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Sample records for exposure information elicited

  1. Picture book exposure elicits positive visual preferences in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Price, Carmel; Burton, Eliza; Hickinson, Rachel; Inett, Jade; Moore, Emma; Salmon, Katherine; Shiba, Paula

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between "mere exposure" and attitude enhancement is well established in the adult domain, there has been little similar work with children. This article examines whether toddlers' visual attention toward pictures of foods can be enhanced by repeated visual exposure to pictures of foods in a parent-administered picture book. We describe three studies that explored the number and nature of exposures required to elicit positive visual preferences for stimuli and the extent to which induced preferences generalize to other similar items. Results show that positive preferences for stimuli are easily and reliably induced in children and, importantly, that this effect of exposure is not restricted to the exposed stimulus per se but also applies to new representations of the exposed item.

  2. Eliciting Demand Information through Cheap Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisell, Lars; Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.

    2008-01-01

    A uniform pricing rule may enable the communication of demand information from buyer to seller in situations where this would not have been possible if the seller could price discriminate. Importantly, such a rule can benefit both buyer and seller....

  3. Information aggregation and belief elicitation in experimental parimutuel betting markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koessler, F.; Noussair, C.N.; Ziegelmeyer, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of belief elicitation on informational efficiency and individual behavior in experimental parimutuel betting markets. In one treatment, groups of eight participants, who possess a private signal about the eventual outcome, play a sequential betting game. The second

  4. Improving exposure estimates by combining exposure information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Richard L; Daniell, William E; Sheppard, Lianne; Davies, Hugh W; Seixas, Noah S

    2011-06-01

    Any exposure estimation technique has inherent strengths and limitations. In an effort to improve exposure estimates, this study developed and evaluated the performance of several hybrid exposure estimates created by combining information from individual assessment techniques. Construction workers (n = 68) each completed three full-shift noise measurements over 4 months. Three single exposure assessment techniques [trade mean (TM), task-based (TB), and subjective rating (SR)] were used to estimate exposures for each subject. Hybrid techniques were then developed which incorporated the TM, SR, and TB noise exposure estimates via arithmetic mean combination, linear regression combination, and modification of TM and TB estimates using SR information. Exposure estimates from the single and hybrid techniques were compared to subjects' measured exposures to evaluate accuracy. Hybrid estimates generally were more accurate than estimates from single techniques. The best-performing hybrid techniques combined TB and SR estimates and resulted in improvements in estimated exposures compared to single techniques. Hybrid estimates were not improved by the inclusion of TM information in this study. Hybrid noise exposure estimates performed better than individual estimates, and in this study, combination of TB and SR estimates using linear regression performed best. The application of hybrid approaches in other contexts will depend upon the exposure of interest and the nature of the individual exposure estimates available.

  5. Experimental nickel elicitation thresholds--a review focusing on occluded nickel exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    Nickel (Ni) is the most frequent cause of contact allergy among the female population. This makes it interesting to examine thresholds for elicitation under different conditions. Even though Ni exposure may be open, occluded, penetrating or oral, most dose-response studies in the literature concern...... single occluded application. The aims of this study were to assess thresholds of response by making a statistical analysis of available dose-response studies with single occluded exposure and comparing the results to thresholds from other modes of exposure. 8 occluded Ni dose-response studies were...... 10% reacted in occluded exposure. When combining the exposure to Ni with an irritant, divagating results were found, although the literature shows evidence of an augmented response when combining exposure to an allergen and an irritant. The thresholds of penetrating exposure were found to be lower...

  6. Cortical Spreading Depression Elicited in Rat Brain after Exposure to Microwave from GSM Mobile Phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Samera M

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate possibility of microwave emitted by cellular phone that can elicit cortical spreading depression (CSD) in rat brain and studying the characteristics of the evoked signals. (CSD) was elicited in cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats after exposure to microwave irradiation (935.2-960.2 MHz) from Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) mobile phone. With the microwave output of about 8.5 mW at the antenna - tissue surface (4mm in diameter), CSD was elicited after 50 sec irradiation from the beginning of a received signal to the mobile and after 35 sec irradiation from the beginning of a transmitted signal from the mobile. CSD was elicited in about 90% of experiments after irradiation by both types of signal exposure. The results have shown that slow potential change (SPC) has an amplitude of 4.5 ± 0.75 mV, duration of 1.5 ± 0.5 min and propagated speed of 3 mm/min on the average. The amplitude, duration and behaviour of SPC of the evoked spreading depression were found to be affected by irradiation time and the method of exposure.

  7. Exposure to a dog elicits different cardiovascular and behavioral effects in pregnant and lactating goats

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson Kerstin; Hydbring-Sandberg Eva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should inc...

  8. Salient Beliefs in Majoring in Management Information Systems: An Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…

  9. A Comparison of Active and Passive Virtual Reality Exposure Scenarios to Elicit Social Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoones A. Sekhavat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Social phobia is an anxiety disorder that results in an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations. As a safe and controlled tool, Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET has been used to treat anxiety disorders and phobias. This paper aims to study whether VRET with active scenarios can challenge a person more than passive scenarios. By comparing participants who were exposed to active and passive scenarios in VRET, we show that active scenarios are more effective than passive scenarios to elicit social anxiety in healthy participants. We focus on eliciting social anxiety and creating the sense of presence as two parameters enhancing the efficacy of VRET scenarios.

  10. Investigation of bias of hedonic scores when co-eliciting product attribute information using CATA questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Sara R.; Giacalone, Davide; Roigard, Cristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory and consumer scientists disagree on the practice of concurrently obtaining sensory information in hedonic tests. This is in part due to different mindsets about what consumers are able to do and evidence that such co-elicitation may bias hedonic scores. Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questions...... (appearance, aroma, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouthfeel). The present research suggests that co-elicitation of hedonic scores and product attribute information using CATA questions may bias the hedonic scores, but not that it certainly will do so. This needs to be recognised, leading to more widespread...... acceptance that co-elicitation has merit. Investigators should decide on whether or not to co-elicit product attribute information using CATA questions on a case-by-case basis, acknowledging that bias may occur. Further research is needed to understand when/when not bias is likely to occur....

  11. Virtual assistant: Enhancing content acquisition by eliciting information from humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ozeki, Motoyuki; Maeda, Shunichi; Obata, Kanako; Nakamura, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the "Virtual Assistant, " a novel framework for supporting knowledge capturing in videos. The Virtual Assistant is an artificial agent that simulates a human assistant shown in TV programs and prompts users to provide feedback by asking questions. This framework ensures that sufficient information is provided in the captured content while users interact in a natural and enjoyable way with the agent. We developed a prototype agent based on a chatbot-like approach and ...

  12. Impact of Requirements Elicitation Processes on Success of Information System Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bormane Līga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements articulating user needs and corresponding to enterprise business processes are a key to successful implementation of information system development projects. However, the parties involved in projects frequently are not able to agree on a common development vision and have difficulties expressing their needs. Several industry experts have acknowledged that requirements elicitation is one of the most difficult tasks in development projects. This study investigates the impact of requirements elicitation processes on project outcomes depending on the applied project development methodology.

  13. Exposure to a dog elicits different cardiovascular and behavioral effects in pregnant and lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Kerstin; Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva

    2011-11-16

    Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should increase in both these cases, due to a synchronized discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Seven goats were exposed to a dog for 15 minutes at 12 ± 3 days before, and again at 10 ± 1 days after, parturition. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and activity were registered by telemetry. Behavioral data were collected during 5 minute sessions, followed by blood samples obtained via intrajugular catheters. Plasma cortisol concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. At the appearance of the dog, the mean arterial blood pressure of the goats increased from 90 ± 8 to 111 ± 8 mmHg (p dog exposure during lactation, but increased from 117 ± 6 to 126 ± 10 beats/min (p Dog exposure resulted in plasma cortisol concentration increasing from 17 ± 1 to 43 ± 7 nmol/l (p dog, goats vocalized at a higher frequency and started to ruminate later during lactation compared to pregnancy. When goats were exposed to a dog during pregnancy, their heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma cortisol increased, in contrast to lactation when only their blood pressure and plasma cortisol increased. However, when they were lactating, goats vocalized more and started to ruminate later compared to when they were pregnant.

  14. Radiation exposure information record system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Murphy, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    The proposed alternative information system to provide DOE with a radiation exposure data base that could be used to assess the impacts of proposed changes in radiation protection practices and regulations. Although the data base would contain dose information on all DOE employees who are monitored for compliance, no personal identifiers would be maintained with this information. The proposed system includes a DOE employee locator file and a badged visitor file. The primary purpose of the locator file is to provide an up-to-date list of all current employees at DOE and DOE contractor sites

  15. Exposure to a dog elicits different cardiovascular and behavioral effects in pregnant and lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson Kerstin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart rate and plasma cortisol concentration are often used in evaluation of physiological reactions to stress and fear, but arterial blood pressure is rarely measured in farm animals. Goats are prey animals and can be expected to react strongly to a predator, especially when they have kids. We hypothesized that exposure to a dog elicits a flight response during pregnancy and a fight response when goats have kids to defend. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate should increase in both these cases, due to a synchronized discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. Methods Seven goats were exposed to a dog for 15 minutes at 12 ± 3 days before, and again at 10 ± 1 days after, parturition. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and activity were registered by telemetry. Behavioral data were collected during 5 minute sessions, followed by blood samples obtained via intrajugular catheters. Plasma cortisol concentration was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Results At the appearance of the dog, the mean arterial blood pressure of the goats increased from 90 ± 8 to 111 ± 8 mmHg (p Conclusions When goats were exposed to a dog during pregnancy, their heart rate, blood pressure, and plasma cortisol increased, in contrast to lactation when only their blood pressure and plasma cortisol increased. However, when they were lactating, goats vocalized more and started to ruminate later compared to when they were pregnant.

  16. Nerve Agent Exposure Elicits Site-Specific Changes in Protein Phosphorylation in Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwen; O’Brien, Jennifer J.; O’Callaghan, James P.; Miller, Diane B.; Zhang, Qiang; Rana, Minal; Tsui, Tiffany; Peng, Youyi; Tomesch, John; Hendrick, Joseph P.; Wennogle, Lawrence P; Snyder, Gretchen L.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) compounds cause toxic symptoms, including convulsions, coma, and death, as the result of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The development of effective treatments to block these effects and attenuate long-term cognitive and motor disabilities that result from OP intoxication is hampered by a limited understanding of the CNS pathways responsible for these actions. We employed a candidate method (called CNSProfile™) to identify changes in the phosphorylation state of key neuronal phosphoproteins evoked by the OP compound, diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). Focused microwave fixation was used to preserve the phosphorylation state of phosphoproteins in brains of DFP-treated mice; hippocampus and striatum were analyzed by immunoblotting with a panel of phospho-specific antibodies. DFP exposure elicited comparable effects on phosphorylation of brain phosphoproteins in both C57BL/6 and FVB mice. DFP treatment significantly altered phosphorylation at regulatory residues on glutamate receptors, including Serine897 (S897) of the NR1 NMDA receptor. NR1 phosphorylation was bi-directionally regulated after DFP in striatum versus hippocampus. NR1 phosphorylation was reduced in striatum, but elevated in hippocampus, compared with controls. DARPP-32 phosphorylation in striatum was selectively increased at the Cdk5 kinase substrate, Threonine75 (T75). Phencynonate hydrochloride, a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, prevented seizure-like behaviors and the observed changes in phosphorylation induced by DFP. The data reveal region-specific effects of nerve agent exposure on intracellular signaling pathways that correlate with seizure-like behavior and which are reversed by the muscarinic receptor blockade. This approach identifies specific targets for nerve agents, including substrates for Cdk5 kinase, which may be the basis for new anti-convulsant therapies. PMID:20423708

  17. Expert elicitation, uncertainty, and the value of information in controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Bonneau, Mathieu; Martin, Julien; Romagosa, Christina; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Reed, Robert; Eckles, Jennifer Kettevrlin; Vitt, Laurie J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study. We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model in which four age classes of tegus are recognized: hatchlings, 1 year-old, 2 year-olds, and 3 + year-olds. This matrix model was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates in southern Florida from 10 herpetology experts. We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter. Using these distributions, as well as the observed correlations among elicited values, we generated a large sample of matrix population models to infer how the tegu population would respond to control efforts. We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs. We conclude that expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable in conducting an initial assessment of what control strategy, effort, and monetary resources are needed to reduce and eventually eliminate the invader. Scientists, in turn, can use the value of information to focus research in a way that not only increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  18. Product information affects perception of sensory, collative properties and elicited emotions of Indonesian tempe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibri, Dwi Larasatie Nur; Frøst, Michael Bom

    inoculum) have significantly different collative properties when information is provided, especially in authenticity and traditional. The elicited emotions that were affected were proud, pleasant and enthusiastic. The five traditional tempes are also more liked when the consumer knows the information......The effects of product information given to consumers were evaluated on sensory and collative properties of tempe, a traditional Indonesian food. A consumer test on 9 different types of tempe (5 traditionally tempe and 4 more modernized version of tempe) was carried out with 175 Indonesian...... consumers (63% women) in a sensory laboratory. The information that was provided to consumers related to the raw materials, origin and the production methods of the tempe. The tests were done in blind and informed session in two consecutive days. The questionnaire consists of 3 parts: hedonics, CATA...

  19. Counter-regulating on the Internet: Threat elicits preferential processing of positive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greving, Hannah; Sassenberg, Kai; Fetterman, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The Internet is a central source of information. It is increasingly used for information search in self-relevant domains (e.g., health). Self-relevant topics are also associated with specific emotions and motivational states. For example, individuals may fear serious illness and feel threatened. Thus far, the impact of threat has received little attention in Internet-based research. The current studies investigated how threat influences Internet search. Threat is known to elicit the preferential processing of positive information. The self-directed nature of Internet search should particularly provide opportunities for such processing behavior. We predicted that during Internet search, more positive information would be processed (i.e., allocated more attention to) and more positive knowledge would be acquired under threat than in a control condition. Three experiments supported this prediction: Under threat, attention is directed more to positive web pages (Study 1) and positive links (Study 2), and more positive information is acquired (Studies 1 and 3) than in a control condition. Notably, the effect on knowledge acquisition was mediated by the effect on attention allocation during an actual Internet search (Study 1). Thus, Internet search under threat leads to selective processing of positive information and dampens threatened individuals' negative affect. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Brief exposure to sensory cues elicits stimulus-nonspecific general sensitization in an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Minoli

    Full Text Available The effect of repeated exposure to sensory stimuli, with or without reward is well known to induce stimulus-specific modifications of behaviour, described as different forms of learning. In recent studies we showed that a brief single pre-exposure to the female-produced sex pheromone or even a predator sound can increase the behavioural and central nervous responses to this pheromone in males of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis. To investigate if this increase in sensitivity might be restricted to the pheromone system or is a form of general sensitization, we studied here if a brief pre-exposure to stimuli of different modalities can reciprocally change behavioural and physiological responses to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Olfactory and gustatory pre-exposure and subsequent behavioural tests were carried out to reveal possible intra- and cross-modal effects. Attraction to pheromone, monitored with a locomotion compensator, increased after exposure to olfactory and gustatory stimuli. Behavioural responses to sucrose, investigated using the proboscis extension reflex, increased equally after pre-exposure to olfactory and gustatory cues. Pheromone-specific neurons in the brain and antennal gustatory neurons did, however, not change their sensitivity after sucrose exposure. The observed intra- and reciprocal cross-modal effects of pre-exposure may represent a new form of stimulus-nonspecific general sensitization originating from modifications at higher sensory processing levels.

  1. Radiation and noise exposures elicit biological and behavioural effects in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Michaud, D.S.; Ferrarotto, C.; Keith, S.E.; Miller, S.M.; Bowers, W.J.; Kumarathsan, P.

    2003-01-01

    The presence of radiation and noise is ubiquitous in a living environment. Therefore, the effect of these sources alone and together on the body has the potential for public health consequences. We have examined the physiological and behavioural effects of separate and combined exposures to radiation and noise in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. For three weeks animals were exposed to the following conditions: 1) daily exposure to x-rays (cumulative whole body dose = 5Gy); 2) random intermittent noise band-limited between 400Hz-20 kHz; 2 h/day 90 dB lin and 3) combined exposures. Control animals were housed under ambient noise conditions (∼ 55-60 dBA) and sham-exposed to x-rays. The mean body weight gain (initial avg. ∼ 250g) appeared to be affected by the treatments; control (88g); noise (76g); radiation (60g) and noise/radiation (43g). Compared to control and noise only animals, plasma levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine increased significantly in animals exposed to both radiation alone and radiation with noise, while big-endothelin-1 was significantly reduced in both groups exposed to radiation. There were no noticeable changes in the levels of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and the variability in plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine precluded conclusions with respect to changes in sympathetic activity. No groups showed any consistent changes in plasma levels of interleukin-1, corticotrophin releasing hormone or urocortin. Plasma corticosterone increased in animals exposed to only noise, but this hormone was significantly reduced in animals exposed to only radiation. Behavioural endpoints revealed that startle amplitude (105dB) was highest in animals exposed to only noise and lowest in animals exposed to both noise and radiation, compared to the control animals. These results suggest that radiation exposure might alter systems activated by stressor exposure and/or act independently to influence health outcomes

  2. Using the model statement to elicit information and cues to deceit in interpreter-based interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrij, Aldert; Leal, Sharon; Mann, Samantha; Dalton, Gary; Jo, Eunkyung; Shaboltas, Alla; Khaleeva, Maria; Granskaya, Juliana; Houston, Kate

    2017-06-01

    We examined how the presence of an interpreter during an interview affects eliciting information and cues to deceit, while using a method that encourages interviewees to provide more detail (model statement, MS). A total of 199 Hispanic, Korean and Russian participants were interviewed either in their own native language without an interpreter, or through an interpreter. Interviewees either lied or told the truth about a trip they made during the last twelve months. Half of the participants listened to a MS at the beginning of the interview. The dependent variables were 'detail', 'complications', 'common knowledge details', 'self-handicapping strategies' and 'ratio of complications'. In the MS-absent condition, the interviews resulted in less detail when an interpreter was present than when an interpreter was absent. In the MS-present condition, the interviews resulted in a similar amount of detail in the interpreter present and absent conditions. Truthful statements included more complications and fewer common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies than deceptive statements, and the ratio of complications was higher for truth tellers than liars. The MS strengthened these results, whereas an interpreter had no effect on these results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Fetal Exposure to Moderate Ethanol Doses: Heightened Operant Responsiveness elicited by Ethanol-Related Reinforcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, Paula; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal exposure to moderate ethanol doses during late gestation modifies postnatal ethanol palatability and ingestion. The use of Pavlovian associative procedures, has indicated that these prenatal experiences broaden the range of ethanol doses capable of supporting appetitive conditioning. Recently, a novel operant technique aimed at analyzing neonatal predisposition to gain access to ethanol has been developed. Experiment 1 tested the operant conditioning technique for developing rats described by Arias et al. (2007) and Bordner et al. (2008). In Experiment 2 we analyzed changes in the disposition to gain access to ethanol as a result of moderate prenatal exposure to the drug. Methods In Experiment 1 newborn pups were intraorally cannulated and placed in a supine position that allowed access to a touch-sensitive sensor. Paired pups received an intraoral administration of a given reinforcer (milk or quinine) contingent upon physical contact with the sensor. Yoked controls received similar reinforcers only when Paired pups activated the circuit. In Experiment 2, natural reinforcers (water or milk) as well as ethanol (3% or 6 % v/v) or an ethanol-related reinforcer (sucrose compounded with quinine) were tested. In this Experiment pups had been exposed to water or ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) during gestational days 17–20. Results Experiment 1 confirmed previous results showing that 1-day-old pups rapidly learn an operant task to gain access to milk, but not to gain access to a bitter tastant. Experiment 2 showed that water and milk were highly reinforcing across prenatal treatments. Furthermore, general activity during training was not affected by prenatal exposure to ethanol. Most importantly, prenatal ethanol exposure facilitated conditioning when the reinforcer was 3% v/v ethanol or a psychophysical equivalent of ethanol’s gustatory properties (sucrose-quinine). Conclusions The present results suggest that late prenatal experience with ethanol changes

  4. Acute Cocaine Exposure elicits rises in calcium in Arousal Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Mads; Ipsen, Theis; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2017-01-01

    Cocaine has strong reinforcing properties, which underlie its high addiction potential. Reinforcement of use of addictive drugs is associated with rises in dopamine (DA) in mesoaccumbal circuitry. Excitatory afferent input to mesoaccumbal circuitry sources from the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus...... (LDT). Chronic, systemic cocaine exposure has been shown to have cellular effects on LDT cells, but acute actions of local application have never been demonstrated. Using calcium imaging, we show that acute application of cocaine to mouse brain slices induces calcium spiking in cells of the LDT...... of synaptic DA, but via a different pharmacological action than cocaine, induced calcium spiking with similar profiles. Although large differences in spiking were not noted in an animal model associated with a heightened proclivity of acquiring addiction-related behavior, the prenatal nicotine exposed mouse...

  5. Developmental exposure to organophosphate flame retardants elicits overt toxicity and alters behavior in early life stage zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishaw, Laura V; Hunter, Deborah L; Padnos, Beth; Padilla, Stephanie; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-12-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are common replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples. OPFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides and may adversely affect the developing nervous system. This study evaluated the overt toxicity, uptake, and neurobehavioral effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP) in early life stage zebrafish. Chlorpyrifos was used as a positive control. For overt toxicity and neurobehavioral assessments, zebrafish were exposed from 0 to 5 days postfertilization (dpf). Hatching, death, or malformations were evaluated daily. Teratogenic effects were scored by visual examination on 6 dpf. To evaluate uptake and metabolism, zebrafish were exposed to 1 µM of each organophosphate (OP) flame retardant and collected on 1 and 5 dpf to monitor accumulation. Larval swimming activity was measured in 6 dpf larvae to evaluate neurobehavioral effects of exposures below the acute toxicity threshold. TDBPP elicited the greatest toxicity at >1 µM. TDCPP and chlorpyrifos were overtly toxic at concentrations ≥10 µM, TCEP, and TCPP were not overtly toxic at the doses tested. Tissue concentrations increased with increasing hydrophobicity of the parent chemical after 24 h exposures. TDCPP and TDBPP and their respective metabolites were detected in embryos on 5 dpf. For all chemicals tested, developmental exposures that were not overtly toxic significantly altered larval swimming activity. These data indicate that OPFRs adversely affect development of early life stage zebrafish. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Information exposure, opportunity evaluation and entrepreneurial action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autio, E.; Dahlander, L.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    information shaped opportunity evaluation, and social information about user needs drove individuals to entrepreneurial action. Our empirical findings suggest that reducing demand uncertainty is a central factor regulating of entrepreneurial action, an insight that received theories of entrepreneurial action......We study how an individual's exposure to external information regulates the evaluation of entrepreneurial opportunities and entrepreneurial action. Combining data from interviews, a survey, and a comprehensive web log of an online user community spanning eight years, we find that technical...

  7. Chronic exposures to low and high concentrations of ibuprofen elicit different gene response patterns in a euryhaline fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Ken M; Brander, Susanne M; Britton, Monica T; Fangue, Nann A; Connon, Richard E

    2015-11-01

    Ibuprofen is one of the most commonly detected pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent; however, the effects of ibuprofen on aquatic organisms are poorly understood. This study presents the transcriptome-wide response of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, to chronic exposure to ibuprofen. At the lowest exposure concentration (0.0115 mg/L), we detected a downregulation of many genes involved in skeletal development, aerobic respiration, and immune function. At the highest exposure concentration (1.15 mg/L), we detected increased expression of regulatory genes in the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway and several immune genes involved in an inflammatory response. Additionally, there was differential expression of genes involved in oxidative stress responses and a downregulation of genes involved in osmoregulation. This study provides useful information for monitoring the effects of this common wastewater effluent contaminant in the environment and for the generation of biomarkers of exposure to ibuprofen that may be transferable to other fish species.

  8. MERS-CoV at the Animal-Human interface: inputs on exposure pathways from an Expert-Opinion elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Funk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nearly four years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs. other regions in the Middle East and Africa, with no reported human clinical cases and where the virus has been detected only in dromedaries, represents huge scientific and health challenges. Here, we have used expert opinion elicitation in order to obtain ideas on relative importance of MERS-CoV risk factors and estimates of transmission risks from various types of contact between humans and dromedaries. Fourteen (14 experts with diverse and extensive experience in MERS-CoV relevant fields were enrolled and completed an online questionnaire that examined pathways based on several scenarios e.g. camels-camels, camels-human, bats/other species to camels/humans and the role of diverse biological substances (milk, urine etc. and potential fomites.Experts believed that dromedary camels play the largest role in MERS-CoV infection of other dromedaries; however, they also indicated a significant influence of the season (i.e. calving or weaning periods on transmission risk. All experts thought that MERS-CoV infected dromedaries and asymptomatic humans play the most important role in infection of humans, with bats and other species presenting a possible, but yet undefined, risk. Direct and indirect contact of humans with dromedary camels were identified as the most risky types of contact, when compared to consumption of various camel products, with estimated 'most

  9. Testing virtual reality-based cue-exposure software: Which cue-elicited responses best discriminate between patients with eating disorders and healthy controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sanjuanelo, Joana; Ferrer-García, Marta; Vilalta-Abella, Ferran; Riva, Giuseppe; Dakanalis, Antonios; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Sanchez-Diaz, Isabel; Escandón-Nagel, Neli; Gomez-Tricio, Osane; Tena, Virgínia; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José

    2017-07-27

    Virtual reality (VR) technologies have been proposed as a new tool able to improve on in vivo exposure in patients with eating disorders. This study assessed the validity of a VR-based software for cue exposure therapy (CET) in people with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). Fifty eight outpatients (33 BN and 25 BED) and 135 healthy participants were exposed to 10 craved virtual foods and a neutral cue in four experimental virtual environments (kitchen, dining room, bedroom, and cafeteria). After exposure to each VR scenario, food craving and anxiety were assessed. The frequency/severity of episodes of uncontrollable overeating was also assessed and body mass index was measured prior to the exposure. In both groups, craving and anxiety responses when exposed to the food-related virtual environments were significantly higher than in the neutral-cue virtual environment. However, craving and anxiety levels were higher in the clinical group. Furthermore, cue-elicited anxiety was better at discriminating between clinical and healthy groups than cue-elicited craving. This study provides evidence of the ability of food-related VR environments to provoke food craving and anxiety responses in BN and BED patients and highlights the need to consider both responses during treatment. The results support the use of VR-CET in the treatment of eating disorder patients characterized by binge-eating and people with high bulimic symptoms.

  10. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epstein Richard H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. Methods A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1. Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS data for most scenarios (43 of 45. Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Results Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of

  11. Event-based knowledge elicitation of operating room management decision-making using scenarios adapted from information systems data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Wachtel, Ruth E; Epstein, Richard H

    2011-01-07

    No systematic process has previously been described for a needs assessment that identifies the operating room (OR) management decisions made by the anesthesiologists and nurse managers at a facility that do not maximize the efficiency of use of OR time. We evaluated whether event-based knowledge elicitation can be used practically for rapid assessment of OR management decision-making at facilities, whether scenarios can be adapted automatically from information systems data, and the usefulness of the approach. A process of event-based knowledge elicitation was developed to assess OR management decision-making that may reduce the efficiency of use of OR time. Hypothetical scenarios addressing every OR management decision influencing OR efficiency were created from published examples. Scenarios are adapted, so that cues about conditions are accurate and appropriate for each facility (e.g., if OR 1 is used as an example in a scenario, the listed procedure is a type of procedure performed at the facility in OR 1). Adaptation is performed automatically using the facility's OR information system or anesthesia information management system (AIMS) data for most scenarios (43 of 45). Performing the needs assessment takes approximately 1 hour of local managers' time while they decide if their decisions are consistent with the described scenarios. A table of contents of the indexed scenarios is created automatically, providing a simple version of problem solving using case-based reasoning. For example, a new OR manager wanting to know the best way to decide whether to move a case can look in the chapter on "Moving Cases on the Day of Surgery" to find a scenario that describes the situation being encountered. Scenarios have been adapted and used at 22 hospitals. Few changes in decisions were needed to increase the efficiency of use of OR time. The few changes were heterogeneous among hospitals, showing the usefulness of individualized assessments. Our technical advance is the

  12. 76 FR 72372 - Request for Comments on Eliciting More Complete Patent Assignment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... record play an essential role in the markets of innovation. Intangible assets now comprise over 50% of... intangibles to be transacted so that they can provide profits for innovators and move technologies to their... would have more complete information about the valuable assets being generated and held by companies...

  13. Exposure Space: Integrating Exposure Data and Modeling with Toxicity Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances have been made in high-throughput (HTP) toxicity testing, e.g. from ToxCast, which will ultimately be combined with HTP predictions of exposure potential to support next-generation chemical safety assessment. Rapid exposure methods are essential in selecting chemi...

  14. Probability elicitation to inform early health economic evaluations of new medical technologies: a case study in heart failure disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qi; Postmus, Douwe; Hillege, Hans L; Buskens, Erik

    2013-06-01

    Early estimates of the commercial headroom available to a new medical device can assist producers of health technology in making appropriate product investment decisions. The purpose of this study was to illustrate how this quantity can be captured probabilistically by combining probability elicitation with early health economic modeling. The technology considered was a novel point-of-care testing device in heart failure disease management. First, we developed a continuous-time Markov model to represent the patients' disease progression under the current care setting. Next, we identified the model parameters that are likely to change after the introduction of the new device and interviewed three cardiologists to capture the probability distributions of these parameters. Finally, we obtained the probability distribution of the commercial headroom available per measurement by propagating the uncertainty in the model inputs to uncertainty in modeled outcomes. For a willingness-to-pay value of €10,000 per life-year, the median headroom available per measurement was €1.64 (interquartile range €0.05-€3.16) when the measurement frequency was assumed to be daily. In the subsequently conducted sensitivity analysis, this median value increased to a maximum of €57.70 for different combinations of the willingness-to-pay threshold and the measurement frequency. Probability elicitation can successfully be combined with early health economic modeling to obtain the probability distribution of the headroom available to a new medical technology. Subsequently feeding this distribution into a product investment evaluation method enables stakeholders to make more informed decisions regarding to which markets a currently available product prototype should be targeted. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Using Information on Exposure to Characterizing Risks to Human Health from Concurrent Exposures to Multiple Chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mr Price, PSP

    2012-01-01

    This thesis explores the concept of using exposure information to understand, organize, and manage the risks associated with cumulative exposures to chemicals (exposures to multiple chemicals from multiple sources). The issue of cumulative exposures was identified in more than 30 years ago, but in

  16. Chronic exposure to MDMA (Ecstasy elicits behavioral sensitization in rats but fails to induce cross-sensitization to other psychostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swann Alan C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recreational use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy among adolescents and young adults has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. While evidence suggests that the long-term consequences of MDMA use include neurodegeneration to serotonergic and, possibly, dopaminergic pathways, little is known about susceptibility, such as behavioral sensitization, to MDMA. Methods The objectives of this study were to examine the dose-response characteristics of acute and chronic MDMA administration in rats and to determine whether MDMA elicits behavioral sensitization and whether it cross-sensitizes with amphetamine and methylphenidate. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three MDMA dosage groups (2.5 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 10.0 mg/kg and a saline control group (N = 9/group. All three MDMA groups were treated for six consecutive days, followed by a 5-day washout, and subsequently re-challenged with their respective doses of MDMA (day 13. Rats were then given an additional 25-day washout period, and re-challenged (day 38 with similar MDMA doses as before followed by either 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine or 2.5 mg/kg methylphenidate on the next day (day 39. Open-field locomotor activity was recorded using a computerized automated activity monitoring system. Results Acute injection of 2.5 mg/kg MDMA showed no significant difference in locomotor activity from rats given saline (control group, while animals receiving acute 5.0 mg/kg or 10.0 mg/kg MDMA showed significant increases in locomotor activity. Rats treated chronically with 5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg MDMA doses exhibited an augmented response, i.e., behavioral sensitization, on experimental day 13 in at least one locomotor index. On experimental day 38, all three MDMA groups demonstrated sensitization to MDMA in at least one locomotor index. Amphetamine and methylphenidate administration to MDMA-sensitized animals did not elicit any significant change

  17. Water planning in the Condamine Alluvium, Queensland: Sharing information and eliciting views in a context of overallocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Poh-Ling; Baldwin, C.; White, I.; Burry, K.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThe Central Condamine Alluvium, at the head of Australia's Murray-Darling River system, provides groundwater for food, fibre and a fast expanding urban population. Current extraction is assessed at 67 GL/a (gigalitres per annum), while the best available scientific data estimates the sustainable groundwater system yield is closer to 40 GL/a (CSIRO, 2008). Peak organisations accept overallocation as a critical issue but conflict over water has disrupted several past attempts at regulation. To assist local communities and the planning agency, seven planning tools were used: (1) an extended stakeholder analysis and context report, (2) a program of engagement with Traditional Custodians, (3) intergenerational workshops, (4) a survey of groundwater users covering issues in setting and meeting the agreed system yield, (5) a multi-criteria analysis relating to setting and apportioning the available yield, (6) a pilot workshop addressing adaptation to climate risk, and (7) development of a three-dimensional groundwater visualisation tool relating to the regional aquifers. Results fed directly into pre-planning processes undertaken by the State water agency. The tools allowed a much broader range of voices, values and depth of information to feed into the planning process than otherwise available. Participants found the Indigenous engagement tool and the GVT the most useful. The latter addressed identified information gaps and allowed for aquifer characteristics and the interaction with bores to be presented in a user-friendly manner. Intergenerational perspectives about using water within sustainable limits were also obtained but the Community Reference Panel did not place any weight on this perspective in discussions over the plan amendment. Evaluations of the tools demonstrate that a range of planning tools can be readily used to enhance existing planning processes, particularly by sharing information and eliciting views that may not be readily accessible to water

  18. Preferences of Informal Carers on Technology Packages to Support Meal Production by People Living with Dementia, Elicited from Personalised AT and ICT Product Brochures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura De Filippis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technology (AT can help support the continued independence of people living with dementia, supported by informal carers. Opinions and preferences of informal carers towards a range of assistive and digital information and communication technologies (ICT to support food purchase and menu selection, including navigation and online shopping, and safe meal-making by individuals living with dementia were investigated. General attitudes and experiences with assistive technologies were first probed by means of a focus group with carers (n = 6, organised through the Alzheimer’s Society in Nottingham, England. A series of AT/ICT product brochures were then produced, describing packages of technologies to enable meal production. Task-specific questions were asked of carers (n = 10 at local Memory Cafés as to the perceived capabilities of each individual for shopping and meal-making. Carers were asked to make pair-wise choices in order to select a personalised brochure and to complete a questionnaire to elicit the practicality, desirability and affordability of specific products and to probe for preferences amongst key features. Opinions on ease-of-use, aesthetics, expected safety-in-use, independence of use and stigma related to the technology packages were also collected. Results showed that carers are able to make detailed choices and express preferences about assistive and digital technologies for the individuals in their care, and customise their enabler package. Most believed that having an enabler package would improve safety. Greater exposure of carers to newer digital products would be beneficial. The brochure method could be employed on consumer websites and by AT assessors.

  19. Brief predator sound exposure elicits behavioral and neuronal long-term sensitization in the olfactory system of an insect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, S.; Evengaard, K.; Barrozo, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    later in the same way as exposure to the sex pheromone itself. The observed behavioral modification is accompanied by an increase in the sensitivity of olfactory neurons in the antennal lobe. Our data provide thus evidence for cross-modal experience-dependent plasticity not only on the behavioral level...... at the behavioral and central nervous level. Here we show that this effect is not confined to the same sensory modality: the sensitivity of olfactory neurons can also be modulated by exposure to a different sensory stimulus, i.e., a pulsed stimulus mimicking echolocating sounds from attacking insectivorous bats. We...... tested responses of preexposed male moths in a walking bioassay and recorded from neurons in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe. We show that brief exposure to a bat call, but not to a behaviorally irrelevant tone, increases the behavioral sensitivity of male moths to sex pheromone 24 h...

  20. Gut-homing conventional plasmablasts and CD27- plasmablasts elicited after a short time exposure to an oral live attenuated Shigella vaccine candidate in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R. Toapanta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen S. flexneri 2a, which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses, as well as an acute plasmablast (PB infiltration in peripheral blood 7 days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin α4β7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot. Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19dim CD20- CD27+high CD38+high CD3-, as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27- PB; pre-plasmablasts. The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin α4β7, CD62L, CXCR3 and CXCR4 suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27- PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin α4β7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral

  1. Gut-Homing Conventional Plasmablasts and CD27(-) Plasmablasts Elicited after a Short Time of Exposure to an Oral Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidate in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Franklin R; Simon, Jakub K; Barry, Eileen M; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen L; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen S. flexneri 2a), which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here, we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses as well as an acute plasmablast (PB) infiltration in peripheral blood 7 days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin α4β7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot). Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19(dim) CD20(-) CD27(+high) CD38(+high) CD3(-)), as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27(-) PB; pre-plasmablasts). The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin α4β7, CD62L, CXCR3, and CXCR4) suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27(-) PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin α4β7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral vaccine.

  2. Gut-Homing Conventional Plasmablasts and CD27− Plasmablasts Elicited after a Short Time of Exposure to an Oral Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidate in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Franklin R.; Simon, Jakub K.; Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen S. flexneri 2a), which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here, we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses as well as an acute plasmablast (PB) infiltration in peripheral blood 7 days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin α4β7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot). Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19dim CD20− CD27+high CD38+high CD3−), as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27− PB; pre-plasmablasts). The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin α4β7, CD62L, CXCR3, and CXCR4) suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27− PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin α4β7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral vaccine. PMID:25191323

  3. Exposure to Paper Mill Effluent at a Site in North Central Florida Elicits Molecular-Level Changes in Gene Expression Indicative of Progesterone and Androgen Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeier, Erica K.; Jayasinghe, B. Sumith; Pine, William E.; Wilkinson, Krystan A.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are chemicals that negatively impact endocrine system function, with effluent from paper mills one example of this class of chemicals. In Florida, female Eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) have been observed with male secondary sexual characteristics at three paper mill-impacted sites, indicative of EDC exposure, and are still found at one site on the Fenholloway River. The potential impacts that paper mill effluent exposure has on the G. holbrooki...

  4. MeHg Developing Exposure Causes DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Elicits Cell Cycle Arrest in Spinal Cord Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana F. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury (MeHg is well documented; however, the developmental neurotoxicity in spinal cord is still not fully understood. Here we investigated whether MeHg affects the spinal cord layers development. Chicken embryos at E3 were treated in ovo with 0.1 μg MeHg/50 μL saline solution and analyzed at E10. Thus, we performed immunostaining using anti-γ-H2A.X to recognize DNA double-strand breaks and antiphosphohistone H3, anti-p21, and anti-cyclin E to identify cells in proliferation and cell cycle proteins. Also, to identify neuronal cells, we used anti-NeuN and anti-βIII-tubulin antibodies. After the MeHg treatment, we observed the increase on γ-H2A.X in response to DNA damage. MeHg caused a decrease in the proliferating cells and in the thickness of spinal cord layers. Moreover, we verified that MeHg induced an increase in the number of p21-positive cells but did not change the cyclin E-positive cells. A significantly high number of TUNEL-positive cells indicating DNA fragmentation were observed in MeHg-treated embryos. Regarding the neuronal differentiation, MeHg induced a decrease in NeuN expression and did not change the expression of βIII-tubulin. These results showed that in ovo MeHg exposure alters spinal cord development by disturbing the cell proliferation and death, also interfering in early neuronal differentiation.

  5. At-risk adolescents as experts in a new requirements elicitation procedure for the development of a smart phone psychoeducational trauma-informed care application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Schug, Seran; Zhu, Jichen; Smith, T J; Senathirajah, Yalini; Bloom, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents from urban, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities of color encounter high rates of adverse childhood experiences. To address the resulting multidimensional problems, we developed an innovative approach, Experiential Participatory and Interactive Knowledge Elicitation (EPIKE), using remote experiential needs elicitation methods to generate design and content requirements for a mobile health (mHealth) psychoeducational intervention. At a community-based organization in a northeastern city, the research team developed EPIKE by incorporating elicitation of input on the graphics and conducting remotely recorded experiential meetings and iterative reviews of the design to produce an mHealth smartphone story application (app) prototype for the participants to critique. The 22 participants were 13- to 17-year-olds, predominantly African American and female, from underresourced communities. The four goals of the design process were attained: 1) story development from participant input; 2) needs-elicitation that reflected the patient-centered care approach; 3) interactive story game creation that accommodates the participants' emotional and cognitive developmental needs; 4) development of a game that adolescents can relate to and that which matches their comfort levels of emotional intensity. The EPIKE approach can be used successfully to identify the needs of adolescents across the digital divide to inform the design and development of mHealth apps.

  6. Modulation of the behavioral and electrical responses to the repellent DEET elicited by the pre-exposure to the same compound in Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Sfara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Insects under different stimuli from the environment modify behavioural responses due to changes in the sensitivity of neurons at the peripheral and/or at the central level of the nervous system. This phenomenon is called neuronal plasticity, and sensory adaptation is an example of it. An insect repellent is a chemical that produces oriented movements of the insects away from its source. In this work we studied the modulation of the behavioural and electrical response to the repellent N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET in males of the German cockroach B. germanica produced by previous exposure to the same repellent. Methods. We determined repellency using a circular arena, one half of which was treated with DEET. The time spent by insects in each half of the arena was measured, and a repellency coefficient (RC was calculated. The RCs of pre-exposed and non-pre-exposed insects were compared. To determine a possible role of nitric oxide in the modulation of the response to DEET after pre-exposure, the nitric oxide donor S-nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC was applied on cockroaches’ antennae. The electrical activity of the cockroaches’ antennae in response to DEET was recorded using electroantennogram (EAG technique. The response to DEET was recorded also after a long stimulation with the same repellent, and after topical application of SNAC and dbcGMP (a cGMP analogue on the antennae. Results. We found that previous exposure of B. germanica males to the repellent DEET produced an increase of the repellency at the behavioural level, measured as RC. A possible role of nitric oxide (NO in the transduction pathway of this phenomenon is suggested, since treatment of the cockroaches with the NO donor SNAC also produced an increase of the repellency elicited by DEET. On the other hand, the response of the cockroaches’ antennae exposed to DEET was determined electrophysiologically. The electrical activity in response to DEET decreased when the

  7. Exposure of the eggs to 17{alpha}-methyl testosterone reduced hatching success and growth and elicited teratogenic effects in postembryonic life stages of crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Guenter [Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Strasse 11/12, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: gunter.vogt@web.de

    2007-12-30

    Testosterone is regularly found in the tissues of decapod crustaceans. Although this vertebrate-type sex hormone is not the principal factor of sex differentiation in crustaceans, it was shown to be capable of acting on the reproductive organs of shrimps and crabs. In the present study I have exposed developing eggs and stage 5 juveniles of the parthenogenetic all female marbled crayfish to 17{alpha}-methyl testosterone in order to test whether in freshwater crayfish sex can be changed from female to male by this androgen. MT did not elicit sex change, neither when administered during embryonic development nor during juvenile stage 5, the main period of proliferation of the oocytes. However, exposure to 100 {mu}g/L MT from 64% to 84% embryonic development resulted in prolonged embryonic development, reduced hatching success, reduced growth of the juveniles, and severe malformations of the appendages in the juveniles. The marbled crayfish is recommended to be considered for toxicity tests due to its easy culture in the laboratory and its genotypical uniformity.

  8. Selectivity in Exposure to Information Channels during a Gubernatorial Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeani, David O.; Jacoubovitch, M. Daniel

    Data were collected from 93 journalism students before and after the 1978 Ohio gubernatorial election to determine how selectivity in exposure to information was influenced by information utility, fatalism (locus of control), past history of reinforcement, and political party identification. Results showed that past history of reinforcement and…

  9. Impact of Repeated Exposures on Information Spreading in Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangqi; Zhao, Qianchuan; Lu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Clustered structure of social networks provides the chances of repeated exposures to carriers with similar information. It is commonly believed that the impact of repeated exposures on the spreading of information is nontrivial. Does this effect increase the probability that an individual forwards a message in social networks? If so, to what extent does this effect influence people's decisions on whether or not to spread information? Based on a large-scale microblogging data set, which logs the message spreading processes and users' forwarding activities, we conduct a data-driven analysis to explore the answer to the above questions. The results show that an overwhelming majority of message samples are more probable to be forwarded under repeated exposures, compared to those under only a single exposure. For those message samples that cover various topics, we observe a relatively fixed, topic-independent multiplier of the willingness of spreading when repeated exposures occur, regardless of the differences in network structure. We believe that this finding reflects average people's intrinsic psychological gain under repeated stimuli. Hence, it makes sense that the gain is associated with personal response behavior, rather than network structure. Moreover, we find that the gain is robust against the change of message popularity. This finding supports that there exists a relatively fixed gain brought by repeated exposures. Based on the above findings, we propose a parsimonious model to predict the saturated numbers of forwarding activities of messages. Our work could contribute to better understandings of behavioral psychology and social media analytics.

  10. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level...... of cobalt is important. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test...... reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. RESULTS...

  11. A computer system for occupational radiation exposure information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized occupational radiation exposure information system has been developed to maintain records for contractors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The system also allows indexing and retrieval of three million documents from microfilm, thus significantly reducing storage needs and costs. The users are linked by display terminals to the data base permitting them instant access to dosemetry and other radiation exposure information. Personnel dosemeter and bioassay results, radiation training, respirator fittings, skin contaminations and other radiation occurrence records are included in the data base. The system yields immediate analysis of radiological exposures for operating management and health physics personnel, thereby releasing personnel to use their time more effectively

  12. Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, R.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-06-01

    The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the revised 10 CFR 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in R.G. 8.7, Rev. 1, ''Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data.'' REMIT is a personal computer (PC) based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of R. G. 8.7, Rev. 1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5, REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and alerts the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files

  13. On the use of information theory for the analysis of synchronous nociceptive withdrawal reflexes and somatosensory evoked potentials elicited by graded electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguissain, Federico G; Biurrun Manresa, José A; Mørch, Carsten D; Andersen, Ole K

    2015-01-30

    To date, few studies have combined the simultaneous acquisition of nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). In fact, it is unknown whether the combination of these two signals acquired simultaneously could provide additional information on somatosensory processing at spinal and supraspinal level compared to individual NWR and SEP signals. By using the concept of mutual information (MI), it is possible to quantify the relation between electrical stimuli and simultaneous elicited electrophysiological responses in humans based on the estimated stimulus-response signal probability distributions. All selected features from NWR and SEPs were informative in regard to the stimulus when considered individually. Specifically, the information carried by NWR features was significantly higher than the information contained in the SEP features (pinformation carried by the combination of features showed an overall redundancy compared to the sum of the individual contributions. Comparison with existing methods MI can be used to quantify the information that single-trial NWR and SEP features convey, as well as the information carried jointly by NWR and SEPs. This is a model-free approach that considers linear and non-linear correlations at any order and is not constrained by parametric assumptions. The current study introduces a novel approach that allows the quantification of the individual and joint information content of single-trial NWR and SEP features. This methodology could be used to decode and interpret spinal and supraspinal interaction in studies modulating the responsiveness of the nociceptive system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extracting spatial information from large aperture exposures of diffuse sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, J. T.; Moos, H. W.

    1981-01-01

    The spatial properties of large aperture exposures of diffuse emission can be used both to investigate spatial variations in the emission and to filter out camera noise in exposures of weak emission sources. Spatial imaging can be accomplished both parallel and perpendicular to dispersion with a resolution of 5-6 arc sec, and a narrow median filter running perpendicular to dispersion across a diffuse image selectively filters out point source features, such as reseaux marks and fast particle hits. Spatial information derived from observations of solar system objects is presented.

  15. Experimental elicitation of contact allergy from a diazolidinyl urea-preserved cream in relation to anatomical region, exposure time and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Claus; Hall, Barbara; Cottin, Martine

    2005-01-01

    action in the cream at different test concentrations was tested in microbial challenge tests and was found effective at all concentrations tested. The study established a non-eliciting concentration of diazolidinyl urea of 0.05% in formaldehyde-sensitive patients and showed that the skin reactivity...

  16. 78 FR 54279 - Proposed Information Collection; Health Standards for Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection... Information Collection; Health Standards for Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure (Underground Coal Mines... extension of the information collection for Health Standards for Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure...

  17. REMIT, Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cale, R.; Clark, T.; Dixson, P.; Hagemeyer, D.; Hardwick, C.; Pippen, H.

    1997-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Part 20 and in agreement with the guidance contained in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. REMIT is a personal computer (PC) -based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Form 5s or Form 4s. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Form 5s and 4s in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. 2 - Method of solution: REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in micro-curies. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in micro-curies. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: REMIT is a single- user system that only runs on IBM compatible PC systems under DOS and supports only Hewlett

  18. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions......-belief elicitation treatment using a financial investment frame, where hedging arguably would be most natural....

  19. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Autophagy as Pro-Survival Pathway Elicited by Long-Term Exposure with 5-Azacitidine in High-Risk Myelodysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Giallongo, Cesarina; La Cava, Piera; Parrinello, Nunziatina L; Chiechi, Antonella; Vetro, Calogero; Tibullo, Daniele; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Liotta, Lance A; Espina, Virginia; Palumbo, Giuseppe A

    2017-01-01

    Azacytidine (5-AZA) is the standard first-choice treatment for high-risk myelodysplasia (MDS) patients. However, the clinical outcome for those patients who interrupt treatment or whose disease failed to respond is very poor. In order to identify the cellular pathways that are modified by long-term exposure to 5-AZA, we evaluated key proteins associated with the autophagy pathway by reverse-phase microarray (RPPA). Comparing bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMMCs) obtained from 20 newly-diagnosed patients and after four 5-AZA cycles we found an increased autophagy signaling. We then evaluated ex-vivo the effect of the combination of 5-AZA with autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) and leupeptin. Since 5-AZA and CQ showed synergism due to an increase of basal autophagy after 5-AZA exposure, we adopted a sequential treatment treating BMMCs with 5 μM 5-AZA for 72 h followed by 10 μM CQ for 24 h and found increased apoptosis, associated to a reduction of G2M phase and increase in G0-G1 phase. Long-term exposure to 5-AZA induced the reduction of the autophagic marker SQSTM1/p62, reversible by CQ or leupeptin exposure. In conclusion, we identified autophagy as a compensatory pathway occurring in MDS-BM after long-term exposure to 5-AZA and we provided evidences that a sequential treatment of 5-AZA followed by CQ could improve 5-AZA efficacy, providing novel insight for tailored therapy in MDS patients progressing after 5-AZA therapy.

  20. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Autophagy as Pro-Survival Pathway Elicited by Long-Term Exposure with 5-Azacitidine in High-Risk Myelodysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Romano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Azacytidine (5-AZA is the standard first-choice treatment for high-risk myelodysplasia (MDS patients. However, the clinical outcome for those patients who interrupt treatment or whose disease failed to respond is very poor. In order to identify the cellular pathways that are modified by long-term exposure to 5-AZA, we evaluated key proteins associated with the autophagy pathway by reverse-phase microarray (RPPA. Comparing bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMMCs obtained from 20 newly-diagnosed patients and after four 5-AZA cycles we found an increased autophagy signaling. We then evaluated ex-vivo the effect of the combination of 5-AZA with autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ and leupeptin. Since 5-AZA and CQ showed synergism due to an increase of basal autophagy after 5-AZA exposure, we adopted a sequential treatment treating BMMCs with 5 μM 5-AZA for 72 h followed by 10 μM CQ for 24 h and found increased apoptosis, associated to a reduction of G2M phase and increase in G0-G1 phase. Long-term exposure to 5-AZA induced the reduction of the autophagic marker SQSTM1/p62, reversible by CQ or leupeptin exposure. In conclusion, we identified autophagy as a compensatory pathway occurring in MDS-BM after long-term exposure to 5-AZA and we provided evidences that a sequential treatment of 5-AZA followed by CQ could improve 5-AZA efficacy, providing novel insight for tailored therapy in MDS patients progressing after 5-AZA therapy.

  1. Evidence That the Sympathetic Nervous System Elicits Rapid, Coordinated, and Reciprocal Adjustments of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity During Cold Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Gregory J; Muta, Kenjiro; Kaiyala, Karl J; Rojas, Jennifer M; Scarlett, Jarrad M; Matsen, Miles E; Nelson, Jarrell T; Acharya, Nikhil K; Piccinini, Francesca; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N; Taborsky, Gerald J; Kahn, Steven E; Schwartz, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    Dynamic adjustment of insulin secretion to compensate for changes of insulin sensitivity that result from alteration of nutritional or metabolic status is a fundamental aspect of glucose homeostasis. To investigate the role of the brain in this coupling process, we used cold exposure as an experimental paradigm because the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) helps to coordinate the major shifts of tissue glucose utilization needed to ensure that increased thermogenic needs are met. We found that glucose-induced insulin secretion declined by 50% in rats housed at 5°C for 28 h, and yet, glucose tolerance did not change, owing to a doubling of insulin sensitivity. These potent effects on insulin secretion and sensitivity were fully reversed by returning animals to room temperature (22°C) for 4 h or by intravenous infusion of the α-adrenergic receptor antagonist phentolamine for only 30 min. By comparison, insulin clearance was not affected by cold exposure or phentolamine infusion. These findings offer direct evidence of a key role for the brain, acting via the SNS, in the rapid, highly coordinated, and reciprocal changes of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity that preserve glucose homeostasis in the setting of cold exposure. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... the utility that patients would obtain from a potential improvement in their ostomy pouch. This provides information as to how treatment options in terms of stoma management can be structured so as to maximize the benefits for patients....

  3. Limitations and information needs for engineered nanomaterialspecific exposure estimation and scenarios: recommendations for improved reporting practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, K.; Tongeren, M. van; Christensen, F.; Brouwer, D.H.; Nowack, B.; Gottschalk, F.; Micheletti, C.; Schmid, K.; Gerritsen, R.; Aitken, R.; Vaquero, C.; Gkanis, V.; Housiadas, C.; López de Ipiña, J.M.; Riediker, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the process and challenges in building exposure scenarios for engineered nanomaterials (ENM), using an exposure scenario format similar to that used for the European Chemicals regulation (REACH). Over 60 exposure scenarios were developed based on information from

  4. Proposed alternatives for a DOE-wide occupational radiation exposure information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.L.; Murphy, D.W.; Fix, J.J.; Selby, J.M.; Vallario, E.J.

    1984-02-01

    The Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) was initiated by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in 1968. While the system has provided a general overview of radiation exposures associated with AEC/ERDA/DOE operations and has satisfied the original intent for a central information system, the need for more detailed information has become evident. The alternatives addressed for a radiation exposure information system were no change in current system, clarification of DOE Order for current system, increased summary information from sites, centralized annual individual dose (exposure) system, and annual dose summary and locator files. A majority of the DOE Ad Hoc Committee has concurred to recommend the annual dose summary and locator files (ADSLF). The acceptance of the ADSLF alternative as the DOE-wide radiation exposure system would give DOE added capability and flexibility in responding to requests for information and would reduce the impact on the sites of special survey requests

  5. Science exemplars in the eye of the beholder: How exposure to online science information affects attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knobloch-Westerwick, S.; Johnson, B.K.; Silver, N.A.; Westerwick, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on exemplification theory and confirmation bias, this study examined exposure to online science information and subsequent attitude impacts. Participants freely browsed online messages manipulated to feature (a) either exemplar or numeric information and (b) opposing viewpoints, resulting in

  6. Empirical Survey of Oral Health Information Exposure to Obafemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about tooth brushing had the highest score with inadequate information about tooth decay and gum diseases. Oral health information received showed no gender variation. Television shows had the highest score. Information received from medical doctors, dentists and health talks were perceived to be most ...

  7. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  8. Elicited vs. voluntary promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, H.; Potters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost

  9. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  10. Medical image information system 2001. Development of the medical image information system to risk management- Medical exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranishi, Makoto; Kumagai, Michitomo; Shintani, Mitsuo

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods and systems for optimizing the following supplements 10 and 17 for national health and medical care. The supplements 10 and 17 of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) system, which is now under progress for the purpose to keep compatibility within medical image information system as an international standard, are important for making the cooperation between HIS (hospital information system)/RIS (radiation information system) and modality (imaging instruments). Supplement 10 concerns the system to send the information of patients and their orders through HIS/RIS to modality and 17, the information of modality performed procedure step (MPPS) to HIS/RIS. The latter defines to document patients' exposure, a part of which has not been recognized in Japan. Thus the medical information system can be useful for risk-management of medical exposure in future. (K.H.)

  11. Medical image information system 2001. Development of the medical image information system to risk management- Medical exposure management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuranishi, Makoto; Kumagai, Michitomo; Shintani, Mitsuo [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2000-12-01

    This paper discusses the methods and systems for optimizing the following supplements 10 and 17 for national health and medical care. The supplements 10 and 17 of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) system, which is now under progress for the purpose to keep compatibility within medical image information system as an international standard, are important for making the cooperation between HIS (hospital information system)/RIS (radiation information system) and modality (imaging instruments). Supplement 10 concerns the system to send the information of patients and their orders through HIS/RIS to modality and 17, the information of modality performed procedure step (MPPS) to HIS/RIS. The latter defines to document patients' exposure, a part of which has not been recognized in Japan. Thus the medical information system can be useful for risk-management of medical exposure in future. (K.H.)

  12. Exposure to and Views of Information about Sexual Abstinence among Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K.; Biddlecom, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    There is scant research of adolescents' understanding of abstinence. We conducted interviews with a sample of 58 teens to find out their exposure to abstinence information from a range of sources. Most teens had received abstinence information or messages from school, family members, and friends. For many teens, information about abstinence, or…

  13. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998. Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk when they recognize that their stories are valued. Once the informant realizes that he or she is being heard, the story flows. This is what Glaser refers to as “spill.” When this occurs, the theorist becomes a vessel to receive the story. As Glaser describes it, “The researcher will become a ‘big ear’ to pour into incessantly” (1998, p. 124. But, as easy as this seems, the researcher must overcome certain positivist tendencies to allow this to happen. Rather than asking a list of pre-planned questions, the grounded theorist will try to develop one question that will trigger the telling of a story. Eliciting spill requires a deliberate process that employs a deep understanding of the fundamentals of classic grounded theory. Derived from Glaser’s writings, the following are suggestions intended to help the novice grounded theorist to elicit spill.

  14. Construction of pilot system for the Korea information system of occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Il; Im, Bok Soo; Lee, Seon Mi; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chae, Eun Yeong [ADDLAB Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-15

    In this study, the construction of Korea Information System of Occupational Exposure (KISOE) system is designed with occupational exposure control system based on information evaluation technology and it makes the reliability of the personal exposure by use of personal dose verification. While the operation of national based radiation worker protection system, this system are settled the control system for radiation worker and ALARA. The purpose of construction and operation of pilot system of KISOE systematically is to derive the master plan of KISOE, stable development of this system, and serve the high quality radiation use internationally.

  15. Construction of pilot system for the Korea information system of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Seong Ho; Park, Moon Il; Im, Bok Soo; Lee, Seon Mi; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chae, Eun Yeong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the construction of Korea Information System of Occupational Exposure (KISOE) system is designed with occupational exposure control system based on information evaluation technology and it makes the reliability of the personal exposure by use of personal dose verification. While the operation of national based radiation worker protection system, this system are settled the control system for radiation worker and ALARA. The purpose of construction and operation of pilot system of KISOE systematically is to derive the master plan of KISOE, stable development of this system, and serve the high quality radiation use internationally

  16. Information by the German Federal Government. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The information by the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010 includes five chapters. (I) Natural radiation exposure: radiation sources, contributions from cosmic radiation, contaminated construction materials, food and drinking water, and radon, evaluation of the different components of natural radiation exposure. (II) Civilization caused radiation exposure: nuclear power plants, research centers, nuclear fuel processing plants, other nuclear facilities (interim storage facilities, repositories); summarizing evaluation for nuclear facilities; environmental radioactivity due to mining; radioactive materials in research, technology and households; industrial and mining residues; fall-out as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear weapon testing. (III) Occupational radiation exposure: civil radiation sources, natural radiation sources, special events. (IV) Medical radiation exposure; X-ray diagnostics; nuclear medicine; radiotherapy using ionizing radiation; radiotherapy using open radioactive materials; evaluation of radiotherapy. (V) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields; optical radiation; certification of solaria.

  17. Reappraising abstract paintings after exposure to background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongmin A; Yun, Kyongsik; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2015-01-01

    Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts' judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics' commentaries directed the viewers' attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists' commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting.

  18. Reappraising abstract paintings after exposure to background information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongmin A Park

    Full Text Available Can knowledge help viewers when they appreciate an artwork? Experts' judgments of the aesthetic value of a painting often differ from the estimates of naïve viewers, and this phenomenon is especially pronounced in the aesthetic judgment of abstract paintings. We compared the changes in aesthetic judgments of naïve viewers while they were progressively exposed to five pieces of background information. The participants were asked to report their aesthetic judgments of a given painting after each piece of information was presented. We found that commentaries by the artist and a critic significantly increased the subjective aesthetic ratings. Does knowledge enable experts to attend to the visual features in a painting and to link it to the evaluative conventions, thus potentially causing different aesthetic judgments? To investigate whether a specific pattern of attention is essential for the knowledge-based appreciation, we tracked the eye movements of subjects while viewing a painting with a commentary by the artist and with a commentary by a critic. We observed that critics' commentaries directed the viewers' attention to the visual components that were highly relevant to the presented commentary. However, attention to specific features of a painting was not necessary for increasing the subjective aesthetic judgment when the artists' commentary was presented. Our results suggest that at least two different cognitive mechanisms may be involved in knowledge- guided aesthetic judgments while viewers reappraise a painting.

  19. Factors associated with exposure to antismoking information among adults in Vietnam, Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Nga, Pham Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Quan, Nguyen The; Tong, Van T; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hsia, Jason

    2013-09-12

    The media play a critical role in tobacco control. Knowledge about the exposure of a population to antismoking information can provide information for planning communication activities in tobacco control. We examined exposure to antismoking information associated with socioeconomic and demographic factors among adults (≥15 years) in Vietnam. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) is a nationally representative household survey of noninstitutionalized men and women aged 15 years or older and was conducted in Vietnam in 2010 (N = 9,925). We used GATS data on exposure to sources of antismoking information and analyzed associations among socioeconomic and demographic groups. An estimated 91.6% of the adult population was exposed to at least 1 source of antismoking information, and the mean number of sources of exposure was 3.7. Compared with their counterparts, respondents who were older, had higher education levels, higher economic status, and higher knowledge levels about the health consequences of smoking were more likely to be exposed to any source of antismoking information and to more informational sources. The most common source of exposure was television (85.9%). Respondents of higher social class (education, occupation, wealth) had more exposure through modern media sources (television), and respondents of lower social class were exposed to more traditional sources such as radio or loudspeakers. Exposure to at least 1 source of antismoking information is high in Vietnam, and the number and type of source varied by sociodemographic group. Use of multiple communication channels is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages and to reach different groups in the population.

  20. Pattern of exposure to information and its impact on seasonal influenza vaccination uptake in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E K H; Lee, S; Lee, S S

    2017-12-01

    Uptake of annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) varies, and remains at a suboptimal level in many countries. As HCWs are often exposed to a variety of information about vaccination, the pattern of exposure may impact their decision; this deserves further investigation. Practising nurses in Hong Kong were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in February 2016, after the winter seasonal peak. The questionnaire covered demographics, work nature and experiences, vaccination uptake history and reasons for vaccination decisions. Two behavioural categories for access to information were defined - passive exposure to information and active information-seeking - differentiated by the source, type and nature of information accessed. Chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression were performed to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated nurses. In total, 1177 valid returns were received from nurses. The median age of respondents was 32 years and 86% were female. The overall vaccination rate was 33%. Passive exposure to information from the workplace, professional body and social network was not predictive of vaccination decision, but passive exposure to information from mass media was predictive [odds ratio (OR) 1.78]. Active information-seeking, such as consulting a senior (OR 2.46), organizing promotional activities (OR 2.85) and undertaking an information search (OR 2.43), was significantly associated with increased vaccination uptake. A cumulative effect could be demonstrated for active information-seeking (OR 1.86), but not for passive exposure to information. The current strategy of promotions and campaigns for seasonal influenza vaccination in HCWs may not be effective in increasing vaccination coverage. Measures targeting information-seeking behaviours may serve as an alternative approach. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrospective versus original information on physical and psychosocial exposure at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, M; Alfredsson, L; Michélsen, H; Vingård, E; Kilbom, A

    1999-10-01

    Retrospective exposure assessments are often performed in epidemiologic studies. The presence of an eventual misclassification, both nondifferential and differential, is debated but can rarely be investigated. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported information on the same physical and psychosocial work exposures with 25 years' difference. In 1969-1970 a survey of randomly chosen men and women in Stockholm county, concerning, among other things, work exposures, was undertaken. During 1993-1994, 280 subjects participated in a reexamination, regarding psychosocial and physical factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders. The questions were all formulated in the same way as in 1969-1970. When self-reported information on work exposures, collected with a 25-year interval, was compared, acceptable, although not high, agreement was found for 3 out of 4 physical factors and for 4 out of 10 physical environmental factors. Questions measuring psychosocial load had somewhat lower agreement. Current exposure status influenced the memory of past exposures. Study subjects who reported low-back disorders at the reexamination tended to show a better agreement in their assessments of retrospective exposures than those without current symptoms. When relative risks from original and retrospective data were calculated, hardly any influence on the estimates due to that differential misclassification could be found. For persons with and without neck or shoulder symptoms no apparent differences in assessments were found. Retrospective assessments of exposures at the workplace showed misclassifications to a certain degree. However, the influence of the misclassifications on the risk estimates was limited.

  2. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is... Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground Metal and Nonmetal... with an opportunity to comment on proposed and continuing collections of information in accordance with...

  3. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve—the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  4. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  5. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S.; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00–18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9–62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00–6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3–55.8 dB(A)) and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1–66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings. PMID:29053590

  6. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Sieber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden from geographic information system (GIS variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00–18:00 was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A (interquartile range 56.9–62.9 dB(A, during night (22:00–6:00 52.9 dB(A (49.3–55.8 dB(A and average Lden was 63.0 dB(A (60.1–66.5 dB(A. Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R2 = 0.130 suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.

  7. Land Use Regression Modeling of Outdoor Noise Exposure in Informal Settlements in Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Chloé; Ragettli, Martina S; Brink, Mark; Toyib, Olaniyan; Baatjies, Roslyn; Saucy, Apolline; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel; Röösli, Martin

    2017-10-20

    In low- and middle-income countries, noise exposure and its negative health effects have been little explored. The present study aimed to assess the noise exposure situation in adults living in informal settings in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. We conducted continuous one-week outdoor noise measurements at 134 homes in four different areas. These data were used to develop a land use regression (LUR) model to predict A-weighted day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (L den ) from geographic information system (GIS) variables. Mean noise exposure during day (6:00-18:00) was 60.0 A-weighted decibels (dB(A)) (interquartile range 56.9-62.9 dB(A)), during night (22:00-6:00) 52.9 dB(A) (49.3-55.8 dB(A)) and average L den was 63.0 dB(A) (60.1-66.5 dB(A)). Main predictors of the LUR model were related to road traffic and household density. Model performance was low (adjusted R 2 = 0.130) suggesting that other influences than those represented in the geographic predictors are relevant for noise exposure. This is one of the few studies on the noise exposure situation in low- and middle-income countries. It demonstrates that noise exposure levels are high in these settings.

  8. Information Seeking in Uncertainty Management Theory: Exposure to Information About Medical Uncertainty and Information-Processing Orientation as Predictors of Uncertainty Management Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A; Tukachinsky, Riva

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory outlines the processes through which individuals cope with health-related uncertainty. Information seeking has been frequently documented as an important uncertainty management strategy. The reported study investigates exposure to specific types of medical information during a search, and one's information-processing orientation as predictors of successful uncertainty management (i.e., a reduction in the discrepancy between the level of uncertainty one feels and the level one desires). A lab study was conducted in which participants were primed to feel more or less certain about skin cancer and then were allowed to search the World Wide Web for skin cancer information. Participants' search behavior was recorded and content analyzed. The results indicate that exposure to two health communication constructs that pervade medical forms of uncertainty (i.e., severity and susceptibility) and information-processing orientation predicted uncertainty management success.

  9. A risk-informed approach of quantification of epistemic uncertainty for the long-term radioactive waste disposal. Improving reliability of expert judgements with an advanced elicitation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Chida, Taiji; Fujita, Tomonari; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    A quantification methodology of epistemic uncertainty by expert judgement based on the risk-informed approach is developed to assess inevitable uncertainty for the long-term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The proposed method in this study employs techniques of logic tree, by which options of models and/or scenarios are identified, and Evidential Support Logic (ESL), by which possibility of each option is quantified. In this report, the effect of a feedback process of discussion between experts and input of state-of-the-art knowledge in the proposed method is discussed to estimate alteration of the distribution of expert judgements which is one of the factors causing uncertainty. In a preliminary quantification experiment of uncertainty of degradation of the engineering barrier materials in a tentative sub-surface disposal using the proposed methodology, experts themselves modified questions appropriately to facilitate sound judgements and to correlate those with scientific evidences clearly. The result suggests that the method effectively improves confidence of expert judgement. Also, the degree of consensus of expert judgement was sort of improved in some cases, since scientific knowledge and information of expert judgement in other fields became common understanding. It is suggested that the proposed method could facilitate consensus on uncertainty between interested persons. (author)

  10. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  11. Gender differences in exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut among poor Myanmar youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Zaw, Phyu Phyu; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; McNeil, Edward; Htay, Thien Thien

    2013-12-05

    Globally, the proportion of youths has been steadily increasing, especially in Asia. This vulnerable population has limited exposure to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information leading to various reproductive health (RH) problems including risky sexual debut, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion as well as STI/HIV infections. Among known social variations which influence youth's RH, gender differences are critical for planning necessary gender appropriate interventions. This study aimed to identify gender differences in exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut as well as associated factors among Myanmar youths in poor suburban communities of Mandalay City. A total of 444 randomly selected youths (aged 15-24 years) from all poor, suburban communities in Mandalay City took part in our survey. Gender differences in exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut were assessed by bivariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to confirm gender differences and identify independent factors associated with main outcomes separately for males and females as well as for both. Of 444 youths interviewed, 215 were males and 229 were females. Gender differences were seen in both exposures to SRH information (p = 0.013) and risky sexual debut (p = 0.003). These gender differences were confirmed by multivariate analysis even after adjusting for other risk factors. For exposure to SRH information, only age group and schooling status were significant factors for females. As well as those two factors, media exposure and parental guardianship were significant factors among males. Only positive norm of premarital sex increased the likelihood of risky sexual debut among males. In contrast, unwillingness at sexual debut was a risk factor and a higher education level was a protective factor for risky sexual debut among females. Limited exposure to SRH information and high risky sexual debut among poor youths were found. There were different influential

  12. Associations between exposure to information and communication technology (ICT) and reported discomfort among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kristy; Ciccarelli, Marina; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Parsons, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are common among adolescents in their daily activities.Exposure to ICT has been associated with discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders in adults, with growing concern about the potential risks to children and adolescents' physical health. The objectives of this study were to (i) quantify self-reported discomfort and exposure to ICT among adolescents; and (ii) determine if associations exist between discomfort and levels of exposure. The participant group comprised 33 Australian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The study used self-reports by participants for a one week period. Intensity and location of discomfort was reported via a written discomfort log. ICT exposure and physical activity were reported through an electronic time-use diary. The most common ICT types reported by participants were television, mobile phones and desktop and laptop computers. Discomfort was reported by 86% of participants. The most frequently reported areas were the legs, head/neck, back and shoulders. There was no statistical association found between ICT exposure and discomfort. The majority of participants exceeded the recommended 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. High exposure to ICT and high prevalence of low level discomfort was reported by the participants. Participating in regular physical activity may have some protective effect against ICT-related discomfort.

  13. Exposure therapy augmentation: A review and extension of techniques informed by an inhibitory learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Jaclyn S; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2018-02-01

    Although exposure therapy is often considered a gold standard behavioral intervention for pathological anxiety, questions remain surrounding the mechanisms underlying exposure interventions, and some individuals are characterized by suboptimal treatment outcomes. Recently, a formulation known as the inhibitory learning theory, which is grounded in basic science principles of extinction learning and memory, has been proposed to provide a more parsimonious mechanistic explanation for the effects of exposure than previous, habituation-based models [Craske, M.G., Kircanski, K., Zelikowsky, M., Mystkowski, J., Chowdhury, N., & Baker, A. 2008. Optimizing inhibitory learning during exposure therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 5-27; Craske, M.G., Treanor, M., Conway, C.C., Zbozinek, T., & Vervliet, B. 2014. Maximizing exposure therapy: An inhibitory learning approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 10-23]. Strategies informed by this theory are proposed to maximize extinction learning by fostering the development of new, non-threat associations between stimuli in memory and enhancing the accessibility and retrieval of these safety-based associations. This comprehensive review serves as a critical examination of the empirical literature regarding major tenets of inhibitory learning theory and the potential for such techniques to augment exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Limitations of the extant research, as well as potential future directions, are explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure, health information and flavour-masking strategies for improving the sensory quality of probiotic juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckow, T; Sheehan, V; Fitzgerald, G; Delahunty, C

    2006-11-01

    Probiotics are live microbial food supplements, which have been shown to exert numerous health benefits. Research has identified that probiotics cause perceptible off-flavours that often contribute to consumer dissatisfaction. This research consisted of three objectives. Firstly, to confirm whether probiotics have a significant effect on the sensory quality and the consumer acceptance of juices. Secondly, to evaluate whether the addition of tropical juices masks probiotic off-flavours, thereby increasing consumer liking. Thirdly, to determine whether non-sensory factors (i.e., repeated exposure, and health information) have an impact on consumer liking. Three orange juice products were manufactured for analysis; Control juice, juice containing probiotics, and juice containing probiotics and tropical fruit juices (10% v/v). Descriptive sensory analysis using a trained panel (n=8) determined that probiotic juices possessed unique 'medicinal' characteristics. Using labelled affective magnitude scales, consumers (n=116) evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order in the laboratory. Once assigned into one of three balanced exposure groups, each consumer took home seven, 100mL bottles of one of the juices, and consumed one bottle each day for 7 days. After each in-home consumption, consumers evaluated their 'overall liking' to familiarize themselves with the juice. Furthermore, half of the consumers were provided with information about the presence and the health benefits of probiotics, while the other half of consumers received no information. After 7 days of in-home usage, consumers returned to the laboratory for post-exposure sensory testing, where they re-evaluated their 'overall liking' of the three juices in a randomised order. Results showed that tropical juices were effective in masking the off-flavours associated with probiotic ingredients, and that consumer liking for the probiotic juice containing tropical juice flavours was

  15. [Exposure to occupational biological risks: experience of a toxicology information center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Patricia; Cortés, Sandra; Bettini, Marli; Mieres, Juan José; Paris, Enrique; Ríos, Juan Carlos

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to Biological Agents during work is an emergent type of occupational risk. To characterize occupational biological risk exposure among Chilean workers which have been registered by the Toxicology Information Center, between January 2006 and December 2009. All incoming calls reporting exposure to biological agents during the studied period were analyzed. The information obtained from the caller was registered using the Communication Record Instrument of the WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS INTOX). In the studied period, 77 calls were received. The mean age of exposed patients was 35 ± 15 years and 57% of them were females. The most common involved agents were vaccines for veterinary use (42%) followed by Loxosceles laeta bites in 16%. The main routes of exposure were injections, cuts and needle stick injuries in 39% and stings and bites in 38%. The highest exposure rates were observed in Southern Chile due to self-inoculation of veterinary vaccines used in the salmon industry (22.7/100.000 actual workers). Fifty-eight percent of calls were from health care workers, and 51% of them were from health care facilities. Sixty percent of exposures occurred during summer and spring. There was a fourfold higher risk of calls involving women exposed to bites or stings (odds ratio (OR) 4.5 (CI95 1.5-13.9, p < 0.01). Men had a fourfold higher risk of being exposed to vaccines or medications for veterinary use (OR 4.2, CI95 1.4-12.6 p < 0.01). Most calls involving an exposure to a biological agent were caused by self-inoculation of veterinary medications.

  16. Poison centers as information resources for volunteer EMS in a suspected chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gill, Christian; Baer, Alexander B; Holstege, Christopher P; Eldridge, David L; Pines, Jesse M; Kirk, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    In the early part of chemical terrorism or hazardous materials events, protective actions and patient care require empirical decisions because reliable and accurate information may not be readily available. It has become increasingly important to identify reliable information resources that are the most likely to be accessed for information during these events. We sought to identify information resources that volunteer Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers would use during a suspected chemical exposure. Survey questionnaires were completed by 116 of 151 (76.8%) suburban and rural EMS providers. In the past 12 months, most participants used medical journals and textbooks (59.5%), internet sites (57.8%), and poison centers (55.2%) as information resources. For two hypothetical scenarios involving chemical exposures, poison centers were most frequently chosen as likely contacts for information regarding the identity of the agent (case 1: 52.6%, case 2: 48.3%), treatment (74.1%, 64.7%, respectively), and antidote (59.5%, 49.1%, respectively). Fire department hazardous materials team tied with poison centers as the highest for chemical agent in the second scenario (48.3%) and was ranked highest both for decontamination (75.0%, 64.7%, respectively) and personal protection (56.9%, 45.7%, respectively). Poison centers were selected as the best resource for timely information (70.7%), availability (69.0%), and ease of contact (72.4%), and second highest for knowledge of chemical agents (44.0%), after CHEMTREC (56.9%). Finally, poison centers and CHEMTREC received the highest overall ratings (28.4% and 26.7%, respectively). Poison centers are viewed as an important information resource by EMS providers and may be the most commonly sought resource for various information needs during a suspected chemical exposure.

  17. Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul

    2013-02-01

    The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.

  18. Workplace chemical and toxin exposures reported to a Poisons Information Centre: a diverse range causing variable morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sophia L-Y; McD Taylor, David; Robinson, Jeffery

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the period prevalence, nature and causes of workplace chemical and toxin exposures reported to the Victorian Poisons Information Centre (VPIC). All cases classified as 'workplace: acute' when entered into the VPIC database (June 2005-December 2013) were analysed. Data were collected on patient sex, the nature of the chemical or toxin, route of exposure and season. Overall, 4928 cases were extracted. Exposures to men (71.5% of calls) differed from women (PPoisons Information Centres may play a role in ongoing surveillance of chemical and toxin exposures and a minimum exposure dataset is recommended.

  19. REMIT5.1, Radiation exposure monitoring and information transmittal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - The Radiation Exposure Monitoring and Information Transmittal (REMIT) is a PC-based menu driven system that facilitates the manipulation of data base files to record and report radiation exposure information. REMIT is designed to be user-friendly and contains the full text of Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, on-line as well as context-sensitive help throughout the program. The user can enter data directly from NRC Forms 4 or 5. REMIT allows the user to view the individual's exposure in relation to regulatory or administrative limits and will alert the user to exposures in excess of these limits. The system also provides for the calculation and summation of dose from intakes and the determination of the dose to the maximally exposed extremity for the monitoring year. REMIT can produce NRC Forms 4 and 5 in paper and electronic format and can import/export data from ASCII and data base files. Additional information is available from the web page www.reirs.com. REMIT system is designed to assist U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in meeting the reporting requirements of the Revised 10 CFR Parts 20.1001 through 20.2401 as outlined in Regulatory Guide 8.7, Rev.1, Instructions for Recording and Reporting Occupational Exposure Data. 2 - Methods - REMIT makes use of the dose conversion factors from EPA Report 11 Limiting Values of Radionuclide Intake and Air Concentration and Dose Conversion Factors for Inhalation, Submission, and Ingestion, to calculate the Committed Dose Equivalent to the maximally exposed organ and the Committed Effective Dose Equivalent from intakes measured in microcuries. REMIT also estimates the amount (in micrograms) of uranium intake from the activity entered in microcuries. This calculation is based on the specific activities of the uranium isotopes. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - None noted

  20. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Challenges, priorities, and future issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigel, S. [National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Issues related to developing information resources for assessing the health effects from chemical exposure include the question of how to address the individual political issues relevant to identifying and determining the timeliness, scientific credibility, and completeness of such kinds of information resources. One of the important ways for agencies to share information is through connection tables. This type of software is presently being used to build information products for some DHHS agencies. One of the challenges will be to convince vendors of data of the importance of trying to make data files available to communities that need them. In the future, information processing will be conducted with neural networks, object-oriented database management systems, and fuzzy-set technologies, and meta analysis techniques.

  1. Eliciting Information on Sensitive Matters Without Inviting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods based on Randomized Response tech- niques. Such methods instill confidence in the respondent to furnish ... some kind of addiction or tax evasion, to avoidevasive untruthful response. would be .... addiction or tax evasion, to avoid nonresponse or eva- sive untruthful response, Warner [4] advocated the use.

  2. Effects of exposure to information about appearance stereotyping and discrimination on women's body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, M A; Cash, T F

    2001-01-01

    There is widespread public dissemination of research findings and media messages regarding social advantages of physical attractiveness and liabilities of unattractiveness. The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of such information on women's body-image experiences. College women (n = 66) listened to one of two audiotapes that detailed research-based information either on the subject of appearance stereotyping and discrimination or on the control topic of television violence and aggression. Although the two conditions did not differentially alter mood, exposure to appearance-related versus control information produced significantly less favorable body-image evaluations. Furthermore, as predicted, women who were schematically invested in their physical appearance were especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of the appearance information. The scientific and clinical implications of these findings were discussed, particularly with respect to eating disturbances.

  3. Prenatal androgen exposure alters girls' responses to information indicating gender-appropriate behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L

    2016-02-19

    Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  5. Exposure research going mobile: A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in a convergent media environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, J.; Albæk, E.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n

  6. The information system on occupational exposure and related IAEA activities in the Europe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, M.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the Agency's Occupational Radiation Protection Programme, within the Division of Radiation and Waste Safety, are to encourage the global harmonization and optimization of occupational radiation protection in situations of exposures due to external radiation and intakes of radionuclides from both artificial and natural sources of radiation; and to have in place and ensure compliance with operational health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency on its premises and in occupational activities under its supervision or control. The Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE) forms an integral part of this programme and the purpose of this paper is to present the current status of ISOE and the IAEA activities in the Europe region in support of the ISOE. The ISOE prograrnme will continue to be a very important part of the IAEA Occupational Radiation Protection Prograrnme as will the related activities under the Technical Co-operation prograrnme. Realizing the need for information exchange and promotion of the application of the ALARA principle in industries other than nuclear power plants, the Agency has recently initiated the creation of regional ALARA Networks. These are seen as an effective way to foster good working practices and the development of an ALARA culture. Further information on the IAEA radiation protection prograrnme can be found in the Web page: www.iaea.orgtns/rasanet. (authors)

  7. Exposure Research Going Mobile: A Smartphone-Based Measurement of Media Exposure to Political Information in a Convergent Media Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, J.; Albaek, E.; H. de Vreese, C.

    2016-01-01

    In today’s convergent media environment, media exposure becomes increasingly channel-independent and social media-bound, and media content is more frequently accessed on mobile devices. This calls for new approaches to measuring media exposure. This study applies an innovative approach to survey (n...... platform modes. The study furthermore confirms limitations of mere usage time measurements of social media platforms in effects research and explores a range of actual content types that citizens encounter in social networks. It recommends more frequent use of mobile exposure measurements and argues...... for a content-related assessment of social media use in effects research. © 2016 Taylor & Francis....

  8. Linking pesticides and human health: a geographic information system (GIS) and Landsat remote sensing method to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure

    OpenAIRE

    VoPham, Trang; Wilson, John P.; Ruddell, Darren; Rashed, Tarek; Brooks, Maria M.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Weissfeld, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate pesticide exposure estimation is integral to epidemiologic studies elucidating the role of pesticides in human health. Humans can be exposed to pesticides via residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (drift). We present an improved geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing method, the Landsat method, to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure through matching pesticide applications to crops classified from temporally concurrent Landsat satellite remo...

  9. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. A Spatio-Temporal Building Exposure Database and Information Life-Cycle Management Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wieland

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With an ever-increasing volume and complexity of data collected from a variety of sources, the efficient management of geospatial information becomes a key topic in disaster risk management. For example, the representation of assets exposed to natural disasters is subjected to changes throughout the different phases of risk management reaching from pre-disaster mitigation to the response after an event and the long-term recovery of affected assets. Spatio-temporal changes need to be integrated into a sound conceptual and technological framework able to deal with data coming from different sources, at varying scales, and changing in space and time. Especially managing the information life-cycle, the integration of heterogeneous information and the distributed versioning and release of geospatial information are important topics that need to become essential parts of modern exposure modelling solutions. The main purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual and technological framework to tackle the requirements implied by disaster risk management for describing exposed assets in space and time. An information life-cycle management solution is proposed, based on a relational spatio-temporal database model coupled with Git and GeoGig repositories for distributed versioning. Two application scenarios focusing on the modelling of residential building stocks are presented to show the capabilities of the implemented solution. A prototype database model is shared on GitHub along with the necessary scenario data.

  11. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemical exposure: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Health risk assessment is based on access to comprehensive information about potentially hazardous agents in question. Relevant information is scattered throughout the literature, and often is not readily accessible. To be useful in assessment efforts, emerging scientific findings, risk assess parameters, and associated data must be compiled and evaluated systemically. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are among the federal agencies heavily involved in this effort. This symposium was a direct response by EPA and ORNL to the expressed needs of individuals involved in assessing risks from chemical exposure. In an effort to examine the state of the risk assessment process, the availability of toxicological information, and the future development and transfer of this information, the symposium provided an excellent cadre of speakers and participants from state and federal agencies, academia and research laboratories to address these topics. This stimulating and productive gathering discussed concerns associated with (1) environmental contamination by chemicals; (2) laws regulating chemicals; (3) information needs and resources; (4) applications; (5) challenges and priorities; and (6)future issues. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases

  12. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7% were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%. Glare from the sun (59.7% and excessive sweating (57.6% were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard (p = 0.003. In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  13. Sun Exposure, Sun-Related Symptoms, and Sun Protection Practices in an African Informal Traditional Medicines Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Reddy, Tarylee; Mathee, Angela; Street, Renée A

    2017-09-28

    Informal workers in African market trade have little formal protection against sun exposure. We aimed to examine sun exposure, sun-related symptoms, and sun protection practices in an informal occupational setting. Trained fieldworkers asked 236 workers in the Warwick Junction market about their workplace, skin and eye sensitivity and skin colour, symptoms faced at work during the summer due to heat, and preventive measures. Data were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to assess the effect of gender and the risk of experiencing symptoms to sun exposure in relation to pre-existing diseases and perception of sun exposure as a hazard. Of the 236 participants, 234 were Black African and 141 (59.7%) were female. Portable shade was the most commonly used form of sun protection (69.9%). Glare from the sun (59.7%) and excessive sweating (57.6%) were commonly reported sun-related health symptoms. The use of protective clothing was more prevalent among those who perceived sun exposure as a hazard ( p = 0.003). In an informal occupational setting, sun exposure was high. Protective clothing and portable shade to eliminate heat and bright light were self-implemented. Action by local authorities to protect informal workers should consider sun exposure to support workers in their efforts to cope in hot weather.

  14. The Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR): Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    of safety standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation. The publication details the results of the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR) (2009-2012) and, in particular, the activities of the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology that culminated in the development of the ISEMIR international database for interventional cardiology (ISEMIR-IC). The ISEMIR project arose from the Occupational Radiation Protection International Action Plan (approved by the IAEA Board of Governors September in 2003), which identified the need for networks to be established to enable interested parties to exchange information, experiences and lessons learned

  15. Trust in online prescription drug information among internet users: the impact on information search behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ajit M; Deshpande, Aparna D; Perri, Matthew; Zinkhan, George M

    2002-01-01

    The proliferation of both manufacturer-controlled and independent medication-related websites has aroused concern among consumers and policy-makers concerning the trustworthiness of Web-based drug information. The authors examine consumers' trust in on-line prescription drug information and its influence on information search behavior. The study design involves a retrospective analysis of data from a 1998 national survey. The findings reveal that trust in drug information from traditional media sources such as television and newspapers transfers to the domain of the Internet. Furthermore, a greater trust in on-line prescription drug information stimulates utilization of the Internet for information search after exposure to prescription drug advertising.

  16. Threat and Selective Exposure: The Moderating Role of Threat and Decision Context on Confirmatory Information Search after Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Fischer, Julia; Frey, Dieter; Crelley, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the impact of perceived threat on confirmatory information search (selective exposure) in the context of decision making have yielded mixed results. Some studies have suggested that confirmatory information search is reduced, yet others have found contradictory effects. The present series of 5 studies consistently found that…

  17. The Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR): Industrial Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    for radiation protection and safety provided by the IAEA to its Member States. This publication was developed under the IAEA’s statutory responsibility to provide for the worldwide application of safety standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation. It details the results of the Information System on Occupational Exposure in Medicine, Industry and Research (ISEMIR) project during 2009–2012 and, in particular, the activities of the Working Group on Industrial Radiography (WGIR). The ISEMIR project arose from the Occupational Radiation Protection International Action Plan (approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in September 2003), which identified in Action 7 the need to establish networks for the exchange of information on experience and lessons learned between interested parties

  18. Needs Elicitation for Novel Pervasive Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja

    2016-01-01

    is to include the large number of users required to represent the entire population. Failure to do so may lead to a solution that is over specialised to fit the needs of only a small subset of users. Both challenges are common in healthcare applications in which the end-user is also care recipient (or patient......It is widely accepted that engaging with end-users to elicit their needs is beneficial when designing a new artefact. This can be particularly challenging, however, when end-users are limited in their ability to provide input. When there is broad variation in users' needs, a further challenge...... inform designers about patients’ support needs and healthcare providers’ information needs.H ealthcare professionals offer a wealth of knowledge based on a clinical understanding of the condition as well as experience listening to patients' problems. Especially where patients are in denial about...

  19. Effects of repeated exposure and health-related information on hedonic evaluation and acceptance of a bitter beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Leslie J; Nagai, Hajime; Nakagawa, Masashi; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2003-04-01

    The influence of exposure and information on sensory evaluation and acceptance of bitter flavor was assessed. Following sensory testing in the laboratory, subjects consumed a commercially-available bittersweet beverage once daily for 7days in a setting of their choosing, then returned to the laboratory for post-exposure tests. Hedonic ratings for the beverage increased by 68%, whereas ratings for control stimuli sampled only in the laboratory did not change. Following exposure, relationships of hedonic ratings with intensity and familiarity varied according to the context in which evaluations were made: hedonic ratings were correlated with intensity in a familiar setting and with familiarity in an unfamiliar setting. Health-related information had no effect on perceptual changes that accompanied exposure, but did tend to increase a behavioral measure of acceptability, suggesting that information may have a greater effect on behavior than on hedonics. Together, the data suggest that repeated exposure can enhance hedonic evaluation of a bittersweet beverage, perhaps through a learned association of flavor with post-ingestive consequences. Context may mediate this effect and studies addressing the influence of information on bitter food acceptance should include measures of consumption and evaluate information strategies, as bitter foods may be particularly resistant to cognitively-based appeals.

  20. Music can elicit a visual motion aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedger, Stephen C; Nusbaum, Howard C; Lescop, Olivier; Wallisch, Pascal; Hoeckner, Berthold

    2013-07-01

    Motion aftereffects (MAEs) are thought to result from the adaptation of both subcortical and cortical systems involved in the processing of visual motion. Recently, it has been reported that the implied motion of static images in combination with linguistic descriptions of motion is sufficient to elicit an MAE, although neither factor alone is thought to directly activate visual motion areas in the brain. Given that the monotonic change of musical pitch is widely recognized in music as a metaphor for vertical motion, we investigated whether prolonged exposure to ascending or descending musical scales can also produce a visual motion aftereffect. After listening to ascending or descending musical scales, participants made decisions about the direction of visual motion in random-dot kinematogram stimuli. Metaphoric motion in the musical stimuli did affect the visual direction judgments, in that repeated exposure to rising or falling musical scales shifted participants' sensitivity to visual motion in the opposite direction. The finding that music can induce an MAE suggests that the subjective interpretation of monotonic pitch change as motion may have a perceptual foundation.

  1. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  2. A single exposure to cocaine during development elicits regionally-selective changes in basal basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) gene expression and alters the trophic response to a second injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Malpighi, Chiara; Melfi, Simona; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    During adolescence, the brain is maturing and more sensitive to drugs of abuse that can influence its developmental trajectory. Recently, attention has been focused on basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) given that its administration early in life enhances the acquisition of cocaine self-administration and sensitization at adulthood (Turner et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav 92:100-4, 2009), Clinton et al. (Pharmacol Biochem Behav103:6-17, 2012)). Additionally, we found that abstinence from adolescent cocaine exposure long lastingly dysregulates FGF-2 transcription (Giannotti et al. (Psychopharmacology (Berl) 225:553-60, 2013 ). The objectives of the study are to evaluate if (1) a single injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg) at postnatal day 35 alters FGF-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and (2) the first injection influences the trophic response to a second injection (10 mg/kg) provided 24 h or 7 days later. We found regional differences in the FGF-2 expression pattern as either the first or the second injection of cocaine by themselves upregulated FGF-2 mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens while downregulating it in the hippocampus. The first injection influences the trophic response of the second. Of note, 24 h after the first injection, accumbal and hippocampal FGF-2 changes produced by cocaine in saline-pretreated rats were prevented in cocaine-pretreated rats. Conversely, in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus 7 days after the first injection, the cocaine-induced FGF-2 changes were modified by the subsequent exposure to the psychostimulant. These findings show that a single cocaine injection is sufficient to produce enduring changes in the adolescent brain and indicate that early cocaine priming alters the mechanisms regulating the trophic response in a brain region-specific fashion.

  3. Cue-elicited anxiety and craving for food using virtual reality scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-García, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla, Joana

    2013-01-01

    Cue exposure therapy has been reported to be an effective intervention for reducing binge eating behavior in patients with eating disorders and obesity. However, in vivo food exposure conducted in the therapist's office presents logistical problems and lacks ecological validity. This study proposes the use of virtual reality technology as an alternative to in vivo exposure, and assesses the ability of different virtual environments to elicit anxiety and craving for food in a non-clinical sample. The results show that exposure to virtual environments provokes changes in reported craving for food. High-calorie food cues are the ones that elicit the highest increases in craving.

  4. Drug information-seeking intention and behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisement of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Doucette, William R; Farris, Karen B; Nayakankuppam, Dhananjay

    2005-06-01

    Concerns about direct-to-consumer advertisement's (DTCA's) information quality have raised interest in patients' drug information-seeking after DTCA exposure. To identify predictors of patients' intentions and behaviors to seek drug information from physicians, pharmacists, and the Internet after DTCA exposure, using theories of planned behavior and self-efficacy. One thousand patients were randomly selected from 3,000 nationwide osteoarthritic patients. A self-administered survey examined predictors of intention including measurements of attitude toward behavior, subjective norm, perceived difficulty, self-efficacy, controllability, self-identity, intention, exposure to ads, and control variables. After 6 weeks, another survey measured respondents' information-seeking behavior. For patients exposed to DTCA, 6 multiple regressions were performed for information-seeking intention and behavior for 3 information sources: physicians, pharmacists, and the Internet. The response rates were 61.9% and 80.1% for the first survey and the second survey, respectively. Four hundred and fifty-four participants reported exposure to DTCA about arthritis prescription medicines in the previous month. Over 41% of the variance in intention and over 18% of the variance in behavior were explained by the regression procedures. The consistent positive predictors of intention were attitude toward behavior, self-identity, attitude toward DTCAs of arthritis medication, and osteoarthritis pain; while the consistent positive predictors of behavior were intention and osteoarthritis pain. The strongest predictors of intention were self-identity for physicians, subjective norm for pharmacists, and attitude toward behavior for the Internet. Perceived difficulty and self-efficacy did not predict intention, and self-efficacy and controllability did not predict behavior. DTCA-prompted drug information-seeking may be under patients' complete volitional control. To promote information searching

  5. Allergenic sensitization versus elicitation risk criteria for novel food proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ladics, Gregory S

    2018-02-23

    The value of criteria used in the weight-of-evidence assessment of allergenic risk of genetically modified (GM) crops has been debated. This debate may originate, in part, from not specifying if the criteria are intended to contribute to the assessment of sensitization risk or elicitation risk. Here, this distinction is explicitly discussed in the context of exposure and hazard. GM crops with structural relationships with known allergens or sourced from an organism known to cause allergy (hazard) are screened for IgE-antibody reactivity using serum from sensitized individuals. If IgE reactivity is observed, the GM crop is not developed. While digestive and heat stability impact exposure and thus the elicitation risk to sensitized individuals, these attributes are not interpretable relative to sensitization risk. For novel food proteins with no identified hazard, heat stability cannot be validly assessed because relevant IgE antibodies are not available. Likewise, the uncertain and sometime non-monotonic dose relationship between oral exposure to allergens and sensitization makes digestive stability a poor predictor of sensitization risk. It is hoped that by explicitly distinguishing between sensitization risk and elicitation risk, some of the debate surrounding the weight-of evidence criteria for predicting the allergenic risk of GM crops can be resolved. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A community-based approach to disseminate health information on the hazards of prenatal mercury exposure in Brooklyn, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejo, Fay P; Geer, Laura A

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to mercury (Hg) in utero can have neurotoxic effects on the developing fetus. Mercury exposure in women of childbearing age has been associated with frequent fish consumption, coastal proximity, foreign birth, and exposure during ritualistic practices. The aim of this study was to identify culturally-appropriate strategies to disseminate messages on the hazards of in utero Hg exposure in fertile and pregnant women in a predominantly urban immigrant community in Flatbush, Brooklyn, following findings from a recent study on mercury exposure in this community. Nineteen key informant interviews were conducted in Flatbush, Brooklyn with community members, medical professionals, fishmongers, and a religious practitioner to solicit feedback on culturally sensitive methods to educate the community on Hg hazards. The main themes identified include clinical integration, where providers integrate the message in routine care; community integration, whereby influential organizations and community members foster message delivery; media usage; and message reinforcement via continuous exposure. It is vital for healthcare providers and public health practitioners to be culturally sensitive in educating their patients on fish selection during pregnancy and safety of handling Hg. Instead of a single approach, a combination of media and educational strategies would help to reinforce the message. These findings form a basis for public health campaigns to apprise other urban immigrant communities of the hazards of in utero Hg exposure.

  7. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  8. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  9. Media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs: Findings from the 2015 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-FDA 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Elisabeth A; Hoffman, Allison C; Zandberg, Izabella; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Addiction beliefs about tobacco use are associated with intentions to use and use of tobacco products. Exposure to information about tobacco products in media sources may affect addiction beliefs. To examine the relationship between media exposure and tobacco product addiction beliefs. A nationally representative sample of US adults (n=3738) from the 2015 National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey was used to examine addiction beliefs about cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes, hookah/waterpipe tobacco, and roll-your-own cigarettes. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between media exposure and addiction beliefs. We defined media exposure by hours exposed, as well as exposure to tobacco use health effects information through media sources including social media. We categorized media sources by whether respondents actively or passively engaged with the source. A majority (60.6% to 87.3%) of respondents believed that cigarettes, cigars, roll-your-own cigarettes and smokeless tobacco are addictive. Less than half of respondents believed that electronic cigarettes or hookah/waterpipes are addictive (45.2% and 49.8%, respectively). Respondents exposed to messages about tobacco use health effects on active media channels (e.g., social media) had greater odds of believing that smokeless tobacco (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.48), hookah/waterpipe (AOR=1.69), and roll-your-own cigarettes (AOR=1.61) are addictive. Respondents exposed to tobacco use health effects messages on passive media channels (e.g., television), had greater odds of believing that cigarettes (AOR=2.76) and electronic cigarettes (AOR=2.12) are addictive. US adult exposure to information about the health effects of tobacco use was associated with addiction beliefs about tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Exposure to media information about a disease can cause doctors to misdiagnose similar-looking clinical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Mamede, Sílvia; Van Den Berge, Kees; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Saase, Jan L C M; Rikers, Remy M J P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Anecdotal evidence indicates that exposure to media-distributed disease information, such as news about an outbreak, can lead physicians to errors; influenced by an availability bias, they misdiagnose patients with similar-looking but different diseases. The authors investigated whether

  11. Neural mechanisms of selective exposure: an EEG study on the processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Reinweber, Matthias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Schäfer, Axel; Schienle, Anne; Volberg, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers tend to prefer decision-consistent information and/or neglect decision-inconsistent information (selective exposure). In the present EEG study the neural mechanisms of the classic selective exposure effect were examined by investigating oscillatory brain responses to consistent vs. inconsistent information. Twenty participants made an economic decision and subsequently were exposed to 45 consistent and 45 inconsistent images concerning their decision. EEG was recorded from 31 electrodes and differences between oscillatory brain responses towards consistent and inconsistent information were examined. The main result was an increase of induced theta power (5-8Hz, 0-0.7s) in the consistent compared to the inconsistent condition at right temporo-parietal electrodes, as well as a corresponding increase of evoked theta power at frontal electrodes. Since theta oscillations are often observed during memory formation, we conclude that decision-consistent information triggers memory formation, whereas decision-inconsistent information seems not to do so. This finding supports the classic motivational perspective of Leon Festinger on the selective exposure effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure-Relevant Consumer Product Usage Information Derived from Longitudinal Purchasing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer products that are used in and around the home are a dominant source for anthropogenic chemical exposure. Prediction of the population distribution of chemical exposures encountered due to the residential use of consumer products (such as personal care products, cleaning ...

  13. Patient Health Goals Elicited During Home Care Admission: A Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolow, Paulina; Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Chou, Edgar Y; Wojciechowicz, Christine

    2017-11-01

    Home care agencies are initiating "patient health goal elicitation" activities as part of home care admission planning. We categorized elicited goals and identified "clinically informative" goals at a home care agency. We examined patient goals that admitting clinicians documented in the point-of-care electronic health record; conducted content analysis on patient goal data to develop a coding scheme; grouped goal themes into codes; assigned codes to each goal; and identified goals that were in the patient voice. Of the 1,763 patient records, 16% lacked a goal; only 15 goals were in a patient's voice. Nurse and physician experts identified 12 of the 20 codes as clinically important accounting for 82% of goal occurrences. The most frequent goal documented was safety/falls (23%). Training and consistent communication of the intent and operationalization of patient goal elicitation may address the absence of patient voice and the less than universal recording of home care patients' goals.

  14. Causal inference with missing exposure information: Methods and applications to an obstetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Bo; Tang, Li; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Causal inference in observational studies is frequently challenged by the occurrence of missing data, in addition to confounding. Motivated by the Consortium on Safe Labor, a large observational study of obstetric labor practice and birth outcomes, this article focuses on the problem of missing exposure information in a causal analysis of observational data. This problem can be approached from different angles (i.e. missing covariates and causal inference), and useful methods can be obtained by drawing upon the available techniques and insights in both areas. In this article, we describe and compare a collection of methods based on different modeling assumptions, under standard assumptions for missing data (i.e. missing-at-random and positivity) and for causal inference with complete data (i.e. no unmeasured confounding and another positivity assumption). These methods involve three models: one for treatment assignment, one for the dependence of outcome on treatment and covariates, and one for the missing data mechanism. In general, consistent estimation of causal quantities requires correct specification of at least two of the three models, although there may be some flexibility as to which two models need to be correct. Such flexibility is afforded by doubly robust estimators adapted from the missing covariates literature and the literature on causal inference with complete data, and by a newly developed triply robust estimator that is consistent if any two of the three models are correct. The methods are applied to the Consortium on Safe Labor data and compared in a simulation study mimicking the Consortium on Safe Labor. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Radiation risk statement in the participant information for a research protocol that involves exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caon, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) is required to scrutinise the protocols of clinical drug trials that recruit patients as participants. If the study involves exposing the participants to ionizing radiation the information provided to the participant should contain a radiation risk statement that is understandable by the Committee and the participant. The information that should be included in the risk statement is available from a variety of published sources and is discussed. The ARPANSA Code of Practice Exposure of Humans to Ionizing Radiation for Research Purposes (2005) states explicitly what the responsibilities of the researcher and the HREC are. Some research protocols do not provide the information required by good radiation protection practice and explicitly called for by the Code. Nine points (including: state that ionizing radiation is involved; that the radiation is additional to standard care; the effective dose to be received; the dose compared to natural background; the dose to the most exposed organs; a statement of risk; the benefits accruing from the exposure; ask the participant about previous exposures; name a contact person from whom information may be sought) that should be considered for inclusion in the participant information are presented and discussed. An example of a radiation risk statement is provided

  16. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. An online survey of 17,522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Exposure to information and communication about HIV/AIDS and perceived credibility of information sources among young people in northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Sheri; Leshabari, Melkizedek T; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2009-06-01

    Young people in sub-Saharan Africa constitute an important group for HIV prevention efforts. Determining their exposure to HIV/AIDS information and communication and their perceived credibility of information sources is imperative to the development of interventions. However, the majority of studies on this topic have been conducted among school-based populations, with few focused on those out of school or on comparing the two groups. A structured face-to-face interview was completed by 993 young people out of school, between the ages of 13 and 18, in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; additionally, the questionnaire was self-administered by 1 007 students attending either their last year of primary or first year of secondary school. Significant factors associated with the frequency of exposure to HIV/AIDS information and frequency of communication about HIV/AIDS included urban/rural location, sex, socio-economic status, and educational attainment. Both groups ranked the radio as the most frequent source of HIV/AIDS information. The in-school group reported significantly more frequent exposure to all sources of HIV/ AIDS information and they communicated more frequently about the topic than did the out-of-school group. Among both groups, exposure to HIV/AIDS information occurred more frequently than discussing the topic. The in-school group gave high credibility ratings to medical doctors, the radio and parents as sources of information, while the out-of-school group attributed the most credibility to the mass media. Irrespective of school attendance, the young people ranked friends, parents and doctors as preferred communicators of sexual and reproductive health information. Interventions that address the determinants of educational attainment are needed, as well as ones specifically intended to reach girls or those out of school. The preferences and credibility rankings for sources of HIV/AIDS information suggest the need for evidence-based programmes that utilise peers and

  18. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure-manual gathering of metals-and based paint (r = 0.23; P source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving substance information in usetox®, part 2: Data for estimating fate and ecosystem exposure factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saouter, Erwan; Aschberger, Karin; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    substance properties, USEtox® quantifies potential human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts by combining environmental fate, exposure and toxicity effects information, considering multimedia fate and multi-pathway exposure processes. The main source to obtain substance properties for USEtox® 1....... These regulations require that a chemical risk assessment for humans and the environment is performed before a chemical is placed on the European market. Consequently, additional physicochemical property data and new toxicological end-points are now available for thousands of chemical substances. The aim...... of the present study is to explore to which extent the new available data can be used as input for USEtox® - especially for application in Environmental Footprint studies - and to discuss how this would influence the quantification of fate and exposure factors. Initial results show that the choice of data source...

  20. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems and Spatial Video to Analyze Patterns of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ryan C; Cinderich, Adam B; Prince, Lillian; Curtis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Innovatively apply geographic information system (GIS) software and spatial video cameras to examine hotspots of smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure on a college campus. Pedestrians on a large public university in the United States. Spatial video cameras mounted on bicycles and GIS software captured and analyzed smoking on campus. Data were collected during times of heavy pedestrian traffic. Hotspot locations with high concentrations of observed smoking were identified. Using this innovative methodology, several hotspots were identified on campus where SHS exposure occurs frequently. These hotspots were in areas of high pedestrian traffic, thus indicating a potential for SHS exposure to many students. This paper demonstrates an innovative application of GIS and spatial video technology to understand outdoor smoking patterns on campus. These techniques can aid in program planning, decision-making, policy development, and enforcement.

  1. Application and Evaluation of an Expert Judgment Elicitation Procedure for Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van de Schoot-Hubeek, Wenneke; Lek, Kimberley; Hoijtink, Herbert; van de Schoot, Rens

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to apply and evaluate a procedure to elicit expert judgments about correlations, and to update this information with empirical data. The result is a face-to-face group elicitation procedure with as its central element a trial roulette question that elicits experts' judgments expressed as distributions. During the elicitation procedure, a concordance probability question was used to provide feedback to the experts on their judgments. We evaluated the elicitation procedure in terms of validity and reliability by means of an application with a small sample of experts. Validity means that the elicited distributions accurately represent the experts' judgments. Reliability concerns the consistency of the elicited judgments over time. Four behavioral scientists provided their judgments with respect to the correlation between cognitive potential and academic performance for two separate populations enrolled at a specific school in the Netherlands that provides special education to youth with severe behavioral problems: youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and youth with diagnoses other than ASD. Measures of face-validity, feasibility, convergent validity, coherence, and intra-rater reliability showed promising results. Furthermore, the current study illustrates the use of the elicitation procedure and elicited distributions in a social science application. The elicited distributions were used as a prior for the correlation, and updated with data for both populations collected at the school of interest. The current study shows that the newly developed elicitation procedure combining the trial roulette method with the elicitation of correlations is a promising tool, and that the results of the procedure are useful as prior information in a Bayesian analysis. PMID:28197115

  2. Impact of product information and repeated exposure on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations of local apple juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolzenbach, Sandra; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    to market their products, they are recommended to focus on product information as a selling point as this information strongly influences liking, concept associations and sensory perception of the product. However, in order to ensure successful products, the sensory characteristics of the product must......The impact of product information and repeated exposure of local apple juice on consumer liking, sensory perception and concept associations was studied. Findings showed that consumers had high expectations towards the studied local apples juices. Consequently, the liking for the local apple juices...... did not fully determine consumer liking. Thus the sensory characteristics were also found to be of importance. Besides liking, the concept associations were also affected by product information. All local apple juices were associated as being more exclusive under informed tasting conditions...

  3. Linking pesticides and human health: a geographic information system (GIS) and Landsat remote sensing method to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Wilson, John P; Ruddell, Darren; Rashed, Tarek; Brooks, Maria M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2015-08-01

    Accurate pesticide exposure estimation is integral to epidemiologic studies elucidating the role of pesticides in human health. Humans can be exposed to pesticides via residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications (drift). We present an improved geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing method, the Landsat method, to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure through matching pesticide applications to crops classified from temporally concurrent Landsat satellite remote sensing images in California. The image classification method utilizes Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values in a combined maximum likelihood classification and per-field (using segments) approach. Pesticide exposure is estimated according to pesticide-treated crop fields intersecting 500 m buffers around geocoded locations (e.g., residences) in a GIS. Study results demonstrate that the Landsat method can improve GIS-based pesticide exposure estimation by matching more pesticide applications to crops (especially temporary crops) classified using temporally concurrent Landsat images compared to the standard method that relies on infrequently updated land use survey (LUS) crop data. The Landsat method can be used in epidemiologic studies to reconstruct past individual-level exposure to specific pesticides according to where individuals are located.

  4. E-Waste Informal Recycling: An Emerging Source of Lead Exposure in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Antonio; Sosa, Adriana; Bares, Cristina; Battocletti, Alejandra; Moll, María José; Pose, Darío; Laborde, Amalia; González, Hugo; Feola, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Primitive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling creates exposures to several hazardous substances including lead. In Uruguay, primitive recycling procedures are a significant source of lead exposure. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to examine lead exposure in blood lead levels (BLLs) in low-income children exposed to lead through burning cables. METHODS A sample of children and adolescents exposed to lead through burning cable activities were assessed at the Department of Toxicology in Montevideo, Uruguay, between 2010 and 2014. Soil lead levels of residences were taken shortly after their assessment. FINDINGS The final sample included 69 children and adolescents (mean age 7.89 years). More than 66% of participants had an additional source of lead exposure—manual gathering of metals—and e-waste recycling, the most common additional source of lead exposure was the manual gathering of metals. The average BLL among children and adolescents in this study is higher than the BLLs currently suggested in medical intervention. Future research should focus on exploring effective interventions to reduce lead exposure among this vulnerable group. PMID:27325077

  5. Development and Evaluation of an ADME-informed High Throughput Exposure Estimation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability (CSS) research program has been developing new ways to prioritize chemicals used in consumer products and articles. Using a risk-based methodology to account for both toxicity and exposure offers a comprehensive and systematic approa...

  6. Behavioral efficacy of diazepam against nerve agent exposure in rhesus monkeys. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, C.A.; Larsen, T.; Finger, A.V.; Solana, R.P.; McMaster, S.B.

    1991-12-31

    The possibility that nerve agents will be used on the battlefield is real. The traditional therapy against nerve agent exposure consists of pyridostigmine pretreatment and atropine-pralidoxime chloride therapy administered after nerve agent exposure. This therapy regimen is extremely effective in preventing mortality in laboratory animals exposed to multilethal concentrations of nerve agent, yet these animals often display convulsions, brain damage, and behavioral incapacitation. We report here that the addition of diazepam to the traditional therapy for nerve agent (soman) exposure not only decreases the incidence of convulsions, but also attenuates the cognitive impairments of rhesus monkeys trained on a Serial Probe Recognition (SPR) task. Monkeys which received diazepam treatment required only 6 days before their performance on the SPR task returned to presoman exposure levels, compared to nondiazepamtreated monkeys which required 15 days. Moreover, only 1 out of the 5 monkeys which received diazepain treatment suffered tonic-clonic convulsions; in contrast all 5 monkeys which did not receive diazepam treatment experienced severe convulsive episodes. These results suggest that diazepam would be an excellent adjunct to traditional nerve agent therapy to facilitate behavioral recovery from nerve agent intoxication that might be encountered by US military personnel on the battlefield or accidental organophosphate poisoning encountered in industrial or agricultural accidents. Serial probe recognition task, diazepam, nerve agents, soman convulsions, rhesus monkeys, cognition, organophosphate.

  7. Confirmation biases in selective exposure to political online information : Source bias vs. content bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerwick, Axel; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The present work examines the role of source vs. content cues for the confirmation bias, in which recipients spend more time with content aligning with preexisting attitudes. In addition to testing how both source and content cues facilitate this biased pattern of selective exposure, the study

  8. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2007-10-01

    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.

  9. The Lookahead Principle for Preference Elicitation: Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Viappiani, Paolo; Faltings, Boi; Pu, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    Preference-based search is the problem of finding an item that matches best with a user's preferences. User studies show that example-based tools for preference-based search can achieve significantly higher accuracy when they are complemented with suggestions chosen to inform users about the available choices. We discuss the problem of eliciting preferences in example-based tools and present the lookahead principle for generating suggestions. We compare two different implementations of this p...

  10. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-06-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi's low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern.

  11. The impact of Australian legislative changes on synthetic cannabinoid exposures reported to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Rose; Brown, Jared A; Gunja, Naren; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS), including synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) poses novel challenges for drug regulation and public health. Misconceptions of safety and legality, coupled with the fact that NPS are undetectable on routine drugs screens contributes to their popularity. Concerns over the unpredictable toxicity and abuse potential of NPS has led to a variety of legislative responses worldwide. We wish to describe Australian trends in SCRA use, examining the effects of legislative changes on calls to Australia's largest poisons centre. A retrospective review of calls to the New South Wales Poisons Information Centre (NSWPIC). Cases occurring between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2015 with documented use of SCRAs were included. There were 146 exposures to SCRAs recorded in the NSWPIC database. Federal bans of specific SCRA compounds in 2011/2012 had little impact on call volumes. State-based legislation introduced in 2013 banning specific brand names of SCRA products was followed by a dramatic, sustained decrease in exposures. The most common symptoms reported with SCRA use were tachycardia, vomiting, drowsiness, anxiety/panic, decreased level of consciousness, chest pain, agitation, hallucinations, confusion, seizures and hypertension. Banning of specific brand names of SCRA (timed with raids and social media campaigns) appears effective at reducing SCRA exposures. We postulate that this raised awareness within the community of the illegality of these substances while also reducing supply through bricks-and-mortar shops. These results could help inform future legislative responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Constitutional rights and hypnotically elicited testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A W; Thompson, J W

    1999-01-01

    Despite the former popularity of hypnosis as a way of "improving" eyewitness memory, many courts almost always regard the use of this testimony to be inadmissible, whereas others allow it only when strict procedural guidelines have been followed. Although the U.S. Supreme Court recognized a defendant's constitutional right to admit his own hypnotically elicited testimony, others have recognized a constitutional basis to exclude hypnotically elicited testimony in most other circumstances.

  13. Eliciting Spill: A methodological note

    OpenAIRE

    Alvita Nathaniel, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Classic grounded theory is an inductive process that focuses on the experiences and perceptions of research participants (Glaser, 1978, 1998). Although grounded theorists may utilize other types of data, most are likely to gather information through qualitative interviews. The theorist seeks to understand what is going on as people resolve their main concern in a given substantive area. People know what is important to them and most want to tell their stories. They feel encouraged to talk whe...

  14. Improving substance information in USEtox®, part 2: Data for estimating fate and ecosystem exposure factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saouter, Erwan; Aschberger, Karin; Fantke, Peter; Hauschild, Michael Z; Kienzler, Aude; Paini, Alicia; Pant, Rana; Radovnikovic, Anita; Secchi, Michela; Sala, Serenella

    2017-12-01

    The scientific consensus model USEtox ® has been developed since 2003 under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Programme-Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Life Cycle Initiative as a harmonized approach for characterizing human and freshwater toxicity in life cycle assessment and other comparative assessment frameworks. Using physicochemical substance properties, USEtox quantifies potential human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts by combining environmental fate, exposure, and toxicity effects information, considering multimedia fate and multipathway exposure processes. The main source to obtain substance properties for USEtox 1.01 and 2.0 is the Estimation Program Interface (EPI Suite™) from the US Environmental Protection Agency. However, since the development of the original USEtox substance databases, new chemical regulations have been enforced in Europe, such as the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and the Plant Protection Products regulations. These regulations require that a chemical risk assessment for humans and the environment is performed before a chemical is placed on the European market. Consequently, additional physicochemical property data and new toxicological endpoints are now available for thousands of chemical substances. The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the new available data can be used as input for USEtox-especially for application in environmental footprint studies-and to discuss how this would influence the quantification of fate and exposure factors. Initial results show that the choice of data source and the parameters selected can greatly influence fate and exposure factors, leading to potentially different rankings and relative contributions of substances to overall human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts. Moreover, it is crucial to discuss the relevance of the exposure factor for freshwater ecotoxicity impacts, particularly

  15. The image of fish from aquaculture among Europeans: impact of exposure to balanced information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Verbeke, W.; Vanhonacker, F.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of balanced, nonpersuasive information related to safety, healthiness, and sustainability of aquaculture on the image of farmed fish among European consumers. It was demonstrated that there is neither positive nor negative influence of this type of information on

  16. Eliciting and receiving online support: using computer-aided content analysis to examine the dynamics of online social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chia; Kraut, Robert E; Levine, John M

    2015-04-20

    Although many people with serious diseases participate in online support communities, little research has investigated how participants elicit and provide social support on these sites. The first goal was to propose and test a model of the dynamic process through which participants in online support communities elicit and provide emotional and informational support. The second was to demonstrate the value of computer coding of conversational data using machine learning techniques (1) by replicating results derived from human-coded data about how people elicit support and (2) by answering questions that are intractable with small samples of human-coded data, namely how exposure to different types of social support predicts continued participation in online support communities. The third was to provide a detailed description of these machine learning techniques to enable other researchers to perform large-scale data analysis in these communities. Communication among approximately 90,000 registered users of an online cancer support community was analyzed. The corpus comprised 1,562,459 messages organized into 68,158 discussion threads. Amazon Mechanical Turk workers coded (1) 1000 thread-starting messages on 5 attributes (positive and negative emotional self-disclosure, positive and negative informational self-disclosure, questions) and (2) 1000 replies on emotional and informational support. Their judgments were used to train machine learning models that automatically estimated the amount of these 7 attributes in the messages. Across attributes, the average Pearson correlation between human-based judgments and computer-based judgments was .65. Part 1 used human-coded data to investigate relationships between (1) 4 kinds of self-disclosure and question asking in thread-starting posts and (2) the amount of emotional and informational support in the first reply. Self-disclosure about negative emotions (beta=.24, Paffects the likelihood of their staying in or leaving the

  17. Exposure to media information about a disease can cause doctors to misdiagnose similar-looking clinical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Henk G; Mamede, Sílvia; van den Berge, Kees; van Gog, Tamara; van Saase, Jan L C M; Rikers, Remy M J P

    2014-02-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that exposure to media-distributed disease information, such as news about an outbreak, can lead physicians to errors; influenced by an availability bias, they misdiagnose patients with similar-looking but different diseases. The authors investigated whether exposure to media-provided disease information causes diagnostic errors and whether reflection (systematic review of findings) counteracts bias. In 2010, 38 internal medicine residents first read the Wikipedia entry about one or another of two diseases (Phase 1). Six hours later, in a seemingly unrelated study, they diagnosed eight clinical cases (Phase 2). Two cases superficially resembled the disease in the Wikipedia entry they had read (bias expected), two cases resembled the other disease they had not read about (bias not expected), and four were filler cases. In Phase 3, they diagnosed the bias-expected cases again, using reflective reasoning. Mean diagnostic accuracy scores (Phase 2; range: 0-1) were significantly lower on bias-expected cases than on bias-not-expected cases (0.56 versus 0.70, P = .016) because participants misdiagnosed cases that looked similar to a Wikipedia description of a disease more often when they had read the Wikipedia description (mean = 0.61) than when they had not (mean = 0.29). Deliberate reflection (Phase 3) restored performance on bias-expected cases to pre-bias levels (mean = 0.71). Availability bias may arise simply from exposure to media-provided information about a disease, causing diagnostic errors. The bias's effect can be substantial. It is apparently associated with nonanalytical reasoning and can be counteracted by reflection.

  18. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  19. Proposal for a Five-Step Method to Elicit Expert Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duco Veen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts’ prior knowledge in the statistical analysis. Systematic reviews on elicitation literature however suggest that it might be inappropriate to directly obtain distributional representations from experts. The literature qualifies experts’ performance on estimating elements of a distribution as unsatisfactory, thus reliably specifying the essential elements of the parameters of interest in one elicitation step seems implausible. Providing feedback within the elicitation process can enhance the quality of the elicitation and interactive software can be used to facilitate the feedback. Therefore, we propose to decompose the elicitation procedure into smaller steps with adjustable outcomes. We represent the tacit knowledge of experts as a location parameter and their uncertainty concerning this knowledge by a scale and shape parameter. Using a feedback procedure, experts can accept the representation of their beliefs or adjust their input. We propose a Five-Step Method which consists of (1 Eliciting the location parameter using the trial roulette method. (2 Provide feedback on the location parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (3 Elicit the scale and shape parameter. (4 Provide feedback on the scale and shape parameter and ask for confirmation or adjustment. (5 Use the elicited and calibrated probability distribution in a statistical analysis and update it with data or to compute a prior-data conflict within a Bayesian framework. User feasibility and internal validity for the Five-Step Method are investigated using three elicitation studies.

  20. Eliciting and communicating expert judgments: methodology and application to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von; Commission of the European Communities, Ispra

    1989-01-01

    Expert judgment has always been used informally in the analysis of complex engineering problems. Increasingly, however, the use of expert judgment has been formalized by eliciting judgments in an explicit, documented and often quantitative way. In nuclear safety studies the need for formal elicitation of expert judgments arises because of the lack of data and experiences, the need to adapt model results to the specific circumstances of a plant, and the large uncertainties surrounding the events and quantities that characterize an accident sequence. The recognition of the need for a formal elicitation of expert judgments has led to one of the most extensive expert elicitation processes to date in the context of the NUREG 1150 study. About 30 safety issues were quantified using expert judgments about probabilities of various uncertain events and quantities, ranging from the failure of a check valve in the cooling system to the pressure built up due to hydrogen production to release fractions of various radionuclides. In total, some 1000 probability distributions were elicited from some 50 experts. This paper first motivates the use of formal expert elicitation in complex engineering studies and describes the methodology of formal expert elicitation. Subsequently, it describes the overall approach of NUREG 1150 and provides an example of the elicitation of the probability of a bypass failure in a pressurized water reactor. The paper ends by discussing some lessons learned, problems encountered and by providing some recommendations

  1. Designing Financial Instruments for Rapid Flood Response Using Remote Sensed and Archival Hazard and Exposure Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Allaire, M.; Ceccato, P.; Haraguchi, M.; Cian, F.; Bavandi, A.

    2017-12-01

    Catastrophic floods can pose a significant challenge for response and recovery. A key bottleneck in the speed of response is the availability of funds to a country or regions finance ministry to mobilize resources. Parametric instruments, where the release of funs is tied to the exceedance of a specified index or threshold, rather than to loss verification are well suited for this purpose. However, designing and appropriate index, that is not subject to manipulation and accurately reflects the need is a challenge, especially in developing countries which have short hydroclimatic and loss records, and where rapid land use change has led to significant changes in exposure and hydrology over time. The use of long records of rainfall from climate re-analyses, flooded area and land use from remote sensing to design and benchmark a parametric index considering the uncertainty and representativeness of potential loss is explored with applications to Bangladesh and Thailand. Prospects for broader applicability and limitations are discussed.

  2. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions.We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates.We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world

  3. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie; Angulo, Frederick; Gibb, Herman; Kirk, Martyn; Lake, Robin; Speybroeck, Niko; Torgerson, Paul; Hald, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates. We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world, providing guidance

  4. Selective Exposure to Health Information: The Role of Headline Features in the Choice of Health Newsletter Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Suk; Forquer, Heather; Rusko, Joseph; Hornik, Robert C; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how content and context features of headlines drive selective exposure when choosing between headlines of a monthly e-mail health newsletter in a naturalistic setting over a period of nine months. Study participants received a monthly e-mail newsletter and could freely open it and click any headline to read the accompanying article. In each e-mail newsletter, nine headlines competed with each other for selection. Textual and visual information of the headlines was content-analyzed, and clickstream data on the headlines were collected automatically. The results showed that headlines invited more frequent audience selections when they provided efficacy-signaling information in an imperative voice, when they used a moderate number of negative emotion words, when they presented negative thumbnail images while mentioning cancer or other diseases, and when they were placed higher in position.

  5. Spatial gradients of OCPs in European butter - integrating environmental and exposure information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, J.M.; Mueller, A.; Vives, I.; Mariani, G.; Umlauf, G.

    2013-01-01

    The Stockholm Convention and the Global Monitoring Plan encourage the production of monitoring data to effectively evaluate the presence of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all regions, in order to identify changes in levels over time, as well as to provide information on their regional

  6. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior in a subjective belief elicitation task. Prior research has shown this procedure to robustly induce risk neutrality when subjects are given a single risk task defined over objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from...... the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure also induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation of subjective probabilities in subjects...

  7. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Barry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.

  8. Pesticide Exposure According To The Czech Toxicological Information Centre From 1997 To 2005

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakovcová, H.; Pelclová, D.; Říčařová, B.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 14 (2007), s. 258-259 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborová česko-slovenská toxikologická konference /12./. Praha, 11.06.2007-13.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : pesticides * Czech Toxicological Information Centre * rodenticides Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.683, year: 2007

  9. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible...... to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software....

  10. Identification and Characterization of Ixodes scapularis Antigens That Elicit Tick Immunity Using Yeast Surface Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Narasimhan, S.; Daffre, S.; Deponte, K.; Hovius, J.W.R.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Bakhtiari, K.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Boder, E.T.; van Dam, A.P.; Fikrig, E.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary

  11. Information by the German Federal Government. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010; Unterrichtung durch die Bundesregierung. Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung im Jahr 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The information by the German Federal Government on the environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in 2010 includes five chapters. (I) Natural radiation exposure: radiation sources, contributions from cosmic radiation, contaminated construction materials, food and drinking water, and radon, evaluation of the different components of natural radiation exposure. (II) Civilization caused radiation exposure: nuclear power plants, research centers, nuclear fuel processing plants, other nuclear facilities (interim storage facilities, repositories); summarizing evaluation for nuclear facilities; environmental radioactivity due to mining; radioactive materials in research, technology and households; industrial and mining residues; fall-out as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear weapon testing. (III) Occupational radiation exposure: civil radiation sources, natural radiation sources, special events. (IV) Medical radiation exposure; X-ray diagnostics; nuclear medicine; radiotherapy using ionizing radiation; radiotherapy using open radioactive materials; evaluation of radiotherapy. (V) Non-ionizing radiation: electromagnetic fields; optical radiation; certification of solaria.

  12. Expert elicitation for the judgment of prion disease risk uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyshenko, Michael G; ElSaadany, Susie; Oraby, Tamer; Darshan, Shalu; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Catford, Angela; Krewski, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    There is a high level of uncertainty surrounding the potential for iatrogenic prion transmission through transplantation, medical instrument reuse, blood transfusion, and blood product use due to a lack of evidence-based research on this important risk issue. A group of specialists was enlisted to evaluate some of the knowledge gaps in this area using the "Classical Model," a structured elicitation procedure for weighting and pooling expert judgment. The elicitation exercise was undertaken in March 2009 with 11 transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) experts who were first calibrated using a series of seed questions for which the answers are known; they were then asked to answer a number of target questions that are important for risk assessment purposes, but for which there remains high uncertainty at this time. The target questions focused on variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) prevalence, incubation times for vCJD, genetic susceptibility to prion disease, blood infectivity, prion reduction of blood and blood products, surgical instrument risks, and interspecies transmission of TSEs. The experts were also asked to perform pairwise risk rankings for 12 different potential routes of infection. Dura mater transplantation was seen as having the highest risk, while dental tissue grafts were viewed as presenting the lowest risk of iatrogenic transmission. The structured elicitation procedure provides a rational, auditable, and repeatable basis for obtaining useful information on prion disease risk issues, for which data are sparse.

  13. Factors Influencing Indigenous Knowledge Data Elicitation from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge (IK) has faced and is still facing threats of extinction owing to lack of or inadequate documentation of its processes and usefulness. Researches in IK have, for many years, suffered a herculean task of data elicitation which in essence has negatively affected its documentation. This study was carried ...

  14. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  15. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  16. Getting More Ecologically Relevant Information from Laboratory Tests: Recovery of Lemna minor After Exposure to Herbicides and Their Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Varja; Tunić, Tanja; Gajić, Pero; Marjan, Patricija; Savić, Danko; Tenji, Dina; Teodorović, Ivana

    2016-11-01

    Recovery after exposure to herbicides-atrazine, isoproturon, and trifluralin-their binary and ternary mixtures, was studied under laboratory conditions using a slightly adapted standard protocol for Lemna minor. The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare empirical to predicted toxicity of selected herbicide mixtures; (2) to assess L. minor recovery potential after exposure to selected individual herbicides and their mixtures; and (3) to suggest an appropriate recovery potential assessment approach and endpoint in a modified laboratory growth inhibition test. The deviation of empirical from predicted toxicity was highest in binary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides. The concentration addition model slightly underestimated mixture effects, indicating potential synergistic interactions between photosynthetic inhibitors (atrazine and isoproturon) and a cell mitosis inhibitor (trifluralin). Recovery after exposure to the binary mixture of atrazine and isoproturon was fast and concentration-independent: no significant differences between relative growth rates (RGRs) in any of the mixtures (IC10 Mix , 25 Mix , and 50 Mix ) versus control level were recorded in the last interval of the recovery phase. The recovery of the plants exposed to binary and ternary mixtures of dissimilarly acting herbicides was strictly concentration-dependent. Only plants exposed to IC10 Mix , regardless of the herbicides, recovered RGRs close to control level in the last interval of the recovery phase. The inhibition of the RGRs in the last interval of the recovery phase compared with the control level is a proposed endpoint that could inform on reversibility of the effects and indicate possible mixture effects on plant population recovery potential.

  17. Exposure to superfluous information reduces cooperation and increases antisocial punishment in reputation-based interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel edos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is often based on reputation gained from previous interactions with third parties. Such reputation can be built on generous or punitive actions, and both, one’s own reputation and the reputation of others have been shown to influence decision making in experimental games that control for confounding variables. Here we test how reputation-based cooperation and punishment react to disruption of the cognitive processing in different kinds of helping games with observers. Saying a few superfluous words before each interaction was used to possibly interfere with working memory. In a first set of experiments, where reputation could only be based on generosity, the disruption reduced the frequency of cooperation and lowered mean final payoffs. In a second set of experiments where reputation could only be based on punishment, the disruption increased the frequency of antisocial punishment (i.e. of punishing those who helped and reduced the frequency of punishing defectors. Our findings suggest that working memory can easily be constraining in reputation-based interactions within experimental games, even if these games are based on a few simple rules with a visual display that provides all the information the subjects need to play the strategies predicted from current theory. Our findings also highlight a weakness of experimental games, namely that they can be very sensitive to environmental variation and that quantitative conclusions about antisocial punishment or other behavioral strategies can easily be misleading.

  18. Eliciting adverse effects data from participants in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Elizabeth N; Chandler, Clare Ir; Mandimika, Nyaradzo; Leisegang, Cordelia; Barnes, Karen

    2018-01-16

    Analysis of drug safety in clinical trials involves assessing adverse events (AEs) individually or by aggregate statistical synthesis to provide evidence of likely adverse drug reactions (ADR). While some AEs may be ascertained from physical examinations or tests, there is great reliance on reports from participants to detect subjective symptoms, where he/she is often the only source of information. There is no consensus on how these reports should be elicited, although it is known that questioning methods influence the extent and nature of data detected. This leaves room for measurement error and undermines comparisons between studies and pooled analyses. This review investigated comparisons of methods used in trials to elicit participant-reported AEs. This should contribute to knowledge about the methodological challenges and possible solutions for achieving better, or more consistent, AE ascertainment in trials. To systematically review the research that has compared methods used within clinical drug trials (or methods that would be specific for such trials) to elicit information about AEs defined in the protocol or in the planning for the trial. Databases (searched to March 2015 unless indicated otherwise) included: Embase; MEDLINE; MEDLINE in Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations; Cochrane Methodology Register (July 2012); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (February 2015); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (January 2015); Health Technology Assessment database (January 2015); CINAHL; CAB Abstracts; BIOSIS (July 2013); Science Citation Index; Social Science Citation Index; Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. The search used thesaurus headings and synonyms for the following concepts: (A): Adverse events AND measurement; (B): Participants AND elicitation (also other synonyms for extraction of information about adverse effects from people); (C): Participants AND checklists (also other

  19. Effective doses and standardised risk factors from paediatric diagnostic medical radiation exposures: Information for radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibbo, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    In the paediatric medical radiation setting, there is no consistency on the radiation risk information conveyed to the consumer (patient/carer). Each communicator may convey different information about the level of risk for the same radiation procedure, leaving the consumer confused and frustrated. There is a need to standardise risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. In this study, paediatric radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examination data have been analysed to provide (i) effective doses and radiation induced cancer risk factors from common radiological and nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in standardised formats, (II) awareness of the difficulties that may be encountered in communicating risks to the layperson, and (iii) an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation so that the risk communicator can convey with confidence the risks resulting from medical radiation exposures. Paediatric patient dose data from general radiographic, computed tomography, fluoroscopic and nuclear medicine databases have been analysed in age groups 0 to <5 years, 5 to <10 years, 10 to <15 years and 15 to <18 years to determine standardised risk factors. Mean, minimum and maximum effective doses and the corresponding mean lifetime risks for general radiographic, fluoroscopic, CT and nuclear medicine examinations for different age groups have been calculated. For all examinations, the mean lifetime cancer induction risk is provided in three formats: statistical, fraction and category. Standardised risk factors for different radiological and nuclear medicine examinations and an overview of the deleterious effects of ionising radiation and the difficulties encountered in communicating the risks should facilitate risk communication to the patient/carer.

  20. Selective Exposure to and Acquisition of Information from Educational Television Programs as a Function of Appeal and Tempo of Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakshlag, Jacob J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The effect of educational television background music on selective exposure and information acquisition was studied. Background music of slow tempo, regardless of its appeal, had negligible effects on attention and information acquisition. Rhythmic, fast-tempo background music, especially when appealing, significantly reduced visual attention to…

  1. Spatial gradients of OCPs in European butter--integrating environmental and exposure information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jana; Müller, Anne; Vives, Ingrid; Mariani, Giulio; Umlauf, Gunther

    2013-05-01

    The Stockholm Convention and the Global Monitoring Plan encourage the production of monitoring data to effectively evaluate the presence of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all regions, in order to identify changes in levels over time, as well as to provide information on their regional and global environmental transport. Here, we report the first step of two to investigate whether butter is a feasible matrix to screen with the purpose to reflect regional ambient atmospheric air levels of POPs. The first step described here is to generate monitoring data; the second is to investigate the relationship between the two matrixes, i.e., POP concentrations in air and butter, which will be reported in another article published in this journal. Here, the 27 organochlorine pesticides listed under the Stockholm Convention have been analyzed in 75 butter samples from Europe. The general conclusions were as follows: Total organochlorine pesticide concentration is lower in butter from northern and central Europe. The spatial gradient of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane and hexachlorocyclohexane is increasing in the eastern region of Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, and Ukraine), dieldrin towards France, and endosulfan levels were elevated on the Azores Island in the Atlantic Ocean. One butter sample from Romania exceeded the European Maximum Residue Limit value for lindane, but the other butter pesticide levels were all below the limit values. The dataset reported here can be used for the calibration of the air-grass-dairy products model, which would support the feasibility to use butter as biomonitor for measuring POP levels in ambient air.

  2. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. How Can a Computer be Useful to You? A Feasibility Study to Elicit Perceptions of Computers in Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavnani, Suresh K.; Chavan, Apala L.; Jain, Isha; Maroo, Sudhanshoo

    2011-01-01

    The growing influx of information and communication technologies (ICTs) into rural India provides new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of diseases across millions of residents. However, little is known about how rural Indians with little or no exposure to computers perceive computers and their uses, and how best to elicit those perceptions. Such perceptions could lead to new insights for using ICTs to affect health behavior change in developing countries. We therefore developed a semi-structured interview approach to probe how residents of a north Indian village perceived computers and their uses. The results suggest that besides helping to overturn several assumptions of the researchers through unexpected insights, the approach could be easily implemented in rural settings, which could lead to deeper insights for developing future culturally and medically-relevant ICTs for rural residents. PMID:22195062

  4. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko eOkamoto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  5. Evaluating Expert Estimators Based on Elicited Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Karna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of expert effort estimation approach shows promising results when it is applied to software development process. It is based on judgment and decision making process and due to comparative advantages extensively used especially in situations when classic models cannot be accounted for. This becomes even more accentuated in today’s highly dynamical project environment. Confronted with these facts companies are placing ever greater focus on their employees, specifically on their competences. Competences are defined as knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform job assignments. During effort estimation process different underlying expert competences influence the outcome i.e. judgments they express. Special problem here is the elicitation, from an input collection, of those competences that are responsible for accurate estimates. Based on these findings different measures can be taken to enhance estimation process. The approach used in study presented in this paper was targeted at elicitation of expert estimator competences responsible for production of accurate estimates. Based on individual competences scores resulting from performed modeling experts were ranked using weighted scoring method and their performance evaluated. Results confirm that experts with higher scores in competences identified by applied models in general exhibit higher accuracy during estimation process. For the purpose of modeling data mining methods were used, specifically the multilayer perceptron neural network and the classification and regression decision tree algorithms. Among other, applied methods are suitable for the purpose of elicitation as in a sense they mimic the ways human brains operate. Data used in the study was collected from real projects in the company specialized for development of IT solutions in telecom domain. The proposed model, applied methodology for elicitation of expert competences and obtained results give evidence that in

  6. Sustained Hypoxia Elicits Competing Spinal Mechanisms of Phrenic Motor Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinney, Michael J; Nichols, Nicole L; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2016-07-27

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal motor plasticity. Competing mechanisms give rise to phrenic motor facilitation (pMF; a general term including pLTF) depending on the severity of hypoxia within episodes. In contrast, moderate acute sustained hypoxia (mASH) does not elicit pMF. By varying the severity of ASH and targeting competing mechanisms of pMF, we sought to illustrate why moderate AIH (mAIH) elicits pMF but mASH does not. Although mAIH elicits serotonin-dependent pLTF, mASH does not; thus, mAIH-induced pLTF is pattern sensitive. In contrast, severe AIH (sAIH) elicits pLTF through adenosine-dependent mechanisms, likely from greater extracellular adenosine accumulation. Because serotonin- and adenosine-dependent pMF interact via cross talk inhibition, we hypothesized that pMF is obscured because the competing mechanisms of pMF are balanced and offsetting during mASH. Here, we demonstrate the following: (1) blocking spinal A2A receptors with MSX-3 reveals mASH-induced pMF; and (2) sASH elicits A2A-dependent pMF. In anesthetized rats pretreated with intrathecal A2A receptor antagonist injections before mASH (PaO2 = 40-54 mmHg) or sASH (PaO2 = 25-36 mmHg), (1) mASH induced a serotonin-dependent pMF and (2) sASH induced an adenosine-dependent pMF, which was enhanced by spinal serotonin receptor inhibition. Thus, competing adenosine- and serotonin-dependent mechanisms contribute differentially to pMF depending on the pattern/severity of hypoxia. Understanding interactions between these mechanisms has clinical relevance as we develop therapies to treat severe neuromuscular disorders that compromise somatic motor behaviors, including breathing. Moreover, these results demonstrate how competing mechanisms of plasticity can give rise to pattern sensitivity in pLTF. Intermittent hypoxia elicits pattern-sensitive spinal plasticity and improves motor function after spinal injury or during neuromuscular disease

  7. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    ) showed that 61 % of citizens between 18-33 years old name ‘Facebook’ when being asked where they have received information about politics in the last week; for 34-49 year Facebook is still the main source for political information this age group. But while we watch the digitalization undermining formerly...... distinct channels’ monopole to political information (e.g. TV, print, radio), the effects of this new exposure situation are rather unclear. Following the Habermasian ideal (Habermas, 1991), political information is essential for a functioning democracy, but if the access and use of this information...

  8. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol - 2 allergens in oak moss absolute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.D.; Bernard, G.; Gimenez-Arnau, E.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroatranol and atranol are degradation products of chloroatranorin and atranorin, respectively, and have recently been identified as important contact allergens in the natural fragrance extract, oak moss absolute. Oak moss absolute is widely used in perfumery and is the cause of many cases...... of fragrance allergic contact dermatitis. Chloroatranol elicits reactions at very low levels of exposure. In oak moss absolute, chloroatranol and atranol are present together and both may contribute to the allergenicity and eliciting capacity of the natural extract. In this study, 10 eczema patients with known...... sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss absolute were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar concentrations (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency...

  9. Proposal for a five-step method to elicit expert judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Duco; Stoel, Diederick; Zondervan - Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van de Schoot, Rens

    2017-01-01

    Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts' prior knowledge in the

  10. PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO METHYLMERCURY AND PCBS AFFECTS DISTINCT STAGES OF INFORMATION PROCESSING: AN EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL STUDY WITH INUIT CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Bastien, Célyne H.; Saint-Amour, Dave; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Muckle, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are seafood contaminants known for their adverse effects on neurodevelopment. This study examines the relation of developmental exposure to these contaminants to information processing assessed with event-related potentials (ERPs) in school-aged Inuit children from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). In a prospective longitudinal study on child development, exposure to contaminants was measured at birth and 11 years of age. An auditory oddball protocol was administered at 11 years to measure ERP components N1 and P3b. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of levels of the contaminants to auditory oddball performance (mean reaction time, omission errors and false alarms) and ERP parameters (latency and amplitude) after control for potential confounding variables. A total of 118 children provided useable ERP data. Prenatal MeHg exposure was associated with slower reaction times and fewer false alarms during the oddball task. Analyses of the ERP parameters revealed that prenatal MeHg exposure was related to greater amplitude and delayed latency of the N1 wave in the target condition but not to the P3b component. MeHg effects on the N1 were stronger after control for seafood nutrients. Prenatal PCB exposure was not related to any endpoint for sample as a whole but was associated with a decrease in P3b amplitude in the subgroup of children who had been breast-fed for less than 3 months. Body burdens of MeHg and PCBs at 11 years were not related to any of the behavioural or ERP measures. These data suggest that prenatal MeHg exposure alters attentional mechanisms modulating early processing of sensory information. By contrast, prenatal PCB exposure appears to affect information processing at later stages, when the information is being consciously evaluated. These effects seem to be mitigated in children who are breast-fed for a more extended period. PMID:20403381

  11. Can a rapid measure of self-exposure to drugs of abuse provide dimensional information on depression comorbidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butelman, Eduardo Roque; Bacciardi, Silvia; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Darst-Campbell, Maya; Correa da Rosa, Joel; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2017-09-01

    Addictions to heroin or to cocaine are associated with substantial psychiatric comorbidity, including depression. Poly-drug self-exposure (eg, to heroin, cocaine, cannabis, or alcohol) is also common, and may further affect depression comorbidity. This case-control study examined the relationship of exposure to the above drugs and depression comorbidity. Participants were recruited from methadone maintenance clinics, and from the community. Adult male and female participants (n = 1,201) were ascertained consecutively by experienced licensed clinicians. The instruments used were the SCID-I, and Kreek-McHugh-Schluger-Kellogg (KMSK) scales, which provide a rapid dimensional measure of maximal lifetime self-exposure to each of the above drugs. This measure ranges from no exposure to high unit dose, high frequency, and long duration of exposure. A multiple logistic regression with stepwise variable selection revealed that increasing exposure to heroin or to cocaine was associated greater odds of depression, with all cases and controls combined. In cases with an opioid dependence diagnosis, increasing cocaine exposure was associated with a further increase in odds of depression. However, in cases with a cocaine dependence diagnosis, increasing exposure to either cannabis or alcohol, as well as heroin, was associated with a further increase in odds of depression. This dimensional analysis of exposure to specific drugs provides insights on depression comorbidity with addictive diseases, and the impact of poly-drug exposure. A rapid analysis of exposure to drugs of abuse reveals how specific patterns of drug and poly-drug exposure are associated with increasing odds of depression. This approach detected quantitatively how different patterns of poly-drug exposure can result in increased odds of depression comorbidity, in cases diagnosed with opioid versus cocaine dependence. (Am J Addict 2017;26:632-639). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  13. The mere exposure effect is sensitive to color information: evidence for color effects in a perceptual implicit memory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupbach, Almut; Melzer, André; Hardt, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Priming effects in perceptual tests of implicit memory are assumed to be perceptually specific. Surprisingly, changing object colors from study to test did not diminish priming in most previous studies. However, these studies used implicit tests that are based on object identification, which mainly depends on the analysis of the object shape and therefore operates color-independently. The present study shows that color effects can be found in perceptual implicit tests when the test task requires the processing of color information. In Experiment 1, reliable color priming was found in a mere exposure design (preference test). In Experiment 2, the preference test was contrasted with a conceptually driven color-choice test. Altering the shape of object from study to test resulted in significant priming in the color-choice test but eliminated priming in the preference test. Preference judgments thus largely depend on perceptual processes. In Experiment 3, the preference and the color-choice test were studied under explicit test instructions. Differences in reaction times between the implicit and the explicit test suggest that the implicit test results were not an artifact of explicit retrieval attempts. In contrast with previous assumptions, it is therefore concluded that color is part of the representation that mediates perceptual priming.

  14. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  15. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  16. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride: analysis of patch test dose-response studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli; Midander, Klara; Menné, Torkil; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level of cobalt is important. To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. On the basis of five included studies, the ED10 values of aqueous cobalt chloride ranged between 0.0663 and 1.95 µg cobalt/cm(2), corresponding to 30.8-259 ppm. Our analysis provides an overview of the doses of cobalt that are required to elicit allergic cobalt contactdermatitis in sensitized individuals, and thereby the basis for future prevention of cobalt allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural products that have been recovered by such approaches from the phylum Actinobacteria. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Critical decision method: a technique for eliciting concrete assessment indicators from the intuition of NICU nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, B; Getchell-Reiter, K

    1993-09-01

    Two studies supporting the use of the Critical Decision method (CDM) in eliciting knowledge from expert neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) nurses are presented. The first examines the utility of CDM in the nursing profession. In this study, significantly more information was elicited in CDM interviews than in non-CDM interviews. In the second study, cues, indicators, and exemplars were extracted from CDM incident accounts to form a guide to early sepsis assessment in the NICU that contains information not available in the current literature. All evaluators rated the guide as useful. Implications for future research, including generalizability to other areas of nursing, are discussed.

  19. Immunological responses elicited by different infection regimes with Strongyloides ratti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Paterson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections are a ubiquitous feature of vertebrate life. In nature, such nematode infections are acquired by continued exposure to infective stages over a prolonged period of time. By contrast, experimental laboratory infections are typically induced by the administration of a single (and often large dose of infective stages. Previous work has shown that the size of an infection dose can have significant effects on anti-nematode immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of different infection regimes of Strongyloides ratti, comparing single and repeated dose infections, on the host immune response that was elicited. We considered and compared infections of the same size, but administered in different ways. We considered infection size in two ways: the maximum dose of worms administered and the cumulative worm exposure time. We found that both infection regimes resulted in Th2-type immune response, characterised by IL4 and IL13 produced by S. ratti stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and intestinal rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII production. We observed some small quantitative immunological differences between different infection regimes, in which the concentration of IL4, IL13, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and IgG(2a and RMCPII were affected. However, these differences were quantitatively relatively modest compared with the temporal dynamics of the anti-S. ratti immune response as a whole.

  20. Quantifying catchment water balances and their uncertainties by expert elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure

  1. Integrating Effectiveness, Transparency and Fairness into a Value Elicitation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortier, Michael; Sheng, Grant

    2001-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of Canada's proposed nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Panel (FEARP) undertook an extensive, nation-wide public hearing process. The hearing process itself was contentious and has been criticized on numerous grounds. It is our contention that the fundamental weakness of the FEARP process was that it was designed as an information-based forum, as opposed to a value-based forum.' Our observations and analyses of these hearings indicate that the FEARP envisioned a different purpose and a different outcome of this process than the public in general. As a result, public acceptability for the Concept or even the assessment process itself was not garnered due to a failure in the process to identify, address and incorporate values. To address this, we proposed a seven-step value elicitation process specifically designed to assess public acceptability of the disposal concept. An unfortunate consequence of the flawed public consultation process employed by the FEARP is that it is unclear exactly what it is the public finds unacceptable. Both from discussions and observations, it is difficult to ascertain whether the unacceptability lies with the Concept itself and/or the process by which the Concept was to be assessed. As a result, there is uncertainty as to what questions should be asked and how should the 'unacceptability' be addressed. In other words, does Canada need a new concept? Does Canada need to develop a mechanism for assessing the public acceptability of the Concept? Or both? The inability of the current process to answer such fundamental questions demonstrates the importance of developing an effective public acceptability and consultation process. We submit that, to create an acceptable Public Participation mechanism, it is necessary to found the construction of such a mechanism on the principles of effectiveness, transparency and fairness. Moreover, we believe that the larger decision

  2. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  3. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibanez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesus; Alguacil, Juan; Hera, Manuela Garcia de la; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  4. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M Granger

    2014-05-20

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.

  5. A Population-Based Case-Control Study of Drinking-Water Nitrate and Congenital Anomalies Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Develop Individual-Level Exposure Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtby, Caitlin E.; Guernsey, Judith R.; Allen, Alexander C.; VanLeeuwen, John A.; Allen, Victoria M.; Gordon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies and epidemiological evidence suggest an association between prenatal exposure to drinking water with elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations and incidence of congenital anomalies. This study used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to derive individual-level prenatal drinking-water nitrate exposure estimates from measured nitrate concentrations from 140 temporally monitored private wells and 6 municipal water supplies. Cases of major congenital anomalies in Kings County, Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 2006 were selected from province-wide population-based perinatal surveillance databases and matched to controls from the same databases. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was performed to test for an association between drinking-water nitrate exposure and congenital anomalies after adjusting for clinically relevant risk factors. Employing all nitrate data there was a trend toward increased risk of congenital anomalies for increased nitrate exposure levels though this was not statistically significant. After stratification of the data by conception before or after folic acid supplementation, an increased risk of congenital anomalies for nitrate exposure of 1.5–5.56 mg/L (2.44; 1.05–5.66) and a trend toward increased risk for >5.56 mg/L (2.25; 0.92–5.52) was found. Though the study is likely underpowered, these results suggest that drinking-water nitrate exposure may contribute to increased risk of congenital anomalies at levels below the current Canadian maximum allowable concentration. PMID:24503976

  6. Eliciting Parents' Individual Requirements for an Inclusive Digital School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftring, Håkan; Rassmus-Gröhn, Kirsten; Hedvall, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Parents often have a busy time sorting out their life puzzles, including getting information about their children's activities in school. More and more communication between teachers and parents take place via digital school systems. It can be hard for parents to find the information they are looking for and the teacher decides when information is sent and what communication method to use. All parents, but especially parents with disabilities, might have individual preferences on how to receive information and how to adapt meetings at school. In this paper we present a project where we involved parents and teachers in focus groups, an idea workshop and iterative user trials of a digital prototype. The goal was to elicit parents' individual requirements for an inclusive digital school system, where they can store their individual preferences about how and when to receive information from school and what requirements they have on meetings at school. Preliminary results show that we managed to create open and focused discussions among parents and teachers. The parents reacted very positively on an onboarding page with the possibility to quickly and easily enter preferences after their first log in, but more work needs to be done on how preferences are categorized on the onboarding page. Finally, parents need to get clear feedback from teachers and school when they have entered or updated preferences, so they can trust that their preferences will be met.

  7. The impact of an international initiative on exposures to liquid laundry detergent capsules reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service between 2008 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Rachael; Eddleston, Michael; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John P; Vale, J Allister

    2017-03-01

    Although the majority of those exposed to liquid laundry detergent capsules remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor clinical features after exposure, a small proportion develop central nervous system depression, stridor, pulmonary aspiration and/or airway burns following ingestion or conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration following eye exposure. As a consequence, the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (AISE) established a Product Stewardship Programme in Europe, requiring that safety measures be implemented to reduce the visibility of, and restrict access to, these detergent capsules by small children. Implementation occurred in the United Kingdom over several months during the first half of 2013. This study investigated whether the AISE Programme had an impact on the number and severity of exposures reported to the United Kingdom National Poisons Information Service. Telephone enquiries to the National Poisons Information Service relating to liquid laundry detergent capsules were analysed for the period January 2008 to December 2015. While there was a significant difference (p = 0.0002) between the mean number of annual exposures (469.4) reported between 2008 and 2012 and the mean number reported between 2014 and 2015 (403.5), the number of exposures was decreasing steadily prior to implementation of the Programme in 2013, which did not impact this fall from 2013 onwards. In addition, the number of exposures per million units sold was not impacted by the Programme. There was no significant difference (p = 0.68) between the mean number of exposures (11.8) with PSS ≥2 reported between 2008 and 2012 and the mean number (13.0) reported between 2014 and 2015. Although there was a 28.7% decrease between 2010-2012 and 2014-2015 in the number of exposures with PSS ≥2 per million units sold, this decrease was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). There is no evidence that the Product Stewardship Programme had a

  8. Engineered Nanomaterials Elicit Cellular Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials are being developed continuously and incorporated into consumer products, resulting in increased human exposures. The study of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on toxicity endpoints without further investigating potential mechanisms or pathway...

  9. Does Digital Ad Exposure Influence Information-Seeking Behavior Online? Evidence From the 2012 Tips From Former Smokers National Tobacco Prevention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; Alexander, Robert; Rowland, Amy; Mitchko, Jane

    2016-03-16

    Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when exposed but visit the promoted website or conduct campaign-related searches later. Online panels that unobtrusively collect panelists' Web behavior data and link ad exposure to website visits and searches can more reliably assess the impact of digital ad exposure. From March to June 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aired the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips 2012) media campaign designed to encourage current smokers to quit. Advertisements ran across media channels, and the digital ads directed users to the Tips 2012 campaign website. Our aim was to examine whether exposure to Tips 2012 digital ads influenced information-seeking behaviors online. ComScore mined its panelists' Web behavior data for unique codes that would indicate exposure to Tips 2012 ads, regardless of whether panelists clicked the ad or not. A total of 15,319 US adults were identified as having been exposed to a Tips 2012 campaign ad. An equal number of unexposed adults (N=15,319) were identified and matched on demographics and Internet use behavior to the exposed group. Panelists' Web behavior data were mined for up to 4 weeks after initial Tips 2012 ad exposure to determine whether they visited the Tips 2012 campaign website or other cessation-related websites (eg, nicotine replacement therapy site) or conducted searches for campaign-related topics (eg, quit smoking). The proportion of exposed adults visiting the Tips 2012 sites increased from 0.4% in Week 1 to 0.9% 4 weeks after ad exposure, and these rates were significantly higher than in the unexposed group (0.1% in Week 1 to 0.4% in Week 4, Pcampaign-related topics between

  10. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ELICIT: An alternative imprecise weight elicitation technique for use in multi-criteria decision analysis for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Sanogo, Vassiki; Moussa, Kouame Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the readers are introduced to ELICIT, an imprecise weight elicitation technique for multicriteria decision analysis for healthcare. The application of ELICIT consists of two steps: the rank ordering of evaluation criteria based on decision-makers' (DMs) preferences using the principal component analysis; and the estimation of criteria weights and their descriptive statistics using the variable interdependent analysis and the Monte Carlo method. The application of ELICIT is illustrated with a hypothetical case study involving the elicitation of weights for five criteria used to select the best device for eye surgery. The criteria were ranked from 1-5, based on a strict preference relationship established by the DMs. For each criterion, the deterministic weight was estimated as well as the standard deviation and 95% credibility interval. ELICIT is appropriate in situations where only ordinal DMs' preferences are available to elicit decision criteria weights.

  12. Information sources, awareness and preventive health behaviors in a population at risk of Arsenic exposure: The role of gender and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Frédéric; Távora, Renata; Nakano, Eduardo Yoshio; Castilhos, Zuleica Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As) exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 460 participants (294 women and 166 men) to collect data on respondent's socio-demographic characteristics, use of mass media and social communication networks as sources of information on As issues, the trustworthiness of these information sources, awareness of As health effects, and adoption of behaviors to reduce As exposure. For both men and women, interpersonal communication was used and trusted more frequently than mass media to obtain information on As. Discussion of As issues occurred preferentially among individuals of the same gender and was associated with awareness of As health risks. There are marked differences in variables correlated with the adoption of behaviors to reduce the risk of As exposure between men and women. Discussing As issues with women was associated with adoption of risk-reduction practices for both genders. In contrast, men who discuss As issues with other men were less likely to adopt As exposure prevention behaviors. Finally, adoption was associated with awareness of As health effects for women, but this was not the case for men. Policy implications for decision makers, practitioners and researchers are discussed, based on concrete examples of how gender-specific approaches can effectively guide the formulation and implementation of health promotion campaigns and

  13. Information sources, awareness and preventive health behaviors in a population at risk of Arsenic exposure: The role of gender and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Mertens

    Full Text Available The population of Paracatu is at risk of Arsenic (As exposure associated with long-term exploration of the largest open pit gold mine in Brazil. As part of the interdisciplinary research "The Paracatu project: Arsenic environmental contamination and human health risks assessment in Paracatu-MG", carried out between 2011 and 2013, we used data disaggregated by gender to identify the sources of As-related information being accessed by inhabitants of Paracatu and to examine if access to these sources was correlated to awareness of As health effects and adoption of behaviors to reduce risk of As exposure. Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were carried out with 460 participants (294 women and 166 men to collect data on respondent's socio-demographic characteristics, use of mass media and social communication networks as sources of information on As issues, the trustworthiness of these information sources, awareness of As health effects, and adoption of behaviors to reduce As exposure. For both men and women, interpersonal communication was used and trusted more frequently than mass media to obtain information on As. Discussion of As issues occurred preferentially among individuals of the same gender and was associated with awareness of As health risks. There are marked differences in variables correlated with the adoption of behaviors to reduce the risk of As exposure between men and women. Discussing As issues with women was associated with adoption of risk-reduction practices for both genders. In contrast, men who discuss As issues with other men were less likely to adopt As exposure prevention behaviors. Finally, adoption was associated with awareness of As health effects for women, but this was not the case for men. Policy implications for decision makers, practitioners and researchers are discussed, based on concrete examples of how gender-specific approaches can effectively guide the formulation and implementation of health promotion

  14. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  15. Using the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) to Generate Effects Data for Informing Environmental Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    to prevent the organism from contacting the pump. An NTU-TSS (Total Suspended Solids in mg/L) relationship is established by gravimetric analysis...measurements recorded at specified intervals by the computer. The TSS measurements are used to develop exposure concentrations because they quantify the...considered when selecting an exposure concentration and duration. Factors considered included dredge method (e.g., type, speed, and duration

  16. There is an app for that - Development and validation of a smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik; de Vreese, Claes Holger

    smartphones can be used in public opinion research by conducting a nationwide, representative five wave online panel-study in Denmark, including innovative smartphone-based survey elements. The study contributes to the question how media use affects the public engagement and political participation...... of the citizen and focuses on the Danish case. First results are available at the end of 2014. In todays’ high choice media environment (Prior, 2007), with innumerable short-term exposures (e.g. on social media), it is increasingly difficult to measure exposure to specific content and trace it back...... to attitudinal changes or actions of an individual. This study assesses citizens’ exposure to political information across different media and connects it with their public engagement and political participation. The high demands on respondents’ memory as well as the restrictiveness to only a few media outlets...

  17. Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Carl; Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Caneco, Bruno; Walker, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of such installation activities. Quantification of such complex risk problems is difficult and much of the key information is not readily available. Expert elicitation methods can be employed in such pressing cases. We describe the methodology used in an expert elicitation study conducted in the United Kingdom for combining expert opinions based on statistical distributions and copula-like methods.

  18. LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS IN THE PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS ELICITATION PROBLEM: AN APPLICATION TO THE 2013 FIFA CONFEDERATIONS CUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo de Carvalho Bezerra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Contributions from the sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the linear programming model for the elicitation of experts' beliefs are presented. The process allows for the calibration of the family of probability distributions obtained in the elicitation process. An experiment to obtain the probability distribution of a future event (Brazil vs. Spain soccer game in the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup final game was conducted. The proposed sensitivity analysis step may help to reduce the vagueness of the information given by the expert.

  19. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  20. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  1. Using process elicitation and validation to understand and improve chemotherapy ordering and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Wilson C; Christov, Stefan C; Avrunin, George S; Clarke, Lori A; Osterweil, Leon J; Cassells, Lucinda J; Marquard, Jenna L

    2012-11-01

    Chemotherapy ordering and administration, in which errors have potentially severe consequences, was quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated by employing process formalism (or formal process definition), a technique derived from software engineering, to elicit and rigorously describe the process, after which validation techniques were applied to confirm the accuracy of the described process. The chemotherapy ordering and administration process, including exceptional situations and individuals' recognition of and responses to those situations, was elicited through informal, unstructured interviews with members of an interdisciplinary team. The process description (or process definition), written in a notation developed for software quality assessment purposes, guided process validation (which consisted of direct observations and semistructured interviews to confirm the elicited details for the treatment plan portion of the process). The overall process definition yielded 467 steps; 207 steps (44%) were dedicated to handling 59 exceptional situations. Validation yielded 82 unique process events (35 new expected but not yet described steps, 16 new exceptional situations, and 31 new steps in response to exceptional situations). Process participants actively altered the process as ambiguities and conflicts were discovered by the elicitation and validation components of the study. Chemotherapy error rates declined significantly during and after the project, which was conducted from October 2007 through August 2008. Each elicitation method and the subsequent validation discussions contributed uniquely to understanding the chemotherapy treatment plan review process, supporting rapid adoption of changes, improved communication regarding the process, and ensuing error reduction.

  2. Can profiles of poly- and Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in human serum provide information on major exposure sources?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Xindi C; Dassuncao, Clifton; Zhang, Xianming

    2018-01-01

    ) and their precursors are ubiquitous in multiple exposure sources. However, their composition varies among sources, which may impact associated adverse health effects. METHODS: We use available PFAS concentrations from several demographic groups in a North Atlantic seafood consuming population (Faroe Islands......BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from diverse sources and this has been associated with negative health impacts. Advances in analytical methods have enabled routine detection of more than 15 PFASs in human sera, allowing better profiling of PFAS......) to explore whether chemical fingerprints in human sera provide insights into predominant exposure sources. We compare serum PFAS profiles from Faroese individuals to other North American populations to investigate commonalities in potential exposure sources. We compare individuals with similar demographic...

  3. Mechanism of phosphaturia elicited by administration of phosphonoformate in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanScoy, M.; Loghman-Adham, M.; Onsgard, M.; Szczepanska-Konkel, M.; Homma, Sumiko; Knox, F.G.; Dousa, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined whether phosphonoformate (PFA) can cause phosphaturia through its direct action on brush-border membrane (BBM) in vivo. Infusion of PFA or of parathyroid hormone (PTH) to thyroparathyroidectomized rats caused a marked increase in fractional excretion of phosphate without changes in excretion of Na + or of GFR. The PFA-induced phosphaturia was not accompanied by an increase in urinary adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP); moreover, PFA added in vitro did not influence the PTH-sensitive adenylate cyclase and cAMP-phosphodiesterase in proximal convoluted tubules. In BBM vesicles (BBMV) from rats with PFA-elicited phosphaturia, neither the rate of Na + -P i symport nor Na + -dependent binding of [ 14 C]PFA on BBMV was changed, whereas in BBMV from PTH-infused rats the V max of Na + -P i symport decreased. PFA is almost completely ultrafiltrable; no metabolic transformation of PFA was detected after [ 14 C]PFA exposure to rat renal cortical slices, homogenate, or to blood. They conclude that PFA causes phosphaturia by direct inhibition of Na + -P i symport across BBM in proximal tubules, acting from the luminal side. Thus PFA (foscarnet) has a unique direct mechanism of phosphaturic effect, via its action on P i reabsorption in proximal tubules in vivo

  4. Functional changes in the snail statocyst system elicited by microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Pavel M; Malyshev, Aleksey Y; Ierusalimsky, Victor N; Aseyev, Nikolay; Korshunova, Tania A; Bravarenko, Natasha I; Lemak, M S; Roshchin, Matvey; Zakharov, Igor S; Popova, Yekaterina; Boyle, Richard

    2011-03-29

    The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2) and 12-day (Foton M-3) exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i) the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L.), (ii) the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L.), and (iii) the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep) and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.). Experiments were performed 13-42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity changes. This simple animal model offers the possibility to describe general

  5. Functional changes in the snail statocyst system elicited by microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M Balaban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2 and 12-day (Foton M-3 exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L., (ii the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L., and (iii the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.. Experiments were performed 13-42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity

  6. Gamma flicker elicits positive affect without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerebout, Bram T; Tap, A E Yoram; Rotteveel, Mark; Phaf, R Hans

    2013-03-01

    High-frequency oscillations emerged as a neural code for both positive affect and fluent attentional processing from evolutionary simulations with artificial neural networks. Visual 50 Hz flicker, which entrains neural oscillations in the gamma band, has been shown to foster attentional switching, but can it also elicit positive affect? A three-faces display (2-female/1-male or 2-male/1-female) was preceded by a 50, 25, or 0 Hz flicker on the position of the odd-one-out (i.e., the target). Participants decided on the gender (Block 1) or on the subjective valence (Block 2) of this neutral target in an approach-avoidance task, which served as an implicit affective measure. Only the detection of 25 Hz flicker, but not of 50 Hz flicker, was above chance (Block 3). Faces primed by invisible 50 Hz flicker were explicitly evaluated more positively than with 25 Hz or 0 Hz. This gamma flicker also facilitated approach reactions, and inhibited avoidance reactions relative to 25 Hz and 0 Hz flicker in Blocks 1 and 2. Attentional switching was, moreover, enhanced by the 50 Hz flicker. According to the Affect-Gamma hypothesis, also in biological neural networks, high-frequency gamma oscillations may code for positive affect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Promoting environmental sustainability via an expert elicitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swor, Tom; Canter, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sustainability (ES) planning was applied to the 981-mile, commercially navigable Ohio River. Navigation improvement needs were identified within the broad study along with actions to restore aquatic and riparian ecological resources to a higher state of sustainability. The actions were identified via an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) involving aquatic and riparian/terrestrial experts knowledgeable of Ohio River resources. The received information was synthesized into goals for the selected resources (Valued Ecosystem Components - or VECs), actions or measures to attain the goals, and monitoring to evaluate conditions. Finally, 26 types of ES actions were identified and classified into three ES alternatives. These alternatives were then evaluated relative to key decision criteria, and such evaluations, based on pertinent decision criteria, were also conducted for four navigation improvement alternatives. Finally, the best combination of ES and navigation alternatives was identified. The key lessons derived from this use of EEP were that: (1) EEP can support the preliminary identification of ES measures; however, more detailed study of specific designs and cost evaluations will be necessary; (2) the method promotes collaboration between key scientists and policymakers from governmental agencies and private sectors, and such collaboration will ultimately provide the foundation for implementation of sustainability actions; and (3) an effective EEP does not occur by accident, it requires careful planning, implementation, and documentation. - Research Highlights: → Use of an Expert Elicitation Process (EEP) is demonstrated in this study. → EEP was used to identify Environmental Sustainability (ES) needs for the Ohio River. → EEP helped develop consensus among resource experts on ES needs. → EEP promotes collaboration to identify and contribute to common resource goals. → EEP may be used in assessing cumulative effects and formulating restoration

  8. The use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment: a seven step procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Sluijs Jeroen P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental health impact assessments often have to deal with substantial uncertainties. Typically, the knowledge-base is limited with incomplete, or inconsistent evidence and missing or ambiguous data. Consulting experts can help to identify and address uncertainties. Methods Formal expert elicitation is a structured approach to systematically consult experts on uncertain issues. It is most often used to quantify ranges for poorly known parameters, but may also be useful to further develop qualitative issues such as definitions, assumptions or conceptual (causal models. A thorough preparation and systematic design and execution of an expert elicitation process may increase the validity of its outcomes and transparency and trustworthiness of its conclusions. Various expert elicitation protocols and methods exist. However, these are often not universally applicable, and need customization to suite the needs of a specific study. In this paper, we set out to develop a widely applicable method for the use of expert elicitation in environmental health impact assessment. Results We present a practical yet flexible seven step procedure towards organising expert elicitation in the context of environmental health impact assessment, based on existing protocols. We describe how customization for specific applications is always necessary. In particular, three issues affect the choice of methods for a particular application: the types of uncertainties considered, the intended use of the elicited information, and the available resources. We outline how these three considerations guide choices regarding the design and execution of expert elicitation. We present signposts to sources where the issues are discussed in more depth to give the newcomer the insights needed to make the protocol work. The seven step procedure is illustrated using examples from earlier published elicitations in the field of environmental health research

  9. Exposure to Bullying among Students with Autism Spectrum Conditions: A Multi-Informant Analysis of Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that children and young people with autism spectrum conditions are more likely to be bullied than those with other or no special educational needs. The aim of this study was to examine risk and protective factors that could help to explain variation in exposure to bullying within this group. A sample of 722 teachers…

  10. Implementation of an information system on the medical exposure to ionizing radiation; Mise en place d'un systeme d'information sur l'exposition medicale aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, C.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Sinno-Tellier, S. [Saint-Maurice (France)

    2005-10-15

    The national institute of sanitary surveillance (I.n.V.S.) and I.R.S.N. collaborate since 2003 to build a perennial information system on the medical exposure to ionizing radiation of the French population (Ex.P.R.I. system). These data will allow to update the estimation of the average annual dose per caput, and will inform on its distribution by sex, age and on the number of effectively exposed persons. Thanks to the common project of I.R.S.N. and I.n.V.S., to the contributions of illness assurance and professional, the data of exposure in 2002 will be updated and enriched. A report will be published at the beginning of 2009. (N.C.)

  11. Analysis of Students' Online Information Searching Strategies, Exposure to Internet Information Pollution and Cognitive Absorption Levels Based on Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Adile Askim; Emiroglu, Bülent Gürsel

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine students' online information searching strategies, their cognitive absorption levels and the information pollution levels on the Internet based on different variables and to determine the correlation between these variables. The study was designed with the survey model, the study group included 198…

  12. Self-regulation and selective exposure: the impact of depleted self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Frey, Dieter

    2008-03-01

    In the present research, the authors investigated the impact of self-regulation resources on confirmatory information processing, that is, the tendency of individuals to systematically prefer standpoint-consistent information to standpoint-inconsistent information in information evaluation and search. In 4 studies with political and economic decision-making scenarios, it was consistently found that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources exhibited a stronger tendency for confirmatory information processing than did individuals with nondepleted self-regulation resources. Alternative explanations based on processes of ego threat, cognitive load, and mood were ruled out. Mediational analyses suggested that individuals with depleted self-regulation resources experienced increased levels of commitment to their own standpoint, which resulted in increased confirmatory information processing. In sum, the impact of ego depletion on confirmatory information search seems to be more motivational than cognitive in nature.

  13. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explore the use of video and photo elicitation in a research study undertaken to understand the way in which preschool teachers perceive and construct their provision of children's educational experiences. We explore the value of visually elicited interviews based on video footage and photographs captured during ...

  14. A method to elicit beliefs as most likely intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlag, K.H.; van der Weele, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    We show how to elicit the beliefs of an expert in the form of a "most likely interval", a set of future outcomes that are deemed more likely than any other outcome. Our method, called the Most Likely Interval elicitation rule (MLI), asks the expert for an interval and pays according to how well the

  15. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  16. Belief elicitation in experiments: Is there a hedging problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results...

  17. Impact of information and in-home sensory exposure on liking and willingness to pay: The beginning of Fairtrade labeled coffee in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, C; Combris, P; Issanchou, S; Schlich, P

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to assess how the Fairtrade label interacts with the perception of intrinsic product characteristics on liking and purchase decisions and to estimate the evolution of this interaction after exposure to coffees and/or exposure to ethical information. In the first session, 119 consumers gave liking scores for 2 regular and 2 Fairtrade coffees under a blind tasting condition. Then, they were asked to indicate the maximum price they would pay for each product in 2 auctions taking place under different information conditions. In the first auction, participants saw the packaging but did not taste the coffee; in the second auction, they could both taste the coffee and see the packaging. After the first session, the consumers were randomly split into 4 groups, and these groups were exposed for one month to different conditions before returning to the lab for exactly the same measurements as in the first session. The first of the 4 groups was not exposed to sensory characteristics or ethical information. Each consumer of the second group was only exposed to sensory characteristics of the coffees (one packet of his/her least liked regular and ethical coffees delivered in blind packaging for home consumption). The third group was exposed to sensory characteristics and ethical information (the same as the second group but using the original coffee packaging showing fair trade information). The final group was only exposed to ethical information. Results showed that the hedonic scores of the least liked ethical and regular products increased from sessions 1 to 2, but not significantly more when consumers were exposed to these products between the sessions. However, while consumers offered lower prices for ethical products at the first session, those who were exposed to ethical information increased their willingness to pay for ethical products. This effect became statistically significant when consumers could taste the products before making their bid

  18. Pesticide exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A case-control study using a geographic information system (GIS) to link SEER-Medicare and California pesticide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Brooks, Maria M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O; Ruddell, Darren; Hart, Jaime E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, is associated with low survival. U.S. studies examining self-reported pesticide exposure in relation to HCC have demonstrated inconclusive results. We aimed to clarify the association between pesticide exposure and HCC by implementing a novel data linkage between Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare and California Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data using a geographic information system (GIS). Controls were frequency-matched to HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 in California by year, age, race, sex, and duration of residence in California. Potential confounders were extracted from Medicare claims. From 1974 to 2008, pounds (1 pound represents 0.45 kg) of applied organophosphate, organochlorine, and carbamate pesticides provided in PURs were aggregated to the ZIP Code level using area weighting in a GIS. ZIP Code exposure estimates were linked to subjects using Medicare-provided ZIP Codes to calculate pesticide exposure. Agricultural residents were defined as living in ZIP Codes with a majority area intersecting agricultural land cover according to the 1992, 2001, and 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) rasters. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between pesticide exposure and HCC. Among California residents of agriculturally intensive areas, previous annual ZIP Code-level exposure to over 14.53 kg/km(2) of organochlorine pesticides (75(th) percentile among controls) was associated with an increased risk of HCC after adjusting for liver disease and diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17, 2.99; p=0.0085). ZIP Code-level organochlorines were significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC among males (adjusted OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.58, 4.82; p=0.0004), but not associated with HCC among females (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.35, 1.93; p=0.6600) (interaction p=0.0075). This is

  19. Extracellular vesicle-driven information mediates the long-term effects of particulate matter exposure on coagulation and inflammation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavanello, Sofia; Bonzini, Matteo; Angelici, Laura; Motta, Valeria; Pergoli, Laura; Hoxha, Mirjam; Cantone, Laura; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Apostoli, Pietro; Tripodi, Armando; Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina

    2016-09-30

    Continuous exposure to particulate air pollution (PM) is a serious worldwide threat to public health as it coherently links with increased morbidity and mortality of cardiorespiratory diseases (CRD), and of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are circular plasma membrane fragments released from human cells that transfer microRNAs between tissues. In the present work it was explored the hypothesis that EVs with their encapsulated microRNAs (EVmiRNAs) contents might mediate PM effects by triggering key pathways in CRD and T2D. Expression of EVmiRNAs analyzed by real-time PCR was correlated with oxidative stress, coagulation and inflammation markers, from healthy steel plant workers (n=55) with a well-characterized exposure to PM and PM-associated metals. All p-values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. In-silico Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was performed to identify biological pathways regulated by PM-associated EVmiRNAs. Increased expression in 17 EVmiRNAs is associated with PM and metal exposure (pinflammation, coagulation and glucose homeostasis pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  1. Factors affecting osteoarthritis patients' self-reported goal-directed drug information-seeking behaviors after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising from physicians and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Farris, Karen B; Doucette, William R

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate appraisal of means (ie, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and affect) in predicting patients' goal-directed behaviors of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA)-prompted drug-information search from physicians and the internet. One thousand patients were randomly selected from a nationwide sample frame of 3000 osteoarthritis patients. A self-administered survey assessed exposure to DTCA, drug-information search as goal, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain. After 6 weeks, another survey measured the behavior of drug-information search for respondents to the first survey. Study subjects were those who were exposed to DTCA in the previous month, and who set drug-information search as their goal. For each information source, a multiple regression analysis was conducted in which drug-information search was the dependent variable, and self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, affect, and osteoarthritis pain were the independent variables. Among 454 patients who were exposed to DTCA, 174 patients set drug-information search as their goal and were the study subjects. The regression for physicians was not statistically significant. The regression for the internet was significant, accounting for 15% of behavior variance. Self-efficacy was a strong predictor of goal-directed drug-information search from the internet. Appraisal of means was useful to predict the goal-directed behavior of DTCA-prompted drug-information search from the internet. For patients who set drug-information search as a goal, actions to promote drug-information search from the internet need to focus on self-efficacy.

  2. Assessment of physical exposure in relation to work-related musculoskeletal disorders--what information can be obtained from systematic observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A

    1994-01-01

    Establishing an association between physical work load and work-related musculoskeletal disorders requires a quantitative assessment of exposure to the main risk factors. Commonly used methods are questionnaires, diaries, interviews, systematic observations, and direct measurements. While questionnaires provide subjective information and have low reliability, measurements are technically sophisticated, expensive, and unable to identify some important risk factors. Systematic observations offer a compromise. The observation methods devised during the past 15 years are described, together with their reliability and validity. Most of them use duration or frequency of certain postures or events as the main measure of exposure. Their ability to quantify the main risk factors posture, manual handling, and repetitive work differs. All available methods have drawbacks and have been used to a limited extent in epidemiologic studies. There have been improvements however, and it is concluded that observation methods will have a place in epidemiologic studies on musculoskeletal disorders.

  3. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    The relationship between the citizens, the media, and political actors in democracies has changed over the last decade, particularly in response to changes in the media environment, which are amplified by digital communication. Nowadays it’s nothing new that online media play a main role...... in citizens’ political media diet. Especially social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube offer an up-to-date stream of information, easy to tune in and with personalized content citizens (or at least their network) are interested in. A recent study by PEW (Mitchell, Gottfried & Matsa, 2015...... for young citizens in an election campaign. Second, it will concentrate on their social media use to gain not only gain information about the platform first time voters use, but digging deeper to distinguish between types of content their social media exposure to political information consists of. Third...

  4. Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dioxin Exposure Initiative (DEI) is no longer active. This page contains a summary of the dioxin exposure initiative with illustrations, contact and background information.Originally supported by scientist Matthew Lorber, who retired in Mar 2017.

  5. Exposure to bullying among students with autism spectrum conditions: a multi-informant analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Judith; Humphrey, Neil

    2014-08-01

    Research has consistently shown that children and young people with autism spectrum conditions are more likely to be bullied than those with other or no special educational needs. The aim of this study was to examine risk and protective factors that could help to explain variation in exposure to bullying within this group. A sample of 722 teachers and 119 parents reported on their child's experience of being bullied. This response variable was regressed onto a range of explanatory variables representing individual and contextual factors. The teacher- and parent-rated regression models were statistically significant, explaining large proportions of variance in exposure to bullying. Behaviour difficulties and increased age were associated with bullying in both models. Positive relationships and attending a special school were associated with a decrease in bullying in the teacher model, with use of public/school transport predicting an increase. In the parent model, special educational needs provision at School Action Plus (as opposed to having a Statement of Special Educational Needs) was a significant risk factor, and higher levels of parental engagement and confidence were associated with reductions in bullying. These findings are discussed in relation to the autism spectrum conditions literature, and opportunities for intervention are considered. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  7. Investigating Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses Elicited by Silver Nanoparticles Using High-Throughput Reporter Genes in HepG2 Cells: Effect of Size, Surface Coating, and Intracellular Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species; however, the association between physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles and cellular stress responses elicited by exposure has not been elucidated. Here, we examined three key...

  8. Variables associated with seeking information from doctors and the internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements for prescription medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Teichman, Chaim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with seeking information from doctors, the Internet, and a combination of both doctors and Internet after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisements. Data were analyzed from 462 college students. Younger age, women, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for doctor; women, subjective norms, intentions, and greater time since seen doctor were associated with greater odds for Internet; and African American, Hispanic, subjective norms, intentions, and health insurance were associated with greater odds for both doctor and Internet. Marketers of direct-to-consumer advertisements can use these findings for tailoring and targeting direct-to-consumer advertisements.

  9. Brief environmental enrichment elicits metaplasticity of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eManahan-Vaughan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term environmental enrichment (EE elicits enduring effects on the adult brain, including altered synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity may underlie memory formation and includes robust (>24h and weak (<2h forms of long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD. Most studies of the effect of EE on synaptic efficacy have examined the consequences of very prolonged EE-exposure. It is unclear whether brief exposure to EE can alter synaptic plasticity. Clarifying this issue could help develop strategies to address cognitive deficits arising from neglect in children or adults.We assessed whether short-term EE elicits alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and if social context may play a role. Adult mice were exposed to EE for 14 consecutive days. We found that robust late-LTP (>24h and short-term depression (<2h at Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses in freely behaving mice were unaltered, whereas early-LTP (E-LTP, <2h was significantly enhanced by EE. Effects were transient: E-LTP returned to control levels 1 week after cessation of EE. Six weeks later animals were re-exposed to EE for 14d. Under these conditions, E-LTP was facilitated into L-LTP (>24h, suggesting that metaplasticity was induced during the first EE experience and that EE-mediated modifications are cumulative. Effects were absent in mice that underwent solitary enrichment or were group-housed without EE. These data suggest that EE in naïve animals strengthens E-LTP, and also promotes L-LTP in animals that underwent EE in the past. This indicates that brief exposure to EE, particularly under social conditions can elicit lasting positive effects on synaptic strength that may have beneficial consequences for cognition that depends on synaptic plasticity.

  10. Eliciting ethical and social values in health technology assessment: A participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Abelson, Julia; Simeonov, Dorina; Gauvin, Francois-Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Despite a growing consensus that ethical and social values should be addressed in health technology assessment (HTA) processes, there exist a variety of methods for doing so. There is growing interest in involving citizens in policy development to ensure that decisions are legitimate, and reflect the broad social values of the public. We sought to bring these issues together by employing a participatory approach to elicit ethical and social values in HTA. Our primary objective was to elicit a set of ethical and social values from citizens that could be used to guide Ontario's HTA evidentiary review and appraisal process. A secondary objective was to explore the feasibility of using participatory approaches to elicit these values. A 14-person Citizens' Reference Panel on Health Technologies was established to provide input to the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee in developing its recommendations. A mixed methods approach was used where informed, deliberative discussions were combined with pre- and post-questionnaires, which assessed the relative importance of various ethical and social values as well as their stability over time. Over the course of five meetings, panel members progressed toward the identification of a set of core values -universal access, choice and quality care. These values were consistently prioritized as the core values that should be considered in the evaluation of health technologies and ensuing recommendations. Sustained and deliberative methods, like a citizens' panel, offer a promising approach for eliciting ethical and social values into HTA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  12. Social conflicts elicit an N400-like component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-12-01

    When people have different opinions, they often adjust their own attitude to match that of others, known as social conformity. How social conflicts trigger subsequent conformity remains unclear. One possibility is that a conflict with the group opinion is perceived as a violation of social information, analogous to using wrong grammar, and activates conflict monitoring and adjustment mechanisms. Using event related potential (ERP) recording combined with a face attractiveness judgment task, we investigated the neural encoding of social conflicts. We found that social conflicts elicit an N400-like negative deflection, being more negative for conflict with group opinions than no-conflict condition. The social conflict related signals also have a bi-directional profile similar to reward prediction error signals: it was more negative for under-estimation (i.e. one׳s own ratings were smaller than group ratings) than over-estimation, and the larger the differences between ratings, the larger the N400 amplitude. The N400 effects were significantly diminished in the non-social condition. We conclude that social conflicts are encoded in a bidirectional fashion in the N400-like component, similar to the pattern of reward-based prediction error signals. Our findings also suggest that the N400, a well-established ERP component encoding semantic violation, might be involved in social conflict processing and social learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparison of five elicitation techniques for elicitation of attributes of low involvement products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    1999-01-01

    The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from the comp......The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from...... of dimensions directed from theories of consumer buying behaviour. Although a number of differences between the techniques are identified in the study, the main findings are that the robustness of the different techniques for attribute elicitation is considerable Udgivelsesdato: JUN...

  14. The use of environmental metabolomics to determine glyphosate level of exposure in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Iben Lykke; Tomasi, Giorgio; Sorensen, Hilmer; Boll, Esther S.; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Christensen, Jan H., E-mail: jch@life.ku.dk [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    Metabolic profiling in plants can be used to differentiate between treatments and to search for biomarkers for exposure. A methodology for processing Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode-Array-Detection data is devised. This methodology includes a scheme for selecting informative wavelengths, baseline removal, retention time alignment, selection of relevant retention times, and principal component analysis (PCA). Plant crude extracts from rapeseed seedling exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate are used as a study case. Through this approach, plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M could be distinguished from the controls. The compounds responsible for this differentiation were partially identified and were different from those specific for high exposure samples, which suggests that two different responses to glyphosate are elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. The PCA loadings indicate that a combination of other metabolites could be more sensitive than the response of shikimate to detect glyphosate exposure. - Highlights: > A method for processing UHPLC-DAD data for plant metabolic profiling is devised. > The metabolic profiling approach is more sensitive to glyphosate exposure than shikimate. > Plants exposed to concentrations down to 5 {mu}M can be distinguished from the controls. > Two different responses to glyphosate may be elicited in rapeseed depending on the level of exposure. - A novel untargeted environmental metabololomic approach is used to detect low-level glyphosate exposure of rapeseed seedlings.

  15. Oncolytic Immunotherapy: Dying the Right Way is a Key to Eliciting Potent Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Sheng eGuo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses (OVs are novel immunotherapeutic agents whose anticancer effects come from both oncolysis and elicited antitumor immunity. OVs induce mostly immunogenic cancer cell death (ICD, including immunogenic apoptosis, necrosis/necroptosis, pyroptosis and autophagic cell death, leading to exposure of calreticulin and heat-shock proteins to the cell surface, and/or released ATP, high mobility group box-1 [HMGB1], uric acid, and other DAMPs as well as PAMPs as danger signals, along with tumor-associated antigens, to activate dendritic cells (DCs and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Dying the right way may greatly potentiate adaptive antitumor immunity. The mode of cancer cell death may be modulated by individual OVs and cancer cells as they often encode and express genes that inhibit/promote apoptosis, necroptosis or autophagic cell death. We can genetically engineer OVs with death-pathway-modulating genes and thus skew the infected cancer cells towards certain death pathways for the enhanced immunogenicity. Strategies combining with some standard therapeutic regimens may also change the immunological consequence of cancer cell death. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of danger signals, modes of cancer cell death induced by OVs, the induced danger signals and functions in eliciting subsequent antitumor immunity. We also discuss potential combination strategies to target cells into specific modes of ICD and enhance cancer immunogenicity, including blockade of immune checkpoints, in order to break immune tolerance, improve antitumor immunity and thus the overall therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Elicitation and validation of requirements-to-code traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Ghabi, Achraf

    2015-01-01

    eingereicht von: Achraf Ghabi Zusammenfassung in deutscher Sprache Parallelt. [Übers. des Autors]: Elicitation and validation of requirements-to-code traceability Universität Linz, Univ., Dissertation, 2015 OeBB

  17. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  18. Distributed and Collaborative Requirements Elicitation Based on Social Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bin; Luo, Z.; Liang, P.

    2012-01-01

    Requirements is the formal expression of user's needs. Also, requirements elicitation is the process of activity focusing on requirements collection. Traditional acquisition methods, such as interview, observation and prototype, are unsuited for the service-oriented software development featuring in

  19. Consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef. The impact of exposure to technological information about animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sawada, Manabu; Sato, Kazuo

    2011-10-01

    Novel food technologies, such as cloning, have been introduced into the meat production sector; however, their use is not widely supported by many consumers. This study was designed to assess whether Japanese consumers' attitudes toward consumption of cloned beef (specifically, beef derived from bovine embryo and somatic cell-cloned cattle) would change after they were provided with technological information on animal cloning through a web-based survey. The results revealed that most respondents did not discriminate between their attitudes toward the consumption of the two types of cloned beef, and that most respondents did not change their attitudes toward cloned beef after receiving the technological information. The respondents' individual characteristics, including their knowledge about the food safety of cloned beef and their basic knowledge about animal cloning, influenced the likelihood of a change in their attitudes after they received the information. In conclusion, some consumers might become less uncomfortable about the consumption of cloned beef by the straightforward provision of technological information about animal cloning; however, most consumers are likely to maintain their attitudes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Beneficial Auxiliary Role of Poison Information Centers: Stewardly Use of Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in a Time of Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gorodetsky

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the one-year period from May 2008 to May 2009, a nationwide shortage developed which rabies vaccine was not being produced by the manufacturers. In order to manage existing supply, a protocol was established wherein an authorization was required from the regional poison center before vaccine could be administered to a patient. Methods: The Georgia Poison Center internal database was accessed for information pertaining to rabies exposure calls for the time of the restriction, as well as the years before and after. Results were examined for the total number of human rabies exposure calls received by the poison center, as well as the number of cases in which PEP was recommended.  Results: During the restriction period, the number of rabies-related calls increased, while the percentage of cases in which PEP was recommended, remained consistent. The year following the restriction, the number of rabies related calls remained elevated. Conclusion: Our Regional Poison Center was able to make a positive impact by reducing unnecessary use of PEP in a time of shortage and thereby ensuring that all patients who needed the vaccine were able to receive it. This further shows the potential capacity of the poison information centers to optimize healthcare services.  

  1. Eliciting hyperparameters of prior distributions for the parameters of paired comparison models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA In the study of paired comparisons (PC, items may be ranked or issues may be prioritized through subjective assessment of certain judges. PC models are developed and then used to serve the purpose of ranking. The PC models may be studied through classical or Bayesian approach. Bayesian inference is a modern statistical technique used to draw conclusions about the population parameters. Its beauty lies in incorporating prior information about the parameters into the analysis in addition to current information (i.e. data. The prior and current information are formally combined to yield a posterior distribution about the population parameters, which is the work bench of the Bayesian statisticians. However, the problems the Bayesians face correspond to the selection and formal utilization of prior distribution. Once the type of prior distribution is decided to be used, the problem of estimating the parameters of the prior distribution (i.e. elicitation still persists. Different methods are devised to serve the purpose. In this study an attempt is made to use Minimum Chi-square (hence forth MCS for the elicitation purpose. Though it is a classical estimation technique, but is used here for the election purpose. The entire elicitation procedure is illustrated through a numerical data set.

  2. Green Software Engineering Adaption In Requirement Elicitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umma Khatuna Jannat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent technology investigates the role of concern in the environment software that is green software system. Now it is widely accepted that the green software can fit all process of software development. It is also suitable for the requirement elicitation process. Now a days software companies have used requirements elicitation techniques in an enormous majority. Because this process plays more and more important roles in software development. At the present time most of the requirements elicitation process is improved by using some techniques and tools. So that the intention of this research suggests to adapt green software engineering for the intention of existing elicitation technique and recommend suitable actions for improvement. This research being involved qualitative data. I used few keywords in my searching procedure then searched IEEE ACM Springer Elsevier Google scholar Scopus and Wiley. Find out articles which published in 2010 until 2016. Finding from the literature review Identify 15 traditional requirement elicitations factors and 23 improvement techniques to convert green engineering. Lastly The paper includes a squat review of the literature a description of the grounded theory and some of the identity issues related finding of the necessity for requirements elicitation improvement techniques.

  3. Sensory processing during kinesthetic aftereffect following illusory hand movement elicited by tendon vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Tomonori; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Yoneda, Tsugutake; Katamoto, Shizuo; Naito, Eiichi

    2006-10-09

    We investigated how the human sensory-motor system elicits a somatosensory aftereffect. Tendon vibration of a limb excites the muscle spindle afferents that contribute to eliciting illusory movements of the limb. After the cessation of vibration, a transient sensation in which the vibrated limb returns towards its original position (kinesthetic aftereffect) is often experienced, even in the absence of the afferent inputs recruited by the vibration. We vibrated the tendon of either the right wrist extensor or flexor muscle that elicited an illusory flexion or extension movement, which was followed by its corresponding extension or flexion aftereffect. First, we psychophysically investigated how the preceding illusory movement affects the aftereffect. Second, we examined the cortico-spinal excitability during the aftereffect to evaluate its changes from the time during the illusion. We measured the amplitude of the motor-evoked potential that is evoked by a single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to the hand section of the contralateral motor cortex (M1). All 19 subjects experienced the aftereffect, and the amount of aftereffect was approximately 70% of the preceding illusion. During the illusion, the cortico-spinal excitability increased more in non-vibrated than in vibrated muscle, so as to reflect the illusory directions. During the aftereffect, the excitability was significantly reduced only in the non-vibrated muscle, with no change in the vibrated muscle, which, in turn, caused an opposite pattern in the unbalanced excitability between the two muscles, and the degree of unbalanced excitability was correlated with the sensation of aftereffect. The kinesthetic aftereffect seems to be elicited by a sensory process that is determined by the preceding illusory movements. Motor-cortical processing of the unbalanced sensory information from the stimulated and non-stimulated muscles may contribute to the elicitation of kinesthetic aftereffect.

  4. Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply.

  5. A Study of the Exposure of Hotels Information on the Internet: A Case Study of Sabah Hotels of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ZAKARIYA BELKHAMZA

    2013-01-01

    The Internet nowadays has become an important and major information search channels for travelers looking for accommodation and services provided by hotels. Hotels’ managers have adopted the Internet as one of their primary marketing channels to attract customers while website development has become one of their business infrastructures for online bookings and transactions. On the other hand, hotels’ websites are the main search target for travelers. Especially for hoteliers, owning a website...

  6. Eye Health Knowledge and Eye Health Information Exposure Among Hispanic/Latino Individuals: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Laura A; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Zheng, D Diane; Joslin, Charlotte E; Perera, Marisa J; Gellman, Marc D; Arheart, Kristopher L; Lam, Byron L; Lee, David J

    2017-08-01

    Routine eye care is important to maintaining eye health and preventing visual impairment. However, poor knowledge of ocular risk factors and disease as well as minimal exposure to eye health information may compromise adherence to eye care recommendations. Studies have shown that Hispanic/Latino people have poor eye care utilization, but little is known about their knowledge of eye health and exposure to eye health information. To examine factors associated with more eye health knowledge and greater exposure to eye health information among Hispanic/Latino people. This was a cross-sectional ocular study of 1235 participants living in the Miami, Florida, site of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a multisite epidemiologic study of disease prevalence and development among Hispanic/Latino people. Data were collected from October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2013, and data analyses were conducted between May 28, 2014, and March 18, 2015. Descriptive and multivariable regression analyses were performed for 3 ocular health care outcomes. Regression models were built sequentially, with variables conceptually grouped according to Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use and Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations. Ability to identify 8 factors on a general eye health knowledge scale and number of eye health information sources seen or heard about in the past 12 months. Of the 1235 participants, 748 (73.4%) self-identified as being of Cuban descent and 407 (19.2%) self-identified as being from Central or South America, 478 (46.7%) were women and 757 (53.3%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 53.6 (8.1) years. Participants with at least a high school degree or general educational development certificate had greater eye health knowledge (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.08; 95% CI, 1.01-1.15 and IRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17, respectively) as did those with a higher mental health score on the Short Form 12-Item, version 2, Health Survey (IRR, 1

  7. Mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products in a population-based sample in relation to atopy and bronchial hyper-reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Dirksen, A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to perfume and fragrance products may, in some individuals, cause symptoms from the eyes and airways. The localization, character and risk factors of such symptoms in the general population are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate both the localization and character of symptoms...... from the eyes and airways elicited by fragrance products, and the associations between such symptoms and skin prick test reactivity (atopy), methacholine bronchial hyper-reactivity (BHR), allergic rhinitis and asthma. METHODS: A questionnaire on mucosal symptoms elicited by fragrance products...... the eyes or airways elicited by fragrance products were reported by 42%. BHR (adjusted odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.5-3.5) was independently associated with symptoms from the eyes and airways elicited by fragrance products. There were no significant associations between these symptoms...

  8. Validation of the dermal exposure model in ECETOC TRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Franken, Remy; Goede, Henk; Fransman, Wouter; Schinkel, Jody

    2017-08-01

    The ECETOC TRA model (presently version 3.1) is often used to estimate worker inhalation and dermal exposure in regulatory risk assessment. The dermal model in ECETOC TRA has not yet been validated by comparison with independent measured exposure levels. This was the goal of the present study. Measured exposure levels and relevant contextual information were gathered via literature search, websites of relevant occupational health institutes and direct requests for data to industry. Exposure data were clustered in so-called exposure cases, which are sets of data from one data source that are expected to have the same values for input parameters in the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. For each exposure case, the 75th percentile of measured values was calculated, because the model intends to estimate these values. The input values for the parameters in ECETOC TRA were assigned by an expert elicitation and consensus building process, based on descriptions of relevant contextual information.From more than 35 data sources, 106 useful exposure cases were derived, that were used for direct comparison with the model estimates. The exposure cases covered a large part of the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model. The model explained 37% of the variance in the 75th percentiles of measured values. In around 80% of the exposure cases, the model estimate was higher than the 75th percentile of measured values. In the remaining exposure cases, the model estimate may not be sufficiently conservative.The model was shown to have a clear bias towards (severe) overestimation of dermal exposure at low measured exposure values, while all cases of apparent underestimation by the ECETOC TRA dermal exposure model occurred at high measured exposure values. This can be partly explained by a built-in bias in the effect of concentration of substance in product used, duration of exposure and the use of protective gloves in the model. The effect of protective gloves was calculated to be on average a

  9. Hybrid Approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation Oriented to People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, R.; de Ipiña, K. López; Irigoyen, E.; Asla, N.

    People with intellectual disabilities and elderly need physical and intellectual support to ensuring independent living. This is one of the main issues in applying Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into Assistive Technology field. In this sense the development of appropriated Intelligent Systems (ISs) offers new perspectives to this community. In our project a new IS system (LAGUNTXO) which adds user affective information oriented to people with intellectual disabilities has been developed. The system integrates a Human Emotion Analysis System (HEAS) which attempts to solve critical situations for this community as block stages. In the development of the HEAS one of the critical issues was to create appropriated databases to train the system due to the difficulty to simulate pre-block stages in laboratory. Finally a films and real sequences based emotion elicitation database was created. The elicitation material was categorized with more actual features based on discrete emotions and dimensional terms (pleasant, unpleasant). Classically the evaluation is carried out by a specialist (psychologist). In this work we present a hybrid approach for Automatic Evaluation of Emotion Elicitation databases based on Machine Learning classifiers and K-means clustering. The new categorization and the automatic evaluation show a high level of accuracy with respect to others methodologies presented in the literature.

  10. Square or Sine: Finding a Waveform with High Success Rate of Eliciting SSVEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Teng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP is the brain's natural electrical potential response for visual stimuli at specific frequencies. Using a visual stimulus flashing at some given frequency will entrain the SSVEP at the same frequency, thereby allowing determination of the subject's visual focus. The faster an SSVEP is identified, the higher information transmission rate the system achieves. Thus, an effective stimulus, defined as one with high success rate of eliciting SSVEP and high signal-noise ratio, is desired. Also, researchers observed that harmonic frequencies often appear in the SSVEP at a reduced magnitude. Are the harmonics in the SSVEP elicited by the fundamental stimulating frequency or by the artifacts of the stimuli? In this paper, we compare the SSVEP responses of three periodic stimuli: square wave (with different duty cycles, triangle wave, and sine wave to find an effective stimulus. We also demonstrate the connection between the strength of the harmonics in SSVEP and the type of stimulus.

  11. Contamination of indoor dust and air by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants and relevance of non-dietary exposure in Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Suzuki, Go; Isobe, Tomohiko; Viet, Pham Hung; Kobara, Yuso; Seike, Nobuyasu; Zhang, Gan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor dust and air from two Vietnamese informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) and an urban site in order to assess the relevance of these media for human exposure. The levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in settled house dust from the EWRSs (130-12,000, 5.4-400, 5.2-620 and 31-1400 ng g(-1), respectively) were significantly higher than in urban house dust but the levels of PCBs (4.8-320 ng g(-1)) were not higher. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs in air at e-waste recycling houses (1000-1800 and 620-720 pg m(-3), respectively), determined using passive sampling, were also higher compared with non-e-waste houses. The composition of BFRs in EWRS samples suggests the influence from high-temperature processes and occurrence of waste materials containing older BFR formulations. Results of daily intake estimation for e-waste recycling workers are in good agreement with the accumulation patterns previously observed in human milk and indicate that dust ingestion contributes a large portion of the PBDE intake (60%-88%), and air inhalation to the low-chlorinated PCB intake (>80% for triCBs) due to their high levels in dust and air, respectively. Further investigation of both indoor dust and air as the exposure media for other e-waste recycling-related contaminants and assessment of health risk associated with exposure to these contaminant mixtures is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Benchmarking of Percutaneous Injuries at the Ministry of Health Hospitals of Saudi Arabia in Comparison with the United States Hospitals Participating in Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet™

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZA Memish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to blood-borne pathogens from needle-stick and sharp injuries continues to pose a significant risk to health care workers. These events are of concern because of the risk to transmit blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and the human immunodeficiency virus. Objective: To benchmark different risk factors associated with needle-stick incidents among health care workers in the Ministry of Health hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia compared to the US hospitals participating in Exposure Prevention Information Network (EPINet ™. Methods: Prospective surveillance of needle-stick and sharp incidents carried out during the year 2012 using EPINet™ ver 1.5 that provides uniform needle stick and sharp injury report form. Results: The annual percutaneous incidents (PIs rate per 100 occupied beds was 3.2 at the studied MOH hospitals. Nurses were the most affected job category by PIs (59.4%. Most PIs happened in patients' wards in the Ministry of Health hospitals (34.6%. Disposable syringes were the most common cause of PIs (47.20%. Most PIs occurred during use of the syringes (36.4%. Conclusion: Among health care workers, nurses and physicians appear especially at risk of exposure to PIs. Important risk factors of injuries include working in patient room, using disposable syringes, devices without safety features. Preventive strategies such as continuous training of health care workers with special emphasis on nurses and physicians, encouragement of reporting of such incidents, observation of sharp handling, their use and implementation of safety devices are warranted.

  13. Emotion Elicitation in a Socially Intelligent Service: The Typing Tutor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Košir

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on modeling machine emotion elicitation in a socially intelligent service, the typing tutor. The aim of the study is to evaluate the extent to which the machine emotion elicitation can influence the affective state (valence and arousal of the learner during a tutoring session. The tutor provides continuous real-time emotion elicitation via graphically rendered emoticons, as an emotional feedback to learner’s performance. Good performance is rewarded by the positive emoticon, based on the notion of positive reinforcement. Facial emotion recognition software is used to analyze the affective state of the learner for later evaluation. Experimental results show the correlation between the positive emoticon and the learner’s affective state is significant for all 13 (100% test participants on the arousal dimension and for 9 (69% test participants on both affective dimensions. The results also confirm our hypothesis and show that the machine emotion elicitation is significant for 11 (85% of 13 test participants. We conclude that the machine emotion elicitation with simple graphical emoticons has a promising potential for the future development of the tutor.

  14. Synergistic effects of polyploidization and elicitation on biomass and hyoscyamine content in hairy roots of Datura stramonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belabbassi, O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The hyoscyamine, a tropane alkaloid, widely used in medicine, can be produced from Datura sp. (Solanaceae. However, its content in the spontaneous roots remains low; therefore, hairy roots (HRs were envisaged as a potential alternative to improve its biosynthesis. The hairy roots are characterized by a good genetic stability and a rapid growth. Indeed, Datura stramonium HRs have widely been studied in the perspective of improving the yield of hyoscyamine. This study is part of this same perspective. Objectives. This paper aims to study the effects of polyploidization of HRs induced by colchicine in synergy with elicitation (with acetylsalicylic [ASA] or salicylic acids [SA] on the hyoscyamine content in D. stramonium. Method. Colchicine was applied at different concentrations and periods, on a selected hairy root line (LDS of D. stramonium obtained by infection with Agrobactrium rhizogenes strain A4. The selection of tetraploid HR lines was performed by the cytogenetic analysis using light microscopy. The effect of polyploidization and elicitation was studied on the biomass (dry weight and hyoscyamine content of HRs. Results. The untreated HR line (control shows a diploid level with 2n = 24 chromosomes. However, the HR lines treated with colchicine show, in most cases, an endoreduplication of their genetic material. The survival rate of endoreduplicated lines varies between 30% and 93%, depending on concentration and exposure time to colchicine. Moreover, the tetraploid HR line shows an increase in its biomass and hyoscyamine content in comparison to the diploid HR line (LDS. Further, elicitation of HRs by ASA or AS at the 10-4 M concentration causes a low decrease or increase in dry weight, respectively. However, the same treatments show a significant increase in the yield of hyoscyamine in elicited HR lines. Consequently, our work indicates that the combination of polyploidy and elicitation can lead to significant

  15. Occupational exposures. Annex H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Annex focuses on significant changes in the pattern of occupational exposure which have appeared since the 1972 and 1962 reports, and presents information on trends or particular causes of high exposures. A further objective is to clarify the reasons for which the Committee requires data on occupational exposure, and to suggest areas in which better data collection or analysis may be performed. Data are also reviewed on accidents involving the exposure of workers to substantial radiation doses.

  16. The role and potentialities of the NRPI in the education of the health professionals and in the public information in the field of radiation protection in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackova, H.; Horakova, I.

    2008-01-01

    The attention is paid to the role of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI) in the support of the education on the pregraduate and postgraduate level. On pregraduate level the NRPI is engaged in education of the students of the Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering (FNSPE) in the field of radiation protection and radiological physics. On the postgraduate level there is an important role of NRPI in the postgraduate education of the health professionals. This education can take advantage of the more than the thirty years cooperation between NRPI and IPVZ (Institute for postgraduate medical education). In the presentation the important data and experience of the courses of radiation protection organized for health professionals will be ShOWll. In the presentation there are also presented activities of the division of medical exposures of the NRPI, which are pointing to the public information. Some typical questions, which have been addressed to NRPI are brought forward and discussed. (authors)

  17. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  18. Visual MMN elicited by orientation changes of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Miao, Danmin; Zhao, Lun

    2014-09-01

    Faces are socially very important visual objects and the detection of a change in faces is an essential evolutionary skill. To investigate whether configural computation of faces automatically occurs under non-attentional condition, visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) elicited by deviant orientation (90° vs. 0°) of faces was analyzed using the equi-probable paradigm which eliminated the low-level refractory effects. Fourteen participants were tested and schematic face stimuli were used. In comparison with control face stimuli, the deviant orientation of faces elicited larger N170 and smaller P2. During the time range between 100-300 ms post stimulus onset, face orientation changes elicited occipital-temporal distributed vMMN. The source analysis of face-MMN showed that it was generated in both temporal and frontal lobes. These data supported the hypotheses that the disruption of facial configuration processing caused by inverted faces is relatively independent of attentional resources.

  19. Objective eliciting doses of peanut-allergic adults and children can be combined for risk assessment purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemans, R.J.B.; Blom, W.M.; Erp, F.C. van; Masthoff, L.J.N.; Rubingh, C.M.; Ent, C.K. van der; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C.A.F.M.; Houben, G.F.; Pasmans, S.G.M.A.; Meijer, Y.; Knulst, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To improve food labelling strategies, information regarding eliciting doses (EDs) and the effect of patient characteristics on these EDs is necessary. Objective: To establish EDs for objective and subjective symptoms and analyse the effect of sensitization levels and other patient

  20. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.; Hoffmann, S.; Hald, T.

    2016-01-01

    For many societally important science-based decisions, data are inadequate, unreliable or non-existent, and expert advice is sought. In such cases, procedures for eliciting structured expert judgments (SEJ) are increasingly used. This raises questions regarding validity and reproducibility. This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert’s statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values. Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels, but at the cost of informativeness; (3) performance-based weighting increased informativeness, while retaining accuracy; (4) due to study constraints individual experts’ accuracies were generally lower than in other SEJ studies, and (5) there was a negative correlation between experts' informativeness and statistical accuracy which attenuated as accuracy improved, revealing that the least accurate experts drive the negative correlation. It is shown, however, that performance-based weighting has the ability to yield statistically accurate and informative combinations of experts' judgments, thereby offsetting this contrary influence. The present findings suggest that application of SEJ on a large scale is feasible, and motivate the development of enhanced training and tools for remote

  1. Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8+ T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, M.; Robinson, H.; Wang, R.; Kong, W.-P.; Kanekiyo, M.; Akahata, W.; Xu, L.; Matsuo, K.; Natarajan, K.; Asher, T. E.; Price, D. A.; Douek, D. C.; Margulies, D. H.; Nabel, G. J.

    2009-08-15

    Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

  2. Different Vaccine Vectors Delivering the Same Antigen Elicit CD8plus T Cell Responses with Distinct Clonotype and Epitope Specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Honda; R Wang; W Kong; M Kanekiyo; Q Akahata; L Xu; K Matsuo; K Natarajan; H Robinson; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8{sup +} cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D{sup d} better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8{sup +} T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.

  3. Eliciting geologists' tacit model of the uncertainty of mapped geological boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that geological linework, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is also recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for mapped boundaries in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicted distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering linework or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of linework.

  4. Request for Proposals Eliciting and Applying Local Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    wonder when you would make a final decision on which projects will be funded and when the funds ... risk management process that assesses the ability of IDRC to support programming in those countries or territories ... (project lead) to apply for “Eliciting and Applying Local Research Knowledge for Peacebuilding and.

  5. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  6. Delphi Fuzzy Elicitation Technique in the Determination of Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly ... synthesize subjective judgments of experts on a ..... distributions. Journal of the American Statistical. Association, 100, 680-700. Hart, A. (1986). Knowledge acquisition for expert systems. McGraw-Hill, New York.

  7. Delphi Fuzzy Elicitation Technique in the Determination of Third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Delphi technique via the expert elicitation method becomes extremely handy particularly in view of limited availability of data in determining failure probabilities of onshore transmission pipelines in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria occasioned by third party activity. Using, ten (10) experts opinion elucidated individually ...

  8. Belief elicitation in experiments: is there a hedging problem?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blanco, M.; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, A. K.; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 412-438 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : belief elicitation * hedging * experimental methodology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  9. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  10. The potential for using visual elicitation in understanding preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vartuli's (1999:490) warning that “teachers tell you what you want to hear” encouraged our choice of visual elicitation as an alternative to accessing teachers' beliefs, in order to mitigate the limitations inherent in self-reports. In the following section, we sketch a brief background of the research study conducted, in order to ...

  11. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Soiti Matsumoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  12. Requirements Elicitation in a Telemedicine Pain-treatment Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Sandsjö, L.; Schaake, L.; Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Jones, Valerie M.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Ryan, K.; Robinson, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the early phase requirements elicitation for a work-related neck-shoulder pain teletreatment trial and the assessment of those requirements in respect of their importance to the trial and the feasibility of the needed software adaptations of the telemedicine system within the

  13. Experimental elicitation with hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde-containing deodorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pia Haslund; Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) known as Lyral is a frequent allergen. It is used in more than 50% of marketed deodorants. The aim of the present study was to determine elicitation thresholds for HICC under simulated conditions of deodorant use. 15 patients with previously...

  14. Between participants, props and stage: Eliciting insights through interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Marijnissen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    How can we develop innovative concepts? The purpose of this paper is to investigate how generative prototype sessions can elicit so-called tacit and latent knowledge from participants through interaction and play. To illustrate this, a session from the design process will be described along...... is an indiscernible blend of different types of knowledge, but that tacit and latent constitutes an important part....

  15. Eliciting user requirements for ambient intelligent systems: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, A.; Matysiak, Aga; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2005-01-01

    Ambient intelligent (AmI) systems are electronic environments that are responsive and sensitive to the presence of people (Weiser, 1991). Eliciting requirements for AmI systems, like for any novel technology, is hard because of high uncertainties, such as: 1) both the users and use context are

  16. Eliciting User Requirements for Ambient Intelligent Systems: A Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, A.; Matysiak, Aga; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    Ambient intelligent (AmI) systems are electronic environments that are responsive and sensitive to the presence of people (Weiser, 1991). Eliciting requirements for AmI systems, like for any novel technology, is hard because of high uncertainties, such as: 1) both the users and use context are

  17. Effect of elicitation on picrotin and picrotoxinin production from in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royel ex. Benth. is an important medicinal plant of Himalayan region and a good source of iridoid glycosides. Picrotin and picrotoxinin are compounds produced by P. kurrooa which are widely used in treatment of hepatic diseases. Elicitation is one of the best effective methods which enhance secondary ...

  18. Eliciting Persian Requests: DCT and Role Play Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Abbass Eslami; Alijanian, Ehsan

    2012-01-01

    The validity of speech act data taken from different kinds of elicitation instruments has been widely discussed in interlangauge and cross cultural pragmatics literature. In this study an attempt is made to evaluate and investigate data taken from two of the most popular speech act instruments namely, written DCT and closed role play. The…

  19. Photo-Elicitation: Reflexivity on Method, Analysis, and Graphic Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Veronica M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological discussion, the authors detail and reflect on the processes of using photo-elicitation interviewing as a way to align with positive qualitative methodologies, to gain access to participant beliefs and values, and to highlight participant voices through their choices of words and visuals. A review of the literature and an…

  20. Multisensory integration affects ERP components elicited by exogenous cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert

    revious studies have shown that the amplitude of event related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by a combined audiovisual stimulus is larger than the sum of a single auditory and visual stimulus. This enlargement is thought to reflect multisensory integration. Based on these data, it may be

  1. Elicitation of Pharmacologically Active Substances in Intact Medical Plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kužel, S.; Vydra, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Hrubý, Martin; Cígler, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 17 (2009), s. 7907-7911 ISSN 0021-8561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : elicitation * medical plant * Echinacea purpurea * secondary metabolite * foliar application * phenolics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.469, year: 2009

  2. Local dialogue and information within the frame of the setting up of relay antennas. Decreasing the exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone relay antennas. First phase report by Francois Brottes, chairman of the 'experimentations' COMOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brottes, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report describes the progress made on local dialogue and information within the frame of the setting up of relay antennas. It describes the implemented method with a selection of nine local communities, the main results of the dialogue (establishment of an information file, development of a tool set for the pilot communities, and operation, steering and assessment of experimentations). The second part describes the progress made on the exposure of population to electromagnetic waves emitted by mobile phone relay antennas (context, method, exposure status, simulation of the decreasing of relay antenna power, site experimentations). The third part proposes a set of recommendations related to local dialogue and information and to exposure

  3. Air-oxidized linalool elicits eczema in allergic patients - a repeated open application test study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersch Björkman, Ylva; Hagvall, Lina; Siwmark, Charlotte; Niklasson, Bo; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    Linalool is a commonly used fragrance terpene that forms potent sensitizers upon oxidation. In a recent multicentre study, we found that 7% of 2900 patients showed positive patch test reactions to oxidized linalool at 6.0%. No elicitation studies have been performed. To identify threshold concentrations for elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis caused by oxidized linalool in allergic individuals with repeated exposures. Repeated open application tests were performed in 6 participants previously diagnosed with contact allergy to oxidized linalool. Creams containing 3.0%, 1.0% and 0.30% oxidized linalool (corresponding to 0.56%, 0.19% and 0.056% linalool hydroperoxides, respectively) and 'fine fragrance' containing 1.0%, 0.30% and 0.10% oxidized linalool (corresponding to 0.19%, 0.056% and 0.019% linalool hydroperoxides, respectively) were used twice daily for up to 3 weeks. Patch testing with a dilution series of oxidized linalool was performed. Five of 6 participants reacted to the cream containing 3% oxidized linalool. With 1% oxidized linalool, a reaction was seen in 3 (cream) and 4 (fine fragrance) participants, respectively. With 0.3% oxidized linalool, 2 (cream) and 1 (fine fragrance) participants reacted. Repeated exposure to low concentrations of oxidized linalool can elicit allergic contact dermatitis in previously sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Expert knowledge elicitation using computer simulation: the organization of frail elderly case management as an illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiêm, Jean-Christophe; Van Durme, Thérèse; Vandendorpe, Florence; Schmitz, Olivier; Speybroeck, Niko; Cès, Sophie; Macq, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Various elderly case management projects have been implemented in Belgium. This type of long-term health care intervention involves contextual factors and human interactions. These underlying complex mechanisms can be usefully informed with field experts' knowledge, which are hard to make explicit. However, computer simulation has been suggested as one possible method of overcoming the difficulty of articulating such elicited qualitative views. A simulation model of case management was designed using an agent-based methodology, based on the initial qualitative research material. Variables and rules of interaction were formulated into a simple conceptual framework. This model has been implemented and was used as a support for a structured discussion with experts in case management. The rigorous formulation provided by the agent-based methodology clarified the descriptions of the interventions and the problems encountered regarding: the diverse network topologies of health care actors in the project; the adaptation time required by the intervention; the communication between the health care actors; the institutional context; the organization of the care; and the role of the case manager and his or hers personal ability to interpret the informal demands of the frail older person. The simulation model should be seen primarily as a tool for thinking and learning. A number of insights were gained as part of a valuable cognitive process. Computer simulation supporting field experts' elicitation can lead to better-informed decisions in the organization of complex health care interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Boosting of DNA Vaccine-Elicited Gamma Interferon Responses in Humans by Exposure to Malaria Parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Ruobing; Richie, Thomas L; Baraceros, Maria F; Rahardjo, Nancy; Gay, Tanya; Banania, Jo-Glenna; Charoenvit, Yupin; Epstein, Judith E; Luke, Thomas; Freilich, Daniel A; Norman, Jon; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2004-01-01

    A mixture of DNA plasmids expressing five Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocyte-stage antigens was administered with or without a DNA plasmid encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF...

  6. Developmental Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants Elicits Overt Toxicity and Alters Behavior in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are common replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and have been detected at high concentrations in environmental samples. OPFRs are structurally similar to organophosphate pesticides and may adversely affect...

  7. Psychogenic chemical sensitivity: psychogenic pseudoseizures elicited by provocation challenges with fragrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudenmayer, H; Kramer, R E

    1999-08-01

    A middle-aged woman with a 10-year history of disability attributed to chemical sensitivities complained that exposure to specific fragrances immediately elicited seizures. Video-EEG monitoring was performed in a hospital neurodiagnostic laboratory during provocative challenge studies employing fragrances identified by the patient as reliably inducing symptoms. The baseline clinical EEG was normal. Immediately after each provocation with air deodorant and perfume, she consistently showed both generalized tonic/clonic and multifocal myoclonic jerking, at times was nonresponsive, spoke with slurred speech, and complained of right-sided paralysis and lethargy. None of these events were associated with any EEG abnormalities. Psychological assessment (MMPI-2, MCMI-II) revealed personality traits that predisposed her to somatization and beliefs about environmental sensitivities. The convulsions were a manifestation of psychogenic pseudoseizures that had been iatrogenically reinforced.

  8. Emotional, psychophysiological and behavioral responses elicited by the exposition to cyberbullying situations: Two experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona C.S. Caravita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experimental studies investigated whether the exposure to cyberbullying situations produces in bullied youth, and in young people in general, higher levels of stress, negative emotions, and attention levels, in comparison to other peer interactions, including bullying. In both studies, participants' physiological activation (Study 1 and 2 and behavioral data (Study 2 were recorded while watching four 1-minute videos representing cyberbullying, face-to-face bullying, prosocial, and neutral interactions. Self-report questionnaires assessed participants' emotional responses to the videos, and victimization. Sixty-one adolescents (65.7% girls participated in Study 1; 35 young adults (60% girls participated in Study 2. Results indicate that cyberbullying causes higher stress and negative emotions than prosocial and neutral peer interactions, but not than bullying. Cyberbullying also elicited higher levels of stress and negative emotions in victims than non-victims, but only for adolescents.

  9. Specificity of rabbit antibodies elicited by related synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, A; Houghten, R A; Chillemi, F; Zito, R; Centis, D

    1986-01-01

    Three 17-residue peptides, presenting from 65% to 70% sequence homology, and one endecapeptide, with no apparent homology with the first three, were chemically synthesized and investigated in their ability to elicit rabbit antipeptide antibodies. The complex cross reactivities of the antisera were investigated by testing the binding of the antibodies to the intact peptides, to their enzymatic fragments, and by the use of specific immunoadsorbents. Antipeptide antibodies may or may not crossreact with related "parent" peptides, this depending upon number, distribution, and localization of amino acid differences in low or high antigenicity regions of the immunogen. Related peptides may elicit antibodies that crossreact almost completely, and therefore not specific for one or the other "parent" peptide. Those antibodies may therefore be of little use for the selective recognition of closely related structures.

  10. Elicitation of Diacetylenic Compounds in Suspension Cultured Cells of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Setsuko; Ohta, Yoshimoto

    1988-01-01

    Induction of stress metabolites in the suspension cultured cells of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was examined. When autoclaved RNase A or nigeran, both of which are nonspecific phytoalexin elicitors in bean cells, were added to the cell culture of eggplant, greatly enhanced levels of three compounds were observed. One of them was cis-pentadeca-6-ene-1,3-diyne-5,15-diol, a novel diacetylenic compound. This compound has considerable fungitoxic activity. Also identified was falcarindiol, another fungitoxic diacetylenic compound previously reported as one of the phytoalexins in infected tomato fruits and leaves. Elicited compounds preferentially accumulated in the culture medium rather than in the cells and decreased to original levels during prolonged culturing. The elicitation of these compounds was closely correlated with cellular damage in terms of the decrease of growth rate and was inhibited by 10 micromolar cycloheximide. PMID:16665862

  11. Chitin elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    Genome sequences reveal that our current standard laboratory conditions only support a fraction of the potential secondary metabolism in bacteria.1 Thus, we must rethink cultivation, detection, and isolation strategies for bacterial secondary metabolites in order to explore the huge, so far...... on glucose-based medium. The different phenotypic responses to a natural growth substrate may reflect different niche-adaptations or ecological functions of the compounds produced and it represents a fruitful approach for elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria....... uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. As part of a new project on ecology-driven drug discovery at the Technical University of Denmark, we investigate the use of chitin to elicit or alter production of antibacterial compounds in marine bacteria. Within our large collection of Gram...

  12. An alternative approach for eliciting willingness-to-pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Damschroder

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Open-ended methods that elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP in terms of absolute dollars often result in high rates of questionable and highly skewed responses, insensitivity to changes in health state, and raise an ethical issue related to its association with personal income. We conducted a 2x2 randomized trial over the Internet to test 4 WTP formats: 1 WTP in dollars; 2 WTP as a percentage of financial resources; 3 WTP in terms of monthly payments; and 4 WTP as a single lump-sum amount. WTP as a percentage of financial resources generated fewer questionable values, had better distribution properties, greater sensitivity to severity of health states, and was not associated with income. WTP elicited on a monthly basis also showed promise.

  13. Electrically Elicited Quadriceps Muscle Torque: A Comparison of 3 Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cheryl; Scott, Wayne; Basile, Jonathan; Hughes, Lorraine; Leigh, Joshua; Schiller, Anna; Walton, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Study Design A controlled laboratory study, with a single-blind, block-randomization crossover design. Objectives To compare the electrically elicited knee extensor torque produced by 3 clinically available waveforms: 2500-Hz burst-modulated alternating current (BMAC), 1000-Hz BMAC, and 1000-Hz burst-modulated biphasic square-wave pulsed current (BMBPC). Background Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is the therapeutic use of electrical current to strengthen muscle. Muscle torque produced by NMES is limited by discomfort. Methods The knee extensor maximal volitional isometric torque (KEMVIT) of 33 able-bodied participants (18 female) was measured and used to normalize the electrically elicited knee extensor torque to produce a percent of KEMVIT (%KEMVIT). Electrically elicited isometric knee extensor torque was measured in response to each of the waveforms at the participants' maximum tolerance. Results The average maximum tolerated stimulation produced 32.0 ± 16.7 %KEMVIT with 2500-Hz BMAC, 38.2 ± 18.4 %KEMVIT with 1000-Hz BMAC, and 42.2 ± 17.1 %KEMVIT with 1000-Hz BMBPC. Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc testing revealed a statistically significant difference between 2500-Hz BMAC and 1000-Hz BMAC (P = .046), and between 2500-Hz BMAC and 1000-Hz BMBPC (PHz BMAC and 1000-Hz BMBPC (P = .267). Conclusion For eliciting maximum knee extensor muscle torque, 1000-Hz BMBPC and 1000-Hz BMAC were similarly effective, and 2500-Hz BMAC was less effective. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(3):217-224. Epub 19 Dec 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7601.

  14. Chitin elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Genome sequences reveal that our current standard laboratory conditions only support a fraction of the potential secondary metabolism in bacteria.1 Thus, we must rethink cultivation, detection, and isolation strategies for bacterial secondary metabolites in order to explore the huge, so far uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. As part of a new project on ecology-driven drug discovery at the Technical University of Denmark, we investigate the use of chitin to elicit or alter ...

  15. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  16. Ventilatory Responses to Exercise While Eliciting the Relaxation Response,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    been observed with the elicitation of the relaxation response at rest differ from those that occur during sleep or hypnosis (14). The relaxation response...alterations which were observed in our experimental group during the intervention period were not similar to those found with combined hypnosis and...the work of respiratory effort was observed in this group. This was implied by the finding of a relatively stable V02 in the face of a decreased VE and

  17. Incremental exposure facilitates adaptation to sensory rearrangement. [vestibular stimulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Lobovits, D. N.

    1978-01-01

    Visual-target pointing experiments were performed on 24 adult volunteers in order to compare the relative effectiveness of incremental (stepwise) and single-step exposure conditions on adaptation to visual rearrangement. The differences between the preexposure and postexposure scores served as an index of the adaptation elicited during the exposure period. It is found that both single-step and stepwise exposure to visual rearrangement elicit compensatory changes in sensorimotor coordination. However, stepwise exposure, when compared to single-step exposur in terms of the average magnitude of visual displacement over the exposure period, clearly enhances the rate of adaptation. It seems possible that the enhancement of adaptation to unusual patterns of sensory stimulation produced by incremental exposure reflects a general principle of sensorimotor function.

  18. Estrogenic suppression of binge-like eating elicited by cyclic food restriction and frustrative-nonreward stress in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Lutz, Thomas A; Romano, Adele; Pucci, Mariangela; Geary, Nori; Asarian, Lori; Cifani, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Because binge eating and emotional eating vary through the menstrual cycle in human females, we investigated cyclic changes in binge-like eating in female rats and their control by estrogens. Binge-like eating was elicited by three cycles of 4 days of food restriction and 4 days of free feeding followed by a single frustrative nonreward-stress episode (15 min visual and olfactory exposure to a familiar palatable food) immediately before presentation of the palatable food. Intact rats showed binge-like eating during the diestrous and proestrous phases of the ovarian cycle, but not during the estrous (periovulatory) phase. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats not treated with estradiol (E2) displayed binge-like eating, whereas E2-treated OVX rats did not. The procedure did not increase signs of anxiety in an open-field test. OVX rats not treated with E2 that were subjected to food restriction and sacrificed immediately after frustrative nonreward had increased numbers of cells expressing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN), and dorsal and ventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BNST) compared with nonrestricted or E2-treated rats. These data suggest that this female rat model is appropriate for mechanistic studies of some aspects of menstrual-cycle effects on emotional and binge eating in human females, that anxiety is not a sufficient cause of binge-like eating, and that the PVN, CeA, and BNST may contribute to information processing underlying binge-like eating. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Role of local neurons in cerebrocortical vasodilation elicited from cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iadecola, C.; Arneric, S.P.; Baker, H.D.; Tucker, L.W.; Reis, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The vasodilation elicited in cerebral cortex by stimulation of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus (FN) is mediated by input pathways coming from the basal forebrain. The authors studied whether these pathways mediate the cortical vasodilation via a direct action on local blood vessels or via interposed local neurons. Neurons were destroyed in the primary sensory cortex by local microinjection of the excitotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO). Five days later rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated. Arterial pressure and blood gases were controlled, and FN was stimulated electrically. Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) was measured using the [ 14 C]iodoantipyrine technique with autoradiography. Five days after IBO, neurons were destroyed in a restricted cortical area, and afferent fibers and terminals were preserved. The selectivity of the neuronal loss was established by histological and biochemical criteria and by transport of horseradish, peroxidase from or into the lesion. Within the lesion, resting LCBF was unaffected, but the increase in LCBF evoked from the FN was abolished. In contrast the vasodilation elicited by hypercapnia was preserved. In the rest of the brain the vasodilation elicited from FN was largely unaffected. The authors conclude that the vasodilation evoked from FN in cerebral cortex depends on the integrity of a restricted population of local neurons that interact with the local microvasculature

  20. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-03-01

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  1. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Contamination vs. exposure Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... contaminate their surroundings and personal property. Types of Contamination Internal Contamination Internal contamination occurs when people swallow ...

  2. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  3. Perceptual symbols of creativity: coldness elicits referential, warmth elicits relational creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijzerman, Hans; Leung, Angela K-y; Ong, Lay See

    2014-05-01

    Research in the cognitive and social psychological science has revealed the pervading relation between body and mind. Physical warmth leads people to perceive others as psychological closer to them and to be more generous towards others. More recently, physical warmth has also been implicated in the processing of information, specifically through perceiving relationships (via physical warmth) and contrasting from others (via coldness). In addition, social psychological work has linked social cues (such as mimicry and power cues) to creative performance. The present work integrates these two literatures, by providing an embodied model of creative performance through relational (warm = relational) and referential (cold = distant) processing. The authors predict and find that warm cues lead to greater creativity when 1) creating drawings, 2) categorizing objects, and 3) coming up with gifts for others. In contrast, cold cues lead to greater creativity, when 1) breaking set in a metaphor recognition task, 2) coming up with new pasta names, and 3) being abstract in coming up with gifts. Effects are found across different populations and age groups. The authors report implications for theory and discuss limitations of the present work. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 77 FR 34396 - Collection of Information under Review by Office of Management and Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review a Privacy Act statement regarding Coast... elicited one comment response. The commenter noted the importance of this information elicitation, and...

  5. Job Exposure Matrix for Electric Shock Risks with Their Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena P. Vergara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an update to an electric shock job exposure matrix (JEM that assigned ordinal electric shocks exposure for 501 occupational titles based on electric shocks and electrocutions from two available data sources and expert judgment. Using formal expert elicitation and starting with data on electric injury, we arrive at a consensus-based JEM. In our new JEM, we quantify exposures by adding three new dimensions: (1 the elicited median proportion; (2 the elicited 25th percentile; and (3 and the elicited 75th percentile of those experiencing occupational electric shocks in a working lifetime. We construct the relative interquartile range (rIQR based on uncertainty interval and the median. Finally, we describe overall results, highlight examples demonstrating the impact of cut point selection on exposure assignment, and evaluate potential impacts of such selection on epidemiologic studies of the electric work environment. In conclusion, novel methods allowed for consistent exposure estimates that move from qualitative to quantitative measures in this population-based JEM. Overlapping ranges of median exposure in various categories reflect our limited knowledge about this exposure.

  6. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  7. Expert Panel Elicitation of Seismicity Following Glaciation in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael

    2005-12-01

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle

  8. Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Patrick R; Carroll, Thomas E; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A; Unwin, Stephen D; Hossain, Shamina S

    2011-04-16

    In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The first method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

  9. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  10. Expert Panel Elicitation of Seismicity Following Glaciation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael (eds.)

    2005-12-15

    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle.

  11. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  12. Exposure of Petrol Station Attendants and Auto Mechanics to Premium Motor Sprit Fumes in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Udonwa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A population-based-cross-sectional survey was carried out to investigate the potential risk of exposure to premium motor spirit (PMS fumes in Calabar, Nigeria, among Automobile Mechanics (AM, Petrol Station Attendants (PSA and the general population. Structured questionnaire was administered on the randomly chosen subjects to elicit information on their exposure to PMS. Duration of exposure was taken as the length of work in their various occupations. Venous blood was taken for methaemoglobin (MetHb and packed cells volume (PCV. Mean MetHb value was higher in AM (7.3% and PSA (5.8% than in the subjects from the general population (2.7%. PCV was lower in PSA (30.8%, than AM (33.3% and the subjects from the general population (40.8%. MetHb level was directly proportional, and PCV inversely related, to the duration of exposure. The study suggested increased exposure to petrol fumes among AM, PSA, and MetHb as a useful biomarker in determining the level of exposure to benzene in petrol vapour.

  13. Toxic Effects of a Whole-Body Inhalation Sarin (GR) Vapor Exposure in the Gottingen Minipig

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hulet, S. W; Jakubowski, E. M; Dabisch, P. A; Foster, J. S; Miller, D. B; Benton, B. J; Muse, W. T; Way, R. A; Edwards, J. L; McGuire, J.M

    2004-01-01

    ...; from the first noticeable effect (miosis) to potentially fatal effects of inhalation exposure. Although there are numerous published works investigating the progression of toxic signs elicited by sarin (GB...

  14. Videos of conspecifics elicit interactive looking patterns and facial expressions in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Clayton P.; Zimmerman, Prisca E.; Gothard, Katalin M.

    2014-01-01

    A broader understanding of the neural basis of social behavior in primates requires the use of species-specific stimuli that elicit spontaneous, but reproducible and tractable behaviors. In this context of natural behaviors, individual variation can further inform about the factors that influence social interactions. To approximate natural social interactions similar to those documented by field studies, we used unedited video footage to induce in viewer monkeys spontaneous facial expressions and looking patterns in the laboratory setting. Three adult male monkeys, previously behaviorally and genetically (5-HTTLPR) characterized (Gibboni et al., 2009), were monitored while they watched 10 s video segments depicting unfamiliar monkeys (movie monkeys) displaying affiliative, neutral, and aggressive behaviors. The gaze and head orientation of the movie monkeys alternated between ‘averted’ and ‘directed’ at the viewer. The viewers were not reinforced for watching the movies, thus their looking patterns indicated their interest and social engagement with the stimuli. The behavior of the movie monkey accounted for differences in the looking patterns and facial expressions displayed by the viewers. We also found multiple significant differences in the behavior of the viewers that correlated with their interest in these stimuli. These socially relevant dynamic stimuli elicited spontaneous social behaviors, such as eye-contact induced reciprocation of facial expression, gaze aversion, and gaze following, that were previously not observed in response to static images. This approach opens a unique opportunity to understanding the mechanisms that trigger spontaneous social behaviors in humans and non-human primates. PMID:21688888

  15. Videos of conspecifics elicit interactive looking patterns and facial expressions in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Clayton P; Zimmerman, Prisca E; Gothard, Katalin M

    2011-08-01

    A broader understanding of the neural basis of social behavior in primates requires the use of species-specific stimuli that elicit spontaneous, but reproducible and tractable behaviors. In this context of natural behaviors, individual variation can further inform about the factors that influence social interactions. To approximate natural social interactions similar to those documented by field studies, we used unedited video footage to induce in viewer monkeys spontaneous facial expressions and looking patterns in the laboratory setting. Three adult male monkeys (Macaca mulatta), previously behaviorally and genetically (5-HTTLPR) characterized, were monitored while they watched 10 s video segments depicting unfamiliar monkeys (movie monkeys) displaying affiliative, neutral, and aggressive behaviors. The gaze and head orientation of the movie monkeys alternated between "averted" and "directed" at the viewer. The viewers were not reinforced for watching the movies, thus their looking patterns indicated their interest and social engagement with the stimuli. The behavior of the movie monkey accounted for differences in the looking patterns and facial expressions displayed by the viewers. We also found multiple significant differences in the behavior of the viewers that correlated with their interest in these stimuli. These socially relevant dynamic stimuli elicited spontaneous social behaviors, such as eye-contact induced reciprocation of facial expression, gaze aversion, and gaze following, that were previously not observed in response to static images. This approach opens a unique opportunity to understanding the mechanisms that trigger spontaneous social behaviors in humans and nonhuman primates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  17. Emotion elicitation: A comparison of pictures and films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Katrin Uhrig

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a single pictures presented for 6 s, (b a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation towards positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < .001 and were less arousing (all p ≤ .02. Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.

  18. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

    2013-03-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

  19. Using qualitative methods to elicit recall of a critical time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M; von Ehrenstein, O; Wolff, M; Meier, K; Geduld, A; Einhorn, F

    1999-03-01

    The period during and after puberty seems to be important for breast cancer initiation. Because experiences during that time are likely to be influenced by a woman's cultural background, we conducted a pilot study among Hispanic and Caucasian women to elicit their memories of early life events. These data were used to design culture-specific questionnaire modules for the retrospective assessment of peripubertal breast cancer risk factors, using specific strategies to trigger accurate recall. Study subjects were volunteer breast cancer survivors or relatives of survivors. In carrying out this work, we took methods from the social sciences and applied them to a research question in chronic disease epidemiology. We found both qualitative and quantitative differences in recall of peripubertal exposures and experiences between Hispanic and Caucasian subjects. Our preliminary data indicate that in contrast to Caucasian women, Hispanic women consider the church rather than school a touchstone for recalling past events. Under the domain "body development," Hispanic women are more likely to mention menstruation than Caucasian women but less likely to recall changes in body hair and breast development. Caucasian women cited team sports as an important physical activity during the peripubertal period, whereas Hispanic women listed more sedentary games and housework as the main activities. Results of our pilot study support the view that to enhance the validity of retrospective data on peripubertal breast cancer risk factors, it is important to take account of cultural differences. Our experience using qualitative methods to elicit data of this kind in the context of a larger epidemiologic research effort suggests that such innovative approaches are valuable.

  20. Cue-Elicited Increases in Incentive Salience for Marijuana: Craving, Demand, and Attentional Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; MacKillop, James

    2016-01-01

    Background Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. Methods This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana’s incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Results Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r’s: 0.23–0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Conclusions Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. PMID:27515723

  1. Cue-elicited increases in incentive salience for marijuana: Craving, demand, and attentional bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; MacKillop, James

    2016-10-01

    Incentive salience is a multidimensional construct that includes craving, drug value relative to other reinforcers, and implicit motivation such as attentional bias to drug cues. Laboratory cue reactivity (CR) paradigms have been used to evaluate marijuana incentive salience with measures of craving, but not with behavioral economic measures of marijuana demand or implicit attentional processing tasks. This within-subjects study used a new CR paradigm to examine multiple dimensions of marijuana's incentive salience and to compare CR-induced increases in craving and demand. Frequent marijuana users (N=93, 34% female) underwent exposure to neutral cues then to lit marijuana cigarettes. Craving, marijuana demand via a marijuana purchase task, and heart rate were assessed after each cue set. A modified Stroop task with cannabis and control words was completed after the marijuana cues as a measure of attentional bias. Relative to neutral cues, marijuana cues significantly increased subjective craving and demand indices of intensity (i.e., drug consumed at $0) and Omax (i.e., peak drug expenditure). Elasticity significantly decreased following marijuana cues, reflecting sustained purchase despite price increases. Craving was correlated with demand indices (r's: 0.23-0.30). Marijuana users displayed significant attentional bias for cannabis-related words after marijuana cues. Cue-elicited increases in intensity were associated with greater attentional bias for marijuana words. Greater incentive salience indexed by subjective, behavioral economic, and implicit measures was observed after marijuana versus neutral cues, supporting multidimensional assessment. The study highlights the utility of a behavioral economic approach in detecting cue-elicited changes in marijuana incentive salience. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Eliciting and communicating expert judgments: Methodology and application to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von

    1989-01-01

    The most ambitious and certainly the most extensive formal expert judgment process was the elicitation of numerous events and uncertain quantities for safety issues in five nuclear power plants in the U.S. The general methodology for formal expert elicitations are described. An overview of the expert elicitation process of NUREG 1150 is provided and the elicitation of probabilities for the interfacing systems loss of coolant accident LOCA (ISL) in PWRs is given as an example of this elicitation process. Some lessons learned from this study are presented. (DG)

  3. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites. Objectives of the research included: (1

  4. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights to Elicit Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Robert, P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Amidan, Brett G.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental tests were conducted using hatchery reared and wild juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, eastern brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (<20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage as well as observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm) and hatchery reared chinook salmon (45-50mm) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10 Hz volume displacement source. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced higher and more consistent movement rates in wild chinook (60% of the tests); hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%) and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable movement or other responses was observed for eastern brook trout. Little if any habituation was observed during repeated exposures to strobe lights. Results from this study indicate that consistent repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility. Because sub-yearling salmonids and resident species are susceptible from becoming entrained at water diversion structures we conducted tests in conjunction with our evaluation of juvenile fish screening

  5. Retirees and their information needs: A survey | Abiolu | Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for increased attention to the roles fulfilled by retirees and their new social status necessitated the study of their information needs. This study investigated the information needs of retirees using a survey design. Five objectives were set for the study and questionnaire was used to elicit information from respondents ...

  6. Opinion on the behalf of the Commission for Sustainable Development and Land Planning on the bill project, modified by the Senate, related to sobriety, transparency, information and consultation with respect to exposure to electromagnetic waves (nr 2062). Nr 2501

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallard, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This report first recalls the evolution of the bill project with its accepted or refused amendments associated with its main articles. Those articles addressed the return of the notion of sobriety for the exposure to electromagnetic fields, the crucial role of local executive power in the information and consultation procedure in the case of new installations of relay antennas, a more reliable definition of some atypical issues, obligations of information and awareness heightening of public and users, and maintaining the taking into account of the health impact of electromagnetic waves. Discussions of the commission on general issues and on the bill project articles are reported

  7. Elicitation: A Tool for Enriching the Bioactive Composition of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Elicitation is a good strategy to induce physiological changes and stimulate defense or stress-induced responses in plants. The elicitor treatments trigger the synthesis of phytochemical compounds in fruits, vegetables and herbs. These metabolites have been widely investigated as bioactive compounds responsible of plant cell adaptation to the environment, specific organoleptic properties of foods, and protective effects in human cells against oxidative processes in the development of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. Biotic (biological origin, abiotic (chemical or physical origin elicitors and phytohormones have been applied alone or in combinations, in hydroponic solutions or sprays, and in different selected time points of the plant growth or during post-harvest. Understanding how plant tissues and their specific secondary metabolic pathways respond to specific treatments with elicitors would be the basis for designing protocols to enhance the production of secondary metabolites, in order to produce quality and healthy fresh foods.

  8. Molecular mimicry and horror autotoxicus: do chlamydial infections elicit autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2006-11-30

    All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.

  9. Vaccination elicits a prominent acute phase response in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susanne A; Petersen, Henrik H; Ersbøll, Annette K; Falk-Rønne, Jørgen; Jacobsen, Stine

    2012-02-01

    European and American guidelines for vaccination against tetanus and influenza in horses recommend annual and annual/semi-annual vaccinations, respectively, against the two pathogens. Too-frequent vaccination may, however, have adverse effects, among other things because an inflammatory response is elicited with subsequent alterations in homeostasis. The objective of the study was to compare the acute phase response (APR) in 10 horses following administration of two different types of vaccines, namely, an inactivated Immune Stimulating COMplex (ISCOM) vaccine and a live recombinant vector vaccine. Blood was sampled before and after vaccination to measure levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, white blood cell counts (WBC) and iron. Vaccination induced a prominent APR with increased WBC, elevated blood levels of SAA and fibrinogen, and decreased serum iron concentrations. The ISCOM vaccine caused significantly (Phorse owners about convalescence after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The new Internet tool: the information and evaluation system by flight, of exposure to cosmic radiation in the new air transports S.I.E.V.E.R.T; Un nouvel outil internet: le systeme d'information et d'evaluation par vol, de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aeriens SIEVERT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    In France, the public authorities put a new Internet tool at air companies disposal, in order they can evaluate the radiations doses received by their flying crews during their flights. This tool called information and evaluation system by flight of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (S.I.E.V.E.R.T.). (N.C.)

  11. Exposure of eyes to perfume: a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Duus Johansen, J; Dirksen, A; Mosbech, H

    2006-08-01

    Environmental perfume exposure can elicit bothersome respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are induced at exposure levels which most people find tolerable, and the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate patients with eye and respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume, by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Twenty-one eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire, and underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled exposure to perfume. Of the 42 individuals tested, 10 had more eye symptoms (irritation, itching, and tears) during perfume exposure than during placebo exposures, and eight of these individuals (P = 0.07, Fisher's exact test) belonged to the patient group. A true positive eye reaction to perfume was significantly associated with identification of perfume as an active exposure (P perfume elicited irritation in the eyes independently of olfaction, but the relative importance of ocular chemoperception in relation to elicitation of respiratory symptoms from common environmental exposures to perfume remains unclear. We investigated the hypothesis of an association between respiratory symptoms related to perfume and ocular perfume sensitivity by exposing the eyes to perfume in a double blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Vapors of perfume provoked symptoms in the relevant eye in some patients and healthy control persons, but under our exposure conditions, ocular chemesthesis failed to elicit respiratory symptoms.

  12. Hypoglycemic activity of withanolides and elicitated Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Rivka; Smotrich, Avinoam; Hanuš, Lumír; Bernstein, Nirit

    2015-08-01

    Withania somnifera, known in India as Asghawhanda, is used traditionally to treat many medical problems including diabetes and has demonstrated therapeutic activity in various animal models as well as in diabetic patients. While much of W. somnifera's therapeutic activity is attributed to withanolides, their role in the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera has not been adequately studied. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera extract and purified withanolides, as well as the effect of various elicitors on this activity. W. somnifera leaf and root extracts increased glucose uptake in myotubes and adipocytes in a dose dependent manner, with the leaf extract more active than the root extract. Leaf but not root extract increased insulin secretion in basal pancreatic beta cells but not in stimulated cells. Six withanolides isolated from W. somnifera were tested for anti-diabetic activity based on glucose uptake in skeletal myotubes. Withaferin A was found to increase glucose uptake, with 10μM producing a 54% increase compared with control, suggesting that withaferin A is at least partially responsible for W. somnifera's anti-diabetic activity. Elicitors applied to the root growing solutions affected the physiological state of the plants, altering membrane leakage or osmotic potential. Methyl salicylate and chitosan increased withaferin A content by 75% and 69% respectively, and extracts from elicited plants increased glucose uptake to a higher extent than non-elicited plants, demonstrating a correlation between increased content of withaferin A and anti-diabetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The neuropharmacology of prolactin secretion elicited by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”): A concurrent microdialysis and plasma analysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, K.S.; Kimmel, H.L.; Rice, K.C.; Howell, L.L

    2012-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a substituted phenethylamine that is widely abused as the street drug “ecstasy”. Racemic MDMA (S,R(+/−)-MDMA) and its stereoisomers elicit complex spectrums of psychobiological, neurochemical, and hormonal effects. In this regard, recent findings demonstrated that S,R(+/−)-MDMA and its stereoisomer R(−)-MDMA elicit increases in striatal extracellular serotonin levels and plasma levels of the hormone prolactin in rhesus monkeys. In the present mechanistic study, we evaluated the role of the serotonin transporter and the 5-HT2A receptor in S,R(+/−)-MDMA- and R(−)-MDMA-elicited prolactin secretion in rhesus monkeys through concurrent microdialysis and plasma analysis determinations and drug interaction experiments. Concurrent neurochemical and hormone determinations showed a strong positive temporal correlation between serotonin release and prolactin secretion. Consistent with their distinct mechanisms of action and previous studies showing that the serotonin transporter inhibitor fluoxetine attenuates the behavioral and neurochemical effects of S,R(+/−)-MDMA, pretreatment with fluoxetine attenuated serotonin release elicited by either S,R(+/−)-MDMA or R(−)-MDMA. As hypothesized, at a dose that had no significant effects on circulating prolactin levels when administered alone, fluoxetine also attenuated prolactin secretion elicited by S,R(+/−)-MDMA. In contrast, combined pretreatment with both fluoxetine and the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 was required to attenuate prolactin secretion elicited by R(−)-MDMA, suggesting that this stereoisomer of S,R(+/−)-MDMA elicits prolactin secretion through both serotonin release and direct agonism of 5-HT2A receptors. Accordingly, these findings inform our understanding of the neuropharmacology of both S,R(+/−)-MDMA and R(−)-MDMA and the regulation of prolactin secretion. PMID:22197270

  14. Appropriation of Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cognitive mapping for eliciting users' sensemaking during information system (IS) appropriation. Despite the potential usefulness of sensemaking, few studies in IS research use it as a theoretical lens to address IS appropriation. A possible reason for this may...... be that sensemaking does not easily lend itself to be used in practice. We introduce cognitive mapping as a way to elicit users' sensemaking and illustrate its value by reporting on findings from an empirical study of the introduction of an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system. The contribution of the paper...

  15. Can a Circular Payment Card Format Effectively Elicit Preferences? Evidence From a Survey on a Mandatory Health Insurance Scheme in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Olivier; Makhloufi, Khaled; Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The choice of elicitation format is a crucial but tricky aspect of stated preferences surveys. It affects not only the quantity and quality of the information collected on respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) but also the potential errors/biases that prevent their true WTP from being observed. We propose a new elicitation mechanism, the circular payment card (CPC), and show that it helps overcome the drawbacks of the standard payment card (PC) format. It uses a visual pie chart representation without start or end points: respondents spin the circular card in any direction until they find the section that best matches their true WTP. We performed a contingent valuation survey regarding a mandatory health insurance scheme in Tunisia, a middle-income country. Respondents were randomly allocated into one of three subgroups and their WTP was elicited using one of three formats: open-ended (OE), standard PC and the new CPC. We compared the elicited WTP. We found significant differences in unconditional and conditional analyses. Our empirical results consistently indicated that the OE and standard PC formats led to significantly lower WTP than the CPC format. Overall, our results are encouraging and suggest CPC could be an effective alternative format to elicit 'true' WTP.

  16. Identification and characterization of Ixodes scapularis antigens that elicit tick immunity using yeast surface display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim J Schuijt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary antigens that react with tick-immune serum. We constructed an Ixodes scapularis nymphal salivary gland yeast surface display library and screened the library with nymph-immune rabbit sera and identified five salivary antigens. Four of these proteins, designated P8, P19, P23 and P32, had a predicted signal sequence. We generated recombinant (r P8, P19 and P23 in a Drosophila expression system for functional and immunization studies. rP8 showed anti-complement activity and rP23 demonstrated anti-coagulant activity. Ixodes scapularis feeding was significantly impaired when nymphs were fed on rabbits immunized with a cocktail of rP8, rP19 and rP23, a hall mark of tick-immunity. These studies also suggest that these antigens may serve as potential vaccine candidates to thwart tick feeding.

  17. Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2005-01-01

    option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...... elicited by the laddering method increase explanatory power with regard to choice option attractiveness beyond the beliefs elicited by the Ajzen and Fishbein method, and that this additional explanatory power was due to those beliefs which relate the choice option to concepts with a higher level...

  18. Lysosomal exocytosis in response to subtle membrane damage following nanosecond pulse exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Danielle R.; Roth, Caleb C.; Bernhard, Joshua A.; Payne, Jason A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2011-03-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsEP, ion permeable nanopores ( 2nm) created by longer micro and millisecond duration pulses. Macroscopic damage to a plasma membrane by a micropipette has been shown to cause internal vesicles (lysosomes) to undergo exocytosis to repair membrane damage, a calcium mediated process called lysosomal exocytosis. Formation of large pores in the plasma membrane by electrical pulses has been shown to elicit lysosomal exocytosis in a variety of cell types. Our research objective is to determine whether lysosomal exocytosis will occur in response to nanopores formed by exposure to nsEP. In this paper we used propidium iodide (PI) and Calcium Green-1 AM ester (CaGr) to differentiate between large and small pores formed in CHO-K1 cells following exposure to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2 kV/cm. This information was compared to changes in membrane organization observed by increases in FM1-43 fluorescence, both in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer. In addition, we monitored the real time migration of lysosomes within the cell using Cellular Lights assay to tag LAMP-1, a lysosomal membrane protein. Both 1 and 20 pulses elicited a large influx of extracellular calcium, while little PI uptake was observed following a single pulse exposure. Statistically significant increases in FM1-43 fluorescence were seen in samples containing calcium suggesting that calcium-triggered membrane repair may be occurring. Lastly, density of lysosomes within cells, specifically around the nucleus, appeared to change rapidly upon nsEP stimulation suggesting lysosomal migration.

  19. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we

  20. Stem rust spores elicit rapid RPG1 phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust threatens cereal production worldwide. Understanding the mechanism by which durable resistance genes, such as Rpg1, function is critical. We show that the RPG1 protein is phosphorylated within 5 min by exposure to spores from avirulent but not virulent races of stem rust. Transgenic mutant...

  1. Signalling events elicited in plants by defined oligosaccharide structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promé, J C

    1996-10-01

    Developments during the past year have confirmed that several classes of oligosaccharides are able to activate the plant cell machinery, leading either to defence reactions or to plant developmental processes. Both fungal and plant cell walls contain molecules that elicit plant defence reactions; however, most of the studies focus on the activities induced by lipochito-oligomers (LCOs, or Nod factors) produced by bacteria which trigger plant infection and nodule formation (organogenesis). LCOs can be described as growth regulators of plants in general as they also induce protoplast cell divisions of tobacco plant (a nonlegume) at femtomolar concentrations. Recognition of the appropriate symbiotic bacteria by legumes is mediated by the structure of Nod factors, but the structural determinants involved in this recognition process are not always clearly understood. Although specific substitutions of the oligochitin backbone by several chemical groups are involved, it seems that some host range variations of the bacteria can only be explained by small variations in the hydrophobic balance between both ends of the molecule.

  2. A sunny future: expert elicitation of China's solar photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long T.; Branstetter, Lee; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2018-03-01

    China has emerged as the global manufacturing center for solar photovoltaic (PV) products. Chinese firms have entered all stages of the supply chain, producing most of the installed solar modules around the world. Meanwhile, production costs are at record lows. The decisions that Chinese solar producers make today will influence the path for the solar industry and its role towards de-carbonization of global energy systems in the years to come. However, to date, there have been no assessments of the future costs and efficiency of solar PV systems produced by the Chinese PV industry. We perform an expert elicitation to assess the technological and non-technological factors that led to the success of China’s silicon PV industry as well as likely future costs and performance. Experts evaluated key metrics such as efficiency, costs, and commercial viability of 17 silicon and non-silicon solar PV technologies by 2030. Silicon-based technologies will continue to be the mainstream product for large-scale electricity generation application in the near future, with module efficiency reaching as high as 23% and production cost as low as 0.24/W. The levelized cost of electricity for solar will be around 34/MWh, allowing solar PV to be competitive with traditional energy resources like coal. The industry’s future developments may be affected by overinvestment, overcapacity, and singular short-term focus.

  3. When Do Morally Motivated Innovators Elicit Inspiration Instead of Irritation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Bolderdijk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovators (i.e., consumers who are the first to adopt an innovation are pivotal for the societal diffusion of sustainable innovations. But when are innovators most influential? Recent work suggests that morally motivated innovators (i.e., consumers who adopt an innovation out of concern for the welfare of others can make fellow consumers who have not yet adopted that innovation feel morally inadequate. As a self-defense mechanism, those fellow consumers might dismiss these innovators and their choices. As a result, ironically, morally motivated innovators might discourage others to adopt sustainable innovations. In an experimental study, we replicate this pattern, but also show that moral innovators can elicit a more positive response as well. Specifically, our results offer initial evidence that morally motivated innovators may be more inspiring than self-interested innovators, provided that their actions do not directly pose a threat to the moral self-concept of observers. In sum, our research sheds empirical light on the conditions under which innovators are likely to facilitate, rather than slow down the transition to a more sustainable society.

  4. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael

    2011-11-08

    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges to the development of vaccines to hepatitis C virus that elicit neutralizing antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Edelgard Drummer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite 20 years of research, a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C virus (HCV infection has not been developed. A vaccine to prevent HCV will need to induce broadly reactive immunity able to prevent infection by the 7 genetically and antigenically distinct genotypes circulating world-wide. Hepatitis C virus encodes two surface exposed glycoproteins, E1 and E2 that function as a heterodimer to mediate viral entry. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs to both E1 and E2 have been described with the major NAb target being E2. The function of E2 is to attach virions to host cells via cell surface receptors that include, but is not limited to, the tetraspanin CD81 and scavenger receptor B class I. However, E2 has developed a number of immune evasion strategies to limit the effectiveness of the NAb response and possibly limit the ability of the immune system to generate potent NAbs in natural infection. Hypervariable regions that shield the underlying core domain, subdominant neutralization epitopes and glycan shielding combine to make E2 a difficult target for the immune system. This review summarizes recent information on the role of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HCV infection, the targets of the neutralizing antibody response and structural information on glycoprotein E2 in complex with neutralizing antibodies. This new information should provide a framework for the rational design of new vaccine candidates that elicit highly potent broadly reactive NAbs to prevent HCV infection.

  7. Expert elicitation for deriving input data for probabilistic risk assessment of shipwrecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landquist, H; Norrman, J; Lindhe, A; Norberg, T; Hassellöv, I-M; Lindgren, J F; Rosén, L

    2017-12-15

    The necessity of having a process in place for adequate risk assessment of shipwrecks that pose a threat to the marine environment is today internationally acknowledged. However, retrieving the desired data for such a risk assessment can prove challenging. One means of addressing this problem is to make use of experts' knowledge and experience. The purpose of this paper is therefore to present and analyse data for risk assessment of shipwrecks derived by expert elicitation. The main outcome is the experts' estimations of (i) the generic probability of an opening in a shipwreck due to the occurrence of a number of activities and (ii) estimations of the degree to which site-specific and wreck-specific indicators affect the probability of opening. Results show that the derived information is applicable in probabilistic shipwreck risk assessment and that the VRAKA framework now contains needed information for integrating generic and site-specific information using Bayesian updating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elicitation of expert judgments of uncertainty in the risk assessment of herbicide-tolerant oilseed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer von Krauss, Martin P; Casman, Elizabeth A; Small, Mitchell J

    2004-12-01

    One of the lay public's concerns about genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMO) and related emerging technologies is that not all the important risks are evaluated or even identified yet--and that ignorance of the unanticipated risks could lead to severe environmental or public health consequences. To some degree, even the scientists who participated in the analysis of the risks from GMOs (arguably the people most qualified to critique these analyses) share some of this concern. To formally explore the uncertainty in the risk assessment of a GM crop, we conducted detailed interviews of seven leading experts on GM oilseed crops to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on their understanding of the uncertainties associated with the risks to agriculture from GM oilseed crops (canola or rapeseed). The results of these elicitations revealed three issues of potential concern that are currently left outside the scope of risk assessments. These are (1) the potential loss of the agronomic and environmental benefits of glyphosate (a herbicide widely used in no-till agriculture) due to the combined problems of glyphosate-tolerant canola and wheat volunteer plants, (2) the growing problem of seed lot contamination, and (3) the potential market impacts. The elicitations also identified two areas where knowledge is insufficient. These are: the occurrence of hybridization between canola and wild relatives and the ability of the hybrids to perpetuate themselves in nature, and the fate of the herbicide-tolerance genes in soil and their interaction with soil microfauna and -flora. The methodological contribution of this work is a formal approach to analyzing the uncertainty surrounding complex problems.

  9. Focus Groups in Elderly Ophthalmologic Patients: Setting the Stage for Quantitative Preference Elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Marion; Vennedey, Vera; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Fauser, Sascha; Stock, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    Patients suffering from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are rarely actively involved in decision-making, despite facing preference-sensitive treatment decisions. This paper presents a qualitative study to prepare quantitative preference elicitation in AMD patients. The aims of this study were (1) to gain familiarity with and learn about the special requirements of the AMD patient population for quantitative data collection; and (2) to select/refine patient-relevant treatment attributes and levels, and gain insights into preference structures. Semi-structured focus group interviews were performed. An interview guide including preselected categories in the form of seven potentially patient-relevant treatment attributes was followed. To identify the most patient-relevant treatment attributes, a ranking exercise was performed. Deductive content analyses were done by two independent reviewers for each attribute to derive subcategories (potential levels of attributes) and depict preference trends. The focus group interviews included 21 patients. The interviews revealed that quantitative preference surveys in this population will have to be interviewer assisted to make the survey feasible for patients. The five most patient-relevant attributes were the effect on visual function [ranking score (RS): 139], injection frequency (RS: 101), approval status (RS: 83), side effects (RS: 79), and monitoring frequency (RS: 76). Attribute and level refinement was based on patients' statements. Preference trends and dependencies between attributes informed the quantitative instrument design. This study suggests that qualitative research is a very helpful step to prepare the design and administration of quantitative preference elicitation instruments. It especially facilitated familiarization with the target population and its preferences, and it supported attribute/level refinement.

  10. Chiropractic spinal manipulation and the risk for acute lumbar disc herniation: a belief elicitation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David; Côté, Pierre; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Jadad, Alejandro R; Tomlinson, George A

    2017-09-18

    Chiropractic spinal manipulation treatment (SMT) is common for back pain and has been reported to increase the risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), but there is no high quality evidence about this. In the absence of good evidence, clinicians can have knowledge and beliefs about the risk. Our purpose was to determine clinicians' beliefs regarding the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT. Using a belief elicitation design, 47 clinicians (16 chiropractors, 15 family physicians and 16 spine surgeons) that treat patients with back pain from primary and tertiary care practices were interviewed. Participants' elicited incidence estimates of acute LDH among a hypothetical group of patients with acute low back pain treated with and without chiropractic SMT, were used to derive the probability distribution for the relative risk (RR) for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT. Chiropractors expressed the most optimistic belief (median RR 0.56; IQR 0.39-1.03); family physicians expressed a neutral belief (median RR 0.97; IQR 0.64-1.21); and spine surgeons expressed a slightly more pessimistic belief (median RR 1.07; IQR 0.95-1.29). Clinicians with the most optimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT reduces the incidence of acute LDH by about 60% (median RR 0.42; IQR 0.29-0.53). Those with the most pessimistic views believed that chiropractic SMT increases the incidence of acute LDH by about 30% (median RR 1.29; IQR 1.11-1.59). Clinicians' beliefs about the risk for acute LDH associated with chiropractic SMT varied systematically across professions, in spite of a lack of scientific evidence to inform these beliefs. These probability distributions can serve as prior probabilities in future Bayesian analyses of this relationship.

  11. The Value of Information in Automated Negotiation: A Decision Model for Eliciting User Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Baarslag (Tim); M. Kaisers (Michael)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractConsider an agent that can autonomously negotiate and coordinate with others in our stead, to reach outcomes and agreements in our interest. Such automated negotiation agents are already common practice in areas such as high frequency trading, and are now finding applications in domains

  12. Mechanism Design for the Truthful Elicitation of Costly Probabilistic Estimates in Distributed Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Rogers, Alex; Gerding, Enrico H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the design of a novel two-stage mechanism, based on strictly proper scoring rules, that allows a centre to acquire a costly forecast of a future event (such as a meteorological phenomenon) or a probabilistic estimate of a specific parameter (such as the quality of an expecte...

  13. Transient and sustained cortical activity elicited by connected speech of varying intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiitinen Hannu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robustness of speech perception in the face of acoustic variation is founded on the ability of the auditory system to integrate the acoustic features of speech and to segregate them from background noise. This auditory scene analysis process is facilitated by top-down mechanisms, such as recognition memory for speech content. However, the cortical processes underlying these facilitatory mechanisms remain unclear. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG study examined how the activity of auditory cortical areas is modulated by acoustic degradation and intelligibility of connected speech. The experimental design allowed for the comparison of cortical activity patterns elicited by acoustically identical stimuli which were perceived as either intelligible or unintelligible. Results In the experiment, a set of sentences was presented to the subject in distorted, undistorted, and again in distorted form. The intervening exposure to undistorted versions of sentences rendered the initially unintelligible, distorted sentences intelligible, as evidenced by an increase from 30% to 80% in the proportion of sentences reported as intelligible. These perceptual changes were reflected in the activity of the auditory cortex, with the auditory N1m response (~100 ms being more prominent for the distorted stimuli than for the intact ones. In the time range of auditory P2m response (>200 ms, auditory cortex as well as regions anterior and posterior to this area generated a stronger response to sentences which were intelligible than unintelligible. During the sustained field (>300 ms, stronger activity was elicited by degraded stimuli in auditory cortex and by intelligible sentences in areas posterior to auditory cortex. Conclusions The current findings suggest that the auditory system comprises bottom-up and top-down processes which are reflected in transient and sustained brain activity. It appears that analysis of acoustic features occurs

  14. Structural basis for immunization with postfusion respiratory syncytial virus fusion F glycoprotein (RSV F) to elicit high neutralizing antibody titers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Kurt A.; Settembre, Ethan C.; Shaw, Christine A.; Dey, Antu K.; Rappuoli, Rino; Mandl, Christian W.; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Carfi, Andrea (Novartis)

    2012-02-07

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the main cause of infant bronchiolitis, remains a major unmet vaccine need despite more than 40 years of vaccine research. Vaccine candidates based on a chief RSV neutralization antigen, the fusion (F) glycoprotein, have foundered due to problems with stability, purity, reproducibility, and potency. Crystal structures of related parainfluenza F glycoproteins have revealed a large conformational change between the prefusion and postfusion states, suggesting that postfusion F antigens might not efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies. We have generated a homogeneous, stable, and reproducible postfusion RSV F immunogen that elicits high titers of neutralizing antibodies in immunized animals. The 3.2-{angstrom} X-ray crystal structure of this substantially complete RSV F reveals important differences from homology-based structural models. Specifically, the RSV F crystal structure demonstrates the exposure of key neutralizing antibody binding sites on the surface of the postfusion RSV F trimer. This unanticipated structural feature explains the engineered RSV F antigen's efficiency as an immunogen. This work illustrates how structural-based antigen design can guide the rational optimization of candidate vaccine antigens.

  15. High-concentration topical capsaicin may abolish the clinical manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis by effects on induction and elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Elberling, Jesper; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin condition caused by a type-IV hypersensitivity reaction. Even though ACD is considered as a T-cell mediated disease, indications exists that peptidergic nerve fibers at the site of allergen exposure and associated with the draining lymph node play a prominent role in both induction and elicitation of ACD. This neuro-immune cross talk seems rely on neuropeptides such as Substance P secreted by nerve fiber terminals. It is hypothesized that local complete or partial cutaneous denervation/defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers in humans could be a feasible approach towards treating allergic contact dermatitis. Recently, human experimental protocols for prominent, temporary defunctionalization of peptidergic fibers have been published relying on prolonged application of 8% topical capsaicin patches. Combined with human experimental ACD models the importance of peptidergic nerve fibers in the induction and elicitation phases of ACD could be accurately established. Understanding the role of cutaneous peptidergic fibers in the pathogenesis and potentially of ACD and how contact sensitization can be modulated by topical defunctionalization of these fibers could lead to new approaches to treatment for ACD. In patients with localized ACD occurring to an allergen that is difficult or unfeasible to evade this would have particular relevance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. mprovements in the Process of Requisite Elicitation for Public Management Software: A Case Study Using Work Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOES, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Requirements elicitation is not an easy task. Different expectations between users and analysts, redundancy of information and lack of standardization can make this task difficult and conflicting. When it comes to software for the public sector this task becomes somewhat more complicated because of the constant changes in federal laws and regulations. This paper presents a case study of applying work instructions to remedy these kind of problems, as well as others found in the company where the study was carried out. We achieved very promising results, namely better utilization of human resources and reduction of job demand.

  17. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  18. Role of phosphodiesterase-4 on ethanol elicited locomotion and narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliño, Pablo; Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2016-02-01

    The cAMP signaling pathway has emerged as an important modulator of the pharmacological effects of ethanol. In this respect, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behavioral actions. Cellular levels of cAMP are maintained by the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. In the present work we have focused on ascertaining the role of PDE4 in mediating the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. For this purpose, we have used the selective PDE4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724. This compound has been proven to enhance cellular cAMP response by PDE4 blockade and can be administered systemically. Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ro 20-1724 (0-5 mg/kg; i.p.) at different time intervals before ethanol (0-4 g/kg; i.p.) administration. Immediately after the ethanol injection, locomotor activity, loss of righting reflex, PKA footprint and enzymatic activity were assessed. Pretreatment with Ro 20-1724 increased ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Doses that increased locomotor stimulation did not modify basal locomotion or the suppression of motor activity produced by high doses of this alcohol. Ro 20-1724 did not alter the locomotor activation produced by amphetamine or cocaine. The time of loss of righting reflex evoked by ethanol was increased after pretreatment with Ro 20-1724. This effect was selective for the narcotic effects of ethanol since Ro 20-1724 did not affect pentobarbital-induced narcotic effects. Moreover, Ro 20-1724 administration increased the PKA footprint and enzymatic activity response elicited by ethanol. These data provide further evidence of the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the central effects of ethanol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exposure to culturally sensitive sexual health information and impact on health literacy: a qualitative study among newly arrived refugee women in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Pia; Carlzén, Katarina; Agardh, Anette

    2017-07-01

    In Sweden, migrants have poorer sexual and reproductive health compared to the general population. Health literacy, in the form of the cognitive and social skills enabling access to health promoting activities, is often poorer among migrants, partly due to language and cultural barriers. Culturally sensitive health education provides a strategy for enhancing health literacy. Since 2012, specially trained civic and health communicators have provided sexual and reproductive health and rights information to newly arrived refugees in Skåne, Sweden. The aim of this study was to explore how information on sexual and reproductive health and rights was perceived by female recipients and whether being exposed to such information contributed to enhanced sexual and reproductive health and rights literacy. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with nine women and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Two themes emerged: (1) opening the doors to new understandings of sexual and reproductive health and rights and (2) planting the seed for engagement in sexual and reproductive health and rights issues, illustrating how cultural norms influenced perceptions, but also how information opened up opportunities for challenging these norms. Gender-separate groups may facilitate information uptake, while discussion concerning sexual health norms may benefit from taking place in mixed groups.

  20. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  1. Elicitation of the "Passe Compose" in French Preschoolers with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Phaedra; Thordardottir, Elin T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines inflectional abilities in French-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) using a verb elicitation task. Eleven children with SLI and age-matched controls (37-52 months) participated in the experiment. We elicited the "passe compose" using eight regular and eight irregular high frequency verbs matched for age…

  2. The time-dose-response relationship for elicitation of contact dermatitis in isoeugenol allergic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bruze, M

    2001-01-01

    The elicitation response in allergic contact dermatitis is dose dependent, but the time-concentration relationship for elicitation has not previously been described. In this study 27 isoeugenol-sensitive patients participated in serial dilution patch tests with isoeugenol and a double-blinded Rep...

  3. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  4. Radiography exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter, the reader will introduce with basic knowledge on radiography exposure. All the code and standard must give a specification on density or their range that can accepted. So the result outside the specification usually will be unacceptable and this can effected the time, cost and energy of the radiographer. So, for radiographer, they must work carefully to produce a good result and one way to solve this problem is through good exposure. The more the exposure can make a film darker while the less exposure can make the radiograph not enough density. So, through this chapter, the reader can know detailed how to manage this problem. As mention earlier, this technique is a combination between theories and practical, so, here theory is a main part to make the practical successful.

  5. Military Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  6. Common problems in the elicitation and analysis of expert opinion affecting probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.A.; Booker, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Expert opinion is frequently used in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), particularly in estimating low probability events. In this paper, we discuss some of the common problems encountered in eliciting and analyzing expert opinion data and offer solutions or recommendations. The problems are: that experts are not naturally Bayesian. People fail to update their existing information to account for new information as it becomes available, as would be predicted by the Bayesian philosophy; that experts cannot be fully calibrated. To calibrate experts, the feedback from the known quantities must be immediate, frequent, and specific to the task; that experts are limited in the number of things that they can mentally juggle at a time to 7 {plus minus} 2; that data gatherers and analysts can introduce bias by unintentionally causing an altering of the expert's thinking or answers; that the level of detail the data, or granularity, can affect the analyses; and the conditioning effect poses difficulties in gathering and analyzing of the expert data. The data that the expert gives can be conditioned on a variety of factors that can affect the analysis and the interpretation of the results. 31 refs.

  7. Role of nitric oxide-containing factors in the ventilatory and cardiovascular responses elicited by hypoxic challenge in isoflurane-anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, James P; Passafaro, Rachael J; Baby, Santhosh M; Young, Alex P; Bates, James N; Gaston, Benjamin; Lewis, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to hypoxia elicits changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, and frequency of breathing (fR). The objective of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses elicited by brief exposures to hypoxia in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. The rats were instrumented to record MAP, heart rate, and fR and then exposed to 90 s episodes of hypoxia (10% O2, 90% N2) before and after injection of vehicle, the NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or the inactive enantiomer D-NAME (both at 50 μmol/kg iv). Each episode of hypoxia elicited a decrease in MAP, bidirectional changes in heart rate (initial increase and then a decrease), and an increase in fR. These responses were similar before and after injection of vehicle or D-NAME. In contrast, the hypoxia-induced decreases in MAP were attenuated after administration of L-NAME. The initial increases in heart rate during hypoxia were amplified whereas the subsequent decreases in heart rate were attenuated in L-NAME-treated rats. Finally, the hypoxia-induced increases in fR were virtually identical before and after administration of L-NAME. These findings suggest that NO factors play a vital role in the expression of the cardiovascular but not the ventilatory responses elicited by brief episodes of hypoxia in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Based on existing evidence that NO factors play a vital role in carotid body and central responses to hypoxia in conscious rats, our findings raise the novel possibility that isoflurane blunts this NO-dependent signaling. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as expos......Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods...... as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. Methods and findings We used Cooke’s Classical Model...

  9. Suppression of nitric oxide production in mouse macrophages by soybean flavonoids accumulated in response to nitroprusside and fungal elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamashiro Wirla MSC

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-inflammatory properties of some flavonoids have been attributed to their ability to inhibit the production of NO by activated macrophages. Soybean cotyledons accumulate certain flavonoids following elicitation with an extract of the fungal pathogen Diaporthe phaseolorum f. sp. meridionalis (Dpm. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a nitric oxide donor, can substitute for Dpm in inducing flavonoid production. In this study, we investigated the effect of flavonoid-containing diffusates obtained from Dpm- and SNP-elicited soybean cotyledons on NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS- and LPS plus interferon-γ (IFNγ-activated murine macrophages. Results Significant inhibition of NO production, measured as nitrite formation, was observed when macrophages were activated in the presence of soybean diffusates from Dpm- or SNP-elicited cotyledons. This inhibition was dependent on the duration of exposure to the elicitor. Daidzein, genistein, luteolin and apigenin, the main flavonoids present in diffusates of elicited cotyledons, suppressed the NO production by LPS + IFNγ activated macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner, with IC50 values of 81.4 μM, 34.5 μM, 38.6 μM and 10.4 μM respectively. For macrophages activated with LPS alone, the IC50 values were 40.0 μM, 16.6 μM, 10.4 μM and 2.8 μM, respectively. Western blot analysis showed that iNOS expression was not affected by daidzein, was reduced by genistein, and was abolished by apigenin, luteolin and Dpm- and SNP-soybean diffusates at concentrations that significantly inhibited NO production by activated macrophages. Conclusions These results suggest that the suppressive effect of flavonoids on iNOS expression could account for the potent inhibitory effect of Dpm- and SNP-diffusates on NO production by activated macrophages. Since the physiological concentration of flavonoids in plants is normally low, the treatment of soybean tissues with SNP may provide a simple

  10. Eliciting Public Attitudes Regarding Bioremediation Cleanup Technologies: Lessons Learned from a Consensus Workshop in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denise Lach, Principle Investigator; Stephanie Sanford, Co-P.I.

    2003-03-01

    During the summer of 2002, we developed and implemented a ''consensus workshop'' with Idaho citizens to elicit their concerns and issues regarding the use of bioremediation as a cleanup technology for radioactive nuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The consensus workshop is a derivation of a technology assessment method designed to ensure dialogue between experts and lay people. It has its origins in the United States in the form of ''consensus development conferences'' used by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to elicit professional knowledge and concerns about new medical treatments. Over the last 25 years, NIH has conducted over 100 consensus development conferences. (Jorgensen 1995). The consensus conference is grounded in the idea that technology assessment and policy needs to be socially negotiated among many different stakeholders and groups rather than narrowly defined by a group of experts. To successfully implement new technology, the public requires access to information that addresses a full complement of issues including understanding the organization proposing the technology. The consensus conference method creates an informed dialogue, making technology understandable to the general public and sets it within perspectives and priorities that may differ radically from those of the expert community. While specific outcomes differ depending on the overall context of a conference, one expected outcome is that citizen panel members develop greater knowledge of the technology during the conference process and, sometimes, the entire panel experiences a change in attitude toward the technology and/or the organization proposing its use (Kluver 1995). The purpose of this research project was to explore the efficacy of the consensus conference model as a way to elicit the input of the general public about bioremediation of radionuclides and heavy metals at Department of Energy sites

  11. What monitor can replace the cathode-ray tube for visual stimulation to elicit multifocal electroretinograms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Seki, Keisuke; Nagasaka, Eiichiro; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-08-05

    To compare a conventional cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and liquid crystal display (LCD) screens as visual stimulators to elicit multifocal electroretinograms (mfERGs), mfERGs were recorded from seven eyes of seven healthy volunteers (21 ± 2 years). The mfERGs elicited by a conventional CRT screen (S710, Compaq Computer Co.) were compared to those elicited by a studio-grade master OLED monitor (PVM-1741, Sony, Japan) and a conventional LCD (S1721, Flexscan, Eizo Nanao Corp., Japan). The luminance changes of each monitor were measured with a photodiode. CRT, OLED, and LCD screens with a frame frequency of 60 Hz were studied. A hexagonal stimulus array with 61 stimulus elements was created on each monitor. The serial white stimuli of the OLED screen at 60 Hz did not fuse, and that of the LCD screens fused. The amplitudes of P1 and P2 of the first-order kernels of the mfERGs were not significantly different from those elicited by the CRT and OLED screens, and the P1 amplitude of the first-order kernel elicited by the LCD stimuli was significantly smaller than that elicited by the CRT in all the groups of the averaged hexagonal elements. The implicit times were approximately 10 ms longer in almost all components elicited by the LCD screen compared to those elicited by the CRT screen. The mfERGs elicited by monitors other than the CRT should be carefully interpreted, especially those elicited by LCD screens. The OLED had good performance, and we conclude that it can replace the CRT as a stimulator for mfERGs; however, a collection of normative data is recommended. © 2014 ARVO.

  12. Medical exposure of French population to ionizing radiations. Situation for the setting up of a perennial information system on medical exposure of the patients to ionizing radiations; Exposition medicale de la population francaise aux rayonnements ionisants. Etat des lieux pour la mise en place d'un systeme perenne d'information sur l'exposition medicale des patients aux rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaff, P.; Aubert, B. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint Maurice (France)

    2006-07-01

    The necessity of a information gathering system allowing to globally evaluate the contribution of medical exposure to the French population exposure and to know more particularly the most irradiating practices and these ones that reach the most sensitive populations has been emphasized in the 'Vrousos' report on the priorities in radiation protection and detailed in the actions planning for the patients surveillance to ionizing radiation exposure by the general direction of nuclear safety and radiation protection. So, the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety and the institute of health surveillance have decided to co-ordinate their efforts to implement an observatory of medical practice in radiology. This study should allow to know the average radiation dose delivered for each act and to know the nature and frequency of these acts. for example the average radiation dose in conventional radiology has been estimated between .66 to .83 mSv by year according to the lowest or highest hypothesis. The examinations of conventional radiology would contribute to 35% of the total dose delivered to population, scanography examinations to 40% and the nuclear medicine acts and interventional radiology for 20 to 25%. (N.C.)

  13. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  14. Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mercury in Your Environment Contact Us Share Health Effects of Exposures to Mercury Related Health Information for ... About PDF ; discussion starts on page 20) Methylmercury Effects Effects on People of All Ages Exposure to ...

  15. NANOSCALE BIOSENSORS IN ECOSYSTEM EXPOSURE RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This powerpoint presentation presented information on nanoscale biosensors in ecosystem exposure research. The outline of the presentation is as follows: nanomaterials environmental exposure research; US agencies involved in nanosensor research; nanoscale LEDs in biosensors; nano...

  16. Future costs of key low-carbon energy technologies: Harmonization and aggregation of energy technology expert elicitation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Erin; Bosetti, Valentina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Henrion, Max; Aleluia Reis, Lara

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we standardize, compare, and aggregate results from thirteen surveys of technology experts, performed over a period of five years using a range of different methodologies, but all aiming at eliciting expert judgment on the future cost of five key energy technologies and how future costs might be influenced by public R&D investments. To enable researchers and policy makers to use the wealth of collective knowledge obtained through these expert elicitations we develop and present a set of assumptions to harmonize them. We also aggregate expert estimates within each study and across studies to facilitate the comparison. The analysis showed that, as expected, technology costs are expected to go down by 2030 with increasing levels of R&D investments, but that there is not a high level of agreement between individual experts or between studies regarding the technology areas that would benefit the most from R&D investments. This indicates that further study of prospective cost data may be useful to further inform R&D investments. We also found that the contributions of additional studies to the variance of costs in one technology area differed by technology area, suggesting that (barring new information about the downsides of particular forms of elicitations) there may be value in not only including a diverse and relatively large group of experts, but also in using different methods to collect estimates. - Highlights: • Harmonization of unique dataset on probabilistic evolution of key energy technologies. • Expectations about the impact of public R&D investments on future costs. • Highlighting the key uncertainties and a lack of consensus on cost evolution

  17. Deep sequencing reveals transcriptome re-programming of Polygonum multiflorum thunb. roots to the elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongchang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Junwen; Zhao, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been successfully used as an effective elicitor to enhance production of stilbenoid which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. However, the mechanism of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis remains unclear. Genomic information for Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (P. multiflorum) is currently unavailable. To obtain insight into the global regulation mechanism of MeJA in the steady state of stilbene glucoside production (26 h after MeJA elicitation), especially on stilbene glucoside biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of MeJA-treated and untreated P. multiflorum roots and obtained more than 51 million clean reads, from which 79,565 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 56,972 unigenes were annotated against databases including Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG. 18,677 genes expressed differentially between untreated and treated roots. Expression level analysis indicated that a large number of genes were associated with plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, stilbenoid backbone biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. 15 known genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbenoid backbone were found with 7 genes showing increased transcript abundance following elicitation of MeJA. The significantly up (down)-regulated changes of 70 genes in stilbenoid biosynthesis were validated by qRT-PCR assays and PCR product sequencing. According to the expression changes and the previously proposed enzyme functions, multiple candidates for the unknown steps in stilbene glucoside biosynthesis were identified. We also found some genes putatively involved in the transcription factors. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis in P. multiflorum roots. Our results shed new light on the global regulation

  18. The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): using social science to inform prep interventions among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson Bazzi, Angela M; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-09-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub- Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular "re-medicalization" of the HIV epidemic to that of a "reintegration" of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV.

  19. Minocycline inhibits D-amphetamine-elicited action potential bursts in a central snail neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H; Lin, P-L; Wong, R-W; Wu, Y-T; Hsu, H-Y; Tsai, M-C; Lin, M-J; Hsu, Y-C; Lin, C-H

    2012-10-25

    Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline that has been reported to have powerful neuroprotective properties. In our previous studies, we found that d-amphetamine (AMPH) elicited action potential bursts in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. This study sought to determine the effects of minocycline on the AMPH-elicited action potential pattern changes in the central snail neuron, using the two-electrode voltage clamping method. Extracellular application of AMPH at 300 μM elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron. Minocycline dose-dependently (300-900 μM) inhibited the action potential bursts elicited by AMPH. The inhibitory effects of minocycline on AMPH-elicited action potential bursts were restored by forskolin (50 μM), an adenylate cyclase activator, and by dibutyryl cAMP (N(6),2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; 1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. Co-administration of forskolin (50 μM) plus tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 5mM) or co-administration of TEA (5mM) plus dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) also elicited action potential bursts, which were prevented and inhibited by minocycline. In addition, minocycline prevented and inhibited forskolin (100 μM)-elicited action potential bursts. Notably, TEA (50mM)-elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron were not affected by minocycline. Minocycline did not affect steady-state outward currents of the RP4 neuron. However, minocycline did decrease the AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. Similarly, minocycline decreased the effects of forskolin-elicited steady-state current changes. Pretreatment with H89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride; 10 μM), a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited AMPH-elicited action potential bursts and decreased AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. These results suggest that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway and the steady-state current are involved in

  20. Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Rosemary T.; Egeghy, Peter P.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.

    2016-01-01

    This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment. PMID:27455300

  1. Minimizing Surface Exposure to Climate Extremity in Coastal Megacities by Structure Remodelling using Integral Geographic Information System: Lessons from Greater Mumbai Metropolitan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal metropolitans in South Asia represent the most densely populated and congested urban spaces ranking among the largest urban settlements of the planet. These megacities are characterized by inadequate infrastructure, lack of mitigation tools, and weak resilience of urban ecosystems. Additionally, climate change has increased vulnerability of poor and marginalized population living in rapidly growing coastal megacities to increased frequency, severity and intensity of extreme weather events. This has adversely affected local counter strategies and adaptation tools, transforming such events into hazards with the inability to respond and mitigate. Study aimed to develop a participatory framework for risk reduction in Greater Mumbai Metropolitan by Structure Remodeling (SR) in integral GIS. Research utilized terrain analysis tools and vulnerability mapping, and identified risk susceptible fabric and checked its scope for SR without: 1.adding to its (often) complex fragmentation, and 2.without interference with the ecosystem services accommodated by it. Surfaces available included paved ground, streetscapes commercial facades, rooftops,public spaces, open as well as dark spaces. Remodeling altered certain characteristics in the intrinsic or extrinsic cross-section profile or in both (if suitable) with infrastructure measures (grey, green, blue) that collectively involved ecosystem services and maintained natural hydrological connection. This method fairly reduced exposure of vulnerable surface and minimized risk to achieve extremity-neutral state. Harmonizing with public perception and incorporating priorities of local authorities, the method is significant as it rises above the fundamental challenges arising during management of (often) conflicting perspectives and interests of multiplicity of stakeholders involved at various levels in urban climate governance while ensuring inclusive solutions with reduced vulnerability and increased resilience. Additionally

  2. Video elicitation interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.

  3. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  4. Preferences for public involvement in health service decisions: a comparison between best-worst scaling and trio-wise stated preference elicitation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Seda; Campbell, Danny

    2017-12-01

    Stated preference elicitation techniques, such as discrete choice experiments and best-worst scaling, are now widely used in health research to explore the public's choices and preferences. In this paper, we propose an alternative stated preference elicitation technique, which we refer to as 'trio-wise'. We explain this new technique, its relative advantages, modeling framework, and how it compares to the best-worst scaling method. To better illustrate the differences and similarities, we utilize best-worst scaling Case 2, where individuals make best and worst (most and least) choices for the attribute levels that describe a single profile. We demonstrate this new preference elicitation technique using an empirical case study that explores preferences among the general public for ways to involve them in decisions concerning the health care system. Our findings show that the best-worst scaling and trio-wise preference elicitation techniques both retrieve similar preferences. However, the capability of our trio-wise method to provide additional information on the strength of rank preferences and its ability to accommodate indifferent preferences lead us to prefer it over the standard best-worst scaling technique.

  5. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Chevrier-Lamoureux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD, remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario. Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people‟s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1 place and access to health resources; 2 time and food culture; and 3 itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  6. Social support relationships for sexual minority women in Mumbai, India: a photo elicitation interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Mengle, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Little research exists on women who do not identify as heterosexual in India. Social support for sexual minority women may protect against the effects of discrimination. An examination of significant social relationships may point to both strengths and weaknesses in this support. We aimed to understand relationship prioritisation and communication patterns associated with the social support of sexual minority women in Mumbai. In partnership with the Humsafar Trust, India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, we conducted photo-elicitation interviews with 18 sexual minority women, using participants' photographs to prompt dialogue about their social support. Intimate partners were a source of dependable support and many of those without relationships were seeking them. Participants' extended networks included friends and family as well as less formal relationships of social support. Participants mediated their communication with particular social network members, which involved filtering information sexual identity, romantic interests, and personal aspirations, among others. The diverse relationships that sexual minority women have in their social support networks may be used to guide programmes to improve health outcomes.

  7. Social Interaction with an "Unidentified Moving Object" Elicits A-Not-B Error in Domestic Dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gergely

    Full Text Available Mechanical "unidentified moving objects" (UMO's are useful for controlled investigations into features of social interaction that generate cooperativeness and positive social affiliation in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris. We hypothesized that, if a UMO interacted socially with a dog, the UMO would become associated with certain social cues and would subsequently affect dog behaviour. We assigned dogs to a Human, Social UMO or Non-Social UMO partner. In the Human and Social UMO conditions, the partner interacted with the dog cooperatively whereas the Non-Social UMO partner was unresponsive to the dog's actions. We then tested dogs with their partner in a Piagetian A-not-B error paradigm, predicting that the Human and Social UMO partners would be more likely to elicit A-not-B errors in dogs than the Non-Social UMO partner. Five trials were conducted in which the dog watched its partner hide a ball behind one of two screens (A or B. As predicted, dogs in the Human and Social UMO conditions were more likely to search for the ball behind the A screen during B trials than dogs in the Non-Social UMO condition. These results reveal that the unfamiliar partner's social responsiveness leads rapidly to accepting information communicated by the partner. This study has generated a better understanding of crucial features of agents that promote dog social behaviour, which will facilitate the programming of robots for various cooperative tasks.

  8. Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa Crude Venom Injection Elicits Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bruschetta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian toxins represent a rich source of biologically active compounds. Since they may act via oxidative stress events, the aim of the present study was to verify whether crude venom, extracted from the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca, elicits inflammation and oxidative stress processes, known to be mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production, in rats. In a first set of experiments, the animals were injected with crude venom (at three different doses 6, 30 and 60 µg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.v. to test the mortality and possible blood pressure changes. In a second set of experiments, to confirm that Pelagia noctiluca crude venom enhances ROS formation and may contribute to the pathophysiology of inflammation, crude venom-injected animals (30 µg/kg were also treated with tempol, a powerful antioxidant (100 mg/kg i.p., 30 and 60 min after crude venom. Administration of tempol after crude venom challenge, caused a significant reduction of each parameter related to inflammation. The potential effect of Pelagia noctiluca crude venom in the systemic inflammation process has been here demonstrated, adding novel information about its biological activity.

  9. Using XML and XSLT for flexible elicitation of mental-health risk knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, C D; Ahmed, A; Adams, A E

    2007-03-01

    Current tools for assessing risks associated with mental-health problems require assessors to make high-level judgements based on clinical experience. This paper describes how new technologies can enhance qualitative research methods to identify lower-level cues underlying these judgements, which can be collected by people without a specialist mental-health background. Content analysis of interviews with 46 multidisciplinary mental-health experts exposed the cues and their interrelationships, which were represented by a mind map using software that stores maps as XML. All 46 mind maps were integrated into a single XML knowledge structure and analysed by a Lisp program to generate quantitative information about the numbers of experts associated with each part of it. The knowledge was refined by the experts, using software developed in Flash to record their collective views within the XML itself. These views specified how the XML should be transformed by XSLT, a technology for rendering XML, which resulted in a validated hierarchical knowledge structure associating patient cues with risks. Changing knowledge elicitation requirements were accommodated by flexible transformations of XML data using XSLT, which also facilitated generation of multiple data-gathering tools suiting different assessment circumstances and levels of mental-health knowledge.

  10. Raw drone milk of honeybees elicits uterotrophic effect in rats: evidence for estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seres, Adrienn B; Ducza, Eszter; Báthori, Mária; Hunyadi, Attila; Béni, Zoltán; Dékány, Miklós; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-05-01

    Numerous honeybee products are used in medicine, but the literature furnishes no information concerning the effects of the drone milk (DM), although drone brood, which is similar to DM, was reported to elicit a hormone-like strengthening effect. In certain countries, DM is traditionally used to treat infertility and to promote vitality in both men and women. The aim of this study was to determine the putative estrogen hormone-like effect of raw DM in rats and to identify the effective compounds. Uterotrophic assays revealed that DM increased the relative weight of the immature rat uterus. This effect was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain-reaction and Western blot methods, in which the mRNA and protein expression of the estrogen-dependent peptide complement component C3 was determined. Column chromatography and uterotrophic assays were used to fractionate and check bioactivity, respectively. The active compound after the last fractionation was identified by the nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry techniques as E-dec-2-enedioic acid, which is very similar to the fatty acids with estrogenic activity that were previously isolated from royal jelly. These results lead us to suppose that E-dec-2-enedioic acid is responsible for the estrogen-like effect of DM. This appears to be the first report on the pharmacological effects of DM and E-dec-2-enedioic acid in mammals.

  11. Admissibility and per se exclusion of hypnotically elicited recall in American courts of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C

    1997-07-01

    State v. Mack (1980) ruled that hypnotically elicited testimony is per se excluded from Minnesota law courts; this court also ruled that police could employ hypnosis in an attempt to construct an independently corroborated case. In recent years, there have been moves to rescind this exclusion; this raises a question of the probative value of such additional information when it is uncorroborated. This situation is compared with that of the polygraph as an index of deception: Like hypnosis, it is excluded per se in most American jurisdictions. Some legal decisions in Wisconsin are used to illustrate one alternative to the per se exclusion approach. Admissibility of scientific evidence in American courts of law has been based on a criterion of "general acceptability within the relevant scientific community," as first elucidated in Frye v. United States (1923). Recently, the U.S. Supreme Court overturned the Frye decision in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1993), by making general acceptability but one of several admissibility criteria. Three Daubert-based decisions, one involving hypnosis and all concerned with "recovered repressed memories," indicate some problems in law posed by Daubert.

  12. Effects of attentional filtering demands on preparatory ERPs elicited in a spatial cueing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiss, Ellen; Driver, Jon; Eimer, Martin

    2009-06-01

    We used ERP measures to investigate how attentional filtering requirements affect preparatory attentional control and spatially selective visual processing. In a spatial cueing experiment, attentional filtering demands were manipulated by presenting task-relevant visual stimuli either in isolation (target-only task) or together with irrelevant adjacent distractors (target-plus-distractors task). ERPs were recorded in response to informative spatial precues, and in response to subsequent visual stimuli at attended and unattended locations. The preparatory ADAN component elicited during the cue-target interval was larger and more sustained in the target-plus-distractors task, reflecting the demand of stronger attentional filtering. By contrast, two other preparatory lateralised components (EDAN and LDAP) were unaffected by the attentional filtering demand. Similar enhancements of P1 and N1 components in response to the lateral imperative visual stimuli were observed at cued versus uncued locations, regardless of filtering demand, whereas later attentional-related negativities beyond 200 ms post-stimulus were larger the target-plus-distractor task. Our results implicate that the ADAN component is linked to preparatory top-down control processes involved in the attentional filtering of irrelevant distractors; such filtering also affects later attention-related negativities recorded after the onset of the imperative stimulus. ERPs can reveal effects of expected attentional filtering of irrelevant distractors on preparatory attentional control processes and spatially selective visual processing.

  13. Service users' perceptions about their hospital admission elicited by service user-researchers or by clinicians.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Service users may express positive, ambivalent, or negative views of their hospital admission. The objective of this study was to determine whether the background of the interviewer-service user-researcher or clinician-influences the information elicited. The primary outcome was the level of perceived coercion on admission, and secondary outcomes were perceived pressures on admission, procedural justice, perceived necessity for admission, satisfaction with services, and willingness to consent to participate in the study. METHODS Participants voluntarily and involuntarily admitted to three hospitals in Ireland were randomly allocated to be interviewed at hospital discharge by either a service user-researcher or a clinician. Interviewers used the MacArthur Admission Experience Survey and the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire. RESULTS A total of 161 participants were interviewed. No differences by interviewer status or by admission status (involuntary or voluntary) were found in levels of perceived coercion, perceived pressures, procedural justice, perceived necessity, or satisfaction with services. Service users were more likely to decline to participate if their consent was sought by a service user-researcher (24% versus 8%, p=.003). CONCLUSIONS Most interviewees gave positive accounts of their admission regardless of interviewer status. The findings indicate that clinicians and researchers can be more confident that service users\\' positive accounts of admissions are not attributable to a response bias. Researchers can also feel more confident in directly comparing the results of studies undertaken by clinicians and by service user-researchers.

  14. Social Interaction with an "Unidentified Moving Object" Elicits A-Not-B Error in Domestic Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Anna; Compton, Anna B; Newberry, Ruth C; Miklósi, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical "unidentified moving objects" (UMO's) are useful for controlled investigations into features of social interaction that generate cooperativeness and positive social affiliation in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). We hypothesized that, if a UMO interacted socially with a dog, the UMO would become associated with certain social cues and would subsequently affect dog behaviour. We assigned dogs to a Human, Social UMO or Non-Social UMO partner. In the Human and Social UMO conditions, the partner interacted with the dog cooperatively whereas the Non-Social UMO partner was unresponsive to the dog's actions. We then tested dogs with their partner in a Piagetian A-not-B error paradigm, predicting that the Human and Social UMO partners would be more likely to elicit A-not-B errors in dogs than the Non-Social UMO partner. Five trials were conducted in which the dog watched its partner hide a ball behind one of two screens (A or B). As predicted, dogs in the Human and Social UMO conditions were more likely to search for the ball behind the A screen during B trials than dogs in the Non-Social UMO condition. These results reveal that the unfamiliar partner's social responsiveness leads rapidly to accepting information communicated by the partner. This study has generated a better understanding of crucial features of agents that promote dog social behaviour, which will facilitate the programming of robots for various cooperative tasks.

  15. Classical conditioning without verbal suggestions elicits placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąbel, Przemysław; Bajcar, Elżbieta A; Adamczyk, Wacław; Kicman, Paweł; Lisińska, Natalia; Świder, Karolina; Colloca, Luana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among classical conditioning, expectancy, and fear in placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia. A total of 42 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: placebo, nocebo, and control. They received 96 electrical stimuli, preceded by either orange or blue lights. A hidden conditioning procedure, in which participants were not informed about the meaning of coloured lights, was performed in the placebo and nocebo groups. Light of one colour was paired with pain stimuli of moderate intensity (control stimuli), and light of the other colour was paired with either nonpainful stimuli (in the placebo group) or painful stimuli of high intensity (in the nocebo group). In the control group, both colour lights were followed by control stimuli of moderate intensity without any conditioning procedure. Participants rated pain intensity, expectancy of pain intensity, and fear. In the testing phase, when both of the coloured lights were followed by identical moderate pain stimuli, we found a significant analgesic effect in the placebo group, and a significant hyperalgesic effect in the nocebo group. Neither expectancy nor fear ratings predicted placebo analgesia or nocebo hyperalgesia. It appears that a hidden conditioning procedure, without any explicit verbal suggestions, elicits placebo and nocebo effects, however we found no evidence that these effects are predicted by either expectancy or fear. These results suggest that classical conditioning may be a distinct mechanism for placebo and nocebo effects.

  16. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Jan E.; Rukholm, Ellen; Michel, Isabelle; Larocque, Sylvie; Seto, Lisa; Lapum, Jennifer; Timmermans, Katherine; Chevrier-Lamoureux, Renée; Nolan, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD), remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario) and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario). Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people’s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1) place and access to health resources; 2) time and food culture; and 3) itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities. PMID:19826558

  17. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Hald

    Full Text Available The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs. This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by food; most have several potential exposure routes consisting of transmission from animals, by humans, and via environmental routes including water. This paper describes an expert elicitation study conducted by the FERG Source Attribution Task Force to estimate the relative contribution of food to the global burden of diseases commonly transmitted through the consumption of food.We applied structured expert judgment using Cooke's Classical Model to obtain estimates for 14 subregions for the relative contributions of different transmission pathways for eleven diarrheal diseases, seven other infectious diseases and one chemical (lead. Experts were identified through international networks followed by social network sampling. Final selection of experts was based on their experience including international working experience. Enrolled experts were scored on their ability to judge uncertainty accurately and informatively using a series of subject-matter specific 'seed' questions whose answers are unknown to the experts at the time they are interviewed. Trained facilitators elicited the 5th, and 50th and 95th percentile responses to seed questions through telephone interviews. Cooke's Classical Model uses responses to the seed questions to weigh and aggregate expert responses. After this interview, the experts were asked to provide 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile estimates for the 'target' questions regarding disease transmission routes. A total of 72 experts were enrolled in the study. Ten panels were global, meaning that the experts should provide estimates for all 14 subregions, whereas the nine panels were subregional, with experts providing estimates for one or more

  18. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    health care workers who report exposure to HIV at work whether given PEP or not ... breast milk, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid ... or skin lesions [1]. Other body fluid like sweat, tears, saliva, urine and stool do not contain significant quantities of HIV unless there is blood mixed with them[1,2]. HIV is not ...

  19. Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A.; DeWispelare, A.R.

    1996-11-01

    Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE's license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE's experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC's geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs

  20. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Nicotine Patch Administration Among Nonsmokers Based on Acute and Chronic Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Kodet, Jonathan; Robertson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount that is known about the physical health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, little is known about the behavioral health effects. Nicotine, the principle psychoactive substance in SHS, elicits subjective mood and physiological responses in nonsmokers. However, no studies have examined the subjective mood or physiological responses to nicotine in nonsmokers while accounting for prior chronic or acute SHS exposure. A 7-mg nicotine patch was administered to 17 adult nonsmokers for 2 hr. Main outcome measures obtained at ½ hr, 1 hr, and 2 hr were subjective behavioral drug effects (based on eleven 10-cm Visual Analog Scales [VASs]) and the physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and serum nicotine levels. Analysis of outcome data was based on participants' chronic (using hair nicotine) or acute (using saliva cotinine) SHS exposure. Greater chronic SHS exposure was negatively associated with pleasurable responses to nicotine administration ("drug feels good" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = -.65, p < .004), whereas greater acute SHS exposure was associated with positive responses ("like feeling of drug" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = .63, p < .01). There were no associations between chronic or acute exposure and physiological changes in response to nicotine administration. The findings of this study may be useful in providing preliminary empirical data for future explorations of the mechanism whereby SHS exposure can influence behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. Such studies can inform future interventions to reduce the physical and behavioral health risks associated with SHS exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Argumentation-Based Security Requirements Elicitation: The Next Round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ionita, Dan; Bullee, Jan-Willem; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2014-01-01

    Information Security Risk Assessment can be viewed as part of requirements engineering because it is used to translate security goals into security requirements, where security requirements are the desired system properties that mitigate threats to security goals. To improve the defensibility of

  2. Indomethacin elicits proteasomal dysfunctions develops apoptosis through mitochondrial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, Ayeman; Mishra, Ribhav; Upadhyay, Arun; Reddy, Pothula P; Das, Ranabir; Mishra, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs that are mainly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever via cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. There are abundant findings that uncover the hidden critical chemotherapeutics potential of NSAIDs in cancer treatment. However, still the precise mechanism by which NSAIDs could be used as an effective anti-tumor agent in the prevention of carcinogenesis is not well understood. Here, we show that indomethacin, a well-known NSAID, induces proteasomal dysfunction that results in accumulation of unwanted proteins, mitochondrial abnormalities, and successively stimulate apoptosis in cells. We observed the interaction of indomethacin with proteasome and noticed the massive accumulation of intracellular ubiquitin-positive proteins, which might be due to the suppression of proteasome activities. Furthermore, we also found that exposure of indomethacin causes the accumulation of critical proteasomal substrates that consequently generate severe mitochondrial abnormalities and prompt up key apoptotic events in cells. Our results demonstrate how indomethacin affects normal proteasomal functions and induces mitochondrial apoptosis in cells. These findings also improve our current understanding of how NSAIDs can exhibit crucial anti-proliferative effects in cells. In near future, our findings may suggest a new possible strategy for the development of specific proteasome inhibitors in conjunction with other chemo-preventive anticancer agents. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  4. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Chaudhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  6. DEVELOPING MODIFIED SCAFFOLDING MODEL TO ELICIT LEARNERS‟S SPEECH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti Englishtina

    2017-04-01

    children‘s English speech production. It is aimed at describing what the teachers need in eliciting their students‘ speech production; how a scaffolding model should be developed to elicit the children‘s speech production; and how effective is the scaffolding model in eliciting the children‘s speech production. The objects of the study are teachers and students of kindergarten at Mondial SchoolSemarang, Indonesia. Preliminary research was conducted to describe what the teachers need to elicit their students‘ speech production. Referring to the need analysis, a scaffolding model was developed to elicit the children‘s speech production. To explain the effectiveness of the model a try out was carried out on the model developed. Based on the result of the try out, a final model was developed. The findings of the preliminary research suggest that Mondial School kindergarten teachers need a scaffolding model to elicit their students‘ speech production. Referring to the findings a scaffolding model based on speech functions proposed by Celce-Murcia at. al (1997 was developed. To explain the effectiveness of the model the developed initial model was tried out. Based on the result of the try out the final scaffolding model was developed. This study concludes that kindergarten teachers of Mondial School need a scaffolding model to elicit their children‘s English speech production. Based on the need analysis a ModifiedScaffolding Model was developed. Referring to the result of the try out steps it is reasonable to argue that this product of Scaffolding Model is effective in eliciting English speech production of kindergarten students of Mondial School. As teachers use to helping learners to bridge a cognitive

  7. Molecular Mechanisms Elicited by d-Aspartate in Leydig Cells and Spermatogonia

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Maddalena Di Fiore; Alessandra Santillo; Sara Falvo; Salvatore Longobardi; Gabriella Chieffi Baccari

    2016-01-01

    A bulk of evidence suggests that d-aspartate (d-Asp) regulates steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in vertebrate testes. This review article focuses on intracellular signaling mechanisms elicited by d-Asp possibly via binding to the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in both Leydig cells, and spermatogonia. In Leydig cells, the amino acid upregulates androgen production by eliciting the adenylate cyclase-cAMP and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. d-Asp treatment enhances...

  8. Water Sparing in Chronic Ethanol Exposure is Associated With Elevated Renal Estrogen Receptor Beta and Vasopressin V2 Receptor mRNA in the Female Rate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huckstep, Odaro J

    2007-01-01

    ...) alpha and Beta in renal tissue which may affect renal fluid handling. Thus, this study hypothesized that chronic ethanol exposure would elicit different alterations to water load excretion between male and female Sprague Dawley (SD...

  9. Expectations and drivers of future greenhouse gas emissions from Canada's oil sands: An expert elicitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Jennifer M.; Sleep, Sylvia; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of oil sands operations has declined over time but has not offset absolute emissions growth due to rapidly increasing production. Policy making, decisions about research and development, and stakeholder discourse should be informed by an assessment of future emissions intensity trends, however informed projections are not easily generated. This study investigates expected trends in oil sands GHG emissions using expert elicitation. Thirteen experts participated in a survey, providing quantitative estimates of expected GHG emissions intensity changes and qualitative identifications of drivers. Experts generally agree that emissions intensity reductions are expected at commercially operating projects by 2033, with the greatest reductions expected through the use of technology in the in situ area of oil sands activity (40% mean reduction at multiple projects, averaged across experts). Incremental process changes are expected to contribute less to reducing GHG emissions intensity, however their potentially lower risk and cost may result in larger cumulative reductions. Both technology availability and more stringent GHG mitigation policies are required to realize these emissions intensity reductions. This paper demonstrates a method to increase rigour in emissions forecasting activities and the results can inform policy making, research and development and modelling and forecasting studies. - Highlights: • Expert elicitation used to investigate expected trends in oil sands GHG emissions. • Overall, emissions intensity reductions are expected at commercial projects by 2033. • Reductions are expected due to both technology changes and process improvements. • Technology availability and more stringent GHG policies are needed for reductions. • Method used increases rigour in emissions forecasting, and results inform policy.

  10. Global panel of HIV-1 Env reference strains for standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCamp, Allan; Hraber, Peter; Bailer, Robert T; Seaman, Michael S; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John; Gottardo, Raphael; Edlefsen, Paul; Self, Steve; Tang, Haili; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Daniell, Xiaoju; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; LaBranche, Celia C; Mascola, John R; Korber, Bette T; Montefiori, David C

    2014-03-01

    broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies that will protect against infection by most circulating strains of the virus are guided in part by in vitro assays that determine the ability of vaccine-elicited antibodies to neutralize genetically diverse HIV-1 variants. Until now, little information was available on how many and which strains of the virus are best suited for this purpose. We applied robust statistical methods to evaluate a large neutralization data set and identified a small panel of viruses that are a good representation of the global epidemic. The neutralization properties of this new panel of reference strains should facilitate the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  11. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodekær, Mette; Øager Petersen, Bibi; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2014-01-01

    Healthy sun habits acquired in childhood could reduce skin cancer incidence. We examined the sun exposure and protection behavior of an expected high-exposure group of children, and the association to their parents. Open, prospective cohort study. One hundred and thirty nine participants (40...... families) kept daily sun behavior diaries (sun exposure, sunscreen use, sunburns) over a 4-month summer period (15,985 diary days). The Pigment Protection Factor (PPF), an objective measure of sun exposure, was measured at two body sites, before and after summer. All participants presented data from...... the same 115 days. Risk behavior (sun exposure of upper body) took place on 9.5 days (boys) and 15.6 days (girls). Sunburn and sunscreen use were infrequent. Boys' sun exposure resulted in an increased photo protection over the study period of 1.7 SED (upper arm) and 0.8 SED (shoulder) to elicit erythema...

  12. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  13. Stress Enables Reinforcement-Elicited Serotonergic Consolidation of Fear Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratta, Michael V; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Monahan, Patrick E; Yao, Junmei; Weber, Michael D; Lin, Pei-Ann; Gisabella, Barbara; Petrossian, Natalie; Amat, Jose; Kim, Kyungman; Yang, Aimei; Forest, Craig R; Boyden, Edward S; Goosens, Ki A

    2016-05-15

    Prior exposure to stress is a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to trauma, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear. Using a rodent model of stress-based susceptibility to PTSD, we investigated the role of serotonin in this phenomenon. Adult mice were exposed to repeated immobilization stress or handling, and the role of serotonin in subsequent fear learning was assessed using pharmacologic manipulation and western blot detection of serotonin receptors, measurements of serotonin, high-speed optogenetic silencing, and behavior. Both dorsal raphe serotonergic activity during aversive reinforcement and amygdala serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) activity during memory consolidation were necessary for stress enhancement of fear memory, but neither process affected fear memory in unstressed mice. Additionally, prior stress increased amygdala sensitivity to serotonin by promoting surface expression of 5-HT2CR without affecting tissue levels of serotonin in the amygdala. We also showed that the serotonin that drives stress enhancement of associative cued fear memory can arise from paired or unpaired footshock, an effect not predicted by theoretical models of associative learning. Stress bolsters the consequences of aversive reinforcement, not by simply enhancing the neurobiological signals used to encode fear in unstressed animals, but rather by engaging distinct mechanistic pathways. These results reveal that predictions from classical associative learning models do not always hold for stressed animals and suggest that 5-HT2CR blockade may represent a promising therapeutic target for psychiatric disorders characterized by excessive fear responses such as that observed in PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A film set for the elicitation of emotion in research: A comprehensive catalog derived from four decades of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, T Lee; Shaheen, Razan; Nylocks, K Maria; Halachoff, Danielle; Chapman, Jessica; Flynn, Jessica J; Matt, Lindsey M; Coifman, Karin G

    2017-12-01

    Emotions are highly influential to many psychological processes. Indeed, research employing emotional stimuli is rapidly escalating across the field of psychology. However, challenges remain regarding discrete evocation of frequently co-elicited emotions such as amusement and happiness, or anger and disgust. Further, as much contemporary work in emotion employs college students, we sought to additionally evaluate the efficacy of film clips to discretely elicit these more challenging emotions in a young adult population using an online medium. The internet is an important tool for investigating responses to emotional stimuli, but validations of emotionally evocative film clips across laboratory and web-based settings are limited in the literature. An additional obstacle is identifying stimuli amidst the numerous film clip validation studies. During our investigation, we recognized the lack of a categorical database to facilitate rapid identification of useful film clips for individual researchers' unique investigations. Consequently, here we also sought to produce the first compilation of such stimuli into an accessible and comprehensive catalog. We based our catalog upon prior work as well as our own, and identified 24 articles and 295 film clips from four decades of research. We present information on the validation of these clips in addition to our own research validating six clips using online administration settings. The results of our search in the literature and our own study are presented in tables designed to facilitate and improve a selection of highly valid film stimuli for future research.

  15. HIV-1 Cross-Reactive Primary Virus Neutralizing Antibody Response Elicited by Immunization in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimeng; O'Dell, Sijy; Turner, Hannah L; Chiang, Chi-I; Lei, Lin; Guenaga, Javier; Wilson, Richard; Martinez-Murillo, Paola; Doria-Rose, Nicole; Ward, Andrew B; Mascola, John R; Wyatt, Richard T; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Li, Yuxing

    2017-11-01

    Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) responses is a major goal for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine. Current HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) vaccine candidates elicit predominantly tier 1 and/or autologous tier 2 virus neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses, as well as weak and/or sporadic cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses with unknown specificity. To delineate the specificity of vaccine-elicited cross-reactive tier 2 virus NAb responses, we performed single memory B cell sorting from the peripheral blood of a rhesus macaque immunized with YU2gp140-F trimers in adjuvant, using JR-FL SOSIP.664, a native Env trimer mimetic, as a sorting probe to isolate monoclonal Abs (MAbs). We found striking genetic and functional convergence of the SOSIP-sorted Ig repertoire, with predominant VH4 or VH5 gene family usage and Env V3 specificity. Of these vaccine-elicited V3-specific MAbs, nearly 20% (6/33) displayed cross-reactive tier 2 virus neutralization, which recapitulated the serum neutralization capacity. Substantial similarities in binding specificity, neutralization breadth and potency, and sequence/structural homology were observed between selected macaque cross-reactive V3 NAbs elicited by vaccination and prototypic V3 NAbs derived from natural infections in humans, highlighting the convergence of this subset of primate V3-specific B cell repertories. Our study demonstrated that cross-reactive primary virus neutralizing B cell lineages could be elicited by vaccination as detected using a standardized panel of tier 2 viruses. Whether these lineages could be expanded to acquire increased breadth and potency of neutralization merits further investigation. IMPORTANCE Elicitation of antibody responses capable of neutralizing diverse HIV-1 primary virus isolates (designated broadly neutralizing antibodies [bNAbs]) remains a high priority for the vaccine field. bNAb responses were so far observed only in response to natural infection within a subset

  16. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and gene expression changes elicited by exposure of human hepatic cells to Ginkgo biloba leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollino, Maria Giuseppa; Raschellà, Giuseppe; Cordelli, Eugenia; Villani, Paola; Pieraccioli, Marco; Paximadas, Irene; Malandrino, Salvatore; Bonassi, Stefano; Pacchierotti, Francesca

    2017-11-01

    The use of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract as nutraceutical is becoming increasingly common. As a consequence, the definition of a reliable toxicological profile is a priority for its safe utilization. Recently, contrasting data have been reported on the carcinogenic potential of Ginkgo biloba extract in rodent liver. We measured viability, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), apoptosis, colony-forming efficiency, genotoxicity by comet assay, and gene expression changes associated with hepato-carcinogenicity in human cells of hepatic origin (HepG2 and THLE-2) treated with different concentrations (0.0005-1.2 mg/mL) of Ginkgoselect ® Plus. Our analyses highlighted a decrease of cell viability, not due to apoptosis, after treatment with high doses of the extract, which was likely due to ROS generation by a chemical reaction between extract polyphenols and some components of the culture medium. Comet assay did not detect genotoxic effect at any extract concentration. Finally, the array analysis detected a slight decrease in the expression of only one gene (IGFBP3) in Ginkgo-treated THLE-2 cells as opposed to changes in 28 genes in Aflatoxin B1 treated-cells. In conclusion, our results did not detect any significant genotoxic or biologically relevant cytotoxic effects and gross changes in gene expression using the Ginkgo extract in the hepatic cells tested. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Participatory Modeling to Elicit Behavioral Drivers in Environmental Dilemmas: the Case of Air Pollution in Talca, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinherz, Franziska; Videira, Nuno

    2018-04-10

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the exploration of environmental modeling methods based on the elicitation of stakeholders' mental models. This aim is motivated by the necessity to understand the dilemmas and behavioral rationales of individuals for supporting the management of environmental problems. The methodology developed for this paper integrates qualitative and quantitative methods by deploying focus groups for the elicitation of the behavioral rationales of the target population, and grounded theory to code the information gained in the focus groups and to guide the development of a dynamic simulation model. The approach is applied to a case of urban air pollution caused by residential heating with wood in central Chile. The results show how the households' behavior interrelates with the governmental management strategies and provide valuable and novel insights into potential challenges to the implementation of policies to manage the local air pollution problem. The experience further shows that the developed participatory modeling approach allows to overcome some of the issues currently encountered in the elicitation of individuals' behavioral rationales and in the quantification of qualitative information.

  18. Classification of Listeria monocytogenes persistence in retail delicatessen environments using expert elicitation and machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangay, P; Steingrimsson, J; Wiedmann, M; Stasiewicz, M J

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing plants has been the underlying cause of a number of human listeriosis outbreaks. This study extracts criteria used by food safety experts in determining bacterial persistence in the environment, using retail delicatessen operations as a model. Using the Delphi method, we conducted an expert elicitation with 10 food safety experts from academia, industry, and government to classify L. monocytogenes persistence based on environmental sampling results collected over six months for 30 retail delicatessen stores. The results were modeled using variations of random forest, support vector machine, logistic regression, and linear regression; variable importance values of random forest and support vector machine models were consolidated to rank important variables in the experts' classifications. The duration of subtype isolation ranked most important across all expert categories. Sampling site category also ranked high in importance and validation errors doubled when this covariate was removed. Support vector machine and random forest models successfully classified the data with average validation errors of 3.1% and 2.2% (n = 144), respectively. Our findings indicate that (i) the frequency of isolations over time and sampling site information are critical factors for experts determining subtype persistence, (ii) food safety experts from different sectors may not use the same criteria in determining persistence, and (iii) machine learning models have potential for future use in environmental surveillance and risk management programs. Future work is necessary to validate the accuracy of expert and machine classification against biological measurement of L. monocytogenes persistence. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Eliciting comprehensive medication histories in the emergency department: the role of the pharmacist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crook M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Pharmaceutical Advisory Committee guidelines call for a detailed medication history to be taken at the first point of admission to hospital. Accurate medication histories are vital in optimising health outcomes and have been shown to reduce mortality rates. This study aimed to examine the accuracy of medication histories taken in the Emergency Department of the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Medication histories recorded by medical staff were compared to those elicited by a pharmacy researcher. The study, conducted over a six-week period, included 100 patients over the age of 70, who took five or more regular medications, had three or more clinical co-morbidities and/or had been discharged from hospital in three months prior to the study. Following patient interviews, the researcher contacted the patient’s pharmacist and GP for confirmation and completion of the medication history. Out of the 1152 medications recorded as being used by the 100 patients, discrepancies were found for 966 medications (83.9%. There were 563 (48.9% complete omissions of medications. The most common discrepancies were incomplete or omitted dosage and frequency information. Discrepancies were mostly medications that treated dermatological and ear, nose and throat disorders but approximately 29% were used to treat cardiovascular disorders. This study provides support for the presence of an Emergency Department pharmacist who can compile a comprehensive and accurate medication history to enhance medication management along the continuum of care. It is recommended that the patient’s community pharmacy and GP be contacted for clarification and confirmation of the medication history.

  20. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gerald G; Sinner, Jim; Ellis, Joanne; Kandlikar, Milind; Halpern, Benjamin S; Satterfield, Terre; Chan, Kai M A

    2017-09-01

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits - fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity-addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for approaches

  1. The role of the environment in eliciting phantom-like sensations in non-amputees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eLewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the amputation of a limb, many amputees report that they can still vividly perceive its presence despite conscious knowledge that it is not physically there. However, our ability to probe the mental representation of this experience is limited by the intractable and often distressing pain associated with amputation. Here, we present a method for eliciting phantom-like experiences in non-amputees using a variation of the rubber hand illusion in which a finger has been removed from the rubber hand. An interpretative phenomenological analysis revealed that the structure of this experience shares a wide range of sensory attributes with subjective reports of phantom limb experience. For example, when the space where the ring finger should have been on the rubber hand was stroked, 93% of participants (i.e., 28/30 reported the vivid presence of a finger that they could not see and a total of 57% (16/28 of participants who felt that the finger was present reported one or more additional sensory qualities such as tingling or numbness (25%; 7/28 and alteration in the perceived size of the finger (50%; 14/28. These experiences indicate the adaptability of body experience and share some characteristics of the way that phantom limbs are described. Participants attributed changes to the shape and size of their ‘missing’ finger to the way in which the experimenter mimed stroking in the area occupied by the missing finger. This alteration of body perception is similar to the phenomenon of telescoping experienced by people with phantom limbs and suggests that our sense of embodiment not only depends on internal body representations but on perceptual information coming from peripersonal space.

  2. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael; Wallace, Ken; Lewis, Loretta; Wagner, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators), fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1) the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2) the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  3. Mechanisms and risk of cumulative impacts to coastal ecosystem services: An expert elicitation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gerald G.

    2017-05-23

    Coastal environments are some of the most populated on Earth, with greater pressures projected in the future. Managing coastal systems requires the consideration of multiple uses, which both benefit from and threaten multiple ecosystem services. Thus understanding the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal ecosystem services would seem fundamental to management, yet there is no widely accepted approach for assessing these. This study trials an approach for understanding the cumulative impacts of anthropogenic change, focusing on Tasman and Golden Bays, New Zealand. Using an expert elicitation procedure, we collected information on three aspects of cumulative impacts: the importance and magnitude of impacts by various activities and stressors on ecosystem services, and the causal processes of impact on ecosystem services. We assessed impacts to four ecosystem service benefits — fisheries, shellfish aquaculture, marine recreation and existence value of biodiversity—addressing three main research questions: (1) how severe are cumulative impacts on ecosystem services (correspondingly, what potential is there for restoration)?; (2) are threats evenly distributed across activities and stressors, or do a few threats dominate?; (3) do prominent activities mainly operate through direct stressors, or do they often exacerbate other impacts? We found (1) that despite high uncertainty in the threat posed by individual stressors and impacts, total cumulative impact is consistently severe for all four ecosystem services. (2) A subset of drivers and stressors pose important threats across the ecosystem services explored, including climate change, commercial fishing, sedimentation and pollution. (3) Climate change and commercial fishing contribute to prominent indirect impacts across ecosystem services by exacerbating regional impacts, namely sedimentation and pollution. The prevalence and magnitude of these indirect, networked impacts highlights the need for

  4. Your place or mine: shared sensory experiences elicit a remapping of peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maister, Lara; Cardini, Flavia; Zamariola, Giorgia; Serino, Andrea; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    Our perceptual systems integrate multisensory information about objects that are close to our bodies, which allow us to respond quickly and appropriately to potential threats, as well as act upon and manipulate useful tools. Intriguingly, the representation of this area close to our body, known as the multisensory 'peripersonal space' (PPS), can expand or contract during social interactions. However, it is not yet known how different social interactions can alter the representation of PPS. In particular, shared sensory experiences, such as those elicited by bodily illusions such as the enfacement illusion, can induce feelings of ownership over the other's body which has also been shown to increase the remapping of the other's sensory experiences onto our own bodies. The current study investigated whether such shared sensory experiences between two people induced by the enfacement illusion could alter the way PPS was represented, and whether this alteration could be best described as an expansion of one's own PPS towards the other or a remapping of the other's PPS onto one's own. An audio-tactile integration task allowed us to measure the extent of the PPS before and after a shared sensory experience with a confederate. Our results showed a clear increase in audio-tactile integration in the space close to the confederate's body after the shared experience. Importantly, this increase did not extend across the space between participant and confederate, as would be expected if the participant's PPS had expanded. Thus, the pattern of results is more consistent with a partial remapping of the confederate's PPS onto the participant's own PPS. These results have important consequences for our understanding of interpersonal space during different kinds of social interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this st......Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...... control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate...

  7. LKS BERBASIS MODEL ELICITING ACTIVITIES UNTUK MENGETAHUI KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH MATEMATIKA DI KELAS VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risnina Wafiqoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the characteristics of Model Eliciting Activities a valid and practical, and determine the potential effect on the student worksheet for problem solving ability eighth grade students. The study resulted several characteristics of model eliciting activities which are including: (1 LKS developed customized with steps and learning the principles of Model eliciting Activities; (2 improve the ability of students LKS Model eliciting Activities related aspects, namely self-assessment, documentation and construk models share abilities and re-usability; (3 Each settlement problems in LKS, guidance is given on the wane; (4 Guidance is given less and less able to develop students' problem-solving abilities; (5 LKS Model eliciting Activities related to indicators of achievement of mathematical problem solving ability. Student Worksheet categorized as having potential effects on math problem solving ability of students who have a grade point average mathematical problem solving ability of 68.5, so the mathematical problem solving abilities 8.1 grade students includes both categories.

  8. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  9. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  10. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  11. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  12. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. Repeated elicitation of the acoustic startle reflex leads to sensitisation in subsequent avoidance behaviour and induces fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janik Vincent M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous reflexes enable animals to respond quickly to potential threats, prevent injury and mediate fight or flight responses. Intense acoustic stimuli with sudden onsets elicit a startle reflex while stimuli of similar intensity but with longer rise times only cause a cardiac defence response. In laboratory settings, habituation appears to affect all of these reflexes so that the response amplitude generally decreases with repeated exposure to the stimulus. The startle reflex has become a model system for the study of the neural basis of simple learning processes and emotional processing and is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical applications. However, previous studies did not allow animals to avoid the stimulus and the evolutionary function and long-term behavioural consequences of repeated startling remain speculative. In this study we investigate the follow-up behaviour associated with the startle reflex in wild-captured animals using an experimental setup that allows individuals to exhibit avoidance behaviour. Results We present evidence that repeated elicitation of the acoustic startle reflex leads to rapid and pronounced sensitisation of sustained spatial avoidance behaviour in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. Animals developed rapid flight responses, left the exposure pool and showed clear signs of fear conditioning. Once sensitised, seals even avoided a known food source that was close to the sound source. In contrast, animals exposed to non-startling (long rise time stimuli of the same maximum sound pressure habituated and flight responses waned or were absent from the beginning. The startle threshold of grey seals expressed in units of sensation levels was comparable to thresholds reported for other mammals (93 dB. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the acoustic startle reflex plays a crucial role in mediating flight responses and strongly influences the motivational state of an animal beyond a short

  14. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    and interviews were analyzed thematically, resulting in three central themes: informality, information based authority, and information brokering. The general informal character of interactions at work included a network based information dissemination. In these networks, persons were percieved as informal...

  15. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  16. Decoding of Baby Calls: Can Adult Humans Identify the Eliciting Situation from Emotional Vocalizations of Preverbal Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Lindová

    Full Text Available Preverbal infants often vocalize in emotionally loaded situations, yet the communicative potential of these vocalizations is not well understood. The aim of our study was to assess how accurately adult listeners extract information about the eliciting situation from infant preverbal vocalizations. Vocalizations of 19 infants aged 5-10 months were recorded in 3 negative (Pain, Isolation, Demand for Food and 3 positive (Play, Reunion, After Feeding situations. The recordings were later rated by 333 adult listeners on the scales of emotional valence and intensity. Subsequently, the listeners assigned the eliciting situations in a forced choice task. Listeners were almost perfectly able to discriminate whether a recording came from a negative or a positive situation. Their discrimination may have been based on perceived valence as they consistently assigned higher valence when listening to positive, and lower valence when listening to negative, recordings. Ability to identify the particular situation within the negative or positive realm was substantially weaker, with only three of the six situations being discriminated above chance. The best discriminated situation, Play, was associated with high perceived intensity. The weak qualitative discrimination of negative situations seemed to be based on graded perception of negative recordings, from the most intense and unpleasant (assigned to Pain to the least intense and least unpleasant (assigned to Demand for Food. Parenthood and younger age, but not gender of listeners, had weak positive effects on the accuracy of judgments. Our results indicate that adults almost flawlessly distinguish positive and negative infant sounds, but are rather inaccurate regarding identification of the specific needs of the infant and may normally employ other sensory channels to gain this information.

  17. Thermoregulatory and Immune Responses During Cold Exposure: Effects of Repeated Cold Exposure and Acute Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellani, John

    2000-01-01

    .... This information will be used in developing thermoregulatory models during cold exposure. During these studies several unanswered questions regarding thermoregulation in the cold were also addressed: (1...

  18. Allergens in combination have a synergistic effect on the elicitation response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Skov, L; Volund, A

    1998-01-01

    Perfume ingredients were chosen as model substances to study the effect of allergens in combination on the elicitation response. Two groups of eczema patients were studied. One consisted of 18 subjects with a contact allergy to two fragrance substances and the other was a control group of 15...... of reactions was carried out on day 3 by clinical grading and laser Doppler flowmetry, and the extent of the reaction was measured in millimetres. The data were analysed by logistic dose-response models. It was found that the combination of two allergens in individuals allergic to both substances had...... a synergistic effect on the elicitation response evaluated by all three methods. The 1 : 1 mixtures of the two allergens elicited responses as if the doses were three to four times higher than those actually used, which is significantly more than expected if an additive effect had been present. In the control...

  19. "I Don't Know What's Right Anymore": Engaging Distressed Interviewees Using Graphic-Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kuehne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Graphic-elicitation appears to be a research method that potentially has much to offer, particularly so when working with distressed and disaffected groups. It can be especially suited to presenting contentious ideas with unwelcome implications to sceptical interviewees, in this case irrigation farmers who were questioning aspects of climate change. Five images were introduced in the course of conducting in-depth personal interviews. The interviews were recorded and analysed for recurrent themes related to the images. The graphic-elicitation method allowed some participants to preserve or build their sense of optimism by viewing the graphic-elicitation images in particular ways—they saw in them what they wanted to see. Encouraged by the images some attempted to transfer their felt responsibility toward climate change responses to the government and upstream irrigators by blaming them for their low water availability. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130321

  20. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...... with a patch test and a repeated open application test (ROAT). Nickel was applied on small and large areas. The varying parameters were area, total dose and dose per unit area. RESULTS: In the patch test, at a low concentration [15 microg nickel (microg Ni)/cm(2)], there were significantly higher scores...... compared to the small area. It was also found that the ROAT threshold (per application) was lower than the patch test threshold. CONCLUSION: For elicitation of nickel allergy, the size of the exposed area and therefore the total amount of applied nickel, influence the elicitation reaction at some...

  1. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  2. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  3. Influence of perceptual cues and conceptual information on the activation and reduction of claustrophobic fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiban, Youssef; Peperkorn, Henrik; Alpers, Georg W; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Fear reactions in phobic patients can be activated by specific perceptual cues (C) or by conceptual fear-related information (I). An earlier study with spider phobic participants documented that perceptual stimuli are particularly potent to trigger fear responses. Because fear of spiders is activated by very circumscribed stimuli, we set out to investigate whether another phobia with more contextual fear-elicitation (i.e., a situational phobia) would yield similar patterns. Thus, we investigate the two paths of fear activation (cues vs. information) and fear reduction during exposure in claustrophobic patients. Forty-eight claustrophobic patients and 48 healthy control participants were randomly assigned to one of three virtual reality exposure conditions: C, I, or a combination of both (CI). Exposure lasted 5 min and was repeated 4 times. Self-report and physiological reactions were assessed. Claustrophobic patients experienced more initial self-reported fear when confronted with fear-relevant perceptual cues than conceptual information, when the perceptual cues were combined with conceptual information there was no significant enhancement. Furthermore, fear habituated more in the perceptual condition. For the physiological parameters, groups differed and in claustrophobic patients heart rate decreased differently in the conditions. Longer exposure duration and long-term effects of the manipulation were not investigated. We found similar patterns in a situational phobia as compared to a specific-cue related phobia (animal type). Thus, once more this highlights the central role of visual cues in phobic fear and the potential of virtual reality for conducting exposure therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Auditory modulation of wind-elicited walking behavior in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Matasaburo; Someya, Makoto; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2015-12-01

    Animals flexibly change their locomotion triggered by an identical stimulus depending on the environmental context and behavioral state. This indicates that additional sensory inputs in different modality from the stimulus triggering the escape response affect the neuronal circuit governing that behavior. However, how the spatio-temporal relationships between these two stimuli effect a behavioral change remains unknown. We studied this question, using crickets, which respond to a short air-puff by oriented walking activity mediated by the cercal sensory system. In addition, an acoustic stimulus, such as conspecific 'song' received by the tympanal organ, elicits a distinct oriented locomotion termed phonotaxis. In this study, we examined the cross-modal effects on wind-elicited walking when an acoustic stimulus was preceded by an air-puff and tested whether the auditory modulation depends on the coincidence of the direction of both stimuli. A preceding 10 kHz pure tone biased the wind-elicited walking in a backward direction and elevated a threshold of the wind-elicited response, whereas other movement parameters, including turn angle, reaction time, walking speed and distance were unaffected. The auditory modulations, however, did not depend on the coincidence of the stimulus directions. A preceding sound consistently altered the wind-elicited walking direction and response probability throughout the experimental sessions, meaning that the auditory modulation did not result from previous experience or associative learning. These results suggest that the cricket nervous system is able to integrate auditory and air-puff stimuli, and modulate the wind-elicited escape behavior depending on the acoustic context. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. information source accessibility and usage as determinants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    1990-04-28

    Apr 28, 1990 ... Credit Services. Internal Audit Services. Any other management duties. Total. 38. 36. 35. 30. 34. 32. 205. 18.5. 17.6. 17.1. 19.6. 16.6. 15.6. 100. Source: Field Data, 2002. Level of Accessibility of Information Sources. In order to elicit responses on the accessibility of information required, respondents were.

  6. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  7. Searching for the optimal stimulus eliciting auditory brainstem responses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobel, Oliver; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    This study examines auditory brainstem responses (ABR) elicited by rising frequency chirps. Two chirp stimuli were developed and designed such as to compensate for cochlear travel-time differences across frequency, in order to maximize neural synchrony. One chirp, referred to as the O-chirp, was ......This study examines auditory brainstem responses (ABR) elicited by rising frequency chirps. Two chirp stimuli were developed and designed such as to compensate for cochlear travel-time differences across frequency, in order to maximize neural synchrony. One chirp, referred to as the O...

  8. Willingness to Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP): An Empirical Test of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model among High-Risk Drug Users in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Altice, Frederick L; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Karki, Pramila; Copenhaver, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Evidence from recent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials has demonstrated its safety and efficacy in significantly reducing the risk of HIV acquisition for those who are at considerable risk of acquiring HIV infection. With a rapid increase in the amount of research on the efficacy of PrEP for HIV prevention, complementary research on the willingness to use PrEP has grown, especially among MSM, but limited research has been focused among people who use drugs (PWUD). As part of the formative process, we utilized the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change to characterize and guide intervention development for promoting willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. The analysis included 400 HIV-negative high-risk PWUD enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed support for the IMB model as PrEP-related behavioral skills were found to mediate the influence of PrEP-related information and motivation on willingness to use PrEP. The results provide evidence as to the utility of the IMB model to increase willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD. It therefore makes an important contribution to our understanding of the applicability of theoretically-grounded models of willingness to use PrEP among high-risk PWUD, who are one of the key risk populations who could benefit from the use of PrEP.

  9. An evaluation of dose/unit area and time as key factors influencing the elicitation capacity of methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) in MCI/MI-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Claus; Lerbaek, Anne; McNamee, Pauline M

    2006-01-01

    Methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI) contact allergy affects 1-3% of patch-tested patients in European centres. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of the factors--time and concentration (dose/per unit area)--in the elicitation capacity by means...... (2 p.p.m.) of MCI/MI/unit area of the skin for 4 weeks. After a wash-out period of at least 4 weeks, the subjects were exposed to 0.094 microg/cm2 (7.5 p.p.m.) of MCI/MI/unit area of the skin for 4 weeks. The study showed the importance of both time and exposure in the elicitation process....... It demonstrated that the elicitation threshold for MCI/MI is expected to be in the proximity of 0.025 microg/cm2 although it was not possible to establish a definitive elicitation threshold for MCI/MI in this study....

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in plastic products, indoor dust, sediment and fish from informal e-waste recycling sites in Vietnam: a comprehensive assessment of contamination, accumulation pattern, emissions, and human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Hoang Quoc; Nam, Vu Duc; Tri, Tran Manh; Ha, Nguyen Manh; Ngoc, Nguyen Thuy; Mai, Pham Thi Ngoc; Anh, Duong Hong; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Minh, Tu Binh

    2017-08-01

    Residue concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in different kinds of samples including consumer products, indoor dust, sediment and fish collected from two e-waste recycling sites, and some industrial, urban and suburban areas in Vietnam were determined to provide a comprehensive assessment of the contamination levels, accumulation pattern, emission potential and human exposure through dust ingestion and fish consumption. There was a large variation of PBDE levels in plastic parts of obsolete electronic equipment (from 1730 to 97,300 ng/g), which is a common result observed in consumer plastic products reported elsewhere. PBDE levels in indoor dust samples collected from e-waste recycling sites ranged from 250 to 8740 ng/g, which were markedly higher than those in industrial areas and household offices. Emission rate of PBDEs from plastic parts of disposed electronic equipment to dust was estimated to be in a range from 3.4 × 10 -7 to 1.2 × 10 -5 (year -1 ) for total PBDEs and from 2.9 × 10 -7 to 7.2 × 10 -6 (year -1 ) for BDE-209. Some fish species collected from ponds in e-waste recycling villages contained elevated levels of PBDEs, especially BDE-209, which were markedly higher than those in fish previously reported. Overall, levels and patterns of PBDE accumulation in different kinds of samples suggest significant emission from e-waste sites and that these areas are potential sources of PBDE contamination. Intakes of PBDEs via fish consumption were generally higher than those estimated through dust ingestion. Intake of BDE-99 and BDE-209 through dust ingestion contributes a large proportion due to higher concentrations in dust and fish. Body weight normalized daily intake through dust ingestion estimated for the e-waste recycling sites (0.10-3.46 ng/day/kg body wt.) were in a high range as compared to those reported in other countries. Our results highlight the potential releases of PBDEs from informal recycling activities and

  11. Mechanism of eliciting host immunity against cancer cells treated with silica-phthalocyanine-based near infrared photoimmunotherapy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-03-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photoimmunotherapy (PIT) is a new type of molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IR700, to a monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting cancer-specific cell-surface molecules. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highly-selective necrotic/ immunogenic cell death (ICD) only in receptor-positive, MAb-IR700-bound cancer cells. This cell death occurs as early as 1 minute after exposure to NIR light. Meanwhile, immediately adjacent receptor-negative cells including immune cells are unharmed. Therefore, we hypothesized that NIR-PIT could efficiently elicit host immunity against treated cancer cells. Three-dimensional dynamic quantitative phase contrast microscopy and selective plane illumination microscopy of tumor cells undergoing PIT showed rapid swelling in treated cells immediately after light exposure suggesting rapid water influx into cells, followed by irreversible morphologic changes such as bleb formation, and rupture of vesicles. Furthermore, biological markers of ICD including relocation of HSP70/90 and calreticulin, and release of ATP and High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), were clearly detected immediately after NIR-PIT. When NIR-PIT was performed in a mixture of cancer cells and immature dendritic cells, maturation of immature dendritic cells was strongly induced rapidly after NIR-PIT. In summary, NIR-PIT can induce necrotic/ immunogenic cell death that promotes rapid maturation of immature dendritic cells adjacent to dying cancer cells. Therefore, NIR-PIT could efficiently initiate host immune response against NIR-PIT treated cancer cells growing in patients.

  12. DNA vaccines elicit durable protective immunity against individual or simultaneous infections with Lassa and Ebola viruses in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kathleen A.; Wilkinson, Eric R.; Wollen, Suzanne E.; Shamblin, Joshua D.; Zelko, Justine M.; Bearss, Jeremy J.; Zeng, Xiankun; Broderick, Kate E.; Schmaljohn, Connie S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously developed optimized DNA vaccines against both Lassa fever and Ebola hemorrhagic fever viruses and demonstrated that they were protective individually in guinea pig and nonhuman primate models. In this study, we vaccinated groups of strain 13 guinea pigs two times, four weeks apart with 50 µg of each DNA vaccine or a mock vaccine at discrete sites by intradermal electroporation. Five weeks following the second vaccinations, guinea pigs were exposed to lethal doses of Lassa virus, Ebola virus, or a combination of both viruses simultaneously. None of the vaccinated guinea pigs, regardless of challenge virus and including the coinfected group, displayed weight loss, fever or other disease signs, and all survived to the study endpoint. All of the mock-vaccinated guinea pigs that were infected with Lassa virus, and all but one of the EBOV-infected mock-vaccinated guinea pigs succumbed. In order to determine if the dual-agent vaccination strategy could protect against both viruses if exposures were temporally separated, we held the surviving vaccinates in BSL-4 for approximately 120 days to perform a cross-challenge experiment in which guinea pigs originally infected with Lassa virus received a lethal dose of Ebola virus and those originally infected with Ebola virus were infected with a lethal dose of Lassa virus. All guinea pigs remained healthy and survived to the study endpoint. This study clearly demonstrates that DNA vaccines against Lassa and Ebola viruses can elicit protective immunity against both individual virus exposures as well as in a mixed-infection environment. PMID:29135337

  13. A melodic contour repeatedly experienced by human near-term fetuses elicits a profound cardiac reaction one month after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Granier-Deferre

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human hearing develops progressively during the last trimester of gestation. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, and process complex auditory streams. Fetal and neonatal studies show that they can remember frequently recurring sounds. However, existing data can only show retention intervals up to several days after birth.Here we show that auditory memories can last at least six weeks. Experimental fetuses were given precisely controlled exposure to a descending piano melody twice daily during the 35(th, 36(th, and 37(th weeks of gestation. Six weeks later we assessed the cardiac responses of 25 exposed infants and 25 naive control infants, while in quiet sleep, to the descending melody and to an ascending control piano melody. The melodies had precisely inverse contours, but similar spectra, identical duration, tempo and rhythm, thus, almost identical amplitude envelopes. All infants displayed a significant heart rate change. In exposed infants, the descending melody evoked a cardiac deceleration that was twice larger than the decelerations elicited by the ascending melody and by both melodies in control infants.Thus, 3-weeks of prenatal exposure to a specific melodic contour affects infants 'auditory processing' or perception, i.e., impacts the autonomic nervous system at least six weeks later, when infants are 1-month old. Our results extend the retention interval over which a prenatally acquired memory of a specific sound stream can be observed from 3-4 days to six weeks. The long-term memory for the descending melody is interpreted in terms of enduring neurophysiological tuning and its significance for the developmental psychobiology of attention and perception, including early speech perception, is discussed.

  14. Chronic exposure to a gambling-like schedule of reward predictive stimuli can promote sensitization to amphetamine in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eZack

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is considered to be a brain disease caused by chronic exposure to drugs. Sensitization of brain dopamine (DA systems partly mediates this effect. Pathological gambling (PG is considered to be a behavioral addiction. Therefore, PG may be caused by chronic exposure to gambling. Identifying a gambling-induced sensitization of DA systems would support this possibility. Gambling rewards evoke DA release. One episode of slot machine play shifts the DA response from reward delivery to onset of cues (spinning reels for reward, in line with temporal difference learning principles. Thus, conditioned stimuli (CS play a key role in DA responses to gambling. In primates, DA response to a CS is strongest when reward probability is 50%. Under this schedule the CS elicits an expectancy of reward but provides no information about whether it will occur on a given trial. During gambling, a 50% schedule should elicit maximal DA release. This closely matches reward frequency (46% on a commercial slot machine. DA release can contribute to sensitization, especially for amphetamine. Chronic exposure to a CS that predicts reward 50% of the time could mimic this effect. We tested this hypothesis in 3 studies with rats. Animals received 15 x 45-min exposures to a CS that predicted reward with a probability of 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. The CS was a light; the reward was a 10% sucrose solution. After training, rats received a sensitizing regimen of 5 separate doses (1 mg/kg of d-amphetamine. Lastly they received a 0.5 or 1 mg/kg amphetamine challenge prior to a 90-min locomotor activity test. In all 3 studies the 50% group displayed greater activity than the other groups in response to both challenge doses. Effect sizes were modest but consistent, as reflected by a significant group x rank association ( = .986, p = .025. Chronic exposure to a gambling-like schedule of reward predictive stimuli can promote sensitization to amphetamine much like exposure to

  15. Using expert elicitation to quantify catchment water balances and their uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebok, E.; Refsgaard, J.C.; Warmink, Jord Jurriaan; Stisen, S.; Jensen, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation with the participation of 35 experts was used to estimate a water balance for the nested Ahlergaarde and Holtum catchments in Western Denmark. Average annual values of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff as well as subsurface outflow and recharge and their

  16. Language Sample Analysis and Elicitation Technique Effects in Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Restrepo, M. Adelaida

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether the language sample elicitation technique (i.e., storytelling and story-retelling tasks with pictorial support) affects lexical diversity (D), grammaticality (grammatical errors per communication unit [GE/CU]), sentence length (mean length of utterance in words [MLUw]), and sentence complexity (subordination…

  17. Using Art Elicitation to Deliver and Evaluate a Grade 4 Climate Change Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jillian; Loxton, Jason; Sherren, Kate

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a climate change module delivered to 48 Grade 3/4 students in Nova Scotia, Canada. We tested for prior knowledge and evaluated interventional effectiveness using art elicitation. Common climate change misconceptions were demonstrated in their preintervention artwork, while postintervention artwork showed improved…

  18. Children with Autism Respond Differently to Spontaneous, Elicited and Deferred Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, M.; Nordqvist, E.; Strid, K.; Connant Almrot, J.; Tjus, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and…

  19. Promoting Parent and Child Physical Activity Together: Elicitation of Potential Intervention Targets and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E.; Lim, Clarise

    2018-01-01

    Promoting physical activities that involve both parents and their children would be very useful to the improved health and well-being of families, yet coactivity interventions have been particularly unsuccessful in past research. The purpose of this study was to elicit the salient parental beliefs about coactivity framed through theory of planned…

  20. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  1. Elicitation Techniques: Getting People to Talk about Ideas They Don't Usually Talk About

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    Elicitation techniques are a category of research tasks that use visual, verbal, or written stimuli to encourage participants to talk about their ideas. These tasks are particularly useful for exploring topics that may be difficult to discuss in formal interviews, such as those that involve sensitive issues or rely on tacit knowledge. Elicitation…

  2. Motivating and achievement-eliciting pop-ups in online environments: A user experience perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny; Zondervan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to develop pop-up windows that motivate users and evoke a positive user experience. Several variants of achievement eliciting pop-ups were designed and tested on a real business-website. A pre-test examined the effectiveness of 24 combinations of pictures and

  3. A photo elicitation study on chronically ill adolescents' identity constructions during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Signe; Schmiegelow, K.; Boisen, Kirsten A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is an important phase of life with increasing independence and identity development, and a vulnerable period of life for chronically ill adolescents with a high occurrence of insufficient treatment adherence. We conducted four photo elicitation focus group interviews with 14 adolescents...

  4. Using Model-Eliciting Activities as a Tool to Identify and Develop Mathematically Creative Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxbill, Emmy; Chamberlin, Scott A.; Weatherford, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Traditional classroom methods for identifying mathematically creative students have been inadequate. Identifying students who could potentially be mathematically creative is instrumental in the development of students and in meeting their affective and educational needs. One prospective identification tool is the use of model-eliciting activities…

  5. Collage Life Story Elicitation Technique: A Representational Technique for Scaffolding Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.

    2010-01-01

    A basic premise in narrative therapy and inquiry is that life story telling is a mechanism by which experiences are rendered meaningful within some form of structure. However, narrative inquiry has to take cognisance of difficulties ensuing from discursive practices for different populations when eliciting their life stories. In this article I…

  6. Theatre elicitation: developing a potentially child-friendly method with children aged 8–12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerig, S.; Evers, Sandra J.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the growing body of literature published in Children Geographies on the importance of involving children in research processes. Inspired by participatory creative methods such as photo elicitation and popular/forum theatre, we have developed a potentially child-friendly tool

  7. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of

  8. Effects of diazepam on auditory evoked potentials of rats elicited in a ten-tone paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.L.A.; Rijn, C.M. van; Schaijk, W.J. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Dirksen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of diazepam on sensory gating was studied in rats, by measuring diazepam effects on Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEPs) elicited in a ten-tone paradigm. Trains of 10 repetitive tone-pip stimuli were presented. Rats (n=8) received 4 mg.kg-1 diazepam s.c. or vehicle, counterbalanced over two

  9. Assessing Measurement Invariance for Spanish Sentence Repetition and Morphology Elicitation Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gray, Shelley; Restrepo, M. Adelaida

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate evidence supporting the construct validity of two grammatical tasks (sentence repetition, morphology elicitation) included in the Spanish Screener for Language Impairment in Children (Restrepo, Gorin, & Gray, 2013). We evaluated if the tasks measured the targeted grammatical skills in the same…

  10. Biochemical Changes in β-Cryptogein-Elicited Tobacco: A possible Basis of Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edreva A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available β-Cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor from the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthoracryptogea, is known to induce leaf necrosis in tobacco and non-specific resistance (expressed in the perinecrotic leaf area against a wide range of tobacco pathogens. To reveal mechanisms underlying the acquired resistance, biochemical changes in leaves of β-cryptogein-elicited tobacco were followed three, five and ten days after elicitation. The activities of peroxidase, β-1,3-glucanase and β-glucosidase, as well as the patterns of acidic pathogenesis-related (PR-proteins were determined. The protected part (perinecrotic area and the non-protected part (distant extra-perinecrotic area of leaves of β-cryptogein-stem treated tobacco (cv. Xanthin.c. were analyzed. Leaves of water-stem treated tobacco served as controls. It was shown that in the protected leaf part β-cryptogein caused significant metabolic shifts early after elicitation, persisting during the whole period studied. An important increase of peroxidase and β-1,3-glucanase activity was recorded. PR-protein components appeared that were absent in the controls. There were negligible changes in β-glucosidase activity. In the non-protected leaf part late and non-significant changes occurred. Taking into account the antimicrobial, regulatory and structure-modifying properties of the biochemical components studied, it may be admitted that β-cryptogein elicited the development of a hostile environment, i.e. a potential for plant resistance against subsequent pathogen invasion.

  11. Assessing Second-Language Oral Proficiency for Research: The Spanish Elicited Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Harriet Wood

    2016-01-01

    Proficiency is a key variable in late second language (L2) learning, but one that is undermeasured in current research. This study investigates whether L2 oral proficiency can be quickly and reliably assessed via the Spanish "elicited imitation task" (EIT; Ortega, Iwashita, Rabie, & Norris, 1999). Thirty-seven L2 learners of Spanish…

  12. Muscular reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Krogsgaard, M R

    2000-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees have impaired proprioception, and, although mechanoreceptors have been found in the ACL, the existence of a reflex elicited from these receptors has not been directly demonstrated in humans. In eight patients that underwent knee arthroscopy and had...

  13. Eliciting Children's Recall of Events: How Do Computers Compare with Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Wilson, J. Clare; Thomson, Donald M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the usefulness of an interactive computer program in eliciting children's reports about an event. Compared results of interviews by computer with interviews with humans with children aged five through eight that showed little benefit in computers over face-to-face interviews. (Author/LRW)

  14. Nonspecific elicitation of defense reaction in suspension tobacco cells by elicitors from Armillaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víteček, J.; Kašparovský, T.; Mikešová, Milena; Mikeš, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2005), s. 128-132 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : elicitation * Armillaria * SFE Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2005

  15. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  16. Early Morphological Productivity in Hungarian: Evidence from Sentence Repetition and Elicited Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Balint; Lukacs, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates early productivity of morpheme use in Hungarian children aged between 2 ; 1 and 5 ; 3. Hungarian has a rich morphology which is the core marker of grammatical functions. A new method is introduced using the novel word paradigm in a sentence repetition task with masked inflections (i.e. a disguised elicited production task).…

  17. The Potential of Elicited Imitation for Oral Output Practice in German L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornillie, Frederik; Baten, Kristof; De Hertog, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the potential of Oral Elicited Imitation (OEI) as a format for output practice, building on an analysis of picture-matching and spoken data collected from 36 university-level learners of German as a second language (L2) in a web-based assessment task inspired by Input Processing (VanPatten, 2004). The design and development…

  18. Elicited Bid Functions in a (a)Symmetric First-Price Auctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pezanis-Christou, P.; Sadrieh, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a series of experiments that examine bidding behavior in first-price sealed bid auctions with symmetric and asymmetric bidders.To study the extent of strategic behavior, we use an experimental design that elicits bidders complete bid functions in each round (auction) of the

  19. Dominant Lyapunov exponent and approximate entropy in heart rate variability during emotional visual elicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Allegrini, Paolo; Lanatà, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    In this work we characterized the non-linear complexity of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in short time series. The complexity of HRV signal was evaluated during emotional visual elicitation by using Dominant Lyapunov Exponents (DLEs) and Approximate Entropy (ApEn). We adopted a simplified model of emotion derived from the Circumplex Model of Affects (CMAs), in which emotional mechanisms are conceptualized in two dimensions by the terms of valence and arousal. Following CMA model, a set of standardized visual stimuli in terms of arousal and valence gathered from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was administered to a group of 35 healthy volunteers. Experimental session consisted of eight sessions alternating neutral images with high arousal content images. Several works can be found in the literature showing a chaotic dynamics of HRV during rest or relax conditions. The outcomes of this work showed a clear switching mechanism between regular and chaotic dynamics when switching from neutral to arousal elicitation. Accordingly, the mean ApEn decreased with statistical significance during arousal elicitation and the DLE became negative. Results showed a clear distinction between the neutral and the arousal elicitation and could be profitably exploited to improve the accuracy of emotion recognition systems based on HRV time series analysis. PMID:22393320

  20. Choose, rate or squeeze: Comparison of economic value functions elicited by different behavioral tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessiglione, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    A standard view in neuroeconomics is that to make a choice, an agent first assigns subjective values to available options, and then compares them to select the best. In choice tasks, these cardinal values are typically inferred from the preference expressed by subjects between options presented in pairs. Alternatively, cardinal values can be directly elicited by asking subjects to place a cursor on an analog scale (rating task) or to exert a force on a power grip (effort task). These tasks can vary in many respects: they can notably be more or less costly and consequential. Here, we compared the value functions elicited by choice, rating and effort tasks on options composed of two monetary amounts: one for the subject (gain) and one for a charity (donation). Bayesian model selection showed that despite important differences between the three tasks, they all elicited a same value function, with similar weighting of gain and donation, but variable concavity. Moreover, value functions elicited by the different tasks could predict choices with equivalent accuracy. Our finding therefore suggests that comparable value functions can account for various motivated behaviors, beyond economic choice. Nevertheless, we report slight differences in the computational efficiency of parameter estimation that may guide the design of future studies. PMID:29161252