesis, and thereby the molecular basis for anti-angiogenesis treatment...

  14. Engineering of factors determining alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase specificity in the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, RD; Buitelaar, RM; Dijkhuizen, L


    The starch-degrading enzymes alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) are functionally and structurally closely related, with CGTases containing two additional domains (called D and E) compared to the three domains of alpha-amylases (A, B and C). Amino acid residue 196

  15. Improved targeting of the alpha(v)beta (3) integrin by multimerisation of RGD peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, I.; Kruijtzer, J.A.; Liu, S.; Soede, A.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Liskamp, R.M.; Boerman, O.C.


    PURPOSE: The integrin alpha(v)beta(3) is expressed on sprouting endothelial cells and on various tumour cell types. Due to the restricted expression of alpha(v)beta(3) in tumours, alpha(v)beta(3) is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the alpha(v)beta(3) binding

  16. miR-451 deficiency is associated with altered endometrial fibrinogen alpha chain expression and reduced endometriotic implant establishment in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B Nothnick

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial glandular and stromal components in ectopic locations and affects as many as 10% of all women of reproductive age. Despite its high prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains poorly understood. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, are mis-expressed in endometriosis but a functional role in the disease pathogenesis remains uncertain. To examine the role of microRNA-451 (miR-451 in the initial development of endometriosis, we utilized a novel mouse model in which eutopic endometrial fragments used to induce endometriosis were deficient for miR-451. After induction of the disease, we evaluated the impact of this deficiency on implant development and survival. Loss of miR-451 expression resulted in a lower number of ectopic lesions established in vivo. Analysis of differential protein profiles between miR-451 deficient and wild-type endometrial fragments revealed that fibrinogen alpha polypeptide isoform 2 precursor was approximately 2-fold higher in the miR-451 null donor endometrial tissue and this elevated expression of the protein was associated with altered expression of the parent fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein. As this polypeptide contains RGD amino acid "cell adhesion" motifs which could impact early establishment of lesion development, we examined and confirmed using a cyclic RGD peptide antagonist, that endometrial cell adhesion and endometriosis establishment could be respectively inhibited both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduced miR-451 eutopic endometrial expression does not enhance initial establishment of these fragments when displaced into the peritoneal cavity, that loss of eutopic endometrial miR-451 expression is associated with altered expression of fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein, and that RGD cyclic peptide antagonists inhibit establishment of endometriosis

  17. Generation of anti-TLR2 intrabody mediating inhibition of macrophage surface TLR2 expression and TLR2-driven cell activation. (United States)

    Kirschning, Carsten J; Dreher, Stefan; Maass, Björn; Fichte, Sylvia; Schade, Jutta; Köster, Mario; Noack, Andreas; Lindenmaier, Werner; Wagner, Hermann; Böldicke, Thomas


    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is a component of the innate immune system and senses specific pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of both microbial and viral origin. Cell activation via TLR2 and other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) contributes to sepsis pathology and chronic inflammation both relying on overamplification of an immune response. Intracellular antibodies expressed and retained inside the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-intrabodies) are applied to block translocation of secreted and cell surface molecules from the ER to the cell surface resulting in functional inhibition of the target protein. Here we describe generation and application of a functional anti-TLR2 ER intrabody (alphaT2ib) which was generated from an antagonistic monoclonal antibody (mAb) towards human and murine TLR2 (T2.5) to inhibit the function of TLR2. alphaT2ib is a scFv fragment comprising the variable domain of the heavy chain and the variable domain of the light chain of mAb T2.5 linked together by a synthetic (Gly4Ser)3 amino acid sequence. Coexpression of alphaT2ib and mouse TLR2 in HEK293 cells led to efficient retention and accumulation of TLR2 inside the ER compartment. Co-immunoprecipitation of human TLR2 with alphaT2ib indicated interaction of alphaT2ib with its cognate antigen within cells. alphaT2ib inhibited NF-kappaB driven reporter gene activation via TLR2 but not through TLR3, TLR4, or TLR9 if coexpressed in HEK293 cells. Co-transfection of human TLR2 with increasing amounts of the expression plasmid encoding alphaT2ib into HEK293 cells demonstrated high efficiency of the TLR2-alphaT2ib interaction. The alphaT2ib open reading frame was integrated into an adenoviral cosmid vector for production of recombinant adenovirus (AdV)-alphaT2ib. Transduction with AdValphaT2ib specifically inhibited TLR2 surface expression of murine RAW264.7 and primary macrophages derived from bone marrow (BMM). Furthermore, TLR2 activation dependent TNFalpha mRNA accumulation, as

  18. HSP72 protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis via enhancement of IRE1alpha-XBP1 signaling through a physical interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Gupta


    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a feature of secretory cells and of many diseases including cancer, neurodegeneration, and diabetes. Adaptation to ER stress depends on the activation of a signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR. Enhanced expression of Hsp72 has been shown to reduce tissue injury in response to stress stimuli and improve cell survival in experimental models of stroke, sepsis, renal failure, and myocardial ischemia. Hsp72 inhibits several features of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp72 expression inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis are not clearly understood. Here we show that Hsp72 enhances cell survival under ER stress conditions. The UPR signals through the sensor IRE1alpha, which controls the splicing of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1. We show that Hsp72 enhances XBP1 mRNA splicing and expression of its target genes, associated with attenuated apoptosis under ER stress conditions. Inhibition of XBP1 mRNA splicing either by dominant negative IRE1alpha or by knocking down XBP1 specifically abrogated the inhibition of ER stress-induced apoptosis by Hsp72. Regulation of the UPR was associated with the formation of a stable protein complex between Hsp72 and the cytosolic domain of IRE1alpha. Finally, Hsp72 enhanced the RNase activity of recombinant IRE1alpha in vitro, suggesting a direct regulation. Our data show that binding of Hsp72 to IRE1alpha enhances IRE1alpha/XBP1 signaling at the ER and inhibits ER stress-induced apoptosis. These results provide a physical connection between cytosolic chaperones and the ER stress response.

  19. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Jeung; Kim, Tae Yong; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Jeon, Min Ji; Han, Ji Min; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae


    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  20. Human CRF{sub 2} {alpha} and {beta} splice variants: pharmacological characterization using radioligand binding and a luciferase gene expression assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardati, A. [Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, Cardiovascular Biology, NW4, 500 Arcola Road, Collegeville, PA (United States); Goetschy, V.; Gottowick, J.; Henriot, S.; Deuschle, U.; Kilpatrick, G.J. [Central Nervous System, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland); Valdenaire, O. [Cardiovascular Research, Pharma Division, F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG, CH-4070 Basel (Switzerland)


    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors belong to the super-family of G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are classified into two subtypes (CRF{sub 1} and CRF{sub 2}). Both receptors are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase but they have a distinct pharmacology and distribution in brain. Two isoforms belonging to the CRF{sub 2} subtype receptors, CRF{sub 2{alpha}} and CRF{sub 2{beta}}, have been identified in rat and man. The neuropeptides CRF and urocortin mediate their actions through this CRF G protein-coupled receptor family. In this report, we describe the pharmacological characterization of the recently identified hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor. We have used radioligand binding with [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine and a gene expression assay in which the firefly luciferase gene expression is under the control of cAMP responsive elements. Association kinetics of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine binding to the hCRF{sub 2{beta}} receptor were monophasic while dissociation kinetics were biphasic, in agreement with the kinetics results obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. Saturation binding analysis revealed two affinity states in HEK 293 cells with binding parameters in accord with those determined kinetically and with parameters obtained with the hCRF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor. A non-hydrolysable GTP analog, Gpp(NH)p, reduced the high affinity binding of [{sup 125}I]-tyr{sup 0}-sauvagine to both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms in a similar manner. The rank order of potency of CRF agonist peptides in competition experiments was identical for both hCRF{sub 2}{alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)}oCRF). Similarly, agonist potency was similar for the two isoforms when studied using the luciferase gene reporter system. The peptide antagonist {alpha}-helical CRF{sub (9-41)} exhibited a non-competitive antagonism of urocortin-stimulated luciferase expression with both hCRF{sub 2} receptor isoforms. Taken together, these results indicate that the

  1. Melibiose permease and alpha-galactosidase of Escherichia coli: Identification by selective labeling using a T7 RNA polymerase/promoter expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourcher, T.; Bassilana, M.; Sarkar, H.K.; Kaback, H.R.; Leblanc, G.


    Identification and selective labeling of the melibiose permease and alpha-galactosidase in Escherichia coli, which are encoded by the melB and melA genes, respectively, have been accomplished by selectively labeling the two gene products with a T7 RNA polymerase expression system. Following generation of a novel EcoRI restriction site in the intergenic sequence between the two genes of the mel operon by oligonucleotide-directed, site-specific mutagenesis, melA and melB were separately inserted into plasmid pT7-6 of the T7 expression system. Expression of melB was markedly enhanced by placing a strong, synthetic ribosome binding site at an optimal distance upstream from the initiation codon of melB. Expression of cloned gene products was characterized functionally and by performing autoradiographic analysis on total cell, inner membrane, and cytoplasmic proteins from cells pulse labeled with (35S)methionine in the presence of rifampicin and resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results first confirm that alpha-galactosidase is a cytoplasmic protein with an Mr of 50K; in contrast, the membrane-bound melibiose permease is identified as a protein with an apparent Mr of 39K, a value significantly higher than that of 30K previously suggested

  2. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression (United States)

    Makino, Yuichi; Cao, Renhai; Svensson, Kristian; Bertilsson, Göran; Asman, Mikael; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Cao, Yihai; Berkenstam, Anders; Poellinger, Lorenz


    Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous transactivation function but demonstrates dominant negative regulation of HIF-mediated control of gene expression. Ectopic expression of IPAS in hepatoma cells selectively impairs induction of genes involved in adaptation to a hypoxic environment, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and results in retarded tumour growth and tumour vascular density in vivo. In mice, IPAS was predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in corneal epithelium of the eye. Expression of IPAS in the cornea correlates with low levels of expression of the VEGF gene under hypoxic conditions. Application of an IPAS antisense oligonucleotide to the mouse cornea induced angiogenesis under normal oxygen conditions, and demonstrated hypoxia-dependent induction of VEGF gene expression in hypoxic corneal cells. These results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for negative regulation of angiogenesis and maintenance of an avascular phenotype.

  3. Neomycin is a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) antagonist that allows discrimination of PDGF alpha- and beta-receptor signals in cells expressing both receptor types. (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Ostman, A; Siegbahn, A; Holmsen, H; Heldin, C H


    The aminoglycoside neomycin has recently been found to affect certain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) responses in C3H/10T1/2 C18 fibroblasts. Using porcine aortic endothelial cells transfected with PDGF alpha- or beta-receptors, we explored the possibility that neomycin interferes with the interaction between the different PDGF isoforms and their receptors. We found that neomycin (5 mM) inhibited the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the alpha-receptor with only partial effect on the binding of 125I-PDGF-AA; in contrast, the binding of 125I-PDGF-BB to the beta-receptor was not affected by the aminoglycoside. Scatchard analyses showed that neomycin (5 mM) decreased the number of binding sites for PDGF-BB on alpha-receptor-expressing cells by 87%. Together with cross-competition studies with 125I-labeled PDGF homodimers, the effect of neomycin indicates that PDGF-AA and PDGF-BB bind to both common and unique structures on the PDGF alpha-receptor. Neomycin specifically inhibited the autophosphorylation of the alpha-receptor by PDGF-BB, with less effect on the phosphorylation induced by PDGF-AA and no effect on the phosphorylation of the beta-receptor by PDGF-BB. Thus, neomycin is a PDGF isoform- and receptor-specific antagonist that provides a possibility to compare the signal transduction pathways of alpha- and beta-receptors in cells expressing both receptor types. This approach was used to show that activation of PDGF beta-receptors by PDGF-BB mediated a chemotactic response in human fibroblasts, whereas activation of alpha-receptors by the same ligand inhibited chemotaxis.

  4. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C.


    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM [3H]testosterone [( 3 H]T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. [ 3 H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone [( 3 H]DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, [ 3 H]DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT

  5. Evaluation of pGL1-TNF-alpha therapy in combination with radiation (United States)

    Li, J.; Andres, M. L.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.


    Long-term control of high-grade brain tumors is rarely achieved with current therapeutic regimens. In this study a new plasmid-based human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression vector was synthesized (pGL1-TNF-alpha) and evaluated together with radiation in the aggressive, rapidly growing C6 rat glioma model. pGL1-TNF-alpha was successfully transfected into C6 cells in vitro using a cationic polyamine method. Expression was detected up to 7 days and averaged 0.4 ng of TNF-alpha in the culture medium from 1x10(5) cells. The expressed protein was biologically functional, as evidenced by growth inhibition of L929, a TNF-alpha-susceptible cell line. Using fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies and laser scanning cytometry, we confirmed that both the P55 and P75 receptors for TNF-alpha were present on the C6 cell membrane. However, the receptors were present at low density and P55 was expressed more than the P75 receptor. These findings were in contrast to results obtained with TNF-alpha-susceptible L929 cells. Tests in athymic mice showed that pGL1-TNF-alpha administered intratumorally 16-18 h before radiation (each modality given three times) significantly inhibited C6 tumor progression (Palpha alone did not slow tumor growth and radiation alone had little effect on tumor growth. These results indicate that pGL1-TNF-alpha has potential to augment the antitumor effects of radiation against a tumor type that is virtually incurable.

  6. Expression of alpha V integrin is modulated by Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and the metastasis suppressor Nm23-H1 through interaction with the GATA-1 and Sp1 transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhuri, Tathagata; Verma, Subhash C.; Lan, Ke; Robertson, Erle S.


    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a lymphotrophic herpesvirus infecting most of the world's population. It is associated with a number of human lymphoid and epithelial tumors and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised patients. A subset of latent EBV antigens is required for immortalization of primary B-lymphocytes. The metastatic suppressor Nm23-H1 which is downregulated in human invasive breast carcinoma reduces the migration and metastatic activity of breast carcinoma cells when expressed from a heterologous promoter. Interestingly, the EBV nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C) reverses these activities of Nm23-H1. The alpha V integrins recognize a variety of ligands for signaling and are involved in cell migration and proliferation and also serve as major receptors for extracellular-matrix-mediated cell adhesion and migration. The goal of this study was to determine if Nm23-H1 and EBNA3C can modulate alpha V integrin expression and downstream activities. The results of our studies indicate that Nm23-H1 downregulates alpha V intregrin expression in a dose responsive manner. In contrast, EBNA3C can upregulate alpha V integrin expression. Furthermore, the study showed that the association of the Sp1 and GATA transcription factors with Nm23-H1 is required for modulation of the alpha V integrin activity. Thus, these results suggest a direct correlation between the alpha V integrin expression and the interaction of Nm23-H1 with EBNA3C

  7. NMDA receptor dependent PGC-1alpha up-regulation protects the cortical neuron against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury. (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Zhu, Wenjing; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Chenyu; Xu, Yun


    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a nuclear transcriptional coactivator that is widely expressed in the brain areas. Over-expression of PGC-1alpha can protect neuronal cells from oxidant-induced injury. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the role of PGC-1alpha in the oxygen (anoxia) deprivation (OGD) neurons. The PGC-1alpha mRNA and protein level between control and OGD neurons were examined by real-time PCR and Western blot. More PGC-1alpha expression was found in the OGD neurons compared with the normal group. Over-expression of PGC-1alpha suppressed cell apoptosis while inhibition of the PGC-1alpha expression induced cell apoptosis in OGD neurons. Furthermore, increase of PGC-1alpha resulted in activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, p38, and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The blocking of the NMDA receptor by its antagonists MK-801 reduced PGC-1alpha mRNA expression in OGD neurons, while NMDA itself can directly induce the expression of PGC-1alpha in neuronal cells. At the same time, PD98059 (ERK MAPK inhibitor) and SB203580 (P38 MAPK inhibitor) also prevented the up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in OGD neurons and MK801 can inhibit the expression of P38 and ERK MAPK. These data suggested that the expression of PGC-1alpha was up-regulated in OGD mice cortical neurons, which protected the neurons against OGD injury. Moreover, this effect was correlated to the NMDA receptor and the ERK and P38 MAPK pathway. The protective effect of PGC-1alpha on OGD cortical neurons may be useful for stroke therapy.

  8. GPR39 splice variants versus antisense gene LYPD1: expression and regulation in gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas, liver, and white adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Kristoffer L; Holst, Birgitte; Petersen, Pia S


    nervous system as characterized with both quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analysis. A functional analysis of the GPR39 promoter region identified sites for the hepatocyte nuclear factors 1alpha and 4alpha (HNF-1alpha and -4alpha) and specificity protein 1 (SP1) transcription factors as being......G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) is a constitutively active, orphan member of the ghrelin receptor family that is activated by zinc ions. GPR39 is here described to be expressed in a full-length, biologically active seven-transmembrane form, GPR39-1a, as well as in a truncated splice variant...... five-transmembrane form, GPR39-1b. The 3' exon of the GPR39 gene overlaps with an antisense gene called LYPD1 (Ly-6/PLAUR domain containing 1). Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that GPR39-1a is expressed selectively throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including the liver and pancreas...

  9. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer. (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki


    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  10. Expression and putative function of fibronectin and its receptor (integrin alpha(5)beta(1)) in male and female gametes during bovine fertilization in vitro. (United States)

    Thys, Mirjan; Nauwynck, Hans; Maes, Dominiek; Hoogewijs, Maarten; Vercauteren, Dries; Rijsselaere, Tom; Favoreel, Herman; Van Soom, Ann


    Fibronectin (Fn) is a 440 kDa glycoprotein assumed to participate in sperm-egg interaction in human. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Fn--when present during bovine IVF--strongly inhibits sperm penetration. The present study was conducted firstly to evaluate the expression of Fn and its integrin receptor (alpha(5)beta(1)) on male and female bovine gametes using indirect immunofluorescence and secondly, to determine the function of Fn during bovine IVF. Endogenous Fn was detected underneath the zona pellucida (ZP) and integrin alpha(5) on the oolemma of cumulus-denuded oocytes. Bovine spermatozoa displayed integrin alpha(5) at their equatorial segment after acrosome reaction. We established that the main inhibitory effect of exogenously supplemented Fn was located at the sperm-oolemma binding, with a (concurrent) effect on fusion, and this can probably be attributed to the binding of Fn to spermatozoa at the equatorial segment, as shown by means of Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated Fn. Combining these results, the inhibitory effect of exogenously supplemented Fn seemed to be exerted on the male gamete by binding to the exposed integrin alpha(5)beta(1) receptor after acrosome reaction. The presence of endogenous Fn underneath the ZP together with integrin alpha(5) expression on oolemma and acrosome-reacted (AR) sperm cell surface suggests a 'velcro' interaction between the endogenous Fn ligand and corresponding receptors on both (AR) sperm cell and oolemma, initiating sperm-egg binding.

  11. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the human platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor gene promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afink, G. B.; Nistér, M.; Stassen, B. H.; Joosten, P. H.; Rademakers, P. J.; Bongcam-Rudloff, E.; van Zoelen, E. J.; Mosselman, S.


    Expression of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha receptor (PDGF alpha R) is strictly regulated during mammalian development and tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specific regulation of PDGF alpha R expression are unknown, but transcriptional regulation of the PDGF alpha R

  12. XIAP BIR domain suppresses miR-200a expression and subsequently promotes EGFR protein translation and anchorage-independent growth of bladder cancer cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP is a well-known potent apoptosis suppressor and also participates in cancer cell biological behaviors, therefore attracting great attentions as a potential antineoplastic therapeutic target for past years. Anti-IAP therapy is reported to be closely related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression level. However, whether and how XIAP modulates EGFR expression remains largely unknown. Methods Human XIAP was knockdown with short-hairpin RNA in two different bladder cancer cell lines, T24T and UMUC3. Two XIAP mutants, XIAP ∆BIR (deletion of N-terminal three BIR domains and XIAP ∆RING (deletion of C-terminal RING domain and keeping the function of BIR domains, were generated to determine which domain is involved in regulating EGFR. Results We found here that lacking of XIAP expression resulted in a remarkable suppression of EGFR expression, consequently leading to the deficiency of anchorage-independent cell growth. Further study demonstrated that BIR domain of XIAP was crucial for regulating the EGFR translation by suppressing the transcription and expression of miR-200a. Mechanistic studies indicated that BIR domain activated the protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of PP2A at Tyr307 in its catalytic subunit, PP2A-C. Such activated PP2A prevented the deviant phosphorylation and activation of MAPK kinases/MAPKs, their downstream effector c-Jun, and in turn inhibiting transcription of c-Jun-regulated the miR-200a. Conclusions Our study uncovered a novel function of BIR domain of XIAP in regulating the EGFR translation, providing significant insight into the understanding of the XIAP overexpression in the cancer development and progression, further offering a new theoretical support for using XIAP BIR domain and EGFR as targets for cancer therapy.

  13. Production of interleukin-1alpha by human endometrial stromal cells is triggered during menses and dysfunctional bleeding and is induced in culture by epithelial interleukin-1alpha released upon ovarian steroids withdrawal. (United States)

    Pretto, Chrystel M; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Cornet, Patricia B; Galant, Christine; Delvaux, Denis; Courtoy, Pierre J; Marbaix, Etienne; Henriet, Patrick


    Endometrial breakdown during menstruation and dysfunctional bleeding is triggered by the abrupt expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including interstitial collagenase (MMP-1). The paracrine induction of MMP-1 in stromal cells via epithelium-derived IL-1alpha is repressed by ovarian steroids. However, the control by estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) of endometrial IL-1alpha expression and bioactivity remains unknown. Variations of endometrial IL-1alpha mRNA and protein along the menstrual cycle and during dysfunctional bleeding were determined using RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunolabeling. The mechanism of EP control was analyzed using culture of explants, laser capture microdissection, and purified cells. Data were compared with expression changes of IL-1beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist. IL-1alpha is synthesized by epithelial cells throughout the cycle but E and/or P prevents its release. In contrast, endometrial stromal cells produce IL-1alpha only at menses and during irregular bleeding in areas of tissue breakdown. Stromal expression of IL-1alpha, like that of MMP-1, is repressed by P (alone or with E) but triggered by epithelium-derived IL-1alpha released upon EP withdrawal. Our experiments in cultured endometrium suggest that IL-1alpha released by epithelial cells triggers the production of IL-1alpha by stromal cells in a paracrine amplification loop to induce MMP-1 expression during menstruation and dysfunctional bleeding. All three steps of this amplification cascade are repressed by EP.

  14. D-Glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1{alpha} through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee-Young; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Seong-Il [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki, E-mail: [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of)


    D-Glucosamine has been reported to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. In this study we report a novel response to D-glucosamine involving the translation regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1{alpha} expression. D-Glucosamine caused a decreased expression of HIF-1{alpha} under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. D-Glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} accumulation induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG suggesting D-glucosamine reduces HIF-1{alpha} protein expression through proteasome-independent pathway. Metabolic labeling assays indicated that D-glucosamine inhibits translation of HIF-1{alpha} protein. In addition, D-glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} expression induced by serum stimulation in parallel with inhibition of p70S6K suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits growth factor-induced HIF-1{alpha} expression, at least in part, through p70S6K inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that D-glucosamine inhibits HIF-1{alpha} expression through inhibiting protein translation and provide new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of D-glucosamine.

  15. Expression, purification, and functional analysis of the C-terminal domain of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein. (United States)

    Monteiro, Rose A; Souza, Emanuel M; Geoffrey Yates, M; Steffens, M Berenice R; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Chubatsu, Leda S


    The Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA protein is responsible for nif gene expression. The C-terminal domain of the H. seropedicae NifA protein, fused to a His-Tag sequence (His-Tag-C-terminal), was over-expressed and purified by metal-affinity chromatography to yield a highly purified and active protein. Band-shift assays showed that the NifA His-Tag-C-terminal bound specifically to the H. seropedicae nifB promoter region in vitro. In vivo analysis showed that this protein inhibited the Central + C-terminal domains of NifA protein from activating the nifH promoter of K. pneumoniae in Escherichia coli, indicating that the protein must be bound to the NifA-binding site (UAS site) at the nifH promoter region to activate transcription. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  16. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Ishimoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi


    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial β-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of β-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPARα and found that PPARα induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPARα regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  17. Reoxygenation of human coronary smooth muscle cells suppresses HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and augments radiation-induced growth delay and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grumann, T.; Arab, A.; Bode, C.; Hehrlein, C. [Dept. of Cardiology, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany); Guttenberger, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Clinic of Freiburg (Germany)


    Background and Purpose: Catheter-based coronary brachytherapy with {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation is an evidence-based method to prevent restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent implantation, but the outcome may be PTCA are hypoxic. A lack of oxygen decreases the effect of low LET (linear energy transfer) irradiation. The authors assumed that reoxygenation of hypoxic human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCSMCs) improves the results of coronary brachytherapy. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) gene, and the rates of growth and apoptosis of hypoxic and reoxygenated HCSMCs after {gamma}-iradiation were therefore analyzed. Material and Methods: An in vitro model of megacolonies of HCSMCs was developed. After exposure to chronic hypoxia the HCSMCs were irradiated with graded doses of 2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy using a {sup 60}Co source either under hypoxia (pO{sub 2}<3 mmHg) or after reoxygenation (pO{sub 2}{approx}150 mmHg). RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) analysis was used to quantify HIF-1{alpha} gene expression and the growth of HCSMC megacolonies was measured serially. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was calculate from the specific growth delay. Apoptosis of HCSMCs was quantified by counting cells with specific DNA strand breaks using the TUNEL assy. Results: HIF-1{alpha} gene expression was markedly suppressed in reoxygenated cells versus hypoxic cells 30 min after {gamma}-irradiation at all radiation doses (158{+-}46% vs. 1,675{+-}1,211%; p<0.01). Apoptosis was markedly increased in reoxygenated HCSMCs. The OER was 1.8(95% CI[confidence interval]1.3-2.4). Therefore, reoxygenated HCSMCs require 44% less radiation dose to achieve the equivalent biological radiation effect compared to hypoxic HCSMCs. Conclusion: Reoxygenation of coronary smooth muscle cells should be considered an option to increase efficacy of coronary brachytherapy. This could be used to reduce radiation dose

  18. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Skeen, Rodney S.; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.


    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  19. Increased Eps15 homology domain 1 and RAB11FIP3 expression regulate breast cancer progression via promoting epithelial growth factor receptor recycling. (United States)

    Tong, Dandan; Liang, Ya-Nan; Stepanova, A A; Liu, Yu; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Letian; Zhang, Fengmin; Vasilyeva, N V


    Recent research indicates that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain 1 is associated with epithelial growth factor receptor-mediated endocytosis recycling in non-small-cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Eps15 homology domain 1 gene expression in relation to phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression in patients with breast cancer. Primary breast cancer samples from 306 patients were analyzed for Eps15 homology domain 1, RAB11FIP3, and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression via immunohistochemistry. The clinical significance was assessed via a multivariate Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank test. Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor were upregulated in 60.46% (185/306) and 53.92% (165/306) of tumor tissues, respectively, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. The statistical correlation analysis indicated that Eps15 homology domain 1 overexpression was positively correlated with the increases in phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor ( r = 0.242, p breast cancer for the overall survival in the total, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-) groups. However, the use of combined expression of Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor markers is more effective for the disease-free survival in the overall population, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-) groups. Moreover, the combined markers are also significant prognostic markers of breast cancer in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (+), estrogen receptor (+), and estrogen receptor (-) groups. Eps15 homology domain 1 has a tumor suppressor function, and the combined marker of Eps15 homology domain 1/phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression was identified as a better prognostic marker in breast cancer diagnosis

  20. Domain Engineering (United States)

    Bjørner, Dines

    Before software can be designed we must know its requirements. Before requirements can be expressed we must understand the domain. So it follows, from our dogma, that we must first establish precise descriptions of domains; then, from such descriptions, “derive” at least domain and interface requirements; and from those and machine requirements design the software, or, more generally, the computing systems.

  1. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))


    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM (3H)testosterone (({sup 3}H)T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. ({sup 3}H)5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (({sup 3}H)DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, ({sup 3}H)DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT.

  2. Arsenite and its metabolites, MMAIII and DMAIII, modify CYP3A4, PXR and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Diaz, I.M.; Estrada-Muniz, E.; Reyes-Hernandez, O.D.; Ramirez, P.; Vega, L.; Elizondo, G.


    Arsenic is an environmental pollutant that has been associated with an increased risk for the development of cancer and several other diseases through alterations of cellular homeostasis and hepatic function. Cytochrome P450 (P450) modification may be one of the factors contributing to these disorders. Several reports have established that exposure to arsenite modifies P450 expression by decreasing or increasing mRNA and protein levels. Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the predominant P450 expressed in the human liver and intestines, which is regulated mainly by the Pregnane X Receptor-Retinoid X Receptor alpha (PXR-RXR alpha) heterodimer, contributes to the metabolism of approximately half the drugs in clinical use today. The present study investigates the effect of sodium arsenite and its metabolites monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) on CYP3A4, PXR, and RXR alpha expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice. Sodium arsenite treatment increases mRNA, protein and CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, the increase in protein expression was not as marked as compared to the increase in mRNA levels. Arsenite treatment induces the accumulation of Ub-protein conjugates, indicating that the activation of this mechanism may explain the differences observed between the mRNA and protein expression of CYP3A4 induction. Treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of DMA III induces CYP3A4 in a similar way, while treatment with 0.05 mg/kg of MMA III increases mostly mRNA, and to a lesser degree, CYP3A4 activity. Sodium arsenite and both its metabolites increase PXR mRNA, while only DMA III induces RXR alpha expression. Overall, these results suggest that sodium arsenite and its metabolites induce CYP3A4 expression by increasing PXR expression in the small intestine of CYP3A4 transgenic mice.

  3. Glutamine and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate supplementation on malate dehydrogenases expression in hepatectomized rats. (United States)

    Guimarães Filho, Artur; Cunha, Rodrigo Maranguape Silva da; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho


    To evaluate the relative gene expression (RGE) of cytosolic (MDH1) and mitochondrial (MDH2) malate dehydrogenases enzymes in partially hepatectomized rats after glutamine (GLN) or ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) suplementation. One-hundred and eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into six groups (n=18): CCaL, GLNL and OKGL and fed calcium caseinate (CCa), GLN and OKG, 0.5 g/Kg by gavage, 30 minutes before laparotomy. CCaH, GLNH and OKGH groups were likewise fed 30 minutes before 70% partial hepatectomy. Blood and liver samples were collected three, seven and 14 days after laparotomy/hepatectomy for quantification of MDH1/MDH2 enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology. Relative enzymes expression was calculated by the 2-(ΔΔC)T method using the threshold cycle (CT) value for normalization. MDH1/MDH2 RGE was not different in hepatectomized rats treated with OKG compared to rats treated with CCa. However, MDH1/MDH2 RGE was greater on days 3 (321:1/26.48:1) and 7 (2.12:1/2.48:1) while MDH2 RGE was greater on day 14 (7.79:1) in hepatectomized rats treated with GLN compared to control animals. Glutamine has beneficial effects in liver regeneration in rats by promoting an up-regulation of the MDH1 and MDH2 relative gene expression.

  4. Preliminary Molecular Dynamic Simulations of the Estrogen Receptor Alpha Ligand Binding Domain from Antagonist to Apo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian E. Roitberg


    Full Text Available Estrogen receptors (ER are known as nuclear receptors. They exist in the cytoplasm of human cells and serves as a DNA binding transcription factor that regulates gene expression. However the estrogen receptor also has additional functions independent of DNA binding. The human estrogen receptor comes in two forms, alpha and beta. This work focuses on the alpha form of the estrogen receptor. The ERα is found in breast cancer cells, ovarian stroma cells, endometrium, and the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that exposure to DDE, a metabolite of DDT, and other pesticides causes conformational changes in the estrogen receptor. Before examining these factors, this work examines the protein unfolding from the antagonist form found in the 3ERT PDB crystal structure. The 3ERT PDB crystal structure has the estrogen receptor bound to the cancer drug 4-hydroxytamoxifen. The 4-hydroxytamoxifen ligand was extracted before the simulation, resulting in new conformational freedom due to absence of van der Waals contacts between the ligand and the receptor. The conformational changes that result expose the binding clef of the co peptide beside Helix 12 of the receptor forming an apo conformation. Two key conformations in the loops at either end of the H12 are produced resulting in the antagonist to apo conformation transformation. The results were produced over a 42ns Molecular Dynamics simulation using the AMBER FF99SB force field.

  5. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M


    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  6. A Role for Protein Phosphatase 2A in Regulating p38 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activation and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Expression during Influenza Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Y. Law


    Full Text Available Influenza viruses of avian origin continue to pose pandemic threats to human health. Some of the H5N1 and H9N2 virus subtypes induce markedly elevated cytokine levels when compared with the seasonal H1N1 virus. We previously showed that H5N1/97 hyperinduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha through p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK. However, the detailed mechanisms of p38MAPK activation and TNF-alpha hyperinduction following influenza virus infections are not known. Negative feedback regulations of cytokine expression play important roles in avoiding overwhelming production of proinflammatory cytokines. Here we hypothesize that protein phosphatases are involved in the regulation of cytokine expressions during influenza virus infection. We investigated the roles of protein phosphatases including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A in modulating p38MAPK activation and downstream TNF-alpha expressions in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (PBMac infected with H9N2/G1 or H1N1 influenza virus. We demonstrate that H9N2/G1 virus activated p38MAPK and hyperinduced TNF-alpha production in PBMac when compared with H1N1 virus. H9N2/G1 induced PP2A activity in PBMac and, with the treatment of a PP2A inhibitor, p38MAPK phosphorylation and TNF-alpha production were further increased in the virus-infected macrophages. However, H9N2/G1 did not induce the expression of PP2A indicating that the activation of PP2A is not mediated by p38MAPK in virus-infected PBMac. On the other hand, PP2A may not be the targets of H9N2/G1 in the upstream of p38MAPK signaling pathways since H1N1 also induced PP2A activation in primary macrophages. Our results may provide new insights into the control of cytokine dysregulation.

  7. Structure and function of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins: established concepts and emerging ideas. (United States)

    MacRae, T H


    Small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins are defined by conserved sequence of approximately 90 amino acid residues, termed the alpha-crystallin domain, which is bounded by variable amino- and carboxy-terminal extensions. These proteins form oligomers, most of uncertain quaternary structure, and oligomerization is prerequisite to their function as molecular chaperones. Sequence modelling and physical analyses show that the secondary structure of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins is predominately beta-pleated sheet. Crystallography, site-directed spin-labelling and yeast two-hybrid selection demonstrate regions of secondary structure within the alpha-crystallin domain that interact during oligomer assembly, a process also dependent on the amino terminus. Oligomers are dynamic, exhibiting subunit exchange and organizational plasticity, perhaps leading to functional diversity. Exposure of hydrophobic residues by structural modification facilitates chaperoning where denaturing proteins in the molten globule state associate with oligomers. The flexible carboxy-terminal extension contributes to chaperone activity by enhancing the solubility of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis has yielded proteins where the effect of the change on structure and function depends upon the residue modified, the organism under study and the analytical techniques used. Most revealing, substitution of a conserved arginine residue within the alpha-crystallin domain has a major impact on quaternary structure and chaperone action probably through realignment of beta-sheets. These mutations are linked to inherited diseases. Oligomer size is regulated by a stress-responsive cascade including MAPKAP kinase 2/3 and p38. Phosphorylation of small heat shock/alpha-crystallin proteins has important consequences within stressed cells, especially for microfilaments.

  8. Aberrant Behaviours of Reaction Diffusion Self-organisation Models on Growing Domains in the Presence of Gene Expression Time Delays

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin Lee, S.


    Turing\\'s pattern formation mechanism exhibits sensitivity to the details of the initial conditions suggesting that, in isolation, it cannot robustly generate pattern within noisy biological environments. Nonetheless, secondary aspects of developmental self-organisation, such as a growing domain, have been shown to ameliorate this aberrant model behaviour. Furthermore, while in-situ hybridisation reveals the presence of gene expression in developmental processes, the influence of such dynamics on Turing\\'s model has received limited attention. Here, we novelly focus on the Gierer-Meinhardt reaction diffusion system considering delays due the time taken for gene expression, while incorporating a number of different domain growth profiles to further explore the influence and interplay of domain growth and gene expression on Turing\\'s mechanism. We find extensive pathological model behaviour, exhibiting one or more of the following: temporal oscillations with no spatial structure, a failure of the Turing instability and an extreme sensitivity to the initial conditions, the growth profile and the duration of gene expression. This deviant behaviour is even more severe than observed in previous studies of Schnakenberg kinetics on exponentially growing domains in the presence of gene expression (Gaffney and Monk in Bull. Math. Biol. 68:99-130, 2006). Our results emphasise that gene expression dynamics induce unrealistic behaviour in Turing\\'s model for multiple choices of kinetics and thus such aberrant modelling predictions are likely to be generic. They also highlight that domain growth can no longer ameliorate the excessive sensitivity of Turing\\'s mechanism in the presence of gene expression time delays. The above, extensive, pathologies suggest that, in the presence of gene expression, Turing\\'s mechanism would generally require a novel and extensive secondary mechanism to control reaction diffusion patterning. © 2010 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  9. Stevioside counteracts the alpha cell hypersecretion caused by long-term palmitate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Jing; Chen, Jianguo; Jeppesen, Per Bendix


    Long-term exposure to fatty acids impairs beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes, but little is known about the chronic effects of fatty acids on alpha-cells. We therefore studied the prolonged impact of palmitate on alpha-cell function and on the expression of genes related to fuel metabolism. We......-activated receptor-gamma, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene expressions in the presence of palmitate (Pacids leads to a hypersecretion of glucagon and an accumulation of TG content in clonal alpha-TC1-6 cells. Stevioside was able to counteract the alpha......-cell hypersecretion caused by palmitate and enhanced the expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. This indicates that stevioside may be a promising antidiabetic agent in treatment of type 2 diabetes....

  10. Particularisation of Alpha Contamination using CR-39 Track Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakia, M.F.; El-Shaer, Y.H.


    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of the alpha particles. Furthermore, the measurement of alpha activity by most gas ionization detectors suffers from the high background induced by the accompanying gamma radiation. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) have been used successfully as detecting devices as passive system to detect the alpha contamination different surfaces. This work presents the response of CR-39 (for two types) to alpha particles from two sources, 238 Pu with energy 5 MeV and 241 Am with energy 5.4 MeV. The methods of etching and counting are investigated, along with the achievable linearity, efficiency and reproducibility. The sensitivity to low activity and energy resolution are studied

  11. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain. (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D


    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  12. Myonuclear domain size and myosin isoform expression in muscle fibres from mammals representing a 100,000-fold difference in body size. (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Xia; Höglund, Anna-Stina; Karlsson, Patrick; Lindblad, Joakim; Qaisar, Rizwan; Aare, Sudhakar; Bengtsson, Ewert; Larsson, Lars


    This comparative study of myonuclear domain (MND) size in mammalian species representing a 100,000-fold difference in body mass, ranging from 25 g to 2500 kg, was undertaken to improve our understanding of myonuclear organization in skeletal muscle fibres. Myonuclear domain size was calculated from three-dimensional reconstructions in a total of 235 single muscle fibre segments at a fixed sarcomere length. Irrespective of species, the largest MND size was observed in muscle fibres expressing fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, but in the two smallest mammalian species studied (mouse and rat), MND size was not larger in the fast-twitch fibres expressing the IIA MyHC isofom than in the slow-twitch type I fibres. In the larger mammals, the type I fibres always had the smallest average MND size, but contrary to mouse and rat muscles, type IIA fibres had lower mitochondrial enzyme activities than type I fibres. Myonuclear domain size was highly dependent on body mass in the two muscle fibre types expressed in all species, i.e. types I and IIA. Myonuclear domain size increased in muscle fibres expressing both the beta/slow (type I; r = 0.84, P fast IIA MyHC isoform (r = 0.90; P muscle fibre type, independent of species. However, myosin isoform expression is not the sole protein determining MND size, and other protein systems, such as mitochondrial proteins, may be equally or more important determinants of MND size.

  13. TNF-alpha expression by resident microglia and infiltrating leukocytes in the central nervous system of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Krakowski, M; Piccirillo, C


    in the pathology of multiple sclerosis and its animal model experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). We used reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR to study the kinetics, cellular source, and regulation of cytokine gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS) of SJL/J mice with myelin basic protein......, the majority of which were identified as microglia and macrophages by their Mac-1 phenotype. Microglia could be discriminated by their low expression of CD45. Incubation of freshly derived, adult microglia from normal, uninfiltrated, CNS with activated Th1 supernatant induced the production of TNF-alpha m...

  14. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue. (United States)

    Zhang, Lirong; Hu, Yu; Xi, Ning; Song, Jie; Huang, Wenjing; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Yiting; Liu, Xianying; Xie, Yingjun


    Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ) is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO 2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO 2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO 2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development ( P < 0.05). The levels of pO 2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 ( P < 0.05). Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO 2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  15. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang


    Full Text Available Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2 is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20, and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development (P<0.05. The levels of pO2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 (P<0.05. Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  16. Thioesterase activity and acyl-CoA/fatty acid cross-talk of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha}. (United States)

    Hertz, Rachel; Kalderon, Bella; Byk, Tamara; Berman, Ina; Za'tara, Ghadeer; Mayer, Raphael; Bar-Tana, Jacob


    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) activity is modulated by natural and xenobiotic fatty acid and fatty acyl-CoA ligands as a function of their chain length, unsaturation, and substitutions. The acyl-CoA site of HNF-4alpha is reported here to consist of the E-F domain, to bind long-chain acyl-CoAs but not the respective free acids, and to catalyze the hydrolysis of bound fatty acyl-CoAs. The free acid pocket, previously reported in the x-ray structure of HNF-4alpha E-domain, entraps fatty acids but excludes acyl-CoAs. The acyl-CoA and free acid sites are distinctive and noncongruent. Free fatty acid products of HNF-4alpha thioesterase may exchange with free acids entrapped in the fatty acid pocket of HNF-4alpha. Cross-talk between the acyl-CoA and free fatty acid binding sites is abrogated by high affinity, nonhydrolyzable acyl-CoA ligands of HNF-4alpha that inhibit its thioesterase activity. Hence, HNF-4alpha transcriptional activity is controlled by its two interrelated acyl ligands and two binding sites interphased in tandem by the thioesterase activity. The acyl-CoA/free-acid and receptor/enzyme duality of HNF-4alpha extends the paradigm of nuclear receptors.

  17. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages. (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M


    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  18. The T alpha 2 nuclear protein binding site from the human T cell receptor alpha enhancer functions as both a T cell-specific transcriptional activator and repressor



    T cell-specific expression of the human T cell receptor alpha (TCR- alpha) gene is regulated by the interaction of variable region promoter elements with a transcriptional enhancer that is located 4.5 kb 3' of the TCR-alpha constant region (C alpha) gene segment. The minimal TCR- alpha enhancer is composed of two nuclear protein binding sites, T alpha 1 and T alpha 2, that are both required for the T cell-specific activity of the enhancer. The T alpha 1 binding site contains a consensus cAMP ...

  19. Expression of Aspergillus hemoglobin domain activities in Aspergillus oryzae grown on solid substrates improves growth rate and enzyme production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesebeke, te R.; Boussier, A.; Biezen van, N.; Braaksma, M.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Punt, P.J.


    DNA fragments coding for hemoglobin domains (HBD) were isolated from Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger. The HBD activities were expressed in A. oryzae by introduction of HBD gene fragments under the control of the promoter of the constitutively expressed gpdA gene. In the transformants,

  20. Lateralisation effect in comprehension of emotional facial expression: a comparison between EEG alpha band power and behavioural inhibition (BIS) and activation (BAS) systems. (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Mazza, Guido


    Asymmetry in comprehension of facial expression of emotions was explored in the present study by analysing alpha band variation within the right and left cortical sides. Second, the behavioural activation system (BAS) and behavioural inhibition system (BIS) were considered as an explicative factor to verify the effect of a motivational/emotional variable on alpha activity. A total of 19 participants looked at an ample range of facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral) in random order. The results demonstrated that anterior frontal sites were more active than central and parietal sites in response to facial stimuli. Moreover, right and left side responses varied as a function of emotional types, with an increased right frontal activity for negative, aversive emotions vs an increased left response for positive emotion. Finally, whereas higher BIS participants generated more right hemisphere activation for some negative emotions (such as fear, anger, surprise, and disgust), BAS participants were more responsive to positive emotion (happiness) within the left hemisphere. Motivational significance of facial expressions was considered to elucidate cortical differences in participants' responses to emotional types.

  1. Identification of functional domains of the IR2 protein of equine herpesvirus 1 required for inhibition of viral gene expression and replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong K.; Kim, Seongman; Dai Gan; Zhang Yunfei; Ahn, Byung C.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J.


    The equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) negative regulatory IR2 protein (IR2P), an early 1,165-amino acid (aa) truncated form of the 1487-aa immediate-early protein (IEP), lacks the trans-activation domain essential for IEP activation functions but retains domains for binding DNA, TFIIB, and TBP and the nuclear localization signal. IR2P mutants of the N-terminal region which lack either DNA-binding activity or TFIIB-binding activity were unable to down-regulate EHV-1 promoters. In EHV-1-infected cells expressing full-length IR2P, transcription and protein expression of viral regulatory IE, early EICP0, IR4, and UL5, and late ETIF genes were dramatically inhibited. Viral DNA levels were reduced to 2.1% of control infected cells, but were vey weakly affected in cells that express the N-terminal 706 residues of IR2P. These results suggest that IR2P function requires the two N-terminal domains for binding DNA and TFIIB as well as the C-terminal residues 707 to 1116 containing the TBP-binding domain. - Highlights: → We examine the functional domains of IR2P that mediates negative regulation. → IR2P inhibits at the transcriptional level. → DNA-binding mutant or TFIIB-binding mutant fails to inhibit. → C-terminal aa 707 to 1116 are required for full inhibition. → Inhibition requires the DNA-binding domain, TFIIB-binding domain, and C-terminus.

  2. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.


    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the SH3 domain of human AHI1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zhuliang; Liang, Ning; Xu, Wei; Li, Kuai; Sheng, Guoqing; Liu, Jinsong; Xu, Aimin; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Wu, Donghai


    The SH3 domain of human AHI1 has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography and was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. The SH3 domain of human AHI1 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified by affinity and size-exclusion chromatography and was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. A complete data set was collected to 2.5 Å resolution at 110 K. The crystal belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.377, b = 67.377, c = 98.549 Å

  4. Analysis of T cell receptor alpha beta variability in lymphocytes infiltrating melanoma primary tumours and metastatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøller, J; thor Straten, P; Jakobsen, Annette Birck


    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse-transcription-couple......The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta variable (V) gene family usage of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in four different primary human malignant melanomas and their corresponding metastatic lesions was characterized using a recently developed method based on the reverse...... usage of the TCR V gene families V alpha 4, V alpha 5, V alpha 22 and V beta 8, whereas the V beta 3 gene family appeared to be expressed together with HLA-A1. Other highly expressed V gene families, apparently not restricted to either HLA-A1 or -A2, were V alpha 1 (expressed in three of four primary...... tumours) and V alpha 21 (expressed in two of four tumours). We found no evidence suggesting any correlations between the haplotypes HLA-A1 and -A2 and preferential V gene family expression in the metastatic lesions, and the only common feature was V alpha 8, which was found to be highly expressed in two...

  5. Frequent expression loss of Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain (ITIH) genes in multiple human solid tumors: A systematic expression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Alexander; Knuechel, Ruth; Dahl, Edgar; Veeck, Juergen; Bektas, Nuran; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt; Heindrichs, Uwe; Kristiansen, Glen; Werbowetski-Ogilvie, Tamra; Del Maestro, Rolando


    The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI) are a family of plasma protease inhibitors, assembled from a light chain – bikunin, encoded by AMBP – and five homologous heavy chains (encoded by ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, ITIH4, and ITIH5), contributing to extracellular matrix stability by covalent linkage to hyaluronan. So far, ITIH molecules have been shown to play a particularly important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. We systematically investigated differential gene expression of the ITIH gene family, as well as AMBP and the interacting partner TNFAIP6 in 13 different human tumor entities (of breast, endometrium, ovary, cervix, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, lung, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and pancreas) using cDNA dot blot analysis (Cancer Profiling Array, CPA), semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that ITIH genes are clearly downregulated in multiple human solid tumors, including breast, colon and lung cancer. Thus, ITIH genes may represent a family of putative tumor suppressor genes that should be analyzed in greater detail in the future. For an initial detailed analysis we chose ITIH2 expression in human breast cancer. Loss of ITIH2 expression in 70% of cases (n = 50, CPA) could be confirmed by real-time PCR in an additional set of breast cancers (n = 36). Next we studied ITIH2 expression on the protein level by analyzing a comprehensive tissue micro array including 185 invasive breast cancer specimens. We found a strong correlation (p < 0.001) between ITIH2 expression and estrogen receptor (ER) expression indicating that ER may be involved in the regulation of this ECM molecule. Altogether, this is the first systematic analysis on the differential expression of ITIH genes in human cancer, showing frequent downregulation that may be associated with initiation and/or progression of these malignancies

  6. [Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. From bench to bedside]. (United States)

    Böhm, M; Luger, T A


    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a tridecapeptide that is produced by the skin itself from the precursor proopiomelanocortin. It crucially mediates ultraviolet light-induced tanning after binding to melanocortin-1 receptors (MC-1R) expressed on the surface of epidermal melanocytes. The potent pigment-inducing and also cytoprotective actions of alpha-MSH are the rationale for the performance of first phase II clinical trials with Nle4-D-Phe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH), a subcutaneously administered synthetic and superpotent alpha-MSH analogue, in patients with photodermatoses such as erythropoietic protoporphyria. Since alpha-MSH has shown promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties in numerous preclinical studies, it will be most interesting to evaluate these effects in further clinical pilot studies with NDP-alpha-MSH. In addition to alpha-MSH analogues, truncated tripeptides such as KDPT which do not bind to MC-1R but have sustained anti-inflammatory properties are currently emerging as another novel therapeutic strategy in dermatology.

  7. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  8. Characterization of big bang, a novel gene encoding for PDZ domain-containing proteins that are dynamically expressed throughout Drosophila development. (United States)

    Kim, Sabrina Y; Renihan, Maia K; Boulianne, Gabrielle L


    PDZ (PSD-95, Discs-large, ZO-1) domain proteins often function as scaffolding proteins and have been shown to play important roles in diverse cellular processes such as the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity, and signal transduction. Here, we report the identification and cloning of a novel Drosophila melanogaster gene that is predicted to produce several different PDZ domain-containing proteins through alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing. This gene, that we have named big bang (bbg), was first identified as C96-GAL4, a GAL4 enhancer trap line that was generated in our lab. To further characterize bbg, its expression pattern was examined in ovaries, embryos, and late third instar larvae using UAS reporter gene constructs, in situ hybridization, or immunocytochemistry. In addition, the expression of alternatively spliced transcripts was examined in more detail using in situ hybridization. We find that during embryogenesis bbg is predominantly expressed in the developing gut, but it is also expressed in external sensory organs found in the epidermis. In the late third instar larva, bbg is expressed along the presumptive wing margin in the wing disc, broadly in the eye disc, and in other imaginal discs as well as in the brain. The expression patterns observed are dynamic and specific during development, suggesting that like other genes that encode for several different PDZ domain protein isoforms, bbg likely plays important roles in multiple developmental processes.

  9. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest. (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F


    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  10. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha expression increases during colorectal carcinogenesis and tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiantonaki, Nektaria; Taxeidis, Marios; Jayasinghe, Caren; Kurzik-Dumke, Ursula; Kirkpatrick, Charles James


    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is involved in processes promoting carcinogenesis of many tumors. However, its role in the development of colorectal cancer is unknown. To investigate the significance of HIF-1α during colorectal carcinogenesis and progression we examined its expression in precursor lesions constituting the conventional and serrated pathways, as well as in non-metastatic and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot is used to analyse HIF-1α expression in normal colonic mucosa, hyperplastic polyps (HPP), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA), low-grade (TA-LGD) and high-grade (TA-HGD) traditional adenomas as well as in non-metastatic and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas. Eight colorectal carcinoma cell lines are tested for their HIF-1α inducibility after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation using western blot and immunocytochemistry. In normal mucosa, HPP and TA-LGD HIF-1α was not expressed. In contast, perinuclear protein accumulation and nuclear expression of HIF-1α were shown in half of the examined SSA and TA-HGD. In all investigated colorectal carcinomas a significant nuclear HIF-1α overexpression compared to the premalignant lesions was observed but a significant correlation with the metastatic status was not found. Nuclear HIF-1α expression was strongly accumulated in perinecrotic regions. In these cases HIF-1α activation was seen in viable cohesive tumor epithelia surrounding necrosis and in dissociated tumor cells, which subsequently die. Enhanced distribution of HIF-1α was also seen in periiflammatory regions. In additional in vitro studies, treatment of diverse colorectal carcinoma cell lines with the potent pro-inflammatory factor lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to HIF-1α expression and nuclear translocation. We conclude that HIF-1α expression occurs in early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and achieves a maximum in the invasive stage independent of the metastatic status. Perinecrotic

  11. Characterization of the Met326Ile variant of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Katrine; Delahaye, Laurent; Hansen, Torben


    . When the four human p85alpha proteins were expressed in yeast, a 27% decrease occurred in the level of protein expression of p85alpha(Ile/Asp) (P = 0.03) and a 43% decrease in p85alpha(Ile/Asn) (P = 0.08) as compared with p85alpha(Met/Asp). Both p85alpha(Ile/Asp) and p85alpha(Ile/Asn) also exhibited...... increased binding to phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 by 41% and 83%, respectively (P substrate-1 slightly increased in brown preadipocytes derived from p85alpha...... knockout mice. Both p85alpha(Met) and p85alpha(Ile) had similar effects on AKT activity and were able to reconstitute differentiation of the preadipocytes, although the triglyceride concentration in fully differentiated adipocytes and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake were slightly lower than...

  12. Endometrial IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, mRNA expression in mares resistant or susceptible to post-breeding endometritis. Effects of estrous cycle, artificial insemination and immunomodulation. (United States)

    Fumuso, Elida; Giguère, Steeve; Wade, José; Rogan, Dragan; Videla-Dorna, Ignacio; Bowden, Raúl A


    Endometrial mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was assessed in mares resistant (RM) or susceptible (SM) to persistent post-breeding endometritis (PPBE). Eight RM and eight SM, were selected based on reproductive records and functional tests out of a herd of 2,000 light cross-type mares. Three experiments were done to study transcription patterns in (i) basal conditions; (ii) after artificial insemination (AI); and (iii) after administration of an immunomodulator at time of artificial insemination. Endometrial biopsies were taken during consecutive cycles: (i) at estrus, when follicles reached 35 mm and at diestrus (7 +/- 1 days after ovulation); (ii) at 24 h post-AI, with dead semen (estrus) and in diestrus; (iii) at 24 h after treatment with a Mycobacterium phlei cell-wall extract (MCWE) preparation and AI (with dead semen), and at diestrus. mRNA expression was quantitated by real time PCR. Under basal conditions, SM had significantly higher mRNA expression of all cytokines in estrus and of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in diestrus, compared to RM. After AI, there were no differences between RM and SM in estrus; however, mRNA expression for all three pro-inflammatory cytokines was higher than under basal conditions. In diestrus, RM showed significantly lower IL-1beta and TNF-alpha mRNA expression than SM. When MCWE was administered at time of AI, no differences between cytokine induction from RM and SM were found. Globally, mRNA expression for all three cytokines correlated well among themselves when expression was high. The present study showed that (i) in basal conditions RM had lower mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines than SM with no effect of estrous cycle; (ii) AI upregulated mRNA expression for all three cytokines in both RM and SM, with persistance in diestrus in the latter; (iii) treatment with MCWE at time of AI down-regulated mRNA expression

  13. Yeast Fex1p Is a Constitutively Expressed Fluoride Channel with Functional Asymmetry of Its Two Homologous Domains* (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn D.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Rivetta, Alberto; Allen, Kenneth E.; Berbasova, Tetyana; Slayman, Clifford; Strobel, Scott A.


    Fluoride is a ubiquitous environmental toxin with which all biological species must cope. A recently discovered family of fluoride export (FEX) proteins protects organisms from fluoride toxicity by removing it from the cell. We show here that FEX proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae function as ion channels that are selective for fluoride over chloride and that these proteins are constitutively expressed at the yeast plasma membrane. Continuous expression is in contrast to many other toxin exporters in yeast, and this, along with the fact that two nearly duplicate proteins are encoded in the yeast genome, suggests that the threat posed by fluoride ions is frequent and detrimental. Structurally, eukaryotic FEX proteins consist of two homologous four-transmembrane helix domains folded into an antiparallel dimer, where the orientation of the two domains is fixed by a single transmembrane linker helix. Using phylogenetic sequence conservation as a guide, we have identified several functionally important residues. There is substantial functional asymmetry in the effect of mutation at corresponding sites in the two domains. Specifically, mutations to residues in the C-terminal domain proved significantly more detrimental to function than did similar mutations in the N-terminal domain. Our data suggest particular residues that may be important to anion specificity, most notably the necessity of a positive charge near the end of TMH1 in the C-terminal domain. It is possible that a cationic charge at this location may create an electrostatic well for fluoride ions entering the channel from the cytoplasm. PMID:26055717

  14. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.


    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239 PuO 2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Thermodynamic characterization of binding Oxytricha nova single strand telomere DNA with the alpha protein N-terminal domain. (United States)

    Buczek, Pawel; Horvath, Martin P


    The Oxytricha nova telemere binding protein alpha subunit binds single strand DNA and participates in a nucleoprotein complex that protects the very ends of chromosomes. To understand how the N-terminal, DNA binding domain of alpha interacts with DNA we measured the stoichiometry, enthalpy (DeltaH), entropy (DeltaS), and dissociation constant (K(D-DNA)) for binding telomere DNA fragments at different temperatures and salt concentrations using native gel electrophoresis and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). About 85% of the total free energy of binding corresponded with non-electrostatic interactions for all DNAs. Telomere DNA fragments d(T(2)G(4)), d(T(4)G(4)), d(G(3)T(4)G(4)), and d(G(4)T(4)G(4)) each formed monovalent protein complexes. In the case of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)), which has two tandemly repeated d(TTTTTGGGG) telomere motifs, two binding sites were observed. The high-affinity "A site" has a dissociation constant, K(D-DNA(A)) = 13(+/-4) nM, while the low-affinity "B site" is characterized by K(D-DNA(B)) = 5600(+/-600) nM at 25 degrees C. Nucleotide substitution variants verified that the A site corresponds principally with the 3'-terminal portion of d(T(4)G(4)T(4)G(4)). The relative contributions of entropy (DeltaS) and enthalpy (DeltaH) for binding reactions were DNA length-dependent as was heat capacity (DeltaCp). These trends with respect to DNA length likely reflect structural transitions in the DNA molecule that are coupled with DNA-protein association. Results presented here are important for understanding early intermediates and subsequent stages in the assembly of the full telomere nucleoprotein complex and how binding events can prepare the telomere DNA for extension by telomerase, a critical event in telomere biology.

  16. The Kunitz-protease inhibitor domain in amyloid precursor protein reduces cellular mitochondrial enzymes expression and function. (United States)

    Chua, Li-Min; Lim, Mei-Li; Wong, Boon-Seng


    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this can be contributed by aberrant metabolic enzyme function. But, the mechanism causing this enzymatic impairment is unclear. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is known to be alternatively spliced to produce three major isoforms in the brain (APP695, APP751, APP770). Both APP770 and APP751 contain the Kunitz Protease Inhibitory (KPI) domain, but the former also contain an extra OX-2 domain. APP695 on the other hand, lacks both domains. In AD, up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms has been reported. But the functional contribution of this elevation is unclear. In the present study, we have expressed and compared the effect of the non-KPI containing APP695 and the KPI-containing APP751 on mitochondrial function. We found that the KPI-containing APP751 significantly decreased the expression of three major mitochondrial metabolic enzymes; citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase (COX IV). This reduction lowers the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, COX IV activity and mitochondrial membrane potential. Overall, this study demonstrated that up-regulation of the KPI-containing APP isoforms is likely to contribute to the impairment of metabolic enzymes and mitochondrial function in AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. ESPRIT: an automated, library-based method for mapping and soluble expression of protein domains from challenging targets. (United States)

    Yumerefendi, Hayretin; Tarendeau, Franck; Mas, Philippe J; Hart, Darren J


    Expression of sufficient quantities of soluble protein for structural biology and other applications is often a very difficult task, especially when multimilligram quantities are required. In order to improve yield, solubility or crystallisability of a protein, it is common to subclone shorter genetic constructs corresponding to single- or multi-domain fragments. However, it is not always clear where domain boundaries are located, especially when working on novel targets with little or no sequence similarity to other proteins. Several methods have been described employing aspects of directed evolution to the recombinant expression of challenging proteins. These combine the construction of a random library of genetic constructs of a target with a screening or selection process to identify solubly expressing protein fragments. Here we review several datasets from the ESPRIT (Expression of Soluble Proteins by Random Incremental Truncation) technology to provide a view on its capabilities. Firstly, we demonstrate how it functions using the well-characterised NF-kappaB p50 transcription factor as a model system. Secondly, application of ESPRIT to the challenging PB2 subunit of influenza polymerase has led to several novel atomic resolution structures; here we present an overview of the screening phase of that project. Thirdly, analysis of the human kinase TBK1 is presented to show how the ESPRIT technology rapidly addresses the compatibility of challenging targets with the Escherichia coli expression system.

  18. Co-regulation of the atrial natriuretic factor and cardiac myosin light chain-2 genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells. Identification of cis sequences within an embryonic and a constitutive contractile protein gene which mediate inducible expression. (United States)

    Knowlton, K U; Baracchini, E; Ross, R S; Harris, A N; Henderson, S A; Evans, S M; Glembotski, C C; Chien, K R


    To study the mechanisms which mediate the transcriptional activation of cardiac genes during alpha adrenergic stimulation, the present study examined the regulated expression of three cardiac genes, a ventricular embryonic gene (atrial natriuretic factor, ANF), a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (cardiac MLC-2), and a cardiac sodium channel gene. alpha 1-Adrenergic stimulation activates the expression and release of ANF from neonatal ventricular cells. As assessed by RNase protection analyses, treatment with alpha-adrenergic agonists increases the steady-state levels of ANF mRNA by greater than 15-fold. However, a rat cardiac sodium channel gene mRNA is not induced, indicating that alpha-adrenergic stimulation does not lead to an increase in the expression of all cardiac genes. Studies employing a series of rat ANF luciferase and rat MLC-2 luciferase fusion genes identify 315- and 92-base pair cis regulatory sequences within an embryonic gene (ANF) and a constitutively expressed contractile protein gene (MLC-2), respectively, which mediate alpha-adrenergic-inducible gene expression. Transfection of various ANF luciferase reporters into neonatal rat ventricular cells demonstrated that upstream sequences which mediate tissue-specific expression (-3003 to -638) can be segregated from those responsible for inducibility. The lack of inducibility of a cardiac Na+ channel gene, and the segregation of ANF gene sequences which mediate cardiac specific from those which mediate inducible expression, provides further insight into the relationship between muscle-specific and inducible expression during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Based on these results, a testable model is proposed for the induction of embryonic cardiac genes and constitutively expressed contractile protein genes and the noninducibility of a subset of cardiac genes during alpha-adrenergic stimulation of neonatal rat ventricular cells.

  19. Silencing alpha-fetoprotein inhibits VEGF and MMP-2/9 production in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell. (United States)

    Meng, Wenbo; Li, Xun; Bai, Zhongtian; Li, Yan; Yuan, Jinqiu; Liu, Tao; Yan, Jun; Zhou, Wence; Zhu, Kexiang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yumin


    Alpha-fetoprotein not only serves as a diagnostic marker for liver cancer, but also posses a variety of biological functions. However, the role of Alpha-fetoprotein on tumor angiogenesis and cell invasion remains incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to evaluate if Alpha-fetoprotein can regulate the major angiogenic factors and matrix metalloproteinases in human liver cancer cells. Alpha-fetoprotein silencing was achieved by Stealth RNAi. Expression of Alpha-fetoprotein was examined by a full-automatic electrochemistry luminescence immunity analyzer. Expression of VEGF, VEGFR-2, MMP-9, and MMP-2 was examined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Angiogenesis was detected by in vitro angiogenesis assay kit. Silencing of Alpha-fetoprotein led to an increased apoptosis, which was associated with a decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, matrix metalloproteinases-2/9. These results suggest that Alpha-fetoprotein may play a regulatory role on angiogenesis and cell invasion during liver cancer development.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* sialic acid-binding domain of porcine rotavirus strain OSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yang-De; Li, Hao; Liu, Hui; Pan, Yi-Feng


    Porcine rotavirus strain OSU VP8* domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from different crystal forms of the VP8* domain have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. The rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 is utilized in the process of rotavirus attachment to and membrane penetration of host cells. VP4 is cleaved by trypsin into two domains: VP8* and VP5*. The VP8* domain is implicated in initial interaction with sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and triggers subsequent virus invasion. The VP8* domain from porcine OSU rotavirus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Different crystal forms (orthorhombic P2 1 2 1 2 1 and tetragonal P4 1 2 1 2) were harvested from two distinct crystallization conditions. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution and the VP8* 65–224 structure was determined by molecular replacement

  1. Interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins. (United States)

    Duque, Hernando; LaRocco, Michael; Golde, William T; Baxt, Barry


    At least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphaVbeta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta6, and alphaVbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro. Our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (H. Duque and B. Baxt, J. Virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). To further examine these differences, we generated soluble alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins. cDNA plasmids encoding the individual complete integrin alphaV, beta3, and beta6 subunits were used to amplify sequences encoding the subunits' signal peptide and ectodomain, resulting in subunits lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. COS-1 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the soluble alphaV subunit and either the soluble beta3 or beta6 subunit and labeled with [35S]methionine-cysteine. Complete subunit heterodimeric integrins were secreted into the medium, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. For the examination of the integrins' biological activities, stable cell lines producing the soluble integrins were generated in HEK 293A cells. In the presence of divalent cations, soluble alphaVbeta6 bound to representatives of type A or O viruses, immobilized on plastic dishes, and significantly inhibited viral replication, as determined by plaque reduction assays. In contrast, soluble alphaVbeta3 was unable to bind to immobilized virus of either serotype; however, virus bound to the immobilized integrin, suggesting that FMDV binding to alphaVbeta3 is a low-affinity interaction. In addition, soluble alphaVbeta3 did not neutralize virus infectivity. Incubation of soluble alphaVbeta6 with labeled type A12 or O1 resulted in a significant inhibition of virus adsorption to BHK cells, while soluble alphaVbeta3 caused a low (20 to 30%), but consistent, inhibition of virus

  2. Identification and characterization of an alternative promoter of the human PGC-1{alpha} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Toyo; Inagaki, Kenjiro [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Noguchi, Tetsuya, E-mail: [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Sakai, Mashito; Ogawa, Wataru; Hosooka, Tetsuya [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Iguchi, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Eijiro; Matsuki, Yasushi; Hiramatsu, Ryuji [Genomic Science Laboratories, DainipponSumitomo Pharma Co. Ltd., 4-2-1 Takatsukasa, Takarazuka 665-8555 (Japan); Kasuga, Masato [Division of Diabetes, Metabolism, and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, 1-21-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan)


    The transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) controls mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Although physical exercise induces PGC-1{alpha} expression in muscle, the underlying mechanism of this effect has remained incompletely understood. We recently identified a novel muscle-enriched isoform of PGC-1{alpha} transcript (designated PGC-1{alpha}-b) that is derived from a previously unidentified first exon. We have now cloned and characterized the human PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter. The muscle-specific transcription factors MyoD and MRF4 transactivated this promoter through interaction with a proximal E-box motif. Furthermore, either forced expression of Ca{sup 2+}- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV), calcineurin A, or the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) kinase MKK6 or the intracellular accumulation of cAMP activated the PGC-1{alpha}-b promoter in cultured myoblasts through recruitment of cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) to a putative CRE located downstream of the E-box. Our results thus reveal a potential molecular basis for isoform-specific regulation of PGC-1{alpha} expression in contracting muscle.

  3. Different combinations of maternal and postnatal diet are reflected in changes of hepatic parenchyma and hepatic TNF-alpha expression in male rat offspring. (United States)

    Kačarević, Željka Perić; Grgić, Anđela; Šnajder, Darija; Bijelić, Nikola; Belovari, Tatjana; Cvijanović, Olga; Blažičević, Valerija; Radić, Radivoje


    Obesity is related to increased TNF-alpha production in different tissues. TNF-alpha is connected to mitochondrial dysfunction in the liver and also development of fatty infiltration of the liver. Also, postnatal change from normal to high-fat diet causes a significant increase in TNF-alpha serum levels. The aim of this research was to determine how maternal diet and switching male offspring to a different dietary regime after lactation influences rat liver. Ten female Sprague Dawley rats at nine weeks of age were randomly divided in two groups and fed either standard laboratory chow or high-fat diet during six weeks, and then mated with the same male subject. After birth and lactation male offspring from both groups were further divided into four subgroups depending on their subsequent diet. At 22 weeks of age, the animals were weighted, sacrificed and major organs were collected and weighted. Immunohistochemistry for TNF-alpha was performed on liver, and liver samples were analyzed for pathohistological changes. The group in which mothers were fed standard chow and offspring high-fat diet had the most pronounced changes: heaviest liver, poorest histopathological findings and strongest TNF-alpha immunohistochemical staining of liver parenchyma. High-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation and switching to high-fat diet postnatally affects liver weight, histological structure and TNF-alpha expression in male offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha specifically inhibits insulin-increased prolactin gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, K K; Sap, J; Stanley, F M


    A physiologically relevant response to insulin, stimulation of prolactin promoter activity in GH4 pituitary cells, was used as an assay to study the specificity of protein-tyrosine phosphatase function. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) blocks the effect of insulin...... is specific by two criteria. A number of potential RPTPalpha targets were ruled out by finding (a) that they are not affected or (b) that they are not on the pathway to insulin-increased prolactin-CAT activity. The negative effect of RPTPalpha on insulin activation of the prolactin promoter is not due...... to reduced phosphorylation or kinase activity of the insulin receptor or to reduced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 or Shc. Inhibitor studies suggest that insulin-increased prolactin gene expression is mediated by a Ras-like GTPase but is not mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent...

  5. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, T.; Schrøder, Malene


    of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios...... intestines of the hamsters administered the highest doses of the glycoalkaloid treatments. In general, more differential gene expression was observed in the epithelial scrapings of the hamsters fed the ratio of 1:3.7. Mostly, pathways involved in lipid and energy metabolism were affected by the ratio of 1:3.7....

  6. Ubiquitin fusion constructs allow the expression and purification of multi-KOW domain complexes of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription elongation factor Spt4/5. (United States)

    Blythe, Amanda; Gunasekara, Sanjika; Walshe, James; Mackay, Joel P; Hartzog, Grant A; Vrielink, Alice


    Spt4/5 is a hetero-dimeric transcription elongation factor that can both inhibit and promote transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). However, Spt4/5's mechanism of action remains elusive. Spt5 is an essential protein and the only universally-conserved RNAP-associated transcription elongation factor. The protein contains multiple Kyrpides, Ouzounis and Woese (KOW) domains. These domains, in other proteins, are thought to bind RNA although there is little direct evidence in the literature to support such a function in Spt5. This could be due, at least in part, to difficulties in expressing and purifying recombinant Spt5. When expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), Spt5 is innately insoluble. Here we report a new approach for the successful expression and purification of milligram quantities of three different multi-KOW domain complexes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spt4/5 for use in future functional studies. Using the E. coli strain Rosetta2 (DE3) we have developed strategies for co-expression of Spt4 and multi-KOW domain Spt5 complexes from the bi-cistronic pET-Duet vector. In a second strategy, Spt4/5 was expressed via co-transformation of Spt4 in the vector pET-M11 with Spt5 ubiquitin fusion constructs in the vector pHUE. We characterized the multi-KOW domain Spt4/5 complexes by Western blot, limited proteolysis, circular dichroism, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion chromatography-multiangle light scattering and found that the proteins are folded with a Spt4:Spt5 hetero-dimeric stoichiometry of 1:1. These expression constructs encompass a larger region of Spt5 than has previously been reported, and will provide the opportunity to elucidate the biological function of the multi-KOW containing Spt5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1 alpha drives the formation of slow-twitch muscle fibres. (United States)

    Lin, Jiandie; Wu, Hai; Tarr, Paul T; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Wu, Zhidan; Boss, Olivier; Michael, Laura F; Puigserver, Pere; Isotani, Eiji; Olson, Eric N; Lowell, Bradford B; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Spiegelman, Bruce M


    The biochemical basis for the regulation of fibre-type determination in skeletal muscle is not well understood. In addition to the expression of particular myofibrillar proteins, type I (slow-twitch) fibres are much higher in mitochondrial content and are more dependent on oxidative metabolism than type II (fast-twitch) fibres. We have previously identified a transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator-1 (PGC-1 alpha), which is expressed in several tissues including brown fat and skeletal muscle, and that activates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. We show here that PGC-1 alpha is expressed preferentially in muscle enriched in type I fibres. When PGC-1 alpha is expressed at physiological levels in transgenic mice driven by a muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter, a fibre type conversion is observed: muscles normally rich in type II fibres are redder and activate genes of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Notably, putative type II muscles from PGC-1 alpha transgenic mice also express proteins characteristic of type I fibres, such as troponin I (slow) and myoglobin, and show a much greater resistance to electrically stimulated fatigue. Using fibre-type-specific promoters, we show in cultured muscle cells that PGC-1 alpha activates transcription in cooperation with Mef2 proteins and serves as a target for calcineurin signalling, which has been implicated in slow fibre gene expression. These data indicate that PGC-1 alpha is a principal factor regulating muscle fibre type determination.

  8. Crystal structure of importin-{alpha} complexed with a classic nuclear localization sequence obtained by oriented peptide library screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, A.A.S.; Fontes, M.R.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Yang, S.N.Y. [University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Harris, J.M. [Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Jans, D.A. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia); Kobe, B. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, QU (Australia)


    Full text: Importin-{alpha} (Imp{alpha}) plays a role in the classical nuclear import pathway, binding to cargo proteins with activities in the nucleus. Different Imp{alpha} paralogs responsible for specific cargos can be found in a single organism. The cargos contain nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), which are characterized by one or two clusters of basic amino acids (monopartite and bipartite NLSs, respectively). In this work we present the crystal structure of Imp{alpha} from M. musculus (residues 70-529, lacking the auto inhibitory domain) bound to a NLS peptide (pepTM). The peptide corresponds to the optimal sequence obtained by an oriented peptide library experiment designed to probe the specificity of the major NLS binding site. The peptide library used five degenerate positions and identified the sequence KKKRR as the optimal sequence for binding to this site for mouse Imp{alpha} (70-529). The protein was obtained using an E. coli expression system and purified by affinity chromatography followed by an ion exchange chromatography. A single crystal of Imp{alpha} -pepTM complex was grown by the hanging drop method. The data were collected using the Synchrotron Radiation Source LNLS, Brazil and processed to 2.3. Molecular replacement techniques were used to determine the crystal structure. Electron density corresponding to the peptide was present in both major and minor binding sites The peptide is bound to Imp{alpha} similar as the simian virus 40 (SV40) large tumour (T)-antigen NLS. Binding assays confirmed that the peptide bound to Imp{alpha} with low nM affinities. This is the first time that structural information has been linked to an oriented peptide library screening approach for importin-{alpha}; the results will contribute to understanding of the sequence determinants of classical NLSs, and may help identify as yet unidentified classical NLSs in novel proteins. (author)

  9. Reggeon field theory for alpha (0)>1

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele; Le Bellac, M; Marchesini, G


    The asymptotic behaviour of the scattering amplitude is obtained when the pomeron has intercept alpha (0) larger than one. The reggeon field theory is studied by introducing a lattice in impact parameter space. Use is made of a previous result showing that asymptotically the dynamics is controlled at each lattice site ( alpha '=0 case) by a two-level structure. This leads to a non-Hermitean Hamiltonian expressed in terms of spin operators in which the intersite interaction term is proportional to the pomeron slope alpha '. The spectrum of such a system shows a degenerate ground state for alpha (0)> alpha /sub c/>or approximately=1 and a continuum with vanishing excitation gap at alpha (0)= alpha /sub c/. The vacuum does not change structure at the critical value. The criticality is shown by an order parameter which is given by the matrix element of a field operator between the vacuum and its degenerate companion. The nature of this critical phenomenon is better understood by continuously transforming the Hami...

  10. Frequent expression loss of Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain (ITIH genes in multiple human solid tumors: A systematic expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werbowetski-Ogilvie Tamra


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI are a family of plasma protease inhibitors, assembled from a light chain – bikunin, encoded by AMBP – and five homologous heavy chains (encoded by ITIH1, ITIH2, ITIH3, ITIH4, and ITIH5, contributing to extracellular matrix stability by covalent linkage to hyaluronan. So far, ITIH molecules have been shown to play a particularly important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Methods We systematically investigated differential gene expression of the ITIH gene family, as well as AMBP and the interacting partner TNFAIP6 in 13 different human tumor entities (of breast, endometrium, ovary, cervix, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, lung, thyroid, prostate, kidney, and pancreas using cDNA dot blot analysis (Cancer Profiling Array, CPA, semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results We found that ITIH genes are clearly downregulated in multiple human solid tumors, including breast, colon and lung cancer. Thus, ITIH genes may represent a family of putative tumor suppressor genes that should be analyzed in greater detail in the future. For an initial detailed analysis we chose ITIH2 expression in human breast cancer. Loss of ITIH2 expression in 70% of cases (n = 50, CPA could be confirmed by real-time PCR in an additional set of breast cancers (n = 36. Next we studied ITIH2 expression on the protein level by analyzing a comprehensive tissue micro array including 185 invasive breast cancer specimens. We found a strong correlation (p Conclusion Altogether, this is the first systematic analysis on the differential expression of ITIH genes in human cancer, showing frequent downregulation that may be associated with initiation and/or progression of these malignancies.

  11. Novel P2 promoter-derived HNF4{alpha} isoforms with different N-terminus generated by alternate exon insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jianmin, E-mail: [Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114-2696 (United States); Levitsky, Lynne L. [Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114-2696 (United States); Rhoads, David B., E-mail: [Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114-2696 (United States)


    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha} (HNF4{alpha}) is a critical transcription factor for pancreas and liver development and functions in islet {beta} cells to maintain glucose homeostasis. Mutations in the human HNF4A gene lead to maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY1) and polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Expression of six HNF4{alpha} variants, three each from two developmentally regulated promoters, has been firmly established. We have now detected a new set of HNF4{alpha} variants designated HNF4{alpha}10-12 expressed from distal promoter P2. These variants, generated by inclusion of previously undetected exon 1E (human = 222 nt, rodent = 136 nt) following exon 1D have an altered N-terminus but identical remaining reading frame. HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 are expressed in pancreatic islets (and liver) and exhibit transactivation potentials similar to the corresponding {alpha}7-{alpha}9 isoforms. DNA-binding analyses implied much higher protein levels of HNF4{alpha}10-{alpha}12 in liver than expected from the RT-PCR data. Our results provide evidence for a more complex expression pattern of HNF4{alpha} than previously appreciated. We recommend inclusion of exon 1E and nearby DNA sequences in screening for HNF4{alpha} mutations and polymorphisms in genetic analyses of MODY1 and T2DM.

  12. New insights into structure-function relationship of the DHPR beta1a subunit in skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling using zebrafish 'relaxed' as an expression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, A.


    mechanism or already contributes at the ultrastructural level i.e. DHPR tetrad arrangement. Surprisingly, our experiments revealed full tetrad formation and an almost complete restoration of EC coupling in [beta]1-null zebrafish relaxed larvae and isolated myotubes upon expression of a [beta]1a-specific heptad repeat mutant (LVV to AAA) and thus contradict the earlier results. According to our novel finding that the [beta]1a heptad repeat motif is not the key determinant of DHPR-RyR1 coupling, the next aim was to perform further in-depth structural-functional studies on the role of the DHPR [beta]1a subunit in skeletal muscle EC coupling. Previous loss-of-function studies identified the [beta]1a C-terminus as a key determinant of skeletal muscle EC coupling. However, loss-of-function studies always raise concerns if the observed effects are solely due to a more general loss of function because of global protein misfolding. Consequently, we were rather interested to carry out a gain-of-function approach. The ancestral [beta] subunit, [beta]M, despite lacking major parts of the variable N-, C-termini and the HOOK region is able to perform all basic [beta]-functions as mentioned above. So, we used [beta]M as the basis for chimeric gain-of-function experiments to probe for in vivo rescue of EC coupling via the larval motility restoration. Systematic expression studies with [beta]M/[beta]1a chimeras carrying substitutions of all variable (C-, N-termini, and HOOK) and conserved regions (SH3 and GK domains) were performed. All the heterologously expressed [beta]M/[beta]1a chimeras completely restored [alpha]1S triad targeting in relaxed myotubes. Surprisingly, [beta]M/[beta]1a chimeras carrying substitutions of either N- or C-terminus, or of all the three variable regions together with [beta]1a sequence displayed very reduced larval motility restoration. Thus, in clear contrast to the expectations raised by previous loss-of-function studies with [beta]2a/[beta]1a chimeras by

  13. Expression, refolding and spectroscopic characterization of fibronectin type III (FnIII)-homology domains derived from human fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT)-1,-2, and-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lila; Falkesgaard, Maria Hansen; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben


    various species have been determined, the expression and purification of recombinant FLRT FnIII domains, important steps for further structural and functional characterizations of the proteins, have not yet been described. Here we present a protocol for expressing recombinant FLRT-FnIII domains...... that a strand-strand cystine bridge has significant effect on the stability of the FLRT FnIII fold. We further show by Surface Plasmon Resonance that all three FnIII domains bind to FGFR1, and roughly estimate a Kd for each domain, all Kds being in the µM range....

  14. Isolation and expression of a novel chick G-protein cDNA coding for a G alpha i3 protein with a G alpha 0 N-terminus.


    Kilbourne, E J; Galper, J B


    We have cloned cDNAs coding for G-protein alpha subunits from a chick brain cDNA library. Based on sequence similarity to G-protein alpha subunits from other eukaryotes, one clone was designated G alpha i3. A second clone, G alpha i3-o, was identical to the G alpha i3 clone over 932 bases on the 3' end. The 5' end of G alpha i3-o, however, contained an alternative sequence in which the first 45 amino acids coded for are 100% identical to the conserved N-terminus of G alpha o from species such...

  15. Sequencing and characterization of asclepain f: the first cysteine peptidase cDNA cloned and expressed from Asclepias fruticosa latex. (United States)

    Trejo, Sebastián A; López, Laura M I; Caffini, Néstor O; Natalucci, Claudia L; Canals, Francesc; Avilés, Francesc X


    Asclepain f is a papain-like protease previously isolated and characterized from latex of Asclepias fruticosa. This enzyme is a member of the C1 family of cysteine proteases that are synthesized as preproenzymes. The enzyme belongs to the alpha + beta class of proteins, with two disulfide bridges (Cys22-Cys63 and Cys56-Cys95) in the alpha domain, and another one (Cys150-Cys201) in the beta domain, as was determined by molecular modeling. A full-length 1,152 bp cDNA was cloned by RT-RACE-PCR from latex mRNA. The sequence was predicted as an open reading frame of 340 amino acid residues, of which 16 residues belong to the signal peptide, 113 to the propeptide and 211 to the mature enzyme. The full-length cDNA was ligated to pPICZalpha vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Recombinant asclepain f showed endopeptidase activity on pGlu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide and was identified by PMF-MALDI-TOF MS. Asclepain f is the first peptidase cloned and expressed from mRNA isolated from plant latex, confirming the presence of the preprocysteine peptidase in the latex.

  16. Biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production in murine macrophages. (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Endo, Yasuo; Muramoto, Koji; Sugawara, Shunji


    Biotin, a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex, functions as a cofactor of carboxylases that catalyze an indispensable cellular metabolism. Although significant decreases in serum biotin levels have been reported in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, the biological roles of biotin in inflammatory responses are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of biotin deficiency on TNF-alpha production. Mice were fed a basal diet or a biotin-deficient diet for 8 weeks. Serum biotin levels were significantly lower in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. After i.v. administration of LPS, serum TNF-alpha levels were significantly higher in biotin-deficient mice than biotin-sufficient mice. A murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.1, was cultured in a biotin-sufficient or -deficient medium for 4 weeks. Cell proliferation and biotinylation of intracellular proteins were decreased significantly in biotin-deficient cells compared with biotin-sufficient cells. Significantly higher production and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha were detected in biotin-deficient J774.1 cells than biotin-sufficient cells in response to LPS and even without LPS stimulation. Intracellular TNF-alpha expression was inhibited by actinomycin D, indicating that biotin deficiency up-regulates TNF-alpha production at the transcriptional level. However, the expression levels of TNF receptors, CD14, and TLR4/myeloid differentiation protein 2 complex were similar between biotin-sufficient and -deficient cells. No differences were detected in the activities of the NF-kappaB family or AP-1. The TNF-alpha induction by biotin deficiency was down-regulated by biotin supplementation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that biotin deficiency may up-regulate TNF-alpha production or that biotin excess down-regulates TNF-alpha production, suggesting that biotin status may influence inflammatory diseases.

  17. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L.


    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs

  18. Estradiol upregulates calcineurin expression via overexpression of estrogen receptor alpha gene in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Li Lin


    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting women (9:1 compared with men. To investigate the influence of female sex hormone estrogen on the development of female-biased lupus, we compared the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα gene and protein levels as well as expression of T-cell activation gene calcineurin in response to estrogen in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs from SLE patients and normal controls. PBLs were isolated from 20 female SLE patients and 6 normal female controls. The amount of ERα protein in PBL was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of ERα and calcineurin messenger RNA was measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Calcineurin phosphatase activity was measured by calcineurin assay kit. The expression of ERα messenger RNA and ERα protein was significantly increased (p=0.001 and p=0.023, respectively in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls. In addition, the basal calcineurin in PBL from SLE patients was significantly higher (p=0.000 than that from normal controls, and estrogen-induced expression of calcineurin was increased (p=0.007 in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls, a 3.15-fold increase. This increase was inhibited by the ERα antagonism ICI 182,780. The effects of ER antagonism were also found in calcineurin activity. These data suggest that overexpression of ERα gene and enhanced activation of calcineurin in response to estrogen in PBL may contribute to the pathogenesis of female dominant in SLE.

  19. Inactivation of Bmp4 from the Tbx1 Expression Domain Causes Abnormal Pharyngeal Arch Artery and Cardiac Outflow Tract Remodeling (United States)

    Nie, Xuguang; Brown, Christopher B.; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai


    Maldevelopment of outflow tract and aortic arch arteries is among the most common forms of human congenital heart diseases. Both Bmp4 and Tbx1 are known to play critical roles during cardiovascular development. Expression of these two genes partially overlaps in pharyngeal arch areas in mouse embryos. In this study, we applied a conditional gene inactivation approach to test the hypothesis that Bmp4 expressed from the Tbx1 expression domain plays a critical role for normal development of outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries. We showed that inactivation of Bmp4 from Tbx1-expressing cells leads to the spectrum of deformities resembling the cardiovascular defects observed in human DiGeorge syndrome patients. Inactivation of Bmp4 from the Tbx1 expression domain did not cause patterning defects, but affected remodeling of outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries. Our further examination revealed that Bmp4 is required for normal recruitment/differentiation of smooth muscle cells surrounding the PAA4 and survival of outflow tract cushion mesenchymal cells. PMID:21123999

  20. Field production and functional evaluation of chloroplast-derived interferon-alpha2b. (United States)

    Arlen, Philip A; Falconer, Regina; Cherukumilli, Sri; Cole, Amy; Cole, Alexander M; Oishi, Karen K; Daniell, Henry


    Type I interferons (IFNs) inhibit viral replication and cell growth and enhance the immune response, and therefore have many clinical applications. IFN-alpha2b ranks third in world market use for a biopharmaceutical, behind only insulin and erythropoietin. The average annual cost of IFN-alpha2b for the treatment of hepatitis C infection is $26,000, and is therefore unavailable to the majority of patients in developing countries. Therefore, we expressed IFN-alpha2b in tobacco chloroplasts, and transgenic lines were grown in the field after obtaining United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) approval. Stable, site-specific integration of transgenes into chloroplast genomes and homoplasmy through several generations were confirmed. IFN-alpha2b levels reached up to 20% of total soluble protein, or 3 mg per gram of leaf (fresh weight). Transgenic IFN-alpha2b had similar in vitro biological activity to commercially produced PEG-Introntrade mark when tested for its ability to protect cells against cytopathic viral replication in the vesicular stomatitis virus cytopathic effect (VSV CPE) assay and to inhibit early-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The antitumour and immunomodulating properties of IFN-alpha2b were also seen in vivo. Chloroplast-derived IFN-alpha2b increased the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on splenocytes and the total number of natural killer (NK) cells. Finally, IFN-alpha2b purified from chloroplast transgenic lines (cpIFN-alpha2b) protected mice from a highly metastatic tumour line. This demonstration of high levels of expression of IFN-alpha2b, transgene containment and biological activity akin to that of commercial preparations of IFN-alpha2b facilitated the first field production of a plant-derived human blood protein, a critical step towards human clinical trials and commercialization.

  1. Increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators expression and decreased epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits expression in early abortion: findings from a mouse model and clinical cases of abortion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    Full Text Available The status of the maternal endometrium is vital in regulating humoral homeostasis and for ensuring embryo implantation. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTR and epithelial sodium channel alpha subunits (ENaC-α play an important role in female reproduction by maintaining humoral and cell homeostasis. However, it is not clear whether the expression levels of CFTR and ENaC-α in the decidual component during early pregnancy are related with early miscarriage. CBA×DBA/2 mouse mating has been widely accepted as a classical model of early miscarriage. The abortion rate associated with this mating was 33.33% in our study. The decidua of abortion-prone CBA female mice (DBA/2 mated had higher CFTR mRNA and protein expression and lower ENaC-α mRNA and protein expression, compared to normal pregnant CBA mice (BLAB/C mated. Furthermore, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression were observed in the uterine tissue from women with early miscarriage, as compared to those with successful pregnancy. In conclusion, increased CFTR expression and decreased ENaC-α expression in the decidua of early abortion may relate with failure of early pregnancy.

  2. Immunohistochemical expression profiles of solute carrier transporters in alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer. (United States)

    Shimakata, Takaaki; Kamoshida, Shingo; Kawamura, Jumpei; Ogane, Naoki; Kameda, Yoichi; Yanagita, Emmy; Itoh, Tomoo; Takeda, Risa; Naka, Ayano; Sakamaki, Kuniko; Hayashi, Yurie; Kuwao, Sadahito


    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer (GC) is an aggressive tumour with high rates of liver metastasis and poor prognosis, and for which a validated chemotherapy regimen has not been established. Drug uptake by solute carrier (SLC) transporters is proposed as one of the mechanisms involved in sensitivity to chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to develop important insights into effective chemotherapeutic regimens for AFP-producing GC. We evaluated immunohistochemically the expression levels of a panel of SLC transporters in 20 AFP-producing GCs and 130 conventional GCs. SLC transporters examined were human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (hENT1), organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2), organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT6 and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3). The rates of high expression levels of hENT1 (hENT1 high ) and OAT2 (OAT2 high ) were statistically higher in AFP-producing GC, compared with conventional GC. When analysing hENT1 and OAT2 in combination, hENT1 high /OAT2 high was the most particular expression profile for AFP-producing GC, with a greater significance than hENT1 or OAT2 alone. However, no significant differences in OCT2, OCT6 or OATP1B3 levels were detected between AFP-producing and conventional GCs. However, immunoreactivity for hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 tended to be increased in GC tissues compared with non-neoplastic epithelia. Because hENT1 and OAT2 are crucial for the uptake of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil, respectively, our results suggest that patients with AFP-producing GC could potentially benefit from gemcitabine/fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy. Increased expression of hENT1, OAT2 and OCT6 may also be associated with the progression of GC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Towards a Non-Human Primate Model of Alpha-Synucleinopathy for Development of Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease: Optimization of AAV1/2 Delivery Parameters to Drive Sustained Expression of Alpha Synuclein and Dopaminergic Degeneration in Macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Koprich

    Full Text Available Recent failures in clinical trials for disease modification in Parkinson's disease have highlighted the need for a non-human primate model of the synucleinopathy underpinning dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The present study was defined to begin the development of such a model in cynomolgus macaque. We have validated surgical and vector parameters to define a means to provide a robust over-expression of alpha-synuclein which is associated with Lewy-like pathology and robust degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, an AAV1/2 vector incorporating strong transcription and transduction regulatory elements was used to deliver the gene for the human A53T mutation of alpha-synuclein. When injected into 4 sites within each substantia nigra (7 μl per site, 1.7 x 1012 gp/ml, this vector provided expression lasting at least 4 months, and a 50% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a 60% reduction in striatal dopamine. Further studies will be required to develop this methodology into a validated model of value as a drug development platform.

  4. Differential roles of the glycogen-binding domains of beta subunits in regulation of the Snf1 kinase complex. (United States)

    Mangat, Simmanjeet; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini; McCartney, Rhonda R; Elbing, Karin; Schmidt, Martin C


    Members of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, including the Snf1 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated under conditions of nutrient stress. AMP-activated protein kinases are heterotrimeric complexes composed of a catalytic alpha subunit and regulatory beta and gamma subunits. In this study, the role of the beta subunits in the regulation of Snf1 activity was examined. Yeasts express three isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase consisting of Snf1 (alpha), Snf4 (gamma), and one of three alternative beta subunits, either Sip1, Sip2, or Gal83. The Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex is the most abundant and was analyzed in the greatest detail. All three beta subunits contain a conserved domain referred to as the glycogen-binding domain. The deletion of this domain from Gal83 results in a deregulation of the Snf1 kinase, as judged by a constitutive activity independent of glucose availability. In contrast, the deletion of this homologous domain from the Sip1 and Sip2 subunits had little effect on Snf1 kinase regulation. Therefore, the different Snf1 kinase isoforms are regulated through distinct mechanisms, which may contribute to their specialized roles in different stress response pathways. In addition, the beta subunits are subjected to phosphorylation. The responsible kinases were identified as being Snf1 and casein kinase II. The significance of the phosphorylation is unclear since the deletion of the region containing the phosphorylation sites in Gal83 had little effect on the regulation of Snf1 in response to glucose limitation.

  5. Binding-dependent disorder-order transition in PKI alpha: a fluorescence anisotropy study. (United States)

    Hauer, J A; Taylor, S S; Johnson, D A


    The conformational flexibility of peptidyl ligands may be an essential element of many peptide-macromolecular interactions. Consequently, the alpha-carbonyl backbone flexibility of the 8 kDa protein kinase inhibitor (PKI alpha) peptide of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) free in solution and bound to cAPK was assessed by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. Specifically, three full-length, single-site PKI alpha mutants (V3C, S28C, and S59C) were prepared, and fluorescein iodoacetamide (FI) was selectively conjugated to the side chains of each substituted cysteine. The time-resolved anisotropy decay profiles of the labeled mutants were well fit to a model-free nonassociative biexponential equation. Free in solution, the three labeled proteins had very similar anisotropy decays arising primarily from local alpha-carbonyl backbone movements. Only a small fraction of the anisotropy decay was associated with slower, whole-body tumbling, confirming that PKI alpha is highly disordered at all three locations. Complexation of the mutants with the catalytic (C) subunit of cAPK decreased the rate of whole-body tumbling for all three mutants. The effects on the rapid decay processes, however, were dependent upon the site of conjugation. The anisotropy decay profiles of both FI-V3C- and FI-S28C-PKI alpha were associated with significantly reduced contributions from the fast decay processes, while that of FI-S59C-PKI alpha was largely unaffected by binding to the C-subunit. The results suggest that the cAPK-binding domain of PKI alpha extends from the its N-terminus to residues beyond Ser28 but does not include the segment around Ser59, which is still part of a highly flexible domain when bound to the C-subunit.

  6. Regulation of human lung fibroblast C1q-receptors by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (United States)

    Lurton, J; Soto, H; Narayanan, A S; Raghu, G


    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are two polypeptide mediators which are believed to play a role in the evolution of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have evaluated the effect of these two substances on the expression of receptors for collagen (cC1q-R) and globular (gC1q-R) domains of C1q and on type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Two fibroblast subpopulations differing in C1q receptor expression were obtained by culturing human lung explants in medium containing fresh human serum and heated plasma-derived serum and separating them based on C1q binding [Narayanan, Lurton and Raghu: Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 17:84]. The cells, referred to as HH and NL cells, respectively, were exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in serum-free conditions. The levels of mRNA were assessed by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and protein levels compared after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. NL cells exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha contained 1.4 and 1.6 times as much cC1q-R mRNA, respectively, whereas in HH cells cC1q-R mRNA increased 2.0- and 2.4-fold. The gC1q-R mRNA levels increased to a lesser extent in both cells. These increases were not reflected in protein levels of CC1q-R and gC1q-R, which were similar to or less than controls. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha also increased procollagen [I] mRNA levels in both cells. Overall, TNF-alpha caused a greater increase and the degree of response by HH fibroblasts to both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha was higher than NL cells. These results indicated that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha upregulate the mRNA levels for cC1q-R and collagen and that they do not affect gC1q-R mRNA levels significantly. They also indicated different subsets of human lung fibroblasts respond differently to inflammatory mediators.

  7. Evaluation of estrogen receptor alpha and beta and progesterone receptor expression and correlation with clinicopathologic factors and proliferative marker Ki-67 in breast cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Caldeira, José R F; Felipes, Joice


    To elucidate the molecular profile of hormonal steroid receptor status, we analyzed ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PGR mRNA and protein expression in 80 breast carcinomas using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analysis. Qualitative ana...

  8. Human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) is an active metalloprotease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loechel, F; Gilpin, B J; Engvall, E


    The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) are a family of multidomain proteins with structural homology to snake venom metalloproteases. We recently described the cloning and sequencing of human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha). In this report we provide evidence that the metalloprotease domain of ADAM...

  9. I-domain of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 mediates rolling of polystyrene particles on ICAM-1 under flow. (United States)

    Eniola, A Omolola; Krasik, Ellen F; Smith, Lee A; Song, Gang; Hammer, Daniel A


    In their active state, beta(2)-integrins, such as LFA-1, mediate the firm arrest of leukocytes by binding intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) expressed on endothelium. Although the primary function of LFA-1 is assumed to be the ability to mediate firm adhesion, recent work has shown that LFA-1 can contribute to cell tethering and rolling under hydrodynamic flow, a role previously largely attributed to the selectins. The inserted (I) domain of LFA-1 has recently been crystallized in the wild-type (wt) and locked-open conformations and has been shown to, respectively, support rolling and firm adhesion under flow when expressed in alpha(L)beta(2) heterodimers or as isolated domains on cells. Here, we report results from cell-free adhesion assays where wt I-domain-coated polystyrene particles were allowed to interact with ICAM-1-coated surfaces in shear flow. We show that wt I-domain can independently mediate the capture of particles from flow and support their rolling on ICAM-1 surfaces in a manner similar to how carbohydrate-selectin interactions mediate rolling. Adhesion is specific and blocked by appropriate antibodies. We also show that the rolling velocity of I-domain-coated particles depends on the wall shear stress in flow chamber, I-domain site density on microsphere surfaces, and ICAM-1 site density on substrate surfaces. Furthermore, we show that rolling is less sensitive to wall shear stress and ICAM-1 substrate density at high density of I-domain on the microsphere surface. Computer simulations using adhesive dynamics can recreate bead rolling dynamics and show that the mechanochemical properties of ICAM-1-I-domain interactions are similar to those of carbohydrate-selectin interactions. Understanding the biophysics of adhesion mediated by the I-domain of LFA-1 can elucidate the complex roles this integrin plays in leukocyte adhesion in inflammation.

  10. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the VP8* sialic acid-binding domain of porcine rotavirus strain OSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang-De, E-mail:; Li, Hao [National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center of The Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Hui; Pan, Yi-Feng [Biochemistry Laboratory, Institution of Biomedical Engineering, Central South University, Hunan Province (China); National Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center of The Ministry of Health, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Province (China)


    Porcine rotavirus strain OSU VP8* domain has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data from different crystal forms of the VP8* domain have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. The rotavirus outer capsid spike protein VP4 is utilized in the process of rotavirus attachment to and membrane penetration of host cells. VP4 is cleaved by trypsin into two domains: VP8* and VP5*. The VP8* domain is implicated in initial interaction with sialic acid-containing cell-surface carbohydrates and triggers subsequent virus invasion. The VP8* domain from porcine OSU rotavirus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Different crystal forms (orthorhombic P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and tetragonal P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2) were harvested from two distinct crystallization conditions. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.65 and 2.2 Å resolution and the VP8*{sub 65–224} structure was determined by molecular replacement.

  11. Constructs for the expression of repeating triple-helical protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yong Y; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Vaughan, Paul R; Ramshaw, John A M


    The development of novel scaffolds will be an important aspect in future success of tissue engineering. Scaffolds will preferably contain information that directs the cellular content of constructs so that the new tissue that is formed is closely aligned in structure, composition and function to the target natural tissue. One way of approaching this will be the development of novel protein-based constructs that contain one or more repeats of functional elements derived from various proteins. In the present case, we describe a strategy to make synthetic, recombinant triple-helical constructs that contain repeat segments of biologically relevant domains. Copies of a DNA fragment prepared by PCR from human type III collagen have been inserted in a co-linear contiguous fashion into the yeast expression vector YEpFlag-1, using sequential addition between selected restriction sites. Constructs containing 1, 2 and 3 repeats were designed to maintain the (Gly-X-Y) repeat, which is essential for the formation of an extended triple helix. All constructs gave expressed protein, with the best being the 3-repeat construct which was readily secreted. This material had the expected composition and N-terminal sequence. Incubation of the product at low temperature led to triple-helix formation, shown by reaction with a conformation dependent monoclonal antibody.

  12. Constructs for the expression of repeating triple-helical protein domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yong Y; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Vaughan, Paul R; Ramshaw, John A M, E-mail: jerome.werkmeister@csiro.a [CSIRO Molecular and Health Technologies, Bag 10, Clayton South, VIC 3169 (Australia)


    The development of novel scaffolds will be an important aspect in future success of tissue engineering. Scaffolds will preferably contain information that directs the cellular content of constructs so that the new tissue that is formed is closely aligned in structure, composition and function to the target natural tissue. One way of approaching this will be the development of novel protein-based constructs that contain one or more repeats of functional elements derived from various proteins. In the present case, we describe a strategy to make synthetic, recombinant triple-helical constructs that contain repeat segments of biologically relevant domains. Copies of a DNA fragment prepared by PCR from human type III collagen have been inserted in a co-linear contiguous fashion into the yeast expression vector YEpFlag-1, using sequential addition between selected restriction sites. Constructs containing 1, 2 and 3 repeats were designed to maintain the (Gly-X-Y) repeat, which is essential for the formation of an extended triple helix. All constructs gave expressed protein, with the best being the 3-repeat construct which was readily secreted. This material had the expected composition and N-terminal sequence. Incubation of the product at low temperature led to triple-helix formation, shown by reaction with a conformation dependent monoclonal antibody.

  13. Human placental Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.


    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approx. = 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) lambdagt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

  14. Stimulation of chymosin secretion by simultaneous expression with chymosin-binding llama single-domain antibody fragments in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, M.M.; Smits, C.B.; Geus, de B.


    We studied the effect of coexpression of chymosin and chymosin-binding llama single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) on the secretion of chymosin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A VHH expression library containing chymosin-specific VHHs was obtained by immunization of a llama and coexpressed with

  15. Molecular characterization of cDNAs encoding G protein alpha and beta subunits and study of their temporal and spatial expression patterns in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. (United States)

    Kaydamov, C; Tewes, A; Adler, K; Manteuffel, R


    We have isolated cDNA sequences encoding alpha and beta subunits of potential G proteins from a cDNA library prepared from somatic embryos of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv. at early developmental stages. The predicted NPGPA1 and NPGPB1 gene products are 75-98% identical to the known respective plant alpha and beta subunits. Southern hybridizations indicate that NPGPA1 is probably a single-copy gene, whereas at least two copies of NPGPB1 exist in the N. plumbaginifolia genome. Northern analyses reveal that both NPGPA1 and NPGPB1 mRNA are expressed in all embryogenic stages and plant tissues examined and their expression is obviously regulated by the plant hormone auxin. Immunohistological localization of NPGPalpha1 and NPGPbeta1 preferentially on plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes and their immunochemical detection exclusively in microsomal cell fractions implicate membrane association of both proteins. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of NPGPA1 and NPGPB1 show conformity as well as differences. This could account for not only cooperative, but also individual activities of both subunits during embryogenesis and plant development.

  16. The connection between metal ion affinity and ligand affinity in integrin I domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, Thomas; Waldron, TT; Astrof, N


    Integrins are cell-surface heterodimeric proteins that mediate cell-cell, cell-matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. Half of the known integrin alpha subunits contain inserted domains (I domains) that coordinate ligand through a metal ion. Although the importance of conformational changes withi...

  17. Increased expression of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following exposure to estrogen during the critical period of neonatal sex differentiation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, H; Navarro, V M; Nielsen, John E


    Deterioration of reproductive health in human and wildlife species during the past decades has drawn considerable attention to the potential adverse effects of exposure to xenosteroids during sensitive periods of sex development. The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit is a key element in the neuroe......Deterioration of reproductive health in human and wildlife species during the past decades has drawn considerable attention to the potential adverse effects of exposure to xenosteroids during sensitive periods of sex development. The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit is a key element......, we screened for differentially expressed genes at the pituitary and hypothalamus of rats after neonatal exposure to estradiol benzoate. Our analyses identified persistent up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following neonatal estrogenization. This finding was confirmed...... by combination of RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridization. Induction of alpha- and beta-globin mRNA expression at the pituitary by neonatal exposure to estrogen was demonstrated as dose-dependent and it was persistently detected up to puberty. In contrast, durable up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin genes...

  18. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA inhibits the antigen-induced activation of mast cells. (United States)

    Safaralizadeh, Reza; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Deezagi, Abdolkhaleg; Pourpak, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Moin, Mostafa


    FcepsilonRI, The high affinity receptor for IgE plays a critical role in triggering the allergic reactions. It is responsible for inducing mast cell degranulation and deliberation of allergy mediators when it is aggregated by allergen and IgE complexes. FcepsilonRI on the mast cells consists of three subunits; alpha chain directly binds IgE, beta chain and dimmer of gamma chains together mediate intracellular signaling. Cross-linking of IgE-bound FcepsilonRI on the surface of mast cells and basophils by the multivalent antigen induces release of chemical mediators. The present in vitro study was designed to investigate the effect of synthetic FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on the antigen-induced activation of MC/9 cells. MC/9 cells which are murine mast cells were transfected by FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA and negative control siRNA. After 6 h, anti-DNP (Dinitrophenyl) IgE was used for the cells sensitization. Then the cells were challenged with Dinitrophenyl-Human Serum Albumin (DNP-HSA) for mast cell degranulation induction before collection of supernatants. The amount of mRNA and protein expression was measured by Real Time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Determination of the expression rate of FcepsilonRI-alpha on cell surface was achieved by flow cytometry. ELISA and spectrophotometry methods were used subsequently for measuring the effects of FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA on antigen-induced histamine and beta-hexosaminidase release. FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA treated cells showed significant decrease in FcepsilonRI-alpha mRNA and protein expression in comparison to control cells. FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell release of beta-hexosaminidase and histamine were also inhibited. In this study it was shown that FcepsilonRI-alpha siRNA could suppress FcepsilonRI-alpha expression and inhibited degranulation and histamine release in antigen-stimulated MC/9 cells. In conclusion, knock-down of FcepsilonRI-alpha by siRNA could be a promising method for inhibition of the mast

  19. Chondrocyte heterogeneity: immunohistologically defined variation of integrin expression at different sites in human fetal knees. (United States)

    Salter, D M; Godolphin, J L; Gourlay, M S


    During development and at maturity different forms of cartilage vary in morphology and macromolecular content. This reflects heterogeneity of chondrocyte activity, in part involving differential interactions with the adjacent extracellular matrix via specialized cell surface receptors such as integrins. We undertook an immunohistological study on a series of human fetal knee joints to assess variation in the expression of integrins by chondrocytes and potential matrix ligands in articular, epiphyseal, growth plate, and meniscal cartilage. The results show that articular chondrocytes (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+, alpha 2+/-, alpha 5+, weakly alpha 6+, alpha V+) differed from epiphyseal (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+/-, alpha 2+/-, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+) growth plate (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1-, alpha 2-, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+), and meniscal cells (beta 1+, beta 5 alpha V+, alpha 1+, strongly alpha 2+, alpha 5+, alpha 6+, alpha V+ in expression of integrin subunits. There was no expression of beta 3, beta 4, beta 6, or alpha 3 by chondrocytes. These results differ from previous reports on the expression of integrins by adult articular cartilage, where alpha 2 and alpha 6 are not seen. Variation in distribution of matrix ligands was also seen. Fibronectin, laminin and Type VI collagen were expressed in all cartilages but there was restricted expression of tenascin, ED-A and ED-B fibronectin isoforms (articular cartilage and meniscus), and vitronectin (absent from growth plate cartilage). Regulated expression of integrins by chondrocytes, associated with changes in the pericellular matrix composition, is of potential importance in control of cartilage differentiation and function in health and disease.

  20. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)


    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  1. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole


    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  2. Molecular evidence for the existence of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel/NF-kB pathways in disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus). (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jung, Sung-Ju; Choi, Cheol Young; Lee, Jehee


    The lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor (LITAF) and Rel family nuclear factor kappaB (Rel/NF-kB) are two important transcription factors which play major roles in the regulating inflammatory cytokine, apoptosis and immune related genes. Here, we report the discovery of disk abalone LITAF (AbLITAF) and Rel/NF-kB (AbRel/NF-kB) homologues and their immune responses. Full-length cDNA of AbLITAF consists of 441 bp open reading frame (ORF) that translates into putative peptide of 147 aa. Analysis of AbLITAF sequence showed it has characteristic LITAF (Zn(+2)) binding domain with two CXXC motifs. Phylogenetic analysis results further revealed that AbLITAF is a member of LITAF family. AbRel/NF-kB is 584 aa protein that contains several characteristic motifs including Rel homology domain (RHD), Rel protein signature, DNA binding motif, nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transcription factor immunoglobulin - like fold (TIG) similar to their invertebrate and vertebrate counterparts. Tissue specific analysis results showed that both AbLITAF and AbRel/NF-kB mRNA was expressed ubiquitously in all selected tissues in constitutive manner. However, constitutive expression of AbLITAF was higher than AbRel/NF-kB in all tissues except mantle. Upon immune challenge by bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Lysteria monocytogenes) and viral hemoragic septicemia virus (VHSV), AbLITAF showed the significant up-regulation in gills while AbRel/NF-kB transcription was not change significantly. Based on transcriptional response against immune challenge, we could suggest that regulation of TNF-alpha expression may have occurred mainly by LITAF activation rather than NF-kB in disk abalone. The cumulative data from other molluscs and our data with reference to TNF-alpha, LITAF and Rel/NF-kB from disk abalone provide strong evidence that LITAF and NF-kB are independent pathways likely to occur throughout the Phylum mollusca. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M; Appel, K; Sauter, A; GebickeHaerter, PJ; Boddeke, HWGM

    Induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha was studied in the brain of rats after focal cerebral ischaemia by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Using a specific antisense riboprobe for in situ hybridization histochemistry, cells positive for tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA were

  4. Role of Human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 in Sperm Function, Derived from Studies in Transgenic Mice (United States)

    McDermott, Jeffrey; Sánchez, Gladis; Nangia, Ajay K.; Blanco, Gustavo


    SUMMARY Most of our knowledge on the biological role of the testis-specific Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 isoform derives from studies performed in non-human species. Here, we studied the function of human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 after its expression in transgenic mice. Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) construct, containing the human ATP1A4 gene locus, we obtained expression of the human α4 transgene specifically in mouse sperm, enriched in the sperm flagellum. The expressed, human alpha 4 was active, and compared to wild-type sperm, those from transgenic mice displayed higher Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 activity and greater binding of fluorescently labeled ouabain, which is typical of the alpha 4 isoform. The expression and activity of endogenous alpha 4 and the other Na,K-ATPase alpha isoform present in sperm, alpha 1, remained unchanged. Male mice expressing the human ATP1A4 transgene exhibited similar testis size and morphology, normal sperm number and shape, and no changes in overall fertility compared to wild-type mice. Sperm carrying the human transgene exhibited enhanced total motility and an increase in multiple parameters of sperm movement, including higher sperm hyperactive motility. In contrast, no statistically significant changes in sperm membrane potential, protein tyrosine phosphorylation, or spontaneous acrosome reaction were found between wild-type and transgenic mice. Altogether, these results provide new genetic evidence for an important role of human Na,K-ATPase alpha 4 in sperm motility and hyperactivation, and establishes a new animal model for future studies of this isoform. PMID:25640246

  5. TIF1alpha: a possible link between KRAB zinc finger proteins and nuclear receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Douarin, B; You, J; Nielsen, Anders Lade


    Ligand-induced gene activation by nuclear receptors (NRs) is thought to be mediated by transcriptional intermediary factors (TIFs), that interact with their ligand-dependent AF-2 activating domain. Included in the group of the putative AF-2 TIFs identified so far is TIF1alpha, a member of a new...... family of proteins which contains an N-terminal RBCC (RING finger-B boxes-coiled coil) motif and a C-terminal bromodomain preceded by a PHD finger. In addition to these conserved domains present in a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins, TIF1alpha was found to contain several protein......-protein interaction sites. Of these, one specifically interacts with NRs bound to their agonistic ligand and not with NR mutants that are defective in the AF-2 activity. Immediately adjacent to this 'NR box', TIF1alpha contains an interaction site for members of the chromatin organization modifier (chromo) family, HP...

  6. Studies of alpha-helicity and intersegmental interactions in voltage-gated Na+ channels: S2D4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongming Ma


    Full Text Available Much data, including crystallographic, support structural models of sodium and potassium channels consisting of S1-S4 transmembrane segments (the "voltage-sensing domain" clustered around a central pore-forming region (S5-S6 segments and the intervening loop. Voltage gated sodium channels have four non-identical domains which differentiates them from the homotetrameric potassium channels that form the basis for current structural models. Since potassium and sodium channels also exhibit many different functional characteristics and the fourth domain (D4 of sodium channels differs in function from other domains (D1-D3, we have explored its structure in order to determine whether segments in D4 of sodium channels differ significantly from that determined for potassium channels. We have probed the secondary and tertiary structure and the role of the individual amino acid residues of the S2D4 of Na(v1.4 by employing cysteine-scanning mutagenesis (with tryptophan and glutamine substituted for native cysteine. A Fourier transform power spectrum of perturbations in free energy of steady-state inactivation gating (using midpoint potentials and slopes of Boltzmann equation fits of channel availability, h(infinity-V plots indicates a substantial amount of alpha-helical structure in S2D4 (peak at 106 degrees, alpha-Periodicity Index (alpha-PI of 3.10, This conclusion is supported by alpha-PI values of 3.28 and 2.84 for the perturbations in rate constants of entry into (beta and exit from (alpha fast inactivation at 0 mV for mutant channels relative to WT channels assuming a simple two-state model for transition from the open to inactivated state. The results of cysteine substitution at the two most sensitive sites of the S2D4 alpha-helix (N1382 and E1392C support the existence of electrostatic network interactions between S2 and other transmembrane segments within Na(v1.4D4 similar to but not identical to those proposed for K+ channels.

  7. A network of hydrophobic residues impeding helix alphaC rotation maintains latency of kinase Gcn2, which phosphorylates the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2. (United States)

    Gárriz, Andrés; Qiu, Hongfang; Dey, Madhusudan; Seo, Eun-Joo; Dever, Thomas E; Hinnebusch, Alan G


    Kinase Gcn2 is activated by amino acid starvation and downregulates translation initiation by phosphorylating the alpha subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha). The Gcn2 kinase domain (KD) is inert and must be activated by tRNA binding to the adjacent regulatory domain. Previous work indicated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gcn2 latency results from inflexibility of the hinge connecting the N and C lobes and a partially obstructed ATP-binding site in the KD. Here, we provide strong evidence that a network of hydrophobic interactions centered on Leu-856 also promotes latency by constraining helix alphaC rotation in the KD in a manner relieved during amino acid starvation by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation of Thr-882 in the activation loop. Thus, we show that mutationally disrupting the hydrophobic network in various ways constitutively activates eIF2alpha phosphorylation in vivo and bypasses the requirement for a key tRNA binding motif (m2) and Thr-882 in Gcn2. In particular, replacing Leu-856 with any nonhydrophobic residue activates Gcn2, while substitutions with various hydrophobic residues maintain kinase latency. We further provide strong evidence that parallel, back-to-back dimerization of the KD is a step on the Gcn2 activation pathway promoted by tRNA binding and autophosphorylation. Remarkably, mutations that disrupt the L856 hydrophobic network or enhance hinge flexibility eliminate the need for the conserved salt bridge at the parallel dimer interface, implying that KD dimerization facilitates the reorientation of alphaC and remodeling of the active site for enhanced ATP binding and catalysis. We propose that hinge remodeling, parallel dimerization, and reorientation of alphaC are mutually reinforcing conformational transitions stimulated by tRNA binding and secured by the ensuing autophosphorylation of T882 for stable kinase activation.

  8. Alpha-contingent EEG feedback reduces SPECT rCBF variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Steinberg, Bruce; Mulholland, Thomas


    EEG feedback methods, which link the occurrence of alpha to the presentation of repeated visual stimuli, reduce the relative variability of subsequent, alpha-blocking event durations. The temporal association between electro-cortical field activation and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) led us...... to investigate whether the reduced variability of alpha-blocking durations with feedback is associated with a reduction in rCBF variability. Reduced variability in the rCBF response domain under EEG feedback control might have methodological implications for future brain-imaging studies. Visual stimuli were...... to quantify the variance-reducing effects of ACS across multiple, distributed areas of the brain. Both EEG and rCBF measures demonstrated decreased variability under ACS. This improved control was seen for localized as well as anatomically distributed rCBF measures....

  9. Direct interaction of the inhibitory gamma-subunit of Rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) with the PDE6 GAFa domains. (United States)

    Muradov, Khakim G; Granovsky, Alexey E; Schey, Kevin L; Artemyev, Nikolai O


    Retinal rod and cone cGMP phosphodiesterases (PDE6 family) function as the effector enzyme in the vertebrate visual transduction cascade. The activity of PDE6 catalytic subunits is controlled by the Pgamma-subunits. In addition to the inhibition of cGMP hydrolysis at the catalytic sites, Pgamma is known to stimulate a noncatalytic binding of cGMP to the regulatory GAFa-GAFb domains of PDE6. The latter role of Pgamma has been attributed to its polycationic region. To elucidate the structural basis for the regulation of cGMP binding to the GAF domains of PDE6, a photoexcitable peptide probe corresponding to the polycationic region of Pgamma, Pgamma-21-45, was specifically cross-linked to rod PDE6alphabeta. The site of Pgamma-21-45 cross-linking was localized to Met138Gly139 within the PDE6alpha GAFa domain using mass spectrometric analysis. Chimeras between PDE5 and cone PDE6alpha', containing GAFa and/or GAFb domains of PDE6alpha' have been generated to probe a potential role of the GAFb domains in binding to Pgamma. Analysis of the inhibition of the PDE5/PDE6alpha' chimeras by Pgamma supported the role of PDE6 GAFa but not GAFb domains in the interaction with Pgamma. Our results suggest that a direct binding of the polycationic region of Pgamma to the GAFa domains of PDE6 may lead to a stabilization of the noncatalytic cGMP-binding sites.

  10. Mapping of HNF4alpha target genes in intestinal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Mette; Bressendorff, Simon; Moller, Jette


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The role of HNF4alpha has been extensively studied in hepatocytes and pancreatic beta-cells, and HNF4alpha is also regarded as key regulator of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation as well. The aim of the present work is to identify novel HNF4alpha target genes....... The HNF4alpha ChIP-chip data was matched with gene expression and histone H3 acetylation status of the promoters in order to identify HNF4alpha binding to actively transcribed genes with an open chromatin structure. RESULTS: 1,541 genes were identified as potential HNF4alpha targets, many of which have...

  11. Genetic analysis of the SARS-coronavirus spike glycoprotein functional domains involved in cell-surface expression and cell-to-cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Chad M.; Melancon, Jeffrey M.; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Colgrove, Robin; Farzan, Michael; Knipe, David M.; Kousoulas, K.G.


    The SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the etiological agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates membrane fusion events during virus entry and virus-induced cell-to-cell fusion. To delineate functional domains of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein, single point mutations, cluster-to-lysine and cluster-to-alanine mutations, as well as carboxyl-terminal truncations were investigated in transient expression experiments. Mutagenesis of either the coiled-coil domain of the S glycoprotein amino terminal heptad repeat, the predicted fusion peptide, or an adjacent but distinct region, severely compromised S-mediated cell-to-cell fusion, while intracellular transport and cell-surface expression were not adversely affected. Surprisingly, a carboxyl-terminal truncation of 17 amino acids substantially increased S glycoprotein-mediated cell-to-cell fusion suggesting that the terminal 17 amino acids regulated the S fusogenic properties. In contrast, truncation of 26 or 39 amino acids eliminating either one or both of the two endodomain cysteine-rich motifs, respectively, inhibited cell fusion in comparison to the wild-type S. The 17 and 26 amino-acid deletions did not adversely affect S cell-surface expression, while the 39 amino-acid truncation inhibited S cell-surface expression suggesting that the membrane proximal cysteine-rich motif plays an essential role in S cell-surface expression. Mutagenesis of the acidic amino-acid cluster in the carboxyl terminus of the S glycoprotein as well as modification of a predicted phosphorylation site within the acidic cluster revealed that this amino-acid motif may play a functional role in the retention of S at cell surfaces. This genetic analysis reveals that the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein contains extracellular domains that regulate cell fusion as well as distinct endodomains that function in intracellular transport, cell-surface expression, and cell fusion

  12. Application of SGT1-Hsp90 chaperone complex for soluble expression of NOD1 LRR domain in E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tae-Joon; Hahn, Ji-Sook


    NOD1 is an intracellular sensor of innate immunity which is related to a number of inflammatory diseases. NOD1 is known to be difficult to express and purify for structural and biochemical studies. Based on the fact that Hsp90 and its cochaperone SGT1 are necessary for the stabilization and activation of NOD1 in mammals, SGT1 was chosen as a fusion partner of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of NOD1 for its soluble expression in Escherichia coli. Fusion of human SGT1 (hSGT1) to NOD1 LRR significantly enhanced the solubility, and the fusion protein was stabilized by coexpression of mouse Hsp90α. The expression level of hSGT1-NOD1 LRR was further enhanced by supplementation of rare codon tRNAs and exchange of antibiotic marker genes. - Highlights: • The NOD1 LRR domain was solubilized by SGT1 fusion in E. coli. • The coexpression of HSP90 stabilized the SGT1-NOD1 LRR fusion protein. • Several optimizations could enhance the expression level of the fusion protein.

  13. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette


    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha up-regulates the expression of phospholipase D2 in colon cancer cells under hypoxic conditions. (United States)

    Liu, Maoxi; Du, Kunli; Fu, Zhongxue; Zhang, Shouru; Wu, Xingye


    Hypoxia is a common characteristic of solid tumors. Recent studies confirmed that phospholipase D2 (PLD2) plays significant roles in cancer progression. In this study, correlation between the expression of PLD2 and the change in the protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF1-α) was studied. Thirty human colon cancer tissues were examined for the expression of HIF1-α and PLD2 protein, and mRNA levels. SW480 and SW620 cells were exposed to normoxia (20 %) or hypoxia (Hypoxic stress induced PLD2 mRNA and protein expression in SW480 and SW620 cells. Cells transfected with HIF1-α siRNA showed attenuation of hypoxia stress-induced PLD2 expression. In vivo growth decreased in response to HIF1-α and PLD2 inhibition. These results suggest that PLD2 expression in colon cancer cells is up-regulated via HIF1-α in response to hypoxic stress and underscores the crucial role of HIF1-α-induced PLD2 in tumor growth.

  15. Differential gene expression in porcine SK6 cells infected with wild-type and SAP domain-mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus. (United States)

    Ni, Zixin; Yang, Fan; Cao, Weijun; Zhang, Xiangle; Jin, Ye; Mao, Ruoqing; Du, Xiaoli; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Jianhong; Liu, Xiangtao; Zhu, Zixiang; Zheng, Haixue


    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in livestock. The viral proteinase L(pro) of FMDV is involved in pathogenicity, and mutation of the L(pro) SAP domain reduces FMDV pathogenicity in pigs. To determine the gene expression profiles associated with decreased pathogenicity in porcine cells, we performed transcriptome analysis using next-generation sequencing technology and compared differentially expressed genes in SK6 cells infected with FMDV containing L(pro) with either a wild-type or mutated version of the SAP domain. This analysis yielded 1,853 genes that exhibited a ≥ 2-fold change in expression and was validated by real-time quantitative PCR detection of several differentially expressed genes. Many of the differentially expressed genes correlated with antiviral responses corresponded to genes associated with transcription factors, immune regulation, cytokine production, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. Alterations in gene expression profiles may be responsible for the variations in pathogenicity observed between the two FMDV variants. Our results provided genes of interest for the further study of antiviral pathways and pathogenic mechanisms related to FMDV L(pro).

  16. Effects of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on growth performance, parameters of tibia and plasma, meat quality, and type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter gene expression of one- to twenty-one-day-old broilers. (United States)

    Han, J C; Yang, X D; Zhang, T; Li, H; Li, W L; Zhang, Z Y; Yao, J H


    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (1alpha-OH D3) on the growth performance, tibia and plasma parameters, nutrient utilization, meat quality of the breast and thigh, and type IIb sodium phosphate cotranspoter gene expression of broilers. A total of 96 males of 1-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 8 cages of 12 birds each. Two dietary treatments were applied to 4 cages each. Diet 1 was prepared as the basal diet (nonphytate phosphorus, 0.21%), whereas diet 2 was the basal diet supplemented with 5 microg/kg of 1alpha-OH D3. Results showed that supplementation of the basal diet with 1alpha-OH D3 increased growth performance, tibia ash and strength, plasma inorganic phosphate concentration, utilization of total phosphorus and nonphytate phosphorus, lightness and yellowness of the breast and thigh meat, and intestinal type IIb sodium phosphate cotranspoter mRNA expression, whereas it decreased the shear force and water-holding capacity of the thigh meat. These data suggest that the addition of 1alpha-OH D3 might improve growth performance, tibia development, and meat quality in 1- to 21-d-old broilers by increasing the absorption and retention of phosphorus.

  17. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Kotaro, E-mail: [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Uto, Yoshihiro [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nagasawa, Hideko [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Hori, Hitoshi [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Shimada, Mitsuo [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)


    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  18. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer


    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D


    Background: Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). Methods: To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profi...

  19. Identification of potential target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 and HUVEC cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, Cagri, E-mail:; Coban, Neslihan, E-mail:; Ozsait-Selcuk, Bilge, E-mail:; Sirma-Ekmekci, Sema, E-mail:; Yildirim, Ozlem, E-mail:; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan, E-mail:


    ROR-alpha is a nuclear receptor, activity of which can be modulated by natural or synthetic ligands. Due to its possible involvement in, and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, we aimed to identify ROR-alpha target genes in monocytic and endothelial cell lines. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by tiling array (ChIP-on-chip) for ROR-alpha in monocytic cell line THP1 and endothelial cell line HUVEC. Following bioinformatic analysis of the array data, we tested four candidate genes in terms of dependence of their expression level on ligand-mediated ROR-alpha activity, and two of them in terms of promoter occupancy by ROR-alpha. Bioinformatic analyses of ChIP-on-chip data suggested that ROR-alpha binds to genomic regions near the transcription start site (TSS) of more than 3000 genes in THP1 and HUVEC. Potential ROR-alpha target genes in both cell types seem to be involved mainly in membrane receptor activity, signal transduction and ion transport. While SPP1 and IKBKA were shown to be direct target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 monocytes, inflammation related gene HMOX1 and heat shock protein gene HSPA8 were shown to be potential target genes of ROR-alpha. Our results suggest that ROR-alpha may regulate signaling receptor activity, and transmembrane transport activity through its potential target genes. ROR-alpha seems also to play role in cellular sensitivity to environmental substances like arsenite and chloroprene. Although, the expression analyses have shown that synthetic ROR-alpha ligands can modulate some of potential ROR-alpha target genes, functional significance of ligand-dependent modulation of gene expression needs to be confirmed with further analyses.

  20. Increased expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A and its receptors, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the venous stenosis of arteriovenous fistula in a mouse model with renal insufficiency. (United States)

    Misra, Sanjay; Shergill, Uday; Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Misra, Khamal D


    A mouse model of renal insufficiency with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and venous stenosis was created. The authors tested the hypothesis that there is increased gene expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha); vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptors (VEGFR-1, -2); matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9); tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2); and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin-1 (ADAMTS-1) at the venous stenosis. Nineteen male C57BL/6 mice underwent a left nephrectomy and a surgical occlusion of the right upper pole to induce renal function characterized in eight animals. Twenty eight days later, an AVF (n = 11) was created from the right carotid artery to ipsilateral jugular vein, and the mice were killed at day 7 (n = 4) and day 14 (n = 4). The outflow and control veins were removed for gene expression. Three mice were killed at day 28 for histologic analysis. The mean serum blood urea nitrogen level remained significantly elevated for 8 weeks when compared with baseline (P < .05). By day seven, there was a significant increase in the expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein, with HIF-1alpha and TIMP-1 levels significantly elevated at day 14 (P < .05). By day 28, the venous stenosis was characterized by a thickened vein wall and neointima. A mouse model of renal insufficiency with AVF was developed that had increased expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the outflow vein with venous stenosis by day 28. Copyright (c) 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone on the activity and stability of alpha-amylase: a comparative study on bacterial, fungal, and mammalian enzymes. (United States)

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Larijani, Bagher; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar


    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was recently introduced as an activator of mammalian alpha-amylase. In the current study, the effect of NHDC has been investigated on bacterial and fungal alpha-amylases. Enzyme assays and kinetic analysis demonstrated the capability of NHDC to significantly activate both tested alpha-amylases. The ligand activation pattern was found to be more similar between the fungal and mammalian enzyme in comparison with the bacterial one. Further, thermostability experiments indicated a stability increase in the presence of NHDC for the bacterial enzyme. In silico (docking) test locates a putative binding site for NHDC on alpha-amylase surface in domain B. This domain shows differences in various alpha-amylase types, and the different behavior of the ligand toward the studied enzymes may be attributed to this fact. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. PET imaging of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin expression in tumours with {sup 68}Ga-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Franssen, Gerben M.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Yim, Cheng-Bin [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Utrecht University, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schuit, Robert C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luurtsema, Gert [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Liu, Shuang [Purdue University, School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States)


    Due to the restricted expression of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} in tumours, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-binding characteristics of {sup 68}Ga-labelled monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric RGD peptides were determined and compared with their {sup 111}In-labelled counterparts. A monomeric (E-c(RGDfK)), a dimeric (E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}) and a tetrameric (E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}) RGD peptide were synthesised, conjugated with DOTA and radiolabelled with {sup 68}Ga. In vitro {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-binding characteristics were determined in a competitive binding assay. In vivo {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-targeting characteristics of the compounds were assessed in mice with subcutaneously growing SK-RC-52 xenografts. In addition, microPET images were acquired using a microPET/CT scanner. The IC{sub 50} values for the Ga(III)-labelled DOTA-E-c(RGDfK), DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} and DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} were 23.9 {+-} 1.22, 8.99 {+-} 1.20 and 1.74 {+-} 1.18 nM, respectively, and were similar to those of the In(III)-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides (26.6 {+-} 1.15, 3.34 {+-} 1.16 and 1.80 {+-} 1.37 nM, respectively). At 2 h post-injection, tumour uptake of the {sup 68}Ga-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides (3.30 {+-} 0.30, 5.24 {+-} 0.27 and 7.11 {+-} 0.67%ID/g, respectively) was comparable to that of their {sup 111}In-labelled counterparts (2.70 {+-} 0.29, 5.61 {+-} 0.85 and 7.32 {+-} 2.45%ID/g, respectively). PET scans were in line with the biodistribution data. On all PET scans, the tumour could be clearly visualised. The integrin affinity and the tumour uptake followed the order of DOTA-tetramer > DOTA-dimer > DOTA-monomer. The {sup 68}Ga-labelled tetrameric RGD peptide has excellent characteristics for imaging of {alpha}{sub v} {beta}{sub 3} expression with PET. (orig.)

  3. Arabidopsis thaliana RGXT1 and RGXT2 encode Golgi-localized (1,3)-alpha-D-xylosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jack Egelund; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik


    in rhamnogalacturonan-II, a complex polysaccharide essential to vascular plants, and is conserved across higher plant families. Rhamnogalacturonan-II isolated from both RGXT1 and RGXT2 T-DNA insertional mutants functioned as specific acceptor molecules in the xylosyltransferase assay. Expression of RGXT1- and RGXT2......Two homologous plant-specific Arabidopsis thaliana genes, RGXT1 and RGXT2, belong to a new family of glycosyltransferases (CAZy GT-family-77) and encode cell wall (1,3)-alpha-d-xylosyltransferases. The deduced amino acid sequences contain single transmembrane domains near the N terminus, indicative...

  4. Solution structure of the C-terminal X domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein and interaction with the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein. (United States)

    Gely, Stéphane; Lowry, David F; Bernard, Cédric; Jensen, Malene R; Blackledge, Martin; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Bourhis, Jean-Marie; Darbon, Hervé; Daughdrill, Gary; Longhi, Sonia


    In this report, the solution structure of the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the measles virus phosphoprotein (XD, aa 459-507) is described. A dynamic description of the interaction between XD and the disordered C-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein, (N(TAIL), aa 401-525), is also presented. XD is an all alpha protein consisting of a three-helix bundle with an up-down-up arrangement of the helices. The solution structure of XD is very similar to the crystal structures of both the free and bound form of XD. One exception is the presence of a highly dynamic loop encompassing XD residues 489-491, which is involved in the embedding of the alpha-helical XD-binding region of N(TAIL). Secondary chemical shift values for full-length N(TAIL) were used to define the precise boundaries of a transient helical segment that coincides with the XD-binding domain, thus shedding light on the pre-recognition state of N(TAIL). Titration experiments with unlabeled XD showed that the transient alpha-helical conformation of N(TAIL) is stabilized upon binding. Lineshape analysis of NMR resonances revealed that residues 483-506 of N(TAIL) are in intermediate exchange with XD, while the 475-482 and 507-525 regions are in fast exchange. The N(TAIL) resonance behavior in the titration experiments is consistent with a complex binding model with more than two states.

  5. Authentic interdomain communication in an RNA helicase reconstituted by expressed protein ligation of two helicase domains. (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Theissen, Bettina; Klostermeier, Dagmar


    RNA helicases mediate structural rearrangements of RNA or RNA-protein complexes at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Members of the DEAD box helicase family consist of two flexibly connected helicase domains. They share nine conserved sequence motifs that are involved in nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, RNA binding, and helicase activity. Most of these motifs line the cleft between the two helicase domains, and extensive communication between them is required for RNA unwinding. The two helicase domains of the Bacillus subtilis RNA helicase YxiN were produced separately as intein fusions, and a functional RNA helicase was generated by expressed protein ligation. The ligated helicase binds adenine nucleotides with very similar affinities to the wild-type protein. Importantly, its intrinsically low ATPase activity is stimulated by RNA, and the Michaelis-Menten parameters are similar to those of the wild-type. Finally, ligated YxiN unwinds a minimal RNA substrate to an extent comparable to that of the wild-type helicase, confirming authentic interdomain communication.

  6. Suppressed Alpha Oscillations Predict Intelligibility of Speech and its Acoustic Details (United States)

    Weisz, Nathan


    Modulations of human alpha oscillations (8–13 Hz) accompany many cognitive processes, but their functional role in auditory perception has proven elusive: Do oscillatory dynamics of alpha reflect acoustic details of the speech signal and are they indicative of comprehension success? Acoustically presented words were degraded in acoustic envelope and spectrum in an orthogonal design, and electroencephalogram responses in the frequency domain were analyzed in 24 participants, who rated word comprehensibility after each trial. First, the alpha power suppression during and after a degraded word depended monotonically on spectral and, to a lesser extent, envelope detail. The magnitude of this alpha suppression exhibited an additional and independent influence on later comprehension ratings. Second, source localization of alpha suppression yielded superior parietal, prefrontal, as well as anterior temporal brain areas. Third, multivariate classification of the time–frequency pattern across participants showed that patterns of late posterior alpha power allowed best for above-chance classification of word intelligibility. Results suggest that both magnitude and topography of late alpha suppression in response to single words can indicate a listener's sensitivity to acoustic features and the ability to comprehend speech under adverse listening conditions. PMID:22100354

  7. Conformational stability analyses of alpha subunit I domain of LFA-1 and Mac-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debin Mao

    Full Text Available β₂ integrin of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 or macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1 binds to their common ligand of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC adhesions in inflammation cascade. Although the two integrins are known to have distinct functions, the corresponding micro-structural bases remain unclear. Here (steered-molecular dynamics simulations were employed to elucidate the conformational stability of α subunit I domains of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in different affinity states and relevant I domain-ICAM-1 interaction features. Compared with low affinity (LA Mac-1, the LA LFA-1 I domain was unstable in the presence or absence of ICAM-1 ligand, stemming from diverse orientations of its α₇-helix with different motifs of zipper-like hydrophobic junction between α₁- and α₇-helices. Meanwhile, spontaneous transition of LFA-1 I domain from LA state to intermediate affinity (IA state was first visualized. All the LA, IA, and high affinity (HA states of LFA-1 I domain and HA Mac-1 I domain were able to bind to ICAM-1 ligand effectively, while LA Mac-1 I domain was unfavorable for binding ligand presumably due to the specific orientation of S144 side-chain that capped the MIDAS ion. These results furthered our understanding in correlating the structural bases with their functions of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins from the viewpoint of I domain conformational stability and of the characteristics of I domain-ICAM-1 interactions.

  8. alpha(4)beta(7) independent pathway for CD8(+) T cell-mediated intestinal immunity to rotavirus. (United States)

    Kuklin, N A; Rott, L; Darling, J; Campbell, J J; Franco, M; Feng, N; Müller, W; Wagner, N; Altman, J; Butcher, E C; Greenberg, H B


    Rotavirus (RV), which replicates exclusively in cells of the small intestine, is the most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. Using a mouse model, we show that expression of the intestinal homing integrin alpha(4)ss(7) is not essential for CD8(+) T cells to migrate to the intestine or provide immunity to RV. Mice deficient in ss7 expression (ss7(-/-)) and unable to express alpha(4)ss(7) integrin were found to clear RV as quickly as wild-type (wt) animals. Depletion of CD8(+) T cells in ss7(-/-) animals prolonged viral shedding, and transfer of immune ss7(-/-) CD8(+) T cells into chronically infected Rag-2-deficient mice resolved RV infection as efficiently as wt CD8(+) T cells. Paradoxically, alpha(4)ss(7)(hi) memory CD8(+) T cells purified from wt mice that had been orally immunized cleared RV more efficiently than alpha(4)ss(7)(low) CD8(+) T cells. We explained this apparent contradiction by demonstrating that expression of alpha(4)ss(7) on effector CD8(+) T cells depends upon the site of initial antigen exposure: oral immunization generates RV-specific CD8(+) T cells primarily of an alpha(4)ss(7)(hi) phenotype, but subcutaneous immunization yields both alpha(4)ss(7)(hi) and alpha(4)ss(7)(low) immune CD8(+) T cells with anti-RV effector capabilities. Thus, alpha(4)ss(7) facilitates normal intestinal immune trafficking to the gut, but it is not required for effective CD8(+) T cell immunity.

  9. Domain-specific languages in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Heering (Jan); M. Mernik (Marjan)


    textabstractDomain-specific languages (DSLs) are languages tailored to a specific application domain. They offer substantial gains in expressiveness and ease of use compared with general-purpose languages in their domain of application. Although the use of DSLs is by no means new, it is receiving

  10. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha has a key role in hypoxic preconditioning. (United States)

    Taie, Satoshi; Ono, Junichiro; Iwanaga, Yasuyuki; Tomita, Shuhei; Asaga, Takehiko; Chujo, Kosuke; Ueki, Masaaki


    Sublethal hypoxia induces tolerance to subsequent hypoxic insults in a process known as hypoxic preconditioning (HP). Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is a key transcription protein involved in the mechanism of HP. In this study, we investigated the effects of HP on tissue oxygenation and expression of HIF-1 alpha gene targets in the brain using neural cell-specific HIF-1 alpha-deficient mice. The animals were exposed to 8% oxygen for 3 hours. Twenty-four hours later, the oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) of brain tissue and gene expression were measured during hypoxia. HP improved the pO(2) of brain tissue during subsequent hypoxia with upregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase in wild-type mice, whereas HP had no detectable effect in the mutant mice. Our results indicate that the protective effects of HP may be partially mediated by improving tissue oxygenation via HIF-1 alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  11. Takifugu rubripes cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor: Cloning, expression and functional characterization of the IGF-II binding domain. (United States)

    A, Ajith Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar


    Mannose 6-phosphate/IGF-II receptor mediated lysosomal clearance of insulin-like growth factor-II is significantly associated with the evolution of placental mammals. The protein is also referred to as the IGF-II receptor. Earlier studies suggested relatively low binding affinity between the receptor and ligand in prototherian and metatherian mammals. In the present study, we cloned the IGF-II binding domain of the early vertebrate fugu fish and expressed it in bacteria. A 72000Da truncated receptor containing the IGF-II binding domain was obtained. Analysis of this protein (covering domains 11-13 of the CIMPR) for its affinity to fish and human IGF-II by ligand blot assays and ELISA showed that the expressed receptor can specifically bind to both fish and human IGF-II. Additionally, a peptide-specific antibody raised against the region of the IGF-II binding domain also was able to recognize the IGF-II binding regions of mammalian and non-mammalian cation independent MPR protein. These interactions were further characterized by Surface Plasma resonance support that the receptor binds to fish IGF-II, with a dissociation constant of 548nM. Preliminary analysis suggests that the binding mechanism as well as the affinity of the fish and human receptor for IGF-II may have varied according to different evolutionary pressures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Expression of androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-alpha in the developing pituitary gland of male sheep lamb. (United States)

    Huang, Li-Bo; Yuan, Xue-Jun


    To explore the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the developing pituitary of male lamb, we detected AR and ERα expression in the anterior pituitary of lambs aged 2-7 months old by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that both AR immunoreactivity (AR-ir) and ERα immunoreactivity (ERα-ir) were localized in the nuclei of anterior pituitary cell. The percentage of the anterior pituitary cells expressing ERα fluctuated from 8.79±0.02% to 11.80±0.04% during the examined stages, but fell significantly to the lowest level at 6 months. While the proportion of AR-ir showed significant changes, it was in 11.52±1.26% at 2 months, it firstly increased to 19.86±1.03% at 3 months, and then significantly decreased to 8.18±1.17% at 6 months (Panterior pituitary cells. These results indicate that both AR and ERα are important in regulation of secretary function of anterior pituitary in sheep lamb, although the related mechanism needs to be elucidated further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heuristic derivation of the Rossi-alpha formula for a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.


    Expressions for the Rossi-alpha distribution for a pulsed neutron source were derived using a heuristic derivation based on the method of joint detection probability. This heuristic technique was chosen over the more rigorous master equation method due to its simplicity and the complementary of both techniques. The derived equations also take into account the presence of delayed neutrons and intrinsic neutron sources which often cannot be neglected in source-driven subcritical cores. The obtained expressions showed that the ratio of the correlated to the uncorrelated signal in the Rossi-Alpha distribution for a Pulsed Source (RAPS) was strongly increased compared to the case for a standard Rossi-alpha distribution for a continuous source. It was also demonstrated that by using this RAPS technique four independent measurement quantities, instead of three with the standard Rossi-alpha technique, can be determined. Hence, it is no longer necessary to combine the Rossi-alpha technique with another method to measure the reactivity expressed in dollars. Both properties, the increased signal-to-noise ratio of the correlated signal and the measurement of a fourth measurement quantity, make that the RAPS technique is an excellent candidate for the measurement of kinetic parameters in source-driven subcritical assemblies

  14. Tudor Domain Containing Protein TDRD12 Expresses at the Acrosome of Spermatids in Mouse Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kim


    Full Text Available Tdrd12 is one of tudor domain containing (Tdrd family members. However, the expression pattern of Tdrd12 has not been well studied. To compare the expression levels of Tdrd12 in various tissues, real time-polymerase chain reaction was performed using total RNAs from liver, small intestine, heart, brain, kidney, lung, spleen, stomach, uterus, ovary, and testis. Tdrd12 mRNA was highly expressed in testis. Antibody against mouse TDRD12 were generated using amino acid residues SQRPNEKPLRLTEKKDC of TDRD12 to investigate TDRD12 localization in testis. Immunostaining assay shows that TDRD12 is mainly localized at the spermatid in the seminiferous tubules of adult testes. During postnatal development, TDRD12 is differentially expressed. TDRD12 was detected in early spermatocytes at 2 weeks and TDRD12 was localized at acrosome of the round spermatids. TDRD12 expression was not co-localized with TDRD1 which is an important component of piRNA pathway in germ cells. Our results indicate that TDRD12 may play an important role in spermatids and function as a regulator of spermatogenesis in dependent of TDRD1.

  15. Immunohistochemical expression of alpha methylacyl-coa racemase (amacr) in carcinoma prostate in pakistani population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, H.; Ahmed, R.; Muhammad, I.; Afzal, M.S.; Hashmi, S.N.; Hamdani, S.N.R.; Shahid, A.


    Objective: To determine the frequency of expression of positive diagnostic marker alpha methylacyl-COA RACEMES (AMACR) in the examination of prostate needle biopsy specimens from patients of adenocarcinoma prostate from a subset of Pakistani population. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from Apr 2015 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: All specimens of adenocarcinoma prostate diagnosed at Armed forces institute of pathology on the basis of immunohistochemistry and routine histopathology irrespective of age of patient, histological type or grade of the tumor were analyzed. Mean and Standard deviation were calculated for quantitative variables like patient's age and frequencies along with percentages were calculated for qualitative variables like AMACR expression. Results: Out of the total 80 cases, 68 (85%) were positive for AMACR while 12 (15%) were negative. Among the cases that were negative 9 (11.3%) showed 1 +- staining (Weak, non-circumferential) and 3 cases (3.8%) displayed 0 staining (No cytoplasmic staining). Conclusion: Positive staining for AMACR can be used to support a diagnosis of cancer on prostate needle core biopsies when the focus in question is <1mm in maximum dimension. The results of AMACR expression in a subset of Pakistani population are comparable to the western studies. AMACR staining must be interpreted in the context of basic haematoxylin and eosin criteria for malignancy along with the results expansion of other supportive markers, such as a basal cell specific marker like p63 or 34 beta E12. (author)

  16. MicroRNA Expression Profiling by Bead Array Technology in Human Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Interferon-Alpha-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegrist Fredy


    Full Text Available Abstract MicroRNAs are positive and negative regulators of eukaryotic gene expression that modulate transcript abundance by specific binding to sequence motifs located prevalently in the 3' untranslated regions of target messenger RNAs (mRNA. Interferon-alpha-2a (IFNα induces a large set of protein coding genes mediating antiproliferative and antiviral responses. Here we use a global microarray-based microRNA detection platform to identify genes that are induced by IFNα in hepatoma- or melanoma-derived human tumor cell lines. Despite the enormous differences in expression levels between these models, we were able to identify microRNAs that are upregulated by IFNα in both lines suggesting the possibility that interferon-regulated microRNAs are involved in the transcriptional repression of mRNA relevant to cytokine responses.

  17. [Effects of Electroaupuncture Stimulation of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39), etc. on Duodenal Mucosal Injury, Serum Pro-inflammatory Factors Levels and Duodenal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha 7 Expression in Duodenal Ulcer Rats]. (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Zhang, Hong; Yi, Xi-qin; Wu, Jin-feng


    To observe the relatively specific effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Xiajuxu" (ST 39, the lower hesea paint of the small intestine), etc. on the level of serum TNF-alpha, lnterleukin-1 P (IL-1 P) and high mobility group protein B 1 (HMGB 1) contents, and duodenum a7 nicotinic acetyicholine receptor (nAchR) expression in duodenal ulcer rats, so as to explore its mechanisms underlying improving duodenal ulcer. Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, model, Xiajuxu (ST 39), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Yanglingquan (GB 34). The duodenal ulcer model was established by subcutaneous injection of 10% Cysteamine Hydrochloride (300 mg/kg), following by giving the rats with access to water containing Cysteamine. EA (10 Hz/50 Hz, 1- 3 mA) was applied to bilateral ST 39, ST 36, ST 37 and GB 34 for 30 min, once daily for 10 days. The ulcer scores (0-5 points) of the duodenal mucosa were assessed according to modified Moraes' methods. Serum TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and HMGB 1 levels were assayed by ELISA and the expression of neuronal a7 nAchR in the duodenal tissue was detected by Western blot. After modeling, the ulcer score, serum TNF-alpha, IL-i p and HMGB 1 contents were significantly increased (P0.05). EA stimulation of ST 36, ST 37 and ST 39 can reduce ulcer injury in duodenal ulcer model rats, which may be associated with their effects in down-regulating serum TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and HMGB 1 contents and up-regulating alpha7 nAchR expression of the duodenal tissue, possibly by suppressing immune and inflammatory reactions and regulating nicotinic activity.

  18. The TIR domain of TIR-NB-LRR resistance proteins is a signaling domain involved in cell death induction. (United States)

    Swiderski, Michal R; Birker, Doris; Jones, Jonathan D G


    In plants, the TIR (toll interleukin 1 receptor) domain is found almost exclusively in nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat resistance proteins and their truncated homologs, and has been proposed to play a signaling role during resistance responses mediated by TIR containing R proteins. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves of "TIR + 80", the RPS4 truncation without the NB-ARC domain, leads to EDS1-, SGT1-, and HSP90-dependent cell death. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the RPS4 TIR+80 from either dexamethasone or estradiol-inducible promoters display inducer-dependent cell death. Cell death is also elicited by transient expression of similarly truncated constructs from two other R proteins, RPP1A and At4g19530, but is not elicited by similar constructs representing RPP2A and RPP2B proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis of the RPS4 TIR domain identified many loss-of-function mutations but also revealed several gain-of function substitutions. Lack of cell death induction by the E160A substitution suggests that amino acids outside of the TIR domain contribute to cell death signaling in addition to the TIR domain itself. This is consistent with previous observations that the TIR domain itself is insufficient to induce cell death upon transient expression.

  19. Functional activities of receptors for tumor necrosis factor-alpha on human vascular endothelial cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paleolog, E.M.; Delasalle, S.A.; Buurman, W.A.; Feldmann, M.


    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) plays a critical role in the control of endothelial cell function and hence in regulating traffic of circulating cells into tissues in vivo. Stimulation of endothelial cells in vitro by TNF-alpha increases the surface expression of leukocyte adhesion

  20. Topography of somatostatin gene expression relative to molecular progenitor domains during ontogeny of the mouse hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor eMorales-Delgado


    Full Text Available The hypothalamus comprises alar, basal and floor plate developmental compartments. Recent molecular data support a rostro-caudal subdivision into rostral (terminal and caudal (peduncular halves. In this context, the distribution of neuronal populations expressing somatostatin (Sst mRNA was analyzed in the developing mouse hypothalamus, comparing with the expression pattern of the genes Orthopedia (Otp, Distal-less 5 (Dlx5, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh and Nk2 homeobox 1 (Nkx2.1. At embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5, Sst mRNA was first detectable in the anterobasal nucleus, a Nkx2.1-, Shh- and Otp- positive basal domain. By E13.5, nascent Sst expression was also related to two additional Otp-positive domains within the alar plate and one in the basal plate. In the alar plate, Sst-positive cells were observed in rostral and caudal ventral subdomains of the Otp-positive paraventricular complex. An additional basal Sst-expressing cell group was found within a longitudinal Otp-positive periretromamillary band that separates the retromamillary area from tuberal areas. Apart of subsequent growth of these initial populations, at E13.5 and E15.5 some Sst-positive derivatives migrate tangentially into neighboring regions. A subset of cells produced at the anterobasal nucleus disperses ventralwards into the shell of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Cells from the rostroventral paraventricular subdomain reach the suboptic nucleus, whereas a caudal contingent migrates radially into lateral paraventricular, perifornical and entopeduncular nuclei. Our data provide a topologic map of molecularly-defined progenitor areas originating a specific neuron type during early hypothalamic development. Identification of four main separate sources helps to understand causally its complex adult organization.

  1. Transmembrane START domain proteins: in silico identification, characterization and expression analysis under stress conditions in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). (United States)

    Satheesh, Viswanathan; Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tejkumar; Kumar, Vajinder; Jain, Pradeep K; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bhat, Shripad R; Srinivasan, R


    Steroidogenic acute regulatory related transfer (StART) proteins that are involved in transport of lipid molecules, play a myriad of functions in insects, mammals and plants. These proteins consist of a modular START domain of approximately 200 amino acids which binds and transfers the lipids. In the present study we have performed a genome-wide search for all START domain proteins in chickpea. The search identified 36 chickpea genes belonging to the START domain family. Through a phylogenetic tree reconstructed with Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean START proteins, we were able to identify four transmembrane START (TM-START) proteins in chickpea. These four proteins are homologous to the highly conserved mammalian phosphatidylcholine transfer proteins. Multiple sequence alignment of all the transmembrane containing START proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean revealed that the amino acid residues to which phosphatidylcholine binds in mammals, is also conserved in all these plant species, implying an important functional role and a very similar mode of action of all these proteins across dicots and monocots. This study characterizes a few of the not so well studied transmembrane START superfamily genes that may be involved in stress signaling. Expression analysis in various tissues showed that these genes are predominantly expressed in flowers and roots of chickpea. Three of the chickpea TM-START genes showed induced expression in response to drought, salt, wound and heat stress, suggesting their role in stress response.

  2. Transgenic up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII in forebrain leads to increased anxiety-like behaviors and aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa Shunsuke


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated essential roles for alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII in learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP. However, previous studies have also shown that alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice display a dramatic decrease in anxiety-like and fearful behaviors, and an increase in defensive aggression. These findings indicated that alpha-CaMKII is important not only for learning and memory but also for emotional behaviors. In this study, to understand the roles of alpha-CaMKII in emotional behavior, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain and analyzed their behavioral phenotypes. Results We generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain under the control of the alpha-CaMKII promoter. In contrast to alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated zero maze, light-dark transition and social interaction tests, and a decrease in locomotor activity in their home cages and novel environments; these phenotypes were the opposite to those observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice. In addition, similarly with alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in aggression. However, in contrast to the increase in defensive aggression observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in offensive aggression. Conclusion Up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII expression in the forebrain leads to an increase in anxiety-like behaviors and offensive aggression. From the comparisons with previous findings, we suggest that the expression levels of alpha-CaMKII are associated with the state of emotion; the expression level of alpha-CaMKII positively correlates with the anxiety state and strongly affects

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the aspartate transcarbamoylase domain of human CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Alba; Lallous, Nada; Grande-García, Araceli; Ramón-Maiques, Santiago


    The recombinant aspartate transcarbamoylase domain of human CAD was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence and absence of the inhibitor PALA. X-ray diffraction data sets were collected for both crystal forms at 2.1 Å resolution. Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) catalyzes the synthesis of N-carbamoyl-l-aspartate from carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate in the second step of the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. In prokaryotes, the first three activities of the pathway, namely carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase), ATCase and dihydroorotase (DHOase), are encoded as distinct proteins that function independently or in noncovalent association. In animals, CPSase, ATCase and DHOase are part of a 243 kDa multifunctional polypeptide named CAD. Up-regulation of CAD is essential for normal and tumour cell proliferation. Although the structures of numerous prokaryotic ATCases have been determined, there is no structural information about any eukaryotic ATCase. In fact, the only detailed structural information about CAD is that it self-assembles into hexamers and trimers through interactions of the ATCase domains. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of the ATCase domain of human CAD is reported. The recombinant protein, which was expressed in bacteria and purified with good yield, formed homotrimers in solution. Crystallization experiments both in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitor PALA yielded small crystals that diffracted X-rays to 2.1 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals appeared to belong to the hexagonal space group P6 3 22, and Matthews coefficient calculation indicated the presence of one ATCase subunit per asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 48%. However, analysis of the intensity statistics suggests a special case of the P2 1 lattice with pseudo-symmetry and possibly twinning

  4. C595 antibody: A potential vector for targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.; Allen, B.J.


    Full text: Mucins are high molecular-weight heavily glycosylated glycoproteins with many oligosaccharide side-chains, linked to a protein backbone called apomucin. A total of 19 different mucin genes (MUC1-MUC4, MUC5B, MUC5AC, MUC6-MUC18) have been identified to date. Mucins are present on the surface of most epithelial cells and play a role in their protection and lubrication. In cancer cells the mucin molecule becomes altered, thus representing an important target for diagnosis and therapy. Urinary epithelial mucin1 (MUC1) is found to be frequently up-regulated and abnormally glycosylated in a number of common malignancies, including breast, bladder, colon, ovarian and gastric cancer. The monoclonal antibody C595 is an IgG3 murine MAb raised against the protein core of human MUC1. Epitope mapping has shown that C595 recognizes a tetrapeptide motif (RPAP) within the protein core of MUC1 mucin that contains a large domain of multiples of a highly conserved 20-amino-acid-repeat sequence (PDTRPAPGSTAPPAHGVTSA). This antibody has previously been radiolabelled with 99m Tc and 111 In and used for imaging a range of tumour types including ovary, breast and bladder. The antibody has also been radiolabelled with 67 Cu and 188 Re for the therapy of superficial bladder cancer. More recently we have investigated the pre-clinical use of the C595 antibody for targeted alpha therapy using 213 Bi which emits alpha particles with high linear energy transfer (LET), short range (80 m) radiation and has a short physical half-life of 45.6 minutes. Alpha particles are some 7300 times heavier than beta particles and in theory, following binding of an alpha immunocongugates to the target, a large fraction of the alpha particle energy is delivered to cancer cells, with minimal concomitant radiation of normal tissues. 213 Bi was produced from the 225 Ac/ 213 Bi generator. For antibody conjugation the chelator, cyclic diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid anhydride (DTPA) was used. Initial

  5. Increased expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha transcribed by promoter 2 indicates a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma


    Cai, Shao-hang; Lu, Shi-xun; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Yun, Jing-ping


    Background: Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) plays an important role in tumourigenesis. There is growing evidence indicating that HNF4α transcribed by promoter 1 (P1-HNF4α) is expressed at relatively low levels in HCC and its presence predicts a favourable outcome for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, the role of HNF4α transcribed by promoter 2 (P2-HNF4α) in HCC remains unclear. Methods: A total of 615 HCC specimens were obtained to construct tissue microarrays and pe...

  6. Aberrant Behaviours of Reaction Diffusion Self-organisation Models on Growing Domains in the Presence of Gene Expression Time Delays

    KAUST Repository

    Seirin  Lee, S.; Gaffney, E. A.


    domains in the presence of gene expression (Gaffney and Monk in Bull. Math. Biol. 68:99-130, 2006). Our results emphasise that gene expression dynamics induce unrealistic behaviour in Turing's model for multiple choices of kinetics and thus such aberrant

  7. A stably expressed llama single-domain intrabody targeting Rev displays broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity. (United States)

    Boons, Eline; Li, Guangdi; Vanstreels, Els; Vercruysse, Thomas; Pannecouque, Christophe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Daelemans, Dirk


    The HIV Rev protein mediates the transport of partially and unspliced HIV mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Rev multimerizes on a secondary stem-loop structure present in the viral intron-containing mRNA species and recruits the cellular karyopherin CRM1 to export viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Previously we have identified a single-domain intrabody (Nb(190)), derived from a llama heavy-chain antibody, which efficiently inhibits Rev multimerization and suppresses the production of infectious virus. We recently mapped the epitope of this nanobody and demonstrated that Rev residues K20 and Y23 are crucial for interaction while residues V16, H53 and L60 are important to a lesser extent. Here, we generated cell lines stably expressing Nb(190) and assessed the capacity of these cell lines to suppress the replication of different HIV-1 subtypes. These cells stably expressing the single-domain antibody are protected from virus-induced cytopathogenic effect even in the context of high multiplicity of infection. In addition, the replication of different subtypes of group M and one strain of group O is significantly suppressed in these cell lines. Next, we analysed the natural variations of Rev amino acids in sequence samples from HIV-1 infected patients worldwide and assessed the effect of Nb(190) on the most prevalent polymorphisms occurring at the key epitope positions (K20 and Y23) in Rev. We found that Nb(190) was able to suppress the function of these Rev variants except for the K20N mutant, which was present in only 0.7% of HIV-1 sequence populations (n = 4632). Cells stably expressing the single-domain intrabody Nb(190) are protected against virus-induced cytopathogenic effect and display a selective survival advantage upon infection. In addition, Nb(190) suppresses the replication of a wide range of different HIV-1 subtypes. Large-scale sequence analysis reveals that the Nb(190) epitope positions in Rev are well conserved across major HIV-1

  8. Transcriptional activation of the mouse obese (ob) gene by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, C S; Mandrup, S; MacDougald, O A


    Like other adipocyte genes that are transcriptionally activated by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha) during preadipocyte differentiation, expression of the mouse obese (ob) gene is immediately preceded by the expression of C/EBP alpha. While the 5' flanking region of the mouse ob...... gene contains several consensus C/EBP binding sites, only one of these sites appears to be functional. DNase I cleavage inhibition patterns (footprinting) of the ob gene promoter revealed that recombinant C/EBP alpha, as well as a nuclear factor present in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes...... to a consensus C/EBP binding site at nucleotides -55 to -47 generated a specific protein-oligonucleotide complex that was supershifted by antibody against C/EBP alpha. Probes corresponding to two upstream consensus C/EBP binding sites failed to generate protein-oligonucleotide complexes. Cotransfection of a C...

  9. Antagonizing the alpha(4)beta(1) Integrin, but Not alpha(4)beta(7), Inhibits Leukocytic Infiltration of the Central Nervous System in Rhesus Monkey Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Krista G.; Hofman, Sam O.; Estevao, Dave M. Lopes; Blezer, Erwin L. A.; Bauer, Jan; Yang, Li-Li; Wyant, Tim; Csizmadia, Vilmos; 't Hart, Bert A.; Fedyk, Eric R.


    The immune system is characterized by the preferential migration of lymphocytes through specific tissues (i.e., tissue tropism). Tissue tropism is mediated, in part, by the alpha(4) integrins expressed by T lymphocytes. The alpha(4)beta(1) integrin mediates migration of memory T lymphocytes into the

  10. Cancer progression: is inhibin alpha from Venus or Mars? (United States)

    Ball, Emma M A; Mellor, Sally L; Risbridger, Gail P


    The inhibin field has been perplexed by the information that inhibin alpha is a tumour suppressor in mice yet is elevated in women with ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we have consistently observed a down-regulation or loss of inhibin alpha in prostate cancer patient samples and cell lines. However, our latest data have prompted us to re-evaluate the role of inhibin alpha in prostate and other cancers. Using the analogy of TGF-beta as a springboard for our hypothesis, we offer a unifying model whereby the previously conflicting observations in mice, men and women can be explained. We propose that initially inhibin alpha is tumour-suppressive and is expressed in benign and early-stage primary cancers. Tumour-suppressive inhibin alpha is then silenced as the tumour progresses but is reactivated as a pro-metastatic factor in advanced, aggressive cancers.

  11. Structure of the T cell receptor in a Ti alpha V beta 2, alpha V beta 8-positive T cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, X; Dietrich, J; Kuhlmann, J


    not known; however, it has been suggested that each TcR contains two Ti dimers. To gain insight into the structure of the TcR we constructed a Ti alpha V beta 2, alpha V beta 8-positive T cell line which expressed the endogenous human TiV beta 8 and the transfected mouse TiV beta 2 both in association......The T cell receptor (TcR) is composed of at least six different polypeptide chains c