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Sample records for exposures modulate sex

  1. Sex-Specific Modulation of Fetal Adipogenesis by Gestational Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Yong; Gingrich, Jeremy D; Steibel, Juan P; Veiga-Lopez, Almudena

    2017-11-01

    The endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA) increases adipose tissue mass in vivo and promotes adipogenesis in vitro; however, mechanisms explaining BPA's obesogenic effect remain unknown. We investigated the effects of gestational BPA and its analog, bisphenol S (BPS), exposure on the adipogenic differentiation ability of fetal preadipocytes and the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in regulating this process. Pregnant sheep (n = 7 to 8 per group) mated to the same male were exposed to BPA or BPS from days 30 to 100 of gestation; pregnancies were terminated 20 days later. Adipose tissue was harvested and fetal preadipocytes isolated. Adipose tissue gene expression, adipocyte size, preadipocyte gene expression, adipogenic differentiation, and dynamic expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress were assessed. Gestational BPA enhanced adipogenic differentiation in female, but not male, preadipocytes. The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway was upregulated in BPA-exposed female preadipocytes supportive of a higher endoplasmic reticulum stress. Increased expression of estradiol receptor 1 and glucocorticoid receptor in female preadipocytes suggests that this may be a potential cause behind the sex-specific effects observed upon BPA exposure. Gestational BPS affected adipogenic terminal differentiation gene expression in male preadipocytes, but not adipogenic differentiation potential. We demonstrate that gestational BPA exposure can modulate the differentiation ability of fetal preadipocytes. UPR upregulation in gestationally BPA-exposed female preadipocytes may contribute to the increased preadipocyte's adipogenic ability. The marked sex-specific effect of BPA highlights higher susceptibility of females to bisphenol A and potentially, a higher risk to develop obesity in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. Sex-, tissue-, and exposure duration-dependent effects of imidacloprid modulated by piperonyl butoxide and menadione in rats. Part I: oxidative and neurotoxic potentials.

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    Yardimci, Mustafa; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup; Arslan, Mehmet; Buyukleyla, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2014-12-01

    Earlier research has evidenced the oxidative and neurotoxic potential of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, in different animal species. The primary aim of this study was to determine how metabolic modulators piperonyl butoxide and menadione affect imidacloprid's adverse action in the liver and kidney of Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes. The animals were exposed to imidacloprid alone (170 mg kg⁻¹) or in combination with piperonyl butoxide (100 mg kg⁻¹) or menadione (25 mg kg⁻¹) for 12 and 24 h. Their liver and kidney homogenates were analysed spectrophotometrically for glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase, total cholinesterase specific activities, total glutathione, total protein content, and lipid peroxidation levels. Imidacloprid displayed its prooxidative and neurotoxic effects predominantly in the kidney of male rats after 24 h of exposure. Our findings suggest that the observed differences in prooxidative and neurotoxic potential of imidacloprid could be related to differences in its metabolism between the sexes. Co-exposure (90-min pre-treatment) with piperonyl butoxide or menadione revealed tissue-specific effect of imidacloprid on total cholinesterase activity. Increased cholinesterase activity in the kidney could be an adaptive response to imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress. In the male rat liver, co-exposure with piperonyl butoxide or menadione exacerbated imidacloprid toxicity. In female rats, imidacloprid+menadione co-exposure caused prooxidative effects, while no such effects were observed with imidacloprid alone or menadione alone. In conclusion, sex-, tissue-, and duration-specific effects of imidacloprid are remarkable points in its toxicity.

  3. Fetal Sex Modulates Developmental Response to Maternal Malnutrition.

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    Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity and metabolic diseases is dramatically high in rapidly developing countries. Causes have been related to intrinsic ethnic features with development of a thrifty genotype for adapting to food scarcity, prenatal programming by undernutrition, and postnatal exposure to obesogenic lifestyle. Observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animal models evidence that the adaptive responses of the offspring may be modulated by their sex. In the contemporary context of world globalization, the new question arising is the existence and extent of sex-related differences in developmental and metabolic traits in case of mixed-race. Hence, in the current study, using a swine model, we compared male and female fetuses that were crossbred from mothers with thrifty genotype and fathers without thrifty genotype. Female conceptuses evidence stronger protective strategies for their adequate growth and postnatal survival. In brief, both male and female fetuses developed a brain-sparing effect but female fetuses were still able to maintain the development of other viscerae than the brain (mainly liver, intestine and kidneys at the expense of carcass development. Furthermore, these morphometric differences were reinforced by differences in nutrient availability (glucose and cholesterol favoring female fetuses with severe developmental predicament. These findings set the basis for further studies aiming to increase the knowledge on the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the determination of adult phenotype.

  4. Is the exploratory behavior of Liolaemus nitidus modulated by sex?

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    Jaime Troncoso-Palacios

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemoreception is an important sensory modality used by lizards to assess their environments and to communicate. However, despite growing information regarding chemoreception in this taxon, its modulation by sex has been little explored, except in researches directly focused on reproductive aspects. In this study, we compared the responses of females and males of the Iguanid lizard Liolaemus nitidus to scents from conspecifics of the same sex, themselves (own, a predator, and a control. The only stimulus that induced different responses between sexes was the scent of conspecifics; males reacted sooner than females to these scents in agreement with their lower tolerance of potential sexual competitors. The similar ecology of the sexes may explain the similarities in their responses to the other scents we tested. However, independent of the scents, we found major behavioral differences between the sexes (e.g. males always tail waved for longer, pointing intrinsic sexual variation in behaviors associated to exploration.

  5. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

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    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  6. Sex differences and hormonal modulation of deep tissue pain

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    Traub, Richard J.; Ji, Yaping

    2013-01-01

    Women disproportionately suffer from many deep tissue pain conditions. Experimental studies show that women have lower pain thresholds, higher pain ratings and less tolerance to a range of painful stimuli. Most clinical and epidemiological reports suggest female gonadal hormones modulate pain for some, but not all, conditions. Similarly, animal studies support greater nociceptive sensitivity in females in many deep tissue pain models. Gonadal hormones modulate responses in primary afferents, dorsal horn neurons and supraspinal sites, but the direction of modulation is variable. This review will examine sex differences in deep tissue pain in humans and animals focusing on the role of gonadal hormones (mainly estradiol) as an underlying component of the modulation of pain sensitivity. PMID:23872333

  7. Handedness is modulated by sex and self-perception.

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    Dirnberger, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of handedness is different for men and women. Less pronounced right- or left-handedness in men is well established and often attributed to direct effects of genetic factors. Many studies observing this sex difference assessed handedness via questionnaire. It may therefore be influenced by a sex-specific bias in self-perception. Permanent inadequate self-perceptions are key characteristics of hypochondriasis. The study therefore tested 1017 participants (614 females) on two standard questionnaires to assess handedness and hypochondriasis: the Edinburgh Inventory and the Whiteley Index. Effects of sex, hypochondriac traits and the direction of handedness (left-handers; right-handers) on the degree of handedness (DH; the strength of lateralisation) were tested with multivariate linear regression. In confirmation of previous results, the DH is lower (less pronounced) in right-handed males than right-handed females, but is similar across sexes in left-handers. Regression analyses showed that for right-handers, male sex and higher hypochondriac traits are independent predictors of lower DH. For left-handers, main effects of sex and hypochondriac traits are not significant whereas a significant interaction of these two factors indicates that in left-handed men higher hypochondriac traits are associated with a differentially stronger shift towards lower DH compared to left-handed women. In conclusion, the DH is modulated by sex-specific effects of self-perception for left-handers but not right-handers. The implications of this finding on current theories of the inheritance of handedness are discussed. The assessment of hypochondriac traits might be useful to control response bias in questionnaire-based studies of human handedness.

  8. Risk preferences and prenatal exposure to sex hormones for ladinos.

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    Diego Aycinena

    Full Text Available Risk preferences drive much of human decision making including investment, career and health choices and many more. Thus, understanding the determinants of risk preferences refines our understanding of choice in a broad array of environments. We assess the relationship between risk preferences, prenatal exposure to sex hormones and gender for a sample of Ladinos, which is an ethnic group comprising 62.86% of the population of Guatemala. Prenatal exposure to sex hormones has organizational effects on brain development, and has been shown to partially explain risk preferences for Caucasians. We measure prenatal exposure to sex hormones using the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger (2D:4D, which is negatively (positively correlated with prenatal exposure to testosterone (estrogen. We find that Ladino males are less risk averse than Ladino females, and that Ladino males have lower 2D:4D ratios than Ladino females on both hands. We find that the 2D:4D ratio does not explain risk preferences for Ladinos. This is true for both genders, and both hands. Our results highlight the importance of exploring the behavioral significance of 2D:4D in non-Caucasian racial groups.

  9. (Putative) sex differences in neuroimmune modulation of memory.

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    Tronson, Natalie C; Collette, Katie M

    2017-01-02

    The neuroimmune system is significantly sexually dimorphic, with sex differences evident in the number and activation states of microglia, in the activation of astrocytes, and in cytokine release and function. Neuroimmune cells and signaling are now recognized as critical for many neural functions throughout the life span, including synaptic plasticity and memory function. Here we address the question of how cytokines, astrocytes, and microglia contribute to memory, and specifically how neuroimmune modulation of memory differentially affects males and females. Understanding sex differences in both normal memory processes and dysregulation of memory in psychiatric and neurological disorders is critical for developing treatment and preventive strategies for memory disorders that are effective for both men and women. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Sex differences in adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in magazines.

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    Jernigan, David H; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig; O'Hara, James A

    2004-07-01

    To measure girls' and boys' exposure to alcohol advertising in magazines and to compare this exposure with that of legal-age persons. Alcohol advertisements (N = 6239) in 103 national magazines for which placement, audience, and cost data for 2001 and 2002 were available, categorized by year, beverage type, and brand. Placement and readership (age and sex) data generated estimates of media exposure for the age groups 12 to 20, 21 to 34, and 21 years and older. Gross rating points, an advertising industry standard measure of the level of media exposure of a given population, and gross rating point ratios comparing exposure of different demographic groups. Alcohol companies spent 590.4 million US dollars to place 471 beer and ale advertisements (8%), 4748 distilled spir-its advertisements (76%), 116 low-alcohol refresher advertisements (2%), and 904 advertisements for wine (14%) in magazines in 2001 and 2002. In 2002, underage youth saw 45% more beer and ale advertising, 12% more distilled spirits advertising, 65% more low-alcohol refresher advertising, and 69% less advertising for wine than persons 21 years and older. Girls aged 12 to 20 years were more likely to be exposed to beer, ale, and low-alcohol refresher advertising than women in the group aged 21 to 34 or women in the group aged 21 years and older. Girls' exposure to low-alcohol refresher advertising increased by 216% from 2001 to 2002, while boys' exposure increased 46%. Exposure of underage girls to alcohol advertising is substantial and increasing, pointing to the failure of industry self-regulation and the need for further action.

  11. Transient Response of Cadmium Telluride Modules to Light Exposure: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; del Cueto, J.; Albin, D. S.; Petersen, C.; Tyler, L.; TamizhMani, G.

    2011-07-01

    Commercial cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic (PV) modules from three different manufacturers were monitored for performance changes during indoor and outdoor light-exposure. Short-term transients in Voc were recorded on some modules, with characteristic times of ~1.1 hours. Outdoor performance data shows a similar drop in Voc after early morning light exposure. Preliminary analysis of FF changes show light-induced changes on multiple time scales, including a long time scale.

  12. Developmental exposure to fluoxetine modulates the serotonin system in hypothalamus.

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    Cecilia Berg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI fluoxetine (FLU, Prozac® is commonly prescribed for depression in pregnant women. This results in SSRI exposure of the developing fetus. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding the impact of SSRI exposure during development. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its cross-talk with sex hormone function, we investigated effects of developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of FLU (3 and 30 nM (measured on brain neurotransmitter levels, gonadal differentiation, aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and the thyroid system, using the Xenopus tropicalis model. Tadpoles were chronically exposed (8 weeks until metamorphosis. At metamorphosis brains were cryosectioned and levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were measured in discrete regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and the reticular formation of the cryosections using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to 30 nM FLU increased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hypothalamus compared with controls. FLU exposure did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid histology, gonadal sex differentiation, or aromatase activity implying that the effect on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the hypothalamus region was specific. The FLU concentration that impacted the serotonin system is lower than the concentration measured in umbilical cord serum, suggesting that the serotonin system of the developing brain is highly sensitive to in utero exposure to FLU. To our knowledge this is the first study showing effects of developmental FLU exposure on brain neurochemistry. Given that SSRIs are present in the aquatic environment the current results warrant further investigation into the neurobehavioral effects of SSRIs in aquatic wildlife.

  13. Over-ripeness ovopathy: a challenging hypothesis for sex ratio modulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloet, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Current hypotheses do not explain the concerns about sex ratio modulation at conception, birth or during life, and particularly about sex ratio reversal, e.g. at very young or advanced maternal age, during 'anovulatory seasons', among those of low socio-economic status, or induced by specific

  14. Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol and social behavior: effects of age, sex, and timing of exposure.

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    Mooney, Sandra M; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2011-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system, neurons pass through critical periods of vulnerability to environmental factors. Exposure to ethanol during gastrulation or during neuronal generation results in a permanent reduction in the number of neurons in trigeminal-associated cranial nerve nuclei. Normal functioning of the trigeminal system is required for social behavior, the present study examined the effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on social interactions across ontogeny. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were injected with 2.9 g/kg ethanol (i.p., 20%, v/v solution; peak blood ethanol concentrations of ∼300 mg/dl) or an equivalent volume of saline on gestational day (G) 7 (gastrulation) or G12 (neuronal generation). Subsequently, social investigation, play fighting, contact behavior, social motivation, and overall locomotor activity in the social context were assessed in male and female off-spring during early adolescence, late adolescence, or adulthood, on postnatal day (P) 28, P42, or P75, respectively, using a modified social interaction test. Ethanol exposure on G7 resulted in mild changes of social behavior evident in young adolescents only. In contrast, animals exposed to ethanol on G12 demonstrated pronounced behavioral deficits throughout ontogeny, with deficits being most robust in male off-spring. Males exposed to ethanol on G12 showed decreases in social investigation, contact behavior, and play fighting, whereas a decrease in social motivation, i.e., transformation of social preference into social avoidance, was evident at P42 and P75 regardless of sex. These findings show that acute exposure to ethanol alters social behavior, and that the timing of the exposure defines the behavioral outcome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases

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    Joella Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has a widespread exposure to humans. BPA is of concern for developmental exposure resulting in immunomodulation and disease development due to its ability to cross the placental barrier and presence in breast milk. BPA can use various mechanisms to modulate the immune system and affect diseases, including agonistic and antagonistic effects on many receptors (e.g., estrogen receptors, epigenetic modifications, acting on cell signaling pathways and, likely, the gut microbiome. Immune cell populations and function from the innate and adaptive immune system are altered by developmental BPA exposure, including decreased T regulatory (Treg cells and upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Developmental BPA exposure can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergy, asthma and mammary cancer disease by altering immune function. Multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus may also be exacerbated by BPA, although more research is needed. Additionally, BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS, have been increasing in use, and currently, little is known about their immune effects. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to determine if developmental exposure BPA and its analogs modulate immune responses and lead to immune-related diseases.

  16. Exposure calculation code module for reactor core analysis: BURNER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1979-02-01

    The code module BURNER for nuclear reactor exposure calculations is presented. The computer requirements are shown, as are the reference data and interface data file requirements, and the programmed equations and procedure of calculation are described. The operating history of a reactor is followed over the period between solutions of the space, energy neutronics problem. The end-of-period nuclide concentrations are determined given the necessary information. A steady state, continuous fueling model is treated in addition to the usual fixed fuel model. The control options provide flexibility to select among an unusually wide variety of programmed procedures. The code also provides user option to make a number of auxiliary calculations and print such information as the local gamma source, cumulative exposure, and a fine scale power density distribution in a selected zone. The code is used locally in a system for computation which contains the VENTURE diffusion theory neutronics code and other modules.

  17. Sex and regional differences in effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on subsequent excitotoxic challenges in hippocampal slice cultures.

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    Walls, Shawn A; Rosenwasser, Alan M; Devaud, Leslie L

    2013-08-29

    The organotypic hippocampal slice culture technique was used to study how the effects of repeated ethanol withdrawal might differ between males and females at the cellular level, including potential modulation of subsequent insults. A chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure paradigm was employed, with 3 days of exposure followed by 24 h withdrawal for 3 cycles. Slices were next exposed to corticosterone (CORT) or pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) for 24 h then imaged for propidium iodide (PI) signal intensities. There were sex-selective responses in the CA1 region and dentate gyrus of the hippocampal slice cultures to treatment with CIE and/or CORT or PTZ. The 50 mM CIE alone generally did not increase the PI signal, but enhanced sensitivity to the toxic effects of CORT (particularly for females) and PTZ (particularly for males). In contrast, 100 mM CIE elicited a toxic response that was greater in females than males, and was exacerbated by exposure to PTZ. These data showed that hippocampal sexual dimorphism influences sensitivity to ethanol and other toxic chemicals even in an immature state. Low-dose CIE may attenuate harm from additional challenges in a hippocampal sex- and region-selective manner. These findings add to the growing evidence of important neurobiological sex differences in responses to chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex steroid blockade enhances thymopoiesis by modulating Notch signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jennifer J.; Holland, Amanda M.; Wertheimer, Tobias; Yu, Vionnie W.C.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Tuckett, Andrea Z.; Singer, Natalie V.; West, Mallory L.; Smith, Odette M.; Young, Lauren F.; Kreines, Fabiana M.; Levy, Emily R.; Boyd, Richard L.; Scadden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Paradoxical to its importance for generating a diverse T cell repertoire, thymic function progressively declines throughout life. This process has been at least partially attributed to the effects of sex steroids, and their removal promotes enhanced thymopoiesis and recovery from immune injury. We show that one mechanism by which sex steroids influence thymopoiesis is through direct inhibition in cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs) of Delta-like 4 (Dll4), a Notch ligand crucial for the commitment and differentiation of T cell progenitors in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with this, sex steroid ablation (SSA) led to increased expression of Dll4 and its downstream targets. Importantly, SSA induced by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor antagonism bypassed the surge in sex steroids caused by LHRH agonists, the gold standard for clinical ablation of sex steroids, thereby facilitating increased Dll4 expression and more rapid promotion of thymopoiesis. Collectively, these findings not only reveal a novel mechanism underlying improved thymic regeneration upon SSA but also offer an improved clinical strategy for successfully boosting immune function. PMID:25332287

  19. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-02-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed.

  20. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A.; Vaala, Sarah E.; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents’ sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens’ engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395

  1. Effects of Developmental Lead Exposure on the Hippocampal Transcriptome: Influences of Sex, Developmental Period, and Lead Exposure Level

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    Schneider, Jay S

    2012-01-01

    Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has profound effects on cognition and behavior. Much is known about effects of Pb on hippocampal-mediated behaviors, but little is known about the molecular consequences of Pb exposure and the influences of developmental timing of exposure, level of exposure, and sex as effect modifiers of Pb exposure on the brain. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different levels of Pb exposure (250 and 750 ppm Pb acetate) during perinatal (gestation/lactation) and postnatal (through postnatal day 45) periods on the hippocampal transcriptome in male and female Long Evans rats. Total RNA was extracted from hippocampus from four animals per experimental condition. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Gene RNA Arrays using standard methods. Pb exposure per se influenced the expression of 717 transcripts (328 unique annotated genes), with many influenced in a sex-independent manner. Significant differences in gene expression patterns were also influenced by timing and level of exposure, with generally larger effects at the lower level of exposure across all groups. Statistically enriched biological functions included ion binding, regulation of RNA metabolic processes, and positive regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic processes. Processes of regulation of transcription and regulation of gene expression were preferentially enriched in males, regardless of timing or amount of Pb exposure. The effect on transcription factors and the diverse pathways or networks affected by Pb suggest a substantial effect of developmental Pb exposure on plasticity and adaptability, with these effects significantly modified by sex, developmental window of exposure, and level of Pb exposure. PMID:22641619

  2. Prolonged Exposure Treatment of Chronic PTSD in Juvenile Sex Offenders: Promising Results from Two Case Studies

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    Hunter, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged exposure (PE) was used to treat chronic PTSD secondary to severe developmental trauma in two adolescent male sex offenders referred for residential sex offender treatment. Both youth were treatment resistant prior to initiation of PE and showed evidence of long-standing irritability and depression/anxiety. Clinical observation and…

  3. Sex differences in emotional contexts modulation on response inhibition.

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    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Angulo-Chavira, Armando; Llamas-Alonso, Luis A; González-Garrido, Andrés A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore sex differences in the effects that emotional contexts exert on the temporal course of response inhibition using event-related potentials (ERP). Participants performed a Go-NoGo response inhibition task under 3 context conditions: with 1) neutral background stimuli, and 2) pleasant, and 3) unpleasant emotional contexts. No sex differences were found in relation to accuracy. Women showed higher N2NoGo amplitudes than men in both emotional contexts; whereas during inhibition men tended to show higher P3NoGo amplitudes than women in the unpleasant context. Both groups experienced a relevant effect of the presence of the unpleasant context during inhibition processing, as shown by the enhancement of the N2NoGo amplitudes in frontal regions compared to results from the neutral and pleasant conditions. In addition, women showed differences between the pleasant and unpleasant contexts, with the latter inducing higher amplitude values. Only in men did inhibition accuracy correlate with higher N2NoGo and lower P3NoGo amplitudes in the emotional context conditions. These findings suggest that when an inhibition task is performed in an emotionally-neutral background context no sex differences are observed in either accuracy or ERP components. However, when the emotional context was introduced -especially the unpleasant one- some gender differences did become evident. The higher N2NoGo amplitude at the presence of the unpleasant context may reflect an effect on attention and conflict monitoring. In addition, results suggest that during earlier processing stages, women invested more resources to process inhibition than men. Furthermore, men who invested more neural resources during earlier stages showed better response inhibition than those who did it during later processing stages, more closely-related to cognitive and motor inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Double Exposure: The Supreme Court and Sex Discrimination Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Charles J.; Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The Supreme Court's recent decision in "Fitzgerald v. Barnstable School Committee" (2009) expands the opportunities for students and their parents to sue school boards for alleged sex discrimination. Even so, as discussed here, "Fitzgerald" should have little effect on the day-to-day operations of school systems. This column…

  5. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L.; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective......% CI = 2-17%), respectively, of giving birth to a boy. In conclusion, maternal exposure to ΣPCB, DDE and methylmercury was associated with a slightly increased secondary sex ratio. The impact of paternal exposures could not be taken into account and deserves attention....

  6. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  7. Sex differences in leptin modulate ventilation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundrle, Ivan; Somers, Virend K; Singh, Prachi; Johnson, Bruce D; Scott, Christopher G; Olson, Lyle J

    Leptin modulates ventilation and circulating levels are higher in normal women than men. The aim of this study was to compare exercise ventilation and gas exchange in men and women with heart failure (HF) and their relation to circulating leptin concentration. Consecutive HF patients were studied by cardiopulmonary exercise testing and assay of circulating leptin concentration. Fifty-seven men and 20 women were similar with respect to age, BMI, NYHA class, left ventricular ejection fraction, and peak oxygen consumption (all p > 0.05). Leptin concentration was lower (10.3 ± 10 vs. 25.3 ± 16 ng/mL; p Leptin concentration was associated with peak exercise VE/VCO2 (b = -0.35; F = 5.6; p = 0.02). Men have significantly lower circulating leptin concentration and increased ventilatory drive during exercise than women with comparable HF. In men with HF, lower leptin concentration may account for an increased ventilatory drive. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Sex differences in task distribution and task exposures among Danish house painters:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Thomsen, Jane Frølund

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sex differences in occupational biomechanical exposures may be part of the explanation why musculoskeletal complaints and disorders tend to be more common among women than among men. We aimed to determine possible sex differences in task distribution and task-specific postures...... and movements of the upper extremities among Danish house painters, and to establish sex-specific task exposure matrices. METHODS: To obtain task distributions, we sent out a questionnaire to all members of the Painters' Union in Denmark (N = 9364), of whom 53% responded. Respondents reported their task...... distributions in a typical week. To obtain task exposures, postures and movements were measured in 25 male and 25 female house painters for one whole working day per person. We used goniometers on the wrists, and inclinometers on the forehead and the upper arms. Participants filled in a logbook allowing task...

  9. Promoting Educational Equity through School Libraries. Module 2: Sexism and Sex-Role Stereotyping in School Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Tyler, Karen Beyard

    The second learning module in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists focuses on sex stereotyping and ways in which inaccurate ideas about sex differences are transmitted through instructional materials in exploring the following questions: (1) Why do school materials communicate sexist ideas and sex-role stereotypes?…

  10. Exposure to acrylonitrile induced DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome aneuploidy in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, De-Xiang; Zhu, Qi-Xing; Zheng, Lu-Kang; Wang, Qu-Nan; Shen, Han-Ming; Deng, Li-Xia; Ong, Choon-Nam

    2003-05-09

    To explore acrylonitrile (ACN)-induced DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome aneuploidy in human spermatozoa, semen parameters were examined among 30 acrylonitrile-exposed workers according to WHO laboratory manual for the examination of human sperm. DNA strand breakage of sperm cells was investigated among 30 ACN-exposed workers using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The frequency of sex chromosome aneuploidy in sperm cells was analyzed among nine ACN-exposed workers using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The geometrical mean of sperm density was 75 x 10(6)ml(-1) in exposure group, significantly lower than 140 x 10(6)ml(-1) in the control. The geometrical mean of sperm number per ejaculum was 205 x 10(6) in exposure group, significantly lower than 280 x 10(6) in the control. The rates of comet sperm nuclei were 28.7% in exposure group, significantly higher than 15.0% in the control. Mean tail length was 9.8 microm in exposure group, longer than 4.3 microm in the control. The frequency of sex chromosome disomy was 0.69% in exposure group, significantly higher than 0.35% in the control. XY-bearing sperm was the most common sex chromosome disomy, with an average rate of 0.37% in exposure group, and 0.20% in the control. XX- and YY-bearing sperm accounted for an additional 0.09 and 0.23% in exposure group, and 0.05 and 0.10% in the control. The results indicate that ACN affect semen quality among ACN-exposed workers. ACN or its metabolites could induce reproductive defects as an in vivo multipotent genotoxic agent by inducing DNA strand breakage and sex chromosome non-disjunction in spermatogenesis.

  11. Exposure to virtual social stimuli modulates subjective pain reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Jacob M; Torres, Daniel; Wolff, Alexander; Hughes, Katy

    2014-01-01

    Contextual factors, including the gender of researchers, influence experimental and patient pain reports. It is currently not known how social stimuli influence pain percepts, nor which types of sensory modalities of communication, such as auditory, visual or olfactory cues associated with person perception and gender processing, produce these effects. To determine whether exposure to two forms of social stimuli (audio and visual) from a virtual male or female stranger modulates cold pressor task (CPT) pain reports. Participants with similar demographic characteristics conducted a CPT in solitude, without the physical presence of an experimenter or another person. During the CPT, participants were exposed to the voice and image of a virtual male or female stranger. The voices had analogous vocal prosody, provided no semantic information (spoken in a foreign language) and differed only in pitch; the images depicted a middle-age male or female health care practitioner. Male participants, but not females, showed higher CPT pain intensity when they were exposed to the female stimuli compared with the male stimuli. Follow-up analyses showed that the association between the social stimuli and variability in pain sensitivity was not moderated by individual differences in subjective (eg, self-image) or objective measurements of one's physical stature. The findings show that exposure to virtual, gender-based auditory and visual social stimuli influences exogenous pain sensitivity. Further research on how contextual factors, such as the vocal properties of health care examiners and exposure to background voices, may influence momentary pain perception is necessary for creating more standardized methods for measuring patient pain reports in clinical settings.

  12. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  13. Adolescent risk-taking as a function of prenatal cocaine exposure and biological sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jedediah W P; Bennett, David S; Carmody, Dennis P; Wang, Yiping; Lewis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and biological sex on adolescent risk-taking while controlling for early environmental risk. Adolescents (n=114, mean age=16) were grouped according to high and low risk-taking propensity as measured by the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Prenatal cocaine exposure was assessed at birth, while environmental risk was assessed at three points during early childhood. A binary regression analysis indicated that males were 3.5 times more likely than females to be high risk-takers. Biological sex and prenatal cocaine exposure interacted such that exposed males were most likely to be high risk-takers while exposed females were the least likely to be high risk-takers. This pattern held after controlling for prenatal alcohol exposure and early environmental risk. Early environmental risk did not predict adolescent risk-taking. These findings complement and extend earlier research demonstrating that prenatal cocaine exposure interacts with biological sex in domains related to inhibitory control, emotion regulation, antisocial behavior, and health risk behaviors during preadolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    or umbilical cord blood. Confounder adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between maternal exposures and the secondary sex ratio. A doubling in ΣPCB, p,p'-DDE and mercury concentrations were associated with increased odds by 8% (95% CI = 0-16%), 7% (95% CI = 0-14%) and 9% (95......This study was undertaken to assess the potential impact of maternal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and methylmercury on the secondary sex ratios (the ratio of male to female live births) over a span of 23 years. The study includes prospective...... data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...

  15. Sex Differences in Behavioral Outcomes Following Temperature Modulation During Induced Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

  16. Sex allocation theory reveals a hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in a parasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; Cook, Nicola; Blackburn, Charlotte V; Gill, Sophie M; Green, Jade; Shuker, David M

    2015-05-22

    Sex allocation theory has proved to be one the most successful theories in evolutionary ecology. However, its role in more applied aspects of ecology has been limited. Here we show how sex allocation theory helps uncover an otherwise hidden cost of neonicotinoid exposure in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Female N. vitripennis allocate the sex of their offspring in line with Local Mate Competition (LMC) theory. Neonicotinoids are an economically important class of insecticides, but their deployment remains controversial, with evidence linking them to the decline of beneficial species. We demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge, that neonicotinoids disrupt the crucial reproductive behaviour of facultative sex allocation at sub-lethal, field-relevant doses in N. vitripennis. The quantitative predictions we can make from LMC theory show that females exposed to neonicotinoids are less able to allocate sex optimally and that this failure imposes a significant fitness cost. Our work highlights that understanding the ecological consequences of neonicotinoid deployment requires not just measures of mortality or even fecundity reduction among non-target species, but also measures that capture broader fitness costs, in this case offspring sex allocation. Our work also highlights new avenues for exploring how females obtain information when allocating sex under LMC. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations between cadmium exposure and circulating levels of sex hormones in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Imran; Engström, Annette; Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Skerfving, Staffan; Lundh, Thomas [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Lidfeldt, Jonas [Department of Community Health, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö (Sweden); Samsioe, Göran [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Halldin, Krister [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Åkesson, Agneta, E-mail: agneta.akesson@ki.se [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Recent epidemiological as well as in vivo and in vitro studies collectively suggest that the metalloestrogen cadmium (Cd) could be a potential risk factor for hormone-related cancers in particularly breast cancer. Assessment of the association between Cd exposure and levels of endogenous sex hormones is of pivotal importance, as increased levels of such have been associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The present study investigated the perceived relationship (multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses) between Cd exposure [blood Cd (B-Cd) and urinary Cd (U-Cd)], and serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estradiol, and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), in 438 postmenopausal Swedish women without hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A significant positive association between B-Cd (median 3.4 nmol/L) and serum testosterone levels, as well as a significant inverse association between B-Cd and serum estradiol levels and with the estradiol/testosterone ratio were encountered. However, U-Cd (median 0.69 nmol/mmol creatinine) was inversely associated with serum estradiol levels only. Our data may suggest that Cd interferes with the levels of testosterone and estradiol in postmenopausal women, which might have implications for breast cancer risk. - Highlights: • Low level cadmium exposure may interfere with the levels of steroid hormones. • Cadmium exposure was associated with increased serum testosterone concentrations. • Cadmium exposure was associated with decreased estradiol/testosterone ratio. • Cadmium exposure may have implications for breast-cancer promotion.

  18. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. Methods: A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use, under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Results: Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence, which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was

  19. Potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Bangalore, India: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M; Prudden, Holly J; Washington, Reynold; Isac, Shajy; Rajaram, Subramanian P; Foss, Anna M; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Boily, Marie-Claude; Vickerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In Bangalore, new HIV infections of female sex workers and men who have sex with men continue to occur, despite high condom use. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has high anti-HIV efficacy for men who have sex with men. PrEP demonstration projects are underway amongst Indian female sex workers. We estimated the impact and efficiency of prioritizing PrEP to female sex workers and/or men who have sex with men in Bangalore. A mathematical model of HIV transmission and treatment for female sex workers, clients, men who have sex with men and low-risk groups was parameterized and fitted to Bangalore data. The proportion of transmission attributable (population attributable fraction) to commercial sex and sex between men was calculated. PrEP impact (infections averted, life-years gained) and efficiency (life-years gained/infections averted per 100 person-years on PrEP) were estimated for different levels of PrEP adherence, coverage and prioritization strategies (female sex workers, high-risk men who have sex with men, both female sex workers and high-risk men who have sex with men, or female sex workers with lower condom use), under current conditions and in a scenario with lower baseline condom use amongst key populations. Population attributable fractions for commercial sex and sex between men have declined over time, and they are predicted to account for 19% of all new infections between 2016 and 2025. PrEP could prevent a substantial proportion of infections amongst female sex workers and men who have sex with men in this setting (23%/27% over 5/10 years, with 60% coverage and 50% adherence), which could avert 2.9%/4.3% of infections over 5/10 years in the whole Bangalore population. Impact and efficiency in the whole population was greater if female sex workers were prioritized. Efficiency increased, but impact decreased, if only female sex workers with lower condom use were given PrEP. Greater impact and efficiency was predicted for the scenario with lower condom use

  20. Exposure to and opinions towards sex education among adolescent students in Mumbai: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzaken Tami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine students' exposure to sex education and identify students' perceptions of accessibility to sexual health advice and their preferences in implementing sex education. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in junior colleges in Mumbai in 2010. The self-administered questionnaire investigated male and female students' (aged 15-17 exposure and opinions towards sex education. Data was entered into and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Results The questionnaire was completed by 427 students. Almost 90% of students believed it important to have sex education as part of school curriculum; over 60% reported prior exposure to sex education in school. However, only 45% were satisfied they had good access to advice about contraception and sexual health, particularly, females reported more limited access. Conclusions The majority responding indicated a desire for more widespread implementation of school-based sex education, particularly amongst female respondents.

  1. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian; Sabroe, Svend; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Afonso, Noemia; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Stengrevics, Aivars; Févotte, Joëlle; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Sharkova, Galina; Hardell, Lennart; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries. Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency matched by country, 5-year birth cohort and sex. Subjects were asked whether they had worked close to high-voltage electrical transmission installations, computer screens and various electrical machines, or in complex electrical environments. Measurements of two Scandinavian job-exposure matrices were applied to estimate lifelong cumulative EMF exposure. Unconditional logistic regression analyses, stratified by sex and eye colour were calculated, adjusting for several potential confounders. 293 patients with uveal melanoma and 3198 control subjects were interviewed. Women exposed to electrical transmission installations showed elevated risks (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.72 to 19.66). Positive associations with exposure to control rooms were seen among men and women, but most risk increases were restricted to subjects with dark iris colour. Application of published EMF measurements revealed stronger risk increases among women compared to men. Again, elevated risks were restricted to subjects with dark eye colour. Although based on a low prevalence of exposure to potential occupational sources of EMF, our data indicate that exposed dark-eyed women may be at particular risk for uveal melanoma.

  2. Moderate Prenatal Cadmium Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes: a Role for Sex-Specific Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2016-11-01

    Studies on the effects of moderate prenatal exposure to cadmium (Cd) on birth outcomes have been contradictory and it has been suggested that effects may be partly masked by sex-specific effects. Our aim was to examine the association of Cd exposure in a large group of pregnant women with birth outcomes in the whole group of participants and by sex. Pregnant women were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Whole blood samples for singleton pregnancies with a live birth were analysed for Cd (n = 4191). Data collected on the infants included anthropometric variables and gestational age at delivery. Data were analysed using SPSS v18. There were adverse associations of maternal blood Cd level with birthweight (unstandardized B coefficient -62.7 g, 95% CI -107.0, -18.4) and crown-heel length (-0.28 cm, 95% CI -0.48, -0.07) in adjusted regression models. On stratification by sex, maternal blood Cd level was adversely associated with birthweight (-87.1 g, 95% CI -144.8, -29.4), head circumference (-0.22 cm, 95% CI -0.39, -0.04), and crown-heel length (-0.44 cm, 95% CI -0.71, -0.18) in girls but not in boys in adjusted regression models. In these pregnant women with moderate prenatal Cd exposure there evidence of adverse associations with birth anthropometry variables in the whole group. However, there was evidence of associations with anthropometric variables in girls that were not evident in boys. Sex-specific effects require further investigation in large cohorts as a possible contributor to the lack of associations generally found in mixed-sex studies. © 2016 The Authors. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. DNA methylation is differentially associated with environmental cadmium exposure based on sex and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virani, Shama; Rentschler, Katie M; Nishijo, Muneko; Ruangyuttikarn, Werawan; Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Basu, Niladri; Rozek, Laura S

    2016-02-01

    The adverse health effects of cadmium (Cd) are well known in human populations; however, much of what is known about biological mechanisms of Cd comes from in vitro and animal studies. The adverse health outcomes due to high levels of Cd exposure in the population of Mae Sot, Thailand have been extensively characterized. Here, for the first time, this population is being studied in an epigenetic context. The objective of this study was to characterize the association between DNA methylation markers and Cd exposure, taking into account sex and smoking differences, in an adult population at an increased risk of experiencing adverse health outcomes from high body burden of Cd. One hundred and sixty-nine residents from known exposure areas of Mae Sot, Thailand and one hundred residents from non-exposed areas nearby were surveyed in 2012. Urine and blood samples were collected for measurement of urinary Cd (UCd) and DNA methylation of Cd-related markers (DNMT3B, MGMT, LINE-1, MT2A). UCd levels were 7 times higher in the exposed compared to the unexposed populations (exposed median: 7.4 μg/L, unexposed median: 1.0 μg/L, p smoking status. In summary, environmental Cd exposure is associated with gene-specific DNA methylation in a sex and smoking dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. SEX STEROIDS MODULATE UTERINE-PLACENTAL VASCULATURE: IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSTETRICS AND NEONATAL OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eMaliqueo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate blood supply to the uterine-placental region is crucial to ensure the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Multiple factors intervene to achieve appropriate uterine blood flow and the structuring of the placental vasculature during the early stages of pregnancy. Among these factors, oxygen concentrations, growth factors, cytokines and steroid hormones are the most important. Sex steroids are present in extremely high concentrations in the maternal circulation and are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of a wide range of maternal and placental functions. In this regard, progesterone and estrogens act as modulators of uterine vessels and decrease the resistance of the spiral uterine arteries. On the other hand, androgens have the opposite effect, increasing the vascular resistance of the uterus. Moreover, progesterone and estrogens modulate the synthesis and release of angiogenic factors by placental cells, which regulates trophoblastic invasion and uterine artery remodeling. In this scenario, it is not surprising that women with pregnancy-related pathologies, such as early miscarriages, preterm delivery, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, exhibit altered sex steroid concentrations.

  5. Extracellular modulation of the silkmoth sex pheromone receptor activity by cyclic nucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuro Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Odorants and pheromones are essential to insects as chemical cues for finding food or an appropriate mating partner. These volatile compounds bind to olfactory receptors (Ors expressed by olfactory sensory neurons. Each insect Or functions as a ligand-gated ion channel and is a heteromeric complex that comprises one type of canonical Or and a highly conserved Orco subunit. Because there are many Or types, insect Ors can recognize with high specificity a myriad of chemical cues. Cyclic nucleotides can modulate the activity of insect Or-Orco complexes; however, the mechanism of action of these nucleotides is under debate. Here, we show that cyclic nucleotides, including cAMP and cGMP, interact with the silkmoth sex pheromone receptor complex, BmOr-1-BmOrco, from the outside of the cell and that these nucleotides act as antagonists at low concentrations and weak agonists at high concentrations. These cyclic nucleotides do not compete with the sex pheromone, bombykol, for binding to the BmOr-1 subunit. ATP and GTP also weakly inhibited BmOr-1-BmOrco activity, but D-ribose had no effect; these findings indicated that the purine moiety was crucial for the inhibition. Only the bombykol receptors have been so far shown to be subject to modulation by nucleotide-related compounds, indicating that this responsiveness to these compounds is not common for all insect Or-Orco complexes.

  6. The emergence of sex differences in risk for disordered eating attitudes during puberty: a role for prenatal testosterone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbert, Kristen M; Breedlove, S Marc; Sisk, Cheryl L; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that prenatal testosterone exposure may masculinize (i.e., lower) disordered eating (DE) attitudes and behaviors and influence the lower prevalence of eating disorders in males versus females. How or when these effects become prominent remains unknown, although puberty may be a critical developmental period. In animals, the masculinizing effects of early testosterone exposure become expressed during puberty when gonadal hormones activate sex-typical behaviors, including eating behaviors. This study examined whether the masculinizing effects of prenatal testosterone exposure on DE attitudes emerge during puberty in 394 twins from opposite-sex and same-sex pairs. Twin type (opposite sex vs. same sex) was used as a proxy for level of prenatal testosterone exposure because females from opposite-sex twin pairs are thought to be exposed to testosterone in utero from their male co-twin. Consistent with animal data, there were no differences in levels of DE attitudes between opposite-sex and same-sex twins during pre-early puberty. However, during mid-late puberty, females from opposite-sex twin pairs (i.e., females with a male co-twin) exhibited more masculinized (i.e., lower) DE attitudes than females from same-sex twin pairs (i.e., females with a female co-twin), independent of several "third variables" (e.g., body mass index [BMI], anxiety). Findings suggest that prenatal testosterone exposure may decrease DE attitudes and at least partially underlie sex differences in risk for DE attitudes after mid-puberty. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  7. Sex differences in the effects of prenatal lead exposure on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju; Gao, Zhen-Yan; Yan, Jin; Ying, Xiao-Lan; Tong, Shi-Lu; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2017-06-01

    Studies on the associations between prenatal lead exposure and birth outcomes have been inconsistent, and few data are available on the sex differences in these associations. We measured the cord blood lead levels of newborns in Shanghai and determined their associations with birth outcomes, which included birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and the ponderal index, in the total sample and within sex subgroups. A total of 1009 mother-infant pairs were enrolled from 10 hospitals in Shanghai between September 2008 and October 2009. The geometric mean of the cord blood lead concentrations was 4.07 μg/dl (95% CI: 3.98-4.17 μg/dl). A significant inverse association was found between cord blood lead levels and head circumference only in the male subgroup, and increasing cord blood lead levels were related to significant decreases in the ponderal index only in females. The birth weights of the male infants were positively associated with cord blood lead levels; after adjusting for the maternal intake frequency of preserved eggs, the estimated mean differences in birth weights decreased by 11.7% for each 1-unit increase in the log10-transformed cord blood lead concentration. Our findings suggest that prenatal lead exposure may have sex-specific effects on birth outcomes and that maternal dietary intake may be a potential confounder in these relationships. Further studies on this topic are highly warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutations at the Darkener of Apricot locus modulate pheromone production and sex behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumey, Julien; Wicker-Thomas, Claude

    2017-04-01

    Mutations at the Darkener of Apricot (Doa) locus of Drosophila melanogaster alter sexual differentiation by disrupting sex-specific splicing of doublesex pre-mRNA, a key regulator of sex determination. Here, we study the effect of seven Doa alleles and several trans-heterozygous combinations on pheromones and courtship behavior. The cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profile was slightly masculinized in females, with an accumulation of shorter compounds (C23 and C25) and a reduction in longer compounds (C27 and C29). The profile was feminized in males. Female cuticular profiles showed fewer dienes and female pheromones in six alleles and in the trans-heterozygotes and showed more male pheromones (tricosene and pentacosene) in three alleles (DEM, E786 and HD) and in all trans-heterozygotes. Courtship was severely affected in Doa males; in particular, males made fewer copulation attempts and copulated less with both control and Doa females. These results suggest that Doa could modulate pheromone production and sex behavior by altering sexual differentiation in the cuticle and the nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of prenatal arsenic exposure and newborn sex on global methylation of cord blood DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Richard Pilsner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An emerging body of evidence indicates that early-life arsenic (As exposure may influence the trajectory of health outcomes later in life. However, the mechanisms underlying these observations are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of prenatal As exposure on global methylation of cord blood DNA in a study of mother/newborn pairs in Matlab, Bangladesh. DESIGN: Maternal and cord blood DNA were available from a convenience sample of 101 mother/newborn pairs. Measures of As exposure included maternal urinary As (uAs, maternal blood As (mbAs and cord blood As (cbAs. Several measures of global DNA methylation were assessed, including the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay and three Pyrosequencing assays: Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA. RESULTS: In the total sample, increasing quartiles of maternal uAs were associated with an increase in covariate-adjusted means of newborn global DNA methylation as measured by the [3H]-methyl-incorporation assay (quartile 1 (Q1 and Q2 vs. Q4; p = 0.06 and 0.04, respectively. Sex-specific linear regression analyses, while not reaching significance level of 0.05, indicated that the associations between As exposures and Alu, LINE-1 and LUMA were positive among male newborns (N = 58 but negative among female newborns (N = 43; tests for sex differences were borderline significant for the association of cbAs and mbAs with Alu (p = 0.05 and 0.09, respectively and for the association between maternal uAs and LINE-1 (p = 0.07. Sex-specific correlations between maternal urinary creatinine and newborn methyl-incorporation, Alu and LINE-1 were also evident (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prenatal As exposure is associated with global DNA methylation in cord blood DNA, possibly in a sex-specific manner. Arsenic-induced epigenetic modifications in utero may potentially influence disease outcomes later in life. Additional studies are needed to confirm

  10. Fetal sex modifies effects of prenatal stress exposure and adverse birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstock, Tamar; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Glasser, Saralee; Anteby, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress is associated with pregnancy complications, poor fetal development and poor birth outcomes. Fetal sex has also been shown to affect the course of pregnancy and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether fetal sex modifies the association between continuous exposure to life-threatening rocket attack alarms and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which the exposed group was comprised of 1846 women exposed to rocket-attack alarms before and during pregnancy. The unexposed group, with similar sociodemographic characteristics, delivered during the same period of time at the same medical center, but resided out of rocket-attack range. Multivariable models for each gender separately, controlling for possible confounders, evaluated the risk associated with exposure for preterm births (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), small for gestational age and small head circumference (HC). In both univariable and multivariable analyses exposure status was a significant risk factor in female fetuses only: PTB (adj. OR = 1.43; 1.04-1.96), LBW (adj. OR = 1.41; 1.02-1.95) and HC stress.

  11. Modulation of airway epithelial antiviral immunity by fungal exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Lee, Boram; Zhao, Fangkun; Zhou, Xu; Chin, Vanessa; Ling, Serena C; Chen, Yin

    2014-01-01

    .... However, their interactions have not been investigated. In the present study, we tested the effect of Alt exposure on virus-induced airway epithelial immunity using live virus and a synthetic viral mimicker, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA...

  12. Metabolomic profiles of arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase knockout mice: effect of sex and arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Madelyn C; Douillet, Christelle; Su, Mingming; Zhou, Kejun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wenlian; Galanko, Joseph A; Drobná, Zuzana; Saunders, R Jesse; Martin, Elizabeth; Fry, Rebecca C; Jia, Wei; Stýblo, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (As3mt) is the key enzyme in the pathway for methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs). Altered As3mt expression and AS3MT polymorphism have been linked to changes in iAs metabolism and in susceptibility to iAs toxicity in laboratory models and in humans. As3mt-knockout mice have been used to study the association between iAs metabolism and adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, little is known about systemic changes in metabolism of these mice and how these changes lead to their increased susceptibility to iAs toxicity. Here, we compared plasma and urinary metabolomes of male and female wild-type (WT) and As3mt-KO (KO) C57BL/6 mice and examined metabolomic shifts associated with iAs exposure in drinking water. Surprisingly, exposure to 1 ppm As elicited only small changes in the metabolite profiles of either WT or KO mice. In contrast, comparisons of KO mice with WT mice revealed significant differences in plasma and urinary metabolites associated with lipid (phosphatidylcholines, cytidine, acyl-carnitine), amino acid (hippuric acid, acetylglycine, urea), and carbohydrate (L-sorbose, galactonic acid, gluconic acid) metabolism. Notably, most of these differences were sex specific. Sex-specific differences were also found between WT and KO mice in plasma triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Some of the differentially changed metabolites (phosphatidylcholines, carnosine, and sarcosine) are substrates or products of reactions catalyzed by other methyltransferases. These results suggest that As3mt KO alters major metabolic pathways in a sex-specific manner, independent of iAs treatment, and that As3mt may be involved in other cellular processes beyond iAs methylation.

  13. Somatic sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans is modulated by SUP-26 repression of tra-2 translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, James; Chen, Jeng-Ting; Yu, Jau-Song; Xue, Ding

    2010-10-19

    Translational repression mediated by RNA-binding proteins or micro RNAs has emerged as a major regulatory mechanism for fine-tuning important biological processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, translational repression of the key sex-determination gene tra-2 (tra, transformer) is controlled by a 28-nucleotide repeat element, the TRA-2/GLI element (TGE), located in its 3' untranslated region (UTR). Mutations that disrupt TGE or the germline-specific TGE-binding factor GLD-1 increase TRA-2 protein expression and inhibit sperm production in hermaphrodites. Here we report the characterization of the sup-26 gene, which regulates sex determination in the soma and encodes an RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing protein. We show that SUP-26 regulates the level of the TRA-2 protein through TGE in vivo and binds directly to TGE in vitro through its RRM domain. Interestingly, SUP-26 associates with poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PAB-1) in vivo and may repress tra-2 expression by inhibiting the translation-stimulating activity of PAB-1. Taken together, our results provide further insight into how mRNA-binding factors repress translation and modulate sexual development in different tissues of C. elegans.

  14. Prenatal stress, gestational age and secondary sex ratio: the sex-specific effects of exposure to a natural disaster in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torche, Florencia; Kleinhaus, Karine

    2012-02-01

    Previous research suggests that maternal exposure to acute stress has a negative impact on the duration of pregnancy, and that this effect may vary by the time of exposure. It has also been proposed that stress exposure reduces the ratio of male-to-female births. To date, no study has jointly examined both outcomes, although they may be strongly related. Using population-level data with no selectivity, we jointly study the sex-specific effect of stress on the duration of pregnancy and the observed sex ratio among pregnant women exposed to a major earthquake in Chile. In a quasi-experimental design, women exposed to the earthquake in different months of gestation were compared with women pregnant 1 year earlier. Estimates from a comparison group of pregnant women living in areas not affected by the earthquake were also examined to rule out confounding trends. Regression models were used to measure the impact of earthquake exposure on gestational age and preterm birth by sex across month of gestation. A counterfactual simulation was implemented to assess the effect of the earthquake on the secondary sex ratio accounting for the differential impact of stress on gestational age by sex. Earthquake exposure in Months 2 and 3 of gestation resulted in a significant decline in gestational age and increase in preterm delivery. Effects varied by sex, and were much larger for female than male pregnancies. Among females, the probability of preterm birth increased by 0.038 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.005, 0.072] in Month 2 and by 0.039 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.075) in Month 3. Comparable increases for males were insignificant at the conventional P age, a decline in the male-to-female ratio in Month 3 of exposure was detected [-0.058 (95% CI: -0.113, -0.003)]. Maternal exposure to an exogenous stressor early but not late in the pregnancy affects gestational age and the probability of preterm birth. This effect is much stronger in females than males. Stress exposure in early

  15. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I. M. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P. T.; Veltman, D.J.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Bakker, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, offer the unique opportunity to study isolated effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on human neural sexual differentiation. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging...

  16. Modulation of Airway Epithelial Antiviral Immunity by Fungal Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Lee, Boram; Zhao, Fangkun; Zhou, Xu; Chin, Vanessa; Ling, Serena C.; Chen, Yin

    2014-01-01

    Multiple pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, have been frequently found in asthmatic airways and are associated with the pathogenesis and exacerbation of asthma. Among these pathogens, Alternaria alternata (Alt), a universally present fungus, and human rhinovirus have been extensively studied. However, their interactions have not been investigated. In the present study, we tested the effect of Alt exposure on virus-induced airway epithelial immunity using live virus and a synthet...

  17. Adolescent adrenocortical activity and adiposity: differences by sex and exposure to early maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Klein, Marjorie H; Slattery, Marcia J; Kalin, Ned H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2014-09-01

    Prior research has linked either basal cortisol levels or stress-induced cortisol responses to adiposity; however, it remains to be determined whether these distinct cortisol measures exert joint or independent effects. Further, it is unclear how they interact with individual and environmental characteristics to predict adiposity. The present study aims to address whether morning cortisol levels and cortisol responses to a psychosocial stressor independently and/or interactively influence body mass index (BMI) in 218 adolescents (117 female) participating in a longitudinal community study, and whether associations are moderated by sex and exposure to early maternal depression. Reports of maternal depressive symptoms were obtained in infancy and preschool. Salivary cortisol measures included a longitudinal morning cortisol measure comprising sampling points across ages 11, 13, 15, and 18 and measures of stress-induced cortisol responses assessed via the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 18. Lower morning cortisol and higher TSST cortisol reactivity independently predicted higher age 18 BMI. Morning cortisol also interacted with sex and exposure to early maternal depression to predict BMI. Specifically, girls exposed to lower levels of early maternal depression displayed a strong negative morning cortisol-BMI association, and girls exposed to higher levels of maternal depression demonstrated a weaker negative association. Among boys, those exposed to lower levels of maternal depression displayed no association, while those exposed to higher levels of maternal depression displayed a negative morning cortisol-BMI association. Results point to the independent, additive effects of morning and reactive cortisol in the prediction of BMI and suggest that exposure to early maternal depression may exert sexually dimorphic effects on normative cortisol-BMI associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Attention-related modulation of auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2008-10-29

    As determinants facilitating attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), two experimental factors were examined: (i) auditory discrimination; and (ii) contralateral masking intensity. Tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were presented to the left ear via either single-tone exposures or oddball exposures, whereas white noise was delivered continuously to the right ear at variable intensities (none--80 dB sound pressure level). Participants each conducted two tasks during stimulation, either reading a book (ignoring task) or detecting target tones (attentive task). Task-related modulation within the ABR range was found only during oddball exposures at contralateral masking intensities greater than or equal to 60 dB. Attention-related modulation of ABR can thus be detected reliably during auditory discrimination under contralateral masking of sufficient intensity.

  19. Stimulus threat and exposure context modulate the effect of mere exposure on approach behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mere-exposure research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli, mere-exposure potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli, mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that mere-exposure effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the mere-exposure literature are discussed.

  20. Modulation of airway epithelial antiviral immunity by fungal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Lee, Boram; Zhao, Fangkun; Zhou, Xu; Chin, Vanessa; Ling, Serena C; Chen, Yin

    2014-06-01

    Multiple pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, have been frequently found in asthmatic airways and are associated with the pathogenesis and exacerbation of asthma. Among these pathogens, Alternaria alternata (Alt), a universally present fungus, and human rhinovirus have been extensively studied. However, their interactions have not been investigated. In the present study, we tested the effect of Alt exposure on virus-induced airway epithelial immunity using live virus and a synthetic viral mimicker, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Alt treatment was found to significantly enhance the production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6 and IL-8) induced by virus infection or dsRNA treatment. In contrast to this synergistic effect, Alt significantly repressed type I and type III IFN production, and this impairment led to elevated viral replication. Mechanistic studies suggested the positive role of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in the synergism and the attenuation of the TBK1-IRF3 pathway in the inhibition of IFN production. These opposite effects are caused by separate fungal components. Protease-dependent and -independent mechanisms appear to be involved. Thus, Alt exposure alters the airway epithelial immunity to viral infection by shifting toward more inflammatory but less antiviral responses.

  1. Girl or boy? Prenatal lead, cadmium and mercury exposure and the secondary sex ratio in the ALSPAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C M; Golding, J; Emond, A M

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury levels on the secondary sex ratio. Whole blood samples were collected from pregnant women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study at a median gestational age of 11 weeks and were analyzed for lead, cadmium and mercury. Regression analysis was used to identify associations between maternal lead, cadmium and mercury levels and the secondary sex ratio with adjustment for confounders. There was no evidence for associations between maternal lead, cadmium or mercury levels and the secondary sex ratio in this sample. It appears unlikely that alterations in the secondary sex ratio are influenced by exposure to heavy metals, but further work should be done in large cohorts in other countries to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effects of Synthetic Estrogen Exposure on the Sexually Dimorphic Liver Transcriptome of the Sex-Role-Reversed Gulf Pipefish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Rose

    Full Text Available Species exhibiting sex-role reversal provide an unusual perspective on the evolution of sex roles and sex differences. However, the proximate effects of sex-role reversal are largely unknown. Endocrine disruptors provide an experimental mechanism to address hormonal regulation of sexually dimorphic gene expression in sex-role-reversed taxa. Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles. Using next-generation RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq, we detected sexually dimorphic hepatic gene expression patterns, with a total of 482 differentially expressed genes between the sexes in Gulf pipefish. Two-thirds of these genes were over-expressed in females, and the sex-specific transcriptomes of this sex-role-reversed pipefish's liver were superficially similar to those of fishes with conventional sex-roles. We exposed females, pregnant males, and non-pregnant males to 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2 at ecologically relevant concentrations of 5ng/L and compared gene expression patterns in the livers of exposed fish to control fish. Several genes that were up-regulated in EE2-exposed males relative to control males were also found to be female-biased in control animals. These genes included several of the classic estrogen biomarkers, such as vitellogenin, choriogenin, and zona pellucida. Thus, estrogen exposure induced feminization of the male liver transcriptome in a sex-role-reversed pipefish. These results suggest that the ancestral state of estrogen-regulated female reproductive physiology has been retained in all sex-role-reversed vertebrates thus far studied, despite substantial evolution of the hormonal regulation of ornamentation and mating behavior in these interesting taxa.

  3. Developmental Exposure to Pesticides Alters Motor Activity and Coordination in Rats: Sex Differences and Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Giménez, B; Felipo, V; Cabrera-Pastor, A; Agustí, A; Hernández-Rabaza, V; Llansola, M

    2018-02-01

    It has been proposed that developmental exposure to pesticides contributes to increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, such as attention deficit with hyperactivity (ADHD) and to alterations in coordination skills. However, the mechanisms involved in these alterations remain unclear. We analyzed the effects on spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination of developmental exposure to a representative pesticide of each one of the four main chemical families: organophosphates (chlorpyrifos), carbamates (carbaryl), organochlorines (endosulfan), and pyrethroids (cypermethrin). Pesticides were administered once a day orally, in a sweet jelly, from gestational day 7 to post natal day 21. Spontaneous motor activity was assessed by an actimeter and motor coordination using the rotarod, when rats were adults. The effects were analyzed separately in males and females. Extracellular GABA in cerebellum and NMDA receptor subunits in hippocampus were assessed as possible underlying mechanisms of motor alterations. Motor coordination was impaired by developmental exposure to endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos in females but not in males. The effect of endosulfan and cypermethrin would be due to increased extracellular GABA in cerebellum, which remains unaltered in male rats. Chlorpyrifos increased motor activity in males and females. Cypermethrin decreased motor activity mainly in males. In male rats, but not in females, expression of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in hippocampus correlated with motor activity. These results show sex-specific effects of different pesticides on motor activity and coordination, associated with neurotransmission alterations. These data contribute to better understand the relationship between developmental exposure to the main pesticide families and motor disorders in children.

  4. Sex differences in the relationship between maternal fear of pain and children's conditioned pain modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Subhadra Evans, Laura C Seidman, Kirsten C Lung, Lonnie K Zeltzer, Jennie C TsaoPediatric Pain Program, Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Parental behaviors, emotions, and cognitions are known to influence children's response to pain. However, prior work has not tested the association between maternal psychological factors and children's responses to a conditioned pain modulation (CPM task. CPM refers to the reduction in perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals.Methods: The present study examined sex differences in the association between maternal anxiety about pain and children's CPM responses in 133 healthy children aged 8–17 years. Maternal pain anxiety was assessed using the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20. In addition to the magnitude of CPM, children's anticipatory anxiety and pain-related fear of the CPM task were measured.Results: Sequential multiple linear regression revealed that even after controlling for child age and general maternal psychological distress, greater maternal pain anxiety was significantly related to greater CPM anticipatory anxiety and pain-related fear in girls, and to less CPM (ie, less pain inhibition in boys.Conclusion: The findings indicate sex-specific relationships between maternal pain anxiety and children's responses to a CPM task over and above that accounted for by the age of the child and the mother's general psychological distress.Keywords: diffuse noxious inhibitory controls, pediatric pain, mother-child relationship, cold pressor, pressure pain, laboratory pain

  5. BISPHENOL A EXPOSURE DURING EARLY DEVELOPMENT INDUCES SEX-SPECIFIC CHANGES IN ADULT ZEBRAFISH SOCIAL INTERACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Hoke, Elizabeth S.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure is associated with adverse behavioral effects, although underlying modes of action remain unclear. Because BPA is a suspected xenoestrogen, the objective was to identify sex-based changes in adult zebrafish social behavior developmentally exposed to BPA (0.0, 0.1 or 1 μM) or one of two control compounds (0.1μM 17β-estradiol [E2], and 0.1 μM GSK4716, a synthetic estrogen-related receptor γ ligand). A test chamber was divided lengthwise so each arena held one fish unable to detect the presence of the other fish. A mirror was inserted at one end of each arena; baseline activity levels were determined without mirror. Arenas were divided into 3, computer-generated zones to represent different distances from mirror image. Circadian rhythm patterns were evaluated at 1–3 (= AM) and 5–8 (= PM) hr postprandial. Adult zebrafish were placed into arenas and monitored by digital camera for 5 min. Total distance traveled, % time spent at mirror image, and number of attacks on mirror image were quantified. E2, GSK4716, and all BPA treatments dampened male activity and altered male circadian activity patterns; there was no marked effect on female activity. BPA induced non-monotonic effects (response curve changes direction within range of concentrations examined) on male % time at mirror only in AM. All treatments produced increased % time at the mirror during PM. Male attacks on the mirror were reduced by BPA exposure only during AM. There were sex-specific effects of developmental BPA on social interactions and time-of-day of observation affected results. PMID:25424546

  6. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    2017-05-01

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY karyotype, offer the unique opportunity to study isolated effects of sex hormones and sex chromosomes on human neural sexual differentiation. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate white matter (WM) microstructure in 46,XY women with CAIS (n = 20), 46,XY comparison men (n = 30), and 46,XX comparison women (n = 30). Widespread sex differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), with higher FA in comparison men than in comparison women, were observed. Women with CAIS showed female-typical FA throughout extended WM regions, predominantly due to female-typical radial diffusivity. These findings indicate a predominant role of sex hormones in the sexual differentiation of WM microstructure, although sex chromosome genes and/or masculinizing androgen effects not mediated by the androgen receptor might also play a role. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Stimulus Threat and Exposure Context Modulate the Effect of Mere Exposure on Approach Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven G; Jones, Isaiah F; Claypool, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Mere-exposure (ME) research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli), ME potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli), mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that ME effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the ME literature are discussed.

  8. Time-dependent changes in copper indium gallium (di)selenide and cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules due to outdoor exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Sato, Ritsuko; Ishii, Tetsuyuki; Chiba, Yasuo; Masuda, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules deteriorates with time due to outdoor exposure. We investigated the time-dependent changes in PV modules and evaluated the amount of power generated during their lifetime. Once a year, the exposed modules were removed and measured under standard test conditions using a solar simulator. Their outputs were measured indoors and normalized to nominal values. In addition, the relationship between the indoor measurement and the energy yield for thin-film PV modules will be reported. In CIGS PV modules, the normalized maximum power (P MAX) and performance ratio (PR) differ with the type of module. The P MAX and PR of CdTe PV modules significantly decrease after outdoor exposure for three years. These results help to determine the characteristics of the time-dependent changes in the P MAX of PV modules due to outdoor exposure.

  9. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  10. Concentrated pitch discrimination modulates auditory brainstem responses during contralateral noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kazunari; Sekiguchi, Takahiro; Hayashi, Akiko

    2010-03-31

    This study examined a notion that auditory discrimination is a requisite for attention-related modulation of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) during contralateral noise exposure. Given that the right ear was exposed continuously with white noise at an intensity of 60-80 dB sound pressure level, tone pips at 80 dB sound pressure level were delivered to the left ear through either single-stimulus or oddball procedures. Participants conducted reading (ignoring task) and counting target tones (attentive task) during stimulation. The oddball but not the single-stimulus procedures elicited task-related modulations in both early (ABR) and late (processing negativity) event-related potentials simultaneously. The elicitation of the attention-related ABR modulation during contralateral noise exposure is thus considered to require auditory discrimination and have the corticofugal nature evidently.

  11. Designed modulation of sex steroid signaling inhibits telomerase activity and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Vikas; Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Vishal [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Sharma, Siddharth; Bishnoi, Ajay Kumar [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Chandra, Vishal; Maikhuri, J.P.; Dwivedi, Anila [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Kumar, Atul [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India); Gupta, Gopal, E-mail: g_gupta@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The predominant estrogen-receptor (ER)-β signaling in normal prostate is countered by increased ER-α signaling in prostate cancer (CaP), which in association with androgen-receptor (AR) signaling results in pathogenesis of the disease. However CaP treatments mostly target AR signaling which is initially effective but eventually leads to androgen resistance, hence simultaneous targeting of ERs has been proposed. A novel series of molecules were designed with multiple sex-steroid receptor modulating capabilities by coalescing the pharmacophores of known anti-CaP molecules that act via modulation of ER(α/β) and/or AR, viz. 3,3′diindolylmethane (DIM), mifepristone, toremifene, tamoxifen and raloxifene. N,N-diethyl-4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl) aniline (DIMA) was identified as the most promising structure of this new series. DIMA increased annexin-V labelling, cell-cycle arrest and caspase-3 activity, and decreased expression of AR and prostate specific antigen in LNCaP cells, in vitro. Concurrently, DIMA increased ER-β, p21 and p27 protein levels in LNCaP cells and exhibited ∼ 5 times more selective binding for ER-β than ER-α, in comparison to raloxifene. DIMA exhibited a dose-dependent ER-β agonism and ER-α antagonism in classical gene reporter assay and decreased hTERT (catalytic subunit of telomerase) transcript levels in LNCaP at 3.0 μM (P < 0.05). DIMA also dose-dependently decreased telomerase enzyme activity in prostate cancer cells. It is thus concluded that DIMA acts as a multi-steroid receptor modulator and effectively inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells through ER-β mediated telomerase inhibition, by countering actions of ER-α and AR. Its unique molecular design can serve as a lead structure for generation of potent agents against endocrine malignancies like the CaP.

  12. Print exposure modulates the effects of repetition priming during sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowder, Matthew W; Gordon, Peter C

    2017-02-21

    Individual readers vary greatly in the quality of their lexical representations, and consequently in how quickly and efficiently they can access orthographic and lexical knowledge. This variability may be explained, at least in part, by individual differences in exposure to printed language, because practice at reading promotes the development of stronger reading skills. In the present eyetracking experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of word recognition during reading improves with increases in print exposure, by determining whether the magnitude of the repetition-priming effect is modulated by individual differences in scores on the author recognition test (ART). Lexical repetition of target words was manipulated across pairs of unrelated sentences that were presented on consecutive trials. The magnitude of the repetition effect was modulated by print exposure in early measures of processing, such that the magnitude of the effect was inversely related to scores on the ART. The results showed that low levels of print exposure, and thus lower-quality lexical representations, are associated with high levels of difficulty recognizing words, and thus with the greatest room to benefit from repetition. Furthermore, the interaction between scores on the ART and repetition suggests that print exposure is not simply an index of general reading speed, but rather that higher levels of print exposure are associated with an enhanced ability to access lexical knowledge and recognize words during reading.

  13. Sex Differences in White Matter Microstructure in the Human Brain Predominantly Reflect Differences in Sex Hormone Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemmen, J; Saris, I M J; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Veltman, D J; Pouwels, P J W; Bakker, J

    Sex differences have been described regarding several aspects of human brain morphology; however, the exact biological mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear in humans. Women with the complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), who lack androgen action in the presence of a 46,XY

  14. Adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material and notions of women as sex objects: assessing causality and underlying processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify causality in the previously established link between adolescents’ exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and notions of women as sex objects. Furthermore, the study investigated which psychological processes underlie this link and whether the

  15. Long-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of progesterone and norgestrel affects sex differentiation in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Qiu; Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhao, Jian-Liang; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Tian, Fei; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of progestins on the sex differentiation of zebrafish by measuring the sex ratio and transcriptions of genes related to sex differentiation (Amh, Dmrt1, Figa, Sox9a and Sox9b genes) as well as sex hormone levels and transcriptional expression profiles along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes in juvenile zebrafish. Exposure of zebrafish to 4, 33, 63ngL(-1) progesterone (P4) or 4, 34, 77ngL(-1) norgestrel (NGT) started at 20 days post fertilization (dpf) and ended at 60 dpf. The results showed that exposure to P4 caused a significant increase in proportion of females as well as significant down-regulation of Amh gene and up-regulation of Figa at a concentration of 63ngL(-1). However, the shift in the sex ratio toward males was observed following exposure to 34 and 77ngL(-1) NGT, which came along with the significant induction of Dmrt1 gene and inhibition of Figa gene. The sex hormones in exposed fish were measured with estrone being detected only in the fish exposed to the highest P4 concentration; whereas estradiol and androstenedione were detected only in the fish of the control and lowest NGT concentration. Furthermore, the increase in females was associated with the significant up-regulation of several key genes controlling the synthesis of sex hormones (i.e., Cyp17, Cyp19a1a and Hsd3b) following exposure to 63ngL(-1) P4 whereas the significant down-regulation of Cyp11a1, Cyp17, Cyp19a1a and Hsd3b genes was observed in the male-biased populations caused by 34 and 77ngL(-1) NGT. The overall results imply that both P4 and NGT could significantly affect sex differentiation in zebrafish, and that changes may be reflected by altered sex hormone levels and transcriptional expression profiles of genes related to synthesis of sex hormones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epigenetic modulations in early endothelial cells and DNA hypermethylation in human skin after sulfur mustard exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinritz, Dirk; Schmidt, Annette; Balszuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Simons, Thilo; Striepling, Enno; Bölck, Birgit; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2016-02-26

    Victims that were exposed to the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (SM) suffer from chronic dermal and ocular lesions, severe pulmonary problems and cancer development. It has been proposed that epigenetic perturbations might be involved in that process but this has not been investigated so far. In this study, we investigated epigenetic modulations in vitro using early endothelial cells (EEC) that were exposed to different SM concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 23.5 and 50μM). A comprehensive analysis of 78 genes related to epigenetic pathways (i.e., DNA-methylation and post-translational histone modifications) was performed. Moreover, we analyzed global DNA methylation in vitro in EEC after SM exposure as a maker for epigenetic modulations and in vivo using human skin samples that were obtained from a patient 1 year after an accidently exposure to pure SM. SM exposure resulted in a complex regulation pattern of epigenetic modulators which was accompanied by a global increase of DNA methylation in vitro. Examination of the SM exposed human skin samples also revealed a significant increase of global DNA methylation in vivo, underlining the biological relevance of our findings. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that SM affects epigenetic pathways and causes epigenetic modulations both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Instructional design framework for the sex and gender-specific health multimedia case-based learning modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Steven M; Cheon, Jongpil; Casanova, Robert; Jenkins, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Sex and Gender Specific Health (SGSH) curriculum at the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) is to advance the understanding of sex/gender differences, increase the awareness of gender-specific health issues, and improve the knowledge of sex and gender evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this paper is to explain the development and theoretical rationale for an important aspect of the curriculum: the SGSH Multimedia Case-Based Learning Modules (MCBLMs). The MCBLMs are designed to be used throughout the TTUHSC curriculum as a stand-alone or a supplementary instructional resource. The MCBLMs provide students with authentic learning opportunities that integrate the learning of SGSH with more traditional clinical knowledge and skills. The MCBLMs are specifically designed to enhance students' clinical reasoning and decision-making skills by portraying realistic clinical scenarios. In this way, students are able to practice effective SGSH as competent health-care professionals.

  18. Sleep regulation and sex hormones exposure in men and women across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, C; Sekerovic, Z; Carrier, J

    2014-10-01

    This review aims to discuss how endogenous and exogenous testosterone exposures in men and estrogens/progesterone exposures in women interact with sleep regulation. In young men, testosterone secretion peaks during sleep and is linked to sleep architecture. Animal and human studies support the notion that sleep loss suppresses testosterone secretion. Testosterone levels decline slowly throughout the aging process, but relatively few studies investigate its impact on age-related sleep modifications. Results suggest that poorer sleep quality is associated with lower testosterone concentrations and that sleep loss may have a more prominent effect on testosterone levels in older individuals. In women, sex steroid levels are characterized by a marked monthly cycle and reproductive milestones such as pregnancy and menopause. Animal models indicate that estrogens and progesterone influence sleep. Most studies do not show any clear effects of the menstrual cycle on sleep, but sample sizes are too low, and research designs often inhibit definitive conclusions. The effects of hormonal contraceptives on sleep are currently unknown. Pregnancy and the postpartum period are associated with increased sleep disturbances, but their relation to the hormonal milieu still needs to be determined. Finally, studies suggest that menopausal transition and the hormonal changes associated with it are linked to lower subjective sleep quality, but results concerning objective sleep measures are less conclusive. More research is necessary to unravel the effects of vasomotor symptoms on sleep. Hormone therapy seems to induce positive effects on sleep, but key concerns are still unresolved, including the long-term effects and efficacy of different hormonal regimens. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  19. Sex-related effects of imidacloprid modulated by piperonyl butoxide and menadione in rats. Part II: genotoxic and cytotoxic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mehmet; Sevgiler, Yusuf; Buyukleyla, Mehmet; Yardimci, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Rencuzogullari, Eyyup

    2016-01-01

    Despite its intended use, imidacloprid causes genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in mammals, especially in the presence of metabolic activation systems. The aim of this study was to determine to which extent these effects are sex related and how its metabolism modulators piperonyl butoxide and menadione affect its toxicity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with the intraperitoneal LD50 dose of imidacloprid alone (170 mg/kg) or pretreated with piperonyl butoxide (100 mg/kg) and menadione (25 mg/kg) for 12 and 24 h. Structural chromosome aberrations, abnormal cells and mitotic index were determined microscopically in bone marrow cells. Male rats showed susceptibility to the genotoxic effects of imidacloprid. Piperonyl butoxide was effective in countering this effect only at 24 h, whereas menadione exacerbated imidacloprid-induced genotoxicity. Piperonyl butoxide and menadione pretreatments increased the percentage of structural chromosome aberrations and abnormal cells in females. Imidacloprid decreased the mitotic index, whereas pretreatment with piperonyl butoxide and menadione showed improvement in both sexes. We believe that CYP450-mediated metabolism of imidacloprid is under the hormonal control and therefore that its genotoxicity is sex related. Piperonyl butoxide pretreatment also showed sex-related modulation. The hormonal effects on imidacloprid biotransformation require further investigation.

  20. Cardiac Exposure in the Dynamic Conformal Arc Therapy, Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy of Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ming

    Full Text Available To retrospectively evaluate the cardiac exposure in three cohorts of lung cancer patients treated with dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT at our institution in the past seven years.A total of 140 lung cancer patients were included in this institutional review board approved study: 25 treated with DCAT, 70 with IMRT and 45 with VMAT. All plans were generated in a same commercial treatment planning system and have been clinically accepted and delivered. The dose distribution to the heart and the effects of tumor laterality, the irradiated heart volume and the beam-to-heart distance on the cardiac exposure were investigated.The mean dose to the heart among all 140 plans was 4.5 Gy. Specifically, the heart received on average 2.3, 5.2 and 4.6 Gy in the DCAT, IMRT and VMAT plans, respectively. The mean heart doses for the left and right lung tumors were 4.1 and 4.8 Gy, respectively. No patients died with evidence of cardiac disease. Three patients (2% with preexisting cardiac condition developed cardiac disease after treatment. Furthermore, the cardiac exposure was found to increase linearly with the irradiated heart volume while decreasing exponentially with the beam-to-heart distance.Compared to old technologies for lung cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy treatment modalities demonstrated better heart sparing. But the heart dose in lung cancer radiotherapy is still higher than that in the radiotherapy of breast cancer and Hodgkin's disease where cardiac complications have been extensively studied. With strong correlations of mean heart dose with beam-to-heart distance and irradiated heart volume, cautions should be exercised to avoid long-term cardiac toxicity in the lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

  1. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on concurrent non-advertised snack food intake in young adults. In addition, possible sex differences were investigated. Participants (N=82, 50% male) watched a movie interrupted by two commercial breaks that contained either food commercials or neutral commercials. While watching, they could freely eat crisps and chocolate coated peanuts. Afterwards, participants filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured. Regression analyses showed that men and women were differently affected by the food commercials. Food intake in women was higher when they watched the food commercials than when they watched the neutral commercials, whereas food intake in men was lower when they watched the food commercials than when they watched the neutral commercials. The results suggest that especially women are vulnerable for eating more snack food when exposed to food commercials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Brief exposure of embryos to steroids or aromatase inhibitor induces sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennotte, Vincent; Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick; Ulysse, Bernard; Akian Djétouan, Dieudonné; Bere Sompagnimdi, Frédéric; Tomson, Thomas; Mélard, Charles; Rougeot, Carole

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop sex reversal procedures targeting the embryonic period as tools to study the early steps of sex differentiation in Nile tilapia with XX, XY, and YY sexual genotypes. XX eggs were exposed to masculinizing treatments with androgens (17α-methyltestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) or aromatase inhibitor (Fadrozole), whereas XY and YY eggs were subjected to feminizing treatments with estrogen analog (17α-ethynylestradiol). All treatments consisted of a single or double 4-hr immersion applied between 1 and 36 hour post-fertilization (hpf). Concentrations of active substances were 1000 or 2000 μg l(-1) in XX and XY, and 2000 or 6500 μg l(-1) in YY. Masculinizing treatments of XX embryos achieved a maximal sex reversal rate of 10% with an exposure at 24 hpf to 1000 μg l(-1) of 11-ketotestosterone or to 2000 μg l(-1) of Fadrozole. Feminization of XY embryos was more efficient and induced up to 91% sex reversal with an exposure to 2000 μg l(-1) of 17α-ethynylestradiol. Interestingly, similar treatments failed to reverse YY fish to females, suggesting either that a sex determinant linked to the Y chromosome prevents the female pathway when present in two copies, or that a gene present on the X chromosome is needed for the development of a female phenotype. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effects of Low Level Lead Exposure on Associative Learning and Memory in the Rat: Influences of Sex and Developmental Timing Of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.W.; Mettil, W.; Schneider, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure during development impairs a variety of cognitive, behavioral and neurochemical processes resulting in deficits in learning, memory, attention, impulsivity and executive function. Numerous studies have attempted to model this effect of Pb in rodents, with the majority of studies focusing on hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory processes. Using a different paradigm, trace fear conditioning, a process requiring coordinated integration of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, we have assessed the effects of Pb exposure on associative learning and memory. The present study examined both female and male Long Evans rats exposed to three environmentally relevant levels of Pb (150 ppm, 375 ppm and 750 ppm) during different developmental periods: perinatal (PERI; gestation – postnatal day 21), early postnatal (EPN; postnatal days 1–21) and late postnatal (LPN; postnatal days 1–55). Testing began at postnatal day 55 and consisted of a single day of acquisition training, and three post training time points (1, 2 and 10 days) to assess memory consolidation and recall. All animals, regardless of sex, developmental window or level of Pb-exposure, successfully acquired conditioned-unconditioned stimulus association during training. However, there were significant effects of Pb-exposure on consolidation and memory recall at days 1–10 post training. In females, EPN and LPN exposure to 150 ppm Pb (but not PERI exposure) significantly impaired recall. In contrast, only PERI 150 ppm and 750 ppm-exposed males had significant recall deficits. These data suggest a complex interaction between sex, developmental window of exposure and Pb-exposure level on consolidation and recall of associative memories. PMID:26812500

  4. Response of cardiac autonomic modulation after a single exposure to musical auditory stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lucas L.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Guida, Heraldo L.; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Garner, David M.; Vanderlei, Franciele M.; Ferreira, Celso; Valenti, Vitor E.

    2015-01-01

    The acute effects after exposure to different styles of music on cardiac autonomic modulation assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) analysis have not yet been well elucidated. We aimed to investigate the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation in women after exposure to musical auditory stimulation of different styles. The study was conducted on 30 healthy women aged between 18 years and 30 years. We did not include subjects having previous experience with musical instruments and those who had an affinity for music styles. The volunteers remained at rest for 10 min and were exposed to classical baroque (64-84 dB) and heavy metal (75-84 dB) music for 10 min, and their HRV was evaluated for 30 min after music cessation. We analyzed the following HRV indices: Standard deviation of normal-to-normal (SDNN) intervals, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), percentage of normal-to-normal 50 (pNN50), low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and LF/HF ratio. SDNN, LF in absolute units (ms2) and normalized (nu), and LF/HF ratio increased while HF index (nu) decreased after exposure to classical baroque music. Regarding the heavy metal music style, it was observed that there were increases in SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50, and LF (ms2) after the musical stimulation. In conclusion, the recovery response of cardiac autonomic modulation after exposure to auditory stimulation with music featured an increased global activity of both systems for the two musical styles, with a cardiac sympathetic modulation for classical baroque music and a cardiac vagal tone for the heavy metal style. PMID:25774614

  5. Perinatal Lead Exposure Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Results in Sex-specific Bodyweight Increases in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoquan William; Faulk, Christopher; Boehnke, Kevin; Zhang, Huapeng; Dolinoy, Dana C; Xi, Chuanwu

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a principle source of environmental contamination. Epidemiological and animal data suggest that early life lead (Pb) exposure results in critical effects on epigenetic gene regulation and child and adult weight trajectories. Using a mouse model of human-relevant exposure, we investigated the effects of perinatal Pb exposure on gut microbiota in adult mice, and the link between gut microbiota and bodyweight changes. Following Pb exposure during gestation and lactation via maternal drinking water, bodyweight in A(vy) strain wild-type non-agouti (a/a) offspring was tracked through adulthood. Gut microbiota of adult mice were characterized by deep DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Data analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for litter effects. A Bayesian variable selection algorithm was used to analyze associations between bacterial operational taxonomic units and offspring adult bodyweight. Perinatal Pb exposure was associated with increased adult bodyweight in male (P compositions were significantly different (analysis of molecular variance, P gut microbiota were highly associated with adult bodyweight (P = .028; effect size = 2.59). Thus, perinatal Pb exposure results in altered adult gut microbiota regardless of sex, and these changes are highly correlated with increased bodyweight in males. Adult gut microbiota can be shaped by early exposures and may contribute to disease risks in a sex-specific manner. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Thermal modulation of anthropogenic estrogen exposure on a freshwater fish at two life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J L; Cox, M K; Schoenfuss, H

    2017-08-01

    Human-mediated environmental change can induce changes in the expression of complex behaviors within individuals and alter the outcomes of interactions between individuals. Although the independent effects of numerous stressors on aquatic biota are well documented (e.g., exposure to environmental contaminants), fewer studies have examined how natural variation in the ambient environment modulates these effects. In this study, we exposed reproductively mature and larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to three environmentally relevant concentrations (14, 22, and 65ng/L) of a common environmental estrogen, estrone (E1), at four water temperatures (15, 18, 21, and 24°C) reflecting natural spring and summer variation. We then conducted a series of behavioral experiments to assess the independent and interactive effects of temperature and estrogen exposure on intra- and interspecific interactions in three contexts with important fitness consequences; reproduction, foraging, and predator evasion. Our data demonstrated significant independent effects of temperature and/or estrogen exposure on the physiology, survival, and behavior of larval and adult fish. We also found evidence suggesting that thermal regime can modulate the effects of exposure on larval survival and predator-prey interactions, even within a relatively narrow range of seasonally fluctuating temperatures. These findings improve our understanding of the outcomes of interactions between anthropogenic stressors and natural abiotic environmental factors, and suggest that such interactions can have ecological and evolutionary implications for freshwater populations and communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Extricating Sex and Gender in Air Pollution Research: A Community-Based Study on Cardinal Symptoms of Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac N. Luginaah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated sex and gender differences in cardinal symptoms of exposure to a mixture of ambient pollutants. A cross sectional population-based study design was utilized in Sarnia, ON, Canada. Stratified random sampling in census tracts of residents aged 18 and over recruited 804 respondents. Respondents completed a community health survey of chronic disease, general health, and socioeconomic indicators. Residential concentrations of NO2, SO2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o/m/p-xylene were estimated by land use regression on data collected through environmental monitoring. Classification and Regression Tree (CART analysis was used to identify variables that interacted with sex and cardinal symptoms of exposure, and a series of logistic regression models were built to predict the reporting of five or more cardinal symptoms (5+ CS. Without controlling for confounders, higher pollution ranks increased the odds ratio (OR of reporting 5+ CS by 28% (p < 0.01; Confidence Interval (CI: 1.07–1.54. Females were 1.52 (p < 0.05; CI: 1.03–2.26 times more likely more likely to report 5+ CS after controlling for income, age and chronic diseases. The CART analysis showed that allergies and occupational exposure classified the sample into the most homogenous groups of males and females. The likelihood of reporting 5+ CS among females was higher after stratifying the sample based on occupational exposure. However, stratifying by allergic disease resulted in no significant sex difference in symptom reporting. The results confirmed previous research that found pre-existing health conditions to increase susceptibility to ambient air pollution, but additionally indicated that stronger effects on females is partly due to autoimmune disorders. Furthermore, gender differences in occupational exposure confound the effect size of exposure in studies based on residential levels of air pollution.

  8. Testing environment shape differentially modulates baseline and nicotine-induced changes in behavior: Sex differences, hypoactivity, and behavioral sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illenberger, J M; Mactutus, C F; Booze, R M; Harrod, S B

    2017-12-19

    In those who use nicotine, the likelihood of dependence, negative health consequences, and failed treatment outcomes differ as a function of gender. Women may be more sensitive to learning processes driven by repeated nicotine exposure that influence conditioned approach and craving. Sex differences in nicotine's influence over overt behaviors (i.e. hypoactivity or behavioral sensitization) can be examined using passive drug administration models in male and female rats. Following repeated intravenous (IV) nicotine injections, behavioral sensitization is enhanced in female rats compared to males. Nonetheless, characteristics of the testing environment also mediate rodent behavior following drug administration. The current experiment used a within-subjects design to determine if nicotine-induced changes in horizontal activity, center entries, and rearing displayed by male and female rats is detected when behavior was recorded in round vs. square chambers. Behaviors were recorded from each group (males-round: n=19; males-square: n=18; females-square: n=19; and females-round: n=19) immediately following IV injection of saline, acute nicotine, and repeated nicotine (0.05mg/kg/injection). Prior to nicotine treatment, sex differences were apparent only in round chambers. Following nicotine administration, the order of magnitude for the chamber that provided enhanced detection of hypoactivity or sensitization was contingent upon both the dependent measure under examination and the animal's biological sex. As such, round and square testing chambers provide different, and sometimes contradictory, accounts of how male and female rats respond to nicotine treatment. It is possible that a central mechanism such as stress or cue sensitivity is impacted by both drug exposure and environment to drive the sex differences observed in the current experiment. Until these complex relations are better understood, experiments considering sex differences in drug responses should balance

  9. Top-down influences on visual attention during listening are modulated by observer sex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, John; Itti, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    .... In light of these findings, we sought to determine whether sex differences also existed in visual attention during a related listening task, and if so, if the differences existed among attention...

  10. Age and Sex Interact to Mediate the Effects of Intermittent, High-Dose Ethanol Exposure on Behavioral Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Barker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human alcoholics have been shown to have impaired cognitive control over actions and increased reliance on habitual response strategies. While it is unclear in humans whether these differences predate ethanol exposure or result from chronic drinking, data from animal studies suggest that ethanol acts to promote the development of inflexible behaviors. Here, we investigated how intermittent exposure to high doses of ethanol impacts the ability to flexibly regulate behavior in a habit model. As adolescence, may represent a period of increased drug taking and developmental vulnerability that may impact adult behavior, we compared the effects of high-dose ethanol exposure during adolescence to exposure during adulthood in male and female rats. Our findings indicated that the effects of intermittent, high-dose ethanol exposure on habitual behavior is mediated by age and sex such that ethanol exposure during adolescence promoted the use of habitual response strategies in adult females, but not males, and that the opposite pattern emerged following intermittent, high-dose ethanol exposure in adult rats.

  11. Prenatal particulate air pollution exposure and body composition in urban preschool children: Examining sensitive windows and sex-specific associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Wilson, Ander; Coull, Brent A; Pendo, Mathew P; Baccarelli, Andrea; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Wright, Robert O; Taveras, Elsie M; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-10-01

    Evolving animal studies and limited epidemiological data show that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with childhood obesity. Timing of exposure and child sex may play an important role in these associations. We applied an innovative method to examine sex-specific sensitive prenatal windows of exposure to PM2.5 on anthropometric measures in preschool-aged children. Analyses included 239 children born ≥ 37 weeks gestation in an ethnically-mixed lower-income urban birth cohort. Prenatal daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated using a validated satellite-based spatio-temporal model. Body mass index z-score (BMI-z), fat mass, % body fat, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumferences and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed at age 4.0 ± 0.7 years. Using Bayesian distributed lag interaction models (BDLIMs), we examined sex differences in sensitive windows of weekly averaged PM2.5 levels on these measures, adjusting for child age, maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Mothers were primarily Hispanic (55%) or Black (26%), had ≤ 12 years of education (66%) and never smoked (80%). Increased PM2.5 exposure 8-17 and 15-22 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased BMI z-scores and fat mass in boys, but not in girls. Higher PM2.5 exposure 10-29 weeks gestation was significantly associated with increased WHR in girls, but not in boys. Prenatal PM2.5 was not significantly associated with other measures of body composition. Estimated cumulative effects across pregnancy, accounting for sensitive windows and within-window effects, were 0.21 (95%CI = 0.01-0.37) for BMI-z and 0.36 (95%CI = 0.12-0.68) for fat mass (kg) in boys, and 0.02 (95%CI = 0.01-0.03) for WHR in girls, all per µg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Increased prenatal PM2.5 exposure was more strongly associated with indices of increased whole body size in boys and with an indicator of body shape in girls. Methods to better characterize vulnerable

  12. Hormonal modulation of connective tissue homeostasis and sex differences in risk for osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan Barbara D

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Young female athletes experience a higher incidence of ligament injuries than their male counterparts, females experience a higher incidence of joint hypermobility syndrome (a risk factor for osteoarthritis development, and post-menopausal females experience a higher prevalence of osteoarthritis than age-matched males. These observations indicate that fluctuating sex hormone levels in young females and loss of ovarian sex hormone production due to menopause likely contribute to observed sex differences in knee joint function and risk for loss of function. In studies of osteoarthritis, however, there is a general lack of appreciation for the heterogeneity of hormonal control in both women and men. Progress in this field is limited by the relatively few preclinical osteoarthritis models, and that most of the work with established models uses only male animals. To elucidate sex differences in osteoarthritis, it is important to examine sex hormone mechanisms in cells from knee tissues and the sexual dimorphism in the role of inflammation at the cell, tissue, and organ levels. There is a need to determine if the risk for loss of knee function and integrity in females is restricted to only the knee or if sex-specific changes in other tissues play a role. This paper discusses these gaps in knowledge and suggests remedies.

  13. Associations between Prenatal Exposure to Black Carbon and Memory Domains in Urban Children: Modification by Sex and Prenatal Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney J Cowell

    Full Text Available Whether fetal neurodevelopment is disrupted by traffic-related air pollution is uncertain. Animal studies suggest that chemical and non-chemical stressors interact to impact neurodevelopment, and that this association is further modified by sex.To examine associations between prenatal traffic-related black carbon exposure, prenatal stress, and sex with children's memory and learning.Analyses included N = 258 mother-child dyads enrolled in a Boston, Massachusetts pregnancy cohort. Black carbon exposure was estimated using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model. Prenatal stress was measured using the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised survey of negative life events. The Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML2 was administered at age 6 years; outcomes included the General Memory Index and its component indices [Verbal, Visual, and Attention Concentration]. Relationships between black carbon and WRAML2 index scores were examined using multivariable-adjusted linear regression including effect modification by stress and sex.Mothers were primarily minorities (60% Hispanic, 26% Black; 67% had ≤12 years of education. The main effect for black carbon was not significant for any WRAML2 index; however, in stratified analyses, among boys with high exposure to prenatal stress, Attention Concentration Index scores were on average 9.5 points lower for those with high compared to low prenatal black carbon exposure (P3-way interaction = 0.04.The associations between prenatal exposure to black carbon and stress with children's memory scores were stronger in boys than in girls. Studies assessing complex interactions may more fully characterize health risks and, in particular, identify vulnerable subgroups.

  14. Reporting pre-exposure prophylaxis use in Craigslist personal advertisements among men seeking sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brandon J; Bak, Trevor; VandeVusse, Alicia; Rosentel, Kris

    2017-05-15

    This study describes the self-reported use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in the personal advertisements of men seeking sex with men in the United States on the online classified advertisement site, Craigslist. Overall self-reported PrEP use was low (0.20%; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.18-0.22). However, PrEP use in personal ads was described in conjunction with seeking sexual risk behaviours including 'bareback' sex (22.7%; 95% CI=17.7-27.7%) and sex with substance use (26.8%; 95% CI=21.5-32.1%). Only 4.0% of personal ads sought safe sex (3.3%; 95% CI=1.2-5.4%) or required condoms (0.7%; 95% CI=-0.3-1.7%). Our findings underscore the need for increased public PrEP awareness, particularly among men seeking sex with men, as well as the importance of healthcare providers emphasising sexually transmissible infection prevention behaviours (i.e. condom use) used in conjunction with PrEP.

  15. Emotion and sex of facial stimuli modulate conditional automaticity in behavioral and neuronal interference in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Nils; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-12-06

    Our surrounding provides a host of sensory input, which we cannot fully process without streamlining and automatic processing. Levels of automaticity differ for different cognitive and affective processes. Situational and contextual interactions between cognitive and affective processes in turn influence the level of automaticity. Automaticity can be measured by interference in Stroop tasks. We applied an emotional version of the Stroop task to investigate how stress as a contextual factor influences the affective valence-dependent level of automaticity. 120 young, healthy men were investigated for behavioral and brain interference following a stress induction or control procedure in a counter-balanced cross-over-design. Although Stroop interference was always observed, sex and emotion of the face strongly modulated interference, which was larger for fearful and male faces. These effects suggest higher automaticity when processing happy and also female faces. Supporting behavioral patterns, brain data show lower interference related brain activity in executive control related regions in response to happy and female faces. In the absence of behavioral stress effects, congruent compared to incongruent trials (reverse interference) showed little to no deactivation under stress in response to happy female and fearful male trials. These congruency effects are potentially based on altered context- stress-related facial processing that interact with sex-emotion stereotypes. Results indicate that sex and facial emotion modulate Stroop interference in brain and behavior. These effects can be explained by altered response difficulty as a consequence of the contextual and stereotype related modulation of automaticity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones and sex-hormone binding globulin before puberty - Phthalate contaminated-foodstuff episode in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Chu-Chih; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Chen, Mei-Lien; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wu, Wen-Chiu; Huang, I-Wen; Huang, Po-Chin; Yu, Tzu-Yun; Hsiung, Chao A; Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-01-01

    In May 2011, a major incident involving phthalates-contaminated foodstuffs occurred in Taiwan. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was added to foodstuffs, mainly juice, jelly, tea, sports drink, and dietary supplements. Concerns arose that normal pubertal development, especially reproductive hormone regulation in children, could be disrupted by DEHP exposure. To investigate the association between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels among children following potential exposure to phthalate-tainted foodstuffs. A total of 239 children aged <12 years old were recruited from 3 hospitals in north, central, and south Taiwan after the episode. Structured questionnaires were used to collect the frequency and quantity of exposures to 5 categories of phthalate-contaminated foodstuffs to assess phthalate exposure in children. Urine samples were collected for the measurement of phthalate metabolites. The estimated daily intake of DEHP exposure at the time of the contamination incident occurred was calculated using both questionnaire data and urinary DEHP metabolite concentrations. Multiple regression analyses were applied to assess associations between phthalate exposure and reproductive hormone levels in children. After excluding children with missing data regarding exposure levels and hormone concentrations and girls with menstruation, 222 children were included in the statistical analyses. After adjustment for age and birth weight, girls with above median levels of urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, and sum of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate concentrations had higher odds of above median follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Girls with above median estimated average daily DEHP exposures following the contamination episode also had higher odds of sex hormone-binding globulin above median levels. Phthalate exposure was associated with alterations of reproductive hormone levels in girls.

  17. Modulation of Ethanol-Metabolizing Enzymes by Developmental Lead Exposure: Effects in Voluntary Ethanol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam B. Virgolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides evidence of the impact of the environmental contaminant lead (Pb on the pattern of the motivational effects of ethanol (EtOH. To find a mechanism that explains this interaction, the focus of this review article is on central EtOH metabolism and the participating enzymes, as key factors in the modulation of brain acetaldehyde (ACD accumulation and resulting effect on EtOH intake. Catalase (CAT seems a good candidate for the shared mechanism between Pb and EtOH due to both its antioxidant and its brain EtOH-metabolizing properties. CAT overactivation was reported to increase EtOH consumption, while CAT blockade reduced it, and both scenarios were modified by Pb exposure, probably as the result of elevated brain and blood CAT activity. Likewise, the motivational effects of EtOH were enhanced when brain ACD metabolism was prevented by ALDH2 inhibition, even in the Pb animals that evidenced reduced brain ALDH2 activity after chronic EtOH intake. Overall, these results suggest that brain EtOH metabolizing enzymes are modulated by Pb exposure with resultant central ACD accumulation and a prevalence of the reinforcing effects of the metabolite in brain against the aversive peripheral ACD accumulation. They also support the idea that early exposure to an environmental contaminant, even at low doses, predisposes at a later age to differential reactivity to challenging events, increasing, in this case, vulnerability to acquiring addictive behaviors, including excessive EtOH intake.

  18. Sex-specific differences in the modulation of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF15) by hyperoxia in vivo and in vitro: Role of Hif-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Lingappan, Krithika

    2017-10-01

    Male premature neonates are more susceptible than females to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The reasons underlying sexually dimorphic outcomes in premature neonates are not known. GDF15 (Growth and differentiation factor 15) is a secreted cytokine and plays a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. In this study, we sought to elucidate the sex-specific expression of Gdf15 in the lung in vivo in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury and its regulation by Hif-1α, and to delineate the differences in GDF15 expression in male and female human umbilical venous endothelial cells in an in vitro model of oxygen toxicity. Following hyperoxia exposure (95% FiO2, PND (postnatal day 1-5: saccular stage of lung development), neonatal male mice (C57BL/6) show increased GDF15 and decreased HIF-1α expression compared to female mice. For the in vitro experiments, male and female HUVECs were exposed to room air condition (21% O2, 5% CO2) or in hyperoxia condition (95% O2, 5% CO2) for up to 72h. Male HUVECs had greater expression of GDF15 mRNA and protein. To study the inter-relationship between GDF15 and HIF-1α, we measured the expression of GDF15 in H441 cells after HIF-1α knockdown using promoter dual luciferase reporter assay, which showed that HIF-1α and GDF15 expression are inversely related under normoxia and hyperoxia. The results indicate that sex differences exist in the expression and modulation of GDF15 by HIF-1α in neonatal hyperoxic injury both in vivo and in vitro. These differences could explain in part the mechanisms behind sex-specific differences in BPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Demodulation effect is observed in neurones by exposure to low frequency modulated microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bruzón, R. N.; Figols, T.; Azanza, M. J.; del Moral, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neurones exposure to a microwave (carrier fc=13.6 GHz; power P simeq 5 mW; Ho simeq 0.10 Am-1 = 1.25 mOe; E0 simeq 3.5 V/m; ΔT simeq 0.01°C SAR: 3.1×10-3 - 5.8×10-3 W/Kg) EMF amplitude modulated by ELF-AC field (frequency, fm= 0-100 Hz) shows no electrophysiological effect under the carrier MF alone, but "frequency resonances: at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 50, 100 Hz: demodulation effect. Resonances appear when applied ELF-MF is close to a dominant characteristic frequency of the neurone impulse Fourier spectrum. This is an interesting result considering that ELF-MF modulating RF or MW in the range of human EEG could induce frequency-resonant effects on exposed human brain.

  20. Optimal costs of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie McKenney

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV due to their increased risk of infection. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a highly effictive HIV-prevention strategy for MSM. Despite evidence of its effectiveness, PrEP uptake in the United States has been slow, in part due to its cost. As jurisdictions and health organizations begin to think about PrEP scale-up, the high cost to society needs to be understood.We modified a previously-described decision-analysis model to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained, over a 1-year duration of PrEP intervention and lifetime time horizon. Using updated parameter estimates, we calculated: 1 the cost per QALY gained, stratified over 4 strata of PrEP cost (a function of both drug cost and provider costs; and 2 PrEP drug cost per year required to fall at or under 4 cost per QALY gained thresholds.When PrEP drug costs were reduced by 60% (with no sexual disinhibition to 80% (assuming 25% sexual disinhibition, PrEP was cost-effective (at <$100,000 per QALY averted in all scenarios of base-case or better adherence, as long as the background HIV prevalence was greater than 10%. For PrEP to be cost saving at base-case adherence/efficacy levels and at a background prevalence of 20%, drug cost would need to be reduced to $8,021 per year with no disinhibition, and to $2,548 with disinhibition.Results from our analysis suggest that PrEP drug costs need to be reduced in order to be cost-effective across a range of background HIV prevalence. Moreover, our results provide guidance on the pricing of generic emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, in order to provide those at high risk for HIV an affordable prevention option without financial burden on individuals or jurisdictions scaling-up coverage.

  1. Simultaneous exposure to concentrated ambient particles and acrolein causes cardiac effects mediated by parasympathetic modulation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study shows that exposure to CAPs and acrolein causes an increase in HRV that is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Numerous studies show that short-term air pollution exposure modulates heart rate variability (HRV), which is an indicator of autonomic influence...

  2. Testosterone or 17{beta}-estradiol exposure reveals sex-specific effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in human myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Firoozeh; Rune, Anna; Osler, Megan; Al-Khalili, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    Changes in sex hormone levels with aging or illness may lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, the ratio changes in men versus women may have distinct pathological responses. Since little is known about sex hormone action on muscle metabolism, we examined the role of testosterone or 17β-estradiol (E(2)) in metabolism and investigated whether either hormone may mediate a sex-specific effect. Myotubes from postmenopausal women and age-matched male donors were treated with 10 nM testosterone or E(2) for 4 days, and assays were performed to measure metabolic readouts, signal transduction, and mRNA expression. Testosterone and E(2) treatment enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen and AKT phosphorylation in myotubes from female donors, highlighting a sex-specific role of sex hormone in glucose metabolism. Testosterone treatment increased palmitate oxidation in myotubes from both female and male donors, while E(2) enhanced palmitate oxidation in myotubes from male donors only. Testosterone-mediated increase in palmitate oxidation was attenuated at the presence of androgen receptor antagonist, which may indicate a role of nuclear steroid receptor in muscle lipid oxidation. Testosterone treatment increased mRNA expression of the insulin receptor substrate 2 in myotubes from male and female donors, whereas it increased mRNA expression of glycogen synthase 1 only in myotubes from male donors. E(2) treatment increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 mRNA expression in myotubes from female donors. Thus, our data suggest that testosterone or E(2) modulates muscle glucose and lipid metabolism and may play a role in metabolism in a sex-dependent manner.

  3. Sex-Related Differences in Pulmonary Function following 6 Months of Cigarette Exposure: Implications for Sexual Dimorphism in Mild COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Anthony; Bates, Jason H T; Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Man, S F Paul; Sin, Don D

    2016-01-01

    Female smokers have increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with male smokers who have a similar history of cigarette smoke exposure. We have shown previously that chronic smoke exposure for 6 months leads to increased airway wall remodeling in female C57BL/6 mice compared with male C57BL/6 mice. These differences, however, were not evident in female ovariectomized mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Herein, we report on the pulmonary function test results from the flexiVent system, which was used to determine the potential functional consequences of the histologic changes observed in these mice. We found that tissue damping (G) was increased in female compared to male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. At low oscillating frequencies, complex input resistance (Zrs) and impedance (Xrs) of the respiratory system was increased and decreased, respectively, in female but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. Quasistatic pressure-volume curves revealed a reduction in inspiratory capacity in female mice but not in male or ovariectomized female mice after smoke exposure. The remaining lung function measurements including quasistatic compliance were similar amongst all groups. This is the first study characterizing a sexual dimorphism in respiratory functional properties in a mouse model of COPD. These findings demonstrate that increased airway remodeling in female mice following chronic smoke exposure is associated with increased tissue resistance in the peripheral airways. These data may explain the importance of female sex hormones and the increased risk of airway disease in female smokers.

  4. Social support, exposure to violence and transphobia, and correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemoto, Tooru; Bödeker, Birte; Iwamoto, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    We determined racial/ethnic differences in social support and exposure to violence and transphobia, and explored correlates of depression among male-to-female transgender women with a history of sex work (THSW...

  5. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke sex dependently influences methylation and mRNA levels of the Igf axis in lungs of mouse offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Karolin F; Krauss-Etschmann, Susanne; Kooistra, Wierd; Reinders-Luinge, Marjan; Timens, Wim; Kobzik, Lester; Plösch, Torsten; Hylkema, Machteld N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal smoke exposure is a risk factor for abnormal lung development and increased sex-dependent susceptibility for asthma and COPD. Birth cohort studies show genome wide DNA methylation changes in children from smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is

  6. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hyun Hwang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors assessed sex and age differences in secondhand smoke (SHS exposure among vulnerable adolescent populations. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 64,499 non-smokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. Girls were exposed 1.26 times (95% confidence interval, 1.21–1.32 more to home SHS than boys, and the younger adolescents were more likely to be exposed to home SHS than were the older, regardless of sex (p < 0.001. Younger girls living with or without current smokers and the younger boys living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, when the data were stratified according to current household member smoking, which was one of the main risk factors for SHS exposure at home. Girls living with current smokers were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home than boys regardless age. Girls and younger adolescents, populations vulnerable to smoke exposure, were more likely to be exposed to SHS at home, even though they should be more protected. It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations.

  7. Sex-Dependent Effects of Cadmium Exposure in Early Life on Gut Microbiota and Fat Accumulation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Qian; Li, Mian; Chen, Peizhan; Huang, Chao; Duan, Xiaohua; Lu, Lijun; Li, Jingquan; Chu, Ruiai; Xie, Dong; Song, Haiyun; Wu, Yongning; Ying, Hao; Jia, Xudong; Wang, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Environmental cadmium, with a high average dietary intake, is a severe public health risk. However, the long-term health implications of environmental exposure to cadmium in different life stages remain unclear. We investigated the effects of early exposure to cadmium, at an environmentally relevant dosage, on adult metabolism and the mechanism of action. We established mouse models with low-dose cadmium (LDC) exposure in early life to examine the long-term metabolic consequences. Intestinal flora measurement by 16S rDNA sequencing, microbial ecological analyses, and fecal microbiota transplant was conducted to explore the potential underlying mechanisms. Early LDC exposure (100 nM) led to fat accumulation in adult male mice. Hepatic genes profiling revealed that fatty acid and lipid metabolic processes were elevated. Gut microbiota were perturbed by LDC to cause diversity reduction and compositional alteration. Time-series studies indicated that the gut flora at early-life stages, especially at 8 weeks, were vulnerable to LDC and that an alteration during this period could contribute to the adult adiposity, even if the microbiota recovered later. The importance of intestinal bacteria in LDC-induced fat accumulation was further confirmed through microbiota transplantation and removal experiments. Moreover, the metabolic effects of LDC were observed only in male, but not female, mice. An environmental dose of cadmium at early stages of life causes gut microbiota alterations, accelerates hepatic lipid metabolism, and leads to life-long metabolic consequences in a sex-dependent manner. These findings provide a better understanding of the health risk of cadmium in the environment. Citation: Ba Q, Li M, Chen P, Huang C, Duan X, Lu L, Li J, Chu R, Xie D, Song H, Wu Y, Ying H, Jia X, Wang H. 2017. Sex-dependent effects of cadmium exposure in early life on gut microbiota and fat accumulation in mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:437-446; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP360.

  8. Influence of Triazine Herbicide Exposure on Guppies (Poecilia sphenops) Aromatase Activities, Altered Sex Steroid Concentration and Vitellogenin Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanth, S; Arul, G; Karthikeyeni, S; Kumar, T S V; Vignesh, V; Manimegalai, M; Bupesh, G; Thirumurugan, R; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine, a herbicide is one the most toxic and sustaining pollutants in aquatic environment. It is detectable in surface water and in underground sources of drinking water. Many studies indicate that atrazine might be a potent endocrine disrupting xenobiotic. There are limited studies have revealed that the effects of atrazine on sex steroids hormones, vitellogenin and induction of aromatase, gonadosomatic index and hepatosomatic index. In this study, juvenile Poecilia sphenops fish was exposed to three different (0.83, 1.25 and 2.5 ppm) concentration of atrazine for 100 d. Changes in plasma and gonadal content and concentrations of sex steroids and vitellogenin protein in poecilia sphenops under laboratory conditions were assessed. The low level of the atrazine show estrogenic effect in males, as determined by a shortage of testosterone induction. Present study suggests that low induction of plasma vitellogenin and aromatase in male fish become suitable biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic chemicals.

  9. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  10. Identification of octopaminergic neurons that modulate sleep suppression by male sex drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniel R; Afonso, Dinis Js; Kenny, Alexandra R; Öztu Rk-Çolak, Arzu; Moscato, Emilia H; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Kayser, Matthew; Koh, Kyunghee

    2017-05-16

    Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired. MS1 neurons do not express the sexually dimorphic FRUITLESS (FRU) transcription factor, but form male-specific contacts with FRU-expressing neurons; calcium imaging experiments reveal bidirectional functional connectivity between MS1 and FRU neurons. We propose octopaminergic MS1 neurons interact with the FRU network to mediate sleep suppression by male sex drive.

  11. Modulation in Wistar rats of blood corticosterone compartmentation by sex and a cafeteria diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Romero

    Full Text Available In the metabolic syndrome, glucocorticoid activity is increased, but circulating levels show little change. Most of blood glucocorticoids are bound to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG, which liver expression and circulating levels are higher in females than in males. Since blood hormones are also bound to blood cells, and the size of this compartment is considerable for androgens and estrogens, we analyzed whether sex or eating a cafeteria diet altered the compartmentation of corticosterone in rat blood. The main corticosterone compartment in rat blood is that specifically bound to plasma proteins, with smaller compartments bound to blood cells or free. Cafeteria diet increased the expression of liver CBG gene, binding plasma capacity and the proportion of blood cell-bound corticosterone. There were marked sex differences in blood corticosterone compartmentation in rats, which were unrelated to testosterone. The use of a monoclonal antibody ELISA and a polyclonal Western blot for plasma CBG compared with both specific plasma binding of corticosterone and CBG gene expression suggested the existence of different forms of CBG, with varying affinities for corticosterone in males and females, since ELISA data showed higher plasma CBG for males, but binding and Western blot analyses (plus liver gene expression and higher physiological effectiveness for females. Good cross-reactivity to the antigen for polyclonal CBG antibody suggests that in all cases we were measuring CBG. The different immunoreactivity and binding affinity may help explain the marked sex-related differences in plasma hormone binding as sex-linked different proportions of CBG forms.

  12. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and sex-differential risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries.......The association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and the risk of uveal melanoma was investigated in a case-control study in nine European countries....

  13. Sex- and histamine-dependent long-term cognitive effects of methamphetamine exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acevedo, S.F.; de Esch, I.J.P.; Raber, J.

    2007-01-01

    As prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure results in long-term hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits, the increased MA use in women of childbearing age is of great concern. As mice are most commonly used in genetic models, we started to study the potential effects of neonatal MA exposure in

  14. The modulation role of serotonin in Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in response to air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Zhaoqun; Qiu, Limei; Wang, Weilin; Song, Xiaorui; Wang, Xiudan; Li, Yiqun; Xin, Lusheng; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-01

    Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a critical neurotransmitter in the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network and involved in regulation of the stress response in vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, serotonin was found to be widely distributed in the tissues of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, including haemolymph, gonad, visceral ganglion, mantle, gill, labial palps and hepatopancreas, and its concentration increased significantly in haemolymph and mantle after the oysters were exposed to air for 1 d. The apoptosis rate of haemocytes was significantly declined after the oysters received an injection of extra serotonin, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in haemolymph increased significantly. After the stimulation of serotonin during air exposure, the apoptosis rate of oyster haemocytes and the concentration of H2O2 in haemolymph were significantly decreased, while the SOD activity was significantly elevated. Furthermore, the survival rate of oysters from 4(th) to 6(th) d after injection of serotonin was higher than that of FSSW group and air exposure group. The results clearly indicated that serotonin could modulate apoptotic effect and redox during air exposure to protect oysters from stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Local-global interference is modulated by age, sex and anterior corpus callosum size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Schulte, Tilman; Raassi, Carla; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2007-01-01

    To identify attentional and neural mechanisms affecting global and local feature extraction, we devised a global-local hierarchical letter paradigm to test the hypothesis that aging reduces functional cerebral lateralization through corpus callosum (CC) degradation. Participants (37 men and women, 26–79 years) performed a task requiring global, local, or global+local attention and underwent structural MRI for CC measurement. Although reaction time (RT) slowed with age, all participants had faster RTs to local than global targets. This local precedence effect together with greater interference from incongruent local information and greater response conflict from local targets each correlated with older age and smaller callosal genu (anterior) areas. These findings support the hypothesis that the CC mediates lateralized local-global processes by inhibition of task-irrelevant information under selective attention conditions. Further, with advancing age smaller genu size leads to less robust inhibition, thereby reducing cerebral lateralization and permitting interference to influence processing. Sex was an additional modifier of interference, in that callosum-interference relationships were evident in women but not in men. Regardless of age, smaller splenium (posterior) areas correlated with less response facilitation from repetition priming of global targets in men, but with greater response facilitation from repetition priming of local targets in women. Our data indicate the following dissociation: Anterior callosal structure was associated with inhibitory processes (i.e., interference from incongruency and response conflict), which are vulnerable to the effects of age and sex, whereas posterior callosal structure was associated with facilitation processes from repetition priming dependent on sex and independent of age. PMID:17335783

  16. Dopamine and Stress System Modulation of Sex Differences in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Polymnia; Zanos, Panos; Bhat, Shambhu; Tracy, J Kathleen; Merchenthaler, Istvan J; McCarthy, Margaret M; Gould, Todd D

    2018-01-01

    Maladaptive decision making is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including problem gambling and suicidal behavior. The prevalence of these disorders is higher in men vs women, suggesting gender-dependent regulation of their pathophysiology underpinnings. We assessed sex differences in decision making using the rat version of the Iowa gambling task. Female rats identified the most optimal choice from session 1, whereas male rats from session 5. Male, but not female rats, progressively improved their advantageous option responding and surpassed females. Estrus cycle phase did not affect decision making. To test whether pharmacological manipulations targeting the dopaminergic and stress systems affect decision making in a sex-dependent manner, male and female rats received injections of a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) antagonist (eticlopride), D2R agonist (quinpirole), corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF1) antagonist (antalarmin), and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine; used as a pharmacological stressor). Alterations in mRNA levels of D2R and CRF1 were also assessed. Eticlopride decreased advantageous responding in male, but not female rats, whereas quinpirole decreased advantageous responding specifically in females. Yohimbine dose-dependently decreased advantageous responding in female rats, whereas decreased advantageous responding was only observed at higher doses in males. Antalarmin increased optimal choice responding only in female rats. Higher Drd2 and Crhr1 expression in the amygdala were observed in female vs male rats. Higher amygdalar Crhr1 expression was negatively correlated with advantageous responding specifically in females. This study demonstrates the relevance of dopaminergic- and stress-dependent sex differences to maladaptive decision making.

  17. Nano-TiO2 modulates the dermal sensitization potency of dinitrochlorobenzene after topical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, S; Golanski, L; Smolders, E; Vanoirbeek, J; Hoet, P H M

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on skin sensitization caused by chemicals. We determined the ability of different ENPs (TiO2 , Ag and SiO2 ) and aged paint particles containing ENPs to modulate dermal sensitization by a known potent dermal sensitizer. The fur of BALB/c mice in the area around the ears was cut with scissors 1 day prior to topical exposure to ENPs (0·4, 4 or 40 mg mL(-1) ), paint particles containing ENPs (4 mg mL(-1) ) or vehicle (day 0). On days 1, 2 and 3, the mice received dermal applications on the back of both ears of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or vehicle. The stimulation index (SI) was calculated on day 6. Topical exposure to TiO2 , Ag or SiO2 ENPs, or aged paint particles followed by vehicle treatment as a control, did not influence the SI. When 4 mg mL(-1) TiO2 ENPs were applied prior to DNCB sensitization, we found an increased SI compared with vehicle-exposed mice prior to DNCB sensitization. Furthermore, an increased titanium concentration was found in the draining lymph node cells of this group. Topical exposure to Ag or SiO2 ENPs or aged paint particles prior to DNCB sensitization did not influence the SI. We have demonstrated that topical exposure to TiO2 ENPs increases chemical-induced dermal sensitization. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Awareness Among Gay and Other Men who have Sex with Men in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Y; Hull, Mark W; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Jollimore, Jody; Rich, Ashleigh; Montaner, Julio S G; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M

    2016-07-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for approximately half of Canada's new HIV infections. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a recently established and effective HIV prevention tool for MSM is currently not approved nor publicly funded. We recruited MSM via respondent-driven sampling to complete a self-administered computer-based interview. Stratified by HIV status, multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with PrEP awareness. Of 673 participants, 102/500 (20.9 %) HIV-negative and 63/173 (26.5 %) HIV-positive men were aware of PrEP, but none had used it. One third of PrEP-aware MSM spoke about it with friends or sex partners. Self-declared knowledge was limited. Factors associated with PrEP awareness varied by HIV status, but included greater HAART optimism for HIV-negative MSM. Among HIV-negative MSM, being PrEP unaware was associated with younger age, not always having condoms, and preferring receptive versus insertive anal sex. Future longitudinal research should identify early adopters of PrEP and its associated impacts.

  19. Exploring Patterns of Awareness and Use of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Benjamin B; Greene, George J; Phillips, Gregory; Bhatia, Ramona; Madkins, Krystal; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-05-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown promise as a safe and effective HIV prevention strategy, but there is limited research on awareness and use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Using baseline data from the "Keep It Up! 2.0" randomized control trial, we examined differences in PrEP awareness and use among racially diverse YMSM (N = 759; mean age = 24.2 years). Participants were recruited from study sites in Atlanta, Chicago, and New York City, as well as through national advertising on social media applications. While 67.5 % of participants reported awareness of PrEP, 8.7 % indicated using the medication. Awareness, but not use, varied by demographic variables. PrEP-users had twice as many condomless anal sex partners (ERR = 2.05) and more condomless anal sex acts (ERR = 1.60) than non-users. Future research should aim to improve PrEP awareness and uptake among YMSM and address condom use.

  20. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis and p21 expression in depression: dependent on antidepressants, sex, age, and antipsychotic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Jonathan R; Beasley, Clare L; Galea, Liisa Am

    2013-10-01

    The mammalian hippocampus continues to generate new neurons throughout life. The function of adult-generated neurons remains controversial, but adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is related to depression. Studies show that neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by antidepressants in both humans and rodents, but no studies have examined the effects of age, sex, or antipsychotic exposure on the relationship between depression, antidepressant exposure, and hippocampal neurogenesis in humans. Hippocampal sections were obtained from the Stanley Medical Research Institute and were immunohistochemically labeled for the immature neuron marker doublecortin and the cell cycle arrest marker p21. We compared the number of cells in the granule cell layer and subgranular zone that expressed these proteins in brains from control subjects (n=12), patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) without psychotic symptoms (n=12), and patients with MDD and psychotic symptoms (n=12). We show here that the density of doublecortin/NeuN expression was increased in MDD patients compared with controls and MDD patients with psychosis, with the effect greater in women. Further, we show that older depressed patients without psychosis had higher levels of p21/NeuN expression and that depressed individuals prescribed antidepressants had higher levels of p21/NeuN expression, but only in older women. We show for the first time that changes in neurogenesis due to prescribed antidepressants or depression are dependent on age, sex, and the presence of antipsychotics or psychotic symptoms.

  1. Men who have sex with mens' exposure to, use of, and subjective experiences with the 'NYC Condom'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grov, Christian; Breslow, Aaron S; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health introduced the 'NYC Condom'--a Lifestyles® condom with a 'NYC' logo. Few studies have evaluated attitudes toward or distribution of the 'NYC Condom' among men who have sex with men (MSM)--a population at increased risk for HIV/STIs. 148 MSM completed a survey about their exposure to, use of, and experiences using the 'NYC Condom.' The majority (93.2 %) had seen the 'NYC Condom;' 82.4 % of said men had used it. Among MSM who used it, 82.1 % rated it average or above. Exposure did not statistically differ by race/ethnicity, HIV status, gay or barebacker identification, or sex role. Use was neither significantly associated with demographic characteristics nor recruitment source, suggesting distributional success in reaching various sub-populations of MSM. Among those who had not used the 'NYC Condom,' 22.2 % reported size or quality concerns, suggesting a demand for alternative prevention campaigns.

  2. Reduced modulation of thalamocortical connectivity during exposure to sensory stimuli in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shulamite A; Hernandez, Leanna; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Dapretto, Mirella

    2017-05-01

    Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration. This study aimed to examine the role of pulvinar connectivity in ASD during mildly aversive sensory input. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine connectivity with the pulvinar during exposure to mildly aversive auditory and tactile stimuli in 38 youth (age 9-17; 19 ASD, 19 IQ-matched typically developing (TD)). Parents rated children's SOR severity on two standard scales. Compared to TD, ASD participants displayed aberrant modulation of connectivity between pulvinar and cortex (including sensory-motor and prefrontal regions) during sensory stimulation. In ASD participants, pulvinar-amygdala connectivity was correlated with severity of SOR symptoms. Deficits in modulation of thalamocortical connectivity in youth with ASD may reflect reduced thalamo-cortical inhibition in response to sensory stimulation, which could lead to difficulty filtering out and/or integrating sensory information. An increase in amygdala connectivity with the pulvinar might be partially responsible for deficits in selective attention as the amygdala signals the brain to attend to distracting sensory stimuli. Autism Res 2017, 10: 801-809. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Modulation of the effects of alcohol on driving-related psychomotor skills by chronic exposure to cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A; Terry, P

    2002-03-01

    Many previous studies have reported that alcohol and cannabis produce additive psychomotor effects in acute combination, but few have explicitly tested whether chronic exposure to cannabis, in the absence of acute administration, alters the effects of alcohol on psychomotor performance. To test whether long-term cannabis use modulates the effects of alcohol on psychomotor skills and self-reported mood and sensation. Regular cannabis users (minimum: daily use for at least 3 years) and infrequent users (maximum: once-monthly use for at most 3 years) were matched for sex, age, alcohol intake and other drug use (14 participants in each group). Participants received alcohol (females 0.35 g/kg; males 0.45 g/kg) and placebo drinks. By urinalysis, only regular users tested positive for metabolites of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; breath alcohol levels were similar between groups. Participants were tested on a computerised tracking task that has been used to screen drugs for adverse effects on driving. The task involved tracking a moving target on a computer screen while simultaneously responding to occasional presentations of stimuli in the periphery of the screen. Tracking accuracy was similar for both groups after placebo, but alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance among infrequent cannabis users relative to regular users. These changes were mirrored by significant changes in self-reported scores for dizziness, measured by visual analogue scales. Alcohol slowed reaction times, but not differentially between groups. For psychomotor skills relevant to driving, chronic cannabis use (in the absence of acute administration) does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. In fact, the superior tracking accuracy of regular users relative to infrequent users after alcohol, and their lower scores for dizziness, suggest that chronic cannabis use may instead confer cross-tolerance to specific effects of alcohol on behaviour.

  4. Degradation analysis of thin film photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure in Spanish continental climate conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre Bergés, Santiago; Kichou, Sofiane; Guglielminotti, Letizia; Nofuentes Garrido, Gustavo; Alonso Abella, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    The present study analyses the degradation of thin film photovoltaic modules corresponding to four technologies: a-Si:H, a-Si:H/µc-Si:H, CIS and CdTe, under 5 years of outdoor long term exposure in Leganés, Spain. The period of outdoor exposure ranges from January 2011 to December 2015. The degradation rate and the stabilization period are analysed by using two different techniques. Moreover, the evolution of the fill factor and performance ratio is assessed. The CdTe module was found to hav...

  5. Personality profile of binge drinking in university students is modulated by sex. A study using the Alternative Five Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, Ana; Navarro, José Francisco; Forero, Diego A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of binge drinking (BD), found especially among young people, is increasing worldwide and has become an important social and health concern. We studied, for the first time, the personality profile, using the Alternative Five Factor Model, among university students with BD and healthy controls, taking into account the possible influence of sex. 70 participants with BD (30 men) and 70 healthy controls (30 men) were included, selected to control for characteristics that are known to be related to BD (physical and mental disorders, consumption of other drugs, circadian rhythms), completed the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). The scores on Neuroticism-Anxiety and Impulsive Sensation-Seeking were higher in the BD group compared to the controls (pfactor that modulates the endophenotype of drug dependence (impulsive and anxious personality) and the prevention and/or treatment programs for BD should include not only the management of the personality risk factors but also different tailored approaches according to sex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetic modulation of Chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris) on exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mihi; Youn, Je-In; Kim, Seung Joon; Park, Jong Y

    2015-11-01

    DNA methylation in promoter region can be a new chemopreventive marker against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We performed a randomized, double blind and cross-over trial (N=12 healthy females) to evaluate chlorella (Chlorella vulgaris)-induced epigenetic modulation on exposure to PAHs. The subjects consumed 4 tablets of placebo or chlorella supplement (total chlorophyll ≈ 8.3mg/tablet) three times a day before meals for 2 weeks. When the subjects consumed chlorella, status of global hypermethylation (5-methylcytosine) was reduced, compared to placebo (p=0.04). However, DNA methylation at the DNMT1 or NQO1 was not modified by chlorella. We observed the reduced levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a typical metabolite of PAHs, by chlorella intake (pchlorella-induced changes in global hypermethylation and urinary 1-OHP (pchlorella works for PAH-detoxification through the epigenetic modulation, the interference of ADME of PAHs and the interaction of mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Demodulation effect is observed in neurones by exposure to low frequency modulated microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bruzon, R N; Figols, T; Azanza, M J [Laboratorio de Magnetobiologia, Departamento de Anatomia e Histologia Humanas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Moral, A del, E-mail: naogit@yahoo.co [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza and CSIC (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    Neurones exposure to a microwave (carrier f{sub c}=13.6 GHz; power P {approx_equal} 5 mW; H{sub o} {approx_equal} 0.10 Am{sup -1} = 1.25 mOe; E{sub 0} {approx_equal} 3.5 V/m; {Delta}T {approx_equal} 0.01{sup 0}C; SAR: 3.1x10{sup -3} - 5.8x10{sup -3} W/Kg) EMF amplitude modulated by ELF-AC field (frequency, f{sub m}= 0-100 Hz) shows no electrophysiological effect under the carrier MF alone, but {sup f}requency resonances: at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 50, 100 Hz: demodulation effect. Resonances appear when applied ELF-MF is close to a dominant characteristic frequency of the neurone impulse Fourier spectrum. This is an interesting result considering that ELF-MF modulating RF or MW in the range of human EEG could induce frequency-resonant effects on exposed human brain.

  8. Top-down influences on visual attention during listening are modulated by observer sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, John; Itti, Laurent

    2012-07-15

    In conversation, women have a small advantage in decoding non-verbal communication compared to men. In light of these findings, we sought to determine whether sex differences also existed in visual attention during a related listening task, and if so, if the differences existed among attention to high-level aspects of the scene or to conspicuous visual features. Using eye-tracking and computational techniques, we present direct evidence that men and women orient attention differently during conversational listening. We tracked the eyes of 15 men and 19 women who watched and listened to 84 clips featuring 12 different speakers in various outdoor settings. At the fixation following each saccadic eye movement, we analyzed the type of object that was fixated. Men gazed more often at the mouth and women at the eyes of the speaker. Women more often exhibited "distracted" saccades directed away from the speaker and towards a background scene element. Examining the multi-scale center-surround variation in low-level visual features (static: color, intensity, orientation, and dynamic: motion energy), we found that men consistently selected regions which expressed more variation in dynamic features, which can be attributed to a male preference for motion and a female preference for areas that may contain nonverbal information about the speaker. In sum, significant differences were observed, which we speculate arise from different integration strategies of visual cues in selecting the final target of attention. Our findings have implications for studies of sex in nonverbal communication, as well as for more predictive models of visual attention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Perinatal lead (Pb) exposure results in sex and tissue-dependent adult DNA methylation alterations in murine IAP transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrose, L; Faulk, C; Francis, J; Dolinoy, D C

    2017-10-01

    Epidemiological and animal data suggest that adult chronic disease is influenced by early-life exposure-induced changes to the epigenome. Previously, we observed that perinatal lead (Pb) exposure results in persistent murine metabolic- and activity-related effects. Using phylogenetic and DNA methylation analysis, we have also identified novel intracisternal A particle (IAP) retrotransposons exhibiting regions of variable methylation as candidate loci for environmental effects on the epigenome. Here, we now evaluate brain and kidney DNA methylation profiles of four representative IAPs in adult mice exposed to human physiologically relevant levels of Pb two weeks prior to mating through lactation. When IAPs across the genome were evaluated globally, average (sd) methylation levels were 92.84% (3.74) differing by tissue (P methylation at IAP 110 (P methylation at IAP 236 (P = 0.01) and 1.77% less at IAP 506 (P = 0.05). Individual IAP DNA methylation differed by sex for IAP 110 in the brain and kidney, IAP 236 in the kidney, and IAP 1259 in the kidney. Using Tomtom, we identified three binding motifs that matched to each of our novel IAPs impacted by Pb, one of which (HMGA2) has been linked to metabolic-related conditions in both mice and humans. Thus, these recently identified IAPs display tissue-specific environmental lability as well as sex-specific differences supporting an epigenetic link between early exposure to Pb and later-in-life health outcomes. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:540-550, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Secondary sex ratio in relation to exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene and methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Choi, Anna L; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    data from three Faroese birth cohorts, with a total of 2,152 healthy mother-child dyads recruited between 1986 and 2009. The Faroe Islands is a subarctic fishing community, where pilot whale meat and blubber are part of the traditional marine diet. Exposures were measured in maternal hair, serum...

  11. Sex differences in young adults’ snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; van der Zwaluw, C.S.; van Strien, T.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  12. Sex differences in young adults' snack food intake after food commercial exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; van Strien, Tatjana

    Exposure to food commercials on television is considered to be related to elevated snack food intake in front of the television. However, this assumed relation has as yet not been fully established. The present study, therefore examined the direct effects of watching television food commercials on

  13. Environmental Exposure of Sperm Sex-Chromosomes: A Gender Selection Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyipo, Ibukun P; van der Linde, Michelle; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2017-10-01

    Preconceptual sex selection is still a highly debatable process whereby X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa are isolated prior to fertilization of the oocyte. Although various separation techniques are available, none can guarantee 100% accuracy. The aim of this study was to separate X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa using methods based on the viability difference between the X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. A total of 18 experimental semen samples were used, written consent was obtained from all donors and results were analysed in a blinded fashion. Spermatozoa were exposed to different pH values (5.5, 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5), increased temperatures (37°C, 41°C, and 45°C) and ROS level (50 μM, 750 μM, and 1,000 μM). The live and dead cell separation was done through a modified swim-up technique. Changes in the sex-chromosome ratio of samples were established by double-label fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) before and after processing. The results indicated successful enrichment of Xchromosome-bearing spermatozoa upon incubation in acidic media, increased temperatures, and elevated H2O2. This study demonstrated the potential role for exploring the physiological differences between X-and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the development of preconceptual gender selection.

  14. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin. In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health.

  15. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Trakooljul, Nares; Reyer, Henry; Zeyner, Annette; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2017-01-18

    Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin). In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health.

  16. Cutaneous microvascular response during local cold exposure - the effect of female sex hormones and cold perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankar, Ksenija; Music, Mark; Finderle, Zare

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that differences exist between males and females with regard to sensitivity to cold. Similar differences even among females in different hormonal balance might influence microvascular response during cold provocation testing. The aim of the present study was to measure sex hormone levels, cold and cold pain perception thresholds and compare them to cutaneous laser-Doppler flux response during local cooling in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. In the luteal phase a more pronounced decrease in laser-Doppler flux was observed compared to follicular phase during local cooling at 15°C (significant difference by Dunnett's test, p<0.05). In addition, statistically significant correlations between progesterone level and laser-Doppler flux response to local cooling were observed during the follicular (R=-0.552, p=0.0174) and during the luteal phases (R=0.520, p=0.0271). In contrast, the correlation between estradiol level and laser-Doppler flux response was observed only in the follicular phase (R=-0.506, p=0.0324). Our results show that individual sensitivity to cold influences cutaneous microvascular response to local cooling; that microvascular reactivity is more pronounced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle; and that reactivity correlates with hormone levels. The effect of specific sex hormone levels is related to the cold-provocation temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Effect of acute cold exposure, age, sex, and lairage on broiler breast meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, S; Lee, E S; Leer, T L V; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L; Shand, P J

    2011-02-01

    The effect of acute cold exposure on bird physiology, muscle metabolites, and meat quality was assessed in 360 male and female broilers at 5 and 6 wk of age, exposed for 3 h to temperature ranges of -18 to -4°C and a control of +20°C, by using a simulated transport system followed by 0 or 2 h of lairage. Core body temperature (CBT) was recorded, and the microclimate temperature and RH surrounding individual birds were monitored. Birds were classified based on the temperature in their immediate surroundings. Exposure to temperatures below 0°C resulted in a decrease (P birds showed darker and redder breast meat with higher ultimate pH (pH(u)), less cook loss, and higher processing cook yield at temperatures below -8°C compared with warmer temperatures and with 6-wk-old birds exposed to similar temperatures. No difference in meat quality was observed between the 2 ages at temperatures below -14°C. Males had a greater decrease in CBT and had breast meat with higher pH(u) compared with females. The 2-h lairage resulted in darker breast meat with higher pH(u) at exposure temperatures below -14°C and with higher water-binding capacity and processing cook yield at temperatures below -11°C. A high (>57%) incidence of dark, firm, and dry breast meat [pH >6.1 and L* (lightness) meat at temperatures below -8°C. Results of this study showed that older birds coped better with extreme cold conditions compared with younger birds. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to limit the length of lairage before processing after exposure to acute cold to improve bird welfare and reduce meat quality defects.

  18. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  19. Modulation of SHBG binding to testosterone and estradiol by sex and morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, María Del Mar; Gulfo, José; Camps, Núria; Alcalá, Rosa; Monserrat, Laura; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Ortega, Francisco José; Esteve, Montserrat; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Fernández-Real, José Manuel; Alemany, Marià

    2017-04-01

    Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds and transports testosterone and estradiol in plasma. The possibility that SHBG is a mixture of transporting proteins has been postulated. We analyzed in parallel the effects of obesity status on the levels and binding capacity of circulating SHBG and their relationship with testosterone and estradiol. Anthropometric measures and plasma were obtained from apparently healthy young (i.e. 35 ± 7 years) premenopausal women (n = 32) and men (n = 30), with normal weight and obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). SHBG protein (Western blot), as well as the plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, cortisol and insulin (ELISA) were measured. Specific binding of estradiol and testosterone to plasma SHBG was analyzed using tritium-labeled hormones. Significant differences in SHBG were observed within the obesity status and gender, with discordant patterns of change in testosterone and estradiol. In men, testosterone occupied most of the binding sites. Estrogen binding was much lower in all subjects. Lower SHBG of morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m(2)) subjects affected testosterone but not estradiol. The ratio of binding sites to SHBG protein levels was constant for testosterone, but not for estradiol. The influence of gender was maximal in morbid obesity, with men showing the highest binding/SHBG ratios. The results reported here are compatible with SHBG being a mixture of at least two functionally different hormone-binding globulins, being affected by obesity and gender and showing different structure, affinities for testosterone and estradiol and also different immunoreactivity. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Modulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis by Early Life Stress Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bodegom, Miranda; Homberg, Judith R; Henckens, Marloes J A G

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods in development can have severe long-term consequences, increasing overall risk on psychopathology. One of the key stress response systems mediating these long-term effects of stress is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; a cascade of central and peripheral events resulting in the release of corticosteroids from the adrenal glands. Activation of the HPA-axis affects brain functioning to ensure a proper behavioral response to the stressor, but stress-induced (mal)adaptation of the HPA-axis' functional maturation may provide a mechanistic basis for the altered stress susceptibility later in life. Development of the HPA-axis and the brain regions involved in its regulation starts prenatally and continues after birth, and is protected by several mechanisms preventing corticosteroid over-exposure to the maturing brain. Nevertheless, early life stress (ELS) exposure has been reported to have numerous consequences on HPA-axis function in adulthood, affecting both its basal and stress-induced activity. According to the match/mismatch theory, encountering ELS prepares an organism for similar ("matching") adversities during adulthood, while a mismatching environment results in an increased susceptibility to psychopathology, indicating that ELS can exert either beneficial or disadvantageous effects depending on the environmental context. Here, we review studies investigating the mechanistic underpinnings of the ELS-induced alterations in the structural and functional development of the HPA-axis and its key external regulators (amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex). The effects of ELS appear highly dependent on the developmental time window affected, the sex of the offspring, and the developmental stage at which effects are assessed. Albeit by distinct mechanisms, ELS induced by prenatal stressors, maternal separation, or the limited nesting model inducing fragmented maternal care, typically results in HPA-axis hyper

  1. Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trani, Daniela [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MaastRO) Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht (Netherlands); Moon, Bo-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Datta, Kamal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fornace, Albert J., E-mail: af294@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.

  2. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex-dependent anti-stress effect of an α5 subunit containing GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Piantadosi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted α5-PAM, a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites has anti-stress effects. Methods: Female and male C57BL6/J mice were exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS and treated with α5-PAM acutely (30 minutes prior to assessing behavior or chronically before being assessed behaviorally. Results: Acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments produce a pattern of decreased stress-induced behaviors (denoted as behavioral emotionality across various tests in female, but not in male mice. Behavioral Z-scores calculated across a panel of tests designed to best model the range and heterogeneity of human symptomatology confirmed that acute and chronic α5-PAM treatments consistently produce significant decreases in behavioral emotionality in several independent cohorts of females. The behavioral responses to α5-PAM could not be completely accounted for by differences in drug brain disposition between female and male mice. In mice exposed to UCMS, expression of the Gabra5 gene was increased in the frontal cortex after acute treatment and in hippocampus after chronic treatment with α5-PAM in females only, and these expression changes correlated with behavioral emotionality. Conclusions: We showed that acute and chronic positive modulation of α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors elicit anti-stress effects in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting novel therapeutic modalities.

  4. Chronic exposure to rapamycin and episodic serum starvation modulate ageing of human fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodagam, Lakshman; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2017-10-01

    Mild stress-induced activation of stress response (SR) pathways, such as autophagy, heat shock response, oxidative SR, DNA damage response, and inflammatory response, can be potentially health beneficial. Using the model system of cellular ageing and replicative senescence in vitro, we have studied the ageing modulatory effects of the two conditions, rapamycin and serum starvation. Chronic exposure to 0.1, 1 and 10 nM rapamycin positively modulated the survival, growth, morphology, telomere length, DNA methylation levels, 8-oxo-dG level in DNA, N6-methyl-adenosine level in RNA, and ethanol stress tolerance of serially passaged normal human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, episodic (once a week) serum starvation of human skin fibroblasts extended their replicative lifespan by about 22%, along with the maintenance of early passage youthful morphology even in late passage cultures. Although the results of this study may be considered preliminary, it can be inferred that intermittent and episodic induction of SR, rather than chronic up-regulation of SR, is more effective and applicable in the practice of hormesis for healthy ageing and longevity.

  5. Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1; ERα), not ESR2 (ERβ), modulates estrogen-induced sex reversal in the American alligator, a species with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Satomi; Bernhard, Melissa C; Katsu, Yoshinao; Zhu, Jianguo; Bryan, Teresa A; Doheny, Brenna M; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-05-01

    All crocodilians and many turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination where the temperature of the incubated egg, during a thermo-sensitive period (TSP), determines the sex of the offspring. Estrogens play a critical role in sex determination in crocodilians and turtles, as it likely does in most nonmammalian vertebrates. Indeed, administration of estrogens during the TSP induces male to female sex reversal at a male-producing temperature (MPT). However, it is not clear how estrogens override the influence of temperature during sex determination in these species. Most vertebrates have 2 forms of nuclear estrogen receptor (ESR): ESR1 (ERα) and ESR2 (ERβ). However, there is no direct evidence concerning which ESR is involved in sex determination, because a specific agonist or antagonist for each ESR has not been tested in nonmammalian species. We identified specific pharmaceutical agonists for each ESR using an in vitro transactivation assay employing American alligator ESR1 and ESR2; these were 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) and 7-bromo-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-benzoxazol-5-ol (WAY 200070), respectively. Alligator eggs were exposed to PPT or WAY 200070 at a MPT just before the TSP, and their sex was examined at the last stage of embryonic development. Estradiol-17β and PPT, but not WAY 200070, induced sex reversal at a MPT. PPT-exposed embryos exposed to the highest dose (5.0 μg/g egg weight) exhibited enlargement and advanced differentiation of the Müllerian duct. These results indicate that ESR1 is likely the principal ESR involved in sex reversal as well as embryonic Müllerian duct survival and growth in American alligators.

  6. Sex differences in the consequences of early-life exposure to epidemiological stress--a life-history approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to infectious disease in early life has been suggested to have a negative effect on later-life survival,possibly through the induction of inflammatory responses. Although a life-course perspective emphasizes the importance of both survival and reproduction for individual fitness, to date, no studies have investigated whether early-life exposure to infectious disease has an impact on reproduction as it has been suggested for later survival. To address this question, I have used family reconstitution data from a historical (18th and 19th century) human population in the Krummhörn (Germany) comparing survival and reproduction between an exposed and a non-exposed group. The exposed group comprised those exposed to a high-infectious disease load during prenatal and early postnatal development. The results show a marked sex difference in the impact of early-life exposure to infectious disease. Exposed females show no effect on their life expectancy but significantly reduced fertility (number of children). For exposed males, however, the effect on survival is opponent over time: mortality is increased during childhood but decreased in late adulthood. Above that, exposed males reproduce earlier and have a smaller proportion of surviving children. This study does not support former studies indicating a negative association between early-life disease load and later survival. I argue that due to differences in male and female life strategies, males in general are more vulnerable especially early in life. Hence, adverse environmental conditions may have a stronger effect on male survivability and reproductive performance.

  7. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  8. Sex-Specific Effects of Combined Exposure to Chemical and Non-chemical Stressors on Neuroendocrine Development: a Review of Recent Findings and Putative Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Whitney J; Wright, Rosalind J

    2017-12-01

    Environmental toxicants and psychosocial stressors share many biological substrates and influence overlapping physiological pathways. Increasing evidence indicates stress-induced changes to the maternal milieu may prime rapidly developing physiological systems for disruption by concurrent or subsequent exposure to environmental chemicals. In this review, we highlight putative mechanisms underlying sex-specific susceptibility of the developing neuroendocrine system to the joint effects of stress or stress correlates and environmental toxicants (bisphenol A, alcohol, phthalates, lead, chlorpyrifos, and traffic-related air pollution). We provide evidence indicating that concurrent or tandem exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors during windows of rapid development is associated with sex-specific synergistic, potentiated and reversed effects on several neuroendocrine endpoints related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, sex steroid levels, neurotransmitter circuits, and innate immune function. We additionally identify gaps, such as the role that the endocrine-active placenta plays, in our understanding of these complex interactions. Finally, we discuss future research needs, including the investigation of non-hormonal biomarkers of stress. We demonstrate multiple physiologic systems are impacted by joint exposure to chemical and non-chemical stressors differentially among males and females. Collectively, the results highlight the importance of evaluating sex-specific endpoints when investigating the neuroendocrine system and underscore the need to examine exposure to chemical toxicants within the context of the social environment.

  9. Cost Effectiveness of ‘On Demand’ Hiv Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for Non-Injection Drug-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Ouellet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent trials report the efficacy of continuous tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP for prevention of HIV infection. The cost effectiveness of ‘on demand’ PrEP for non-injection drug-using men who have sex with men at high risk of HIV acquisition has not been evaluated.

  10. Ocean acidification and pathogen exposure modulate the immune response of the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Nicole; Saavedra, Luisa M; Vargas, Cristian A; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Détrée, Camille

    2017-11-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is one of the main consequences of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), impacting key biological processes of marine organisms such as development, growth and immune response. However, there are scarce studies on the influence of OA on marine invertebrates' ability to cope with pathogens. This study evaluated the single and combined effects of OA and bacterial infection on the transcription expression of genes related to antioxidant system, antimicrobial peptides and pattern recognition receptors in the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis. Individuals of M. chilensis were exposed during 60 days at two concentrations of pCO2 (550 and 1200 μatm) representing respectively current and future scenario of OA and were then injected with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. Results evidenced an immunomodulation following the OA exposure with an up-regulation of C-type Lectin and Mytilin B and a down-regulation of Myticin A and PGRP. This immunomodulation pattern is partially counteracted after challenge with V. anguillarum with a down-regulation of the C-type lectin and Mytilin B and the up-regulation of Myticin A. In turn, these results evidence that pCO2-driven OA scenarios might triggers specific immune-related genes at early stages of infection, promoting the transcription of antimicrobial peptides and patterns recognition receptors. This study provides new evidence of how the immune response of bivalves is modulated by higher CO2 conditions in the ocean, as well one factor for the resilience of marine population upon global change scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daniel; Chariyalertsak, Chonlisa; Wongthanee, Antika; Kawichai, Surinda; Yotruean, Kriengkrai; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Guadamuz, Thomas; Suwanvanichkij, Voravit; Beyrer, Chris; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2013-01-01

    Northern Thailand has a high burden HIV epidemic among MSM and TG. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-emtricitabine has demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV among MSM and TG in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Determinants of PrEP acceptability are needed to gauge the potential uptake of this prevention strategy. From January to February 2012, 238 MSM and TG participants, who self-reported as HIV-uninfected or of unknown status, completed a self-administered survey on hand-held computers. Participants were recruited by venue-day-time sampling and asked to rate their likelihood of using oral PrEP for HIV prevention with an efficacy of 50%. PrEP acceptability was defined as being "very likely" to use PrEP. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to identify correlates of acceptability. 131 MSM and 107 TG responded, with mean ages of 23.7 and 21.8, respectively. 24% of MSM engaged primarily in receptive anal sex vs. 74% of TG. 21% of MSM and 44% of TG reported regular medication use. Prior awareness of PrEP was high at 66% among both MSM and TG respondents. 41% of MSM and 37% of TG were "very likely" to use PrEP. Among MSM, factors associated with PrEP acceptability included a prior history of STIs (AOR 4.6; 95%CIs 1.7-12.6), previous HIV testing (AOR 2.4 95%CIs 1.1-5.3), regularly planned sex (AOR 2.8 95%CIs 1.1-7.2), and infrequent sex (AOR 2.9 95%CIs 1.3-6.3). Among TG, factors associated with acceptability included prior awareness of PrEP (AOR 3.3; 95%CIs 1.2-9.0) and having private insurance (AOR 5.0; 95%CIs 1.3-19.0). MSM and TG in Northern Thailand are distinct groups in terms of sexual behaviors, patterns of medication use, and correlates of PrEP acceptability. Efforts to maximize PrEP uptake should include expanded HIV testing services and the provision of financial subsidies to reduce the cost of PrEP.

  12. Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Yang

    Full Text Available Northern Thailand has a high burden HIV epidemic among MSM and TG. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP with tenofovir-emtricitabine has demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV among MSM and TG in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Determinants of PrEP acceptability are needed to gauge the potential uptake of this prevention strategy.From January to February 2012, 238 MSM and TG participants, who self-reported as HIV-uninfected or of unknown status, completed a self-administered survey on hand-held computers. Participants were recruited by venue-day-time sampling and asked to rate their likelihood of using oral PrEP for HIV prevention with an efficacy of 50%. PrEP acceptability was defined as being "very likely" to use PrEP. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were calculated to identify correlates of acceptability.131 MSM and 107 TG responded, with mean ages of 23.7 and 21.8, respectively. 24% of MSM engaged primarily in receptive anal sex vs. 74% of TG. 21% of MSM and 44% of TG reported regular medication use. Prior awareness of PrEP was high at 66% among both MSM and TG respondents. 41% of MSM and 37% of TG were "very likely" to use PrEP. Among MSM, factors associated with PrEP acceptability included a prior history of STIs (AOR 4.6; 95%CIs 1.7-12.6, previous HIV testing (AOR 2.4 95%CIs 1.1-5.3, regularly planned sex (AOR 2.8 95%CIs 1.1-7.2, and infrequent sex (AOR 2.9 95%CIs 1.3-6.3. Among TG, factors associated with acceptability included prior awareness of PrEP (AOR 3.3; 95%CIs 1.2-9.0 and having private insurance (AOR 5.0; 95%CIs 1.3-19.0.MSM and TG in Northern Thailand are distinct groups in terms of sexual behaviors, patterns of medication use, and correlates of PrEP acceptability. Efforts to maximize PrEP uptake should include expanded HIV testing services and the provision of financial subsidies to reduce the cost of PrEP.

  13. Psychological distress, drug use, sexual risks and medication adherence among young HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men: exposure to community violence matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R; Bouris, Alida; Schneider, John

    2016-07-01

    In the USA, Black males are disproportionately affected by community violence and HIV. The aim of this study was to assess whether exposures to community violence are related to psychological distress, drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and medication adherence among a sample of HIV-positive young Black men who had sex with men (YBMSM). Data are from 98 YBMSM ages 18-29 years recruited from Chicago who completed measures on demographics, exposures to community violence, psychological distress, drug use, condomless anal intercourse, and medication adherence. Rates of exposure to community violence were high and youth reported victimization and witnessing numerous types of violence in their lifetime. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, models indicate that YBMSM reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence had significantly higher rates of condomless anal intercourse in the previous 6 months (AOR: 5.33, 95%CI: 1.38-20.55). Additionally, exposure to community violence was positively associated with psychological distress, hard drug use, and use of marijuana as a sex drug. Adherence to HIV antiretroviral medication was negatively associated with community violence (AOR: 0.36, 95%CI: 0.13-0.97). Rates of exposure to community violence are especially high in urban communities. Overall findings suggest that treatment, intervention, and programmatic approaches that include initiatives to address exposure to community violence might correlate with better health-related outcomes for HIV-positive YBMSM.

  14. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Megan K; Kahn, Linda G; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=-1.714 (-3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term=1.490 (-0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effects of Synthetic Estrogen Exposure on the Sexually Dimorphic Liver Transcriptome of the Sex-Role-Reversed Gulf Pipefish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rose, Emily; Flanagan, Sarah P; Jones, Adam G

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles...

  16. Awareness and Acceptability of Pre-exposure HIV Prophylaxis Among Men Who have Sex with Men in Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Susan A; Park, Ju Nyeong; Ogbue, Christine Powell; Flynn, Colin; German, Danielle

    2017-05-01

    This paper assessed characteristics associated with awareness of and willingness to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Baltimore men who have sex with men (MSM). We used data from BESURE-MSM3, a venue-based cross-sectional HIV surveillance study conducted among MSM in 2011. Multivariate regression was used to identify characteristics associated with PrEP knowledge and acceptability among 399 participants. Eleven percent had heard of PrEP, 48% would be willing to use PrEP, and none had previously used it. In multivariable analysis, black race and perceived discrimination against those with HIV were significantly associated with decreased awareness, and those who perceived higher HIV discrimination reported higher acceptability of PrEP. Our findings indicate a need for further education about the potential utility of PrEP in addition to other prevention methods among MSM. HIV prevention efforts should address the link between discrimination and potential PrEP use, especially among men of color.

  17. Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): identifying critically vulnerable periods of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Natacha S; Duarte, Paula; Wade, Michael G; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L

    2008-05-01

    During the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog, there are critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive developmental periods for estrogenic endocrine disruption in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) using short, targeted exposures to the synthetic estrogen, ethinylestradiol (EE2). Post-hatch tadpoles (Gosner stage 27) were exposed over five distinct periods of metamorphosis: early (stage 27-30), mid (stage 30-36), early and mid (stage 27-36), late (stage 36-42), and the entire metamorphic period (chronic; stage 27-42). For each period, animals were sampled immediately following the EE2 exposure and at metamorphic climax (stage 42). The effects of EE2 on metamorphic development and sex differentiation were assessed through measures of length, weight, developmental stage, days to metamorphosis, sex ratios and incidence of gonadal intersex. Our results show that tadpoles exposed to EE2 during mid-metamorphosis were developmentally delayed immediately following exposure and took 2 weeks longer to reach metamorphic climax. In the unexposed groups, there was low proportion (0.15) of intersex tadpoles at stage 30 and gonads appeared to be morphologically distinct (male and female) in all individuals by stage 36. Tadpoles exposed early in development displayed a strong female-biased sex ratio compared to the controls. Moreover, these effects were also seen at metamorphic climax, approximately 2-3 months after the exposure period, demonstrating that transient early life-stage exposure to estrogen can induce effects on the reproductive organs that persist into the beginning of adult life-stages.

  18. Developmental exposure to bisphenol A modulates innate but not adaptive immune responses to influenza A virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Roy

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is used in numerous products, such as plastic bottles and food containers, from which it frequently leaches out and is consumed by humans. There is a growing public concern that BPA exposure may pose a significant threat to human health. Moreover, due to the widespread and constant nature of BPA exposure, not only adults but fetuses and neonates are also exposed to BPA. There is mounting evidence that developmental exposures to chemicals from our environment, including BPA, contribute to diseases late in life; yet, studies of how early life exposures specifically alter the immune system are limited. Herein we report an examination of how maternal exposure to a low, environmentally relevant dose of BPA affects the immune response to infection with influenza A virus. We exposed female mice during pregnancy and through lactation to the oral reference dose for BPA listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, and comprehensively examined immune parameters directly linked to disease outcomes in adult offspring following infection with influenza A virus. We found that developmental exposure to BPA did not compromise disease-specific adaptive immunity against virus infection, or reduce the host's ability to clear the virus from the infected lung. However, maternal exposure to BPA transiently reduced the extent of infection-associated pulmonary inflammation and anti-viral gene expression in lung tissue. From these observations, we conclude that maternal exposure to BPA slightly modulates innate immunity in adult offspring, but does not impair the anti-viral adaptive immune response, which is critical for virus clearance and survival following influenza virus infection.

  19. Mercury exposure induces cytoskeleton disruption and loss of renal function through epigenetic modulation of MMP9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hafizurrahman; Singh, Radha Dutt; Tiwari, Ratnakar; Gangopadhyay, Siddhartha; Roy, Somendu Kumar; Singh, Dhirendra; Srivastava, Vikas

    2017-07-01

    Mercury is one of the major heavy metal pollutants occurring in elemental, inorganic and organic forms. Due to ban on most inorganic mercury containing products, human exposure to mercury generally occurs as methylmercury (MeHg) by consumption of contaminated fish and other sea food. Animal and epidemiological studies indicate that MeHg affects neural and renal function. Our study is focused on nephrotoxic potential of MeHg. In this study, we have shown for the first time how MeHg could epigenetically modulate matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) to promote nephrotoxicity using an animal model of sub chronic MeHg exposure. MeHg caused renal toxicity as was seen by increased levels of serum creatinine and expression of early nephrotoxicity markers (KIM-1, Clusterin, IP-10, and TIMP). MeHg exposure also correlated strongly with induction of MMP9 mRNA and protein in a dose dependent manner. Further, while induction of MMP9 promoted cytoskeleton disruption and loss of cell-cell adhesion (loss of F-actin, Vimentin and Fibronectin), inhibition of MMP9 was found to reduce these disruptions. Mechanistic studies by ChIP analysis showed that MeHg modulated MMP9 by promoting demethylation of its regulatory region to increase its expression. Bisulfite sequencing identified critical CpGs in the first exon of MMP9 which were demethylated following MeHg exposure. ChIP studies also showed loss of methyl binding protein, MeCP2 and transcription factor PEA3 at the demethylated site confirming decreased CpG methylation. Our studies thus show how MeHg could epigenetically modulate MMP9 to promote cytoskeleton disruption leading to loss of renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to preeclampsia in utero affects growth from birth to late childhood dependent on child's sex and severity of exposure: Follow-up of a nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Kjer Byberg

    Full Text Available An adverse intrauterine environment may affect offspring growth and development. Our aim was to explore whether preeclampsia (PE exposure in utero influences growth from birth to 13 years.In a nested case-control study, 229 children were exposed to PE (mild/moderate: n = 164, severe: n = 54 and 385 were unexposed. Length/height and weight were abstracted from records at birth, 3 and 6 months, 1 and 4 years, and measured along with waist circumference and skinfolds at follow-up at 11/12 (girls/boys and 13 years (both sexes. Associations between PE and z-scores for growth were analyzed by multiple linear and fractional polynomial regression with adjustment for potential confounders.In boys, exposure to mild/moderate PE was positively associated with linear growth after 0.5 years, but severe PE was negatively associated with linear growth in all ages. In girls, both exposure to mild/moderate and severe PE were negatively associated with linear growth. Exposure to PE was negatively associated with weight and body mass index (BMI during infancy, but positively associated with weight and BMI thereafter, except that boys exposed to severe PE consistently had a lower weight and BMI compared to the unexposed. Exposure to severe PE only was positively associated with waist-to-height ratio at 11/12 (girls/boys and 13 years (both sexes.From birth to adolescence, linear growth, weight and BMI trajectories differed between the sexes by severity of exposure to PE. In general, PE exposure was negatively associated with linear growth, while in girls; positive associations with weight and BMI were observed. This underlines fetal life as a particularly sensitive period affecting subsequent growth and this may have implications for targeted approaches for healthy growth and development.

  1. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrell Metrecia L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB, a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974 resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988 and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10. When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300, we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers compared to combined parents' PBB exposure Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on secondary sex ratio and exposure to environmental contaminants. In this population, combined parental exposure to PBBs or PCBs increased the odds of a male birth. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and shed light on the biological mechanisms by which these types of chemicals may influence the secondary sex ratio.

  2. Studies of Frequency–Dependent Changes under Modulated Ultrasound Exposure on Cells in Suspension

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    Anna A. Oleshkevich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the modulated ultrasound effect (range of modulation frequencies 10Hz–1000Hz intensity 0.2 W/cm2 on white blood cells (WBCs from different animals were studied. The quantitative ratio of WBCs was the most strongly altered by ultrasonic modulation frequency 1000 Hz. This frequency led to degenerative changes of cells. The presence of non-typeable or destroyed cells in smears was indicated. The results obtained demonstrated the possibility of directed impact on different WBC forms.

  3. Sex differences in conditioned taste aversion and in the effects of exposure to a specific pulsed magnetic field in deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleris, E; Thomas, A W; Ossenkopp, K; Kavaliers, M; Valsecchi, P; Prato, F S

    Although conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been investigated and described in laboratory rodents and domestic animals, less is known regarding wild rodents. Here, we describe CTA in males and females of a "wild" species of rodent, the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). In addition, as CTA has often been induced by exposure to intense electromagnetic, X or gamma, radiation, in a second study, we also investigated the effects of a specifically designed, pulsed extremely low-frequency and low-intensity magnetic field on the flavor preferences of male and female deer mice. The results of these investigations showed that: (i) deer mice quickly developed a marked CTA for a novel flavor after a single pairing with LiCl; (ii) although the intensity of the CTA was the same in males and females, there was a sex difference in the duration of the flavor aversion, with males displaying it for a longer period (4 days) than females (3 days); (iii) both males and females showed a rapid and complete extinction of the aversion, in contrast to what has been reported for laboratory rodents; (iv) there was no recovery of CTA on re-test 10 days after extinction; (v) neither male or female deer mice developed a taste aversion as a consequence of exposure to a weak electromagnetic field; and (vi) there was a sex difference in response to the magnetic field, with exposure to the magnetic field significantly enhancing novel taste preference in male but not in female deer mice. Overall, our results show that there are several sex differences in the behavior of deer mice, both in the characteristics of the CTA and in the response to magnetic field exposure. The sex differences are discussed in terms of a sexually dimorphic sensitivity to experimental manipulation and the induction of stress and/or anxiety.

  4. Motives of Dutch men who have sex with men for daily and intermittent HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis usage and preferences for implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bil, Janneke P.; van der Veldt, Wendy M.; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G.; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although PrEP is not yet registered in Europe, including the Netherlands, its approval and implementation are expected in the near future. To inform future pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation, this study aimed to gain insight into motives and preferences for daily or intermittent PrEP use among Dutch HIV-negative men having sex with men (MSM). Between February and December 2013, semistructured interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached (N = 20). Interviews...

  5. A Micro-fabricated Hydrogen Storage Module with Sub-atmospheric Activation and Durability in Air Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xi; Payer, Joe H; Wainright, Jesse S; Dudik, Laurie

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this work was to develop a hydrogen storage module for onboard electrical power sources suitable for use in micro power systems and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Hydrogen storage materials were developed as thin-film inks to be compatible with an integrated manufacturing process. Important design aspects were (a) ready activation at sub-atmospheric hydrogen pressure and room temperature and (b) durability, i.e. capable of hundreds of absorption/desorption cycles and resistance to deactivation on exposure to air. Inks with palladium-treated intermetallic hydrogen storage alloys were developed and are shown here to be compatible with a thin-film micro-fabrication process. These hydrogen storage modules absorb hydrogen readily at atmospheric pressure, and the absorption/desorption rates remained fast even after the ink was exposed to air for 47 weeks.

  6. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo

    2017-01-01

    -field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact...... support a role of 5-HT2AR activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT2AR blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection....

  7. Modulation of platelet membrane function via exogenous lipid moiety exposure alters platelet responsiveness to shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S L; Dimasi, A; Heiser, S; Dunn, A; Bluestein, D; Slepian, M

    2015-01-01

    Shear-induced platelet activation may cause life-threatening thrombosis, particularly in patients with mechanical support devices or coronary atherosclerosis. The majority of present anti-platelet agents target or interfere with biochemical, rather than physical mechanisms of platelet activation. Less data and understanding exists with regard to pharmacologic modulation of shear-mediated platelet activation. In this work, we hypothesized that modulating cell membrane properties, via alteration of membrane composition through addition of exogenous lipid moieties, would alter platelet responsiveness to shear. Here we tested fatty acids, lecithin and cholesterol as additive lipid compounds. We demonstrated that incorporation of fatty acids (DHA/EPA) or lecithin into the platelet membrane triggered enhanced sensitivity of platelets to shear-mediated activation. On the other hand, cholesterol incorporation provides significant protection, limiting the effect of shear on platelet activation. These findings provide valuable insight for the development of therapeutic strategies that can modulate shear-mediated platelet activation.

  8. Dynamic association of BAM complex modules includes surface exposure of the lipoprotein BamC.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Chaille; Selkrig, Joel; Perry, Andrew; Noinaj, Nicholas; Buchanan, Susan K.; Lithgow, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The BAM complex drives assembly of β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. It is composed of five subunits: BamA, BamB, BamC, BamD and BamE. We find that the BAM complex isolated from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli consists of a core complex of BamA:B:C:D:E and in addition, a BamA:B module and a BamC:D module. In the absence of BamC, these modules are destabilized resulting in increased protease susceptibility of BamD and BamB. While the N-terminus of BamC...

  9. Perinatal Lead (Pb) Exposure Results in Sex-Specific Effects on Food Intake, Fat, Weight, and Insulin Response across the Murine Life-Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Brisa N.; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Anderson, Olivia S.; Peterson, Karen E.; Dolinoy, Dana C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with lower body weight in human infants and late onset obesity in mice. We determined the association of perinatal Pb exposure in mice with changes in obesity-related phenotypes into adulthood. Mice underwent exposure via maternal drinking water supplemented with 0 (control), 2.1 (low), 16 (medium), or 32 (high) ppm Pb-acetate two weeks prior to mating through lactation. Offspring were phenotyped at ages 3, 6, and 9 months for energy expenditure, spontaneous activity, food intake, body weight, body composition, and at age 10 months for glucose tolerance. Data analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for litter effects. Exposed females and males exhibited increased energy expenditure as compared to controls (pexposures (p = 0.001 and p = 0.006). Total body fat differed among exposed females and males (pexposure males (pexposure at blood lead levels between 4.1 µg/dL and 32 µg/dL is associated with increased food intake, body weight, total body fat, energy expenditure, activity, and insulin response in mice. Physiological effects of developmental Pb exposure persist and vary according to sex and age. PMID:25105421

  10. Maternal air pollution exposure induces fetal neuroinflammation and predisposes offspring to obesity in aduthood in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests environmental chemical exposures during critical windows of development may contribute to the escalating prevalence of obesity. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal air pollution exposure would predispose the offspring to weight gain in adulthood. Pre...

  11. Association between violence exposure and condom non-use among transgender sex workers in the Dominican Republic: the mediating role of trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Turan, Bulent; Hasbun, Julia; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John

    2017-05-01

    Transgender women are a high-risk population, and transgender female sex workers are one of the most vulnerable populations globally. Transgender female sex workers have high rates of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, and exposure to violence compared to cisgender sex workers; these negative exposures are associated with an increase in HIV risk behaviors. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between exposure to violence and condom non-use in transgender female sex workers residing in the Dominican Republic. We hypothesize that mediation exists wherein the effects of violence on condom non-use are mediated by distrust. Facilitated interview data ( N = 78) were used. Primary outcome was condom non-use with coercive partner. Four logistic regression models and a mediation analysis were employed. Respondents' mean age was 23.0 years (SD = 4.8) with an average level education attainment of 10.1 years (SD = 2.6); 35% reported experiencing violence; 17% believed that a person who asks a partner to use a condom does not trust that partner. Exploratory mediation analyses yielded a significant indirect effect of experience with violence on condom non-use through distrust (b = 0.64, SE = 0.33, p = .05). Results suggest that distrust mediates the association between experienced violence and condom use with coercive partners. It was concluded that developing interventions on increasing resilience and perceived self-worth, plus provision of screening for violence and referral services may reduce maladaptive attributions and cognitions about condom use. Furthermore, by implementing policies that protect vulnerable populations, and subsequently enforcing them, the Dominican Republic has the opportunity to improve overall population health and protect their most disadvantaged citizens.

  12. Nano-TiO2 modulates the dermal sensitization potency of dinitrochlorobenzene after topical exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, S.; Golanski, L.; Smolders, E.J.; Vanoirbeek, J.; Hoet, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on skin sensitization caused by chemicals. OBJECTIVES: We determined the ability of different ENPs (TiO2 , Ag and SiO2 ) and aged paint particles containing ENPs to modulate dermal sensitization by a known potent dermal

  13. Analysis of complex patterns of human exposure and immunity to Schistosomiasis mansoni: the influence of age, sex, ethnicity and IgE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pinot de Moira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous factors may influence Schistosoma infection intensity and prevalence within endemic communities, including exposure-related factors such as local environment and behaviour, and factors relating to susceptibility to infection such as immunology and genetics. While animal studies performed in the laboratory can be tightly controlled, human populations are highly heterogeneous, varying according to demographic characteristics, genetic background and exposure to infection. The heterogeneous nature of human water contact behaviour in particular makes it difficult to distinguish between a lack of cercarial exposure and reduced susceptibility to infection as the cause for low levels of infection in the field.In this study we investigate risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection in a rural Ugandan fishing community receiving treatment as part of a multi-disciplinary longitudinal reinfection study. More specifically, we examine the influence that age, sex and ethnic background have on susceptibility to reinfection after anti-helminth drug treatment, but use individual estimates of cercarial exposure and multivariable methods in an attempt to remove noise created by environmental and behavioural heterogeneities. We then investigate whether schistosome-specific IgE immune responses could account for any remaining variations in susceptibility to reinfection. Our findings suggest that observed ethnic- and sex-related variations in S. mansoni reinfection were due to variations in cercarial exposure, as opposed to biological differences in susceptibility to infection. Age-related differences in reinfection were not explained by exposure, however, and appeared linked to the balance of IgE and IgG(4 to the tegumental antigen SmTAL1 (formerly Sm22.6, which itself was significantly related to resistance to reinfection.This study highlights the benefit of taking a multidisciplinary approach in complex field settings; it allows the ecology of a

  14. Early developmental bisphenol-A exposure sex-independently impairs spatial memory by remodeling hippocampal dendritic architecture and synaptic transmission in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Ding, Jin-Jun; Yang, Qian-Qian; Song, Hua-Zeng; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Xu, Yi; Xiao, Gui-Ran; Wang, Hui-Li

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA, 4, 4‧-isopropylidene-2-diphenol), a synthetic xenoestrogen that widely used in the production of polycarbonate plastics, has been reported to impair hippocampal development and function. Our previous study has shown that BPA exposure impairs Sprague-Dawley (SD) male hippocampal dendritic spine outgrowth. In this study, the sex-effect of chronic BPA exposure on spatial memory in SD male and female rats and the related synaptic mechanism were further investigated. We found that chronic BPA exposure impaired spatial memory in both SD male and female rats, suggesting a dysfunction of hippocampus without gender-specific effect. Further investigation indicated that BPA exposure causes significant impairment of dendrite and spine structure, manifested as decreased dendritic complexity, dendritic spine density and percentage of mushroom shaped spines in hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Furthermore, a significant reduction in Arc expression was detected upon BPA exposure. Strikingly, BPA exposure significantly increased the mIPSC amplitude without altering the mEPSC amplitude or frequency, accompanied by increased GABAARβ2/3 on postsynaptic membrane in cultured CA1 neurons. In summary, our study indicated that Arc, together with the increased surface GABAARβ2/3, contributed to BPA induced spatial memory deficits, providing a novel molecular basis for BPA achieved brain impairment.

  15. Conserved regulatory modules in the Sox9 testis-specific enhancer predict roles for SOX, TCF/LEF, Forkhead, DMRT, and GATA proteins in vertebrate sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Sinclair, Andrew H; Koopman, Peter; Harley, Vincent R

    2010-03-01

    While the primary sex determining switch varies between vertebrate species, a key downstream event in testicular development, namely the male-specific up-regulation of Sox9, is conserved. To date, only two sex determining switch genes have been identified, Sry in mammals and the Dmrt1-related gene Dmy (Dmrt1bY) in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes. In mice, Sox9 expression is evidently up-regulated by SRY and maintained by SOX9 both of which directly activate the core 1.3 kb testis-specific enhancer of Sox9 (TESCO). How Sox9 expression is up-regulated and maintained in species without Sry (i.e. non-mammalian species) is not understood. In this study, we have undertaken an in-depth comparative genomics approach and show that TESCO contains an evolutionarily conserved region (ECR) of 180 bp which is present in marsupials, monotremes, birds, reptiles and amphibians. The ECR contains highly conserved modules that predict regulatory roles for SOX, TCF/LEF, Forkhead, DMRT, and GATA proteins in vertebrate sex determination/differentiation. Our data suggest that tetrapods share common aspects of Sox9 regulation in the testis, despite having different sex determining switch mechanisms. They also suggest that Sox9 autoregulation is an ancient mechanism shared by all tetrapods, raising the possibility that in mammals, SRY evolved by mimicking this regulation. The validation of ECR regulatory sequences conserved from human to frogs will provide new insights into vertebrate sex determination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Access to healthcare, HIV/STI testing, and preferred pre-exposure prophylaxis providers among men who have sex with men and men who engage in street-based sex work in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Underhill

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation.We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38 in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs (n = 31 and other MSM (n = 25 in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers.MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs, substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings.PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.

  17. Serotonin modulates anxiety-like behaviors during withdrawal from adolescent anabolic–androgenic steroid exposure in Syrian hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    From the U.S. to Europe and Australia anabolic steroid abuse remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of pathological anxiety that often appears during withdrawal from use. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) exposure predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of anxiety during AAS withdrawal that is modulated by serotonin (5HT) neural signaling. In the first two sets of experiments, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were tested for anxiety 21 days after the cessation of AAS administration (i.e., during AAS withdrawal) using the elevated plus maze (EPM), dark/light (DL), and seed finding (SF) tests and then examined for differences in 5HT afferent innervation to select areas of the brain important for anxiety. In the EPM and DL tests, adolescent AAS exposure leads to significant increases in anxiety-like response during AAS withdrawal. AAS-treated hamsters showed long-term reductions in 5HT innervation within several areas of the hamster brain implicated in anxiety, most notably the anterior hypothalamus and the central and medial amygdala. However, no differences in 5HT were found in other anxiety areas, e.g., frontal cortex and lateral septum. In the last experiment, adolescent AAS-treated hamsters were scored for anxiety on the 21st day of AAS withdrawal following the systemic administration of saline or one of three doses of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Saline-treated hamsters showed high levels of AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety, while treatment with fluoxetine reduced AAS withdrawal-induced anxiety. These findings indicate that early AAS exposure has potent anxiogenic effects during AAS withdrawal that are modulated, in part, by 5HT signaling. PMID:23026540

  18. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with Increased respiratory morbiditses and susceptibility to Infections Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet Its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known ‘the greater Mexico City area was the pri...

  19. Chronic 14-day exposure to insecticides or methylmercury modulates neuronal activity in primary rat cortical cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Milou; Schütte, Marijke G; Wiersma, Daphne M M; de Groot, Aart; van Kleef, Gina; Wijnolts, Fiona; Westerink, Remco

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for in vitro test systems to detect neurotoxicity for use in chemical risk assessment. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of rat primary cortical cultures grown on multi-well micro-electrode arrays (mwMEAs) to detect effects of chronic 14-day exposure to

  20. Effect of chronic cold exposure on noradrenergic modulation in the preoptic area of thermoregulation in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takehito; Ishiwata, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Shigeki; Kotani, Yasunori; Otokawa, Minoru; Aihara, Yasutsugu

    2008-07-04

    For this study, we compared the thermoregulatory involvement of noradrenaline (NA) in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) of non-cold acclimated rats to that of cold-acclimated rats. We quantified the release of NA in the mPOA during 3 h cold (5 degrees C) exposure in room-temperature-acclimated rats (RA group, kept at 23 degrees C for 2 weeks) and cold-acclimated rats (CA group, kept at 5 degrees C for 2 weeks). We concurrently monitored the core body temperature (Tc), heart rate (HR), and tail skin temperature (Tt). Cold exposure significantly increased Tc and HR, and decreased Tt in both groups. However, the cold-induced increase of the extracellular NA levels in mPOA was observed only in the RA group: not in the CA group. To elucidate these different results in NA levels further, and to evaluate participation of the mPOA in thermoregulation in the cold, we measured Tc, HR, and Tt during perfusion of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine during cold exposure (5 degrees C). This pharmacological procedure induced marked hypothermia, with decreases in HR only in the RA group; no changes were observed in Tc or any thermoregulatory parameter in the CA group. These results suggest that NA in the mPOA modulates heat production in response to acute cold stress in the RA group. However, this thermoregulatory action of NA in the mPOA was attenuated in the CA group.

  1. Teaching Modules to Build HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Safer Sex Skills among African-American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has taken a tremendous toll on the population of the United States. College students, including African-Americans aged 13-24 years, across the nation are susceptible to contracting sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS as they participate in unsafe sex practices. The purpose of this article is to provide teaching…

  2. Intimacy motivations and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adoption intentions among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Golub, Sarit A

    2015-04-01

    In the USA, men who have sex with men (MSM) in primary partnerships are at elevated risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a new biomedical prevention strategy, has potential to reduce HIV transmission. This study examined predictors of PrEP adoption intentions among HIV-negative MSM in primary partnerships. The sample included HIV-negative MSM (n = 164) who participated in an ongoing cross-sectional study with an in-person interview examining PrEP adoption intentions. Higher HIV risk perception, intimacy motivations for condomless sex, recent condomless anal sex with outside partners, education, and age were each independently associated with PrEP adoption intentions. In a multivariate model, only age, education, and intimacy motivations for condomless sex were significantly associated with PrEP adoption intentions. Intimacy motivations may play a central role in PrEP adoption for MSM couples. Incorporating relationship dynamics into biomedical strategies is a promising avenue for research and intervention.

  3. High-fat diet-induced obesity regulates MMP3 to modulate depot- and sex-dependent adipose expansion in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Ido, Yasuo; Fried, Susan K

    2017-01-01

    Increased adipocyte size is hypothesized to signal the recruitment of adipose progenitor cells (APCs) to expand tissue storage capacity. To investigate depot and sex differences in adipose growth, male and female C57BL/6J mice (10 wk-old) were challenged with high-fat (HF) or low-fat (LF) diets (D) for 14 wk. The HFD increased gonadal (GON) depot weight by adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia in females but hypertrophy alone in males. In both sexes, inguinal (ING) adipocytes were smaller than GON, and depot expansion was due to hypertrophy. Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (Mmp3), an antiadipogenic factor, and its inhibitor Timps modulate the extracellular matrix remodeling needed for depot expansion. Mmp3 mRNA was depot different (ING > GON), higher in females than males and mainly expressed in APCs. In males, HFD-induced obesity increased tissue and APC Mmp3 mRNA levels and MMP3 protein and enzymatic activity. In females however, HFD significantly decreased MMP3 protein without affecting its mRNA levels. MMP3 activity also decreased (significant in ING). Timp4 mRNA was expressed mainly in adipocytes, and HFD-induced obesity tended to increase the ratio of TIMP4 to MMP3 protein in females, whereas it decreased it in males. Overexpression of Mmp3 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or rhMMP3 protein added to primary human preadipocytes inhibited differentiation, whereas rhTIMP4 improved adipogenesis and attenuated the inhibitory effect of rhMMP3. These data suggest that HFD-induced obesity downregulates APC MMP3 expression to trigger adipogenesis, and adipocyte TIMP4 may modulate this process to regulate hyperplastic vs. hypertrophic adipose tissue expansion, fat distribution, and metabolic health in a sex- and depot-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Self-Perception of HIV Risk and Candidacy for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Testing for HIV at Commercial Sex Venues in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy; Link, Lauren; Ramos, Michael; Bottger, Edward; Aberg, Judith; Daskalakis, Demetre

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of men who have sex with men (MSM) testing for HIV at commercial sex venues to assess the following: their candidacy for pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) as defined by meeting entry criteria for the iPrEx (Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición) phase III clinical trial of PrEP, and their perception of their own HIV risk and candidacy for PrEP. Interviewers surveyed 629 MSM at three NYC commercial sex venues from June 2011 through June 2012. Questions focused on demographics, sexual activity, and drug use in the three months prior to testing, as well as perceived risk of HIV acquisition and perceived candidacy for PrEP use. Data were analyzed by Chi square and Fisher's exact test. Results show that a majority of clients (80.3%) met entry criteria for the iPrEX. Most of these men (78.0%), however, did not perceive their risk to be significant enough to warrant PrEP use (P=.000). Factors were identified which associated with a risk perception that correlated with eligibility for iPrEX.

  5. The mere exposure effect is modulated by selective attention but not visual awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Hsieh, Po-Jang

    2013-10-18

    Repeated exposures to an object will lead to an enhancement of evaluation toward that object. Although this mere exposure effect may occur when the objects are presented subliminally, the role of conscious perception per se on evaluation has never been examined. Here we use a binocular rivalry paradigm to investigate whether a variance in conscious perceptual duration of faces has an effect on their subsequent evaluation, and how selective attention and memory interact with this effect. Our results show that face evaluation is positively biased by selective attention but not affected by visual awareness. Furthermore, this effect is not due to participants recalling which face had been attended to. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of Radiation responses by pre-exposure to irradiated Cell conditioned medium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maguire, Paula

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure of HPV-G cells to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) could induce an adaptive response if the cells were subsequently challenged with a higher ICCM dose. Clonogenic survival and major steps in the cascade leading to apoptosis, such as calcium influx and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, were examined to determine whether these events could be modified by giving a priming dose of ICCM before the challenge dose. Clonogenic survival data indicated an ICCM-induced adaptive response in HPV-G cells "primed" with 5 mGy or 0.5 Gy ICCM for 24 h and then exposed to 0.5 Gy or 5 Gy ICCM. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were found to be involved in the bystander-induced cell death. Calcium fluxes varied in magnitude across the exposed cell population, and a significant number of the primed HPV-G cells did not respond to the challenge ICCM dose. No significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed when HPV-G cells were exposed to 0.5 Gy ICCM for 24 h followed by exposure to 5 Gy ICCM for 6 h. Exposure of HPV-G cells to 5 mGy ICCM for 24 h followed by exposure to 0.5 Gy ICCM for 18 h caused a significant increase in mitochondrial mass and a change in mitochondrial location, events associated with the perpetuation of genomic instability. This study has shown that a priming dose of ICCM has the ability to induce an adaptive response in HPV-G cells subsequently exposed to a challenge dose of ICCM.

  7. Sex-Specific Associations between Particulate Matter Exposure and Gene Expression in Independent Discovery and Validation Cohorts of Middle-Aged Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijens, Karen; Winckelmans, Ellen; Tsamou, Maria; Baeyens, Willy; De Boever, Patrick; Jennen, Danyel; de Kok, Theo M; Den Hond, Elly; Lefebvre, Wouter; Plusquin, Michelle; Reynders, Hans; Schoeters, Greet; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Kleinjans, Jos; Nawrot, Tim S

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. Microarray analyses were performed in 98 healthy volunteers (48 men, 50 women). The expression of eight sex-specific candidate biomarker genes (significantly associated with PM10 in the discovery cohort and with a reported link to air pollution-related disease) was measured with qPCR in an independent validation cohort (75 men, 94 women). Pathway analysis was performed using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Average daily PM2.5 and PM10 exposures over 2-years were estimated for each participant's residential address using spatiotemporal interpolation in combination with a dispersion model. Average long-term PM10 was 25.9 (± 5.4) and 23.7 (± 2.3) μg/m3 in the discovery and validation cohorts, respectively. In discovery analysis, associations between PM10 and the expression of individual genes differed by sex. In the validation cohort, long-term PM10 was associated with the expression of DNAJB5 and EAPP in men and ARHGAP4 (p = 0.053) in women. AKAP6 and LIMK1 were significantly associated with PM10 in women, although associations differed in direction between the discovery and validation cohorts. Expression of the eight candidate genes in the discovery cohort differentiated between validation cohort participants with high versus low PM10 exposure (area under the receiver operating curve = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.00; p = 0.0002 in men, 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.96; p = 0.004 in women). Expression of the sex-specific candidate genes identified in the discovery population predicted PM10 exposure in an independent cohort of adults from the same area. Confirmation in other populations may further support this as a new approach for exposure assessment, and may contribute to the discovery of molecular mechanisms for PM-induced health effects.

  8. Age at the time of exposure to trauma modulates the psychopathological profile in patients with early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda, Luis; Golay, Philippe; Baumann, Philipp S; Ferrari, Carina; Do, Kim Q; Conus, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To examine the potential differential impact of childhood trauma, according to the age at the time of exposure, on the psychopathological profile of patients with early psychosis treated in a specialized 3-year program during the early phase of the disease. 196 subjects with early psychosis aged 18-35 years were followed up prospectively over 36 months of treatment between 2004 and 2010. Patients who had faced at least 1 experience of abuse (physical, sexual, or emotional) or neglect (physical or emotional) were classified according to age at the time of the first exposure (early trauma: before 12 years of age; late trauma: from age 12 through 16 years) and then compared with unexposed patients (nontrauma). The level of symptoms was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Exposure to 1 or more forms of trauma before 16 years of age was present in 31.63% of patients. Comparisons over the 3 years of treatment with the nontrauma patients revealed that (1) patients with early trauma showed consistently higher levels of positive (P = .006), depressive (P = .001), manic (P = .006), and negative (P = .029) symptoms and (2) patients with late trauma showed only more negative symptoms (P = .029). These results suggest that the age at the time of exposure to trauma has a modulating effect on symptoms in patients with early psychosis. Various biological and psychological hypotheses can be proposed to explain this observation, and they need to be investigated in an experimental setting in order to develop therapeutic avenues. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Patterning and Conductivity Modulation of Conductive Polymers by UV Light Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edberg, Jesper; Iandolo, Donata; Brooke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A novel patterning technique of conductive polymers produced by vapor phase polymerization is demonstrated. The method involves exposing an oxidant film to UV light which changes the local chemical environment of the oxidant and subsequently the polymerization kinetics. This procedure is used...... to control the conductivity in the conjugated polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):tosylate by more than six orders of magnitude in addition to producing high-resolution patterns and optical gradients. The mechanism behind the modulation in the polymerization kinetics by UV light irradiation as well...... as the properties of the resulting polymer are investigated....

  10. Disgust and the politics of sex: exposure to a disgusting odorant increases politically conservative views on sex and decreases support for gay marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Thomas G; Stewart, Patrick A; Blanchar, John C

    2014-01-01

    Disgust has been implicated as a potential causal agent underlying socio-political attitudes and behaviors. Several recent studies have suggested that pathogen disgust may be a causal mechanism underlying social conservatism. However, the specificity of this effect is still in question. The present study tested the effects of disgust on a range of policy preferences to clarify whether disgust is generally implicated in political conservatism across public policy attitudes or is uniquely related to specific content domains. Self-reported socio-political attitudes were compared between participants in two experimental conditions: 1) an odorless control condition, and 2) a disgusting odor condition. In keeping with previous research, the present study showed that exposure to a disgusting odor increased endorsement of socially conservative attitudes related to sexuality. In particular, there was a strong and consistent link between induced disgust and less support for gay marriage.

  11. The macrophage low-grade inflammation marker sCD163 is modulated by exogenous sex steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik Holm; Møller, Holger Jon; Trolle, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner and Klinefelter Syndromes. We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards...... to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without Klinefelter Syndrome and females with and without Turner Syndrome. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study....... Females with Turner Syndrome (n=8) and healthy age- matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized cross-over trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with Klinefelter Syndrome had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47-6.90) and 1.36 (0...

  12. Low willingness and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention among men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingying; Yan, Huamei; Ning, Zhen; Cai, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yin; Pan, Rong; Zhou, Yanqiu; Zheng, Huang; Gao, Meiyang; Rou, Keming; Wu, Zunyou; He, Na

    2016-05-23

    Little is known about the acceptance and actual uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. This study is the baseline survey of an intervention study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of tenofovirdisoproxil fumarate (TDF) on a daily use for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among MSM in Shanghai, China. From October 2012 to December 2013, a total of 1,033 MSM in Shanghai were recruited by local district Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and a MSM community-based non-governmental organization (NGO). Among them, 197 (19.1%) participants expressed willingness to use the TDF group at baseline survey, but only 26 (2.5%) participated in the TDF group and took TDF one tablet a day. Higher willingness to use PrEP was associated with being 45 years or older, non-local residents, having more male sex partners in the past 6 months and not using condom at last anal sex with man. Acutal uptake of PrEP was associated with having ≥ 11 male sex partners in lifetime and reporting no female sex partners in lifetime. Reasons for not participating in TDF group among those who expressed willingness to use PrEP at baseline survey included loss of contact, ineligiblity because of abnormal results for liver or renal function tests, change of mind, and HIV seroconversion before uptake of PrEP. Our findings suggest that promotion of PrEP in MSM remains challenging at current circumstancein China. Future research is needed to solicit effective education and intervention programs to promote acceptance of PrEP among Chinese MSM.

  13. Fetal lipopolysaccharide exposure modulates diet-dependent gut maturation and sensitivity to necrotising enterocolitis in pre-term pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Schmidt, Mette; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    , digestive enzymes, elevated NEC incidence (38 v. 0%, P immune-related genes, relative to control-C pigs. Compared with the control-F and control-C groups, values in formula-fed pigs given intra-amniotic LPS formula (n 17) were intermediate for villus height......, enzyme activities, intestinal permeability and NEC incidence (18%, P = 0.2 relative to control-F), and numbers of differentially expressed immune genes. In conclusion, prenatal exposure of the fetal gut to Gram-negative bacteria may modulate the immediate postnatal response to an enteral diet...... that improve resistance towards necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. At approximately 85% gestation, pig fetuses were injected intramuscularly with saline or LPS (0.014 mg/kg), or intra-amniotically with LPS (0.4 mg/kg). Pigs were delivered by caesarean section 3–5 d later and fed colostrum (C...

  14. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. In situ exposure history modulates the molecular responses to carbamate fungicide Tattoo in bivalve mollusk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falfushynska, Halina I; Gnatyshyna, Lesya L; Stoliar, Oksana B

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was the investigation of the effect of in situ exposure history on the responses of freshwater mussels to thiocarbamate fungicide. Male bivalve mollusks Anodonta anatina (Unionidae) from polluted (A) and unpolluted (F) sites were subjected to 14 days of exposure to fungicide Tattoo (mixture of propamocarb and mancozeb, 91 μg L(-1)). When unexposed mussels were compared, chronic effect of toxic environment in site A was confirmed by oxidative stress indices (high levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and oxyradical production, low level of total glutathione (GSH)), genotoxicity (high levels of DNA-strand breaks and caspase-3 activity in digestive gland), and cytotoxicity (low lysosomal membrane stability in hemocytes), elevated vitellogenin-like proteins (Vtg-LP) concentration in gonads, high levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, metallothionein (MT)-bound metals (MT-Me) and MT-related thiol (MT-SH), and low ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in digestive gland. The major differences in the responses of the two exposed groups were related to antioxidant defense and MT: in the group A, prominent oxidative stress response with the participation of MT-SH and GSH in the gills, EROD activation, but decrease of MT-Me level was shown, whereas in group F exposure provoked the elevation of MT-Me, caspase-3 and Vtg-LP values. Carbamate did not cause cholinesterase depletion and cytotoxicity. However, genotoxic and pro-oxidant effects (increased levels of hemocytes with micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities, DNA-strand breaks and oxyradical in digestive gland), were common responses for both the exposed groups.

  16. Early-life lead exposure results in dose- and sex-specific effects on weight and epigenetic gene regulation in weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Christopher; Barks, Amanda; Liu, Kevin; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Dolinoy, Dana C

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and animal data suggest that the development of adult chronic conditions is influenced by early-life exposure-induced changes to the epigenome. This study investigates the effects of perinatal lead (Pb) exposure on DNA methylation and bodyweight in weanling mice. Viable yellow agouti (A(vy)) mouse dams were exposed to 0, 2.1, 16 and 32 ppm Pb acetate before conception through weaning. Epigenetic effects were evaluated by scoring coat color of A(vy)/a offspring and quantitative bisulfite sequencing of two retrotransposon-driven (A(vy) and CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A particle element) and two imprinted (Igf2 and Igf2r) loci in tail DNA. Maternal blood Pb levels were below the limit of detection in controls, and 4.1, 25.1 and 32.1 µg/dl for each dose, respectively. Pb exposure was associated with a trend of increased wean bodyweight in males (p = 0.03) and altered coat color in A(vy)/a offspring. DNA methylation at A(vy) and the CDK5 activator-binding protein intracisternal A-particle element was significantly different from controls following a cubic trend (p = 0.04; p = 0.01), with male-specific effects at the A(vy) locus. Imprinted genes did not shift in methylation across exposures. Dose- and sex-specific responses in bodyweight and DNA methylation indicate that Pb acts on the epigenome in a locus-specific fashion, dependent on the genomic feature hosting the CpG site of interest, and that sex is a factor in epigenetic response.

  17. Maternal smoke exposure decreases mesenchymal proliferation and modulates Rho-GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeletal signaling in fetal lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unachukwu, Uchenna; Trischler, Jordis; Goldklang, Monica; Xiao, Rui; D'Armiento, Jeanine

    2017-06-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal smoke exposure results in fetal lung growth retardation due to dysregulation in various signaling pathways, including the Wnt (wingless-related integration site)/β-catenin pathway. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (100-150 mg/m3) or room air, and offspring were humanely killed on 12.5, 14.5, 16.5, and 18.5 d post coitum (dpc). We assessed lung stereology with Cavalieri estimation; apoptosis with proliferating cell nuclear antigen, TUNEL, and caspase assays; and gene expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR) and RNA sequencing on lung epithelium and mesenchyme retrieved by laser capture microdissection. Results demonstrated a significant decrease in body weight and lung volume of smoke-exposed embryos. At 16.5 dpc, the reduction in lung volume was due to loss of lung mesenchymal tissue correlating with a decrease in cell proliferation (n = 10; air: 61.65% vs. smoke: 44.21%, P smoke-induced up-regulation of Rho-GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeletal signaling that can lead to loss of tissue integrity.-Unachukwu, U., Trischler, J., Goldklang, M., Xiao, R., D'Armiento, J. Maternal smoke exposure decreases mesenchymal proliferation and modulates Rho-GTPase-dependent actin cytoskeletal signaling in fetal lungs. © FASEB.

  18. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal exposure, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the exposures occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modulation of the Effects of Lung Immune Response on Bone Marrow by Oral Antigen Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xavier-Elsas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic airway inflammation is attenuated by oral tolerization (oral exposure to allergen, followed by conventional sensitization and challenge with homologous antigen, which decreases airway allergen challenge-induced eosinophilic infiltration of the lungs and bone marrow eosinophilia. We examined its effects on bone marrow eosinophil and neutrophil production. Mice of wild type (BP-2, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 and mutant strains (lacking iNOS or CD95L were given ovalbumin (OVA or water (vehicle orally and subsequently sensitized and challenged with OVA (OVA/OVA/OVA and H2O/OVA/OVA groups, resp.. Anti-OVA IgG and IgE, bone marrow eosinophil and neutrophil numbers, and eosinophil and neutrophil production ex vivo were evaluated. T lymphocytes from OVA/OVA/OVA or control H2O/OVA/OVA donors were transferred into naïve syngeneic recipients, which were subsequently sensitized/challenged with OVA. Alternatively, T lymphocytes were cocultured with bone marrow eosinophil precursors from histocompatible sensitized/challenged mice. OVA/OVA/OVA mice of the BP-2 and BALB/c strains showed, relative to H2O/OVA/OVA controls, significantly decreased bone marrow eosinophil counts and ex vivo eosinopoiesis/neutropoiesis. Full effectiveness in vivo required sequential oral/subcutaneous/intranasal exposures to the same allergen. Transfer of splenic T lymphocytes from OVA/OVA/OVA donors to naive recipients prevented bone marrow eosinophilia and eosinopoiesis in response to recipient sensitization/challenge and supressed eosinopoiesis upon coculture with syngeneic bone marrow precursors from sensitized/challenged donors.

  20. The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): using social science to inform prep interventions among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson Bazzi, Angela M; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-09-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub- Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular "re-medicalization" of the HIV epidemic to that of a "reintegration" of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV.

  1. Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

  2. Prenatal exposure to a low-frequency electromagnetic field demasculinizes adult scent marking behavior and increases accessory sex organ weights in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGivern, R.F.; Sokol, R.Z.; Adey, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were exposed to a low-level, low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic (EM) field (15 Hz, 0.3 msec duration, peak intensity 8 gauss) for 15 min twice a day from day 15 through day 20 of gestation, a period in development that is critical for sexual differentiation of the male rat brain. No differences in litter size, number of stillborns, or body weight were observed in offspring from field-exposed dams. At 120 days of age, field-exposed male offspring exhibited significantly less scent marking behavior than controls. Accessory sex organ weights, including epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate, were significantly higher in field-exposed subjects at this age. However, circulating levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone, as well as epididymal sperm counts, were normal. These data indicate that brief, intermittent exposure to low-frequency EM fields during the critical prenatal period for neurobehavioral sex differentiation can demasculinize male scent marking behavior and increase accessory sex organ weights in adulthood.

  3. Fukushima simulation experiment: assessing the effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal 137Cs radiation exposure on litter size, sex ratio, and biokinetics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Takashi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Todo, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the transgenerational effects of chronic low-dose-rate internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan, 18 generations of mice were maintained in a radioisotope facility, with free access to drinking water containing (137)CsCl (0 and 100 Bq/ml). The (137)Cs distribution in the organs of the mice was measured after long-term ad libitum intake of the (137)CsCl water. The litter size and the sex ratio of the group ingesting the (137)Cs water were compared with those of the control group, for all 18 generations of mice. No significant difference was noted in the litter size or the sex ratio between the mice in the control group and those in the group ingesting the (137)Cs water. The fixed internal exposure doses were ∼160 Bq/g and 80 Bq/g in the muscles and other organs, respectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  4. Association between exposure to persistent organohalogen pollutants and epididymal and accessory sex gland function: Multicentre study in Inuit and European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Jönsson, Bo A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers of epididy......, a negative association was found between CB-153 and fructose. In conclusion, the negative effects of POP on sperm motility, observed in the same study population might partly be caused by post-testicular mechanisms, involving a decreased epididymal function.......Exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) may have negative impact on male reproductive function. We, therefore, investigated the association between serum levels of POPs and epididymal and accessory sex gland function. Serum levels of CB-153, p,p′-DDE and seminal markers...... of epididymal [neutral-α glucosidase (NAG)], prostatic [prostate specific-antigen (PSA)] and zinc, and seminal vesicle function (fructose) were measured from 135 Swedish fishermen and fertile men from Greenland (n = 163), Warsaw, Poland (n = 167) and Kharkiv, Ukraine (n = 158). Multiple linear regression...

  5. Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Phase-Dependent Modulation of Craving for Cigarette: An fMRI Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Mendrek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While overall more men than women smoke cigarettes, women and girls take less time to become dependent after initial use and have more difficulties quitting the habit. One of the factors contributing to these differences may be that women crave cigarettes more than men and that their desire to smoke is influenced by hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was twofold: (a to examine potential sex/gender differences in functional neuroanatomy of craving and to (b delineate neural correlates of cigarette cravings in women across their menstrual cycle. Fifteen tobacco-smoking men and 19 women underwent a functional MRI during presentation of neutral and smoking-related images, known to elicit craving. Women were tested twice: once during early follicular phase and once during midluteal phase of their menstrual cycle. The analysis did not reveal any significant sex differences in the cerebral activations associated with craving. Nevertheless, the pattern of activations in women varied across their menstrual cycle with significant activations in parts of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe, during follicular phase, and only limited activations in the right hippocampus during the luteal phase.

  6. Awareness and use of nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) among men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, SY; Lachowsky, NJ; Hull, M; Rich, A; Cui, Z; Sereda, P; Jollimore, J; Stephenson, K; Thumath, M; Montaner, J; Roth, EA; Hogg, RS; Moore, D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is a strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection in those with high-risk exposure. This study characterized nPEP awareness among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada after a pilot nPEP programme established in 2012. Methods Momentum Health Study participants were MSM aged >16 years recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) who completed a computer-assisted self-interview. Stratifying patients by HIV status, we used multivariable logistic regression with backward selection to identify factors associated with nPEP awareness. All analyses were RDS-adjusted. Results A total of 51.9% (112 of 173) of HIV-positive and 48.5% (272 of 500) of HIV-negative participants had heard of nPEP. Only 3% (five of 106) of HIV-negative participants who reported recent high-risk sex used nPEP. Generally, nPEP awareness was higher for participants who engaged in sexual activities with increased HIV transmission potential. Other factors associated with greater awareness among HIV-negative participants included recent alcohol use, higher communal sexual altruism, previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis, and greater perceived condom use self-efficacy. Factors associated with greater awareness among HIV-negative participants included white race/ethnicity, gay sexual identity, more formal education, higher personal sexual altruism, and Vancouver residence. Greater nPEP awareness among HIV-positive participants was associated with greater perceived agency to ask sexual partners’ HIV status and more frequently reporting doing so, a higher number of lifetime receptive sex partners, and greater access to condoms. Conclusions Following implementation of an nPEP pilot programme, nPEP awareness among HIV-negative MSM was 51% and use was 3%. These data support the need to expand access to and actively promote nPEP services. PMID:27477994

  7. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men and transgender women: a secondary analysis of a phase 3 randomised controlled efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Susan P; Glidden, David V; Liu, Albert Y; McMahan, Vanessa; Guanira, Juan V; Mayer, Kenneth H; Goicochea, Pedro; Grant, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    For maximum effect pre-exposure prophylaxis should be targeted to the subpopulations that account for the largest proportion of infections (population-attributable fraction [PAF]) and for whom the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent infection is lowest. We aimed to estimate the PAF and NNT of participants in the iPrEx (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative) trial. The iPrEx study was a randomised controlled efficacy trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis with coformulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in 2499 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. Participants aged 18 years or older who were male at birth were enrolled from 11 trial sites in Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either a pill with active pre-exposure prophylaxis or placebo, taken daily. We calculated the association between demographic and risk behaviour during screening and subsequent seroconversion among placebo recipients using a Poisson model, and we calculated the PAF and NNT for risk behaviour subgroups. The iPrEx trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00458393. Patients were enrolled between July 10, 2007, and Dec 17, 2009, and were followed up until Nov 21, 2010. Of the 2499 MSM and transgender women in the iPrEx trial, 1251 were assigned to pre-exposure prophylaxis and 1248 to placebo. 83 of 1248 patients in the placebo group became infected with HIV during follow-up. Participants reporting receptive anal intercourse without a condom seroconverted significantly more often than those reporting no anal sex without a condom (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 5·11, 95% CI 1·55-16·79). The overall PAF for MSM and transgender women reporting receptive anal intercourse without a condom was 64% (prevalence 60%). Most of this risk came from receptive anal intercourse without a condom with partners with unknown serostatus (PAF 53%, prevalence 54%, AHR 4·76, 95% CI 1·44-15·71); by

  8. Modulators of vascular sex hormone receptors and their effects in estrogen-deficiency states associated with menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serock, Michelle R; Wells, Amanda K; Khalil, Raouf A

    2008-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more prevalent in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of estrogen in improving vascular function and reducing vascular injury. However, clinical trials including HERS I, HERS II, WHI and WISDOM have demonstrated minimal beneficial vascular effects of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in postmenopausal women with CVD. The discrepancies between the experimental findings and clinical data may be related to the vascular estrogen receptors (ER), the type, route of administration, or dosage of MHT, and subject's age. Vascular ERs mediate both genomic and non-genomic effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM), and extracellular matrix (ECM). Postmenopausal changes in vascular ER structure, polymorphisms, amount, subcellular location, affinity or signaling could modify their responsiveness to estrogen and thereby the outcome of MHT. Recent investigations and patents have been centered on developing new ER modulators and alternatives for the traditional natural and synthetic forms of MHT which carry the risk of invasive breast cancer and venous thromoboembolism. Phytoestrogens may have similar effects as traditional MHT and have not demonstrated harmful side effects. Specific estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) such as raloxifene and tamoxifen have also been tested. ER agonists that selectively target ERalpha, ERbeta and perhaps GPR30 may modify specific vascular signaling pathways. Also, the dose, route of administration, and timing of MHT are integral to optimizing the beneficial effects and minimizing the side effects of MHT. Progesterone, testosterone and modulators of their specific receptors may also affect the overall vascular effects of MHT in estrogen-deficiency states associated with menopause.

  9. Proteomic modulation in breast tumors after metformin exposure: results from a "window of opportunity" trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinsky, K; Zheng, T; Hibshoosh, H; Du, X; Mundi, P; Yang, J; Refice, S; Feldman, S M; Taback, B; Connolly, E; Crew, K D; Maurer, M A; Hershman, D L

    2017-02-01

    Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) is a high-throughput antibody-based technique to assess cellular protein activity. The goal of this study was to assess protein marker changes by RPPA in tumor tissue from a pre-surgical metformin trial in women with operable breast cancer (BC). In an open-label trial, metformin 1500-mg PO daily was administered prior to resection in 35 non-diabetic patients with stage 0-III BC, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. For RPPA, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples were probed with 160 antibodies. Paired and two-sample t-tests were performed (p ≤ 0.05). Multiple comparisons were adjusted for by fixing the false discovery rate at 25 %. We evaluated whether pre- and post-metformin changes of select markers by RPPA were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in these samples. We also assessed for these changes by western blot in metformin-treated BC cell lines. After adjusting for multiple comparisons in the 32 tumors from metformin-treated patients vs. 34 untreated historical controls, 11 proteins were significantly different between cases vs. increases in Raptor, C-Raf, Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1, TRFC, and Syk; and reductions in pMAPKpT202,Y204, JNKpT183,pT185, BadpS112, PKC.alphapS657, and SrcpY416. Cyclin D1 change after metformin by IHC was not observed. In cell lines, reductions in JNKpT183 and BadpS112 were seen, with no change in Cyclin D1 or Raptor. These results suggest that metformin modulates apoptosis/cell cycle, cell signaling, and invasion/motility. These findings should be assessed in larger metformin trials. If confirmed, associations between these changes and BC clinical outcome should be evaluated. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00930579.

  10. Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380

  11. Sex Steroids Do Not Modulate TRPM2-Mediated Injury in Females following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion(1,2,3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Grewal, Himmat; Klawitter, Jelena; Herson, Paco S

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-permeable transient receptor potential M2 (TRPM2) ion channel activation contributes to cerebral ischemic injury specifically in males. In male mice, circulating androgens are required for TRPM2 inhibition with clotrimazole (CTZ) to provide protection following experimental stroke. Sufficient levels of circulating androgens are necessary to support ischemia-induced activation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and consequent activation of TRPM2 channels. In this study, we tested whether differences in sex steroids contribute to the lack of CTZ neuroprotection in females. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed using adult female mice that were hormonally intact, ovariectomized (OVX) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treated. CTZ or vehicle was administered at the time of reperfusion, animals were euthanized 24 h later and brains and serum were collected. Infarct analysis revealed no effect of CTZ in intact females or females lacking endogenous sex steroids (OVX). Interestingly, treatment of female mice with the potent androgen receptor agonist DHT had no effect on ischemic injury and did not permit CTZ neuroprotection. Similarly, DHT-treated females did not exhibit increased levels of ADPribose, the TRPM2 ligand generated by PARP, following ischemia. No differences in TRPM2 or androgen receptor expression were observed between males and females. These data suggest that the lack of TRPM2 activation in females following experimental stroke is not due to the presence of estrogen or the absence of androgens. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that while circulating androgens are necessary for PARP-mediated TRPM2 injury in males, they are not sufficient to produce TRPM2 activation in females.

  12. Sex Steroids Do Not Modulate TRPM2-Mediated Injury in Females following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillinan, Nidia; Grewal, Himmat; Klawitter, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Calcium-permeable transient receptor potential M2 (TRPM2) ion channel activation contributes to cerebral ischemic injury specifically in males. In male mice, circulating androgens are required for TRPM2 inhibition with clotrimazole (CTZ) to provide protection following experimental stroke. Sufficient levels of circulating androgens are necessary to support ischemia-induced activation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and consequent activation of TRPM2 channels. In this study, we tested whether differences in sex steroids contribute to the lack of CTZ neuroprotection in females. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed using adult female mice that were hormonally intact, ovariectomized (OVX) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treated. CTZ or vehicle was administered at the time of reperfusion, animals were euthanized 24 h later and brains and serum were collected. Infarct analysis revealed no effect of CTZ in intact females or females lacking endogenous sex steroids (OVX). Interestingly, treatment of female mice with the potent androgen receptor agonist DHT had no effect on ischemic injury and did not permit CTZ neuroprotection. Similarly, DHT-treated females did not exhibit increased levels of ADPribose, the TRPM2 ligand generated by PARP, following ischemia. No differences in TRPM2 or androgen receptor expression were observed between males and females. These data suggest that the lack of TRPM2 activation in females following experimental stroke is not due to the presence of estrogen or the absence of androgens. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that while circulating androgens are necessary for PARP-mediated TRPM2 injury in males, they are not sufficient to produce TRPM2 activation in females. PMID:26464961

  13. A Novel Combination HIV Prevention Strategy: Post-Exposure Prophylaxis with Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment Among Methamphetamine-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Inzhakova, Galina; Lake, Jordan E.; Shoptaw, Steven; Reback, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Methamphetamine use has been associated with HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, providers have been hesitant to utilize post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in populations of stimulant users. This single-arm, open label pilot study sought to demonstrate the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of PEP combined with the drug abstinence intervention of contingency management (CM) in methamphetamine-using MSM. HIV-uninfected MSM reporting recent methamphetamine use were recruited to a CM intervention. Those who reported a recent high-risk sexual or injection drug exposure to an HIV-infected or serostatus unknown source were initiated on tenofovir/emtricitabine (Truvada)-based PEP. Participants were followed over 3 months for infectious/biologic, behavioral, and drug use outcomes. Fifty-three participants enrolled in the study; 35 participants (66%) initiated PEP after a high-risk exposure. The median time from exposure to medication administration was 37.8 h (range 12.5–68.0 h). Twenty-five (71.4%) PEP initiators successfully completed the treatment course. Median medication adherence was 96% (IQR 57–100%), and medication was generally well tolerated. Methamphetamine abstinence during CM treatment increased PEP adherence (2% [95% CI +1–+3%]) per clean urine toxicology sample provided), and increased the odds of PEP course completion (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04–1.31). One incident of HIV seroconversion was observed in a participant who did not complete PEP treatment, and reported multiple subsequent exposures. Findings demonstrate that PEP, when combined with CM, is safe, feasible, and acceptable as an HIV prevention strategy in methamphetamine-using MSM. PMID:22680280

  14. Sex differences in the effects of pre- and postnatal caffeine exposure on behavior and synaptic proteins in pubescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Cássia; Ardais, Ana Paula; Rocha, Andréia; Borges, Maurício Felisberto; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Pagnussat, Natália; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2018-02-02

    Few studies have addressed the effects of caffeine in the puberty and/or adolescence in a sex dependent manner. Considering that caffeine intake has increased in this population, we investigated the behavioral and synaptic proteins changes in pubescent male and female rats after maternal consumption of caffeine. Adult female Wistar rats started to receive water or caffeine (0.1 and 0.3g/L in drinking water; low and moderate dose, respectively) during the active cycle at weekdays, two weeks before mating. The treatment lasted up to weaning and the offspring received caffeine until the onset of puberty (30-34days old). Behavioral tasks were performed to evaluate locomotor activity (open field task), anxious-like behavior (elevated plus maze task) and recognition memory (object recognition task) and synaptic proteins levels (proBDNF, BDNF, GFAP and SNAP-25) were verified in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. While hyperlocomotion was observed in both sexes after caffeine treatment, anxiety-related behavior was attenuated by caffeine (0.3g/L) only in females. While moderate caffeine worsened recognition memory in females, an improvement in the long-term memory was observed in male rats for both doses. Coincident with memory improvement in males, caffeine increased pro- and BDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Females presented increased proBDNF levels in both brain regions, with no effects of caffeine. While GFAP was not altered, moderate caffeine intake increased SNAP-25 in the cortex of female rats. Our findings revealed that caffeine promoted cognitive benefits in males associated with increased BDNF levels, while females showed less anxiety. Our findings revealed that caffeine promotes distinct behavioral outcomes and alterations in synaptic proteins during brain development in a sex dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex-dependent effects of developmental exposure to different pesticides on spatial learning. The role of induced neuroinflammation in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Giménez, Belén; Llansola, Marta; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Malaguarnera, Michele; Agusti, Ana; Felipo, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The use of pesticides has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment in children. The aims of this work were to assess: 1) the effects on spatial learning of developmental exposure to pesticides 2) if the effects are sex-dependent and 3) if hippocampal neuroinflammation is associated with the impairment of spatial learning. We analyzed the effects of developmental exposure to four pesticides: chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, endosulfan and cypermethrin. Exposure was from gestational day 7 to post-natal day 21 and spatial learning and memory was assessed when the rats were young adults. The effects of pesticides on spatial learning were pesticide and gender-dependent. Carbaryl did not affect spatial learning in males or females. Endosulfan and chlorpyrifos impaired learning in males but not in females. Cypermethrin improved spatial learning in the Morris water maze both in males and females while impaired learning in the radial maze only in males. Spatial learning ability was lower in control female rats than in males. All pesticides induced neuroinflammation, increasing IL-1b content in the hippocampus and there is a negative correlation between IL-1b levels in the hippocampus and spatial learning. Neuroinflammation would contribute to the effects of pesticides on spatial learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safe sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sex; Sexually transmitted - safe sex; GC - safe sex; Gonorrhea - safe sex; Herpes - safe sex; HIV - safe sex; ... contact. STIs include: Chlamydia Genital herpes Genital warts Gonorrhea Hepatitis HIV HPV Syphilis STIs are also called ...

  17. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Reward-Related Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses to Acute Stress in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M.; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Treadway, Michael T.; Brooks, Nancy H.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Greve, Douglas N.; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E.; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Results Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r = 0.79) and no-stress (r = −0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC grey matter, but functional findings remained when accounting for structural differences. Limitation Small sample size, which warrants replication. Conclusion Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. PMID:25898329

  19. Sex-specific changes in thyroid gland function and circulating thyroid hormones in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) following embryonic exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers by maternal transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Marteinson, Sarah C

    2016-08-01

    High concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in predatory birds. Several PBDE congeners are considered thyroid disruptors; however, avian studies are limited. The authors examined circulating thyroid hormones and thyroid gland function of nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) at 17 d to 20 d of age, following embryonic exposure by maternal transfer only to environmentally relevant levels of PBDEs (DE-71 technical mixture). Nestlings were exposed to in ovo sum (Σ) PBDE concentrations of 11 301 ± 95 ng/g wet weight (high exposure), 289 ± 33 ng/g wet weight (low exposure), or 3.0 ± 0.5 ng/g wet weight (controls, background exposure). Statistical comparisons are made to controls of the respective sexes and account for the relatedness of siblings within broods. Circulating concentrations of plasma total thyroxine (TT4 ) and total triiodothyronine (TT3 ) in female nestlings were significantly influenced overall by the exposure to DE-71. Following intramuscular administration of thyroid-stimulating hormone, the temporal response of the thyroid gland in producing and/or releasing TT4 was also significantly affected by the females' exposure to DE-71. The altered availability of T4 for conversion to T3 outside of the gland and/or changes in thyroid-related enzymatic activity may explain the lower TT3 concentrations (baseline, overall) and moderately altered temporal TT3 patterns (p = 0.06) of the treatment females. Controlling for the significant effect on TT3 levels of the delayed hatching of treatment females, baseline TT3 levels were significantly and positively correlated with body mass (10 d, 15 d, 20 d), with PBDE-exposed females generally being smaller and having lower TT3 concentrations. Given that exposure concentrations were environmentally relevant, similar thyroidal changes and associated thyroid-mediated processes relating to growth may also occur in wild female nestlings. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016

  20. Contextual modulation of social and endocrine correlates of fitness: insights from the life history of a sex changing fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaleena S Pradhan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Steroid hormones are critical regulators of reproductive life history, and the steroid sensitive traits (morphology, behavior, physiology associated with particular life history stages can have substantial fitness consequences for an organism. Hormones, behavior and fitness are reciprocally associated and can be used in an integrative fashion to understand how the environment impacts organismal function. To address the fitness component, we highlight the importance of using reliable proxies of reproductive success, when studying proximate regulation of reproductive phenotypes. To understand the mechanisms by which the endocrine system regulates phenotype, we discuss the use of particular endocrine proxies and the need for appropriate functional interpretation of each. Lastly, in any experimental paradigm, the responses of animals vary based on the subtle differences in environmental and social context and this must also be considered. We explore these different levels of analyses by focusing on the fascinating life history transitions exhibited by the bi-directionally hermaphroditic fish, Lythrypnus dalli. Sex changing fish are excellent models for providing a deeper understanding of the fitness consequences associated with the behavioral and endocrine variation. We close by proposing that local regulation of steroids is one potential mechanism that allows for the expression of novel phenotypes that can be characteristic of specific life history stages. A comparative species approach will facilitate progress in understanding the diversity of mechanisms underlying the contextual regulation of phenotypes and their associated fitness correlates.

  1. The genome-wide associated candidate gene ZNF804A and psychosis-proneness: Evidence of sex-modulated association

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Catala, Marta; Mora-Solano, Aurea; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Racioppi, Anna; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2017-01-01

    Background The Zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) is a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia and the broader psychosis phenotype that emerged from genome-wide association studies. It is related to neurodevelopment and associated to severe symptoms of schizophrenia and alterations in brain structure, as well as positive schizotypal personality traits in non-clinical samples. Moreover, a female-specific association has been observed between ZNF804A and schizophrenia. Aim The present study examined the association of two ZNF804A polymorphisms (rs1344706 and rs7597593) with the positive dimension of schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences in a sample of 808 non-clinical subjects. Additionally, we wanted to explore whether the sexual differences reported in schizophrenia are also present in psychosis-proneness. Results Our results showed an association between rs7597593 and both schizotypy and psychotic-like experiences. These associations were driven by females, such those carrying the C allele had higher scores in the positive dimension of both variables compared to TT allele homozygotes. Conclusion The findings of the present study support the inclusion of ZNF804 variability in studies of the vulnerability for the development of psychopathology in non-clinical samples and consideration of sex as a moderator of this association. PMID:28931092

  2. The Complexity of Simplicity: Role of Sex, Development and Environment in the Modulation of the Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatsoreos, I N

    2016-08-01

    Anecdotally, we all know that stress is 'complicated', although most stress research is undertaken using incredibly simplified models that may not allow us to fully understand the underlying interactive mechanisms present in the 'real world'. This attempt at simplification, although sometimes necessary, may explain some of the difficulties faced when integrating basic science findings with the clinical and epidemiological data on stress and stress-related disorders. In a symposium held at the 2015 International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology meeting in Edinburgh, UK, a series of speakers explored 'The Many Pathways to Plasticity in the Stress System', specifically focusing on variables that, in many cases, are eliminated from studies of stress to provide increased experimental control. Specifically, four speakers tackled the complex contributions of 'Sex, Development and Environment' in stress research, and reported published and unpublished evidence from work conducted in their own laboratories demonstrating that, in our race for simplicity in experimentation, the stories that we tell become all the more complex. © 2016 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  3. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Debes, Frodi; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory......Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those...... function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide...

  4. Adolescent alcohol exposure alters the rat adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness in a sex-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Logrip, Marian L.; Rivier, Catherine; Lau, Calvin; Im, Sarah; Vaughan, Joan; Lee, Soon

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during adolescence exerts long-term effects on the adult brain stress circuits, causing many changes that persist into adulthood. Here we examined the consequences of adolescent intermittent ethanol [AIE, administered from postnatal day (PND) 28–42] on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related brain circuitry of rats challenged with an intragastric administration of alcohol in adulthood (PND 70–71). Both male and female adolescent rats were exposed to alcohol v...

  5. Lactational and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls induces sex-specific anxiolytic behavior and cognitive deficit in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu-Hua; Hwan Kim, Seung; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2011-10-01

    The central nervous system is affected by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Previous studies have indicated that developmental exposure to PCBs impairs behavioral performance and alters cognitive abilities. This study assessed the effects of lactational and postnatal exposure to a commercial PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 (A1254), on mice performing several neurobehavioral tasks including the open field test, novel object test, elevated plus maze test, Y-maze test, and tail suspension test. In the open field test, PCBs treatment (6 and 18 mg/kg/day) was associated with increased movement, time duration, and frequency in the central zone in female but not male mice. PCBs-treated female mice (6 and 18 mg/kg/day) also showed decreased novel object recognition, indicating impairment in recognition memory. Finally, we performed autoradiographic receptor binding assays for dopamine (DA) D₁ and D₂ receptors, dopamine transporter (DAT), and the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor after behavioral tests to examine whether alterations occurred in the dopaminergic and NMDAergic systems of the brain. Our results showed that PCBs treatment did not change D₁ and D₂ receptors or DAT binding in the dorsal striatum of female mice. However, PCBs treatment significantly decreased NMDA receptor binding in the dorsal striatum, frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and motor cortex, and CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in female mice. Collectively, our results suggest that long-term PCBs exposure can induce anxiolytic behavior, cognitive deficits, and changes of NMDA receptors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Combined in utero and juvenile exposure of mice to arsenate and atrazine in drinking water modulates gene expression and clonogenicity of myeloid progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino-Reale, Graziella; Ferrario, Daniele; Casati, Barbara; Brustio, Roberta; Diodovich, Cristina; Collotta, Angelo; Vahter, Marie; Gribaldo, Laura

    2008-07-30

    The effects of arsenate (As) and atrazine (Atr) on myeloid progenitors (colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage, CFU-GM) cells derived from bone marrow were studied in male and female mice after combined in utero and juvenile exposure. Female adult mice were treated with arsenate in drinking water during gestation. Then, separate groups of males and females' offspring were exposed for 4 months to atrazine, to additional arsenate or to co-exposure of atrazine and arsenate together in drinking water. In male mice, arsenate and the combined exposure did not modulate the percentage of CFU-GM progenitors, whereas atrazine significantly decreases the clonogenicity of myeloid cells. In females, the percentage of CFU-GM significantly decreased after atrazine exposure did not change with arsenate treatment, but dramatically increased after the combined exposure. The expression of estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) in bone marrow cells was investigated, and an up-regulation of receptor beta was observed in both genders. A gene expression profile was generated using nylon membranes spotted with 1185 cancer-related genes. Results from microarrays indicate that atrazine alone did not stimulate the expression of any of the genes analysed in both male and female. Arsenic induced gene expression modulation only in female. Major significant changes on the gene expression resulted following the co-exposure to arsenic and atrazine in both male and female.

  7. Sexual frequency and planning among at-risk men who have sex with men in the United States: implications for event-based intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Jonathan E; Liu, Albert; Vittinghoff, Eric; Irvin, Risha; Kroboth, Elizabeth; Krakower, Douglas; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Sullivan, Patrick S; Buchbinder, Susan P

    2012-09-01

    Intermittent dosing of pre-exposure prophylaxis (iPrEP) has potential to decrease costs, improve adherence, and minimize toxicity. Practical event-based dosing of iPrEP requires men who have sex with men (MSM) to be sexually active on fewer than 3 days each week and plan for sexual activity. MSM who may be most suitable for event-based dosing were older, more educated, more frequently used sexual networking websites, and more often reported that their last sexual encounter was not with a committed partner. A substantial proportion of these MSM endorse high-risk sexual activity, and event-based iPrEP may best target this population.

  8. Preferences for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) information among men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) at community outreach settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Roland C; Corner, David; Garza, Eduardo; Guan, Wentao; Mayer, Kenneth H; Brown, Larry; Chan, Philip A

    Community outreach efforts to increase HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) utilization by at risk men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) first need to elucidate preferences for learning about PrEP and linking to PrEP resources. In this pilot study, we observed that among MSM recruited through community outreach, HIV sexual risk-taking was significant, yet self-perceived PrEP knowledge was low and interest in learning more about PrEP was moderate. Most preferred learning about PrEP and being provided local PrEP clinic information through electronic media. However, receipt of PrEP information alone did not appear to motivate these men into presenting to a local clinic for PrEP evaluation.

  9. Sex and dose-dependent effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A on anxiety and spatial learning in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Williams, Scott A; Vandas, Gregory M; Ellersieck, Mark R; Liao, Chunyang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Roberts, R Michael; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely produced, endocrine disrupting compound that is pervasive in the environment. Data suggest that developmental exposure to BPA during sexual differentiation of the brain leads to later behavioral consequences in offspring. Outbred deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) are an excellent animal model for such studies as they exhibit well-defined sex- and steroid-dependent behaviors. Here, dams during gestation and lactation were fed with a phytoestrogen-free control diet, the same diet supplemented with either ethinyl estradiol (0.1 ppb), or one of the three doses of BPA (50 mg, 5 mg, 50 μg/kg feed weight). After weaning, the pups were maintained on control diet until they reached sexual maturity and then assessed for both spatial learning capabilities and anxiety-like and exploratory behaviors. Relative to controls, males exposed to the two upper but not the lowest dose of BPA demonstrated similar impairments in spatial learning, increased anxiety and reduced exploratory behaviors as ethinyl estradiol-exposed males, while females exposed to ethinyl estradiol, but not to BPA, consistently exhibited masculinized spatial abilities. We also determined whether dams maintained chronically on the upper dose of BPA contained environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA in their blood. While serum concentrations of unconjugated BPA in controls were below the minimum level of detection, those from dams on the BPA diet were comparable (5.48±2.07 ng/ml) to concentrations that have been observed in humans. Together, these studies demonstrate that developmental exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA can disrupt adult behaviors in a dose- and sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Homophobia and racism experienced by Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: correlates of exposure and associations with HIV risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Borkowf, Craig; Millett, Gregorio A; Bingham, Trista; Ayala, George; Stueve, Ann

    2012-04-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected from 1081 Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited with respondent-driven sampling (RDS) techniques from Los Angeles and New York, we examined the extent to which Latino MSM reported exposure to social discrimination (i.e., experienced both homophobia and racism, homophobia only, racism only, or neither homophobia nor racism). More than 40% of respondents experienced both homophobia and racism in the past 12 months. Los Angeles participants, those with lower income, and those who reported being HIV-positive were more likely to report experiencing both types of social discrimination. Adjusting for potential confounders, men exposed to both homophobia and racism were more likely than men exposed to neither form of discrimination to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse with a casual sex partner (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI, 1.18-3.24) and binge drinking (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI, 1.02-1.98). Our findings suggest the presence of a syndemic of adverse social experiences and call for more intervention research to address both homophobia and racism experienced among Latino MSM in the United States.

  11. Minimal Awareness and Stalled Uptake of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among at Risk, HIV-Negative, Black Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driffin, Daniel D.; Bauermeister, Jose; Smith, Harlan; Conway-Washington, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, rates of HIV infection are highest among black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective form of HIV prevention, but the uptake of this strategy has been slow since FDA approval in 2012, and it is unknown whether information about PrEP is reaching BMSM. Four hundred and thirty-six BMSM in Atlanta, GA were surveyed from January 2012 (6 months prior to PrEP approval) to March 2014 (20 months after approval). Analyses revealed no association between date of survey assessment and awareness of PrEP (20.5% were aware of PrEP before approval and 23.4% were aware after approval; OR=0.99 [0.98–1.02], p=0.952). In a multivariate model, BMSM unaware of PrEP reported lower rates of HIV testing knowledge, fewer experiences with HIV testing, and higher rates of transactional sex than BMSM who were aware of PrEP. Our findings suggest that there is limited understanding of PrEP and that there is considerable groundwork that needs to be achieved in order to reap the full benefits of PrEP. The current findings call attention to the need to both prioritize and better understand how to strengthen the bridge between medical advances and community uptake. PMID:26083143

  12. Awareness and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; De Boni, Raquel B; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Madruga, José Valdez; Kallas, Esper G; Goulart, Silvia Pereira; Cerqueira, Natalia; Torres, Thiago S; Luz, Paula M; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Liu, Albert Y; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdilea G

    2017-05-01

    Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended to prevent HIV infection among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) though not available in Brazil where the HIV epidemic persists unabated in this group. This cross-sectional study describes PrEP awareness and willingness and associated factors among MSM and transvestite/transgender women (trans women) pre-screened for the PrEP Brasil study. Awareness was reported by 61.3 % of the participants and was associated with age, education, site, study period and prior HIV testing. Most participants (82.1 %) were willing to use PrEP, which was associated with site, study period, number of male condomless anal sexual partners and anal sex with HIV positive/unknown partners. PrEP information is need among young and less educated individuals. Willingness to use PrEP was high and future studies should be conducted to confirm PrEP acceptability and the characteristics of the population who chose to adopt this intervention.

  13. Acceptability of Daily Use of Free Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Transgender Women Sex Workers in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph T F; Yang, Xueying; Cai, Yong; Gross, Danielle L; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan

    2017-07-27

    This study investigated the acceptability of daily use of free oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and associated factors among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China, following a briefing on PrEP. A total of 183 HIV negative or sero-status unknown participants completed the cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP was 61.2%. Adjusting for education level and monthly income, variables on negative attitudes toward PrEP (i.e., having concerns about the side-effects of PrEP) [Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 0.26], perceived subjective norms (i.e., perceiving support from male partners to take PrEP) (AOR: 2.08), and perceived behavioral control (e.g., perceiving complete control over using PrEP) (AOR: 2.10-16.72) were significantly associated with acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP. In addition, experiencing violence during sex work, perceived risk of contracting HIV from clients and probable anxiety were also significant. Future PrEP promotion campaigns should consider these factors.

  14. Species- and sex-specific responses and recovery of wild, mature pacific salmon to an exhaustive exercise and air exposure stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Michael R; Hinch, Scott G; Jeffries, Ken M; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Miller, Kristina M

    2014-03-04

    Despite the common mechanisms that underlie vertebrate responses to exhaustive exercise stress, the magnitude and the timecourse of recovery can be context-specific. Here, we examine how wild, adult male and female pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon respond to and recover from an exhaustive exercise and air exposure stressor, designed to simulate fisheries capture and handling. We follow gill tissue gene expression for genes active in cellular stress, cell maintenance, and apoptosis as well as plasma osmoregulatory, stress, and reproductive indices. The stressor initiated a major stress response as indicated by increased normalised expression of two stress-responsive genes, Transcription Factor JUNB and cytochrome C (pink salmon only). The stressor resulted in increased plasma ion cortisol, lactate, and depressed estradiol (sockeye salmon only). Gene expression and plasma variables showed a general recovery by 24h post-stressor. Species- and sex-specific patterns were observed in stress response and recovery, with pink salmon mounting a higher magnitude stress response for plasma variables and sockeye salmon exhibiting a higher and more variable gene expression profile. These results highlight species- and sex-specific responses of migrating Pacific salmon to simulated fisheries encounters, which contribute new knowledge towards understanding the consequences of fisheries capture-and-release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 'WTF is PrEP?': attitudes towards pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men and transgender women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, Matthew; Grosso, Ashley; Zapata, Richard; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2017-10-06

    In the USA, gay and other men who have sex with men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV-negative individuals from seroconverting if exposed to HIV, by members of this population remains low, particularly among African-Americans. We conducted two focus groups to assess responses to an online social media campaign focusing on PrEP use in New York City. We designed, produced and disseminated the campaign to address knowledge of PrEP; its physical and psychological side effects; and psychosocial barriers related to PrEP adherence and sex shaming. Focus group participants demonstrated a relatively high knowledge of PrEP, although considerable concern remained about side effects, particularly among Black participants. Participants suggested that stigma against PrEP users was declining as PrEP use became more common, but stigma remained, particularly for those not using condoms. Many focus group participants reported distrust of medical providers and were critical of the commodification of HIV prevention by the pharmaceutical industry. Participants reported that those in romantic relationships confronted unique issues regarding PrEP, namely suspicions of infidelity. Finally, Black participants spoke of the need for more tailored and sensitive representations of Black gay men in future programmes and interventions.

  16. In utero and childhood DDT, DDE, PBDE and PCBs exposure and sex hormones in adolescent boys: The CHAMACOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Rauch, Stephen A; Tenerelli, Rachel; Huen, Karen; Holland, Nina T; Lustig, Robert H; Kogut, Katherine; Bradman, Asa; Sjödin, Andreas; Harley, Kim G

    2017-04-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are believed to be endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in humans and animals. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of in utero and childhood exposure to these purported EDCs and reproductive hormones in adolescent boys who participated in CHAMACOS, an ongoing birth cohort in California's Salinas Valley. We measured o,p'- and p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, PBDEs and PCBs in serum collected from mothers during pregnancy or at delivery and from their sons at 9 years. We measured concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and total testosterone (T) from 234 of their sons at 12 years. In adjusted models, we found that a 10-fold increase in maternal prenatal serum concentrations of BDE-153 was associated with a 22.2% increase (95% CI: 1.0, 47.9) in FSH, a 96.6% increase (95% CI: 35.7, 184.7) in LH, and a 92.4% increase (95% CI: 20.9, 206.2) increase in T. Similarly, BDE-100 concentrations were associated with increases in boys' LH levels. A 10-fold increase in total prenatal ΣPCBs was associated with a 64.5% increase (95% CI: 8.6, 149.0) in FSH, primarily driven by non- dioxin-like congeners. Boys' hormone levels were only marginally associated with prenatal DDT or DDE in primary models, but when boys' Tanner stage at age 12 was added to models, prenatal maternal DDT levels were associated with decreases in LH (adjusted percent change per 10-fold increase=-18.5%, 95% CI: -29.8, -5.4) and T (percent change=-18.2%, 95% CI: -30.2, -4.2) and DDE with LH (percent change=-18.3%, 95% CI: -32.9, -0.6). Exposures measured in the children's serum at 9 years also showed associations between BDE-153 and ΣPCBs. However, there is evidence that these associations appear to be mediated by child BMI. This study suggests associations on male hormones of 12year old boys related to exposure to certain EDC

  17. Repeated exposure to media messages encouraging parent-child communication about sex: differential trajectories for mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitstein, Jonathan L; Evans, W Douglas; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian

    2012-01-01

    To examine changes in parent-child communication related to sexual behavior after exposure to public health messages. Randomized, controlled trial that was part of precampaign message testing. Exposure occurred online or through DVDs mailed to participants and viewed on their personal computers. Data collection occurred via a secure Web site. Participants included parents (n  =  1969) living with a child age 10 to 14 years drawn from a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Treatment participants were exposed to video, audio, and print advertisements that promoted the benefits of speaking to their children early and often about delaying initiation of sexual activity; messages also directed parents to an informational Web site. The dependent variable assessed frequency of parent-child communication related to sexual behavior. The primary independent variable was treatment assignment. Longitudinal growth modeling that included five waves of data. The trajectory of growth over time differed between fathers in the treatment group and fathers in the control group (F[1, 2357]  =  4.15; p communication among treatment fathers than among control fathers. Trajectories did not differ between mothers in treatment and control groups. This study demonstrates that father-child and mother-child communication patterns differ over time in response to public health messages. Findings have implication for researchers developing health marketing campaigns.

  18. Sex-dependent effects of developmental arsenic exposure on methylation capacity and methylation regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the embryonic mouse brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that prenatal moderate arsenic exposure (50 ppb disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR programming and that these changes continue into adolescence in males. However, it was not clear what the molecular mechanisms were promoting these GR programming changes or if these changes occurred in arsenic-exposed females. In the present studies, we assessed the effects of arsenic on protein and mRNA of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Hsd isozymes and compared the levels of methylation within the promoters of the Nr3c1 and Hsd11b1 genes in female fetal brain at embryonic days (E 14 and 18. Prenatal arsenate exposure produced sex specific effects on the glucocorticoid system. Compared to males, females were resistant to arsenic induced changes in GR, 11β-Hsd-1 and 11β-Hsd-2 protein levels despite observed elevations in Nr3c1 and Hsd11b2 mRNA. This sex-specific effect was not due to differences in the methylation of the GR promoter as methylation of the Nr3c1 gene was either unchanged (region containing the egr-1 binding site or similarly reduced (region containing the SP-1 transcription factor binding site in both males and females exposed to arsenic. Arsenic did produce sex and age-specific changes in the methylation of Hsd11b1 gene, producing increased methylation in females at E14 and decreased methylation at E18.These changes were not attributed to changes in DNMT levels. Since arsenate metabolism could interfere with the generation of methyl donor groups, we assessed glutathione (GSH, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and As 3 methyltransferase (As3MT. Exposed males and females had similar levels of As3MT and SAM; however, females had higher levels of GSH/GSSH. It is possible that this greater anti-oxidative capacity within the females provides protection against low to moderate arsenate. Our data suggest that the GR signaling system in female offspring was not as affected by prenatal arsenic

  19. Integrating the pace-of-life syndrome across species, sexes and individuals: covariation of life history and personality under pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debecker, Sara; Sanmartín-Villar, Iago; de Guinea-Luengo, Miguel; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo; Stoks, Robby

    2016-05-01

    The pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) hypothesis integrates covariation of life-history traits along a fast-slow continuum and covariation of behavioural traits along a proactive-reactive personality continuum. Few studies have investigated these predicted life-history/personality associations among species and between sexes. Furthermore, whether and how contaminants interfere with POLS patterns remains unexplored. We tested for covariation patterns in life history and in behaviour, and for life-history/personality covariation among species, among individuals within species and between sexes. Moreover, we investigated whether pesticide exposure affects covariation between life history and behaviour and whether species and sexes with a faster POLS strategy have a higher sensitivity to pesticides. We reared larvae of four species of Ischnura damselflies in a common garden experiment with an insecticide treatment (chlorpyrifos absent/present) in the final instar. We measured four life-history traits (larval growth rate during the pesticide treatment, larval development time, adult mass and life span) and two behavioural traits (larval feeding activity and boldness, each before and after the pesticide treatment). At the individual level, life-history traits and behavioural traits aligned along a fast-slow and a proactive-reactive continuum, respectively. Species-specific differences in life history, with fast-lived species having a faster larval growth and development, a lower mass at emergence and a shorter life span, suggested that time constraints in the larval stage were predictably driving life-history evolution both in the larval stage and across metamorphosis in the adult stage. Across species, females were consistently more slow-lived than males, reflecting that a large body size and a long life span are generally more important for females. In contrast to the POLS hypothesis, there was only little evidence for the expected positive coupling between life

  20. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.; Prakash, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  1. The adipokinetic hormone receptor modulates sexual behavior, pheromone perception and pheromone production in a sex-specific and starvation-dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food availability and nutritional status shape the reproductive activity of many animals. In rodents, hormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, restore energy homeostasis not only through regulating e.g. caloric intake and energy housekeeping, but also through modulating sex drive. We investigated whether the insect homologue of the GnRH receptor, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR modulates sexual behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster depending on nutritional status. We found that AKHR regulates male, but not female sexual behavior in a starvation-dependent manner. Males lacking AKHR showed a severe decrease in their courtship activity when starved, as well as an increase in mating duration when fed. AKHR expression is particularly strong in the subesophageal zone (SEZ, Ito et al. 2014. We found axonal projections from AKHR-expressing neurons to higher brain centers including specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Among the glomeruli that received projections were those dedicated to detecting the male specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Accordingly, responses to cVA were dependent on the nutritional status of flies. AKHR was also involved in the regulation of the production of cuticular pheromones, 7,11-heptacosadiene and 7-tricosene. This effect was observed only in females and depended on their feeding state. AKHR has therefore a dual role on both pheromone perception and production. For the first time our study shows an effect of AKHR on insect sexual behavior and physiology. Our results support the hypothesis of a conserved role of the GnRH/AKH pathway on a nutritional state-dependent regulation of reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  2. Sex, PrEP, and Stigma: Experiences with HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among New York City MSM Participating in the HPTN 067/ADAPT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Julie; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Loquere, Avelino S; Amico, K Rivet; Grant, Robert M; Dye, Bonnie J; Rivera, Yan; Gamboa, Robert; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2017-11-15

    The HPTN 067/Alternative Dosing to Augment Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Pill Taking (ADAPT) study evaluated daily and non-daily dosing schedules for oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV. A qualitative sub-study including focus groups and in-depth interviews was conducted among men who have sex with men participating in New York City to understand their experience with PrEP and study dosing schedules. The 37 sub-study participants were 68% black, 11% white, and 8% Asian; 27% were of Hispanic/Latino ethnicity. Mean age was 34 years. Themes resulting from qualitative analysis include: PrEP is a significant advance for HIV prevention; non-daily dosing of PrEP is congruent with HIV risk; and pervasive stigma connected to HIV and risk behavior is a barrier to PrEP adherence, especially for non-daily dosing schedules. The findings underscore how PrEP intersects with other HIV prevention practices and highlight the need to understand and address multidimensional stigma related to PrEP use.

  3. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in Malaysia: Findings from an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sin How; Mburu, Gitau; Bourne, Adam; Pang, Joselyn; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Wei, Clayton Koh Thuan; Yee, Ilias Adam; Wang, Bangyuan; Cassolato, Matteo; Azwa, Iskandar

    2017-01-01

    We examined willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia. An online survey of 990 MSM was conducted between March and April 2016. Eligibility criteria included being biological male, Malaysian citizen, 18 years of age or above, identifying as MSM, and being HIV negative or unknown status. Participants' demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, attitudes towards PrEP, and preferences regarding future access to PrEP were collected. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were performed to determine factors associated with willingness to use PrEP. Fewer than half of participants (44%) knew about PrEP before completing the survey. Overall, 39% of the sample were willing to take PrEP. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that Malay men (AOR: 1.73, 95% CI:1.12, 2.70), having 2 or more male anal sex partners in the past 6 months (AOR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.05), previous knowledge of PrEP (AOR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06, 1.86), lack of confidence in practising safer sex (AOR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.81), and having ever paid for sex with a male partner (AOR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.91) were independently associated with greater willingness to use PrEP, while men who identified as heterosexual were less willing to use PrEP (AOR, 0.36, 95% CI: 0.13, 0.97). Majority of participants preferred to access PrEP at affordable cost below 100 Malaysian Ringgit (USD25) per month from community based organisations followed by private or government hospitals. Overall, MSM in Malaysia reported a relatively low level of willingness to use PrEP, although willingness was higher among those previously aware of PrEP. There is a need to provide PrEP at affordable cost, increase demand and awareness of PrEP, and to provide access to this preventative medication via diverse, integrated and tailored sexual health services.

  4. Prioritizing Risk in Preparation for a Demonstration Project: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study of Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PREP among Female Sex Workers in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushena Reza-Paul

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India remains well above the national average. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, a new HIV prevention technology, may help to reduce HIV incidence, but there is a dearth of research that can inform the potential scale-up of PrEP in India. In partnership with Ashodaya Samithi, a local sex worker collective, we conducted a feasibility study to assess acceptance of a planned PrEP demonstration project, willingness to use PrEP, and recommendations for project roll-out among FSWs in southern Karnataka.From January-April 2015, 6 focus group discussions, 47 in-depth interviews, and 427 interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by female sex workers. All participants were 18 years of age or older and practiced sex work. Qualitative data were coded for key themes and emergent categories. Univariate descriptive analysis was employed to summarise the quantitative data.Qualitative. PrEP was described as an exciting new prevention technology that places control in the hands of FSWs and provides a "double safety" in combination with condom use. Participants expressed agreement that women who may experience more HIV risk in their occupational environments should be prioritized for enrollment into a demonstration project. Quantitative. 406 participants (95% expressed interest in PrEP. Participants prioritized the inclusion of FSWs under the age of 25 (79%, those who do not use condoms when clients offer more money (58%, who do not consistently use condoms with regular partners (57%, who drink alcohol regularly (49%, and who do not use condoms consistently with clients (48%.This feasibility study indicated strong interest in PrEP and a desire to move forward with the demonstration project. Participants expressed their responses in terms of public health discourses surrounding risk, pointing to the importance of situating PrEP scale up within the trusted spaces of community-based organizations as a means

  5. Repeated exposure to the κ-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A modulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase and reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, David N; Damez-Werno, Diane; Carlezon, William A; Cohen, Bruce M; Chartoff, Elena H

    2011-10-15

    Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse and stress increase dynorphin, a κ opioid receptor (KOR) ligand, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Acute KOR activation produces dysphoria that might contribute to addictive behavior. How repeated KOR activation modulates reward circuitry is not understood. We used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a method that provides a behavioral index of reward sensitivity, to measure the effects of repeated administration of the KOR agonist salvinorin A (salvA) (2 mg/kg) on the reward-potentiating effects of cocaine (5.0 mg/kg). In separate rats, we measured the effects of salvA on activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein, and c-Fos within the NAc. SalvA had biphasic effects on reward: an immediate effect was to decrease the rewarding impact of ICSS, whereas a delayed effect was to increase the rewarding impact of ICSS. Repeated salvA produced a net decrease in the reward-potentiating effects of cocaine. In the NAc, both acute and repeated salvA administration increased phosphorylated ERK, whereas only acute salvA increased c-Fos and repeated salvA increased phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein. The KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (20 mg/kg) blocked the immediate and delayed effects of salvA and prolonged the duration of cocaine effects in ICSS. Repeated salvA might trigger opponent processes such that "withdrawal" from the dysphoric effects of KOR activation is rewarding and decreases the net rewarding valence of cocaine. The temporal effects of salvA on ERK signaling suggest KOR-mediated engagement of distinct signaling pathways within the NAc that might contribute to biphasic effects on reward sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Perceptions among Dutch men who have sex with men and their willingness to use rectal microbicides and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis to reduce HIV risk--a preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Elske; Hankins, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral (ARV) tablets and topical PrEP or microbicides containing ARV drugs could help to reduce HIV incidence. These methods hold promise for men who have sex with men (MSM) who are at higher risk of acquiring HIV. This mixed-methods study in the

  7. Sex-dependent effects of developmental exposure to bisphenol A and ethinyl estradiol on metabolic parameters and voluntary physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S. A.; Painter, M. S.; Javurek, A. B.; Ellersieck, M. R.; Wiedmeyer, C. E.; Thyfault, J. P.; Rosenfeld, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) have received considerable attention as potential obesogens. Past studies examining obesogenic potential of one widespread EDC, bisphenol A (BPA), have generally focused on metabolic and adipose tissue effects. However, physical inactivity has been proposed to be a leading cause of obesity. A paucity of studies has considered whether EDC, including BPA, affects this behavior. To test whether early exposure to BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE, estrogen present in birth control pills) results in metabolic and such behavioral disruptions, California mice developmentally exposed to BPA and EE were tested as adults for energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry), body composition (echoMRI) and physical activity (measured by beam breaks and voluntary wheel running). Serum glucose and metabolic hormones were measured. No differences in body weight or food consumption were detected. BPA-exposed females exhibited greater variation in weight than females in control and EE groups. During the dark and light cycles, BPA females exhibited a higher average respiratory quotient than control females, indicative of metabolizing carbohydrates rather than fats. Various assessments of voluntary physical activity in the home cage confirmed that during the dark cycle, BPA and EE-exposed females were significantly less active in this setting than control females. Similar effects were not observed in BPA or EE-exposed males. No significant differences were detected in serum glucose, insulin, adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Results suggest that females developmentally exposed to BPA exhibit decreased motivation to engage in voluntary physical activity and altered metabolism of carbohydrates v. fats, which could have important health implications. PMID:26378919

  8. Acceptability and willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredig, Daniel; Uggowitzer, Franziska; Hassler, Benedikt; Weber, Patrick; Nideröst, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is discussed as an additional HIV prevention method targeting men who have sex with men (MSM). So far, PrEP has not been approved in Switzerland and only little is known about the acceptability of PrEP among MSM living in Switzerland. Given the slow uptake of PrEP among MSM in the USA, the objectives of the study were to investigate the acceptability for PrEP and to identify factors influencing the acceptability for this prevention method and the willingness to adopt it. During a 4-month period we conducted five focus group discussions with 23 consecutively sampled HIV-negative MSM aged 22-60 years living in Switzerland. We analyzed the data according to qualitative content analysis. The acceptability of PrEP varied considerably among the participants. Some would use PrEP immediately after its introduction in Switzerland because it provides an alternative to condoms which they are unable or unwilling to use. Others were more ambivalent towards PrEP but still considered it (1) an additional or alternative protection to regular condom use, (2) an option to engage in sexual activities with less worries and anxieties or (3) a protection during receptive anal intercourse independently of the sexual partner's protective behaviour. Some participants would not consider using PrEP at all: they do not see any benefit in PrEP as they have adopted safer sex practices and did not mention any problems with condom use. Others are still undecided and could imagine using an improved form of PrEP. The results provide a valuable basis for a model explaining the acceptability of PrEP among MSM and suggest including the personal HIV protection strategy in the considerations adopted.

  9. Testosterone-Mediated Endocrine Function and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Balance after Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorooctane Sulfonate: By Sex Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Qiang Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the evaluation of potential developmental immunotoxicity induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, a synthetic persistent and increasingly ubiquitous environmental contaminant. To assess potential sex-specific impacts of PFOS on immunological health in the offspring, using male and female C57BL/6 mice, pups were evaluated for developmental immunotoxic effects after maternal oral exposure to PFOS (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0 mg PFOS/kg/day during Gestational Days 1–17. Spontaneous TH1/TH2-type cytokines, serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were evaluated in F1 pups at four and eight weeks of age. The study showed that male pups were more sensitive to the effects of PFOS than female pups. At eight weeks of age, an imbalance in TH1/TH2-type cytokines with excess TH2 cytokines (IL-4 was found only in male pups. As for hormone levels, PFOS treatment in utero significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels only in male pups, and a significant interaction between sex and PFOS was observed for serum testosterone at both four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0049 and eight weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0227 and for estradiol alternation at four weeks of age (pinteraction = 0.0351. In conclusion, testosterone-mediated endocrine function may be partially involved in the TH1/TH2 imbalance induced by PFOS, and these deficits are detectable among both young and adult mice and may affect males more than females.

  10. Sex-dependent long-term effects of adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA on neuroinflammation and serotoninergic and cannabinoid systems in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2014-03-01

    Many young people consume ecstasy as a recreational drug and often in combination with cannabis. In this study, we aimed to mimic human consumption patterns and investigated, in male and female animals, the long-term effects of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on diverse neuroinflammation and neurotoxic markers. Male and female Wistar rats were chronically treated with increasing doses of THC and/or MDMA during adolescence. The effects of THC and/or MDMA on glial reactivity and on serotoninergic and cannabinoid systems were assessed by immunohistochemistry in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. THC increased the area staining for glial fibrilar acidic protein in both sexes. In males, both drugs, either separately or in combination, increased the proportion of reactive microglia cells [ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)]. In contrast, in females, each drug, administered alone, decreased of this proportion, whereas the combination of both drugs resulted in a 'normalization' to control values. In males, MDMA reduced the number of SERT positive fibres, THC induced the opposite effect and the group receiving both drugs did not significantly differ from the controls. In females, MDMA reduced the number of SERT positive fibres and the combination of both drugs counteracted this effect. THC also reduced immunostaining for CB1 receptors in females and this effect was aggravated by the combination with MDMA. Adolescent exposure of rats to THC and/or MDMA induced long-term, sex-dependent neurochemical and glial alterations, and revealed interactions between the two drugs. This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Sex reversal of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) by 17α-methyltestosterone exposure: A serial experimental approach to determine optimal timing and delivery regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Shafaq; Adams, Mark; Wilkinson, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Commercial culture of Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Tasmania was partly abandoned due to sexual maturation of male fish early on during the estuarine rearing phase. Maturation adversely affects body mass, flesh quality and immunocompetency effectively. Sex reversal techniques such as the in-feed addition of a synthetic androgen have proven difficult to adapt in brook trout. An appropriate timing, duration and delivery vehicle for administration of 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) to produce phenotypic males (neomales) from genotypically female brook trout required further investigation. In this study, groups of brook trout eggs (n=1000) maintained at 9.5±0.15-10±0.14°C, were immersed in MT (400μgL -1 ) for four hours on two alternate days (two immersions/group) staggered over a two week period surrounding the hatch of embryos (control groups excluded). The groups were then split and half received MT-supplemented feed for 60days and the other a standard diet. Following an 11 month on-growing period sex phenotypes were determined by gross & histological gonad morphology. The highest proportion of male phenotypes (75%) was found in fish immersed six and four days pre-hatch and subsequently fed a normal diet. Fish fed a MT supplemented diet and immersed in MT showed significantly higher proportions of sterile fish. These data indicate that a pre-hatch immersion-only regime (4-6days pre-hatch at 9.5°C) should be pursued as a target for optimization studies to further refine the effective concentration and duration of exposure to MT for the successful production of neo-male brook trout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Use, Seroadaptation, and Sexual Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men, San Francisco, 2004-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Snowden, Jonathan M; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, H Fisher

    2016-12-01

    The Food and Drug Administration approved pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has presented PrEP as a prevention option for groups at high risk such as men who have sex with men (MSM). Intervention data provide some information on how PrEP affects sexual behavior of MSM in trials, open label extensions, or clinics. However, it is unclear whether sexual risk and preventive behavioral patterns are changing in the population as a whole as PrEP becomes more widely available, whether due to PrEP use or other factors. We examined trends in PrEP use, numbers of condomless anal sex partners, consistent condom use, and seroadaptive strategies in San Francisco-a city which has actively promoted PrEP-using data from National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS). NHBS recruited 1211, 383, 373, and 268 HIV-negative MSM in 2004, 2008, 2011, and 2014, respectively. PrEP use increased from zero in 2004, 2008, and 2011 to 9.6 % in 2014. The proportion of men with no condomless anal sex partners dropped from 60.6 % in 2004, to 58.2 % in 2008, to 54.2 % in 2011, to 40.2 % in 2014. Consistent condom use decreased from 36.8 % in 2004, and 30.5 % in 2008 and 2011, to 18.3 % in 2014. PrEP's introduction and scale-up enters in a pre-existing trend of decreasing condom use and increasing sexually transmitted infections among MSM which may be accelerating in recent years. While PrEP use should be scaled up as a prevention option among those who would benefit most, we believe that public health officials need to be realistic about the possibility that condom use could very well continue to decline as PrEP use increases, and to an extent that may not be directly or indirectly offset by PrEP.

  13. Effect of exposure time of pregnant females guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters, in 17a-methyltestosterone solution on sex ratio of their offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zairin Junior

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis experiment was carried out to study the effect of female broodstocks immersion in 17amethyltestosterone (MT solution on sex ratio of their offspring, Three-months old males and females were paired to mate in aquaria for four days.  Broodstocks were fed with frozen blood worm and water flea 2-3 tii-nes daily.  Twelve days after mating, female broodstock were treated by immersing in 2 mg/1 MT solution for 0. 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours.  Birthed guppy babies were collected and reared separately from their parents.  During the rearing period, the babies were fed with artemia nauplius and silkworm until identification for male and female.  Percentage of female offspring in control group were higher than those of male.  Exposure of pregnant females to MT solution for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours resulted in 42, 1'/o, 51%, 84,6%, 1 00%, dan 100% of males offspring, respectively.  The best result was obtained from 24 hours treatment.  Longer treatment duration tend to shorten time interval between treatment and birth. Key words :  Guppy, 17(x-methyltestosterone, exposure time, broodstock immersion, sex ratio   ABSTRAK Penefitian ini bertuiuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama waktu perendaman induk di dalam larutan hormon 17a-metiltestosteron (MT terhadap nisbah kelamin ikan gapi.  Induk Ikan gapi berumur tiga bulan dikawinkan berpasangan di dalam akuarium selama empat hari Induk diberi pakan cuk merah beku dan kutu air dengan frekuensi 2-3 kali sehari.  Dua belas hari setelah masa perkawinan, induk betina diberi perlakuan berupa perendaman di dalam larutan MT 2 mg/1 selama 0 (kontrol, 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam.  Anak-anak ikan gapi yang baru lahir dipelihara terpisah dari induknya.  Selama masa pemeliharaan, anak ikan gapi diberi pakan nauplius artemia dan cacing rambut.  Pemeliharaan berlangsung sampai jenis kelamin anak ikan gapi dapat diidentifikasi.  Persentase anak ikan gapi betina pada semua ulangan kontrol lebih tinggi daripada

  14. Epigenetic modulation upon exposure of lung fibroblasts to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles: alterations in DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nayana A; Gade, W N; Deobagkar, Deepti D

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are promising candidates for numerous applications in consumer products. This will lead to increased human exposure, thus posing a threat to human health. Both these types of NPs have been studied for their cell toxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxicity. However, effects of these NPs on epigenetic modulations have not been studied. Epigenetics is an important link in the genotype and phenotype modulation and misregulation can often lead to lifestyle diseases. In this study, we have evaluated the DNA methylation-based epigenetic changes upon exposure to various concentrations of NPs. The investigation was designed to evaluate global DNA methylation, estimating the corresponding methyltransferase activity and expression of Dnmt gene using lung fibroblast (MRC5) cell line as lungs are the primary route of entry and target of occupational exposure to TiO2 and ZnO NPs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based immunochemical assay revealed dose-related decrease in global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase activity. We also found direct correlation between the concentration of NPs, global methylation levels, and expression levels of Dnmt1, 3A, and 3B genes upon exposure. This is the first study to investigate effect of exposure to TiO2 and ZnO on DNA methylation levels in MRC5 cells. Epigenetic processes are known to play an important role in reprogramming and adaptation ability of an organism and can have long-term consequences. We suggest that changes in DNA methylation can serve as good biomarkers for early exposure to NPs since they occur at concentrations well below the sublethal levels. Our results demonstrate a clear epigenetic alteration in response to metal oxide NPs and that this effect was dose-dependent.

  15. Interactive Effects of Culture and Sex Hormones on Sex Role Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda ePletzer; Ourania ePetasis; Tuulia eOrtner; Larry eCahill

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal s...

  16. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal ...

  17. Automatic exposure control in CT: the effect of patient size, anatomical region and prescribed modulation strength on tube current and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadakis, Antonios E. [University Hospital of Heraklion, Department of Medical Physics, Stavrakia, P.O. Box 1352, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John [University of Crete, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Physics, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    To study the effect of patient size, body region and modulation strength on tube current and image quality on CT examinations that use automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Ten physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate an individual as neonate, 1-, 5-, 10-year-old and adult at various body habitus were employed. CT acquisition of head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis was performed with ATCM activated at weak, average and strong modulation strength. The mean modulated mAs (mAs{sub mod}) values were recorded. Image noise was measured at selected anatomical sites. The mAs{sub mod} recorded for neonate compared to 10-year-old increased by 30 %, 14 %, 6 % and 53 % for head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis, respectively, (P < 0.05). The mAs{sub mod} was lower than the preselected mAs with the exception of the 10-year-old phantom. In paediatric and adult phantoms, the mAs{sub mod} ranged from 44 and 53 for weak to 117 and 93 for strong modulation strength, respectively. At the same exposure parameters image noise increased with body size (P < 0.05). The ATCM system studied here may affect dose differently for different patient habitus. Dose may decrease for overweight adults but increase for children older than 5 years old. Care should be taken when implementing ATCM protocols to ensure that image quality is maintained. circle ATCM efficiency is related to the size of the patient's body. (orig.)

  18. Part II: Strain- and sex-specific effects of adolescent exposure to THC on adult brain and behaviour: Variants of learning, anxiety and volumetric estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R J; Trow, J; Bye, C; McDonald, R J

    2015-07-15

    Marijuana is one of the most highly used psychoactive substances in the world, and its use typically begins during adolescence, a period of substantial brain development. Females across species appear to be more susceptible to the long-term consequences of marijuana use. Despite the identification of inherent differences between rat strains including measures of anatomy, genetics and behaviour, no studies to our knowledge have examined the long-term consequences of adolescent exposure to marijuana or its main psychoactive component, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in males and females of two widely used rat strains: Long-Evans hooded (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats. THC was administered for 14 consecutive days following puberty onset, and once they reached adulthood, changes in behaviour and in the volume of associated brain areas were quantified. Rats were assessed in behavioural tests of motor, spatial and contextual learning, and anxiety. Some tasks showed effects of injection, since handled and vehicle groups were included as controls. Performance on all tasks, except motor learning, and the volume of associated brain areas were altered with injection or THC administration, although these effects varied by strain and sex group. Finally, analysis revealed treatment-specific correlations between performance and brain volumes. This study is the first of its kind to directly compare males and females of two rat strains for the long-term consequences of adolescent THC exposure. It highlights the importance of considering strain and identifies certain rat strains as susceptible or resilient to the effects of THC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Craniospinal Irradiation: Organ-at-Risk Exposure and a Low-Gradient Junctioning Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Joshua B., E-mail: stoker.joshua@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Grant, Jonathan [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhu, X. Ronald; Pidikiti, Rajesh [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita; Grosshans, David R. [Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To compare field junction robustness and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) during craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) to conventional passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients, 5 adult and 5 pediatric patients, previously treated with PSPT-based CSI were selected for comparison. Anterior oblique cranial fields, using a superior couch rotation, and posterior spinal fields were used for IMPT planning. To facilitate low-gradient field junctioning along the spine, the inverse-planning IMPT technique was divided into 3 stages. Dose indices describing target coverage and normal tissue dose, in silico error modeling, and film dosimetry were used to assess plan quality. Results: Field junction robustness along the spine was improved using the staged IMPT planning technique, reducing the worst case impact of a 4-mm setup error from 25% in PSPT to <5% of prescription dose. This was verified by film dosimetry for clinical delivery. Exclusive of thyroid dose in adult patients, IMPT plans demonstrated sparing of organs at risk as good or better than PSPT. Coverage of the cribriform plate for pediatric (V95% [percentage of volume of the target receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose]; 87 ± 11 vs 92 ± 7) and adult (V95%; 94 ± 7 vs 100 ± 1) patients and the clinical target in pediatric (V95%; 98 ± 2 vs 100 ± 1) and adult (V95%; 100 ± 1 vs 100 ± 1) patients for PSPT and IMPT plans, respectively, were comparable or improved. For adult patients, IMPT target dose inhomogeneity was increased, as determined by heterogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). IMPT lowered maximum spinal cord dose, improved spinal dose homogeneity, and reduced exposure to other OARs. Conclusions: IMPT has the potential to improve CSI plan quality and the homogeneity of intrafractional dose at match lines. The IMPT approach developed may also simplify treatments and reduce

  20. Multicentre RCT and economic evaluation of a psychological intervention together with a leaflet to reduce risk behaviour amongst men who have sex with men (MSM prescribed post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV following sexual exposure (PEPSE: A protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn Carrie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP following sexual exposure to HIV has been recommended as a method of preventing HIV infection in the UK. Men who have sex with men (MSM are the group most affected by HIV in the UK and their sexual risk taking behaviour is reported to be increasing. One-to-one behavioural interventions, such as motivational interviewing (MI have been recommended to reduce HIV in high risk groups. The Information, Motivation and Behavioral skills (IMB model has been shown to provide a good basis for understanding and predicting HIV-relevant health behaviour and health behaviour change, however the IMB has yet to be applied to PEP after risky sexual exposure. The primary aim of this trial is to examine the impact of MI augmented with information provision and behavioural skills building (informed by the IMB Model, over and above usual care, on risky sexual behaviour in MSM prescribed PEP after potential sexual exposure. A secondary aim of this research is to examine the impact of the intervention on adherence to PEP. This study will also provide estimates of the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Methods A manualised parallel group randomised controlled trial with economic evaluation will be conducted. The primary outcome is the proportion of risky sexual practices. Secondary outcomes include: i Levels of adherence to PEP treatment; ii Number of subsequent courses of PEP; iii Levels of motivation to avoid risky sexual behaviours; iv Levels of HIV risk-reduction information/knowledge; v Levels of risk reduction behavioural skills; vi Diagnosis of anal gonorrhoea, Chlamydia and/or HIV. 250 participants will be asked to self-complete a questionnaire at four time points during the study (at 0,3,6,12 months. The intervention will consist of a two-session, fixed duration, telephone administered augmented MI intervention based on the IMB model. A newly developed treatment manual will guide the selection of

  1. The Effects of Synthetic Estrogen Exposure on the Sexually Dimorphic Liver Transcriptome of the Sex-Role-Reversed Gulf Pipefish: e0139401

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Rose; Sarah P Flanagan; Adam G Jones

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we investigate gene expression patterns in the liver of the sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefish, because the liver is known to be sexually dimorphic and estrogen-regulated in species with conventional sex roles...

  2. Programming of Dopaminergic Neurons by Neonatal Sex Hormone Exposure: Effects on Dopamine Content and Tyrosine Hydroxylase Expression in Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the long-term changes produced by neonatal sex hormone administration on the functioning of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously at postnatal day 1 and were assigned to the following experimental groups: TP (testosterone propionate of 1.0 mg/50 μL; DHT (dihydrotestosterone of 1.0 mg/50 μL; EV (estradiol valerate of 0.1 mg/50 μL; and control (sesame oil of 50 μL. At postnatal day 60, neurochemical studies were performed to determine dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area and dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. Molecular (mRNA expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and cellular (tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity studies were also performed. We found increased dopamine content in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area of TP and EV rats, in addition to increased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens. However, neonatal exposure to DHT, a nonaromatizable androgen, did not affect midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Correspondingly, compared to control rats, levels of tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and protein were significantly increased in TP and EV rats but not in DHT rats, as determined by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Our results suggest an estrogenic mechanism involving increased tyrosine hydroxylase expression, either by direct estrogenic action or by aromatization of testosterone to estradiol in substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area.

  3. Barriers to Access and Adoption of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Among Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) in a Relatively Rural State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubach, Randolph D; Currin, Joseph M; Sanders, Carissa A; Durham, André R; Kavanaugh, Katherine E; Wheeler, Denna L; Croff, Julie M

    2017-08-01

    Biomedical intervention approaches, including antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), have been demonstrated to reduce HIV incidence among several at-risk populations and to be cost effective. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP access and uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in relatively rural states. Twenty semistructured interviews were conducted (August-November 2016) to assess opinions of and perceived barriers to accessing and adopting PrEP among MSM residing in Oklahoma. Participants perceived substantial barriers to accessing PrEP including a stigmatizing environment and less access to quality, LGBT-sensitive medical care. Overall, geographic isolation limits access to health providers and resources that support sexual health for Oklahoma MSM. Addressing stigma situated across ecological levels in an effort to increase adoption of PrEP by MSM residing in rural states remains necessary. Without this, social determinants may continue to negatively influence PrEP adoption and sexual health outcomes.

  4. Facilitators and Barriers to Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Willingness Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial Networking Applications in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W; Tan, Diane; Gildner, Jennifer L; Beougher, Sean C; Pulsipher, Craig; Montoya, Jorge A; Plant, Aaron; Leibowitz, Arleen

    2017-12-01

    While correlates of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake have been explored among older men who have sex with men (MSM), less is known about the facilitators and barriers that encourage uptake among younger MSM (YMSM). This study explores the association between willingness to take PrEP and demographic characteristics, sexual risk, and substance use, and attitudinal factors among YMSM in California who use geosocial networking applications (GSN apps). Based on survey data from YMSM recruited through GSN apps (n = 687), PrEP willingness was positively associated with Hispanic ethnicity [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.73; confidence interval (CI): 1.01-2.98; p = 0.046], concerns about drug effects (aOR: 0.46; CI: 0.33-0.65; p side effects may increase interest in and demand for PrEP among YMSM. More opportunities are needed to educate YMSM about PrEP, including addressing their concerns about this new prevention strategy. Providers should speak openly and honestly to YMSM considering PrEP about what to do if side effects occur and how to handle missed doses. Outreach using GSN apps for PrEP education and screening may be an effective way to reach YMSM.

  5. Awareness of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV, Willingness to Use It and Potential Barriers or Facilitators to Uptake Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, L; Folch, C; Fernandez-Davila, P; Garcia, A; Morales, A; Belda, J; Susperregui, A R; Casabona, J

    2016-07-01

    There is a lack of data on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) effectiveness in Spain. We described the awareness of and willingness to use PrEP and examined potential barriers and facilitators to their use among men who have sex with men recruited either online or in voluntary HIV testing centers in Spain. Nearly a third of men (28.7 %) were aware of PrEP and 57.6 % said they would be willing to use it if available, 16.6 % saying they would be unwilling to use PrEP and 25.8 % not being sure. Men who had heard of PrEP were more forceful in their opinions on willingness to use PrEP (willing/not willing: 29.8 %/32.6 % vs. don't know: 21.8 %). The greatest consensus regarding more acceptable PrEP attributes was in the mode of delivery and its cost. Doctors (91 %) or pharmacists (85.3 %) were the preferred providers. The results confirm the need to inform and educate on PrEP and define implementation strategies.

  6. Repeated exposure to low-level extremely low frequency-modulated microwaves affects cortex-hypothalamus interplay in freely moving rats: EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobyov, Vasily; Janać, Branka; Pesić, Vesna; Prolić, Zlatko

    2010-05-01

    To compare the effects of repeated exposure to extremely low frequency-modulated microwaves (ELF-MW) on cortical and hypothalamic electroencephalograms (EEG). In 10 freely moving rats with carbon electrodes implanted into the cortex and dorsomedial hypothalamus, averaged frequency spectra (0.5-30 Hz) of the EEG were studied for five consecutive days either under sham exposures (five rats) or under mixed sham/MW-exposures (five rats). The rats were exposed to ELF-MW (915 MHz, 20-ms pulse duration, approximately 0.3 mW/cm(2), 4 Hz) intermittently (1-min 'On', 1-min 'Off') for 10 min (specific absorption rate, SAR, approximately 0.7 mW/g on average) several times per day, with 10-min pre- and post-exposure periods. In baseline EEG, the activities of 3.2-6.0 Hz and 17.8-30.5 Hz dominated in the cortex and of 6.0-17.8 Hz in the hypothalamus. This cortical-hypothalamic imbalance was relatively stable at sham-exposures and insensitive to ELF-MW in all frequency ranges but one. ELF-MW increased the beta(2) (17.8-30.5 Hz) level in the hypothalamus to a greater extent than in the cortex, causing significant diminishing of the initial EEG bias between them. Moreover, a cumulative phenomenon under repeated exposures to ELF-MW was revealed. These results are in line with evidence that repeated low-level exposure to ELF-MW affects brain functioning and provide an additional approach when analysing underlying mechanisms.

  7. Effects of chronic caffeine exposure on adenosinergic modulation of the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine, methamphetamine and cocaine in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinova, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Barnes, Chanel; Wertheim, Carrie E.; Pappas, Lara A.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Le Foll, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Adenosine receptors are involved in cocaine and methamphetamine discrimination and exposure to caffeine can affect behavioral effects of nicotine in rats. Objectives Here we investigated the relative involvement of adenosine A1 and A2A receptors in nicotine, cocaine and methamphetamine discrimination, before and/or during chronic caffeine exposure. Methods The non-selective adenosine antagonist caffeine, the A1-receptor antagonist CPT and the A2A-receptor antagonist MSX-3 were evaluated in rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg nicotine from saline under a fixed-ratio schedule of food delivery. Effects of antagonists were then compared in rats discriminating nicotine, methamphetamine or cocaine during chronic caffeine exposure in their drinking water. Results Caffeine, CPT and MSX-3 partially generalized to nicotine and shifted nicotine dose-response curves leftwards. During chronic caffeine exposure, however, all three ligands failed to generalize to nicotine and failed to shift nicotine dose-response curves. In previous experiments, CPT and MSX-3 partially generalized to methamphetamine and cocaine and shifted dose-response curves leftwards. In the present experiments, CPT neither generalized nor shifted dose-response curves for methamphetamine or cocaine during chronic caffeine exposure. However, MSX-3 partially generalized to both psychostimulants and shifted their dose-response curves leftwards. Caffeine partially generalized to cocaine, but not methamphetamine, and shifted both dose-response curves leftwards. Conclusions Both adenosine A1 and A2A receptors are capable of modulating the discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine. Chronic caffeine exposure produces complete tolerance to both A1- and A2A-mediated effects in nicotine-trained rats. In contrast, chronic caffeine exposure produces tolerance to adenosine A1-mediated, but not A2A-mediated, effects in methamphetamine- and cocaine-trained rats. PMID:18688601

  8. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kichou, Sofiane; Silvestre, Santiago; Nofuentes, Gustavo; Torres-Ramírez, Miguel; Chouder, Aissa; Guasch, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Four years׳ behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) modules installed in a relatively dry and sunny inland site with a Continental-Mediterranean climate...

  9. Automatic exposure control in CT: the effect of patient size, anatomical region and prescribed modulation strength on tube current and image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Antonios E; Perisinakis, Kostas; Damilakis, John

    2014-10-01

    To study the effect of patient size, body region and modulation strength on tube current and image quality on CT examinations that use automatic tube current modulation (ATCM). Ten physical anthropomorphic phantoms that simulate an individual as neonate, 1-, 5-, 10-year-old and adult at various body habitus were employed. CT acquisition of head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis was performed with ATCM activated at weak, average and strong modulation strength. The mean modulated mAs (mAsmod) values were recorded. Image noise was measured at selected anatomical sites. The mAsmod recorded for neonate compared to 10-year-old increased by 30 %, 14 %, 6 % and 53 % for head, neck, thorax and abdomen/pelvis, respectively, (P < 0.05). The mAsmod was lower than the preselected mAs with the exception of the 10-year-old phantom. In paediatric and adult phantoms, the mAsmod ranged from 44 and 53 for weak to 117 and 93 for strong modulation strength, respectively. At the same exposure parameters image noise increased with body size (P < 0.05). The ATCM system studied here may affect dose differently for different patient habitus. Dose may decrease for overweight adults but increase for children older than 5 years old. Care should be taken when implementing ATCM protocols to ensure that image quality is maintained. • ATCM efficiency is related to the size of the patient's body. • ATCM should be activated without caution in overweight adult individuals. • ATCM may increase radiation dose in children older than 5 years old. • ATCM efficiency depends on the protocol selected for a specific anatomical region. • Modulation strength may be appropriately tuned to enhance ATCM efficiency.

  10. Willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Malaysia: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Adam; Cassolato, Matteo; Thuan Wei, Clayton Koh; Wang, Bangyuan; Pang, Joselyn; Lim, Sin How; Azwa, Iskandar; Yee, Ilias; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-08-02

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV in Malaysia. Recent success has been observed within demonstration projects examining the efficacy of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an antiretroviral -based medication taken by HIV-negative men to prevent sero-conversion. In order for such promising findings to be translated in real-world settings, it is important to understand the acceptability of PrEP, including perceived barriers to access or uptake. As part of a larger mixed-methods study exploring acceptability and willingness to use PrEP among MSM in Malaysia, 19 men took part in audio-recorded focus group discussions hosted by a community-based HIV organization and facilitated by a trained researcher. Discussions focussed on awareness and potential information management, general perceptions of PrEP and potential motivations or barriers to the use of PrEP, including those at the personal, social, health system or structural level. Data were transcribed verbatim and underwent a detailed thematic analysis. Rather than perceiving PrEP as a replacement for condoms in terms of having safer sex, many participants viewed it as an additional layer protection, serving as a crucial barrier to infection on occasions where condom use was intended, but did not occur. It was also perceived as more valuable to "at-risk" men, such as those in HIV sero-discordant relationships or those with a higher number of sexual partners. Elements of discussion tended to suggest that some men taking PrEP may be subject to stigma from others, on the assumption they may be promiscuous or engage in high-risk sexual behaviours. This qualitative study indicates that, broadly speaking, PrEP may be acceptable to MSM in Malaysia. However, in order for its potential to be realized, and uptake achieved, educative interventions are required to inform the target population as to the efficacy and potential, positive impact of PrEP. Given concerns for how those

  11. Willingness of community-recruited men who have sex with men in Washington, DC to use long-acting injectable HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Levy

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are currently investigating the safety and efficacy of long-acting injectable (LAI agents as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP. Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data, we assessed the self-reported willingness of men who have sex with men (MSM to use LAI PrEP and their preference for LAI versus daily oral PrEP.In 2014, venue-based sampling was used to recruit MSM aged ≥18 years in Washington, DC. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey followed by voluntary HIV testing. This analysis included MSM who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status at study entry. Correlates of being "very likely" to use LAI PrEP and preferring it to daily oral PrEP were identified using multivariable logistic regression.Of 314 participants who self-reported negative/unknown HIV status, 50% were <30 years old, 41% were non-Hispanic Black, 37% were non-Hispanic White, and 14% were Hispanic. If LAI PrEP were offered for free or covered by health insurance, 62% were very likely, 25% were somewhat likely, and 12% were unlikely to use it. Regarding preferred PrEP modality, 67% chose LAI PrEP, 24% chose oral PrEP, and 9% chose neither. Correlates of being very likely versus somewhat likely/unlikely to use LAI PrEP included age <30 years (aOR 1.64; 95% CI 1.00-2.68, reporting ≥6 (vs. 1 sex partners in the last year (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.22-5.53, previous oral PrEP use (aOR 3.67; 95% CI 1.20-11.24, and being newly identified as HIV-infected during study testing (aOR 4.83; 95% CI 1.03-22.67. Black (vs. White men (aOR 0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.96 and men with an income of <$20,000 (vs. ≥$75,000; aOR 0.37; 95% CI 0.15-0.93 were less likely to prefer LAI to oral PrEP.If LAI PrEP were found to be efficacious, its addition to the HIV prevention toolkit could facilitate more complete PrEP coverage among MSM at risk for HIV.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men in the UK: a modelling study and health economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec; Dunn, David; McCormack, Sheena; Ong, Koh Jun; Gill, O Noel; Nardone, Anthony; Desai, Monica; Field, Nigel; Hart, Graham; Delpech, Valerie; Cairns, Gus; Rodger, Alison; Phillips, Andrew N

    2017-10-17

    In the UK, HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM) has remained high for several years, despite widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and high rates of virological suppression. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be highly effective in preventing further infections in MSM, but its cost-effectiveness is uncertain. In this modelling study and economic evaluation, we calibrated a dynamic, individual-based stochastic model, the HIV Synthesis Model, to multiple data sources (surveillance data provided by Public Health England and data from a large, nationally representative survey, Natsal-3) on HIV among MSM in the UK. We did a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (sampling 22 key parameters) along with a range of univariate sensitivity analyses to evaluate the introduction of a PrEP programme with sexual event-based use of emtricitabine and tenofovir for MSM who had condomless anal sexual intercourse in the previous 3 months, a negative HIV test at baseline, and a negative HIV test in the preceding year. The main model outcomes were the number of HIV infections, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs. Introduction of such a PrEP programme, with around 4000 MSM initiated on PrEP by the end of the first year and almost 40 000 by the end of the 15th year, would result in a total cost saving (£1·0 billion discounted), avert 25% of HIV infections (42% of which would be directly because of PrEP), and lead to a gain of 40 000 discounted QALYs over an 80-year time horizon. This result was particularly sensitive to the time horizon chosen, the cost of antiretroviral drugs (for treatment and PrEP), and the underlying trend in condomless sex. This analysis suggests that the introduction of a PrEP programme for MSM in the UK is cost-effective and possibly cost-saving in the long term. A reduction in the cost of antiretroviral drugs (including the drugs used for PrEP) would substantially shorten the time for cost savings to be realised

  13. The association of n-3 fatty acids with serum High Density Cholesterol (HDL) is modulated by sex but not by Inuit ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity.......To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity....

  14. The Potential Impact of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transwomen in Lima, Peru: A Mathematical Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Carlos F.; Segura, Eddy R.; Grant, Robert M.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the use of antiretroviral drugs by uninfected individuals to prevent HIV infection, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing acquisition in a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM). Consequently, there is a need to understand if and how PrEP can be used cost-effectively to prevent HIV infection in such populations. Methods and Findings We developed a mathematical model representing the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen (male-to-female transgender individuals) in Lima, Peru, as a test case. PrEP effectiveness in the model is assumed to result from the combination of a “conditional efficacy” parameter and an adherence parameter. Annual operating costs from a health provider perspective were based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention interim guidelines for PrEP use. The model was used to investigate the population-level impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of PrEP under a range of implementation scenarios. The epidemiological impact of PrEP is largely driven by programme characteristics. For a modest PrEP coverage of 5%, over 8% of infections could be averted in a programme prioritising those at higher risk and attaining the adherence levels of the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative study. Across all scenarios, the highest estimated cost per disability-adjusted life year averted (uniform strategy for a coverage level of 20%, US$1,036–US$4,254) is below the World Health Organization recommended threshold for cost-effective interventions, while only certain optimistic scenarios (low coverage of 5% and some or high prioritisation) are likely to be cost-effective using the World Bank threshold. The impact of PrEP is reduced if those on PrEP decrease condom use, but only extreme behaviour changes among non-adherers (over 80% reduction in condom use) and a low PrEP conditional efficacy (40%) would adversely impact the epidemic. However, PrEP will not arrest HIV transmission in

  15. The potential impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men and transwomen in Lima, Peru: a mathematical modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B Gomez

    Full Text Available HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, the use of antiretroviral drugs by uninfected individuals to prevent HIV infection, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing acquisition in a high-risk population of men who have sex with men (MSM. Consequently, there is a need to understand if and how PrEP can be used cost-effectively to prevent HIV infection in such populations.We developed a mathematical model representing the HIV epidemic among MSM and transwomen (male-to-female transgender individuals in Lima, Peru, as a test case. PrEP effectiveness in the model is assumed to result from the combination of a "conditional efficacy" parameter and an adherence parameter. Annual operating costs from a health provider perspective were based on the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention interim guidelines for PrEP use. The model was used to investigate the population-level impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of PrEP under a range of implementation scenarios. The epidemiological impact of PrEP is largely driven by programme characteristics. For a modest PrEP coverage of 5%, over 8% of infections could be averted in a programme prioritising those at higher risk and attaining the adherence levels of the Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Initiative study. Across all scenarios, the highest estimated cost per disability-adjusted life year averted (uniform strategy for a coverage level of 20%, US$1,036-US$4,254 is below the World Health Organization recommended threshold for cost-effective interventions, while only certain optimistic scenarios (low coverage of 5% and some or high prioritisation are likely to be cost-effective using the World Bank threshold. The impact of PrEP is reduced if those on PrEP decrease condom use, but only extreme behaviour changes among non-adherers (over 80% reduction in condom use and a low PrEP conditional efficacy (40% would adversely impact the epidemic. However, PrEP will not arrest HIV transmission in isolation because of its

  16. Efficacy, safety, and effect on sexual behaviour of on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV in men who have sex with men: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Jean-Michel; Charreau, Isabelle; Spire, Bruno; Cotte, Laurent; Chas, Julie; Capitant, Catherine; Tremblay, Cecile; Rojas-Castro, Daniela; Cua, Eric; Pasquet, Armelle; Bernaud, Camille; Pintado, Claire; Delaugerre, Constance; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Mestre, Soizic Le; Chidiac, Christian; Pialoux, Gilles; Ponscarme, Diane; Fonsart, Julien; Thompson, David; Wainberg, Mark A; Doré, Veronique; Meyer, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    Data for on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are scarce. We implemented a cohort study to assess its efficacy, safety, and effect on sexual behaviour. We invited men and transgender women who have sex with men, previously enrolled in the randomised placebo-controlled ANRS IPERGAY trial at seven sites (six in France and one in Canada), to participate in an open-label extension with on-demand tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) to be taken before and after sexual intercourse. We assessed the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), PrEP adherence, safety, and sexual behaviour. Statistical analyses included comparisons of proportions and incidence between the randomised phase of the ANRS IPERGAY trial and the open-label phase, and all participants were included in safety analyses. ANRS IPERGAY is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01473472. Between Nov 4, 2014, and Jan 27, 2015, we enrolled 361 participants. Median follow-up was 18·4 months (IQR 17·7-19·1). One participant who discontinued PrEP acquired HIV infection. HIV incidence was 0·19 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0·01-1·08), compared with 6·60 per 100 person-years (3·60-11·05) in the placebo group of the randomised study, indicating a relative reduction of 97% (95% CI 81-100) in the incidence of HIV with on-demand PrEP. Participants used a median of 18 pills of study drugs per month (IQR 11-25), and at the 6 month visit 240 (71%) of 336 participants had tenofovir detected in plasma. Drug-related gastrointestinal events were reported in 49 participants (14%) but were self-limited. Only four participants (1%) discontinued PrEP, three because of an increase in plasma creatinine. The proportion of participants reporting condomless sex at their last receptive anal intercourse significantly increased from 77% (136 of 176 participants) at baseline to 86% (66 of 77 participants) at 18 months' follow-up (p for trend=0·0004). The incidence

  17. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and early antiretroviral treatment among female sex workers in South Africa: Results from a prospective observational demonstration project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Eakle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Operational research is required to design delivery of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and early antiretroviral treatment (ART. This paper presents the primary analysis of programmatic data, as well as demographic, behavioural, and clinical data, from the TAPS Demonstration Project, which offered both interventions to female sex workers (FSWs at 2 urban clinic sites in South Africa.The TAPS study was conducted between 30 March 2015 and 30 June 2017, with the enrolment period ending on 31 July 2016. TAPS was a prospective observational cohort study with 2 groups receiving interventions delivered in existing service settings: (1 PrEP as part of combination prevention for HIV-negative FSWs and (2 early ART for HIV-positive FSWs. The main outcome was programme retention at 12 months of follow-up. Of the 947 FSWs initially seen in clinic, 692 were HIV tested. HIV prevalence was 49%. Among those returning to clinic after HIV testing and clinical screening, 93% of the women who were HIV-negative were confirmed as clinically eligible for PrEP (n = 224/241, and 41% (n = 110/270 of the women who were HIV-positive had CD4 counts within National Department of Health ART initiation guidelines at assessment. Of the remaining women who were HIV-positive, 93% were eligible for early ART (n = 148/160. From those eligible, 98% (n = 219/224 and 94% (n = 139/148 took up PrEP and early ART, respectively. At baseline, a substantial fraction of women had a steady partner, worked in brothels, and were born in Zimbabwe. Of those enrolled, 22% on PrEP (n = 49/219 and 60% on early ART (n = 83/139 were seen at 12 months; we observed high rates of loss to follow-up: 71% (n = 156/219 and 30% (n = 42/139 in the PrEP and early ART groups, respectively. Little change over time was reported in consistent condom use or the number of sexual partners in the last 7 days, with high levels of consistent condom use with clients and low use with steady partners in both study groups

  18. Southern African guidelines for the safe use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men who are at risk for HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southern African HIV Clinicians Society Consensus Committee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of oral antiretrovirals to prevent HIV infection among HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM has been shown to be safe and efficacious. A large, randomised, placebo-controlled trial showed a 44% reduction in the incidence of HIV infection among MSM receiving a daily oral fixed-dose combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (Truvada in combination with an HIV prevention package. Improved protection was seen with higher levels of adherence. Aim. The purpose of this guideline is to: (i explain what pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is; (ii outline current indications for its use; (iii outline steps for appropriate client selection; and (iv provide guidance for monitoring and maintaining clients on PrEP. Method. PrEP is indicated for HIV-negative MSM who are assessed to be at high risk for HIV acquisition and who are willing and motivated to use PrEP as part of a package of HIV prevention services (including condoms, lubrication, sexually transmitted infection (STI management and risk reduction counselling. Recommendations. HIV testing, estimation of creatinine clearance and STI and hepatitis B screening are recommended as baseline investigations. Daily oral Truvada, along with adherence support, can then be prescribed for eligible MSM. PrEP should not be given to MSM with abnormal renal function, nor to clients who are unmotivated to use PrEP as part of an HIV prevention package; nor should it be commenced during an acute viral illness. Three-monthly follow-up visits to assess tolerance, renal function, adherence and ongoing eligibility is recommended. Six-monthly STI screens and annual creatinine levels to estimate creatinine clearance are recommended. Hepatitis B vaccination should be provided to susceptible clients. Gastro-intestinal symptoms and weight loss are common side-effects, mostly experienced for the first 4 - 8 weeks after initiating PrEP. There is a risk of the development of antiretroviral

  19. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men: risk calculators for real-world decision-making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP can be clinically effective and cost-effective for HIV prevention in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM. However, individual patients have different risk profiles, real-world populations vary, and no practical tools exist to guide clinical decisions or public health strategies. We introduce a practical model of HIV acquisition, including both a personalized risk calculator for clinical management and a cost-effectiveness calculator for population-level decisions. METHODS: We developed a decision-analytic model of PrEP for MSM. The primary clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness outcomes were the number needed to treat (NNT to prevent one HIV infection, and the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY gained. We characterized patients according to risk factors including PrEP adherence, condom use, sexual frequency, background HIV prevalence and antiretroviral therapy use. RESULTS: With standard PrEP adherence and national epidemiologic parameters, the estimated NNT was 64 (95% uncertainty range: 26, 176 at a cost of $160,000 (cost saving, $740,000 per QALY--comparable to other published models. With high (35% HIV prevalence, the NNT was 35 (21, 57, and cost per QALY was $27,000 (cost saving, $160,000, and with high PrEP adherence, the NNT was 30 (14, 69, and cost per QALY was $3,000 (cost saving, $200,000. In contrast, for monogamous, serodiscordant relationships with partner antiretroviral therapy use, the NNT was 90 (39, 157 and cost per QALY was $280,000 ($14,000, $670,000. CONCLUSIONS: PrEP results vary widely across individuals and populations. Risk calculators may aid in patient education, clinical decision-making, and cost-effectiveness evaluation.

  20. Comparing the impact of increasing condom use or HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP use among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindoga Mukandavire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many settings, interventions targeting female sex workers (FSWs could significantly reduce the overall transmission of HIV. To understand the role HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP could play in controlling HIV transmission amongst FSWs, it is important to understand how its impact compares with scaling-up condom use—one of the proven HIV prevention strategies for FSWs. It is important to remember that condoms also have other benefits such as reducing the incidence of sexually transmitted infections and preventing pregnancy. A dynamic deterministic model of HIV transmission amongst FSWs, their clients and other male partners (termed ‘pimps’ was used to compare the protection provided by PrEP for HIV-negative FSWs with FSWs increasing their condom use with clients and/or pimps. For different HIV prevalence scenarios, levels of pimp interaction, and baseline condom use, we estimated the coverage of PrEP that gives the same reduction in endemic FSW HIV prevalence or HIV infections averted as different increases in condom use. To achieve the same impact on FSW HIV prevalence as increasing condom use by 1%, the coverage of PrEP has to increase by >2%. The relative impact of PrEP increases for scenarios where pimps contribute to HIV transmission, but not greatly, and decreases with higher baseline condom use. In terms of HIV infections averted over 10 years, the relative impact of PrEP compared to condoms was reduced, with a >3% increase in PrEP coverage achieving the same impact as a 1% increase in condom use. Condom promotion interventions should remain the mainstay HIV prevention strategy for FSWs, with PrEP only being implemented once condom interventions have been maximised or to fill prevention gaps where condoms cannot be used.

  1. Community member perspectives from transgender women and men who have sex with men on pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: implications for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo Gabriel R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An international randomized clinical trial (RCT on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP as an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-prevention intervention found that taken on a daily basis, PrEP was safe and effective among men who have sex with men (MSM and male-to-female transgender women. Within the context of the HIV epidemic in the United States (US, MSM and transgender women are the most appropriate groups to target for PrEP implementation at the population level; however, their perspectives on evidenced-based biomedical research and the results of this large trial remain virtually unknown. In this study, we examined the acceptability of individual daily use of PrEP and assessed potential barriers to community uptake. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with an ethnoracially diverse sample of thirty HIV-negative and unknown status MSM (n = 24 and transgender women (n = 6 in three California metropolitan areas. Given the burden of disease among ethnoracial minorities in the US, we purposefully oversampled for these groups. Thematic coding and analysis of data was conducted utilizing an approach rooted in grounded theory. Results While participants expressed general interest in PrEP availability, results demonstrate: a lack of community awareness and confusion about PrEP; reservations about PrEP utilization, even when informed of efficacious RCT results; and concerns regarding equity and the manner in which a PrEP intervention could be packaged and marketed in their communities. Conclusions In order to effectively reduce HIV health disparities at the population level, PrEP implementation must take into account the uptake concerns of those groups who would actually access and use this biomedical intervention as a prevention strategy. Recommendations addressing these concerns are provided.

  2. Men who have sex with men starting pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are at risk of HCV infection: evidence from the Amsterdam PrEP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Achterbergh, Roel C A; Schim Van Der Loeff, Maarten F; Davidovich, Udi; Hogewoning, Arjan; Vries, Henry J C de; Schinkel, Janke; Prins, Maria; Laar, Thijs J W van de

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognised as an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). However, HIV-negative MSM at high risk for HIV might also be at increased risk for HCV. We studied the HCV prevalence in HIV-negative MSM who start pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in Amsterdam. Phylogenetic analysis was used to compare HCV strains obtained from HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM. At enrolment in the Amsterdam PrEP (AMPrEP) demonstration project, HIV-negative MSM were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA. If positive for HCV RNA, an HCV NS5B gene fragment (709 bp) was sequenced and compared with HCV isolates from HIV-positive MSM (n = 223) and risk groups other than MSM (n = 153), using phylogenetic analysis. Of 375 HIV-negative MSM enrolled in AMPrEP, 18 (4.8%, 95%CI 2.9%-7.5%) of participants were anti-HCV and/or HCV RNA positive at enrolment; 15/18 (83%) had detectable HCV RNA. HCV genotyping showed genotype 1a (73%), 4d (20%) and 2b (7%). All HCV-positive MSM starting PrEP were part of MSM-specific HCV clusters containing MSM with and without HIV. HCV prevalence among HIV-negative MSM who started PrEP was higher than previously reported. All HIV-negative HCV-positive MSM were infected with HCV strains already circulating among HIV-positive MSM. The increasing overlap between sexual networks of HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM might result in an expanding HCV-epidemic irrespective of HIV-status. Hence, routine HCV testing should be offered to MSM at high risk for HIV, especially for those enrolling in PrEP programs.

  3. Long-Term Evolution Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Modulates the Resting State EEG on Alpha and Beta Bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Qinghua; Lv, Bin; Wu, Tongning

    2017-05-01

    Long-term evolution (LTE) wireless telecommunication systems are widely used globally, which has raised a concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from LTE devices can change human neural function. To date, few studies have been conducted on the effect of exposure to LTE EMF. Here, we evaluated the changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) due to LTE EMF exposure. An LTE EMF exposure system with a stable power emission, which was equivalent to the maximum emission from an LTE mobile phone, was used to radiate the subjects. Numerical simulations were conducted to ensure that the specific absorption rate in the subject's head was below the safety limits. Exposure to LTE EMF reduced the spectral power and the interhemispheric coherence in the alpha and beta bands of the frontal and temporal brain regions. No significant change was observed in the spectral power and the inter-hemispheric coherence in different timeslots during and after the exposure. These findings also corroborated those of our previous study using functional magnetic resonant imaging.

  4. Comparative genomic analyses identify common molecular pathways modulated upon exposure to low doses of arsenic and cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fry Rebecca C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to the toxic metals arsenic and cadmium is associated with detrimental health effects including cancers of various organs. While arsenic and cadmium are well known to cause adverse health effects at high doses, the molecular impact resulting from exposure to environmentally relevant doses of these metals remains largely unexplored. Results In this study, we examined the effects of in vitro exposure to either arsenic or cadmium in human TK6 lymphoblastoid cells using genomics and systems level pathway mapping approaches. A total of 167 genes with differential expression were identified following exposure to either metal with surprisingly no overlap between the two. Real-time PCR was used to confirm target gene expression changes. The gene sets were overlaid onto protein-protein interaction maps to identify metal-induced transcriptional networks. Interestingly, both metal-induced networks were significantly enriched for proteins involved in common biological processes such as tumorigenesis, inflammation, and cell signaling. These findings were further supported by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusions This study is the first to compare the transcriptional responses induced by low dose exposure to cadmium and arsenic in human lymphoblastoid cells. These results highlight that even at low levels of exposure both metals can dramatically influence the expression of important cellular pathways.

  5. Passing the Baton: Community-based ethnography to design a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Jonathan; Colson, Paul W.; Parker, Caroline; Hirsch, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Although HIV interventions and clinical trials increasingly report the use of mixed methods, studies have not reported on the process through which ethnographic or qualitative findings are incorporated into RCT designs. We conducted a community-based ethnography on social and structural factors that may affect the acceptance of and adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). We then devised the treatment arm of an adherence clinical trial dr...

  6. Behavioral data of thin-film single junction amorphous silicon (a-Si photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Kichou

    2016-06-01

    Further discussions and interpretations concerning the data shared in this article can be found in the research paper “Characterization of degradation and evaluation of model parameters of amorphous silicon photovoltaic modules under outdoor long term exposure” (Kichou et al., 2016 [1].

  7. In vivo and in silico studies to identify mechanisms associated with Nurr1 modulation following early life exposure to permethrin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Donatella; Montani, Maura; Bordoni, Laura; Galeazzi, Roberta; Nasuti, Cinzia; Correia-Sá, Luísa; Domingues, Valentina F; Jayant, Maini; Brahmachari, Vani; Massaccesi, Luca; Laudadio, Emiliano; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2017-01-06

    The present work was designed to study the mechanisms associated with Nurr1 modulation following early life permethrin (PERM) treatment during rat's life span. Here we demonstrate that PERM exposure in rats, at a dose close to No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for 15days during neonatal brain development leads to its accumulation long after exposure. In striatum from adolescent rats we detected an increase in DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) such as DNMT1, DNMT3a, Tyrosine hydroxylase, monomeric and aggregated α-synuclein protein levels. Adult rats showed enhanced DNMT3b and α-synuclein aggregation compared to the control group, while with aging a significant decrease in all biomarkers studied was observed. No changes in Nurr1 promoter methylation in adolescent, adult and old rats were found. In silico studies showed clear evidence of a strong binding interaction between PERM and its metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid with the nuclear orphan receptor Nurr1. These findings suggest that an additional interference with the dopaminergic neuron pathway could occur in situ during PERM accumulation in brain. Therefore, Nurr1 modulation in early life PERM-treated rats, depends on age-related adaptive responses in animals. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Doping Liquid Crystal Cells with Photocurable Monomer via Holographic Exposure to Realize Optical-Scattering-Free Infrared Phase Modulators with Fast Response Time

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    Chun-Yu Chien

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocurable monomer-doped liquid crystal (LC cells were processed via holographic exposure using a low-power He–Ne laser to generate holographic polymer networks. The polymer network LC (PNLC cells are used to fabricate infrared phase modulators at 1550 nm wavelength possessing favorable electro-optical performance. Compared with our previous work, the percentages of ingredients in the LC mixture filled in PNLC cells underwent a slight change. The 2 wt% concentration of anisotropic monomer RM257 were in place of isotropic monomer N–vinyl–2–pyrrolidinone (NVP. As a result, the fabricated phase modulators also maintained well homogeneous LC alignments and optical-scattering-free characteristics. Furthermore, NVP dopant successfully reduced the operating voltages from 95 Vrms to 79 Vrms to prevent polymer network deformation when electrically operating with higher voltages. The fabricated infrared phase modulators had a good average response time (i.e., rising time of 0.88 ms and falling time of 0.40 ms.

  9. ADX-47273, a mGlu5 receptor positive allosteric modulator, attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by withdrawal from 'binge-like' ethanol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszalek-Grabska, Marta; Gibula-Bruzda, Ewa; Bodzon-Kulakowska, Anna; Suder, Piotr; Gawel, Kinga; Talarek, Sylwia; Listos, Joanna; Kedzierska, Ewa; Danysz, Wojciech; Kotlinska, Jolanta H

    2018-02-15

    Repeated exposure to and withdrawal from ethanol induces deficits in spatial reversal learning. Data indicate that metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors are implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These receptors functionally interact with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and activation of one type results in the activation of the other. We examined whether (S)-(4-fluorophenyl)(3-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-1-yl (ADX-47273), a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGlu5 receptor, attenuates deficits in reversal learning induced by withdrawal (11-13days) from 'binge-like' ethanol input (5.0g/kg, i.g. for 5days) in the Barnes maze (a spatial learning) task in rats. We additionally examined the effects of ADX-47273 on the expression of the NMDA receptors subunit, GluN2B, in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, on the 13th day of ethanol withdrawal. Herein, withdrawal from repeated ethanol administration impaired reversal learning, but not the probe trial. Moreover, ADX-47273 (30mg/kg, i.p.) given prior to the first reversal learning trial for 3days in the Barnes maze, significantly enhanced performance in the ethanol-treated group. The 13th day of ethanol abstinence decreased the expression of the GluN2B subunit in the selected brain regions, but ADX-47273 administration increased it. In conclusion, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptors recovered spatial reversal learning impairment induced by withdrawal from 'binge-like' ethanol exposure. Such effect seems to be correlated with the mGlu5 receptors mediated potentiation of GluN2B-NMDA receptor mediated responses in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Thus, our results emphasize the role of mGlu5 receptor PAM in the adaptive learning impaired by ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder modulates neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

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    C Brad Wilson

    Full Text Available Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD can develop in response to a traumatic event involving a threat to life. To date, no diagnostic biomarkers have been identified for PTSD. Recent research points toward physiological abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, sympathoadrenal medullary and immune system that may be implicated in the disorder. The modulation of neurotransmitters is another possible mechanism, but their role in the progression of PTSD is poorly understood. Low serotonin (5-HT may be a factor, but it may not be the only neurotransmitter affected as modulation affects levels of other neurotransmitters. In this study, we hypothesized the predator exposure/psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD may alter levels of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. We induced PTSD via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress model, whereby rats were placed in a cage with a cat for 1 hour on days 1 and 11 of the 31-day experiment. Rats also received psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. On day 32, the rats were sacrificed and the brains dissected to remove the hippocampus and PFC. Norepinephrine (NE, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, homovanillic acid (HVA, dopamine (DA, and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, and 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In the hippocampus, 5-HT and HVA were lower, while NE and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. In the PFC, only 5-HT was lower, while NE, DA, and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also examined and confirmed our findings. These results demonstrate that the predator exposure/psychosocial stress model of PTSD produces neurotransmitter changes similar to those seen in human patients and may

  11. Predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder modulates neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Brad; Ebenezer, Philip J; McLaughlin, Leslie D; Francis, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can develop in response to a traumatic event involving a threat to life. To date, no diagnostic biomarkers have been identified for PTSD. Recent research points toward physiological abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathoadrenal medullary and immune system that may be implicated in the disorder. The modulation of neurotransmitters is another possible mechanism, but their role in the progression of PTSD is poorly understood. Low serotonin (5-HT) may be a factor, but it may not be the only neurotransmitter affected as modulation affects levels of other neurotransmitters. In this study, we hypothesized the predator exposure/psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD may alter levels of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. We induced PTSD via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress model, whereby rats were placed in a cage with a cat for 1 hour on days 1 and 11 of the 31-day experiment. Rats also received psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. On day 32, the rats were sacrificed and the brains dissected to remove the hippocampus and PFC. Norepinephrine (NE), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dopamine (DA), and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the hippocampus, 5-HT and HVA were lower, while NE and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. In the PFC, only 5-HT was lower, while NE, DA, and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also examined and confirmed our findings. These results demonstrate that the predator exposure/psychosocial stress model of PTSD produces neurotransmitter changes similar to those seen in human patients and may cause a

  12. Deficits in the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure are attenuated with positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, J T; McGonigal, J T; Chandler, L J

    2017-02-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by periods of heavy alcohol consumption and unsuccessful attempts at abstinence. Relapse is one of the most problematic aspects in the treatment of alcoholism and is triggered by ethanol-associated cues. Extinction-based cue exposure therapies have proven ineffective in the treatment of alcoholism. However, positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 with CDPPB enhances the extinction learning of alcohol-seeking behavior. The current study investigated the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. Adult Wistar rats were trained to self-administer alcohol with a light/tone stimulus serving as the alcohol cue. After training, one group of rats was exposed to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) daily for a period of 2 weeks to induce ethanol dependence. Control rats were exposed to air for the same period of time. Both groups were then retrained to self-administer ethanol and subsequently tested for changes in extinction learning. CIE exposed rats consumed more ethanol compared to their pre-CIE levels and to control rats. During extinction training, CIE rats responded significantly more on the previously active lever and required more sessions to reach extinction criteria compared to control rats. Treatment with CDPPB facilitated extinction in control rats and attenuated the increased resistance to extinction in CIE-exposed rats. These results demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure not only alters ethanol intake, but also the extinction of ethanol-seeking behaviors. The ability to attenuate deficits through modulation of mGlu5 provides a potential target for pharmacological manipulation that could ultimately reduce relapse in alcoholics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Modulation of estrogenic exposure effects via alterations in salinity and dissolved oxygen in male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory exposure data indicate that estrogens and estrogen mimics can cause endocrine disruption in male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). In the wild, conditions are not static as is often the case in the laboratory. Changes in water quality parameters, such as salinity influx due to road s...

  14. A Detailed Analysis of Visible Defects Formed in Commercial Silicon Thin-Film Modules During Outdoor Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Andreas; Johnston, Steve; Olivera-Pimentel, Guillermo; Siegloch, Max; Pieters, Bart; Rau, Uwe

    2016-11-21

    We analyzed defects in silicon thin-film tandem (a-Si:H/..mu..c-Si:H) modules from an outdoor installation in India. The inspection of several affected modules reveals that most of the defects -- which optically appear as bright spots -- were formed primarily nearby the separation and series connection laser lines. Cross-sectional SEM analysis reveals that the bright spots emerge due to electrical isolation, caused by a delamination of the cell from the front TCO in the affected area. In addition, the morphology of the a-Si:H top cell differs in the delaminated area compared to the surrounding unaffected area. We propose that these effects are potentially caused by an explosive and thermally triggered liberation of hydrogen from the a-Si:H layer. Electrical and thermal measurements reveal that these defects can impact the cell performance significantly.

  15. Sex-specific associations between particulate matter exposure and gene expression in independent discovery and validation cohorts of middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijens, Karen; Winckelmans, Ellen; Tsamou, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) exposure leads to premature death, mainly due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Objectives: Identification of transcriptomic biomarkers of air pollution exposure and effect in a healthy adult population. Methods: Microarray analyses were performed in 98...

  16. Increased expression of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following exposure to estrogen during the critical period of neonatal sex differentiation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, H; Navarro, V M; Nielsen, John E

    2006-01-01

    , we screened for differentially expressed genes at the pituitary and hypothalamus of rats after neonatal exposure to estradiol benzoate. Our analyses identified persistent up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following neonatal estrogenization. This finding was confirmed...... by combination of RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridization. Induction of alpha- and beta-globin mRNA expression at the pituitary by neonatal exposure to estrogen was demonstrated as dose-dependent and it was persistently detected up to puberty. In contrast, durable up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin genes......-specific biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic (and/or anti-androgenic) compounds at critical periods of sex development, whose potential in the assessment of endocrine disrupting events at the HP unit merits further investigation....

  17. Uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis, sexual practices, and HIV incidence in men and transgender women who have sex with men: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Robert M; Anderson, Peter L; McMahan, Vanessa; Liu, Albert; Amico, K Rivet; Mehrotra, Megha; Hosek, Sybil; Mosquera, Carlos; Casapia, Martin; Montoya, Orlando; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G; Mayer, Kenneth; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kallas, Esper G; Schechter, Mauro; Guanira, Juan; Bushman, Lane; Burns, David N; Rooney, James F; Glidden, David V

    2014-09-01

    The effect of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on uptake, adherence, and sexual practices. We aimed to assess these factors in a cohort of HIV-negative people at risk of infection. In our cohort study, men and transgender women who have sex with men previously enrolled in PrEP trials (ATN 082, iPrEx, and US Safety Study) were enrolled in a 72 week open-label extension. We measured drug concentrations in plasma and dried blood spots in seroconverters and a random sample of seronegative participants. We assessed PrEP uptake, adherence, sexual practices, and HIV incidence. Statistical methods included Poisson models, comparison of proportions, and generalised estimating equations. We enrolled 1603 HIV-negative people, of whom 1225 (76%) received PrEP. Uptake was higher among those reporting condomless receptive anal intercourse (416/519 [81%] vs 809/1084 [75%], p=0·003) and having serological evidence of herpes (612/791 [77%] vs 613/812 [75%] p=0·03). Of those receiving PrEP, HIV incidence was 1·8 infections per 100 person-years, compared with 2·6 infections per 100 person-years in those who concurrently did not choose PrEP (HR 0·51, 95% CI 0·26-1·01, adjusted for sexual behaviours), and 3·9 infections per 100 person-years in the placebo group of the previous randomised phase (HR 0·49, 95% CI 0·31-0·77). Among those receiving PrEP, HIV incidence was 4·7 infections per 100 person-years if drug was not detected in dried blood spots, 2·3 infections per 100 person-years if drug concentrations suggested use of fewer than two tablets per week, 0·6 per 100 person-years for use of two to three tablets per week, and 0·0 per 100 person-years for use of four or more tablets per week (phistory of syphilis or herpes. PrEP uptake was high when made available free of charge by experienced providers. The effect of PrEP is increased by greater uptake and adherence during periods of higher risk. Drug concentrations in dried blood spots are strongly correlated

  18. Optimizing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis implementation among men who have sex with men in a large urban centre: a dynamic modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek R MacFadden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP can reduce HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM, by 44% in the iPrEx trial, and reaching up to 99% with high adherence. We examined the potential population-level impact and cost-effectiveness of different PrEP implementation strategies. Methods: We developed a dynamic, stochastic compartmental model of HIV transmission among the estimated 57,400 MSM in Toronto, Canada. Parameterization was performed using local epidemiologic data. Strategies examined included (1 uniform PrEP delivery versus targeting the highest risk decile of MSM (with varying coverage proportions; (2 increasing PrEP efficacy as a surrogate of adherence (44% to 99%; and (3 varying HIV test frequency (once monthly to once yearly. Outcomes included HIV infections averted and the incremental cost ($CAD per incremental quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY gained over 20 years. Results: Use of PrEP among all HIV-uninfected MSM at 25, 50, 75 and 100% coverage prevented 1970, 3427, 4317, and 4581 infections, respectively, with cost/QALY increasing from $500,000 to $800,000 CAD. Targeted PrEP for the highest risk MSM at 25, 50, 75 and 100% coverage prevented 1166, 2154, 2816, and 3012 infections, respectively, with cost/QALY ranging from $35,000 to $70,000 CAD. Maximizing PrEP efficacy, in a scenario of 25% coverage of high-risk MSM with PrEP, prevented 1540 infections with a cost/QALY of $15,000 CAD. HIV testing alone (Q3 months averted 898 of infections with a cost savings of $4,000 CAD per QALY. Conclusions: The optimal implementation strategy for PrEP over the next 20 years at this urban centre is to target high-risk MSM and to maximize efficacy by supporting PrEP adherence. A large health benefit of PrEP implementation could come from engaging undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals into care.

  19. High HIV incidence in men who have sex with men following an early syphilis diagnosis: is there room for pre-exposure prophylaxis as a prevention strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Nicolò; Gutierrez, Angela; Nwokolo, Nneka; McOwan, Alan; Whitlock, Gary

    2017-08-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is becoming a pivotal strategy for HIV prevention. Understanding the impact of risk factors for HIV transmission to identify those at highest risk would favour the implementation of PrEP, currently limited by costs. In this service evaluation, we estimated the incidence of bacterial STIs in men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with early syphilis attending a London sexual health clinic according to their HIV status. In addition, we estimated the incidence of HIV infection in HIV-negative MSM, following a diagnosis of early syphilis. We undertook a retrospective case note review of all MSM patients diagnosed with early syphilis between January and June 2014. A number of sexual health screens and diagnoses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and HIV were prospectively analysed following the syphilis diagnosis. 206 MSM were diagnosed with early syphilis. 110 (53%) were HIV-negative at baseline, 96 (47%) were HIV-positive. Only age (37 vs 32 years, p=0.0005) was significantly different according to HIV status of MSM at baseline. In HIV-negative versus HIV-positive MSM, incidence of rectal chlamydia infection at follow-up was 27 cases vs 50/100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) (p=0.0039), 33 vs 66/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for rectal gonorrhoea and 10 vs 26/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for syphilis reinfection, respectively. Total follow-up for 110 HIV-negative MSM was 144 person-years. HIV incidence was 8.3/100 PYFU (CI 4.2 to 14). A diagnosis of early syphilis carries a high risk of consequent HIV seroconversion and should warrant prioritised access to prevention measures such as PrEP and regular STI screening to prevent HIV transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Cost effectiveness of ‘on demand’ HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for non-injection drug-using men who have sex with men in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Estelle; Durand, Madeleine; Guertin, Jason R; LeLorier, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile L

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent trials report the efficacy of continuous tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for prevention of HIV infection. The cost effectiveness of ‘on demand’ PrEP for non-injection drug-using men who have sex with men at high risk of HIV acquisition has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To conduct an economic evaluation of the societal costs of HIV in Canada and evaluate the potential benefits of this PrEP strategy. METHODS: Direct HIV costs comprised outpatient, inpatient and emergency department costs, psychosocial costs and antiretroviral costs. Resource consumption estimates were derived from the Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal HIV cohort. Estimates of indirect costs included employment rate and work absenteeism. Costs for ‘on demand’ PrEP were modelled after an ongoing clinical trial. Cost-effectiveness analysis compared costs of ‘on demand’ PrEP to prevent one infection with lifetime costs of one HIV infection. Benefits were presented in terms of life-years and quality-adjusted life-years. RESULTS: The average annual direct cost of one HIV infection was $16,109 in the least expensive antiretroviral regimen scenario and $24,056 in the most expensive scenario. The total indirect cost was $11,550 per year. Total costs for the first year of HIV infection ranged from $27,410 to $35,358. Undiscounted lifetime costs ranged from $1,439,984 ($662,295 discounted at 3% and $448,901 at 5%) to $1,482,502 ($690,075 at 3% and $485,806 at 5%). The annual cost of PrEP was $12,001 per participant, and $621,390 per infection prevented. The PrEP strategy was cost-saving in all scenarios for undiscounted and 3% discounting rates. At 5% discounting rates, the strategy is largely cost-effective: according to least and most expensive scenarios, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranged from $60,311 to $47,407 per quality-adjusted life-year. CONCLUSION: This ‘on demand’ PrEP strategy ranges from cost-saving to largely cost

  1. Benzo(a)pyrene modulates fluoranthene-induced cellular responses in HT-29 colon cells in a dual exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kelly L; Myers, Jeremy N; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-09-01

    Our environment is contaminated with a diverse array of chemicals; one of which is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While some PAHs are potent by nature, others undergo interactions such as additivity, synergism, antagonism or potentiation to manifest their toxicity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a PAH compound influences the cytotoxicity and metabolism of fluoranthene (FLA; another PAH compound) using HT-29 cells. Cells cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium were treated with 1, 5, 10, 25μM BaP and FLA (0.01% dimethylsulfoxide as vehicle) individually and in combination over the course of 0-96h. At the end of exposure, cells were stained with propidium iodide and the changes in cell cycle were analyzed using FACS analysis. Apoptosis was determined by caspase-3 assay. Post-incubation, samples were extracted and analyzed for FLA metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Cells exposed to BaP+FLA showed a marginal decrease in growth as compared to FLA alone and vehicle controls. Also, a decline in the percentage of cells in the S and G2 phases compared to G1 phase of cell cycle was noted when cells were treated with BaP and FLA together, compared to individual FLA treatment. The rate of FLA metabolism was more when cells were exposed to FLA in combination with BaP, compared to FLA alone. The enhanced biotransformation of FLA as a result of concomitant exposure to BaP may have implications for colon cancer risks arising from human dietary exposure to PAH mixtures through consumption of barbecued meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental Exposure to Cocaine Dynamically Dysregulates Cortical Arc/Arg3.1 Modulation in Response to a Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffino, Lucia; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Mottarlini, Francesca; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    During adolescence, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is still developing. We have previously shown that developmental cocaine exposure alters mPFC's ability to cope with challenging events. In this manuscript, we exposed rats developmentally treated with cocaine to a novelty task and analyzed the molecular changes of mPFC. Rats were exposed to cocaine from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed at PND 43, immediately after the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Cocaine-treated rats spent more time exploring the novel object than saline-treated counterparts, suggesting an increased response to novelty. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of the immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 were reduced in both infralimbic (IL) and prelimbic (PL) cortices highlighting a baseline reduction of mPFC neuronal activity as a consequence of developmental exposure to cocaine. Intriguingly, significant molecular changes were observed in the IL, but not PL, cortex in response to the combination of cocaine exposure and test such as a marked upregulation of both Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA and protein levels only in cocaine-treated rats. As for proteins, such increase was observed only in the post-synaptic density and not in the whole homogenate, suggesting psychostimulant-induced changes in trafficking of Arc/Arg3.1 or an increased local translation. Notably, the same profile of Arc/Arg3.1 was observed for post-synaptic density (PSD)-95 leading to the possibility that Arc/Arg3.1 and PSD-95 bridge together to promote aberrant synaptic connectivity in IL cortex following repeated exposure to cocaine during brain development.

  3. Low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure modulates weight gain and eliminates fractalkine expression in e14.5 mouse embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Jordyn Karliner; Mark Nagy; Joyce Sanya; Noah Yeagley; Zoe Barnett-Ohori; Lauren D’Ortona; Jill Lawrence; R. Colin McNamara; Rachel Boas; Heather Brubaker; Spencer Collopy; Justin Nolan; Carlita Favero

    2017-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and often leads to long-lasting developmental symptoms, including increased microglial migration and increased release of the chemokine, fractalkine, both of which play a role in embryonic brain development. However, the effects of low-dose alcohol exposure on microglia and fractalkine embryonically are not well documented. This study addresses this gap by using the voluntary drinking paradigm, D...

  4. Exposure to blue wavelength light modulates anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to 'uncertain' versus 'certain' anticipation of positive stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Killgore, William D S

    2016-03-11

    Blue wavelength light has been used as an effective treatment for some types of mood disorders and circadian rhythm related sleep problems. We hypothesized that acute exposure to blue wavelength light would directly affect the functioning of neurocircuity implicated in emotion regulation (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) during 'certain' and 'uncertain' anticipation of negative and positive stimuli. Thirty-five healthy adults were randomized to receive a thirty-minute exposure to either blue (active) or amber (placebo) light, immediately followed by an emotional anticipation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast to placebo, participants in the blue light group showed significantly reduced activation within the rostral ACC during 'uncertain' anticipation (i.e., uncertainty regarding whether a positive or negative stimulus would be shown) in comparison to 'certain' anticipation of a positive stimulus. These findings may be explicable in terms of interactions between blue light exposure and the influence of specific neuromodulators on ACC-mediated decision-making mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β modulates tumour necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in brain and also in ovaries of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Krishnagiri, Harshini; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, SitiKantha; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-02-01

    The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The present study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism involved in changes observed in the ovarian morphology and expression of selected genes in the ovary. Administration of estradiol-17β (100 μg) on day 2 and 3 after birth revealed up-regulation of ER-α, ER-β, COX-2 and down-regulation of TNF-α expression. Also the decrease in the ovarian weight, altered ovarian morphology and changes in the 2D protein profiles were also seen. This is apparently the first report documenting that neonatal estradiol exposure modulates TNF-α and COX-2 expression in the ovary as seen during adult stage. Our results permit us to suggest that cues originating from the modified brain structure due to neonatal exposure of estradiol-17β remodel the ovary at the molecular level in such a way that there is a disharmony in the reproductive function during adulthood and these changes are perennial and can lead to infertility and changes of reproductive behavior.

  6. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer significantly reduces cardiac radiation exposure compared to inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolukbasi, Yasemin; Saglam, Yucel; Selek, Ugur; Topkan, Erkan; Kataria, Anglina; Unal, Zeynep; Alpan, Vildan

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the objective utility of our clinical routine of reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold irradiation for left-sided breast cancer patients on reducing cardiac exposure. Free-breathing and reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold scans were evaluated for our 10 consecutive left-sided breast cancer patients treated with reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold. The study was based on the adjuvant dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 2 Gy/fraction. Both inverse and forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated for each computed tomography dataset. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold plans with forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly spared the heart and left anterior descending artery compared to generated free-breathing plans based on mean doses - free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold, left ventricle (296.1 vs 94.5 cGy, P = 0.005), right ventricle (158.3 vs 59.2 cGy, P = 0.005), left anterior descending artery (171.1 vs 78.1 cGy, P = 0.005), and whole heart (173.9 vs 66 cGy, P = 0.005), heart V20 (2.2% vs 0%, P = 0.007) and heart V10 (4.2% vs 0.3%, P = 0.007) - whereas they revealed no additional burden on the ipsilateral lung. Reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing plans with inverse intensity-modulated radiotherapy provided similar organ at risk sparing by reducing the mean doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, V10-V20 of the heart and right ventricle. However, forward intensity-modulated radiotherapy showed significant reduction in doses to the left ventricle, left anterior descending artery, heart, right ventricle, and contralateral breast (mean dose, 248.9 to 12.3 cGy, P = 0.005). The mean doses for free-breathing vs reproducible deep-inspiration breath-hold of the proximal left anterior descending artery were 1.78 vs 1.08 Gy and of the distal left anterior descending artery were 8.11 vs 3.89 Gy, whereas mean distances to the 50 Gy

  7. Modulation of HERG K+ Channels by Chronic Exposure to Activators and Inhibitors of PKA and PKC: Actions Independent of PKA and PKC Phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliang Shu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG channel is the major molecular component of the native rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr that is a crucial determinant of cardiac repolarization. Impairment of IKr/HERG function is commonly believed to be a mechanism causing long QT syndromes (LQTS, a lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA and PKC activities are markedly increased in some pathological conditions of the heart such as heart failure. This study was designed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic exposure to PKA or PKC activators and inhibitors on HERG channel activities and to provide insight into the mechanisms for the modulations. Methods: Channel activity was measured in HEK293 cells stably expressing HERG using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured by CM-H2DFDA. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm was measured using JC-1 dye. HERG channel phosphorylation was assayed by [32P]orthophosphate methods. Results: Acute exposure of cells to PKA or PKC activators by bath superfusion minimally affected IHERG, and so did the PKA or PKC inhibitor. By comparison, prolonged exposure (chronic incubation of cells to PKA or PKC activators significantly impaired HERG K+ channel function as reflected by reduced IHERG density and positive shift of the steady-state activation curve. Antioxidants vitamin E and MnTBAP both abolished the depressive effects of PKA or PKC activators on HERG function. Further, both PKA and PKC activators stimulated production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, an effect efficiently prevented by antioxidants or by PKA and PKC inhibitors. Conclusions: HERG function is insensitive to PKA or PKC phosphorylation modulation per se, but can be impaired by the activators of PKA or PKC with long exposure likely via generation of ROS. In view of the critical role of HERG K+ channel in regulating cardiac

  8. Sex bias in infectious disease epidemiology: patterns and processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guerra-Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious disease incidence is often male-biased. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. The physiological hypothesis (PH emphasizes differences in sex hormones and genetic architecture, while the behavioral hypothesis (BH stresses gender-related differences in exposure. Surprisingly, the population-level predictions of these hypotheses are yet to be thoroughly tested in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For ten major pathogens, we tested PH and BH predictions about incidence and exposure-prevalence patterns. Compulsory-notification records (Brazil, 2006-2009 were used to estimate age-stratified ♂:♀ incidence rate ratios for the general population and across selected sociological contrasts. Exposure-prevalence odds ratios were derived from 82 published surveys. We estimated summary effect-size measures using random-effects models; our analyses encompass ∼0.5 million cases of disease or exposure. We found that, after puberty, disease incidence is male-biased in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, pulmonary tuberculosis, leptospirosis, meningococcal meningitis, and hepatitis A. Severe dengue is female-biased, and no clear pattern is evident for typhoid fever. In leprosy, milder tuberculoid forms are female-biased, whereas more severe lepromatous forms are male-biased. For most diseases, male bias emerges also during infancy, when behavior is unbiased but sex steroid levels transiently rise. Behavioral factors likely modulate male-female differences in some diseases (the leishmaniases, tuberculosis, leptospirosis, or schistosomiasis and age classes; however, average exposure-prevalence is significantly sex-biased only for Schistosoma and Leptospira. CONCLUSIONS: Our results closely match some key PH predictions and contradict some crucial BH predictions, suggesting that gender-specific behavior plays an overall secondary role in generating sex bias. Physiological differences, including

  9. D1 and D2 specific dopamine antagonist modulate the caudate nucleus neuronal responses to chronic methylphenidate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Sidish; Claussen, Catherine; Dafny, Nachum

    2017-02-01

    The psychostimulant, methylphenidate (MPD), is the first line treatment as a pharmacotherapy to treat behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). MPD is commonly misused in non-ADHD (normal) youth and young adults both as a recreational drug and for cognitive enhancing effects to improve their grades. MPD is known to act on the reward circuit; including the caudate nucleus (CN). The CN is comprised of medium spiny neurons containing largely dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors. It has been widely shown that the DA system plays an important role in the response to MPD exposure. We investigated the role of both D1 and D2 DA receptors in the CN response to chronic MPD administration using specific D1 and D2 DA antagonist. Four groups of young adult, male SD rats were used: a saline (control) and three MPD dose groups (0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg). The experiment lasted 11 consecutive days. Each MPD dose group was randomly divided into two subgroups to receive either a 0.4 mg/kg SCH-23390 selective D1 DA antagonist or a 0.3 mg/kg raclopride selective D2 DA antagonist prior to their final (repetitive) MPD rechallenge administration. It was observed that selective D1 DA antagonist (SCH-23390) given 30 min prior to the last MPD exposure at ED11 partially reduced or prevented the effect induced by MPD exposure in CN neuronal firing rates across all MPD doses. Selective D2 DA antagonist (raclopride) resulted in less obvious trends; some CN neuronal firing rates exhibited a slight increase in all MPD doses.

  10. Sex determination and sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giovanna; Parma, Pietro; Radi, Orietta; Valentini, Stella

    2006-06-01

    Sex determination in mammals is based on a genetic cascade that controls the fate of the gonads. Gonads will then direct the establishment of phenotypic sex through the production of hormones. Different types of sex reversal are expected to occur if mutations disrupt one of the three steps of gonadal differentiation: formation of the gonadal primordia, sex determination, and testis or ovary development.

  11. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T.; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev. Edwin C.; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants. PMID:26758708

  12. Developmental exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin may alter LH release patterns by abolishing sex differences in GABA/glutamate cell number and modifying the transcriptome of the male anteroventral periventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pino Sans, Javier; Clements, Kelsey J; Suvorov, Alexander; Krishnan, Sudha; Adams, Hillary L; Petersen, Sandra L

    2016-08-04

    Developmental exposure to arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands abolishes sex differences in a wide range of neural structures and functions. A well-studied example is the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a structure that controls sex-specific luteinizing hormone (LH) release. In the male, testosterone (T) secreted by the developing testes defeminizes LH release mechanisms; conversely, perinatal AhR activation by 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) blocks defeminization. To better understand developmental mechanisms altered by TCDD exposure, we first verified that neonatal TCDD exposure in male rats prevented the loss of AVPV GABA/glutamate neurons that are critical for female-typical LH surge release. We then used whole genome arrays and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to compare AVPV transcriptomes of males treated neonatally with TCDD or vehicle. Our bioinformatics analyses showed that TCDD enriched gene sets important for neuron development, synaptic transmission, ion homeostasis, and cholesterol biosynthesis. In addition, upstream regulatory analysis suggests that both estrogen receptors (ER) and androgen receptors (AR) regulate genes targeted by TCDD. Of the 23 mRNAs found to be changed by TCDD at least 2-fold (pdefeminization of LH release patterns. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Early life effects across the life course: the impact of individually defined exogenous measures of disease exposure on mortality by sex in 19th- and 20th-century Southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Luciana

    2014-10-01

    Using micro-level longitudinal data from Southern Sweden for 1813 to 1968, this work evaluates the effect of exposure to disease in early life on mortality over the entire life course and separately by sex. The local rates of post-early neonatal mortality are considered indicators of early life disease exposure, and these rates are calculated specifically for each person based on birth date. The loss in median remaining life among exposed individuals who survived to age 1 is 1.1 years for females and 2.1 years for males. Exposed individuals show a cross-over from lower to higher relative mortality as they age. This change occurs in adulthood for males and in old age for females. During adulthood, exposed males present higher rates of death than exposed females. These results are new to the literature and shed light on the importance of adopting a full life course approach and capturing sex differences when evaluating the long-term impacts of early life exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-dose prenatal alcohol exposure modulates weight gain and eliminates fractalkine expression in e14.5 mouse embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Karliner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and often leads to long-lasting developmental symptoms, including increased microglial migration and increased release of the chemokine, fractalkine, both of which play a role in embryonic brain development. However, the effects of low-dose alcohol exposure on microglia and fractalkine embryonically are not well documented. This study addresses this gap by using the voluntary drinking paradigm, Drinking in the Dark (DiD, to expose mice to acute doses of alcohol from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5 to E14.5. Maternal mice and embryo analyses revealed increased embryo weights and a trend of increased gestational weight gain in alcohol-exposed mice compared to water-exposed mice. After quantifying soluble fractalkine concentrations through Western Blots, results indicated decreased fractalkine in alcohol-exposed mice compared to water-exposed. Overall, our data suggest that exposure to low doses of alcohol inhibits fractalkine release, which may affect microglial function.

  15. Sex Differences and Sex Steroids in Lung Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the biology of different organ systems and the influence of sex hormones in modulating health and disease are increasingly relevant in clinical and research areas. Although work has focused on sex differences and sex hormones in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neuronal systems, there is now increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of lung diseases including allergic diseases (such as asthma), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, as well as pulmonary hypertension. Whether such differences are inherent and/or whether sex steroids play a role in modulating these differences is currently under investigation. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in lung structure/function under normal and specific disease states, with exploration of whether and how sex hormone signaling mechanisms may explain these clinical observations. Focusing on adult age groups, the review addresses the following: 1) inherent sex differences in lung anatomy and physiology; 2) the importance of certain time points in life such as puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and aging; 3) expression and signaling of sex steroid receptors under normal vs. disease states; 4) potential interplay between different sex steroids; 5) the question of whether sex steroids are beneficial or detrimental to the lung; and 6) the potential use of sex steroid signaling as biomarkers and therapeutic avenues in lung diseases. The importance of focusing on sex differences and sex steroids in the lung lies in the increasing incidence of lung diseases in women and the need to address lung diseases across the life span. PMID:22240244

  16. Circulating gonadotropins and ovarian adiponectin system are modulated by acupuncture independently of sex steroid or β-adrenergic action in a female hyperandrogenic rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Alvi, Asif; Johansson, Julia; Sun, Miao; Labrie, Fernand; Ohlsson, Claes; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2015-09-05

    Acupuncture with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation, or electroacupuncture (EA), reduces endocrine and reproductive dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), likely by modulating sympathetic nerve activity or sex steroid synthesis. To test this hypothesis, we induced PCOS in rats by prepubertal implantation of continuous-release letrozole pellets (200 µg/day) or vehicle. Six weeks later, rats were treated for 5-6 weeks with low-frequency EA 5 days/week, subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (2.0 µg) every fourth day, or a β-adrenergic blocker (propranolol hydrochloride, 0.1 mg/kg) 5 days/week. Letrozole controls were handled without needle insertion or injected with sesame oil every fourth day. Estrous cyclicity, ovarian morphology, sex steroids, gonadotropins, insulin-like growth factor I, bone mineral density, and gene and protein expression in ovarian tissue were measured. Low-frequency EA induced estrous-cycle changes, decreased high levels of circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) and the LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, decreased high ovarian gene expression of adiponectin receptor 2, and increased expression of adiponectin receptor 2 protein and phosphorylation of ERK1/2. EA also increased cortical bone mineral density. Propranolol decreased ovarian expression of Foxo3, Srd5a1, and Hif1a. Estradiol decreased circulating LH, induced estrous cycle changes, and decreased ovarian expression of Adipor1, Foxo3, and Pik3r1. Further, total bone mineral density was higher in the letrozole-estradiol group. Thus, EA modulates the circulating gonadotropin levels independently of sex steroids or β-adrenergic action and affects the expression of ovarian adiponectin system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Bridget L; Oo, Zaw Min; Thein, Zaw Win; Aung, Poe Poe; Veronese, Vanessa; Ryan, Claire; Thant, Myo; Hughes, Chad; Stoové, Mark

    2017-07-26

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as a key component of contemporary HIV combination prevention strategies. To explore the local suitability of PrEP, country-specific acceptability studies are needed to inform potential PrEP implementation. In the context of Myanmar, in addition to resource constraints, HIV service access by gay men, other men who have sex with men, and transgender women (GMT) continues to be constrained by legislative and community stigma and marginalization. We aimed to determine PrEP acceptability among GMT in Myanmar and explore the factors associated with willingness to use PrEP. GMT were recruited in Yangon and Mandalay through local HIV prevention outreach programmes in November and December 2014. Quantitative surveys were administered by trained peer educators and collected data on demographics, sexual risk, testing history and PrEP acceptability. A modified six-item PrEP acceptability scale classified self-reported HIV undiagnosed GMT as willing to use PrEP. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with willingness to use PrEP. Among 434 HIV undiagnosed GMT, PrEP awareness was low (5%). PrEP acceptability was high, with 270 (62%) GMT classified as willing to use PrEP. GMT recruited in Mandalay (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.79; 95%CI = 1.05-3.03), who perceived themselves as likely to become HIV positive (aOR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.10-3.02), who had more than one recent regular partner (aOR = 2.94; 95%CI = 1.41-6.14), no regular partners (aOR = 2.05; 95%CI = 1.10-3.67), more than five casual partners (aOR = 2.05; 95%CI = 1.06-3.99) or no casual partners (aOR = 2.25; 95%CI = 1.23-4.11) were more likely to be willing to use PrEP. The association between never or only occasionally using condoms with casual partners and willingness to use PrEP was marginally significant (aOR = 2.02; 95%CI = 1.00-4.10). GMT who reported concern about side effects and long-term use of PrEP were less

  18. Sex differences in DNA methylation of the cord blood are related to sex-bias psychiatric diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschietto, Mariana; Bastos, Laura Caroline; Tahira, Ana Carolina; Bastos, Elen Pereira; Euclydes, Veronica Luiza Vale; Brentani, Alexandra; Fink, Günther; de Baumont, Angelica; Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Gouveia, Gisele; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Escobar, Ana Maria Ulhoa; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Brentani, Helena

    2017-03-01

    Sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders are well documented, with exposure to stress during gestation differentially impacting females and males. We explored sex-specific DNA methylation in the cord blood of 39 females and 32 males born at term and with appropriate weight at birth regarding their potential connection to psychiatric outcomes. Mothers were interviewed to gather information about environmental factors (gestational exposure) that could interfere with the methylation profiles in the newborns. Bisulphite converted DNA was hybridized to Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. Excluding XYS probes, there were 2,332 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs) between sexes, which were enriched within brain modules of co-methylated CpGs during brain development and also differentially methylated in the brains of boys and girls. Genes associated with the DMSs were enriched for neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly for CpG sites found differentially methylated in brain tissue between patients with schizophrenia and controls. Moreover, the DMS had an overlap of 890 (38%) CpG sites with a cohort submitted to toxic exposition during gestation. This study supports the evidences that sex differences in DNA methylation of autosomes act as a primary driver of sex differences that are found in psychiatric outcomes.

  19. Sex-specific characterization and evaluation of the Alzheimer's disease genetic risk factor sorl1 in zebrafish during aging and in the adult brain following a 100 ppb embryonic lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinyoung; Peterson, Samuel M; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Developmental lead (Pb) exposure is suggested in laboratory studies to be a trigger for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sortilin-related receptor, L (DLR class) A repeats-containing (SORL1) is a recently identified AD genetic risk factor. SORL1 has limited characterization in vertebrate models in comparison to other AD genetic risk factors. To characterize SORL1 further, protein sequence homology between humans, mice and zebrafish was analyzed and showed conservation of functional repeats and domain orientation. Next, spatial expression of sorl1 in zebrafish larvae was completed and diffuse expression in neural tissue that was not restricted to the brain was observed. Influences of sex and age on quantitative expression of sorl1 in the brain of adult zebrafish were then assessed. Sex-specific alteration of sorl1 expression transpired during the aging process in females. The zebrafish was then utilized to investigate the impacts of a 100 ppb embryonic Pb exposure on sorl1 expression and other known AD genetic risk factors. Sex-specific quantitative gene expression analysis was completed with adult zebrafish brain to compare those developmentally exposed to Pb or a control treatment, but no significant difference in sorl1 expression or other AD genetic risk factors was observed. Overall, this study provided characterization of sorl1 with changes in brain expression during aging being female-specific. This finding is in agreement with females being more prone to the onset of AD, but analysis of additional AD genetic risk factors is needed to facilitate our understanding of the impact of a 100 ppb embryonic Pb exposure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Modulation of the behavioral and electrical responses to the repellent DEET elicited by the pre-exposure to the same compound in Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Sfara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC was applied on cockroaches’ antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches’ antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches’ antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the

  1. The green tea modulates large intestinal microbiome and exo/endogenous metabolome altered through chronic UVB-exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sung Jung

    Full Text Available The attenuating effects of green tea supplements (GTS against the ultraviolet (UV radiation induced skin damages are distinguished. However, the concomitant effects of GTS on the large intestinal microbiomes and associated metabolomes are largely unclear. Herein, we performed an integrated microbiome-metabolome analysis to uncover the esoteric links between gut microbiome and exo/endogenous metabolome maneuvered in the large intestine of UVB-exposed mice subjected to dietary GTS. In UVB-exposed mice groups (UVB, class Bacilli and order Bifidobacteriales were observed as discriminant taxa with decreased lysophospholipid levels compared to the unexposed mice groups subjected to normal diet (NOR. Conversely, in GTS fed UVB-exposed mice (U+GTS, the gut-microbiome diversity was greatly enhanced with enrichment in the classes, Clostridia and Erysipelotrichia, as well as genera, Allobaculum and Lachnoclostridium. Additionally, the gut endogenous metabolomes changed with an increase in amino acids, fatty acids, lipids, and bile acids contents coupled with a decrease in nucleobases and carbohydrate levels. The altered metabolomes exhibited high correlations with GTS enriched intestinal microflora. Intriguingly, the various conjugates of green tea catechins viz., sulfated, glucuronided, and methylated ones including their exogenous derivatives were detected from large intestinal contents and liver samples. Hence, we conjecture that the metabolic conversions for the molecular components in GTS strongly influenced the gut micro-environment in UVB-exposed mice groups, ergo modulate their gut-microbiome as well as exo/endogenous metabolomes.

  2. Phosphatidylserine exposure on the surface of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes modulates in vivo infection and dendritic cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderley, Joao Luiz Mendes; Thorpe, Philip E.; Barcinsn11ki, Marcello Andre; Soong, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania amazonensis parasites can cause diverse forms of leishmaniasis in humans and persistent lesions in most inbred strains of mice. In both cases, the infection is characterized by a marked immunosuppression of the host. We previously showed that amastigote forms of the parasite make use of surface-exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules to infect host cells and promote alternative macrophage activation, leading to uncontrolled intracellular proliferation of the parasites. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment of infected mice with an PS-targeting monoclonal antibody ameliorated parasite loads and lesion development, which correlated with increased proliferative responses by lymphocytes. In addition, we observed an enhanced dendritic cell (DC) activation and antigen presentation in vitro. Our data imply that the recognition of PS exposed on the surface of amastigotes plays a role in down-modulating DC functions, in a matter similar to that of apoptotic cell clearance. This study provides new information regarding the mechanism of immune suppression in Leishmania infection. PMID:23163958

  3. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapists have graduate degrees and can demonstrate their competence in sex therapy by becoming credentialed by the ... ways to resolve your concerns and improve your communication and intimacy. Talking about sex and intimacy may ...

  4. Gestational and lactational exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture Aroclor 1254 modulates retinoid homeostasis in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Javier; Elabbas, Lubna E; Borg, Daniel; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Viluksela, Matti; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-08-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic effects in mammals including alterations of the vital retinoid (vitamin A) system. The aim of this study was to characterize alterations of tissue retinoid levels in rat offspring and their dams following gestational and lactational exposure to the PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) and to assess the interrelationship of these changes with other established sensitive biochemical and toxicological endpoints. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were exposed orally to 0 or 15 mg/kg body weight/day of A1254 from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were collected from the offspring on PNDs 35, 77 and 350. Tissue and serum retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and serum thyroid hormones were analyzed. A multivariate regression between A1254 treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, hepatic CYP enzymes activities, thyroid hormone levels and body/liver weights was performed using an orthogonal partial least-squares (PLS) analysis. The contribution of dioxin-like (DL) components of A1254 to the observed effects was also estimated using the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept. In both male and female offspring short-term alterations in tissue retinoid levels occurred at PND35, i.e. decreased levels of hepatic retinol and retinoic acid (RA) metabolite 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA with concurrent increases in hepatic and renal all-trans-RA levels. Long-term changes consisted of decreased hepatic retinyl palmitate and increased renal retinol levels that were apparent until PND350. Retinoid system alterations were associated with altered CYP enzyme activities and serum thyroid hormone levels as well as body and liver weights in both offspring and dams. The estimated DL activity was within an order of magnitude of the theoretical TEQ for different endpoints, indicating significant involvement of DL congeners in the observed effects. This study shows that tissue retinoid

  5. Men who have sex with men starting pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are at risk of HCV infection: evidence from the Amsterdam PrEP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoornenborg, Elske; Achterbergh, Roel C. A.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Davidovich, Udi; Hogewoning, Arjan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Schinkel, Janke; Prins, Maria; van de Laar, Thijs J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been recognised as an emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). However, HIV-negative MSM at high risk for HIV might also be at increased risk for HCV. We studied the HCV prevalence in HIV-negative MSM who start

  6. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Sex headaches By Mayo Clinic Staff Sex headaches are brought on by sexual activity — especially an orgasm. You may notice ... severe headache just before or during orgasm. Most sex headaches are nothing to worry about. But some ...

  7. Transient modulation of acetylcholinesterase activity caused by exposure to dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in brain of adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; Bortolotto, Josiane Woutheres; Paquete, Francisco Lima; de Oliveira, Elisa Magno Nunes; Leite, Carlos Eduardo; Bonan, Carla Denise; de Souza Basso, Nara Regina; Papaleo, Ricardo Meurer; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2014-05-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are of great interest in nanomedicine due to their capability to act simultaneously as a contrast agent and as a targeted drug delivery system. At present, one of the biggest concerns about the use of SPIONs remains around its toxicity and, for this reason, it is important to establish the safe upper limit for each use. In the present study, SPION coated with cross-linked aminated dextran (CLIO-NH₂) were synthesized and their toxicity to zebrafish brain was investigated. We have evaluated the effect of different CLIO-NH₂ doses (20, 50, 100, 140 and 200 mg/kg) as a function of time after exposure (one, 16, 24 and 48 h) on AChE activity and ache expression in zebrafish brain. The animals exposed to 200 mg/kg and tested 24 h after administration of the nanoparticles have shown decreased AChE activity, reduction in the exploratory performance, significantly higher level of ferric iron in the brains and induction of casp8, casp 9 and jun genes. Taken together, these findings suggest acute brain toxicity by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of the ERP repetition effects during exposure to phobia-relevant and other affective pictures in spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Jaroslaw M; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Löw, Andreas; Weymar, Mathias; Hamm, Alfons O

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, dense sensor event-related potentials were measured in spider-phobic individuals and non-anxious controls during incidental encoding of phobia-relevant spider and standard neutral, unpleasant and pleasant pictures. Stimulus repetition effects were assessed by presenting each picture twice--in the first and in the second half of the session. Repeated presentation of standard pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures resulted in a late ERP repetition effect that was similarly pronounced in both experimental groups and for all picture categories. Moreover, relative to non-fearful controls spider-phobic individuals showed an overall greater early ERP repetition effect starting at 180 ms after picture onset. At later stages of evaluative processing, repeated as compared with initial presentation of phobia-relevant spider pictures elicited reduced ERP amplitudes over centro-parietal sites (480-580 ms) in spider-phobic but not in control individuals. This pattern of results indicates that in small animal phobics long lasting exposure to their feared pictures leads to an increased mobilization of the perceptual analysis system, an effect that might help to improve emotional control and/or facilitate strategic avoidance of threat resulting in a diminished evaluative threat processing. This phobia-specific processing mechanism might prevent effective stimulus processing and hinder the habituation process during treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Willingness to use and have sex with men taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): results of online surveys of Australian gay and bisexual men, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Kolstee, Johann; Ellard, Jeanne; Murphy, Dean; Truong, Hong-Ha; de Wit, John

    2017-09-01

    Assess willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), support for others using it and willingness to have sex with partners using PrEP among Australian gay and bisexual men (GBM). National, online cross-sectional surveys of Australian GBM were conducted in 2011, 2013 and 2015. Scales measuring support for and willingness to have sex with men using PrEP were developed in 2015 using factor analysis. Trends and associations with key measures were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. During 2011-2015, 3850 surveys were completed by GBM. Willingness to use PrEP among HIV-negative and untested men did not change between 2011 (28.2%) and 2015 (31.7%, p=0.13). In 2015, willingness to use PrEP was independently associated with younger age, having an HIV-positive regular partner, recent condomless anal intercourse with casual male partners (CAIC), more than 10 male sex partners in the previous 6 months, ever having taken postexposure prophylaxis and having fewer concerns about using PrEP. In 2015, 54.5% of GBM supported other GBM taking PrEP and 39% were willing to have sex with men using PrEP. Support for and willingness to have sex with PrEP users were both associated with being HIV-positive, having a university degree and having two or more male partners in the previous 6 months. Willingness to have sex with men on PrEP was also associated with recent CAIC and using party drugs for sex, but was less likely among men who consistently used or had a positive experience using condoms. Interest in and support for using PrEP are concentrated among men who engage in higher risk practices and who know more about living with HIV. This is consistent with the targeting of PrEP in Australia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Modulation of cell adhesion systems by prenatal nicotine exposure in limbic brain regions of adolescent female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junran; Dwyer, Jennifer B.; Mangold, Jamie E.; Wang, Ju; Wei, Jinxue; Leslie, Frances M.; Li, Ming D.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MS) has long-lasting neurobehavioural effects on the offspring. Many MS-associated psychiatric disorders begin or change symptomatology during adolescence, a period of continuous development of the central nervous system. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Given that cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) modulate various neurotransmitter systems and are associated with many psychiatric disorders, we hypothesize that CAMs are altered by prenatal treatment of nicotine, the major psychoactive component in tobacco, in adolescent brains. Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg.d) or saline via osmotic mini-pumps from gestational days 4 to 18. Female offspring at postnatal day 35 were sacrificed, and several limbic brain regions (the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala) were dissected for evaluation of gene expression using microarray and quantitative RT–PCR techniques. Various CAMs including neurexin, immunoglobulin, cadherin, and adhesion-GPCR superfamilies, and their intracellular signalling pathways were modified by gestational nicotine treatment (GN). Among the CAM-related pathways, GN has stronger effects on cytoskeleton reorganization pathways than on gene transcription pathways. These effects were highly region dependent, with the caudate putamen showing the greatest vulnerability. Given the important roles of CAMs in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, our findings suggest that alteration of CAMs contributes to the neurobehavioural deficits associated with MS. Further, our study underscores that low doses of nicotine produce substantial and long-lasting changes in the brain, implying that nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy may carry many of the same risks to the offspring as MS. PMID:20196919

  11. Somatic sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkower, David

    2006-02-10

    C. elegans occurs in two natural sexes, the XX hermaphrodite and the XO male, which differ extensively in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. All somatic differences between the sexes result from the differential activity of a "global" sex determination regulatory pathway. This pathway also controls X chromosome dosage compensation, which is coordinated with sex determination by the action of the three SDC proteins. The SDC proteins control somatic and germline sex by transcriptional repression of the her-1 gene. HER-1 is a secreted protein that controls a regulatory module consisting of a transmembrane receptor, TRA-2, three intracellular FEM proteins, and the zinc finger transcription factor TRA-1. The molecular workings of this regulatory module are still being elucidated. Similarity of TRA-2 to patched receptors and of TRA-1 to GLI proteins suggests that parts of the global pathway originally derived from a Hedgehog signaling pathway. TRA-1 controls all aspects of somatic sexual differentiation, presumably by regulating a variety of tissue- and cell-specific downstream targets, including the cell death regulator EGL-1 and the male sexual regulator MAB-3. Sex determination evolves rapidly, and conservation of sexual regulators between phyla has been elusive. An apparent exception involves DM domain proteins, including MAB-3, which control sexual differentiation in nematodes, arthropods, and vertebrates. Important issues needing more study include the detailed molecular mechanisms of the global pathway, the identities of additional sexual regulators acting in the global pathway and downstream of TRA-1, and the evolutionary history of the sex determination pathway. Recently developed genetic and genomic technologies and comparative studies in divergent species have begun to address these issues.

  12. The joint power of sex and stress to modulate brain-gut-microbiota axis and intestinal barrier homeostasis: implications for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigrau, M; Rodiño-Janeiro, B K; Casado-Bedmar, M; Lobo, B; Vicario, M; Santos, J; Alonso-Cotoner, C

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is a dynamic process that takes place at the interface between the lumen and the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, where a constant scrutiny for antigens and toxins derived from food and microorganisms is carried out by the vast gut-associated immune system. Intestinal homeostasis is preserved by the ability of the mucus layer and the mucosal barrier to keep the passage of small-sized and antigenic molecules across the epithelium highly selective. When combined and preserved, immune surveillance and barrier's selective permeability, the host capacity of preventing the development of intestinal inflammation is optimized, and viceversa. In addition, the brain-gut-microbiome axis, a multidirectional communication system that integrates distant and local regulatory networks through neural, immunological, metabolic, and hormonal signaling pathways, also regulates intestinal function. Dysfunction of the brain-gut-microbiome axis may induce the loss of gut mucosal homeostasis, leading to uncontrolled permeation of toxins and immunogenic particles, increasing the risk of appearance of intestinal inflammation, mucosal damage, and gut disorders. Irritable bowel syndrome is prevalent stress-sensitive gastrointestinal disorder that shows a female predominance. Interestingly, the role of stress, sex and gonadal hormones in the regulation of intestinal mucosal and the brain-gut-microbiome axis functioning is being increasingly recognized. We aim to critically review the evidence linking sex, and stress to intestinal barrier and brain-gut-microbiome axis dysfunction and the implications for irritable bowel syndrome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  14. Sex hormones in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Roger Lyrio; da Silva, Fabrício Bragança; Ribeiro, Rogério Faustino; Stefanon, Ivanita

    2014-05-01

    Gender-associated differences in the development of cardiovascular diseases have been described in humans and animals. These differences could explain the low incidence of cardiovascular disease in women in the reproductive period, such as stroke, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. The cardiovascular protection observed in females has been attributed to the beneficial effects of estrogen on endothelial function. Besides estrogen, sex hormones are able to modulate blood pressure by acting on important systems as cardiovascular, renal, and neural. They can have complementary or antagonistic actions. For example, testosterone can raise blood pressure by stimulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, whereas estrogen alone or combined with progesterone has been associated with decreased blood pressure. The effects of testosterone in the development of cardiovascular disease are contradictory. Although some researchers suggest a positive effect, others indicate negative actions of testosterone. Estrogens physiologically stimulate the release of endothelium-derived vasodilator factors and inhibit the renin-angiotensin system. Although the cardioprotective effects of estrogen are widely appreciated, little is known about the effects of progesterone, which is commonly used in hormone replacement therapy. Progesterone has both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive effects in the vasculature, depending on the location of the vessel and the level of exposure. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through which sex hormones modulate blood pressure have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the characterization of those could lead to a better understanding of hypertension in women and men and perhaps to improved forms of therapy.

  15. Gestational Exposure to Air Pollution Alters Cortical Volume, Microglial Morphology, and Microglia-Neuron Interactions in a Sex-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Bolton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents. We have demonstrated that prenatal exposure to DEP in mice, i.e., to the pregnant dams throughout gestation, results in a persistent vulnerability to behavioral deficits in adult offspring, especially in males, which is intriguing given the greater incidence of ASD in males to females (∼4:1. Moreover, there is a striking upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR 4 gene expression within the brains of the same mice, and this expression is primarily in microglia. Here we explored the impact of gestational exposure to DEP or vehicle on microglial morphology in the developing brains of male and female mice. DEP exposure increased inflammatory cytokine protein and altered the morphology of microglia, consistent with activation or a delay in maturation, only within the embryonic brains of male mice; and these effects were dependent on TLR4. DEP exposure also increased cortical volume at embryonic day (E18, which switched to decreased volume by post-natal day (P30 in males, suggesting an impact on the developing neural stem cell niche. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found increased microglial-neuronal interactions in male offspring that received DEP compared to all other groups. Taken together, these data suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to environmental toxins may affect microglial development and long-term function, and thereby contribute

  16. Physical activity and sex modulate obesity risk linked to 3111T/C gene variant of the CLOCK gene in an elderly population: the SUN Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbete, Cecilia; Contreras, Rafael; Martínez, J Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Marti, Amelia

    2012-12-01

    Genetic factors may interact with physical activity levels to modify obesity risk. Our aim was to explore the influence of rs1801260 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (3111T/C) of CLOCK gene on obesity risk, and to examine its potential interaction with lifestyle factors in an elderly population within the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") Project. Subjects (n = 903, aged 69 ± 6 yrs) were recruited from the SUN Project. DNA was obtained from saliva, whereas lifestyle and dietary data were collected by validated self-report questionnaires. Genotype was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) plus allele discrimination. A significant interaction was observed between the 3111T/C SNP of CLOCK gene and sex for overweight/obesity risk (p for sex × CLOCK interaction the SUN Project.

  17. Characterisation of extracellular vesicle-subsets derived from brain endothelial cells and analysis of their protein cargo modulation after TNF exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozio, Vito; Sanchez, Jean-Charles

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the composition and functional differences between extracellular vesicle (EV) subsets, such as microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), nor to what extent their cargo reflects the phenotypic state of the cell of origin. Brain endothelial cells are the constitutive part of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a selective barrier that maintains brain homeostasis. BBB impairment is associated with several neuroinflammatory diseases with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF) often playing a key role. In the present study, shotgun proteomics and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM)-based targeted mass spectrometry were used to characterise brain endothelial cell-released EVs, and to study how TNF exposure modulated EV protein cargoes. MVs were found to be enriched in mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins, whereas EXOs were enriched in adhesion, histone and ribosomal proteins. After stimulation with TNF, several proteins involved in TNF and NF-κB signalling pathways, that were found to be differentially expressed in cells, were also differentially expressed in both MVs and EXOs. Thus, our results revealed some novel proteins as potentially useful candidates for discriminating between MVs and EXOs, together with additional evidence that cells "package" proteins in EVs systematically and according to their phenotypic state.

  18. A dose-response relationship between exposure to a large-scale HIV preventive intervention and consistent condom use with different sexual partners of female sex workers in southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deering Kathleen N

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Avahan Initiative, a large-scale HIV preventive intervention targeted to high-risk populations including female sex workers (FSWs, was initiated in 2003 in six high-prevalence states in India, including Karnataka. This study assessed if intervention exposure was associated with condom use with FSWs’ sexual partners, including a dose-response relationship. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional study (2006-07 of 775 FSWs in three districts in Karnataka. Survey methods accounted for the complex cluster sampling design. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to separately model the relationships between each of five intervention exposure variables and five outcomes for consistent condom use (CCU= always versus frequently/sometimes/never with different sex partners, including with: all clients; occasional clients; most recent repeat client; most recent non-paying partner; and the husband or cohabiting partner. Linear tests for trends were conducted for three continuous intervention exposure variables. Results FSWs reported highest CCU with all clients (81.7%; CCU was lowest with FSWs’ husband or cohabiting partner (9.6%. In multivariable analysis, the odds of CCU with all clients and with occasional clients were 6.3-fold [95% confidence intervals, CIs: 2.8-14.5] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.4-4.1] higher among FSWs contacted by intervention staff and 4.9-fold [95% CIs: 2.6-9.3] and 2.3-fold [95% CIs: 1.3-4.1] higher among those who ever observed a condom demonstration by staff, respectively, compared to those who had not. A significant dose-response relationship existed between each of these CCU outcomes and increased duration since first contacted by staff (P=0.001; P=0.006 and numbers of condom demonstrations witnessed (P=0.004; P=0.026; a dose-response relationship was also observed between condom use with all clients and number of times contacted by staff (P=0.047. Intervention exposure was not

  19. Caffeine exposure during rat brain development causes memory impairment in a sex selective manner that is offset by caffeine consumption throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardais, Ana Paula; Rocha, Andréia S; Borges, Maurício Felisberto; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Sallaberry, Cássia; Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Pagnussat, Natália; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Porciúncula, Lisiane de Oliveira

    2016-04-15

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. In moderate doses, it affords a beneficial effect in adults and upon aging, but has a deleterious effect during brain development. We now tested if caffeine consumption by rats (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 g/L in the drinking water, only during active cycle and weekdays) during adulthood could revert the potentially negative effects of caffeine during early life. Thus, we compared caffeine intake starting 15 days before mating and lasting either up to weaning (development) or up to adulthood, on behavior and synaptic proteins in male and female rats. Recognition memory was impaired only in female rats receiving caffeine (0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during development, coincident with increased proBDNF and unchanged BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Caffeine in both treatment regimens caused hyperlocomotion only in male rats, whereas anxiety-related behavior was attenuated in both sexes by caffeine (1.0 g/L) throughout life. Both caffeine treatment regimens decreased GFAP (as an astrocyte marker) and SNAP-25 (as a nerve terminals marker) in the hippocampus from male rats. TrkB receptor was decreased in the hippocampus from both sexes and treatment regimens. These findings revealed that caffeine intake during a specific time window of brain development promotes sex-dependent behavioral outcomes related to modification in BDNF signaling. Furthermore, caffeine throughout life can overcome the deleterious effects of caffeine on recognition memory during brain development in female rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of exposure time of pregnant females guppies, Poecilia reticulata Peters, in 17a-methyltestosterone solution on sex ratio of their offsprings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zairin Junior; A. Yunianti; R.R.S.P.S. Dewi; Kusman Sumawidjaja

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACTThis experiment was carried out to study the effect of female broodstocks immersion in 17amethyltestosterone (MT) solution on sex ratio of their offspring, Three-months old males and females were paired to mate in aquaria for four days.  Broodstocks were fed with frozen blood worm and water flea 2-3 tii-nes daily.  Twelve days after mating, female broodstock were treated by immersing in 2 mg/1 MT solution for 0. 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours.  Birthed guppy babies were collected and reared s...

  1. Sex hormones and hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Oparil, Suzanne; Imthurn, Bruno; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2017-01-01

    Gender has an important influence on blood pressure, with premenopausal women having a lower arterial blood pressure than age-matched men. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women have higher blood pressures, suggesting that ovarian hormones may modulate blood pressure. However, whether sex hormones are responsible for the observed gender-associated differences in arterial blood pressure and whether ovarian hormones account for differences in blood pressure in premenopausal ver...

  2. A study of time- and sex-dependent effects of vortioxetine on rat sexual behavior: Possible roles of direct receptor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Pehrson, Alan L; Oosting, Ronald S; Gulinello, Maria; Olivier, Berend; Sanchez, Connie

    2017-07-15

    Treatment-related sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressants and contributes to patient non-compliance or treatment cessation. However, the multimodal antidepressant, vortioxetine, demonstrates low sexual side effects in depressed patients. To investigate the mechanisms involved, sexual behavior was assessed in male and female rats after acute, and repeated (7 and 14 days) treatment with vortioxetine, flesinoxan (a 5-HT1A receptor agonist), CP-94253 (a 5-HT1B receptor agonist), or ondansetron (a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist). These selective ligands were chosen to simulate vortioxetine's direct modulation of these receptors. Paroxetine was also included in the male study. Acute and repeated treatment with vortioxetine at doses corresponding to clinical levels (based on serotonin transporter occupancy) had minimal effects on sexual behavior in male and female rats. High dose vortioxetine plus flesinoxan (to mimic predicted clinical levels of 5-HT1A receptor occupancy by vortioxetine) facilitated male rat sexual behavior (acutely) while inhibiting female rat proceptive behavior (both acutely and after 14 days treatment). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, paroxetine, inhibited male sexual behavior after repeated administration (7 and 14 days). Flesinoxan alone facilitated male sexual behavior acutely while inhibiting female rat proceptive behavior after repeated administration (7 and 14 days). CP-94253 inhibited sexual behavior in both male and female rats after repeated administration. Ondansetron had no effect on sexual behavior. These findings underline the complex serotonergic regulation of sexual behavior and indicate that the low sexual side effects of vortioxetine found in clinical studies are likely associated with its direct modulation of serotonin receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan

    1991-01-01

    This paper on the problem of sex offending among individuals with intellectual disabilities examines the incidence of this problem, characteristics of intellectually disabled sex offenders, determination of whether the behavior is a paraphilia or functional age-related behavior, and treatment options, with emphasis on the situation in New South…

  4. Sex Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Richard G.

    This article uses findings from several previous studies to define the kinds of sex stereotyping present in our society. The author considers sex roles as dealt with in children's literature, public schools, advertising, and vocational counseling. He describes, in particular, the situation at an unnamed state university, and cites the woman's…

  5. A Multi-US City Assessment of Awareness and Uptake of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention Among Black Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Matthews, Derrick D; Driffin, Daniel D; Bukowski, Leigh; Wilson, Patrick A; Stall, Ron D

    2017-07-01

    The HIV epidemic among Black men and transgender women who have sex with men (BMTW) demands an urgent public health response. HIV point prevalence among this population ranges from 25 to 43%-a rate far exceeding any other group. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is a very promising prevention tool; however, its full potential to slow the epidemic has yet to be realized. For the current study, random time-location sampling at Black Gay Pride Events was used to collect data from N = 1274 BMTW, from five US cities, reporting HIV-negative/unknown status. In-field HIV testing was also provided to participants. Participants were assessed on awareness and use of PrEP, health care factors, HIV testing history, psychosocial variables, and sex behaviors. About one third of participants were aware of PrEP (39%), and a small percentage of participants were users of PrEP (4.6%). In multivariable analyses, being in a relationship, testing for HIV in the past 6 months, and others being aware of one's sexuality were positively associated with PrEP awareness. Higher levels of internalized homophobia and greater numbers of female sex partners were positively associated with PrEP use, while education and condom use were negatively associated. Based on study findings, messaging and uptake of PrEP needs greater expansion and requires novel approaches for scale-up. Improving linkage to HIV testing services is likely critical for engaging BMTW with PrEP. The potential for PrEP to slow the HIV epidemic is high; however, we must strengthen efforts to ensure universal availability and uptake.

  6. Ovarian sex hormones modulate compulsive, affective and cognitive functions in a non-induced mouse model of obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarup Mitra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a lack of understanding how surgical menopause can influence obsessions, compulsions and associated affective and cognitive functions in female OCD patients. Early menopause in women due to surgical removal of ovaries not only causes dramatic hormonal changes, but also may induce affective and cognitive disorders. Here, we tested if surgical removal of ovaries (ovariectomy, OVX, which mimics surgical menopause in humans, would result in exacerbation of compulsive, affective and cognitive behaviors in mice strains that exhibit a spontaneous compulsive-like phenotype. Female mice from compulsive-like BIG, non-compulsive SMALL and randomly-bred Control strains were subjected to OVX or sham-surgery. After seven days animals were tested for nest building and marble burying to measure compulsive-like behavior. The elevated plus maze and open field tests measured anxiety-like behaviors, while memory was assessed by the novel object recognition. Acute OVX resulted in exacerbation of compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG mice. No significant effects of OVX were observed for the non-compulsive SMALL and Control strains. Object recognition memory was impaired in compulsive-like BIG female mice compared to the Control mice, without an effect of OVX on the BIG mice. We also tested whether 17 β-estradiol (E2 or progesterone (P4 could reverse the effects of OVX. E2, but not P4, attenuated the compulsive-like behaviors in compulsive-like BIG OVX female mice. The actions of the sex steroids on anxiety-like behaviors in OVX females were strain and behavioral test dependent. Altogether, our results indicate that already existing compulsions can be worsened during acute ovarian deprivation concomitant with exacerbation of affective behaviors and responses to hormonal intervention in OVX female mice can be influenced by genetic background.

  7. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of wild type (WT) or mutant A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic and yeast cells in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vito, Stephen T; Austin, Adam T; Banks, Christopher N; Inceoglu, Bora; Bruun, Donald A; Zolkowska, Dorota; Tancredi, Daniel J; Rogawski, Michael A; Hammock, Bruce D; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABAAR positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABAAR antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1mg/kg, ip, starting 1h after diazepam and repeated every 24h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safe sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  10. PrEP Chicago: A randomized controlled peer change agent intervention to promote the adoption of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among young Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay E; Schumm, Phil; Alon, Leigh; Bouris, Alida; Ferreira, Matthew; Hill, Brandon; Khanna, Aditya S; Valente, Thomas W; Schneider, John A

    2018-02-01

    Advances in biomedical prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) represent a new opportunity for reducing HIV incidence among young Black men who have sex with men, for whom the number of new HIV infections continues to rise. However, studies have documented low rates of PrEP uptake in this community. Research suggests that the peer networks of young Black men who have sex with men play important roles in their sexual health decisions. PrEP Chicago is a randomized controlled trial network intervention designed to increase PrEP uptake among young Black men who have sex with men living in Chicago. The aims of this study are twofold. Aim 1 is to estimate the effectiveness of a peer change agent intervention for (1) increasing the number of referrals made to a PrEP information line, (2) increasing the rate of PrEP adoption among non-participant peers, and (3) increasing PrEP knowledge, attitudes, and intentions among participants. Aim 2 is to determine the individual and network variables that explain peer change agent effectiveness. PrEP Chicago is a social network intervention that utilizes the influence of peer change agents to link young Black men who have sex with men in Chicago to PrEP. Young Black men who have sex with men were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Once screened for eligibility, participants were randomly assigned to either one of two treatment sequences: (1) intervention treatment in Year 1 followed by a minimal contact attention control in Year 2 or (2) the minimal contact attention control in Year 1 followed by treatment in Year 2. The treatment consists of a PrEP/peer change agent training workshop followed by booster calls for 12 months. The attention control consists of a sex diary activity designed to help participants assess sexual risk. Psychosocial, sexual health, and network data are collected from all participants at baseline and at 12- and 24-month follow-ups. In total, 423 participants aged 18-35 have

  11. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  12. Interactive Effects of Culture and Sex Hormones on Sex Role Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda ePletzer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex role orientation, i.e. a person’s masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use, the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant’s masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  13. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity. PMID:26236181

  14. Sex Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Jan. 23, 2015. Sex headaches Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. Advertising & ...

  15. Why Sex?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations.......It is assumed that most organisms have sex because the resulting genetic recombination allows Darwinian selection to work better. It is now shown that in water fleas, recombination does lead to fewer deleterious mutations....

  16. Sex work and sex trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmore, M; Saunders, P

    1998-01-01

    Preventing HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as well as sexual and physical violence, are major occupational health and safety concerns for prostitutes. Considerable evidence shows that anti-prostitution laws facilitate violence and abuse against prostitutes and may increase their risk of contracting HIV/STDs. For example, police often take advantage of existing laws against prostitution to demand money or sex. In general, the strict enforcement of anti-prostitution laws marginalizes prostitutes from services which could help them avoid abuse and promotes an environment in which prostitutes must take risks to avoid detection and arrest. One strategy to improve prostitutes' lives would therefore be to remove laws which prevent them from working safely and from travelling abroad to work legally. Projects in which prostitutes are actively involved have helped break down stereotypes against prostitutes, while police-sex worker liaison projects in Scotland and Australia have led to higher levels of reporting of crimes against prostitutes. The Network of Sex Work Projects (NSWP), an organization which links sex worker health programs around the world, has found that the incidence of HIV/STDs among prostitutes is lowest when they have control over their work conditions; access to condoms, lubricants, and other safe sex materials; and respect of their basic human and legal rights. People need to understand that consensual involvement in sex work is different from forced sex trafficking.

  17. Prenatal sex hormone effects on child and adult sex-typed behavior: methods and findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Cohen-Bendahan, C.; Berenbaum, S.

    2005-01-01

    There is now good evidence that human sex-typed behavior is influenced by sex hormones that are present during prenatal development, confirming studies in other mammalian species. Most of the evidence comes from clinical populations, in which prenatal hormone exposure is atypical for a person's sex,

  18. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Inceoglu, Bora, E-mail: abinceoglu@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bruun, Donald A., E-mail: dabruun@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zolkowska, Dorota, E-mail: dzolkowska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Tancredi, Daniel J., E-mail: djtancredi@ucdavis.edu [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Rogawski, Michael A., E-mail: rogawski@ucdavis.edu [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, CA 95817 (United States); Hammock, Bruce D., E-mail: bdhammock@ucdavis.edu [Department of Entomology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizures and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide hydrolase

  19. Sex hormones and urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Brzoza, Z; Rogala, B

    2008-11-01

    Chronic urticaria is characterized by mast cells/basophils activation which initiate the inflammatory response. Pathogenetically, the disease may in many cases represent an autoimmune phenomenon. Altered function of the neuro-endocrine-immune system due to stress and other factors has also been implicated its pathogenesis. Sex hormones modulate immune and inflammatory cell functions, including mast cell secretion, and are regarded as responsible for gender and menstrual cycle phase-associated differential susceptibility and severity of some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Chronic urticaria is approximately twice more frequent in women than in men. In addition, urticaria may be associated with some diseases and conditions characterized by hormonal changes, including endocrinopathy, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, menopause and hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Hypersensitivity reactions to endogenous or exogenous female sex hormones have been implicated in the pathogenesis of urticarial lesions associated with estrogen and autoimmune progesterone dermatitis. We observed lower serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) concentration in patients with chronic urticaria with positive and negative response to autologous serum skin test. Thus, the influence of fluctuations in the hormonal milieu and altered sex hormone expression on the triggering-off, maintenance or aggravation of urticaria should be taken into account. In addition, the possible impact of estrogen mimetics, in the environment and in food, on the development of disease associated with mast cell activation must be considered. This review endeavours to outline what is known about the possible influence of sex hormones in the expression of urticaria.

  20. Sex differences in heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examined differences between men and women with heart failure. First, it was shown that biological sex is a strong modulator in the clinical expression of various cardiomyopathies. In the general population it was shown that men are more likely to develop heart failure with reduced

  1. Does Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men (MSM) change risk behavior? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborn, Kellie; Portillo, Carmen J

    2017-08-03

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV has been available since 2012. Even so, PrEP has not been widely accepted among healthcare providers and MSM some of whom are convinced that PrEP decreases condom use, and increases sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A systematic review of the state of the evidence regarding the association of PrEP with condom use, STI incidence and change in sexual risk behaviors in MSM. A structured search of databases resulted in 142 potential citations, but only ten publications met inclusion criteria and underwent data abstraction and critical appraisal. An adapted Cochrane Collaboration domain based assessment tool was used to critically appraise the methodological components of each quantitative study, and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was used to critically appraise qualitative and mixed-methods studies. Condom use in MSM utilizing PrEP is influenced by multiple factors. Studies indicate rates of STIs in treatment and placebo groups were high. PrEP did not significantly change STI rates between baseline and follow-up. Reporting of sexual risk improved when questionnaires were completed in private by clients. Our review found that PrEP may provide an opportunity for MSM to access sexual health care, testing, treatment and counselling services. We did not find any conclusive evidence that PrEP users increase sexual risk behaviors. The perception among healthcare providers that PrEP leads to increased sexual risk behaviors has yet to be confirmed. In order to provide effective sexual health services, clinicians need to be knowledgeable about PrEP as an HIV prevention tool. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Sex-specific effects of daily exposure to sucrose on spatial memory performance in male and female rats, and implications for estrous cycle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kirsten N; Morris, Margaret J; Westbrook, R Fred; Reichelt, Amy C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus, leading to perturbations in learning and memory. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) on recognition memory tasks in young male and female rats. In Experiment 1 we tested rats on memory tasks reliant on the hippocampus (place recognition), perirhinal cortex (object recognition), and a combination of hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and perirhinal cortex (object-in-place memory). Exposure to sucrose for 2h a day for 14days prior to behavioral testing did not affect object recognition, but impaired spatial memory to an extent in both male and female rats. Male rats exposed to sucrose were impaired at both place recognition and object-in-place recognition, however female rats showed no impairment in object-in-place performance. Plasticity within the hippocampus is known to increase during the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle and is related to higher levels of circulating estrogens. In Experiment 2 we tested place recognition and object-in-place memory in 10% sucrose exposed or non-exposed control female rats both during the metestrus (low estrogen) and proestrus (high estrogen) phases of their cycle on place recognition and object-in-place memory. Both sucrose exposed and control female rats were able to perform place object-in-place recognition correctly during metestrus and proestrus, however sucrose exposed rats were only able to perform place recognition correctly during proestrus. This indicates that when hippocampal function is compromised, endogenous estrogens may boost memory performance in females, and that males may be at more risk of high sugar diet induced cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Suburbanization, estrogen contamination, and sex ratio in wild amphibian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R.; Giller, Geoffrey S. J.; Barber, Larry B.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Skelly, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Research on endocrine disruption in frog populations, such as shifts in sex ratios and feminization of males, has predominantly focused on agricultural pesticides. Recent evidence suggests that suburban landscapes harbor amphibian populations exhibiting similar levels of endocrine disruption; however the endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) sources are unknown. Here, we show that sex ratios of metamorphosing frogs become increasingly female-dominated along a suburbanization gradient. We further show that suburban ponds are frequently contaminated by the classical estrogen estrone and a variety of EDCs produced by plants (phytoestrogens), and that the diversity of organic EDCs is correlated with the extent of developed land use and cultivated lawn and gardens around a pond. Our work also raises the possibility that trace-element contamination associated with human land use around suburban ponds may be contributing to the estrogenic load within suburban freshwaters and constitutes another source of estrogenic exposure for wildlife. These data suggest novel, unexplored pathways of EDC contamination in human-altered environments. In particular, we propose that vegetation changes associated with suburban neighborhoods (e.g., from forests to lawns and ornamental plants) increase the distribution of phytoestrogens in surface waters. The result of frog sex ratios varying as a function of human land use implicates a role for environmental modulation of sexual differentiation in amphibians, which are assumed to only have genetic sex determination. Overall, we show that endocrine disruption is widespread in suburban frog populations and that the causes are likely diverse.

  4. Acute exposure to low-level CW and GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiofrequency does not affect Ba 2+ currents through voltage-gated calcium channels in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platano, Daniela; Mesirca, Pietro; Paffi, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Monica; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca; Bersani, Ferdinando; Aicardi, Giorgio

    2007-12-01

    We have studied the non-thermal effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on Ba(2+) currents (I Ba 2+) through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), recorded in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons using the patch-clamp technique. To assess whether low-level acute RF field exposure could modify the amplitude and/or the voltage-dependence of I Ba 2+, Petri dishes containing cultured neurons were exposed for 1-3 periods of 90 s to 900 MHz RF-EMF continuous wave (CW) or amplitude-modulated according to global system mobile communication standard (GSM) during whole-cell recording. The specific absorption rates (SARs) were 2 W/kg for CW and 2 W/kg (time average value) for GSM-modulated signals, respectively. The results obtained indicate that single or multiple acute exposures to either CW or GSM-modulated 900 MHz RF-EMFs do not significantly alter the current amplitude or the current-voltage relationship of I Ba 2+, through VGCC. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Environmental exposure to lead induces oxidative stress and modulates the function of the antioxidant defense system and the immune system in the semen of males with normal semen profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Czuba, Zenon P. [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Horak, Stanisław [I-st Chair and Clin. Dept. of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecological Oncology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Batorego 15, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the associations between environmental exposure to lead and a repertoire of cytokines in seminal plasma of males with normal semen profile according to the WHO criteria. Based on the median lead concentration in seminal plasma, 65 samples were divided into two groups: low (LE) and high exposure to lead (HE). Differences in semen volume and the pH, count, motility and morphology of sperm cells were not observed between the examined groups. The total oxidant status value and the level of protein sulfhydryl groups as well as the activities of manganese superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly higher in the HE group, whereas the total antioxidant capacity value and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase were depressed. IL-7, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the HE group compared with the LE group. Environmental exposure to lead is sufficient to induce oxidative stress in seminal plasma and to modulate antioxidant defense system. - Highlights: • Lead induces oxidative stress in seminal plasma in human. • Lead modulates antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma in human. • Lead does not change a Th1/Th2 imbalance in seminal plasma in human.

  6. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM.

  7. Preferences for Long-Acting Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), Daily Oral PrEP, or Condoms for HIV Prevention Among U.S. Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, George J; Swann, Greg; Fought, Angela J; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Hope, Thomas J; Kiser, Patrick F; Mustanski, Brian; D'Aquila, Richard T

    2017-05-01

    HIV prevention method preferences were evaluated among 512 U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM; median age: 22 years). Approximately 90 % consistently preferred one option across pairwise comparisons of condoms, daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and long-acting PrEP delivered via either an injectable or one of two types of PrEP implants differing in visibility. Condoms were most frequently preferred (33.8 %), followed by non-visible implants (21.5 %), and oral PrEP (17.0 %); HIV risk was reported by more choosing implants. In a follow-up question comparing the four PrEP options only, daily oral pills and non-visible implants were most frequently preferred (35.5 and 34.3 %, respectively), followed by injections (25.2 %) and visible implants (4.3 %). An inductive, open-coding approach determined that convenience, duration of protection, and privacy were the most commonly cited reasons for a PrEP method choice, and associated with self-report of HIV risk. Tailoring PrEP product development to privacy and other concerns important to those at highest HIV risk may improve HIV prevention.

  8. Passing the baton: Community-based ethnography to design a randomized clinical trial on the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among Black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Colson, Paul W; Parker, Caroline; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2015-11-01

    Although HIV interventions and clinical trials increasingly report the use of mixed methods, studies have not reported on the process through which ethnographic or qualitative findings are incorporated into RCT designs. We conducted a community-based ethnography on social and structural factors that may affect the acceptance of and adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). We then devised the treatment arm of an adherence clinical trial drawing on findings from the community-based ethnography. This article describes how ethnographic findings informed the RCT and identifies distilled themes and findings that could be included as part of an RCT. The enhanced intervention includes in-person support groups, online support groups, peer navigation, and text message reminders. By describing key process-related facilitators and barriers to conducting meaningful mixed methods research, we provide important insights for the practice of designing clinical trials for 'real-world' community settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating an online training module on protecting children from secondhand smoke exposure: impact on knowledge, confidence and self-reported practice of health and social care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura L; McEwen, Andy

    2015-11-16

    Healthcare professionals report that a lack of training is the primary barrier to raising the issue of secondhand smoke (SHS). An open access online training module was therefore developed for those working with smoking families to deliver effective very brief advice on SHS. The current study aimed to evaluate the following: (1) does knowledge increase as a result of participating in the online training module, and (2) does the module impact on participant confidence and self-reported practice relating to SHS. Those accessing the module were invited to participate in an evaluation to assess participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, delivering very brief advice on SHS. Change in knowledge was assessed via ten multiple choice questions and confidence was assessed by Likert scale responses to three statements. Data were collected across three time points: pre-training, post-training and after 3 months. Data were also collected at 3 months post module completion on self-reported changes in practice and key learning points. Data at all three time points were available for 178 participants (~1 % of those who visited the module homepage over a 2 year period). Knowledge and confidence to deliver effective very brief advice for SHS significantly increased between the pre- and post-training assessments and was maintained at 3 months. Eighty-four percent self-reported that they perceived taking part in the training had led to positive changes in their clinical practice. There is potential for this module to be embedded within training programmes across health and social care professions, which may help to increase the knowledge and confidence of health and social care professionals to deliver very brief advice for SHS to smoking families. Future research needs to explore whether the smoking families who receive very brief advice for SHS are motivated to make changes to their home smoking behaviours and whether roll-out of this intervention would be cost-effective.

  10. Failure and Degradation Modes of PV modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results after 4 and 12 years of field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Jaya krishna

    This study evaluates two photovoltaic (PV) power plants based on electrical performance measurements, diode checks, visual inspections and infrared scanning. The purpose of this study is to measure degradation rates of performance parameters (Pmax, Isc, Voc, Vmax, Imax and FF) and to identify the failure modes in a "hot-dry desert" climatic condition along with quantitative determination of safety failure rates and reliability failure rates. The data obtained from this study can be used by module manufacturers in determining the warranty limits of their modules and also by banks, investors, project developers and users in determining appropriate financing or decommissioning models. In addition, the data obtained in this study will be helpful in selecting appropriate accelerated stress tests which would replicate the field failures for the new modules and would predict the lifetime for new PV modules. The study was conducted at two, single axis tracking monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) power plants, Site 3 and Site 4c of Salt River Project (SRP). The Site 3 power plant is located in Glendale, Arizona and the Site 4c power plant is located in Mesa, Arizona both considered a "hot-dry" field condition. The Site 3 power plant has 2,352 modules (named as Model-G) which was rated at 250 kW DC output. The mean and median degradation of these 12 years old modules are 0.95%/year and 0.96%/year, respectively. The major cause of degradation found in Site 3 is due to high series resistance (potentially due to solder-bond thermo-mechanical fatigue) and the failure mode is ribbon-ribbon solder bond failure/breakage. The Site 4c power plant has 1,280 modules (named as Model-H) which provide 243 kW DC output. The mean and median degradation of these 4 years old modules are 0.96%/year and 1%/year, respectively. At Site 4c, practically, none of the module failures are observed. The average soiling loss is 6.9% in Site 3 and 5.5% in Site 4c. The difference in soiling level is attributed

  11. Transcriptional Modulation of the ERK1/2 MAPK and NF-kB pathways in Human Urothelial cells after trivalent arsenical exposure: Implications for urinary bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic exposure to drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic (iAs) is associated with an increased risk ofurinary bladder (DB) cancers in humans. Rodent models administered particular arsenicals have indicated urothelial necrosis followed by regenerative proliferation i...

  12. Sex, strain, and estrous cycle influences on alcohol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddy, Brittany M; Carmack, Stephanie A; Thomas, Lisa C; Vendruscolo, Janaina C M; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2017-01-01

    Although women appear to be more vulnerable to alcohol-induced pathophysiology than men, the neurobiological basis for sex differences is largely unknown, partially because most studies on alcohol drinking are conducted in male subjects only. The present study examined sex differences in alcohol consumption in two rat strains, Long Evans and Wistar, using multiple behavioral paradigms. The effects of the estrous cycle on alcohol consumption were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that females drank more alcohol than males when given either continuous or intermittent access to alcohol (vs. water) in their home cages (voluntary drinking). Under operant conditions, no sex or strain differences were found in drinking prior to development of alcohol dependence. However, upon dependence induction by chronic, intermittent alcohol vapor exposure, Wistar rats of both sexes substantially escalated their alcohol intake compared with their nondependent drinking levels, whereas Long Evans rats only exhibited a moderate escalation of drinking. Under these conditions, the estrous cycle had no effect on alcohol drinking in any strain and drinking model. Thus, strain, sex, and drinking conditions interact to modulate nondependent and dependent alcohol drinking. The present results emphasize the importance of including sex and strain as biological variables in exploring individual differences in alcohol drinking and dependence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as an Additional Tool for HIV Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Belgium: The Be-PrEP-ared Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baetselier, Irith; Reyniers, Thijs; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Wouters, Kristien; Fransen, Katrien; Crucitti, Tania; Kenyon, Chris; Buyze, Jozefien; Schurmans, Céline; Laga, Marie; Vuylsteke, Bea

    2017-01-30

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising and effective tool to prevent HIV. With the approval of Truvada as daily PrEP by the European Commission in August 2016, individual European Member states prepare themselves for PrEP implementation following the examples of France and Norway. However, context-specific data to guide optimal implementation is currently lacking. With this demonstration project we evaluate whether daily and event-driven PrEP, provided within a comprehensive prevention package, is a feasible and acceptable additional prevention tool for men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk of acquiring HIV in Belgium. The study's primary objective is to document the uptake, acceptability, and adherence to both daily and event-driven PrEP, while several secondary objectives have been formulated including impact of PrEP use on sexual behavior. The Be-PrEP-ared study is a phase 3, single-site, open-label prospective cohort study with a large social science component embedded in the trial. A total of 200 participants choose between daily or event-driven PrEP use and may switch, discontinue, or restart their regimen at the 3-monthly visits for a duration of 18 months. Data are collected on several platforms: an electronic case report form, a Web-based tool where participants register their sexual behavior and pill use, a more detailed electronic self-administered questionnaire completed during study visits on a tablet computer, and in-depth interviews among a selected sample of participants. To answer the primary objective, the recruitment rate, (un)safe sex behavior during the last 6 months, percentage of reported intention to use PrEP in the future, retention rates in different regimens, and attitudes towards PrEP use will be analyzed. Adherence will be monitored using self-reported adherence, pill count, tenofovir drug levels in blood samples, and the perceived skills to adhere. All participants are currently enrolled, and the last study visit is

  14. When Sex Is Painful

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  15. Sex during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Sex During Pregnancy Print A ... safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during all stages ...

  16. Costs and benefits of On-Demand HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis in Men Who Have Sex with Men Analysis of the ANRS IPERGAY study with a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Mutuon, Pierre; Charreau, Isabelle; Tremblay, Cecile; Rojas, Daniela; Pialoux, Gilles; Chidiac, Christian; Capitant, Catherine; Spire, Bruno; Cotte, Laurent; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence

    2017-10-12

    We undertook the economic evaluation of the double-blind randomized ANRS-IPERGAY trial which showed the efficacy of on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate (TDF-FTC) in preventing HIV infection among high risk men-who have-sex-with-men (MSM). The economic evaluation was prospective. Counseling, drugs (TDF-FTC at &OV0556;500.88 for 30 tablets), tests, visits and hospital admissions were valued based on in-trial use. The cost of on-demand PrEP/HIV infection averted was compared to the yearly and lifetime costs of HIV infection in France in a cost and benefits analysis. The yearly number of participants needed to treat to prevent one HIV infection was 17.6 [95% CI = 10.7-49.9]. The annual cost of counseling was &OV0556;690/participant. The total one-year costs of PrEP were &OV0556;4,271/participant, of which &OV0556;3,129(73%) were drug costs corresponding to 15 tablets of TDF-FTC/month. The yearly cost of on-demand PrEP to avoid one infection was &OV0556;75,258. Using TDF-FTC generic (&OV0556;179.9/30 tablets) reduced the one-year costs of on-demand PrEP to &OV0556;2,271&OV0556; /participant and &OV0556;39,970&OV0556;/infection averted respectively. Using TDF-FTC at international market discounted prices (&OV0556;60/30 tablets) reduced the costs to &OV0556;1,517/participant and the cost to &OV0556;26,787/infection averted, comparable to the yearly treatment cost of HIV infection in France. On-demand PrEP was found to be cost saving in France if the duration of exposure was less than 7.5 years at current drug price and 13 years at generic price. On-demand PrEP in high risk MSM with TDF-FTC can be considered cost saving. Other benefits include the treatments of other diseases and reductions in secondary infections.

  17. Stigma and Conspiracy Beliefs Related to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Interest in Using PrEP Among Black and White Men and Transgender Women Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A; Kalichman, Seth C; Price, Devon; Finneran, Stephanie; Allen, Aerielle; Maksut, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the US continues to persist, in particular, among race, sexual orientation, and gender minority populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), or using antiretroviral medications for HIV prevention, is an effective option, but uptake of PrEP has been slow. Sociocultural barriers to using PrEP have been largely underemphasized, yet have the potential to stall uptake and, therefore, warrant further understanding. In order to assess the relationships between potential barriers to PrEP (i.e., PrEP stigma and conspiracy beliefs), and interest in PrEP, Black men and transgender women who have sex with men (BMTW, N = 85) and White MTW (WMTW, N = 179) were surveyed at a gay pride event in 2015 in a large southeastern US city. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were completed to examine factors associated with PrEP interest. Among the full sample, moderate levels of PrEP awareness (63%) and low levels of use (9%) were observed. Believing that PrEP is for people who are promiscuous (stigma belief) was strongly associated with lack of interest in using PrEP, and individuals who endorsed this belief were more likely to report sexual risk taking behavior. Conspiracy beliefs related to PrEP were reported among a large minority of the sample (42%) and were more frequently reported among BMTW than WMTW. Given the strong emphasis on the use of biomedical strategies for HIV prevention, addressing sociocultural barriers to PrEP access is urgently needed and failure to do so will weaken the potential benefits of biomedical prevention.

  18. Awareness, Willingness, and Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Washington, DC and Miami-Dade County, FL: National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Rudy; Forrest, David; Cardenas, Gabriel; Opoku, Jenevieve; Magnus, Manya; Phillips, Gregory; Greenberg, Alan; Metsch, Lisa; Kharfen, Michael; LaLota, Marlene; Kuo, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Despite the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention, knowledge, and uptake of this new prevention intervention over time has not been fully studied. Using NHBS data from 2 urban areas highly impacted by HIV, we examined awareness, use, and willingness to use daily oral PrEP and factors associated with willingness to take oral PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) over time. MSM from Washington, DC and Miami, FL were recruited in 2011 and 2014 using venue-based sampling. Participants completed behavioral surveys and HIV testing. Awareness, use, and willingness to use oral PrEP were examined. Demographic and behavioral correlates of being "very likely" to use PrEP in 2011 and 2014 were assessed. PrEP awareness increased from 2011 to 2014 in both cities (DC: 39.1%-73.8% and Miami: 19.4%-41.2%), but use remained low in 2014 (DC: 7.7%; Miami: 1.4%). Being very likely to use PrEP decreased over time in DC (61%-48%), but increased in Miami (48%-60%). In DC, minority race was associated with increased odds of being very likely to use PrEP, whereas reduced odds of being very likely to use PrEP was observed for MSM with 1 or 2-5 partners versus having 6+ partners. In Miami, a higher proportion of white versus Hispanic MSM reported being very likely to use PrEP in 2011, but this observation was reversed in 2014. Geographic differences in awareness, use, and willingness to use PrEP indicate that innovative strategies are needed to educate MSM about this effective prevention strategy.

  19. Prevalence and characteristics of users of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among men who have sex with men, San Francisco, 2014 in a cross-sectional survey: implications for disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Chen, Yea-Hung; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Henry F

    2017-02-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has gained a central role in prevention of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly in San Francisco, California, USA. Programmes to enrol men in PrEP are being undertaken by a range of public and private organisations. PrEP will have the largest population impact if it reaches men who are most at risk for HIV infection, and is used in a manner that enables maximal efficacy. Access to PrEP also needs to be equitable. We report on the characteristics of men eligible for and using PrEP. Data were from the 2014 implementation of National HIV Behavioural Surveillance (NHBS) among MSM in San Francisco. NHBS uses venue-based sampling as the national standard for sampling MSM. We compare proportions of demographic characteristics of MSM using versus not using PrEP who are HIV-negative and meet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines to recommend PrEP. Overall, 64.1% of HIV-negative MSM in San Francisco would meet guidelines for PrEP use, while 9.2% of MSM overall and 14.5% of MSM eligible were using PrEP as of 2014. Men using PrEP are more likely to be white and of older age. There were no differences between men using and not using PrEP in terms of education, income and health insurance. PrEP roll-out efforts should attempt to increase reach for young, black and Hispanic MSM. Failure to equitably provide access to PrEP could exacerbate the US disparity in new HIV infections for men of colour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Sub-toxic ethanol exposure modulates gene expression and enzyme activity of antioxidant systems to provide neuroprotection in hippocampal HT22 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Casañas-Sanchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD, catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx, glutathione-S-reductase (GSR and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD, were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells.

  1. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casañas-Sánchez, Verónica; Pérez, José A.; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc, and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx), glutathione-S-reductase (GSR), and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD), were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells. PMID:27512374

  2. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casañas-Sánchez, Verónica; Pérez, José A; Quinto-Alemany, David; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different response in hippocampal cells. Thus, we have observed that 0.1% ethanol exposure to HT22 cells, a murine hippocampal-derived cell line, increases the transcriptional expression of different genes belonging to the classical, glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin antioxidant systems, these including Sod1, Sod2, Gpx1, Gclc, and Txnrd1. Paralleling these changes, enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), catalase, total glutathione peroxidase (tGPx), glutathione-S-reductase (GSR), and total thioredoxin reductase (tTXNRD), were all increased, while the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), as indicators of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione levels remained unaltered. Ethanol exposure did not affect cell viability or cell growing as assessed by real-time cell culture monitoring, indicating that low ethanol doses are not deleterious for hippocampal cells, but rather prevented glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In summary, we conclude that sub-toxic exposure to ethanol may well be neuroprotective against oxidative insults in hippocampal cells.

  3. AT1 and AT2 Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex Modulate the Cardiovascular Response Evoked by Acute Exposure to Restraint Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Taíz F S; Fassini, Aline; Corrêa, Fernando M

    2017-07-10

    The prelimbic cortex (PL) is an important structure in the neural pathway integrating stress responses. Brain angiotensin is involved in cardiovascular control and modulation of stress responses. Blockade of angiotensin receptors has been reported to reduce stress responses. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is a stress model, which evokes sustained blood pressure increase, tachycardia, and reduction in tail temperature. We therefore hypothesized that PL locally generated angiotensin and angiotensin receptors modulate stress autonomic responses. To test this hypothesis, we microinjected an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin antagonists into the PL, prior to ARS. Male Wistar rats were used; guide cannulas were bilaterally implanted in the PL for microinjection of vehicle or drugs. A polyethylene catheter was introduced into the femoral artery to record cardiovascular parameters. Tail temperature was measured using a thermal camera. ARS was started 10 min after PL treatment with drugs. Pretreatment with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (0.5 nmol/100 nL) reduced the pressor response, but did not affect ARS-evoked tachycardia. At a dose of 1 nmol/100 nL, it reduced both ARS pressor and tachycardic responses. Pretreatment with candesartan, AT1 receptor antagonist reduced ARS-evoked pressor response, but not tachycardia. Pretreatment with PD123177, AT2 receptor antagonist, reduced tachycardia, but did not affect ARS pressor response. No treatment affected ARS fall in tail temperature. Results suggest involvement of PL angiotensin in the mediation of ARS cardiovascular responses, with participation of both AT1 and AT2 receptors. In conclusion, results indicate that PL AT1-receptors modulate the ARS-evoked pressor response, while AT2-receptors modulate the tachycardic component of the autonomic response.

  4. SEX EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Srivastava

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex, though not everything in life, is a profoundly important aspect of human existence. It has evolved to serve more than reproductive functions; relational and recreational functions having taken precedence over procrea­tional. Sex has come to play a much wider socio-psychological function.Human sexuality is complex and multidimensional. It is subject to influence by multitude of factors often grouped as biological (e.g. genes, hormones, psychological (e.g. fear, anxiety, mood and socio-cultural (e.g. sex roles, values- religious/moral/ethical, customs. It is the interaction and interrelationship of these factors from the time of conception, through intrauterine life, infancy, childhood and adolescence, till adulthood (even later in life that determine the sexual development expressed as sexual attitudes and behaviour of the people. Learning, both social and cognitive, plays a significantly important role in such development.Sexual dysfunctions in men and women, result from factors often categorised as physical or organic and psychological; more often a combination may be involved. Experience has shown that in majority of men and women in India having sexual problems, ignorance misconceptions and prevailing myths are invariably responsible in the causation of Ihese problems. Sexual problems in individual man (e.g. erectile failure and woman (e.g. vaginismus cause anxiety, feelings of frustration, lowered self esteem and symptoms of depression. The condition may also affect the spouse; he/she, as a reaction to the problem in the partner, may develop sexual and psychosocial problems including distressed marital relationship. This may also have influence on general couple relationship, effecting adversely the quality of family life.Modern therapeutic endevours have made it possible now to offer effective therapy to most people who seek help for their sexual problems, thus preventing the consequences on couple relationship. However, there is also

  5. Sub-toxic Ethanol Exposure Modulates Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity of Antioxidant Systems to Provide Neuroprotection in Hippocampal HT22 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Casa?as-S?nchez, Ver?nica; P?rez, Jos? A.; Quinto-Alemany, David; D?az, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol is known to cause severe systemic damage often explained as secondary to oxidative stress. Brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) because the high amounts of lipids, and because nerve cell membranes contain high amounts of peroxidable fatty acids. Usually these effects of ethanol are associated to high and/or chronic exposure to ethanol. However, as we show in this manuscript, a low and acute dose of ethanol trigger a completely different res...

  6. Abuse-related effects of µ-opioid analgesics in an assay of intracranial self-stimulation in rats: modulation by chronic morphine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarifi, Ahmad A; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens

    2013-09-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is an operant procedure in which responding is maintained by electrical brain stimulation. Stimulation frequency can be varied rapidly to maintain a wide range of baseline response rates, and drugs' effects can be evaluated simultaneously on both low ICSS rates maintained by low stimulation frequencies and high ICSS rates maintained by high stimulation frequencies. ICSS 'facilitation' indicates drug-induced increases in low ICSS rates and is often considered an abuse-related effect, whereas ICSS 'depression' indicates decreases in high ICSS rates and may indicate abuse-limiting effects. This study examined the roles of µ-agonist efficacy and of previous µ-agonist exposure as determinants of µ-agonist effects on ICSS in rats with electrodes implanted into the medial forebrain bundle. The high-efficacy, intermediate-efficacy, and low-efficacy µ agonists methadone, fentanyl, and nalbuphine were tested during escalating regimens of morphine exposure (vehicle, 3.2, and 18 mg/kg/day). During vehicle treatment, methadone and fentanyl primarily depressed ICSS, whereas nalbuphine produced weak facilitation that was not dose dependent. Chronic morphine produced tolerance to ICSS depression and increased expression of ICSS facilitation. These results suggest that µ-agonist exposure increases the expression of abuse-related ICSS facilitation by µ agonists with a broad range of efficacies at µ receptors.

  7. Cancer risk in opposite-sex and same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Twin pregnancies are characterized by simultaneous development of two fetuses that share the womb. An interest in opposite-sex (OS) twins, twin pairs consisting of one male and one female, comes from animal studies that showed that exposure to sex hormones is influenced by the position of the fetus...

  8. Well-Being among Same-Sex-and Opposite-Sex-Attracted Youth at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ian; Noret, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    In this study, 53 students who reported being solely or primarily attracted to members of the same sex were matched with 53 peers who reported being attracted solely to members of the opposite sex on various demographic factors as well as exposure to bullying at school. Data relating to tobacco and alcohol use, drug use, health risk behaviors,…

  9. Exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields modulates Na+ currents in rat cerebellar granule cells through increase of AA/PGE2 and EP receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lin He

    Full Text Available Although the modulation of Ca(2+ channel activity by extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF has been studied previously, few reports have addressed the effects of such fields on the activity of voltage-activated Na(+ channels (Na(v. Here, we investigated the effects of ELF-EMF on Na(v activity in rat cerebellar granule cells (GCs. Our results reveal that exposing cerebellar GCs to ELF-EMF for 10-60 min significantly increased Na(v currents (I(Na by 30-125% in a time- and intensity-dependent manner. The Na(v channel steady-state activation curve, but not the steady-state inactivation curve, was significantly shifted (by 5.2 mV towards hyperpolarization by ELF-EMF stimulation. This phenomenon is similar to the effect of intracellular application of arachidonic acid (AA and prostaglandin E(2 (PGE(2 on I(Na in cerebellar GCs. Increases in intracellular AA, PGE(2 and phosphorylated PKA levels in cerebellar GCs were observed following ELF-EMF exposure. Western blottings indicated that the Na(V 1.2 protein on the cerebellar GCs membrane was increased, the total expression levels of Na(V 1.2 protein were not affected after exposure to ELF-EMF. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and PGE(2 receptor (EP antagonists were able to eliminate this ELF-EMF-induced increase in phosphorylated PKA and I(Na. In addition, ELF-EMF exposure significantly enhanced the activity of PLA(2 in cerebellar GCs but did not affect COX-1 or COX-2 activity. Together, these data demonstrate for the first time that neuronal I(Na is significantly increased by ELF-EMF exposure via a cPLA2 AA PGE(2 EP receptors PKA signaling pathway.

  10. How age, sex and genotype shape the stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Novais

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.

  11. The Use of Online Posts to Identify Barriers to and Facilitators of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Comparison to a Systematic Review of the Peer-Reviewed Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Alisse; Lipshie-Williams, Madeleine; Starrels, Joanna L; Arnsten, Julia H; Rizzuto, Jessica; Cohen, Phillip; Jacobs, Damon; Patel, Viraj V

    2017-12-28

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains an under-utilized HIV prevention tool among men who have sex with men (MSM). To more comprehensively elucidate barriers and facilitators to PrEP use among US MSM, we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed published articles and content analysis of online posts about PrEP. We searched peer-reviewed databases (Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar) using MESH headings and keywords about PrEP and/or HIV prevention from 2005 to 2015. We included original studies among MSM in the US that reported on barriers, facilitators, or other factors related to PrEP use. We also searched online posts and associated comments (news articles, opinion pieces, blogs and other social media posts) in diverse venues (Facebook, Slate Outward, Huffington Post Gay Voices, Queerty, and My PrEP Experience blog) to identify posts about PrEP. We used content analysis to identify themes and compare potential differences between the peer-reviewed literature and online posts. We identified 25 peer-reviewed articles and 28 online posts meeting inclusion criteria. We identified 48 unique barriers and 46 facilitators to using PrEP. These 94 themes fit into six overarching categories: (1) access (n = 14), (2) attitudes/beliefs (n = 24), (3) attributes of PrEP (n = 13), (4) behaviors (n = 11), (5) sociodemographic characteristics (n = 8), and (6) social network (n = 6). In all categories, analysis of online posts resulted in identification of a greater number of unique themes. Thirty-eight themes were identified in the online posts that were not identified in the peer-reviewed literature. We identified barriers and facilitators to PrEP in online posts that were not identified in a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature. By incorporating data both from a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles and from online posts, we have identified salient and novel information about barriers to and facilitators of PrEP use. Traditional

  12. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; De Boni, Raquel B; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S; Marins, Luana M S; Anderson, Peter L; Luz, Paula M; Costa Leite, Iuri da; Liu, Albert Y; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-04-06

    The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350-699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10-3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08-2.94). The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. Interventions to

  13. Awareness and willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Mwai, Grace W; Ngin, Chanrith; Chhim, Kolab; Pal, Khoundyla; Igbinedion, Ewemade; Holland, Paula; Choub, Sok Chamreun; Mburu, Gitau

    2017-06-26

    To facilitate provision of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a better understanding of potential demand and user preferences is required. This review assessed awareness and willingness to use oral PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) in LMIC. Electronic literature search of Cochrane library, Embase, PubMed, PsychINFO, CINHAL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was conducted between July and September 2016. Reference lists of relevant studies were searched, and three authors contacted for additional data. Non-peer reviewed publications were excluded. Studies were screened for inclusion, and relevant data abstracted, assessed for bias, and synthesized. In total, 2186 records were identified, of which 23 studies involving 14,040 MSM from LMIC were included. The proportion of MSM who were aware of PrEP was low at 29.7% (95% CI: 16.9-44.3). However, the proportion willing to use PrEP was higher, at 64.4% (95% CI: 53.3-74.8). Proportions of MSM aware of PrEP was HIV risk, and the need to adhere or take medicines frequently reduced willingness to use PrEP, while PrEP education and motivation to maintain good health were facilitators of potential use. Demographic factors (education, age, and migration) influenced both awareness and willingness to use PrEP, but their effects were not consistent across studies. At the social domain, anticipated stigma from peers, partners, and family members related to sexual orientation, PrEP, or HIV status were barriers to potential use of PrEP, while partner, peer, and family support were facilitators of potential use. At the structural domain, concerns regarding attitudes of healthcare providers, quality assurance, data protection, and cost were determinants of potential use. This review found that despite low levels of awareness of PrEP, MSM in LMIC are willing to use it if they are supported appropriately to deal with a range of individual, social, and structural barriers.

  14. Who Will Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Why?: Understanding PrEP Awareness and Acceptability amongst Men Who Have Sex with Men in the UK--A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankis, Jamie; Young, Ingrid; Flowers, Paul; McDaid, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical trials suggest that pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may reduce HIV transmission by up to 86% for men who have sex with men (MSM), whilst relatively high levels of PrEP acceptability have been reported to date. This study examines PrEP awareness amongst sub-groups of MSM communities and acceptability amongst MSM in a low prevalence region (Scotland, UK), using a mixed methods design. Quantitative surveys of n = 690 MSM recruited online via social and sociosexual media were analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. In addition, n = 10 in-depth qualitative interviews with MSM were analysed thematically. Under one third (29.7%) of MSM had heard of PrEP, with awareness related to living in large cities, degree level education, commercial gay scene use and reporting an HIV test in the last year. Just under half of participants (47.8%) were likely to use PrEP if it were available but there was no relationship between PrEP acceptability and previous PrEP awareness. Younger men (18-25 years) and those who report higher risk UAI were significantly more likely to say they would use PrEP. Qualitative data described specific PrEP scenarios, illustrating how risk, patterns of sexual practice and social relationships could affect motivation for and nature of PrEP use. These findings suggest substantial interest PrEP amongst MSM reporting HIV risk behaviours in Scotland. Given the Proud results, there is a strong case to investigate PrEP implementation within the UK. However, it appears that disparities in awareness have already emerged along traditional indicators of inequality. Our research identifies the need for comprehensive support when PrEP is introduced, including a key online component, to ensure equity of awareness across diverse MSM communities (e.g. by geography, education, gay scene use and HIV proximity), as well as to responding to the diverse informational and sexual health needs of all MSM communities.

  15. Chemokine co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4-dependent modulation of Kv2.1 channel confers acute neuroprotection to HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Shepherd

    Full Text Available Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 within the brain has long been known to be associated with neurodegeneration and neurocognitive disorder (referred as HAND, a condition characterized in its early stages by declining cognitive function and behavioral disturbances. Mechanistically, the HIV-1 coat glycoprotein 120 (gp120 has been suggested to be a critical factor inducing apoptotic cell death in neurons via the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, upon chronic exposure to the virus. Here we show that acute exposure of neurons to HIV-1 gp120 elicits a homeostatic response, which provides protection against non-apoptotic cell death, involving the major somatodendritic voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv channel Kv2.1 as the key mediator. The Kv2.1 channel has recently been shown to provide homeostatic control of neuronal excitability under conditions of seizures, ischemia and neuromodulation/neuroinflammation. Following acute exposure to gp120, cultured rat hippocampal neurons show rapid dephosphorylation of the Kv2.1 protein, which ultimately leads to changes in specific sub-cellular localization and voltage-dependent channel activation properties of Kv2.1. Such modifications in Kv2.1 are dependent on the activation of the chemokine co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, and subsequent activation of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. This leads to the overall suppression of neuronal excitability and provides neurons with a homeostatic protective mechanism. Specific blockade of calcineurin and Kv2.1 channel activity led to significant enhancement of non-apoptotic neuronal death upon acute gp120 treatment. These observations shed new light on the intrinsic homeostatic mechanisms of neuronal resilience during the acute stages of neuro-HIV infections.

  16. Sustained Interleukin-1β Exposure Modulates Multiple Steps in Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling, Promoting Split-Resistance to the Transactivation of Prominent Anti-Inflammatory Genes by Glucocorticoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Escoll

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical treatment with glucocorticoids (GC can be complicated by cytokine-induced glucocorticoid low-responsiveness (GC-resistance, GCR, a condition associated with a homogeneous reduction in the expression of GC-receptor- (GR- driven anti-inflammatory genes. However, GR level and phosphorylation changes modify the expression of individual GR-responsive genes differently. As sustained IL-1β exposure is key in the pathogenesis of several major diseases with prevalent GCR, we examined GR signaling and the mRNA expression of six GR-driven genes in cells cultured in IL-1β and afterwards challenged with GC. After a GC challenge, sustained IL-1β exposure reduced the cytoplasmic GR level, GRSer203 and GRSer211 phosphorylation, and GR nuclear translocation and led to selective GCR in the expression of the studied genes. Compared to GC alone, in a broad range of GC doses plus sustained IL-1β, FKBP51 mRNA expression was reduced by 1/3, TTP by 2/3, and IRF8 was completely knocked down. In contrast, high GC doses did not change the expression of GILZ and DUSP1, while IGFBP1 was increased by 5-fold. These effects were cytokine-selective, IL-1β dose- and IL-1R1-dependent. The integrated gain and loss of gene functions in the “split GCR” model may provide target cells with a survival advantage by conferring resistance to apoptosis, chemotherapy, and GC.

  17. Neonatal Persistent Exposure to 6-Propyl-2-thiouracil, a Thyroid-Disrupting Chemical, Differentially Modulates Expression of Hepatic Catalase and C/EBP-β in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Suresh Kumar; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Sahoo, Sunil Kumar; Roy, Anita; Chainy, Gagan B N

    2016-02-01

    Persistent exposure of rats to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) from birth resulted in decreases in plasma thyroid hormone (TH) levels and hepatic expression of catalase and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (C/EBP-β). Catalase promoter region (-185 to +52) that contains binding sites for C/EBP-β showed an augmentation in the methylation level along with a change in methylation pattern of CpG islands in response to PTU treatment. PTU withdrawal on 30 days of birth restored TH levels and C/EBP-β to control rats in adulthood. Although catalase expression was restored to some extent in adult rats in response to PTU withdrawal, a permanent change in its promoter CpG methylation pattern was recorded. The results suggest that downregulation of adult hepatic catalase gene in response to persistent neonatal PTU exposure may not solely be attributed to thyroid-disrupting properties of PTU. It is possible that besides thyroid-disrupting behavior, PTU may impair expression of hepatic catalase by altering methylation pattern of its promoter. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  19. A Study of the Modulating Action of Quercetin on Biochemical and Histological Alterations Induced by Lead Exposure in the Liver and Kidney of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ghena M.; Sedky, Azza; Elsawy, Hany

    2017-06-30

    Lead is a highly toxic metal and a very potent poison. Lead poisoning is a serious condition but can be treated. Quercetin is a flavonoid with many beneficial uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible modulating action of quercetin as a model of an antioxidant against the toxic effects of lead acetate on liver and kidneys of rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: (i) saline group (control); (ii) lead group received i.p. lead acetate (20 mg/kg b.w.); (iii) quercetin group received i.p. quercetin (50 mg/kg b.w.); (iv) lead and quercetin group received i.p. lead acetate (20 mg/kg b.w.) followed by i.p. quercetin (50 mg/kg b.w.) for 4 weeks. The lead concentrations were determined in the liver and kidney tissues. Liver marker enzymes, bilirubin, albumin, total protein, creatinine, uric acid and urea, were assessed in the serum and light microscopic studies were performed. The results showed that lead acetate administration was associated with an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, urea levels. Lead accumulation in kidneys and liver tissues was also found, but were associated with decrease in albumin and total protein in comparison with the respective mean values of the control. Lead acetate caused numerous histological alterations in the liver, including chronic inflammation, bilary hyperplasia, edema, congestion, Kupffer cells hyperplasia and hemosiderosis, and in the kidney, including tubular dilation, atrophy of glomerular tuft, widening of urinary space and mild fibroblast. In contrary, administration of lead acetate along with quercetin partially restored the studied parameters to normal values and improved structure of liver and kidney with significant decreases in the severity of histopathological changes when compared with the lead acetate group. In conclusion, treatment with quercetin may provide a

  20. Tumor Cells Surviving Exposure to Proton or Photon Radiation Share a Common Immunogenic Modulation Signature, Rendering Them More Sensitive to T Cell–Mediated Killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gameiro, Sofia R.; Malamas, Anthony S. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Bernstein, Michael B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tsang, Kwong Y. [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Vassantachart, April; Sahoo, Narayan; Tailor, Ramesh; Pidikiti, Rajesh [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Guha, Chandan P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York (United States); Hahn, Stephen M.; Krishnan, Sunil [Division of Radiation Oncology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hodge, James W., E-mail: jh241d@nih.gov [Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To provide the foundation for combining immunotherapy to induce tumor antigen–specific T cells with proton radiation therapy to exploit the activity of those T cells. Methods and Materials: Using cell lines of tumors frequently treated with proton radiation, such as prostate, breast, lung, and chordoma, we examined the effect of proton radiation on the viability and induction of immunogenic modulation in tumor cells by flow cytometric and immunofluorescent analysis of surface phenotype and the functional immune consequences. Results: These studies show for the first time that (1) proton and photon radiation induced comparable up-regulation of surface molecules involved in immune recognition (histocompatibility leukocyte antigen, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and the tumor-associated antigens carcinoembryonic antigen and mucin 1); (2) proton radiation mediated calreticulin cell-surface expression, increasing sensitivity to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte killing of tumor cells; and (3) cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the direct cytolytic activity of proton radiation, nonetheless up-regulated calreticulin after radiation in a manner similar to non-cancer stem cells. Conclusions: These findings offer a rationale for the use of proton radiation in combination with immunotherapy, including for patients who have failed radiation therapy alone or have limited treatment options.

  1. Proneness to social anxiety modulates neural complexity in the absence of exposure: A resting state fMRI study using Hurst exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Claudio; Vanello, Nicola; Cristea, Ioana; David, Daniel; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-05-30

    To test the hypothesis that brain activity is modulated by trait social anxiety, we measured the Hurst Exponent (HE), an index of complexity in time series, in healthy individuals at rest in the absence of any social trigger. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series were recorded in 36 subjects at rest. All volunteers were healthy without any psychiatric, medical or neurological disorder. Subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) to assess social anxiety and thoughts in social contexts. We also obtained the fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) of the BOLD signal as an independent control measure for HE data. BFNE scores correlated positively with HE in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, while LSAS scores correlated positively with HE in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal sulci and in the parahippocamus. Results from fALFF were highly consistent with those obtained using LSAS and BFNE to predict HE. Overall our data indicate that spontaneous brain activity is influenced by the degree of social anxiety, on a continuum and in the absence of social stimuli. These findings suggest that social anxiety is a trait characteristic that shapes brain activity and predisposes to different reactions in social contexts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain, mood, and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN) gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs), and gonadal hormones. Finally, we

  3. Sex differences in kappa opioid receptor function and their potential impact on addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eChartoff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral, biological and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN, an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs, is necessary for stress-induced aversive states and is upregulated in the brain after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. KOR agonists produce signs of anxiety, fear, and depression in laboratory animals and humans, findings that have led to the hypothesis that drug withdrawal-induced DYN release is instrumental in negative reinforcement processes that drive addiction. However, these studies were almost exclusively conducted in males. Only recently is evidence available that there are sex differences in the effects of KOR activation on affective state. This review focuses on sex differences in DYN and KOR systems and how these might contribute to sex differences in addictive behavior. Much of what is known about how biological sex influences KOR systems is from research on pain systems. The basic molecular and genetic mechanisms that have been discovered to underlie sex differences in KOR function in pain systems may apply to sex differences in KOR function in reward systems. Our goals are to discuss the current state of knowledge on how biological sex contributes to KOR function in the context of pain,mood and addiction and to explore potential mechanisms for sex differences in KOR function. We will highlight evidence that the function of DYN-KOR systems is influenced in a sex-dependent manner by: polymorphisms in the prodynorphin (pDYN gene, genetic linkage with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R, heterodimerization of KORs and mu opioid receptors (MORs, and gonadal hormones

  4. Abbreviated exposure to hypoxia is sufficient to induce CNS dysmyelination, modulate spinal motor neuron composition, and impair motor development in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens O Watzlawik

    Full Text Available Neonatal white matter injury (nWMI is an increasingly common cause of cerebral palsy that results predominantly from hypoxic injury to progenitor cells including those of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Existing mouse models of nWMI utilize prolonged periods of hypoxia during the neonatal period, require complex cross-fostering and exhibit poor growth and high mortality rates. Abnormal CNS myelin composition serves as the major explanation for persistent neuro-motor deficits. Here we developed a simplified model of nWMI with low mortality rates and improved growth without cross-fostering. Neonatal mice are exposed to low oxygen from postnatal day (P 3 to P7, which roughly corresponds to the period of human brain development between gestational weeks 32 and 36. CNS hypomyelination is detectable for 2-3 weeks post injury and strongly correlates with levels of body and brain weight loss. Immediately following hypoxia treatment, cell death was evident in multiple brain regions, most notably in superficial and deep cortical layers as well as the subventricular zone progenitor compartment. PDGFαR, Nkx2.2, and Olig2 positive oligodendrocyte progenitor cell were significantly reduced until postnatal day 27. In addition to CNS dysmyelination we identified a novel pathological marker for adult hypoxic animals that strongly correlates with life-long neuro-motor deficits. Mice reared under hypoxia reveal an abnormal spinal neuron composition with increased small and medium diameter axons and decreased large diameter axons in thoracic lateral and anterior funiculi. Differences were particularly pronounced in white matter motor tracts left and right of the anterior median fissure. Our findings suggest that 4 days of exposure to hypoxia are sufficient to induce experimental nWMI in CD1 mice, thus providing a model to test new therapeutics. Pathological hallmarks of this model include early cell death, decreased OPCs and hypomyelination in early postnatal life

  5. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted...... and humanities in areas such as sociology, anthropology, criminology, human geography and history as well as migration studies and gender studies....

  6. Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: what is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.; Thijssen, J.H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Goozen, S.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) (total and free), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 156 normal pregnancies (77 male and 79 female fetuses). Samples were obtained from amniotic

  7. Relationships between sex hormones assessed in amniotic fluid, and maternal and umbilical cord serum: What is the best source of information to investigate the effects of fetal hormonal exposure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, C.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Kettenis, P.T.; van Goozen, S.H.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Levels of testosterone (T) (total and free), androstenedione (A4), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and estradiol (E2) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in 156 normal pregnancies (77 male and 79 female fetuses). Samples were obtained from amniotic

  8. Impact of image noise levels, scout scan dose and lens shield on image quality and radiation exposure in z-axis dose-modulated neck MSCT on 16- and 64-slice Toshiba Aquilion scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauknecht, Hans-Christian; Jach, Cornelia; Bohner, Georg; Meyer, Henning; Scheurig, Christian; Siebert, Eberhard; Klingebiel, Randolf

    2010-02-01

    Assessing the impact of image noise (IN) levels, scout scan dose and lens shield use on image quality and radiation exposure in neck multislice CT (MSCT) when using z-axis dose modulation (DM). Neck MSCT phantom studies with/without z-axis DM were performed by using different IN levels (S.D. 7.5-30HU) and scout scan tube currents (7.5-50mA) on Toshiba Aquilion scanners (16-/64-slice). Image quality indices were evaluated by two radiologists and radiation exposure parameters calculated. Cadaveric phantom measurements elucidated lens shield interactions with DM efficacy. The lowest dose scan protocol with diagnostic image quality was introduced into the clinical imaging routine and retrospectively evaluated in 20 age-matched patients undergoing neck MSCT with/without DM. The highest image noise level in DM neck studies with comparable image quality to standard neck CT amounted to 20HU, resulting in a mean tube current of 50mAs (CTDI(w) 6.3mGy). DM reduced effective dose by 35% and organ dose figures (lens, thyroid) by 33%. Scout scan dose lowering to 20mA resulted in an effective dose (ED) decrease of 0.06mSv (5%). Avoiding lens shield placement during scout scan effected an organ dose decrease of 20%. Overall contour sharpness and image contrast did not differ significantly (DM/without DM) whereas image noise was rated higher in DM neck CT studies (pToshiba Aquilion scanners, is effective and mandatory in neck MSCT. DM efficacy can be enhanced by optimising scout scan doses and lens shield use. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex Differences in Same-Sex Friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Mayta A.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1982-01-01

    College students answered questionnaires regarding number of same sex friends and frequency of interaction, typical and preferred kinds of interactions, and emotional intimacy. Men and women did not differ in number of friends, time spent with friends, nor in value placed on intimate friendships. Sex differences were found, however, in the nature…

  10. Gonadal- and Sex-Chromosome-Dependent Sex Differences in the Circadian System

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljis, Dika A.; Dawn H. Loh; Truong, Danny; Vosko, Andrew M.; Ong, Margaret L.; McClusky, Rebecca; Arnold, Arthur P.; Colwell, Christopher S

    2013-01-01

    Compelling reasons to study the role of sex in the circadian system include the higher rates of sleep disorders in women than in men and evidence that sex steroids modulate circadian control of locomotor activity. To address the issue of sex differences in the circadian system, we examined daily and circadian rhythms in wheel-running activity, electrical activity within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and PER2::LUC-driven bioluminescence of gonadally-intact adult male and female C57BL/6J mice. W...

  11. Protective actions of sex steroid hormones in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Christian J; Carroll, Jenna C; Rosario, Emily R; Barron, Anna M

    2009-07-01

    Risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with age-related loss of sex steroid hormones in both women and men. In post-menopausal women, the precipitous depletion of estrogens and progestogens is hypothesized to increase susceptibility to AD pathogenesis, a concept largely supported by epidemiological evidence but refuted by some clinical findings. Experimental evidence suggests that estrogens have numerous neuroprotective actions relevant to prevention of AD, in particular promotion of neuron viability and reduction of beta-amyloid accumulation, a critical factor in the initiation and progression of AD. Recent findings suggest neural responsiveness to estrogen can diminish with age, reducing neuroprotective actions of estrogen and, consequently, potentially limiting the utility of hormone therapies in aged women. In addition, estrogen neuroprotective actions are also modulated by progestogens. Specifically, continuous progestogen exposure is associated with inhibition of estrogen actions whereas cyclic delivery of progestogens may enhance neural benefits of estrogen. In recent years, emerging literature has begun to elucidate a parallel relationship of sex steroid hormones and AD risk in men. Normal age-related testosterone loss in men is associated with increased risk to several diseases including AD. Like estrogen, testosterone has been established as an endogenous neuroprotective factor that not only increases neuronal resilience against AD-related insults, but also reduces beta-amyloid accumulation. Androgen neuroprotective effects are mediated both directly by activation of androgen pathways and indirectly by aromatization to estradiol and initiation of protective estrogen signaling mechanisms. The successful use of hormone therapies in aging men and women to delay, prevent, and or treat AD will require additional research to optimize key parameters of hormone therapy and may benefit from the continuing development of selective estrogen and androgen

  12. Selenium protects reproductive system and foetus development in a rat model of gestational lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W; Chen, J; Yin, J; Wang, S-L

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a common environmental contaminant. Lead accumulation in the body is especially dangerous for pregnant women and newborns. Selenium is a trace element which may rectify the damaging effects of lead. Here we tested potential protective effects of selenium against gestational lead exposure. Pregnant SD rats were exposed to 200 mg/L of lead acetate (given with water), with or without sodium selenite supplementation (2-8 mg/kg/day via intragastric administration). Pregnant rats not exposed to lead or selenium served as control animals. The outcomes in pregnant rats were serum lead and selenium levels, reproductive hormone (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, oestradiol, progesterone) levels, and uterine and ovarian morphological changes. The outcomes in the offspring were sex differentiation, survival rates (day 21 after birth), weight (days 0-35 after birth), weight of reproductive organs, and puberty onset (foreskin separation or vaginal opening). Selenium supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum lead levels, rectified reproductive hormone levels, and attenuated reproductive morphological changes caused by lead exposure. Lead exposure did not affect sex differentiation, but significantly (p lead exposure delayed the onset of puberty. These pathological changes were dose-dependently rectified or attenuated by selenium supplementation. Gestational lead exposure causes damages to the reproductive system of pregnant rats, and negatively modulates growth and reproductive system development of the offspring. These adverse effects are rectified or attenuated by selenium supplementation.

  13. Sex and Status Sell to Monkeys: Social Advertising Creates Brand Preferences in Rhesus Macaques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M Yavuz Acikalin; Karli Watson; Gavan Fitzsimons; Michael Platt

    2015-01-01

      Innate evolutionary mechanisms may influence consumer response to advertising. We demonstrate that exposure to sex- and status-based advertising campaigns elicit brand preferences in rhesus monkeys...

  14. How is sex determined in insects? An epilogue

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the recent findings in Ceratitis capitata, Musca domestica, Apis mellifera, Lucilia cuprina and Nasonia vitripennis, it is clear that the intermediate genetic module traep/tra-2auxbep is widely conserved, and that sex determination appears to revolve around this module. Despite the availability of the genome sequences of ...

  15. Sex Education: Another View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jennifer

    1977-01-01

    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  16. Sex-linked recessive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked recessive; Genetics - sex-linked recessive; X-linked recessive ... X-linked recessive diseases most often occur in males. Males have only one X chromosome. A single recessive gene ...

  17. A task-based assessment of parental occupational exposure to pesticides and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, Robert B; Kang, Alice; Hammond, S Katharine; Reinier, Kyndaron; Lea, C Suzanne; Chang, Jeffrey S; Does, Monique; Scelo, Ghislaine; Kirsch, Janice; Crouse, Vonda; Cooper, Robert; Quinlan, Patricia; Metayer, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Associations between parental occupational pesticide exposure and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) vary across studies, likely due to different exposure assessment methodologies. We assessed parental occupational pesticide exposure from the year before pregnancy to the child's third year of life for 669 children diagnosed with ALL and 1021 controls. We conducted expert rating using task-based job modules (JM) to estimate exposure to pesticides among farmer workers, gardeners, agricultural packers, and pesticide applicators. We compared this method to (1) partial JM using job titles and a brief description, but without completing the task-based questionnaire, and (2) job exposure matrix (JEM) linking job titles to the International Standard Classifications of Occupation Codes. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for ALL cancer risk and pesticide exposure adjusting for child's sex, age, race/ethnicity and household income. Compared to complete JMs, partial JMs and JEM led to 3.1% and 9.4% of parents with pesticide exposure misclassified, respectively. Misclassification was similar in cases and controls. Using complete JMs, we observed an increased risk of ALL for paternal occupational exposure to any pesticides (OR=1.7; 95% CI=1.2, 2.5), with higher risks reported for pesticides to treat nut crops (OR=4.5; 95% CI=0.9, 23.0), and for children diagnosed before five years of age (OR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Exposure misclassification from JEM attenuated these associations by about 57%. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure before and after birth was not associated with ALL. The risk of ALL was elevated in young children with paternal occupational pesticide exposure during the perinatal period, using more detailed occupational information for exposure classification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  19. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  20. The influence of sex hormones on brain lateralization : Research Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Between and within sexes individuals differ in lateralization of brain and behaviour that might affect cognitive performance. There is long standing debate to what extent variation in lateralization is due to variation in early or late exposure to sex hormones. We will use two unique data sets to

  1. Commentary Sex determination

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    2008-01-31

    Jan 31, 2008 ... The discovery in reptiles that incubation temperature of the embryo affects its adult sex is about 40 ... environmental effects determine sex in some individuals, then those environmentally-influenced .... same pattern of sex-reversing only the homogametic (XX, ZZ) genotype, not the heterogametic (XY, ZW).

  2. Sex in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Sex er en del af vores sociale praksis og centralt for det, vi hver især er. Men bortset fra pornoindustrien, har vi ikke mange muligheder for at få adgang til billeder af sex. Teater Nordkrafts forestilling Sex in situ vil gøre seksuelle billeder til noget, der kan deles, udveksles og tales om, og...

  3. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Lowthers; Magdalena Sabat; Elya M. Durisin; Kamala Kempadoo

    2017-01-01

    Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, or...

  4. Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Bebermeier, Jan-Hendrik; Werner, Ralf; Demeter, Janos; Richter-Unruh, Annette; Cario, Gunnar; Appari, Mahesh; Siebert, Reiner; Riepe, Felix; Brooks, James D; Hiort, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined "disorders of sex development" (DSD, e.g., 46, XY-females due to defective androgen biosynthesis) compared to normal 46, XY-males and 46, XX-females. Results A discrete set of transcripts was directly correlated with XY or XX genotypes in all individuals independent of male or female phenotype of the external genitalia. However, a significantly larger gene set in the PBMC only reflected the degree of external genital masculinization independent of the sex chromosomes and independent of concurrent post-natal sex steroid hormone levels. Consequently, the architecture of the transcriptional PBMC-"sexes" was either male, female or even "intersex" with a discordant alignment of the DSD individuals' genetic and hormonal sex signatures. Conclusion A significant fraction of gene expression differences between males and females in the human appears to have its roots in early embryogenesis and is not only caused by sex chromosomes but also by long-term sex-specific hormonal programming due to presence or absence of androgen during the time of external genital masculinization. Genetic sex and the androgen milieu during embryonic development might therefore independently modulate functional traits, phenotype and diseases associated with male or female gender as well as with DSD conditions. PMID:19570224

  5. Sex-specific aging in flies, worms, and missing great-granddads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caleb E; Tower, John

    2014-01-30

    Two recent studies identify how sex-specific pheromonal factors in flies and worms alter lifespan through metabolic pathways that are shared with mammals. Sex differences in human lifespans imply nonautonomous effects modulated by sex-specific gene-environment interactions that could still include pheromonal mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sexing young snowy owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. GLI3 Links Environmental Arsenic Exposure and Human Fetal Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Winterbottom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although considerable evidence suggests that in utero arsenic exposure affects children's health, these data are mainly from areas of the world where groundwater arsenic levels far exceed the World Health Organization limit of 10 μg/L. We, and others, have found that more common levels of in utero arsenic exposure may also impact children's health. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the expression of key developmental genes in fetal placenta in a birth cohort of women using unregulated water supplies in a US region with elevated groundwater arsenic. We identified several genes whose expression associated with maternal arsenic exposure in a fetal sex-specific manner. In particular, expression of the HEDGEHOG pathway component, GLI3, in female placentae was both negatively associated with arsenic exposure and positively associated with infant birth weight. This suggests that modulation of GLI3 in the fetal placenta, and perhaps in other fetal tissues, contributes to arsenic's detrimental effects on fetal growth. We showed previously that arsenic-exposed NIH3T3 cells have reduced GLI3 repressor protein. Together, these studies identify GLI3 as a key signaling node that is affected by arsenic, mediating a subset of its effects on developmental signaling and fetal health.

  9. Systematically Controlling for the Influence of Age, Sex, Hertz and Time Post-Whole-Body Vibration Exposure on Four Measures of Physical Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold L. Merriman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Though popular, there is little agreement on what whole-body vibration (WBV parameters will optimize performance. This study aimed to clarify the effects of age, sex, hertz and time on four physical function indicators in community-dwelling older adults (=32. Participants were exposed to 2 min WBV per session at either 2 Hz or 26 Hz and outcome measures were recorded at 2, 20 and 40 min post-WBV. Timed get up-and-go and chair sit-and-reach performances improved post-WBV for both sexes, were significantly different between 2 Hz and 26 Hz treatments (≤0.05 and showed statistically significant interactions between age and gender (≤0.01. Counter movement jump and timed one-legged stance performances showed a similar but non-significant response to 2 Hz and 26 Hz treatments, though male subjects showed a distinct trended response. Age and gender should be statistically controlled and both 2 Hz and 26 Hz exert a treatment effect.

  10. Optimizing Content for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Counseling for Men who have Sex with Men: Perspectives of PrEP Users and High-risk PrEP Naïve Men

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, S. Wade; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Elsesser, Steven M.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Steven A Safren

    2014-01-01

    Existing trials of antiretroviral (ARV) medication as chemoprophylaxis against HIV reveal that the degree of protection is primarily dependent on product adherence. However, there is a lack of data on targets for behavioral interventions to improve adherence to ARV as prevention. Information from individuals who have used ARV as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can inform behavioral intervention development. Thirty-nine HIV-uninfected MSM at high risk for HIV acquisition participated in one of...

  11. Quantitative sexing (Q-Sexing) and relative quantitative sexing (RQ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    samer

    4Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n,. 13005 Ciudad Real, Spain. 5Khankaisky State Biosphere Nature Reserve, Russia. Accepted 26 September, 2012. Here we report a mammal sexing procedure based on the detection of quantitative differences between.

  12. Sex hormones alter sex ratios in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis: Determining sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuge, S K; Gramapurohit, N P

    2015-09-01

    In amphibians, although genetic factors are involved in sex determination, gonadal sex differentiation can be modified by exogenous steroid hormones suggesting a possible role of sex steroids in regulating the process. We studied the effect of testosterone propionate (TP) and estradiol-17β (E2) on gonadal differentiation and sex ratio at metamorphosis in the Indian skipper frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis with undifferentiated type of gonadal differentiation. A series of experiments were carried out to determine the optimum dose and sensitive stages for gonadal sex reversal. Our results clearly indicate the importance of sex hormones in controlling gonadal differentiation of E. cyanophlyctis. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L TP throughout larval period resulted in the development of 100% males at metamorphosis at all concentrations. Similarly, treatment of tadpoles with 40μg/L TP during ovarian and testicular differentiation resulted in the development of 90% males, 10% intersexes and 100% males respectively. Treatment of tadpoles with 10, 20, 40, and 80μg/L E2 throughout larval period likewise produced 100% females at all concentrations. Furthermore, exposure to 40μg/L E2 during ovarian and testicular differentiation produced 95% females, 5% intersexes and 91% females, 9% intersexes respectively. Both TP and E2 were also effective in advancing the stages of gonadal development. Present study shows the effectiveness of both T and E2 in inducing complete sex reversal in E. cyanophlyctis. Generally, exposure to E2 increased the larval period resulting in significantly larger females than control group while the larval period of control and TP treated groups was comparable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Sex Work Research Symposium: Examining Positionality in Documenting Sex Work and Sex Workers’ Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Lowthers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Historically, academic literature on sex work has documented the changing debates, policies, and cultural discourse surrounding the sex industry, and their impact on the rights of sex workers worldwide. As sex work scholars look to the future of sex workers’ rights, however, we are also in a critical moment of self-reflection on how sex work scholarship engages with sex worker communities, produces knowledge surrounding sex work, and represents the lived experiences of sex workers’ rights, organizing, and activism. In this short Communication, proceedings from a recent sex work research symposium entitled, Sexual Economies, Politics, and Positionality in Sex Work Research are presented. Held at the Centre for Refugee Studies at York University, this symposium is a response to the need for sex work researchers, sex workers, and sex worker-led organizations to come together and critically examine the future of research on sex work and the politics of documenting sex workers’ rights.

  14. One's sex, sleep, and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Ihori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women are approximately twice as likely as men to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after trauma exposure. Mechanisms underlying this difference are not well understood. Although sleep is recognized to have a critical role in PTSD and physical and psychological health more generally, research into the role of sleep in PTSD sex differences has been only recent. In this article, we review both animal and human studies relevant to sex differences in sleep and PTSD with an emphasis on the roles of sex hormones. Sleep impairment including insomnia, trauma-related nightmares, and rapid-eye-movement (REM sleep fragmentation has been observed in individuals with chronic and developing PTSD, suggesting that sleep impairment is a characteristic of PTSD and a risk factor for its development. Preliminary findings suggested sex specific patterns of sleep alterations in developing and established PTSD. Sleep maintenance impairment in the aftermath of trauma was observed in women who subsequently developed PTSD, and greater REM sleep fragmentation soon after trauma was associated with developing PTSD in both sexes. In chronic PTSD, reduced deep sleep has been found only in men, and impaired sleep initiation and maintenance with PTSD have been found in both sexes. A limited number of studies with small samples have shown that sex hormones and their fluctuations over the menstrual cycle influenced sleep as well as fear extinction, a process hypothesized to be critical to the pathogenesis of PTSD. To further elucidate the possible relationship between the sex specific patterns of PTSD-related sleep alterations and the sexually dimorphic risk for PTSD, future studies with larger samples should comprehensively examine effects of sex hormones and the menstrual cycle on sleep responses to trauma and the risk/resilience for PTSD utilizing various methodologies including fear conditioning and extinction paradigms and animal models.

  15. Sex, epilepsy, and epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders that are associated with a wide range of pathogenic mechanisms, seizure manifestations, comorbidity profiles, and therapeutic responses. These characteristics are all influenced quite significantly by sex. As with other conditions exhibiting such patterns, sex differences in epilepsy are thought to arise—at the most fundamental level—from the “organizational” and “activational” effects of sex hormones as well as from the direct actions of the sex chromosomes. However, our understanding of the specific molecular, cellular, and network level processes responsible for mediating sex differences in epilepsy remains limited. Because increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are involved both in epilepsy and in brain sexual dimorphism, we make the case here that analyzing epigenetic regulation will provide novel insights into the basis for sex differences in epilepsy. PMID:24998474

  16. Female contact modulates male aggression via a sexually dimorphic GABAergic circuit in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Song, Yuanquan; Yang, Chung-Hui; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2014-01-01

    Intraspecific male-male aggression, important for sexual selection, is regulated by environment, experience and internal states through largely undefined molecular and cellular mechanisms. To understand the basic neural pathway underlying the modulation of this innate behavior, we established a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster and investigated the relationship between sexual experience and aggression. In the presence of mating partners, adult male flies exhibited elevated levels of aggression, which was largely suppressed by prior exposure to females via a sexually dimorphic neural mechanism. The suppression involved the ability of male flies to detect females by contact chemosensation through the pheromone-sensing ion channel, ppk29, and was mediated by male specific GABAergic neurons acting upon GABA-a receptor RDL in target cells. Silencing or activation of this circuit led to dis-inhibition or elimination of sex-related aggression, respectively. We propose that the GABAergic inhibition represents a critical cellular mechanism that enables prior experience to modulate aggression. PMID:24241395

  17. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  18. Sex, gender and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    There is an ongoing dialogue within HIV research about how HIV affects men and women differently and how they may respond to therapy differently. What is often overlooked is the difference between sex and gender. Sex is based in a person's biology. Gender is based in how society treats men and women because of their sex and how their roles and responsibilities are generally ascribed to them. Sex and gender may play a role in the differences seen between men and women living with HIV. So what are those differences and how do they impact the course of HIV in men and women? This article will attempt to answer some of those questions.

  19. Maternal serum steroid levels are unrelated to fetal sex: A study in twin pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Bendahan, C.C.C.; Goozen, S.H.M. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Increased prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) in females of an opposite-sex (OS) twin pair may have an effect on the development of sex-typical cognitive and behavioral patterns. The prenatal exposure to T due to hormone transfer in OS twin females may occur in two ways, one directly via the

  20. Maternal serum steroid levels are unrelated to fetal sex: a study in twin pregnancies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Bendahan, C.C.; Goozen, S.H. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Increased prenatal exposure to testosterone (T) in females of an opposite-sex (OS) twin pair may have an effect on the development of sex-typical cognitive and behavioral patterns. The prenatal exposure to T due to hormone transfer in OS twin females may occur in two ways, one directly via the

  1. Context-dependent fluctuation of serotonin in the auditory midbrain: the influence of sex, reproductive state and experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of changing behavioral situations, plasticity of sensory systems can be a valuable mechanism to facilitate appropriate behavioral responses. In the auditory system, the neurotransmitter serotonin is an important messenger for context-dependent regulation because it is sensitive to both external events and internal state, and it modulates neural activity. In male mice, serotonin increases in the auditory midbrain region, the inferior colliculus (IC), in response to changes in behavioral context such as restriction stress and social contact. Female mice have not been measured in similar contexts, although the serotonergic system is sexually dimorphic in many ways. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex, experience and estrous state on the fluctuation of serotonin in the IC across contexts, as well as potential relationships between behavior and serotonin. Contrary to our expectation, there were no sex differences in increases of serotonin in response to a restriction stimulus. Both sexes had larger increases in second exposures, suggesting experience plays a role in serotonergic release in the IC. In females, serotonin increased during both restriction and interactions with males; however, the increase was more rapid during restriction. There was no effect of female estrous phase on the serotonergic change for either context, but serotonin was related to behavioral activity in females interacting with males. These results show that changes in behavioral context induce increases in serotonin in the IC by a mechanism that appears to be uninfluenced by sex or estrous state, but may depend on experience and behavioral activity. PMID:24198252

  2. Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure leads to sex-specific modification of hepatic gene expression and epigenome at birth that may exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Wang, Huan; Engeseth, Nicki J. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Flaws, Jodi A. [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Helferich, William G. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Pan, Yuan-Xiang, E-mail: yxpan@illinois.edu [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States); Lezmi, Stéphane, E-mail: slezmi@illinois.edu [Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Developmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases adulthood hepatic steatosis with reduced mitochondrial function. To investigate the potential epigenetic mechanisms behind developmental BPA-induced hepatic steatosis, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were dosed with vehicle (oil) or BPA (100 μg/kg/day) from gestational day 6 until postnatal day (PND) 21. After weaning, offspring were either challenged with a high-fat (HF; 45% fat) or remained on a control (C) diet until PND110. From PND60 to 90, both BPA and HF diet increased the fat/lean ratio in males only, and the combination of BPA and HF diet appeared to cause the highest ratio. On PND110, Oil-HF, BPA-C, and BPA-HF males had higher hepatic lipid accumulation than Oil-C, with microvesicular steatosis being marked in the BPA-HF group. Furthermore, on PND1, BPA increased and modified hepatic triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) compositions in males only. In PND1 males, BPA increased hepatic expression of FFA uptake gene Fat/Cd36, and decreased the expression of TG synthesis- and β-oxidation-related genes (Dgat, Agpat6, Cebpα, Cebpβ, Pck1, Acox1, Cpt1a, Cybb). BPA altered DNA methylation and histone marks (H3Ac, H4Ac, H3Me2K4, H3Me3K36), and decreased the binding of several transcription factors (Pol II, C/EBPβ, SREBP1) within the male Cpt1a gene, the key β-oxidation enzyme. In PND1 females, BPA only increased the expression of genes involved in FFA uptake and TG synthesis (Lpl, Fasn, and Dgat). These data suggest that developmental BPA exposure alters and reprograms hepatic β-oxidation capacity in males, potentially through the epigenetic regulation of genes, and further alters the response to a HF diet. - Highlights: • Developmental BPA exposure exacerbates HF-diet induced steatosis in adult males. • Gestational BPA exposure increases hepatic lipid accumulation in neonatal males. • BPA decreases Cpt1a and other hepatic β-oxidation genes in neonatal males. • BPA alters neonatal male Cpt1a

  3. Alcohol, sex, and screens: Modeling media influence on adolescent alcohol and sex co-occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E.; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach is used to predict adolescents’ intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n=29) and Black-oriented movies (n= 34) from 2014 and 2013–2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014–15 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same 5-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 14–17 year-old adolescents (50.3% Black, 49.7% White, 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents’ attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites). PMID:28276932

  4. Alcohol, Sex, and Screens: Modeling Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol and Sex Co-Occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents' intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n = 29) and Black-oriented movies (n = 34) from 2014 and 2013-2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014-2015 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same five-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 adolescents ages 14 to 17 years old (50.3% Black, 49.7% White; 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents' attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites).

  5. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Early sex-dependent differences in response to environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cerezales, Serafin; Ramos-Ibeas, Priscila; Rizos, Dimitrios; Lonergan, Pat; Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

    2017-10-13

    Developmental plasticity enables the appearance of long-term effects in offspring caused by exposure to environmental stressors during embryonic and foetal life. These long-term effects can be traced to pre- and post-implantation development, and in both cases the effects are usually sex-specific. During preimplantation development, male and female embryos exhibit an extensive transcriptional dimorphism mainly driven by incomplete X-chromosome inactivation. These early developmental stages are crucial for the establishment of epigenetic marks that will be conserved throughout development, making it a particularly susceptible period for the appearance of long-term epigenetic-based phenotypes. Later in development, gonadal formation generates hormonal differences between the sexes, and male and female placentae exhibit different responses to environmental stressors. The maternal environment, including hormones and environmental insults during pregnancy, contributes to sex-specific placental development that controls genetic and epigenetic programming during foetal development, regulating sex-specific differences, including sex-specific epigenetic responses to environmental hazards, leading to long-term effects. This review summarizes several human and animal studies examining sex-specific responses to environmental stressors during both the periconception period (caused by differences in sex chromosome dosage) and placental development (caused by both sex chromosomes and hormones). The identification of relevant sex-dependent trajectories caused by sex-chromosomes and/or sex-hormones is essential to define diagnostic markers and prevention/intervention protocols.

  7. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  8. Risk of sex-specific cancers in opposite-sex and same-sex twins in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Skytthe, Axel; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that some cancers originate in utero. It is hypothesized that elevated exposure to some steroid hormones might increase cancer risk, and that hormone transfer between twin fetuses could result in different prenatal exposure to testosterone. METHODS: This large...... to prenatal testosterone - does not increase the risk of sex-specific cancers in OS females. Furthermore, the study supports that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. IMPACT: Findings are reassuring as they fail to provide evidence for the hypothesis that endocrine or other difference...

  9. Sex chromosomes and sex chromosome abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu

    2011-12-01

    This article focuses on constitutional sex chromosome abnormalities detected by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The author discusses the two general classifications of abnormalities: numerical and structural. Also included are descriptions of unique aspects of X and Y chromosomes, technological advances in detection, and future perspectives.

  10. Sex Determination, Sex Ratios, and Genetic Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werren, John H.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic mechanisms of sex determination are unexpectedly diverse and change rapidly during evolution. We review the role of genetic conflict as the driving force behind this diversity and turnover. Genetic conflict occurs when different components of a genetic system are subject to selection in

  11. The evolution of sex ratios and sex-determining systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uller, Tobias; Pen, Ido; Wapstra, Erik; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Komdeur, Jan

    Sex determination is a fundamental process governed by diverse mechanisms. Sex ratio selection is commonly implicated in the evolution of sex-determining systems, although formal models are rare. Here, we argue that, although sex ratio selection can induce shifts in sex determination, genomic

  12. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kis