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Sample records for exposure increases apnoea

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) disorders include: central sleep apnoea (Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1 Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, ...

  3. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome increases source-confusion errors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhane, Majdouline; Daurat, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    We explored external source monitoring (i.e., discrimination between memories of two externally derived sources) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Our specific aim was to ascertain whether, relative to controls, patients exhibit more source-confusion errors when there are similarities between two external memory sources. We recruited 22 patients with OSAS and 22 controls matched for sex, age, and education. The experimental procedure we used came in three phases. First, participants viewed a target film. Second, they were shown a mixed set of photographs, some taken from the film (target photographs), others not (photographs taken from other films not viewed by participants; lures). Lures differed either conceptually or perceptually from the target film. Third, the following day, participants were shown a set of photographs and urged to determine whether the photographs were taken from the target film or whether they were images they had seen for the first time in Phase 2. Patients correctly attributed the same number of target photographs to the target film as controls. By contrast, they incorrectly attributed more lures to the target film than controls did, especially when the lures were semantically similar to the film (perceptual lures). Both perceptual and conceptual source-confusion errors were significantly correlated with oxygen desaturation during sleep. Results suggest that the higher number of source-confusion errors observed in patients with OSAS was linked to an impaired ability to recollect specific perceptual details of the study items and that hypoxia is the main contributing factor to this deficit. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    obesity. The reported association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity has resulted in a parallel increase in the incidence of. OSA. ..... population. Chest. 2006;130(3):780-786. 5. Foster GD, Sanders MH, Millman R et al. Obstructive sleep apnea among obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care.

  5. SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND · Slide 2 · Snoring · Introduction · Identifiable causes of hypertension · Crucial areas for Snoring & Obstructive Sleep Apnea · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Epidemiology (contd.) Slide 18 · Am I at risk??? Slide 20.

  6. Epidemiology of central sleep apnoea in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Matthew T

    2016-03-01

    Central sleep apnoea occurs in about a third of patients with reduced systolic heart failure and is a marker of increased mortality. Such patients usually are older males with advanced heart failure (i.e., high pulmonary wedge pressure), often in atrial fibrillation, with evidence of hyperventilation (i.e., low PaCO2) in the absence of hypoxemia. Characteristically, ventilation waxes and wanes in a sinusoidal pattern, with mild hypoxemia, occurring in the lighter levels of sleep usually when supine. Snoring may also occur in central sleep apnoea, often at the peak of hyperventilation, sometimes contributing to the confusion or overlap with obstructive sleep apnoea. Central sleep apnoea is associated with orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and an oscillatory respiratory pattern with an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise study. Importantly, heart failure therapies (e.g., afterload reduction, diuresis, pacemakers, transplantation) attenuate central sleep apnoea. Night to night variability in severity of central sleep apnoea may occur with changes in patients' posture during sleep (less severe when sleeping on-side or upright). Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA SYNDROME AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS is observed in the population with a frequency of 5–15 %. The importance of OSAS is due to its close relationship with cardiovascular diseases. OSAS increases a risk for sudden cardiac death and is an independent predictor of chronic heart failure in males. OSAS is shown to be associated with the preclinical forms of atherosclerosis and left ventricular dysfunction.

  8. PILL series. Recognising sleep apnoea

    OpenAIRE

    How, Choon How; Hsu, Pon Poh; Tan, Kah Leong Alvin

    2015-01-01

    Most people spend a third of their lives sleeping, and thus, sleep has a major impact on all of us. As sleep is a function and not a structure, it is challenging to treat and prevent its complications. Sleep apnoea is one such complication, with serious and potentially life-threatening consequences. Local studies estimate that about 15% of Singapore’s population is afflicted with sleep apnoea. The resulting sleep fragmentation may result in poor quality of sleep, leading to daytime sleepiness...

  9. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal apnoea in trained divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy J Cross

    Full Text Available AIMS: To examine whether dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired during maximal voluntary apnoea in trained divers. METHODS: Mean arterial pressure (MAP, cerebral blood flow-velocity (CBFV and end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2 (PETO2 and PETCO2 were measured in eleven trained, male apnoea divers (28 ± 2 yr; 182 ± 2 cm, 76 ± 7 kg during maximal "dry" breath holding. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by determining the strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV during maximal apnoea. RESULTS: The strength of phase synchronisation between MAP and CBFV increased from rest until the end of maximal voluntary apnoea (P<0.05, suggesting that dynamic cerebral autoregulation had weakened by the apnoea breakpoint. The magnitude of impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was strongly, and positively related to the rise in PETCO2 observed during maximal breath holding (R (2 = 0.67, P<0.05. Interestingly, the impairment in dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not related to the fall in PETO2 induced by apnoea (R (2 = 0.01, P = 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is acutely impaired in trained divers performing maximal voluntary apnoea. Furthermore, our data suggest that the impaired autoregulatory response is related to the change in PETCO2, but not PETO2, during maximal apnoea in trained divers.

  10. The role of nasal treatments in snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Sean B; Singh, Ameet

    2015-02-01

    This review highlights recent advances and views on the role of the nose in snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea. Recent reviews and past randomized controlled trials generally agree that nasal surgery may improve quality of life in snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea. There have been no published randomized controlled trials regarding nasal treatments in snoring or obstructive sleep apnoea in the past year. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea are upper airway disorders in which the role of the nose has been well researched. Studies support that nasal surgery improves quality of life in snoring, but it may not lead to resolution of snoring. Likewise, nasal treatments for obstructive sleep apnoea increase the quality of life and treatment compliance in some patients. Further stratification of patients who may benefit from nasal intervention may clarify the role of nasal surgery.

  11. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...... was determined by the cytokinesis-block MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization performed using a specific pan-centromeric probe. Environmental exposure to lead resulted in significantly increased levels of PbB (5.29 +/- 2.09 versus 3.45 +/- 1.20 microg/dl in controls), although the average level...

  12. Obstructive sleep apnoea in pregnancy and its association with pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in pregnancy is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality to both mother and foetus. In the South African setting the proportion of pregnant females suffering from OSA has not been well studied; nor has the association with pre-eclampsia. This study aimed to ...

  13. Obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity | Tintinger | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complications of OSA and obesity result in reduced quality of life, significant morbidity, and increased mortality, for untreated patients. OSA causes symptoms such as snoring, apnoea, excessive daytime sleepiness, and morning headaches, but 80-90% of patients are never diagnosed, or treated for their condition.

  14. Cardiovascular risk in patients with sleep apnoea with or without continuous positive airway pressure therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberts, Morten; Nielsen, O W; Lip, G Y H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of age and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on cardiovascular disease in patients with sleep apnoea has not been assessed previously. METHODS: Using nationwide databases, the entire Danish population was followed from 2000 until 2011. First...... with sleep apnoea, in particular in patients younger than 50 years (IRR 2.12, 95% CI 1.64-2.74 and IRR 2.34, 95% CI 1.77-3.10, respectively). Subsequent CPAP therapy was not associated with altered prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep apnoea is associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke and MI, particularly...

  15. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Berger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1 expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1 as well as rewards (Study 2, two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation.

  16. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  17. Snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome is a common disorder in the community. Association between hypertension and sleep apnoea and /or snoring has been described. The Berlin questionnaire is a validated instrument that is used to identify individuals who are at risk for OSA. The study aim to describe ...

  18. [Apnoea in infants with bronchiolitis: Incidence and risk factors for a prediction model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Ramírez-Álvarez, María; Martínez García, Yasmina; Artacho-González, Lourdes; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-05-04

    The presence of apnoea in acute bronchiolitis (AB) varies between 1.2% and 28.8%, depending on the series, and is one of its most fearsome complications. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of apnoea in hospitalised patients diagnosed with AB, and to define their associated risk factors in order to construct a prediction model. A retrospective observational study of patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in the last 5 years with a diagnosis of AB, according to the classic criteria. Data was collected on the frequency of apnoea and related clinical variables to find risk factors in a binary logistic regression model for the prediction of apnoea. A ROC curve was developed with the model. Apnoea was recorded during the admission of 53 (4.4%) patients out of a total 1,197 cases found. The risk factors included in the equation were: Female (OR 0.6, 95% CI: 0.27-1.37), Caesarean delivery (OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.5-7.7), Postmenstrual age ≤43 weeks (OR: 6.62, 95% CI: 2.38-18.7), Fever (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.09-1.97), Low birth weight (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.23-7.67), Apnoea observed by caregivers before admission (OR: 5.93, 95% CI: 2.64-13.3), and severe bacterial infection (OR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.68-9.46). The optimal sensitivity and specificity of the model in the ROC curve was 0.842 and 0.846, respectively (P<.001). The incidence of apnoea during admission was 4.4 per 100 admissions of AB and year. The estimated prediction model equation may be of help to the clinician in order to classify patients with increased risk of apnoea during admission due to AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Włodarska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related breathing disorders in children are a clinical problem which is more and more often diagnosed by doctors nowadays. They can be the basis for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome that causes a number of complications: lowering the quality of life, behavioural problems, complications involving cardiovascular system. The incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in the paediatric population is estimated to be at the level of 2%. The symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome can be divided into daytime and night ones. Night symptoms in children include: snoring, apnoea, breathing with open mouth (both during the day and at night, dry tongue and mouth during sleep, agitated sleep in unnatural positions. Among daytime symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome there are: irritability, aggressiveness, hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, delayed development and growth pattern (mainly failure to thrive, learning problems, morning headaches. Parents often do not connect the night and daytime symptoms with the possible development of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in their children. The main predisposing factor of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Effective and in most cases preferred treatment for the management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children is adenotonsillectomy. Polysomnography and polygraphy are diagnostic tools helpful in the study of sleep-related disorders. The objective of this study was to systematise the knowledge on the epidemiology, aetiology, clinical image and prevention of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children.

  20. Sleep apnoea in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R; Blau, A; Börgel, J; Duchna, H W; Fietze, I; Koper, I; Prenzel, R; Schädlich, S; Schmitt, J; Tasci, S; Andreas, S

    2007-06-01

    Studies from the USA have reported that sleep apnoea is common in congestive heart failure (CHF), with Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) being the most frequent type of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in these patients. Within the present study, the authors sought to assess the prevalence and type of SDB among CHF patients in Germany. A total of 203 CHF patients participated in this prospective multicentre study. All patients were stable in New York Heart Association classes II and III and had a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)10.h(-1), obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) occurred in 43% (n=88) and CSR in 28% (n=57) of patients. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing is high in patients with stable severe congestive heart failure from a European population. As sleep-disordered breathing may have a negative impact on the prognosis of congestive heart failure, a sleep study should be performed in every patient with congestive heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of <40%. This diagnostic approach should probably be adopted for all of these patients irrespective of the presence of sleep-related symptoms.

  1. Relationship quality of persons with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Francesco; Maestri, Michelangelo; Carnicelli, Luca; Fava, Giulia; Lombardi, Valentina; Rossi, Martina; Fabbrini, Monica; Di Coscio, Elisa; Iacopini, Elena; Bonanni, Enrica

    2017-09-01

    In the field of sleep disorders, the quality of couple relationship is arousing increasing attention, given its implications for quality of life and treatment adherence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship quality in a sample of treated or untreated patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome. Eighty-seven patients were recruited in a hospital-based Centre for Sleep Medicine. Subjects were administered the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) to evaluate relationship quality, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Apnoea-hypopnoea indexes (AHI) were collected through nocturnal polysomnography or home testing with a portable monitoring device. Although the DAS average scores were similar to local normative values, relationship quality was significantly lower in the untreated patients when compared with the ones treated. The ESS scores showed a negative correlation with many DAS scores, whereas no significant correlation emerged for AHI. Such data suggest a significant impact of perceived sleep apnoea symptoms on marital satisfaction, even though in the absence of striking differences between the whole sample and the general population.

  2. Postoperative episodic oxygen desaturation in the sleep apnoea syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kehlet, H

    1991-01-01

    We describe a patient with sleep apnoea syndrome who showed severe episodic hypoxaemia in the late postoperative period. The sleep apnoea syndrome should be studied further to evaluate its significance as a surgical risk factor.......We describe a patient with sleep apnoea syndrome who showed severe episodic hypoxaemia in the late postoperative period. The sleep apnoea syndrome should be studied further to evaluate its significance as a surgical risk factor....

  3. Lifestyle modification for obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, J; Wright, J

    2001-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoeas are due to transient closure of the upper airway during sleep and merge into hypopnoeas in which the airway narrows, but some airflow continues. They are due to the forces compressing the airway overcoming those which stabilise its patency. The commonest association is obesity in which fatty tissue is deposited around the airway. Exercise has been recommended as a method of losing weight, but other techniques which achieve this are also thought to improve symptoms due to sleep apnoeas. Sleep hygiene may alter the sleep structure and the control of the upper airway during sleep and thus promote its patency. The objectives of this review are to determine whether weight loss, sleep hygiene and exercise are effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoeas. The Cochrane Airways Group Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and reference lists of review articles have been searched. Randomised, single or double blind placebo controlled, either parallel group or crossover design studies of any of these interventions were to have been included. No completed trials have been identified. No randomised trial data were available for analysis. There is a need for randomised controlled trials of these commonly used treatments in obstructive sleep apnoeas. These should identify which sub groups of patients with sleep apnoeas benefit most from each type of treatment and they should have clear and standardised outcome measures.

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: Therapeutic Options and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Vakulin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a common sleep disorder that is associated with significant negative health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, daytime sleepiness, neurocognitive deficits, and increased motor vehicle and workplace accidents. There is wide variation in OSA symptoms and other downstream effects between patients highlighting the need to individualise therapy. Continuous positive airway pressure delivered by a face mask is the gold standard treatment, but adherence to this therapy is poor and improvements in outcomes are often incomplete. A range of alternative treatments are available and may suit different patients. These include behavioural treatments such as weight loss, mandibular advancement using an oral device, sleep posture modification, upper airway surgery, and upper airway muscle stimulation. Towards individualised OSA therapy, novel phenotyping approaches are being developed to identify the specific pathophysiological causes of OSA applying to individual patients. Furthermore, research is underway to help identify patients with OSA at higher risk of daytime sleepiness and adverse cardiovascular and neurocognitive consequences and predict how individuals might respond to treatment. In this article, we review the prevalence, risk factors, and main consequences of OSA; the main treatment modalities available at present; and some new methods for phenotyping patients with OSA that hold promise for a more personalised and effective approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment.

  5. Metabolic aspects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Bonsignore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is often associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS and could contribute to cardiovascular risk in OSAS. Sleep loss and intermittent hypoxia could contribute to the pathogenesis of the metabolic alterations associated with obesity, a common feature of OSAS. The biology of the adipocyte is being increasingly studied, and it has been found that hypoxia negatively affects adipocyte function. In November 2007, the European Respiratory Society and two EU COST Actions (Cardiovascular risk in OSAS (B26 and Adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome (BM0602, held a Research Seminar in Düsseldorf, Germany, to discuss the following: 1 the effects of hypoxia on glucose metabolism and adipocyte function; 2 the role of inflammatory activation in OSAS and obesity; 3 the alarming rates of obesity and OSAS in children; 4 the harmful effects of the metabolic syndrome in OSAS; 5 the effects of OSAS treatment on metabolic variables; and 6 the relationship between daytime sleepiness and hormonal and inflammatory responses. Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, the role of the endocannabinoid system and novel pharmacological approaches to treat insulin resistance were also discussed. As obesity and hypoxia could be the basic links between OSAS and adipocyte dysfunction, further research is needed to translate these new data into clinical practice.

  6. Anterior mandibular positioning device for treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Christian; Grymer, Luisa; Hjorth, Tine

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the severity of side effects and the influence on snoring and the AHI (apnoea-hypopnoea index = number of apnoeas and hypopnoeas per hour recording) of an anterior mandibular positioning device (AMP device) for treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea...... of the AMP device treatment, but there was no increase in the degree of facial pain, salivation, or temporomandibular joint pain. The AMP device treatment resulted in a statistically significant reduction (p snoring (p ....05). Twenty-two patients out of 30 were still using the device at the time of follow-up. In conclusion, AMP device treatment was associated with only mild side effects and resulted in a statistically significant reduction of the AHI and of the percentage of the recording time with loud snoring....

  7. Effects of exercise training on sleep apnoea in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Lyons, Owen D; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Inami, Toru; Oh, Paul; Bradley, T Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Overnight fluid shift from the legs to the neck and lungs may contribute to the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and central sleep apnoea (CSA). We hypothesised that exercise training will decrease the severity of OSA and CSA in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) by decreasing daytime leg fluid accumulation and overnight rostral fluid shift.Patients with CAD and OSA or CSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index >15 events per h) were randomised to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or to a control group. Polysomnography, with measurement of leg, thoracic and neck fluid volumes and upper-airway cross-sectional area (UA-XSA) before and after sleep, was performed at baseline and follow-up.17 patients per group completed the study. Apnoea-hypopnoea index decreased significantly more in the exercise group than in the control group (31.1±12.9 to 20.5±9.4 versus 28.1±13.5 to 27.0±15.1 events per h, p=0.047), in association with a greater reduction in the overnight change in leg fluid volume (579±222 to 466±163 versus 453±164 to 434±141 mL, p=0.04) and by a significantly greater increase in the overnight change in UA-XSA in the exercise group (p=0.04).In patients with CAD and sleep apnoea, exercise training decreases sleep apnoea severity via attenuation of overnight fluid shift and an increase in UA-XSA. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  8. Evidence for Increased Cardiac Compliance During Exposure to Simulated Microgravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koenig, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We measured specific hemodynamic responses during 4 days (96 hours) of head-down tilt (HDT) in invasively- instrumented rhesus monkeys to test the hypothesis that exposure to simulated microgravity causes increased cardiac compliance...

  9. Mild obstructive sleep apnoea: clinical relevance and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Walter T; Bonsignore, Maria R; Lévy, Patrick; Ryan, Silke

    2016-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is highly prevalent in the general population worldwide, especially in its mild form. Clinical manifestations correlate poorly with disease severity measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), which complicates diagnosis. Full polysomnography might be more appropriate to assess suspected mild cases because limited ambulatory diagnostic systems are least accurate in mild disease. Treatment options in mild obstructive sleep apnoea include continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and oral appliance therapy, in addition to positional therapy and weight reduction when appropriate. The superior efficacy of CPAP in reducing AHI is offset by greater tolerance of oral appliances, especially in mild disease. Although severe obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adverse health consequences, including cardiometabolic comorbidities, the association with mild disease is unclear, and reports differ regarding the clinical relevance of mild obstructive sleep apnoea. Improved diagnostic techniques and evidence-based approaches to management in mild obstructive sleep apnoea require further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby David E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of sleep apnoea in women with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Mary V

    2014-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is often overlooked in the context of schizophrenia because its hallmark, daytime sleepiness, is so easily attributable to antipsychotic drugs. This is a special problem for women. To underscore the importance of diagnosing and treating OSA in women with schizophrenia. A review of the recent literature (search terms: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea; Schizophrenia; Women (or Gender); Obesity; Antipsychotics; Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)) as it applies to a composite case vignette taken from the files of a specialty clinic that treats women with psychosis. The rate of OSA in women who are both obese and postmenopausal is very similar to that of men. Family history, smoking, and the use of tobacco, alcohol and of antipsychotic medication increase the risk. Despite reluctance, patients with schizophrenia generally agree to undergo sleep studies. Compliance with CPAP is difficult, but can be aided by the physician and is, on the whole, relatively high in women. CPAP improves sleep parameters and may also improve cardiometabolic and cognitive indices, although this still needs to be more fully researched. Schizophrenia and untreated OSA are both associated with high mortality rates in women as well as men.

  12. Lifetime leisure music exposure associated with increased frequency of tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David R; Zobay, Oliver; Mackinnon, Robert C; Whitmer, William M; Akeroyd, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Tinnitus has been linked to noise exposure, a common form of which is listening to music as a leisure activity. The relationship between tinnitus and type and duration of music exposure is not well understood. We conducted an internet-based population study that asked participants questions about lifetime music exposure and hearing, and included a hearing test involving speech intelligibility in noise, the High Frequency Digit Triplets Test. 4950 people aged 17-75 years completed all questions and the hearing test. Results were analyzed using multinomial regression models. High exposure to leisure music, hearing difficulty, increasing age and workplace noise exposure were independently associated with increased tinnitus. Three forms of music exposure (pubs/clubs, concerts, personal music players) did not differ in their relationship to tinnitus. More males than females reported tinnitus. The objective measure of speech reception threshold had only a minimal relationship with tinnitus. Self-reported hearing difficulty was more strongly associated with tinnitus, but 76% of people reporting usual or constant tinnitus also reported little or no hearing difficulty. Overall, around 40% of participants of all ages reported never experiencing tinnitus, while 29% reported sometimes, usually or constantly experiencing tinnitus that lasted more than 5 min. Together, the results suggest that tinnitus is much more common than hearing loss, but that there is little association between the two, especially among the younger adults disproportionately sampled in this study. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased radiation dose at mammography due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimme-Smith, C; Bassett, L W; Gold, R H; Chow, S

    1991-02-01

    Four single-emulsion films introduced over the past 2 years--Du Pont Microvision, Fuji MiMa, Konica CM, and Eastman Kodak OM--were compared with Eastman Kodak OM SO-177 (Min-RE) film to evaluate their varying effects on mean glandular dose of reciprocity law failure due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening as a result of increased radiation exposure to improve penetration of glandular tissue. Exposures over 1.3 seconds led to increased radiation doses of 20%-30%. Delays in processing of 6 hours decreased processing speed by 11%-32% for all films except Du Pont Microvision. Optical density increases of 0.40 required 20%-30% more skin exposure for all five films. Optimal viewing densities were also evaluated and found to be different for each of the five films. Mammographers need to be aware of these differences in mammographic films to achieve maximum contrast at mammography.

  14. Increased radiation dose at mammography due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimme-Smith, C.; Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Chow, S. (UCLA Medical Center (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Four single-emulsion films introduced over the past 2 years--Du Pont Microvision, Fuji MiMa, Konica CM, and Eastman Kodak OM--were compared with Eastman Kodak OM SO-177 (Min-RE) film to evaluate their varying effects on mean glandular dose of reciprocity law failure due to prolonged exposure, delayed processing, and increased film darkening as a result of increased radiation exposure to improve penetration of glandular tissue. Exposures over 1.3 seconds led to increased radiation doses of 20%-30%. Delays in processing of 6 hours decreased processing speed by 11%-32% for all films except Du Pont Microvision. Optical density increases of 0.40 required 20%-30% more skin exposure for all five films. Optimal viewing densities were also evaluated and found to be different for each of the five films. Mammographers need to be aware of these differences in mammographic films to achieve maximum contrast at mammography.

  15. Morbidity and mortality in children with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the diagnostic patterns of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in children. A study was undertaken to evaluate morbidity and mortality in childhood OSA.......Little is known about the diagnostic patterns of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in children. A study was undertaken to evaluate morbidity and mortality in childhood OSA....

  16. Identifying patients at high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with significant health consequences. A significant proportion of hospitalized patients at risk for obstructive sleep apnoea were never identified and referred for polysomnography for diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with high ...

  17. Clarithromycin increases linezolid exposure in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, Mathieu S.; van Altena, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick; de Lange, Wiel C. M.; Uges, Donald R. A.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of linezolid for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis is limited by dose-and time-dependent toxicity. Recently, we reported a case of pharmacokinetic drug drug interaction between linezolid and clarithromycin that resulted in increased linezolid exposure. The aim of this

  18. Acrolein exposure is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Conklin, Daniel J; Riggs, Daniel W; Myers, John A; O'Toole, Timothy E; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; Ramos, Kenneth S; Srivastava, Sanjay; Higdon, Deirdre; Tollerud, David J; DeFilippis, Andrew; Becher, Carrie; Wyatt, Brad; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Rai, Shesh N; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Xie, Zhengzhi; Yeager, Ray; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-08-06

    Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite-3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3-HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133(+)) and late (AC133(-)) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3-HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3-HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C-reactive protein were associated with 3-HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  19. Role of magnetic resonance imaging cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, N L N; Reddy, P Navaneeth Sagar; Aruna, T; Chander, D Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is one of the most common public health problems in adults. Patients with OSA are prone for excessive adipose tissue deposition in the neck, which in turn, increases the upper airway narrowing. Of the imaging modalities available for assessing the upper airway, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is found to be useful technique for defining soft tissue abnormalities. We prospectively studied 50 patients presenting with OSA and 50 normal controls to evaluate the role of MRI cephalometry in the diagnosis of OSA and compared the cross-sectional area and antero-posterior diameter of the upper airway in the retro-palatal airway and retro-glossal areas by MRI cephalometry. In comparison with controls, cases had a significantly lower cross-sectional area and antero-posterior diameter of the upper airway in the retro-palatal airway and retro-glossal areas. Our observations suggest that MRI cephalometry is a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of OSA.

  20. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases brain cholesterol content in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

  1. Geothermal energy probes. Increasing the radiation exposures of the population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melzer, Danica; Wilhelm, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In Baden-Wuerttemberg 10 private geothermal drilling projects in geologically interesting areas have been accompanied by measurements. During the drillings samples of the excavated earth were taken to determine the concentration of natural nuclides in the bored strata. Before and after finishing the geothermal construction works the airborne radon concentration of surrounding dwellings was measured. On the basis of the obtained measuring data the maximum expected additional effective annual doses received by individuals as a result of geothermal drilling were calculated. The exposure pathways were observed, i.e. air, water, sold - plant - human and terrestrial gamma radiation. In spite of conservative accounts in each case that should be considered as worst case scenario no relevant increase of radiation exposure could be detected. (orig.)

  2. Evidence for increased cardiac compliance during exposure to simulated microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, S C; Convertino, V A; Fanton, J W; Reister, C A; Gaffney, F A; Ludwig, D A; Krotov, V P; Trambovetsky, E V; Latham, R D

    1998-10-01

    We measured hemodynamic responses during 4 days of head-down tilt (HDT) and during graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in invasively instrumented rhesus monkeys to test the hypotheses that exposure to simulated microgravity increases cardiac compliance and that decreased stroke volume, cardiac output, and orthostatic tolerance are associated with reduced left ventricular peak dP/dt. Six monkeys underwent two 4-day (96 h) experimental conditions separated by 9 days of ambulatory activities in a crossover counterbalance design: 1) continuous exposure to 10 degrees HDT and 2) approximately 12-14 h per day of 80 degrees head-up tilt and 10-12 h supine (control condition). Each animal underwent measurements of central venous pressure (CVP), left ventricular and aortic pressures, stroke volume, esophageal pressure (EsP), plasma volume, alpha1- and beta1-adrenergic responsiveness, and tolerance to LBNP. HDT induced a hypovolemic and hypoadrenergic state with reduced LBNP tolerance compared with the control condition. Decreased LBNP tolerance with HDT was associated with reduced stroke volume, cardiac output, and peak dP/dt. Compared with the control condition, a 34% reduction in CVP (P = 0.010) and no change in left ventricular end-diastolic area during HDT was associated with increased ventricular compliance (P = 0.0053). Increased cardiac compliance could not be explained by reduced intrathoracic pressure since EsP was unaltered by HDT. Our data provide the first direct evidence that increased cardiac compliance was associated with headward fluid shifts similar to those induced by exposure to spaceflight and that reduced orthostatic tolerance was associated with lower cardiac contractility.

  3. Chlorine gas exposure increases susceptibility to invasive lung fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Melissa A; Doran, Stephen F; Yu, Zhihong; Dunaway, Chad W; Matalon, Sadis; Steele, Chad

    2013-06-01

    Chlorine (Cl₂) is a highly irritating and reactive gas with potential occupational and environmental hazards. Acute exposure to Cl₂ induces severe epithelial damage, airway hyperreactivity, impaired alveolar fluid clearance, and pulmonary edema in the presence of heightened inflammation and significant neutrophil accumulation in the lungs. Herein, we investigated whether Cl₂ exposure affected the lung antimicrobial immune response leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Mice exposed to Cl₂ and challenged intratracheally 24 h thereafter with the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus demonstrated an >500-fold increase in A. fumigatus lung burden 72 h postchallenge compared with A. fumigatus mice exposed to room air. Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice also demonstrated significantly higher lung resistance following methacholine challenge and increased levels of plasma proteins (albumin and IgG) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Despite enhanced recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lungs of Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice, these cells (>60% of which were neutrophils) demonstrated a profound impairment in generating superoxide. Significantly higher A. fumigatus burden in the lungs of Cl₂ exposed mice correlated with enhanced production of IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL1, CCL2, and CCL3. Surprisingly, however, Cl₂-exposed A. fumigatus challenged mice had a specific impairment in the production of IL-17A and IL-22 in the lungs compared with mice exposed to room air and challenged with A. fumigatus. In summary, our results indicate that Cl₂ exposure markedly impairs the antimicrobial activity and inflammatory reactivity of myeloid cells in the lung leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens.

  4. Traffic Noise Exposure Increases Gastric Pepsin Secretion in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Moslehi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Noise is considered as one of the most severe sources of environmental and workplace constraints. Many noise effects are well known on immune function, hormonal levels, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study, our aim is to evaluate the effects of traffic noise exposure on basal and stimulated gastric pepsin secretion. 48 male rats were exposed to traffic noise (86 dB for a short term of (8h/ day for 1 day and a long term of (8h/ day for 7, 14, 21 and 28 days as well as a control group. The gastric contents were collected by the wash-out technique. Pepsin secretion was measured by employing the Anson method. Histological studies were carried out on the epithelial layer. The corticosteroid hormone was measured in the serum for the stress augmentation. The present finding indicated no changes in pepsin secretion content in the short term, but in the 14 and 21 days traffic noise exposure, basal gastric pepsin secretion increased markedly compared to the control group. Histological results showed that the number of oxyntic glands and cell nuclei decreased in comparison with the control group while the thickness of the epithelial layer increases. In addition, the corticosterone levels increase in all groups in comparison with the control. It seems that the increase of gastric pepsin secretion is due to the description and translation processes in the peptic cells and needs enough time for completion.

  5. Diet and exercise in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease risk

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Papandreou, Christopher; Patil, Susheel P.; Salas-Salvad?, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is accepted that OSA and obesity commonly coexist. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends dietary-induced weight loss and exercise as lifestyle treatment options for OSA. However, most clinical trials upon which this recommendation is based have focused on establishing the effectiveness of calorie-restricted, often low-fat diets for improving OSA severity, whereas le...

  6. Ventilatory support and pharmacological treatment of patients with central apnoea or hypoventilation during sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pevernagie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of central sleep apnoea or hypoventilation encompasses hypercapnic central hypoventilation, such as obesity hypoventilation syndrome and eucapnic or hypocapnic central sleep apnoea. Among subjects with eucapnic or hypocapnic central sleep apnoea, several therapeutic options are available for those with Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR. CSR is frequent in patients with New York Heart Association stage III and IV chronic heart failure, and in various neurological disorders. In these patients, treatment modalities include optimising cardiac condition and drugs, such as theophylline, acetazolamide and/or oxygen. Ventilatory support, such as nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, bi-level pressure support, or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV, has been shown to improve CSR in patients with cardiac failure; however, convincing evidence that nasal CPAP improves life expectancy in these patients is lacking. Nevertheless, the treatment of associated obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is indicated per se, as it may improve cardiac function. There is currently no proof that bi-level ventilation is superior to nasal CPAP. The few available studies that have focused on ASV have shown satisfactory control of CSR in cardiac failure patients. While ASV is not a first-line treatment choice, it appears to be superior to oxygen, CPAP and bi-level pressure ventilation in controlling the apnoea/hypopnea index and probably sleep fragmentation. As yet there are no data on mortality and, as such, firm conclusions cannot be drawn as to the role of ASV in the management of cardiac failure patients suffering from CSR. Obesity-related hypoventilation has increased dramatically over recent decades due to the epidemic increase in obesity in the developed countries. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome predisposes to the development of pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale. Noninvasive home ventilation is increasingly applied in obese patients with

  7. Obstructive sleep apnoea and Type 2 diabetes mellitus: are they connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Yingjuan; Tan, Chee Wei; Wong, Hang Siang; How, Choon How; Tan, Kah Leong Alvin; Hsu, Pon Poh

    2017-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a sleep-related breathing condition, is diagnosed based on a patient's apnoea-hypopnea index from a sleep study, and the presence or absence of symptoms. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and OSA share a significant common risk factor, obesity, with all three conditions contributing to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiological links between OSA and DM are still unclear, but intermittent hypoxia may be an important mechanism. More awareness of the possible link between OSA and DM is needed, given their increasing prevalence locally and worldwide. Continuous positive airway pressure is the standard treatment for OSA, while weight loss through dietary and lifestyle modifications is important to holistically manage patients with either condition. There is currently insufficient evidence to support the benefits of screening every diabetic patient for OSA. However, diabetic patients with symptoms suggestive of OSA should be referred to a sleep specialist for further evaluation. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  8. Nocturnal CPAP improves walking capacity in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsai-Yu; Lo, Yu-Lun; Lee, Kang-Yun; Liu, Wen-Te; Lin, Shu-Min; Lin, Ting-Yu; Ni, Yung-Lun; Wang, Chao-Yung; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2013-06-19

    Exercise limitation is an important issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it often co-exists with obstructive sleep apnoea (overlap syndrome). This study examined the effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on walking capacity in COPD patients with or without obstructive sleep apnoea. Forty-four stable moderate-to-severe COPD patients were recruited and completed this study. They all underwent polysomnography, CPAP titration, accommodation, and treatment with adequate pressure. The incremental shuttle walking test was used to measure walking capacity at baseline and after two nights of CPAP treatment. Urinary catecholamine and heart rate variability were measured before and after CPAP treatment. After two nights of CPAP treatment, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and oxygen desaturation index significantly improved in both overlap syndrome and COPD patients, however these changes were significantly greater in the overlap syndrome than in the COPD group. Sleep architecture and autonomic dysfunction significantly improved in the overlap syndrome group but not in the COPD group. CPAP treatment was associated with an increased walking capacity from baseline from 226.4 ± 95.3 m to 288.6 ± 94.6 m (P exercise heart rate, oxygenation, and Borg scale in the overlap syndrome group. An improvement in the apnoea-hypopnoea index was an independent factor associated with the increase in walking distance (r = 0.564). Nocturnal CPAP may improve walking capacity in COPD patients with overlap syndrome. NCT00914264.

  9. High versus standard dose caffeine for apnoea: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Roos; Miedema, Martijn; Hutten, Gerard J.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Onland, Wes

    2018-01-01

    Placebo-controlled trials have shown that caffeine is highly effective in treating apnoea of prematurity and reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). To identify, appraise and summarise studies investigating the modulating effect of different

  10. Craniofacial morphology and obstructive sleep apnoea : a cephalometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A; Hovinga, B; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    The craniofacial morphology of 31 male patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and 37 healthy male subjects were compared using cephalometric evaluation of lateral skull radiographs. The aim was to evaluate which cephalometric variables related to craniofacial morphology

  11. Prolonged expiratory apnoea with cyanosis in Arnold Chiari II malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Adnan; Hussain, Nahin

    2017-03-01

    Apnoea associated with Arnold Chiari malformation is a known entity and can be obstructive or central. Differentiating between two types is vital to deciding management pathway and prognosticating disease process.

  12. The effect of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnoea on cardiorespiratory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Baumert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of adenotonsillectomy for relieving obstructive sleep apnoea symptoms in children has been firmly established, but its precise effects on cardiorespiratory control are poorly understood. In 375 children enrolled in the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy Trial, randomised to undergo either adenotonsillectomy (n=194 or a strategy of watching waiting (n=181, respiratory rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and heart rate were analysed during quiet, non-apnoeic and non-hypopnoeic breathing throughout sleep at baseline and at 7 months using overnight polysomnography. Children who underwent early adenotonsillectomy demonstrated an increase in respiratory rate post-surgery while the watchful waiting group showed no change. Heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were comparable between both arms. On assessing cardiorespiratory variables with regard to normalisation of clinical polysomnography findings during follow-up, heart rate was reduced in children who had resolution of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, while no differences in their respiratory rate or respiratory sinus arrhythmia were observed. Adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea increases baseline respiratory rate during sleep. Normalisation of apnoea–hypopnoea index, spontaneously or via surgery, lowers heart rate. Considering the small average effect size, the clinical significance is uncertain.

  13. Exposure to automotive pollution increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S; Geraghty, Dominic P; Fraser, David I

    2002-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein oxidation is implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. Plasma susceptibility to oxidation may be used as a marker of low-density lipoprotein oxidation and thus predict atherosclerotic risk. In this study the authors investigated the relationship between plasma susceptibility to oxidation and exposure to automotive pollution in a group of automobile mechanics (n = 16) exposed to high levels of automotive pollution, vs. matched controls (n = 13). The authors induced plasma oxidation by a free radical initiator and they determined susceptibility to oxidation by (1) change in absorbance at 234 nm, (2) lag time to conjugated diene formation, and (3) linear slope of the oxidation curve. Mechanics had significantly higher values (mean +/- standard error) for change in absorbance (1.60 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.36 +/- 0.05; p automotive pollutants increases plasma susceptibility to oxidation and may, in the long-term, increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis.

  14. Sleep apnoea is common in severe peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schahab, Nadjib; Sudan, Sarah; Schaefer, Christian; Tiyerili, Vedat; Steinmetz, Martin; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Pizarro, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerotic conditions have been demonstrated to be associated with sleep- disordered breathing (SDB). Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents severe atherosclerosis with a high mortality. In early stages of PAD a substantial prevalence of sleep apnoea has already been shown. Here, we sought to determine the frequency of undiagnosed sleep apnoea in a homogeneous group of advanced PAD patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization. 59 consecutive patients (mean age: 71.1 ± 9.8 years, 67.8% males) with PAD in Fontaine stages IIb-IV that underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty at our department were enrolled for pre-procedural polygraphy. Patients appertained to Fontaine clinical stage IIb, III and IV in 54.2%, 23.8% and 22.% of cases, respectively, and were principally intervened for femoropopliteal occlusive disease (71.2% of total study population). Polygraphy revealed sleep apnoea in 48 out of 59 patients (81.4%), of whom 60.4% offered a primarily obstructive-driven genesis. Among those patients with polygraphically confirmed sleep apnoea, mean apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) and mean oxygen desaturation index (ODI) averaged 28.2 ± 19.5/h and 26.7 ± 18.8/h, respectively. 18 patients even offered an AHI ≥30/h that is indicative of severe sleep apnoea. For obstructive-driven apnoeic events, AHI correlated significantly with PAD severity stages (p = 0.042). In our PAD collective, sleep apnoea was frequent and obstructive sleep apnoea´s severity correlated with PAD severity stages. Long-term results regarding the vasoprotective impact of CPAP treatment on PAD course remains to be determined.

  15. Adolescent Exposure to Methylphenidate Increases Impulsive Choice Later in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarish Abbas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH is known to temporarily reduce impulsive choice and promote self-control. What is not sufficiently understood is how repeated treatment with MPH affects impulsive choice in the long run, and whether any such effect is contingent on exposure at certain developmental stages.Methods: Using an animal model for impulsive choice, we examined first whether giving MPH through early adolescence alters delay discounting, an operational measure of impulsive choice, later in adulthood. We then tested whether equivalent long-term effects are observed if exposure to the drug occurred during adulthood. Starting on postnatal day 25 or postnatal day 60, male rats received one of a range of doses of MPH for 10 consecutive days. Twenty-six days later, all rats were trained to choose between a lever that produced a small immediate reward and a lever that produced a large reward after a range of delays.Results: Rats showed a long-term decrease in the selection of the delayed larger reward when treated with moderate doses of MPH during early adolescence, but not when treated with the lower or higher doses. In contrast, no differences were observed in the selection of the delayed larger reward in animals that were treated with various doses of MPH during adulthood.Conclusions: Our findings suggest effects of MPH on impulsive choice that are contingent on dosage and on the developmental period of exposure. When administered during adolescence, moderate doses of MPH increase impulsive choice long after the end of treatment, whereas these same doses administered during adulthood were without effect

  16. Treatment options for apnoea of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Sarah U; Smith, Vincent C

    2016-07-01

    Apnoea of prematurity (AOP) affects almost all infants born at <28 weeks gestation or with birth weight <1000 g. When untreated, AOP may be associated with negative outcomes. Because of these negative outcomes, effective treatment for AOP is an important part of optimising care of preterm infants. Standard treatment usually involves xanthine therapy and respiratory support. Cutting-edge work with stochastic vibrotactile stimulation and new pharmaceutical agents continues to expand therapeutic options. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of AOP, associated conditions and treatment options. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Obstructive sleep apnoea treatment and fasting lipids: a comparative effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Brendan T; Maislin, Greg; Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Jackson, Nicholas; Olafsson, Isleifur; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Schwab, Richard J; Gislason, Thorarinn; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Pack, Allan I

    2014-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidaemia has been implicated as a mechanism linking OSA with atherosclerosis, but no consistent associations with lipids exist for OSA or positive airway pressure treatment. We assessed the relationships between fasting lipid levels and obesity and OSA severity, and explored the impact of positive airway pressure treatment on 2-year fasting lipid level changes. Analyses included moderate-to-severe OSA patients from the Icelandic Sleep Apnoea Cohort. Fasting morning lipids were analysed in 613 untreated participants not on lipid-lowering medications at baseline. Patients were then initiated on positive airway pressure and followed for 2 years. Sub-classification using propensity score quintiles, which aimed to replicate covariate balance associated with randomised trials and, therefore, minimise selection bias and allow causal inference, was used to design the treatment group comparisons. 199 positive airway pressure adherent patients and 118 non-users were identified. At baseline, obesity was positively correlated with triglycerides and negatively correlated with total cholesterol, and low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A small correlation was observed between the apnoea/hypopnoea index and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No effect of positive airway pressure adherence on 2-year fasting lipid changes was observed. Results do not support the concept of changes in fasting lipids as a primary mechanism for the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in OSA. ©ERS 2014.

  18. Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange for oxygenation of children during apnoea: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, T; Pedersen, T H; Seiler, S; Kasper, N; Theiler, L; Greif, R; Kleine-Brueggeney, M

    2018-03-01

    Transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE) comprises the administration of heated, humidified, and blended air/oxygen mixtures via nasal cannula at rates of ≥2 litres kg -1  min -1 . The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the length of the safe apnoea time using THRIVE with two different oxygen concentrations (100% vs 30% oxygen) compared with standard low-flow 100% oxygen administration. Sixty patients, aged 1-6 yr, weighing 10-20 kg, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery, were randomly allocated to receive one of the following oxygen administration methods during apnoea: 1) low-flow 100% oxygen at 0.2 litres kg -1  min -1 ; 2) THRIVE 100% oxygen at 2 litres kg -1  min -1 ; and 3) THRIVE 30% oxygen at 2 litres kg -1  min -1 . Primary outcome was time to desaturation to 95%. Termination criteria included SpO 2 decreased to 95%, transcutaneous CO 2 increased to 65 mmHg, or apnoea time of 10 min. The median (interquartile range) [range] apnoea time was 6.9 (5.7-7.8) [2.8-10.0] min for low-flow 100% oxygen, 7.6 (6.2-9.1) [5.2-10.0] min for THRIVE 100% oxygen, and 3.0 (2.4-3.7) [0.2-5.3] min for THRIVE 30% oxygen. No significant difference was detected between apnoea times with low-flow and THRIVE 100% oxygen administration (P=0.15). THRIVE with 30% oxygen demonstrated significantly shorter apnoea times (Prate of transcutaneous CO 2 increase was 0.57 (0.49-0.63) [0.29-8.92] kPa min -1 without differences between the 3 groups (P=0.25). High-flow 100% oxygen (2 litres kg -1  min -1 ) administered via nasal cannulas did not extend the safe apnoea time for children weighing 10-20 kg compared with low-flow nasal cannula oxygen (0.2 litres kg -1  min -1 ). No ventilatory effect was observed with THRIVE at 2.0 litres kg -1  min -1 . NCT02979067. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep apnoea in Australian men: disease burden, co-morbidities, and correlates from the Australian longitudinal study on male health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamara Visanka Senaratna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common disorder with under-rated clinical impact, which is increasingly being recognised as having a major bearing on global disease burden. Men are especially vulnerable and become a priority group for preventative interventions. However, there is limited information on prevalence of the condition in Australia, its co-morbidities, and potential risk factors. Methods We used data from 13,423 adult men included in the baseline wave of Ten to Men, an Australian national study of the health of males, assembled using stratified cluster sampling with oversampling from rural and regional areas. Those aged 18–55 years self-completed a paper-based questionnaire that included a question regarding health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea, physical and mental health status, and health-related behaviours. Sampling weights were used to account for the sampling design when reporting the prevalence estimates. Odds ratios were used to describe the association between health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea and potential correlates while adjusting for age, country of birth, and body-mass index (BMI. Results Prevalence of self-reported health professional-diagnosed sleep apnoea increased from 2.2 % in age 18–25 years to 7.8 % in the age 45–55 years. Compared with those without sleep apnoea, those with sleep apnoea had significantly poorer physical, mental, and self-rated health as well as lower subjective wellbeing and poorer concentration/remembering (p < 0.001 for all. Sleep apnoea was significantly associated with older age (p < 0.001, unemployment (p < 0.001, asthma (p = 0.011, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/chronic bronchitis (p = 0.002, diabetes (p < 0.001, hypercholesterolemia (p < 0.001, hypertension (p < 0.001, heart attack (p < 0.001, heart failure (p < 0.001, angina (p < 0.001, depression (p < 0.001, post-traumatic stress disorder (p

  20. Obstructive sleep apnoea in diabetes: Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Abd A

    2017-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is very common in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), which is not surprising considering that obesity is a common risk factor for both conditions. In general population studies, OSA has been shown to be associated with several comorbidities including increased risk of road traffic accidents, T2D, hypertension and lack of nocturnal dipping of blood pressure, hyperlipidaemia, increased inflammation, increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, increased risk of atrial fibrillation, worse quality of life, and erectile dysfunction. However, the impact of OSA on diabetes-related vascular and metabolic outcomes remains unclear. Furthermore, the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with T2D is also unclear. This unclarity regarding the impact of OSA and CPAP in patients with T2D has possibly contributed to the lack of screening for OSA in patients with T2D in the UK despite the high prevalence of OSA in patients with T2D. In this commentary, I provide an overview about OSA with a particular focus on its role and impact in patients with T2D.

  1. Evaluation of a new simple treatment for positional sleep apnoea patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, J. Peter; Richard, Wietske; van Kesteren, Ellen R.; Ravesloot, Madeline J. L.; Laman, D. Martin; Hilgevoord, Antonius A. J.; de Vries, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is a common clinical problem. Positional sleep apnoea syndrome, defined as having a supine apnoeahypopnoea index of twice or more compared to the apnoeahypopnoea index in the other positions, occurs in 56% of obstructive sleep apnoea patients. A limited number of

  2. Exposure to Violent Video Games Increases Automatic Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric; Swanson, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The effects of exposure to violent video games on automatic associations with the self were investigated in a sample of 121 students. Playing the violent video game Doom led participants to associate themselves with aggressive traits and actions on the Implicit Association Test. In addition, self-reported prior exposure to violent video games…

  3. Quartz exposure and increased respiratory symptoms among coal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quartz has been an inevitable composition of different type of coal mined. The quartz exposures among coalmine workers has been attributed to activities such as cutting the adjacent rock, the roof, the floor and the intrusions. Objective: The aim of the study is to determine the associations between quartz exposures and ...

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome and Weight Loss: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Cowan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome is common, and obesity is a major risk factor. Increased peripharyngeal and central adiposity result in increased pharyngeal collapsibility, through increased mechanical loading around the upper airway, reduced tracheal traction on the pharynx, and reduced neuromuscular activity, particularly during sleep. Significant and sustained weight loss, if achieved, is likely to be a useful therapeutic option in the management of OSA and may be attempted by behavioural, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Behavioural therapy programs that focus on aspects such as dietary intervention, exercise prescription patients and general lifestyle counselling have been tested. Bariatric surgery is an option in the severely obese when nonsurgical measures have failed, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are the most commonly employed techniques in the United Kingdom. Most evidence for efficacy of surgery comes from cohort studies. The role of sibutramine in OSA in the obese patients has been investigated, however, there are concerns regarding associated cardiovascular risk. In this paper the links between obesity and OSA are discussed, and the recent studies evaluating the behavioural, pharmacological and surgical approaches to weight loss in OSA are reviewed.

  5. Positional therapy in sleep apnoea - one fits all? What determines success in positional therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Troester

    Full Text Available Positional therapy is a simple means of therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome, but due to controversial or lacking evidence, it is not widely accepted as appropriate treatment. In this study, we analysed data to positional therapy with regard to successful reduction of AHI and predictors of success.All consecutive patients undergoing polysomnography between 2007 and 2011 were analysed. We used a strict definition of positional sleep apnoea syndrome (supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome and of therapy used. Patients underwent polysomnography initially and during follow-up.1275 patients were evaluated, 112 of which had supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome (AHI 5-66/h, median 13/h, 105 received positional therapy. With this treatment alone 75% (70/105 reached an AHI <5/h, in the follow-up 1 year later 37% (37/105 of these still had AHI<5/h, 46% (43/105 yielded an AHI between 5 and 10/h. Nine patient switched to APAP due to deterioration, 3 wanted to try APAP due to comfort reasons. At the last follow-up, 32% patients (34/105 were still on positional therapy with AHI <5/h. BMI was a predictor for successful reduction of AHI, but success was independent of sex, the presence of obstructive versus central sleep apnoea, severity of sleep apnoea syndrome or co-morbidities.Positional therapy may be a promising therapy option for patients with positional sleep apnoea. With appropriate adherence it yields a reasonable success rate in the clinical routine.

  6. Long-term side effects on the temporomandibular joints and oro-facial function in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with a mandibular advancement device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe, S W; Bakke, M; Svanholt, P

    2017-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to increase the upper airway space may develop changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the oro-facial function due to the protruded jaw position during sleep. The aim was to inv......Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to increase the upper airway space may develop changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the oro-facial function due to the protruded jaw position during sleep. The aim...

  7. The genetics of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disorder associated with reduced quality of life and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic sequelae. Recent years have seen an intensification of the research effort to establish the genetic contribution to the development of OSAS and its sequelae. This review explores emerging evidence in this field. RECENT FINDINGS: A genetic basis for sleep-disordered breathing has been demonstrated for discrete disorders such as Treacher-Collins and Down syndromes, but the picture is less clear in so-called idiopathic OSAS. A degree of heritability appears likely in some of the intermediate phenotypes that lead to OSAS, particularly craniofacial morphology. However, only sparse and often contradictory evidence exists regarding the role of specific polymorphisms in causing OSAS in the general population. Similarly, investigations of the cardiovascular sequelae of OSAS have in general failed to consistently find single causative genetic mutations. Nonetheless, evidence suggests a role for tumour necrosis factor-alpha polymorphisms in particular, and large-scale family studies have suggested shared pathogenetic pathways for the development of obesity and OSAS. SUMMARY: As with other common disorders, OSAS is likely to result from multiple gene-gene interactions occurring in a suitable environment. The application of modern genetic investigative techniques, such as genome-wide association studies, may facilitate new discoveries in this field.

  8. [The Overlap Syndrome: association of COPD and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzenblum, E; Chaouat, A; Kessler, R; Canuet, M; Hirschi, S

    2010-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) are both common diseases affecting respectively 10 and 5% of the adult population over 40 years of age. Their coexistence, which is denominated "Overlap Syndrome", can be expected to occur in about 0.5% of this population. Two recent epidemiologic studies have shown that the prevalence of OSAHS is not higher in COPD than in the general population, and that the coexistence of the two conditions is due to chance and not through a pathophysiological linkage. Patients with "overlap" have a higher risk of sleep-related O(2) desaturation than do patients with COPD alone and the same degree of bronchial obstruction. They have an increased risk of developing hypercapnic respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension when compared with patients with OSAHS alone and with patients with "usual" COPD. In patients with overlap, hypoxaemia, hypercapnia, and pulmonary hypertension can be observed in the presence of mild to moderate bronchial obstruction, which is different from "usual" COPD. Treatment of the overlap syndrome consists of nasal continuous positive airway pressure or nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV), with or without nocturnal O(2). Patients who are markedly hypoxaemic during the daytime (PaO(2)<55-60 mmHg) should be given conventional long-term O(2) therapy in addition to nocturnal ventilation. Copyright 2010 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rudra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS is a common medical disorder among adults, which is increasingly being recognized in children too. It is a breathing disorder characterized by upper airway obstruction with or without intermittent complete obstruction that disrupts normal breathing during sleep. Anatomical and neuromuscular disorders are mainly responsible for this disorder. This disorder leads to a state of chronic hypoxemia, which has significant cardiac, pulmonary and central nervous system implications. Diagnosis of OSAS is based on thorough history and clinical examination along with appropriate sleep studies including polysomnography. The mainstay of treatment of paediatric OSAS is adenotonsillectomy. Good anaesthetic practice in Paediatric patients with OSAS revolves around good and ideal airway management. Early detection of airway obstruction, intense monitoring to warn of impending airway problems and appropriate and early intervention of airway compromise are good anaesthetic practices. Coexisting medical problems should be adequately addressed and safe analgesic techniques in the perioperative period go towards improving outcomes in patients with paediatric OSAS.

  10. A frequent phenotype for paediatric sleep apnoea: short lingual frenulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guilleminault

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A short lingual frenulum has been associated with difficulties in sucking, swallowing and speech. The oral dysfunction induced by a short lingual frenulum can lead to oral-facial dysmorphosis, which decreases the size of upper airway support. Such progressive change increases the risk of upper airway collapsibility during sleep. Clinical investigation of the oral cavity was conducted as a part of a clinical evaluation of children suspected of having sleep disordered breathing (SDB based on complaints, symptoms and signs. Systematic polysomnographic evaluation followed the clinical examination. A retrospective analysis of 150 successively seen children suspected of having SDB was performed, in addition to a comparison of the findings between children with and without short lingual frenula. Among the children, two groups of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS were found: 1 absence of adenotonsils enlargement and short frenula (n=63; and 2 normal frenula and enlarged adenotonsils (n=87. Children in the first group had significantly more abnormal oral anatomy findings, and a positive family of short frenulum and SDB was documented in at least one direct family member in 60 cases. A short lingual frenulum left untreated at birth is associated with OSAS at later age, and a systematic screening for the syndrome should be conducted when this anatomical abnormality is recognised.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea and arrhythmias: new updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzardi, Enrico; Sciatti, Edoardo; Bonadei, Ivano; D'Aloia, Antonio; Curnis, Antonio; Metra, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) is a prevalent condition characterized by repetitive pharyngeal collapse during sleep, leading to hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and persistent inspiratory efforts against an occluded airway until arousal. Several studies demonstrated that OSAH exerts acute and chronic effects on the cardiovascular system. Thus, although being a respiratory problem, the most important consequences of OSAH are cardiovascular, among which there are arrhythmias. The purpose of this review is to systematically analyse what has been recently published about the relationship between OSAH and every cardiac arrhythmia separately. We searched Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Collaboration databases for 'OSAHS arrhythmias', 'OSAH arrhythmias' and 'OSA arrhythmias'. We analyse 1298 articles and meta-analyses, excluding already edited reviews. Arrhythmias, especially of ventricular origin, are frequent in OSAH. Ventricular premature beats, couplets and ventricular tachycardia runs are even more frequent in patients suffering from heart failure. They may be due to left heart remodelling, overwork and ischaemia and can explain at least some sudden deaths occurring between midnight and 6 a.m. Sinus pauses and atrioventricular blocks are increased according to the severity of the disturbance and may be reduced by continuous positive airway pressure therapy, preventing pace-maker implantation. Finally, atrial fibrillation, resistance against antiarrhythmic drugs and recurrences after surgical procedures are strongly related to OSAH. Arrhythmias are frequent in OSAH. Treatment of OSAH may reduce some of them. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and continuous positive airway pressure should be considered in some patients.

  12. Maternal SSRI exposure increases the risk of autistic offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, S; Emamhadi, M R; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most common antidepressants used to preclude maternal pregnancy depression. There is a growing body of literature assessing the association of prenatal exposure to SSRIs with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present systematic...... review and meta-analysis reviewed the medical literature and pooled the results of the association of prenatal exposure to SSRIs with ASD. METHODS: Published investigations in English by June 2016 with keywords of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI, autism spectrum disorder, ASD, pregnancy...

  13. Sleep apnoea, hypertension and vascular disease: where are we now?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buyse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article was to explore the relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA and hypertension (HT and/or arterial vascular disease (VD, including stroke and ischaemic coronary disease. Epidemiological and interventional studies on these relationships provide compelling evidence that OSA is causally related to HT. The causal relationship between OSA and VD other than HT has not been firmly established. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms that could potentially provide a causal link between obstructive sleep apnoea and hypertension, as well as vascular disease, have been identified. Available data on such mechanisms include sustained daytime sympathetic activation, oxidative stress, promotion of vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

  14. Synergistic interaction between prolonged increased glycemic exposure and mildly increased urinary albumin excretion on diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Yoo, Hyung-Joon; Ahn, You-Hern; Kim, Gheun-Ho; Yu, Jae Myung; Park, Joon-Sung

    2018-01-01

    The association of mild increase in urinary albumin excretion with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in clinical studies is controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between increased glycemic exposure and mild increase in urinary albumin excretion on risk of DR.Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012. Overall, data from 953 participants without microalbuminuria (477 men and 476 women) were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was constructed to evaluate the association between DR and related clinical parameters, including urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR, mg/g creatinine). The biological interaction of glycemic status and UACR on DR was evaluated by 3 indices: RERI, the relative excess risk due to the interaction; AP, the attributable proportion due to the interaction; and S, the additive interaction index of synergy.We found that UACR, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetic duration were deeply associated with increased risk of DR (UACR, odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; HbA1c, OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04-1.30; diabetic duration, OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.07). Furthermore, our interaction analysis demonstrated that synergistic interaction between HbA1c and UACR on development of DR was prominent in participants with diabetic duration of ≥10 years (adjusted RERI = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.10-1.74; adjusted AP = 0.29, 95% CI = -0.82-1.41; adjusted S = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.27-2.25), but not subjects with shorter diabetic duration.These findings imply that there is the interaction between prolonged hyperglycemic exposure and increased urinary albumin excretion may exert additive synergistic effect on vascular endothelial dysfunction in the eye, even before the appearance of overt diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Exposure to Blood and Increased Risks for Heterosexual HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six per cent of the men and 28% of women experienced sexual contact involving blood in the past three months. Sexual blood contact was associated with the number of sex partners, unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections. Sexual exposure to blood is prevalent and may be a facilitating factor for ...

  16. Trends in analgesic exposures reported to Texas Poison Centers following increased regulation of hydrocodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ashley; Kleinschmidt, Kurt; Forrester, Mathias B; Young, Amy

    2016-06-01

    In October 2014, the Drug Enforcement Administration reclassified hydrocodone to schedule II, increasing regulations on use. The impact of rescheduling hydrocodone on opioid exposures is unclear, especially in states with special restrictions required for prescribing schedule II agents. To assess whether changes in exposures to prescription opioid analgesics and heroin as reported to poison centers occurred in the 6 months after hydrocodone rescheduling. We hypothesized that hydrocodone exposures would decrease, while less tightly regulated opioids, such as codeine and tramadol, would increase. This study compares opioid analgesic exposures reported to Texas Poison Centers before and after this change in a state that requires special prescription pads for Schedule II agents. Cases included all opioid analgesic exposures reported to a statewide poison center network, comparing exposures from 6 months before to 6 months after heightened regulations. Specific opioids with large changes in reported exposures were further characterized by patient age and exposure intent. Hydrocodone exposures decreased from 1567 to 1135 (28%, p = 0.00017), decreasing for all ages. Codeine exposures increased significantly from 189 to 522 (176%, p = 0.00014), including a 263% increase for age >20 years. Codeine misuse increased 443% and adverse drug events 327%. Oxycodone exposures increased from 134 to 189 (39%, p = 0.0143), increasing only among patients age >20 years. Reported heroin exposures increased from 156 to 179 (15%, p = 0.2286) and tramadol from 666 to 708 (6%, p = 0.0193). Other opioid exposures changed little or had limited reports. The increased regulation of hydrocodone was followed temporally by a decrease in reported hydrocodone exposures, but also increases in codeine, oxycodone and tramadol exposures. This may reflect a shift in prescribing practices, changes in street availability of hydrocodone or decreased drug diversion. The increased

  17. Somnofluoroscopy, computed tomography, and cephalometry in the assessment of the airway in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, J L; Ferretti, G; Veale, D; Romand, P; Coulomb, M; Brambilla, C; Lévy, P A

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessments of the upper airways in patients with the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome are usually carried out on awake patients who are upright. The dynamics of the airway in a patient who is asleep and lying down may be different. METHODS: Somnofluoroscopy, computed tomography of the upper airway, and cephalometry were carried out in 11 patients with the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (10 male; mean (SD) age 53 (10) years) to examine the airway while they were awake and asleep. RESULTS: At somnofluoroscopy 10 patients were in stage 2 sleep and only one in REM sleep. At least five obstructive events were visualised by lateral fluoroscopy in each patient. Imaging allowed observation of the dynamics of airway collapse, which began in the oropharynx in all cases, progressing to the hypopharynx in 10 cases and to the laryngopharynx in five. At fluoroscopy the soft palate was seen to hook up during airway occlusion in 10 patients, thereby increasing its cross sectional area. It was then sucked down into the hypopharynx. Somnofluoroscopic and cephalometric findings agreed, eight of the 10 patients with hypopharyngeal collapse shown by somnofluoroscopy having an inferiorly placed hyoid bone according to cephalometry (distance from the mandibular plane to the hyoid bone (MP-H distance) increased); the one patient with no hypopharyngeal collapse had a normal MP-H. By contrast, six of the 11 patients had a normal or supranormal hypopharyngeal cross sectional area of the airway on the computed tomogram. CONCLUSIONS: Somnofluoroscopy allows examination of the dynamics of airway closure in this disorder and shows the important role of the soft palate in acting as a plug in the oropharynx. Dynamic studies are required to determine the pattern of pharyngeal obstruction in obstructive sleep apnoea. Images PMID:1519190

  18. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and insulin-like growth factor I levels in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shinya; Fujiwara, Masayoshi; Handa, Hiroshi; Fujie, Tatsuro; Aoki, Yoshiyuki; Hashimoto, Kozo; Terada, Yoshio; Sugimoto, Tamotsu

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to assess whether obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) affects plasma IGF-1 and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) levels in men, factors implicated in the development of age-related metabolic disorders. We conducted a cross-sectional and longitudinal clinical study. We measured plasma IGF-1 and DHEA-S levels in 191 non-drug-treated Japanese men (34 primary snorers (PS), 88 patients with mild-to-moderate OSAS and 69 patients severe OSAS ). Plasma IGF-1 and DHEA-S were negatively correlated with age. Plasma IGF-1 was also negatively correlated with plasma glucose, HOMA-IR and systolic blood pressure and apnoea parameters such as the apnoea-hypopnea index, minimum oxygen saturation and slow-wave sleep (SWS) time. Plasma DHEA-S was associated with plasma glucose, HbA1c and free fatty acid and was negatively correlated with SWS time. To eliminate the influence of age, PS, patients with mild-to-moderate OSAS and severe OSAS were divided into three groups by age: young (plasma IGF-1 or DHEA-S levels, respectively, than did the corresponding snorers and mild-to-moderate OSAS groups. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy for generally 16-18 months increased plasma IGF-1 levels in patients with severe OSAS aged Plasma DHEA-S levels were increased in patients with severe OSAS aged plasma IGF-1 and DHEA-S levels in younger, but not elderly Japanese men, which is potentially associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. In Utero Estrogen Exposure Increases Antiestrogen Resistance by Inducing EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    line therapy in in utero EE2 exposed rats can prevent the development of TAM resistance. Briefly, pregnant Sprague Dawley dams (Harlan, USA) were fed...seen [1]. 4 Figure 1: Effect on in utero EE2 exposure on sexual maturation in rats . p=0.027 % Vaginal Opening 0 20 40 60 80 100 P o s tn a... rats had palpable mammary tumors that reached a defined size (longest diameter 13mm), drug treatments were started. The study had three treatment arms

  20. Apnoea of prematurity – discontinuation of methylxanthines in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Methylxanthines such as caffeine have been proven to reduce apnoea of prematurity and are often discontinued at 35 weeks' corrected gestational age (GA). Objective. To ascertain whether a caffeine protocol based on international guidelines is applicable in our setting, where GA is often uncertain. Methods.

  1. OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA HYPOPNEA SYNDROME – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMAIL T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS is a common cause of breathing-related sleep disorder, causing excessive daytime sleepiness. Common clinical features of OSAHS include snoring, fragmented sleep, daytime somnolence and fatigue. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of the condition, including its management.

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea | Gardner | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 56, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea. BM Gardner. Abstract.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnoea among older patients attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea and sleep difficulties among older patients attending the geriatric clinic at the University College Hospital ... 95% CI=4.975-32.258) to be the most significant factors in the males, while obesity (OR=11.364; 95% CI=6.711-19.231) alone was the most significant factor to ...

  4. The diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (Pickwickian syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.; Aguilar, E.A. Jr.; Robbins, K.T.

    1984-01-01

    Two patients with obstructive sleep apnoea are described and the value of computer tomography in the diagnosis and follow-up is stressed. Narrowing of the oro-pharynx is a major feature in the diagnosis of this condition and is best demonstrated by CT. (orig.) [de

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea | Gardner | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 56, No 5 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea. BM Gardner. Abstract.

  6. Effects of posture on flow-volume curves during normocapnia and hypercapnia in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, C; Hida, W; Miki, H; Kikuchi, Y; Chonan, T; Takishima, T

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high ratio of forced expiratory to forced inspiratory maximal flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF50/FIF50) may identify upper airway dysfunction. Since hypercapnia increases the motor activity of airway dilating muscles its effects on the maximum expiratory and inspiratory flow-volume curves (MEIFV) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and in normal subjects in different postures was studied. METHODS: The effects of posture on the maximum expiratory and inspiratory flow-volu...

  7. Increased risk of parkinsonism associated with welding exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Brad A; Criswell, Susan R; Lundin, Jessica I; Hobson, Angela; Seixas, Noah; Kotzbauer, Paul T; Evanoff, Bradley A; Perlmutter, Joel S; Zhang, Jing; Sheppard, Lianne; Checkoway, Harvey

    2012-10-01

    Manganese (Mn), an established neurotoxicant, is a common component of welding fume. The neurological phenotype associated with welding exposures has not been well described. Prior epidemiologic evidence linking occupational welding to parkinsonism is mixed, and remains controversial. This was a cross-sectional and nested case-control study to investigate the prevalence and phenotype of parkinsonism among 811 shipyard and fabrication welders recruited from trade unions. Two reference groups included 59 non-welder trade workers and 118 newly diagnosed, untreated idiopathic PD patients. Study subjects were examined by a movement disorders specialist using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection 3 (UPDRS3). Parkinsonism cases were defined as welders with UPDRS3 score ≥15. Normal was defined as UPDRS3welding. Adjusted prevalence ratios for parkinsonism were calculated in relation to quartiles of welding years. The overall prevalence estimate of parkinsonism was 15.6% in welding exposed workers compared to 0% in the reference group. Among welders, we observed a U-shaped dose-response relation between weighted welding exposure-years and parkinsonism. UPDRS3 scores for most domains were similar between welders and newly diagnosed idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) patients, except for greater frequency of rest tremor and asymmetry in PD patients. This work-site based study among welders demonstrates a high prevalence of parkinsonism compared to nonwelding-exposed workers and a clinical phenotype that overlaps substantially with PD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The neuropharmacology of upper airway motor control in the awake and asleep states: implications for obstructive sleep apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horner Richard L

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common and serious breathing problem that is caused by effects of sleep on pharyngeal muscle tone in individuals with narrow upper airways. There has been increasing focus on delineating the brain mechanisms that modulate pharyngeal muscle activity in the awake and asleep states in order to understand the pathogenesis of obstructive apnoeas and to develop novel neurochemical treatments. Although initial clinical studies have met with only limited success, it is proposed that more rational and realistic approaches may be devised for neurochemical modulation of pharyngeal muscle tone as the relevant neurotransmitters and receptors that are involved in sleep-dependent modulation are identified following basic experiments.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnoea and atopy among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Devender; Mallick, Adeeb; Kumar, Manoj; Tarke, Chandrakant R; Goel, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is associated with significant morbidity. A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) symptoms has been reported in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited studies regarding relationship between atopy and OSA. To study the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients by a home based sleep study and its association with atopy. Patients with asthma and COPD were evaluated for OSA symptoms by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and Berlin questionnaire (BQ). ESS score > or = 9 was considered as high risk for OSA. Patients having high risk for OSA by ESS and BQ were further evaluated for OSA by home based sleep study. Skin prick test against common allergens was done to diagnose atopy in these patients. Among 400 patients (229, 57.25% male and 171, 42.75% female) 328 were asthmatics and 72 were COPD patients. ESS and BQ was positive in 11.25% (45/400) and 18.25% (73/400) patients respectively. ESS was positive in 10.67% (35/328) of asthma and 13.88% (10/72) of COPD patients. BQ was positive in 18.29% (60/328) of asthmatic and 18.05% (13/72) of COPD patients. Skin prick test was positive in 74.16% patients. The maximum positivity was found in asthmatics (139/155, 89.68%) compared to COPD patients (16/155, 10.32%). Skin prick test was done for 40 patients out of 73 of Asthma and COPD patients who were found positive by ESS and BQ. 72.5% patients were found to be atopic. Out of 19 patients in whom home polysomnography was done, 13 patients consented for skin prick test with common aeroallergens and 9 (69.23%) patients were found to be atopic. There is an increased risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients. Atopy could be associated with OSA. The association needs to be proved in a larger study.

  10. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F R; Lentini-Oliveira, D; Machado, M A C; Prado, G F; Prado, L B F; Saconato, H

    2007-04-18

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adenotonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they change the mandible posture forwards and potentially enlarge the upper airway and increase the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effectiveness of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for OSAS in children. A sensitive search was developed for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 3); PubMed (January 1966 to September 2005); EMBASE (1980 to September 2005); Lilacs (1982 to September 2005); BBO-Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (1986 to September 2005); and SciELO (1997 to September 2005). There was no restriction of language or source of information. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiologic function, behavioural problems, drop outs and withdrawals, quality of life, side effects (tolerability), economic evaluation. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. The initial search identified 384 trials

  11. Inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) represents a highly prevalent disease and is recognized as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood, but given the complexity of the disorder, a multifactorial etiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in general and they mediate many of the stages of atheroma formation. Circulating levels of several markers of inflammation have been associated with future cardiovascular risk. These markers include cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and selectins, cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), chemokines such as IL-8, and C-reactive protein (CRP). There is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes also play a central role in the cardiovascular pathophysiology of OSAS. This is supported by cell culture and animal studies identifying a preferential activation of inflammatory pathways by intermittent hypoxia (IH), the hallmark of OSAS. A number of studies have selectively examined the expression of inflammatory factors in OSAS patients with different conclusions. These different findings may have been contributed to by a number of methodological factors such as small subject numbers, inadequately matched study populations, particularly in terms of body mass index (BMI), and inclusion of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. This review will focus on the potential role of various inflammatory markers in OSAS with a critical analysis of the current literature.

  12. Proportional positive airway pressure: a new concept to treat obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, J; Becker, H; Cassel, W; Rostig, S; Peter, J H

    2001-03-01

    Proportional positive airway pressure (PPAP) was designed to optimize airway pressure for the therapy of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In a randomized crossover prospective study, the clinical feasibility of PPAP and its immediate effects on the breathing disorder and sleep in comparison with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was evaluated. Twelve patients requiring CPAP therapy underwent CPAP and PPAP titration in a random order. Obstructive and mixed respiratory events could be completely abolished with both forms of treatment. This efficacy could be achieved at a significantly lower mean mask pressure during PPAP titration (8.45+/-2.42 cmH2O) compared to CPAP (9.96+/-2.7 cmH2O) (p=0.002). The mean minimal arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,O2) (82.8+/-6.5%) on the diagnostic night increased significantly (pPPAP titration. Total sleep time, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased significantly by the same amount during both CPAP and PPAP titration (pPPAP titration night, four patients did not have a preference, and two patients preferred CPAP. The present data show that proportional positive airway pressure is as effective as continuous positive airway pressure in eliminating obstructive events and has the same immediate effect on sleep. The lower average mask pressure during proportional positive airway pressure implies potential advantages compared to continuous positive airway pressure. Proportional positive airway pressure presents a new effective therapeutic approach to obstructive sleep apnoea.

  13. Nurse vs. physician-led care for obstructive sleep apnoea: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fengqiu; Chen, Xiaojun; Wu, Yaoye; Yao, Dianye; Xie, Lihong; Ouyang, Qiuyi; Wang, Ping; Niu, Gang

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-led care for obstructive sleep apnoea compared with physician-led care. The incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea is increasing worldwide. There is a need for cost-effective care models to ease off the pressure on tertiary care centres and divert care to the community. Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched major electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, HMIC, PsycINFO, Health Business Elite and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL) from inception till December 2016 using a structured search strategy for all randomized trials evaluating nurse-led treatment interventions for adults with obstructive sleep apnoea compared with physician-led ones. We screened relevant articles against a predefined inclusion criterion. We applied no search limitations. We assessed the risk of bias as per Cochrane recommendations. We calculated weighted mean difference with 95% confidence intervals for continuous outcomes and used a random-effects model to meta-analyse data. We screened 309 articles and only four studies met our inclusion criteria. All studies used continuous-positive airway pressure as the main treatment strategy with similar compliance rate in both comparison groups. The scores of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the SF-36 questionnaires for vitality, physical function and the SF-36 mental health were all similar between the two groups. There was a significant heterogeneity in all meta-analyses (I 2  > 92%). Nurse-led care for adults with obstructive sleep apnoea is non-inferior to physician-led care. More research is needed to standardize nurse-led interventions and evaluate their long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sexual function in male patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate general and functional aspects of sexuality in male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and compare the results with normative data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 308 male patients (age 30-69) admitted to a sleep...... that although sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in OSA patients than in the general population, it is a complex problem relating more to age, obesity, social factors and comorbidity than to the severity of OSA....

  15. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    Full Text Available Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR.Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3 were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS, mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS, or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection.This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant

  16. Sidestream smoke exposure increases the susceptibility of airway epithelia to adenoviral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Core, Susan B; Kajon, Adriana E; Excoffon, Katherine J D A

    2012-01-01

    Although significant epidemiological evidence indicates that cigarette smoke exposure increases the incidence and severity of viral infection, the molecular mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of the respiratory tract to viral pathogens are unclear. Adenoviruses are non-enveloped DNA viruses and important causative agents of acute respiratory disease. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is the primary receptor for many adenoviruses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke exposure increases epithelial susceptibility to adenovirus infection by increasing the abundance of apical CAR. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (CaLu-3) were used as a model to investigate the effect of sidestream cigarette smoke (SSS), mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS), or control air exposure on the susceptibility of polarized respiratory epithelia to adenoviral infection. Using a Cultex air-liquid interface exposure system, we have discovered novel differences in epithelial susceptibility between SSS and MSS exposures. SSS exposure upregulates an eight-exon isoform of CAR and increases adenoviral entry from the apical surface whilst MSS exposure is similar to control air exposure. Additionally, the level of cellular glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is downregulated by SSS exposure and treatment with a specific GSK3β inhibitor recapitulates the effects of SSS exposure on CAR expression and viral infection. This is the first time that SSS exposure has been shown to directly enhance the susceptibility of a polarized epithelium to infection by a common respiratory viral pathogen. This work provides a novel understanding of the impact of SSS on the burden of respiratory viral infections and may lead to new strategies to alter viral infections. Moreover, since GSK3β inhibitors are under intense clinical investigation as therapeutics for a diverse range of diseases, studies such as these might provide insight to extend the use of clinically relevant therapeutics and

  17. Underdiagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea in Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Carmen; Schaefer, Christian; Kimeu, Irene; Pingel, Simon; Horlbeck, Fritz; Tuleta, Izabela; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

    2015-02-21

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has interdependently been related to the onset and progression of a large portion of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disorders. In due consideration of OSA-mediated endothelial dysfunction, its impact on peripheral artery disease is conceivable, but undefined. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of OSA in a lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) study population. Methods: A total of 91 patients receiving in- and outpatient treatment for LEAD were included in this prospectively conducted trial. In addition to an angiological examination, all patients underwent nocturnal screening for sleep-disordered breathing by use of SOMNOcheck micro® (SC micro) and - depending on the results obtained - polysomnography. Results: Patients were principally late middle-aged (69.3 ± 10.8 years), male (71.4%) and slightly overweight (BMI 26.8 ± 3.9). Overnight screening determined a sleep apnoea prevalence of 78.0%, of which 90.1% exhibited a predominantly obstructive genesis. The mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; events/h) and oxygen desaturation index (events/h) averaged 11.8 ± 13.4 and 8.9 ± 14.2, respectively. The individual AHI categories of non-pathological (<5), mild (5 to <15), moderate (15 to <30) and severe sleep apnoea (≥30) accounted for 22.0, 59.3, 13.2 and 5.5%, respectively. A distributive examination of AHI within LEAD severity groups evinced a significant association (p = 0.047). In cases of at least moderate sleep apnoea (AHI ≥15) polysomnography was performed (n = 17, 18.7% of the whole collective). Correlative analysis revealed a significant correlation between values obtained by SC micro recording and polysomnography, establishing the diagnostic accuracy of the screening results. Conclusions: OSA exhibits an important prevalence of 70.3% in LEAD patients with prior undiagnosed sleep-disordered breathing, indicating major OSA unawareness in this cardiovascular cohort. However, the impact

  18. The development of increased radioresistance of Salmmonella typhimurium by repeated exposure of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Chun, Ki-Jung.

    1989-01-01

    The development of increased radioresistance of Salmonella typhimurium DO1 by repeated exposure of gamma irradiation was studied after combination treatment of outgrowth of survivors with selective enrichment methods by nutrient broth or glucose-NH 4 broth. Original D 10 value on nutrient agar plates was obtained as 0.17 kGy and increased a little after 5 times exposures of gamma irradiation with enrichment by nutrient broth and brilliant green-lactose broth. Subsequent exposure with combination enrichment of brilliant green-lactose broth and selenite-cystine broth developed the radioresistance at higher dose region of survival curves. However, these radioresistance was unstable, and easily go back to original level due to the some condition of enrichment growth and repeated culture incubation. Biochemical characteristics including serological properties were not changed even after 8 times exposure. However, percentages of elongated cells were increased on radioresistant cultures which were developed by repeated exposures. (author)

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common cause of daytime sleepiness, a condition associated with accidents, antisocial behaviour, mood disturbances, cognitive dysfunctions and inefficiency at work. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea in Dar ...

  20. Brief Report: Does Exposure to Violent Video Games Increase Moral Disengagement among Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have repeatedly shown that violent/action video games increase aggressive tendencies. The present study provides preliminary evidence that exposure to these games also affects the process of moral disengagement. High school students (N = 385) were recruited, and the impact of both recency and frequency of their exposure to the…

  1. Assessment of Severe Apnoea through Voice Analysis, Automatic Speech, and Speaker Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Fernández Pozo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of an ongoing collaborative effort between the medical and the signal processing communities to promote research on applying standard Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR techniques for the automatic diagnosis of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. Early detection of severe apnoea cases is important so that patients can receive early treatment. Effective ASR-based detection could dramatically cut medical testing time. Working with a carefully designed speech database of healthy and apnoea subjects, we describe an acoustic search for distinctive apnoea voice characteristics. We also study abnormal nasalization in OSA patients by modelling vowels in nasal and nonnasal phonetic contexts using Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM pattern recognition on speech spectra. Finally, we present experimental findings regarding the discriminative power of GMMs applied to severe apnoea detection. We have achieved an 81% correct classification rate, which is very promising and underpins the interest in this line of inquiry.

  2. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  3. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  4. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  5. Hypertension, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnoea during pregnancy: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, L M; Bullough, A S; Chames, M C; Shelgikar, A V; Armitage, R; Guilleminualt, C; Sullivan, C E; Johnson, T R B; Chervin, R D

    2014-12-01

    To assess the frequency of obstructive sleep apnoea among women with and without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Cohort study. Obstetric clinics at an academic medical centre. Pregnant women with hypertensive disorders (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or pre-eclampsia) and women who were normotensive. Women completed a questionnaire about habitual snoring and underwent overnight ambulatory polysomnography. The presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea. Obstructive sleep apnoea was found among 21 of 51 women with hypertensive disorders (41%), but in only three of 16 women who were normotensive (19%, chi-square test, P=0.005). [Author correction added on 16 June 2014, after first online publication: Results mentioned in the abstract were amended.] Non-snoring women with hypertensive disorders typically had mild obstructive sleep apnoea, but >25% of snoring women with hypertensive disorders had moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Among women with hypertensive disorders, the mean apnoea/hypopnoea index was substantially higher in snorers than in non-snorers (19.9±34.1 versus 3.4±3.1, P=0.013), and the oxyhaemoglobin saturation nadir was significantly lower (86.4±6.6 versus 90.2±3.5, P=0.021). Among women with hypertensive disorders, after stratification by obesity, the pooled relative risk for obstructive sleep apnoea in snoring women with hypertension compared with non-snoring women with hypertension was 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-2.8). Pregnant women with hypertension are at high risk for unrecognised obstructive sleep apnoea. Although longitudinal and intervention studies are urgently needed, given the known relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea and hypertension in the general population, it would seem pertinent that hypertensive pregnant women who snore should be tested for obstructive sleep apnoea, a condition believed to cause or promote hypertension. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Liang [Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ouyang, Weiming [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Division of Monoclonal Antibodies, Office of Biotechnology Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, United States Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States); Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin, Boquan [Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen, Jingyuan, E-mail: jy_chen@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Luo, Wenjing, E-mail: luowenj@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and the Ministry of Education Key Lab of Hazard Assessment and Control in Special Operational Environment, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p < 0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4{sup +}CD8{sup −} and peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8{sup +} population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4{sup +} T cells, Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4{sup +} T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression. -- Highlights: ► Pb exposure impaired CD4{sup +} thymic T cell development. ► Peripheral T lymphocytes were reduced following Pb exposure. ► Pb exposure increases thymic and peripheral Treg cells in rats. ► Tregs played a critical role in Pb-exposure-induced immune suppression.

  7. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Liang; Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng; Ouyang, Weiming; Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao; Jin, Boquan; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p + CD8 − and peripheral CD4 + T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8 + population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4 + T cells, Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4 + T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression. -- Highlights: ► Pb exposure impaired CD4 + thymic T cell development. ► Peripheral T lymphocytes were reduced following Pb exposure. ► Pb exposure increases thymic and peripheral Treg cells in rats. ► Tregs played a critical role in Pb-exposure-induced immune suppression.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnoea and non-restorative sleep induced by the interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Michael; Litterst, Patric

    2015-12-01

    There are only few data about the influence of interfaces on restorative sleep and required CPAP/APAP levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Observations of obstructive apnoeas when using oro-nasal masks with normalisation of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) under nasal masks and of non-restorative sleep under oro-nasal masks in spite of normal RDI led to a registration of patients with such findings. This study is a cohort analysis (June 1, 2006 to April 30, 2014) of patients with OSA using an oro-nasal mask and normalisation of the RDI after changing to a nasal mask and of patients complaining about a non-restorative sleep under an oro-nasal mask despite normal RDI. Sixty-five patients (BMI 32.2 ± 8.1 kg/m(2); 64.4 ± 12.8 years) with OSA (n = 54) and non-restorative sleep with normal RDI (n = 11) under oro-nasal masks were included. In the group of patients with pathologic RDI under oro-nasal masks (n = 54), switching the interface to a nasal mask normalised RDI (31.8 ± 16.3 to 6.0 ± 3.6/h [p < 0.001]) and arousal index (p < 0.001); slow-wave and REM sleep increased (p < 0.05). In the patient group with a pathological RDI under CPAP/APAP therapy (n = 45), the pressure decreased from 9.5 ± 2.2 to 7.3 ± 2.0 cm hPa (p < 0.001), and in the group with normal RDI (n = 11) from 10.1 ± 2.4 to 6.8 ± 1.2 hPa (p < 0.01). The usage of an oro-nasal mask can result in a paradoxical induction of obstructive hypopnoeas or apnoeas. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon. When adapting patients to a PAP therapy, a nasal mask should be preferred even if patients report mouth breathing.

  9. Adolescents' media exposure may increase their cyberbullying behavior: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hamer, Anouk H; Konijn, Elly A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of adolescents' exposure to media portraying antisocial and risk behavior on cyberbullying behavior over time. Previous research established relatively high prevalence of cyberbullying behavior among adolescents, although not much is known about the possible predictors of cyberbullying behavior. This study examines the long-term effects of media exposure herein. Furthermore, we examined whether boys and girls differ in this respect. The long-term effects were tested in a longitudinal design with three waves (N = 1,005; age range, 11-17 years; 49% boys). Measured variables: cyberbullying behavior and exposure to media with antisocial and risk behavior content. Results of mixed-model analyses showed that higher levels of exposure to media with antisocial and risk behavior content significantly contributed to higher initial rates of cyberbullying behavior. Moreover, an increase in exposure to antisocial media content was significantly related to an increase in cyberbullying behavior over time. For both boys and girls, higher exposure to antisocial and risk behavior media content increases cyberbullying behavior over time though more clearly for boys than for girls. This study provided empirical support for the amplifying effect of exposure to antisocial media content on adolescents' cyberbullying behavior over time. Results are discussed in view of adolescents' media use and the larger theoretical framework. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in brain morphology in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, M J; Jackson, M L; Twigg, G L; Ghiassi, R; McRobbie, D W; Quest, R A; Pardoe, H; Pell, G S; Abbott, D F; Rochford, P D; Jackson, G D; Pierce, R J; O'Donoghue, F J; Corfield, D R

    2010-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disease that leads to daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairment. Attempts to investigate changes in brain morphology that may underlie these impairments have led to conflicting conclusions. This study was undertaken to aim to resolve this confusion, and determine whether OSA is associated with changes in brain morphology in a large group of patients with OSA, using improved voxel-based morphometry analysis, an automated unbiased method of detecting local changes in brain structure. 60 patients with OSA (mean apnoea hypopnoea index 55 (95% CI 48 to 62) events/h, 3 women) and 60 non-apnoeic controls (mean apnoea hypopnoea index 4 (95% CI 3 to 5) events/h, 5 women) were studied. Subjects were imaged using T1-weighted 3-D structural MRI (69 subjects at 1.5 T, 51 subjects at 3 T). Differences in grey matter were investigated in the two groups, controlling for age, sex, site and intracranial volume. Dedicated cerebellar analysis was performed on a subset of 108 scans using a spatially unbiased infratentorial template. Patients with OSA had a reduction in grey matter volume in the right middle temporal gyrus compared with non-apnoeic controls (pfalse discovery rate across the entire brain). A reduction in grey matter was also seen within the cerebellum, maximal in the left lobe VIIIb close to XI, extending across the midline into the right lobe. These data show that OSA is associated with focal loss of grey matter that could contribute to cognitive decline. Specifically, lesions in the cerebellum may result in both motor dysfunction and working memory deficits, with downstream negative consequences on tasks such as driving.

  11. [Blood pressure and sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome in workers. STOP-Bang test versus Epworth test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Capdevila-García, L; Bellido-Cambrón, M C; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Lladosa-Marco, S

    OSAHS is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Arterial hypertension is a key risk factor to consider due to its impact on health. Cross-sectional study carried out on Spanish public service workers. The nocturnal apnoea risk using the Epworth and STOP-Bang questionnaires and their influence on the mean values of blood pressure are assessed. The detection of OSAHS using the Epworth test and, particularly with the STOP-Bang shows a significant relationship with the mean values of blood pressure, with differences between both questionnaires. The Epworth and STOP-Bang questionnaires are useful for the initial detection of OSAHS and a higher prevalence of high blood pressure. Both can be used in screening procedures in occupational health. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular disease in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: the role of intermittent hypoxia and inflammation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, J F

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that intermittent hypoxia plays a role in the development of cardiovascular risk in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) through the activation of inflammatory pathways. The development of translational models of intermittent hypoxia has allowed investigation of its role in the activation of inflammatory mechanisms and promotion of cardiovascular disease in OSAS. There are noticeable differences in the response to intermittent hypoxia between body tissues but the hypoxia-sensitive transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB appear to play a key role in mediating the inflammatory and cardiovascular consequences of OSAS. Expanding our understanding of these pathways, the cross-talk between them and the activation of inflammatory mechanisms by intermittent hypoxia in OSAS will provide new avenues of therapeutic opportunity for the disease.

  13. Novel method for detection of Sleep Apnoea using respiration signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristine Carmes; Kempfner, Lykke; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2014-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) studies are considered the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of Sleep Apnoea (SA). Identifying cessations of breathing from long-lasting PSG recordings manually is a labour-intensive and time-consuming task for sleep specialist, associated with inter-scorer variability...... desaturations > 3%, extracted from the thorax and abdomen respiration effort belts, and the oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2), fed to an Elastic Net classifier and validated according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) using the patients' AHI value. The method was applied to 109 patient recordings...

  14. Effect of Maximal Apnoea Easy-Going and Struggle Phases on Subarachnoid Width and Pial Artery Pulsation in Elite Breath-Hold Divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel J Winklewski

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess changes in subarachnoid space width (sas-TQ, the marker of intracranial pressure (ICP, pial artery pulsation (cc-TQ and cardiac contribution to blood pressure (BP, cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations throughout the maximal breath hold in elite apnoea divers. Non-invasive assessment of sas-TQ and cc-TQ became possible due to recently developed method based on infrared radiation, called near-infrared transillumination/backscattering sounding (NIR-T/BSS.The experimental group consisted of seven breath-hold divers (six men. During testing, each participant performed a single maximal end-inspiratory breath hold. Apnoea consisted of the easy-going and struggle phases (characterised by involuntary breathing movements (IBMs. Heart rate (HR was determined using a standard ECG. BP was assessed using the photoplethysmography method. SaO2 was monitored continuously with pulse oximetry. A pneumatic chest belt was used to register thoracic and abdominal movements. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV was estimated by a 2-MHz transcranial Doppler ultrasonic probe. sas-TQ and cc-TQ were measured using NIR-T/BSS. Wavelet transform analysis was performed to assess cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations.Mean BP and CBFV increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and were further augmented by IBMs. cc-TQ increased compared to baseline at the end of the easy phase and remained stable during the IBMs. HR did not change significantly throughout the apnoea, although a trend toward a decrease during the easy phase and recovery during the IBMs was visible. Amplitudes of BP, CBFV and cc-TQ were augmented. sas-TQ and SaO2 decreased at the easy phase of apnoea and further decreased during the IBMs.Apnoea increases intracranial pressure and pial artery pulsation. Pial artery pulsation seems to be stabilised by the IBMs. Cardiac contribution to BP, CBFV and cc-TQ oscillations does not

  15. Prior exposure to THC increases the addictive effects of nicotine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Zanettini, Claudio; Barnes, Chanel; Solinas, Marcelo; Goldberg, Steven R

    2013-06-01

    Although it is more common for drug abuse to progress from tobacco to cannabis, in many cases cannabis use develops before tobacco use. Epidemiological evidence indicates that prior cannabis use increases the likelihood of becoming dependent on tobacco. To determine whether this effect might be due to cannabis exposure per se, in addition to any genetic, social, or environmental factors that might contribute, we extended our series of studies on 'gateway drug' effects in animal models of drug abuse. Rats were exposed to THC, the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, for 3 days (two intraperitoneal injections/day). Then, starting 1 week later, they were allowed to self-administer nicotine intravenously. THC exposure increased the likelihood of acquiring the nicotine self-administration response from 65% in vehicle-exposed rats to 94% in THC-exposed rats. When the price of nicotine was manipulated by increasing the response requirement, THC-exposed rats maintained higher levels of intake than vehicle-exposed rats, indicating that THC exposure increased the value of nicotine reward. These results contrast sharply with our earlier findings that prior THC exposure did not increase the likelihood of rats acquiring either heroin or cocaine self-administration, nor did it increase the reward value of these drugs. The findings obtained here suggest that a history of cannabis exposure might have lasting effects that increase the risk of becoming addicted to nicotine.

  16. Impaired increase of retinal capillary blood flow to flicker light exposure in arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritt, Martin; Harazny, Joanna M; Ott, Christian; Raff, Ulrike; Bauernschubert, Philipp; Lehmann, Marina; Michelson, Georg; Schmieder, Roland E

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that the increase of retinal capillary blood flow (RCF) to flicker light exposure is impaired in subjects with arterial hypertension. In 146 nondiabetic untreated male subjects with (n=50) or without (n=96) arterial hypertension, RCF was measured before and after flicker light exposure noninvasively and in vivo using scanning laser Doppler flowmetry. In addition, in a subgroup of 28 subjects, the change of RCF to flicker light exposure was again assessed during parallel infusion of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was lower in patients with untreated hypertension compared with normotensive subjects when expressed in absolute terms (7.69±54 versus 27.2±44 AU; P adjusted=0.013) or percent changes (2.95±14 versus 8.33±12%; P adjusted=0.023). Systolic (β=-0.216; P=0.023) but not diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.117; P=0.243) or mean arterial pressure (β=-0.178; P=0.073) was negatively related to the percent change of RCF to flicker light exposure, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors. In the subgroup of 28 subjects, the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure was similar at baseline and during parallel infusion of L-NMMA when expressed in absolute terms (20.0±51 versus 22.6±56 AU; P=0.731) or percent changes (7.12±16 versus 8.29±18%; P=0.607). The increase of RCF to flicker light exposure is impaired in arterial hypertension. In the subgroup of the total study cohort, nitric oxide was not a major determinant of the increase of RCF to flicker light exposure.

  17. Asbestos exposure increases the incidence of histologically confirmed usual interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Hoshi, Eishin; Murai, Kazumi; Kanauchi, Tetsu; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Sugita, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that asbestos exposure increases the incidence of macroscopically visible and histologically confirmed usual interstitial pneumonia (histological UIP). We retrospectively examined 1718 cases (1202 males; mean age 66.7 years) who underwent lobectomy for resection of pleuropulmonary tumours. Objective markers for asbestos exposure included: the presence of malignant pleural mesothelioma, the presence of pleural plaques (PPs) and asbestos bodies in the histological specimen. Risk factors for histological UIP were examined. Two separate groups were studied: 183 with asbestos exposure, and 239 with histological UIP. The 183 cases with asbestos exposure had higher rates of positive occupational history and histological UIP (31%) than the remaining 1535. Among the asbestos-exposed group, small numbers of asbestos bodies were found in histological specimens of 21 cases of histological UIP. PPs and asbestos bodies were more frequent in the 239 patients with histological UIP than in the remaining 1479 UIP-negative patients. Multivariate analysis showed that asbestos exposure, especially positivity for asbestos bodies, that does not meet the current criteria for asbestosis increases the risk of histological UIP (P Asbestos exposure causes asbestosis and increases the incidence of histological UIP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Vitamin D levels in middle-aged patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontogeorgis, K; Nena, E; Papanas, N; Zissimopoulos, A; Voulgaris, A; Xanthoudaki, M; Manolopoulos, V; Froudarakis, M; Steiropoulos, P

    2017-05-28

    Vitamin D (Vit D) insufficiency has been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), a disorder associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, has been associated with lowered Vit D levels, but reports are inconclusive. To evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of Vit D status, and anthropometric and sleep characteristics of OSAS patients and to compare those levels between OSAS patients and non-apnoeic controls. Consecutive subjects who had undergone polysomnography and pulmonary function testing were divided into controls (apnoea-hypopnea index, AHI p=0.002) and body mass index (BMI) (35.9±6.9 vs 29.9±6.8 kg/m2, pD levels were lower in OSAS patients (17.8±7.8 vs 23.9±12.4 ng/ml, p=0.019). In OSAS patients, levels of serum 25(OH)D were negatively correlated with sleep stages transitions (r=-0.205, p=0.028), AHI (r=-0.187, p=0.045), oxygen desaturation index (r=-0.234, p=0.011) and percentage of time with oxyhaemoglobin saturation p=0.041). In contrast, they were positively correlated with average oxyhaemoglobin saturation during sleep (r=0.179, p=0.033), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (r=0.207, p=0.037) and oxygen partial pressure (r=0.197, p=0.029). Vit D levels were lower in OSAS patients compared with non-apnoeic controls. Several indices of OSAS severity also correlated with Vit D levels. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Neurobehavioural correlates in older children and adolescents with obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Evan; Healey, Dione; Schaughency, Elizabeth; Dawes, Patrick; Galland, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and poorer neurobehavioural outcomes in school-age children is well established, but the relationship in obese children and adolescents, in whom OSA is more common, is not so well established. We aimed to investigate this relationship in 10-18-year-olds. Thirty-one participants with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 32.3 ± 4.9 enrolled. BMI-for-age cut-offs were used to define obesity. Participants underwent polysomnography and were classified into OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) > 2 per hour) and non-OSA (AHI ≤ 2) groups. Intelligence, memory and learning, academic achievement, behaviour and executive functioning were assessed using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test II (WIAT-II), Behavioural Assessment System for Children 2 and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function, respectively. Forty-eight per cent (15/31) were classified as having OSA, and 52% (16/31) as non-OSA. The obese cohort performed below the average of normative data on several neurobehavioural measures. WIAT-II maths scores were significantly lower (P = 0.034) in the OSA group than in the non-OSA group (means 84.5 vs. 94.6, respectively), losing significance after adjustment for IQ, age and gender. Self-reported school problems were significantly worse in the OSA group before and after multivariate adjustment (P = 0.010, Cohen's d = 1.02). No other significant differences were found. Results suggest that OSA may increase risk for some poorer educational and behavioural outcomes. The findings are reasonably consistent with and add to the evidence base of the few studies that have explored this relationship. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Comparison of Standard and Novel Signal Analysis Approaches to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoife eRoebuck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a disorder characterised by repeated pauses in breathing during sleep, which leads to deoxygenation and voiced chokes at the end of each episode. OSA is associated by daytime sleepiness and an increased risk of serious conditions such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. Between 2-7% of the adult population globally has OSA, but it is estimated that up to 90% of those are undiagnosed and untreated. Diagnosis of OSA requires expensive and cumbersome screening. Audio offers a potential non-contact alternative, particularly with the ubiquity of excellent signal processing on every phone.Previous studies have focused on the classification of snoring and apnoeic chokes. However, such approaches require accurate identification of events. This leads to limited accuracy and small study populations. In this work we propose an alternative approach which uses multiscale entropy (MSE coefficients presented to a classifier to identify disorder in vocal patterns indicative of sleep apnoea. A database of 858 patients was used, the largest reported in this domain. Apnoeic choke, snore, and noise events encoded with speech analysis features were input into a linear classifier. Coefficients of MSE derived from the first 4 hours of each recording were used to train and test a random forest to classify patients as apnoeic or not.Standard speech analysis approaches for event classification achieved an out of sample accuracy (Ac of 76.9% with a sensitivity (Se of 29.2% and a specificity (Sp of 88.7% but high variance. For OSA severity classification, MSE provided an out of sample Ac of 79.9%, Se of 66.0% and Sp = 88.8%. Including demographic information improved the MSE-based classification performance to Ac = 80.5%, Se = 69.2%, Sp = 87.9%. These results indicate that audio recordings could be used in screening for OSA, but are generally under-sensitive.

  1. Sleep disturbance in pre-school children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lisa M; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; O'Driscoll, Denise M; Trinder, John; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2011-10-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing in children is most prevalent in the pre-school years and has been associated with sleep fragmentation and hypoxia. We aimed to compare the sleep and spontaneous arousal characteristics of 3-5-year-old children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with that of non-snoring control children, and to further characterise the arousal responses to obstructive respiratory events. A total of 73 children (48 male) underwent overnight polysomnography: 51 for assessment of snoring who were subsequently diagnosed with OSA (obstructive apnoea hypopnoea index (OAHI)>1 event per h) and 22 control children recruited from the community (OAHI ≤ 1 and no history of snoring). The OSA group had poorer sleep efficiency (ptime in rapid eye movement (REM) (p<0.05), and had significantly fewer spontaneous arousals (p<0.001) compared with controls. One-quarter of the children with OSA had a sleep pressure score above the cut-off point for increased sleep pressure. In children with OSA, 62% of obstructive respiratory events terminated in a cortical arousal and 21% in a sub-cortical arousal. A significantly higher proportion of obstructive respiratory events terminated in a cortical arousal during non-REM (NREM) compared with REM (p<0.001). These findings suggest that in pre-school children OSA has a profound effect on sleep and arousal patterns. Given that these children are at a critical period for brain development, the impact of OSA may have more severe consequences than in older children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-linear increase of vitamin D content in eggs from chicks treated with increasing exposure times of ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Julia; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Hirche, Frank; Baur, Anja C; Mielenz, Norbert; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin D fortified food can help to reduce the prevalence for vitamin D deficiency. Previous data provided evidence that eggs from hens exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light contain large quantities of vitamin D. In the current study, we assessed the efficacy of vitamin D enrichment in eggs upon increasing daily UVB exposure times. We further addressed the question whether extended UVB irradiation affects the skin content of 7-dehydrocholesterol. To this end, 35 hens were assigned to 7 groups of 5 animals each and were exposed to UVB light (76μW/cm(2)) for 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 300min per day, respectively. Eggs from the treatment groups were collected at baseline and after 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, respectively. Skin samples were gained at the end of 4 weeks. Vitamin D metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The contents of vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 in egg yolk raised non-linear in response to increasing daily UVB exposure times. The vitamin D3 content did not reach a clear-cut plateau within the chosen UVB treatment times. A daily UVB exposure time of 300min resulted in vitamin D3 contents of 28.6μg/100g egg yolk dry matter. In contrast to vitamin D3, the 25(OH)D3 content in the egg yolk achieved a maximum upon an UVB irradiation time of 60min/d. The cutaneous 7-dehydrocholesterol contents were not altered in response to the chosen UVB irradiation times. In conclusion, the data show a distinct non-linear dose-response relationship of UVB exposure times on the total vitamin D content in eggs. This article is part of a special issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Can the Palatability of Healthy, Satiety-Promoting Foods Increase with Repeated Exposure during Weight Loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherene O.-B. Anguah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to sugary, fatty, and salty foods often enhances their appeal. However, it is unknown if exposure influences learned palatability of foods typically promoted as part of a healthy diet. We tested whether the palatability of pulse containing foods provided during a weight loss intervention which were particularly high in fiber and low in energy density would increase with repeated exposure. At weeks 0, 3, and 6, participants (n = 42; body mass index (BMI 31.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2 were given a test battery of 28 foods, approximately half which had been provided as part of the intervention, while the remaining half were not foods provided as part of the intervention. In addition, about half of each of the foods (provided as part or not provided as part of the intervention contained pulses. Participants rated the taste, appearance, odor, and texture pleasantness of each food, and an overall flavor pleasantness score was calculated as the mean of these four scores. Linear mixed model analyses showed an exposure type by week interaction effect for taste, texture and overall flavor pleasantness indicating statistically significant increases in ratings of provided foods in taste and texture from weeks 0 to 3 and 0 to 6, and overall flavor from weeks 0 to 6. Repeated exposure to these foods, whether they contained pulses or not, resulted in a ~4% increase in pleasantness ratings. The long-term clinical relevance of this small increase requires further study.

  4. Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D sufficiency in growing pigs fed a diet formulated to exceed requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B M; Ingold, B C; Young, J L; Fensterseifer, S R; Wechsler, P J; Austin, K J; Larson-Meyer, D E

    2017-04-01

    Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D 3 /kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs). Blood for the analysis of 25(OH)D was collected before and after sunlight exposure. Traditionally housed pigs served as controls. After initial sun exposure, blood samples were collected from June pigs daily for 5 d and weekly for 8 wk to determine vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D decay, respectively. Kidney and liver samples were collected from the June pigs at slaughter after sun exposure for analysis of messenger RNA expression of vitamin D binding protein and synthesizing/degrading enzymes. Average daily gain (ADG) was not influenced (P > 0.5) by sunlight exposure. June pigs had fewer days on feed, lower (P = 0.003) ADG and were slaughtered at a lighter (P P D for all pigs. March pigs, obtained from a Midwest producer, had lower (P D than June pigs born on-farm. Initial sunlight exposure increased serum concentration of 25(OH)D in March pigs by 200% and June pigs by 67%. Serum concentration of vitamin D3 was decreased (P D decreased (P D binding protein, vitamin D synthesizing CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP2D25, or degrading enzyme CYP24A1 were not influenced (P ≥ 0.19) by sunlight exposure. Expression of CYP27B1 was decreased (P = 0.04) in the kidney but tended to be increased (P = 0.06) in the liver after sun exposure. These results suggest limited sun exposure can

  5. Monitoring of increased natural occuring radiation exposure; Arbeitsplatzueberwachung bei erhoehter natuerlicher Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guhr, Andreas [ALTRAC Radon-Messtechnik, Berlin (Germany); Leissring, Nick [Bergtechnisches Ingenieurbuero GEOPRAX, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The radiation exposure due to natural occurring sources is a special challenge for the health and safety protection at workplaces. The monitoring of the radon exposure of employees in mines, radon-spa and in water works is regulated by prescription of radiation protection. The relevant compounds of the radiation exposure are the inhalation of radon and radon daughter products; terrestrial irradiation; ingestion of radioactive contaminated materials and the inhalation of contaminated dust. The monitoring of the radiation workers is realized essentially by measurements by radiation safety officer of the performing company, by an external engineering firm as well as by control measurements of experts of local authorities. The experiences in the practice have shown that in the field of operational radiation protection only a combination of personal- and operational dosimetry is suitable to avoid health hazards by work in fields with increased natural occurring radiation exposures.

  6. Exposure to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) visual imagery increases smoking urge and desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; Fridberg, Daniel J; Matthews, Alicia K; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-02-01

    Use and awareness of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) has increased rapidly in recent years, particularly among young adults. As use of ENDS resembles traditional smoking in both hand-to-mouth movements and inhalation and exhalation behaviors, we determined whether exposure to e-cigarette use via video exposure would act as a cue to elicit urge and desire for a combustible cigarette. Young adult smokers (mean age of 26.3 ± 4.1 years) were randomized to view a brief video montage of advertisements depicting either e-cigarette vaping (n = 38) or bottled water drinking (n = 40). Pre- and postcue exposure assessments were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting without other smoking or vaping cues present or behaviors allowed. Primary outcomes included change from pre-exposure baseline in smoking urge (Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges) and desire for a combustible and e-cigarette (visual analogue scales). Results showed that relative to exposure to the bottled water video, exposure to the ENDS video significantly increased smoking urge (p < .001) as well as desire for a regular cigarette (p < .05) and an e-cigarette (p < .001). These findings provide preliminary evidence that passive exposure to video imagery of ENDS use may generalize as a condition cue and evoke urges for a combustible cigarette in young adult smokers. It remains to be determined whether such increases in urge and desire correspond to increases in actual smoking behavior. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l, a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4 from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  8. Pulmonary exposure to particles during pregnancy causes increased neonatal asthma susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedulov, Alexey V; Leme, Adriana; Yang, Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    Maternal immune responses can promote allergy development in offspring, as shown in a model of increased susceptibility to asthma in babies of ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged mother mice. We investigated whether inflammatory responses to air pollution particles (diesel exhaust particles...... exposure to both "inert" TiO(2) and DEP caused increased asthma susceptibility in offspring. We conclude that (1) pregnancy enhances lung inflammatory responses to otherwise relatively innocuous inert particles; and (2) exposures of nonallergic pregnant females to inert or toxic environmental air particles...

  9. Pregnant women models analyzed for RF exposure and temperature increase in 3T RF shimmed birdcages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Manuel; Neufeld, Esra; Samaras, Theodoros; Córcoles, Juan; Robb, Fraser J; Kainz, Wolfgang; Kuster, Niels

    2017-05-01

    MRI is increasingly used to scan pregnant patients. We investigated the effect of 3 Tesla (T) two-port radiofrequency (RF) shimming in anatomical pregnant women models. RF shimming improves B 1 + uniformity, but may at the same time significantly alter the induced current distribution and result in large changes in both the level and location of the absorbed RF energy. In this study, we evaluated the electrothermal exposure of pregnant women in the third, seventh, and ninth month of gestation at various imaging landmarks in RF body coils, including modes with RF shimming. Although RF shimmed configurations may lower the local RF exposure for the mother, they can increase the thermal load on the fetus. In worst-case configurations, whole-body exposure and local peak temperatures-up to 40.8°C-are equal in fetus and mother. Two-port RF shimming can significantly increase the fetal exposure in pregnant women, requiring further research to derive a very robust safety management. For the time being, restriction to the CP mode, which reduces fetal SAR exposure compared with linear-horizontal polarization modes, may be advisable. Results from this study do not support scanning pregnant patients above the normal operating mode. Magn Reson Med 77:2048-2056, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Prenatal alcohol exposure increases postnatal acceptability of nicotine odor and taste in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Mantella

    Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are

  11. Exposure to wood smoke increases arterial stiffness and decreases heart rate variability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unosson, Jon; Blomberg, Anders; Sandström, Thomas; Muala, Ala; Boman, Christoffer; Nyström, Robin; Westerholm, Roger; Mills, Nicholas L; Newby, David E; Langrish, Jeremy P; Bosson, Jenny A

    2013-06-06

    Emissions from biomass combustion are a major source of indoor and outdoor air pollution, and are estimated to cause millions of premature deaths worldwide annually. Whilst adverse respiratory health effects of biomass exposure are well established, less is known about its effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we assessed the effect of exposure to wood smoke on heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability in otherwise healthy persons. Fourteen healthy non-smoking subjects participated in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. Subjects were exposed to dilute wood smoke (mean particle concentration of 314±38 μg/m3) or filtered air for three hours during intermittent exercise. Heart rate, blood pressure, central arterial stiffness and heart rate variability were measured at baseline and for one hour post-exposure. Central arterial stiffness, measured as augmentation index, augmentation pressure and pulse wave velocity, was higher after wood smoke exposure as compared to filtered air (p smoke compared to filtered air. Acute exposure to wood smoke as a model of exposure to biomass combustion is associated with an immediate increase in central arterial stiffness and a simultaneous reduction in heart rate variability. As biomass is used for cooking and heating by a large fraction of the global population and is currently advocated as a sustainable alternative energy source, further studies are required to establish its likely impact on cardiovascular disease. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01488500.

  12. Assessment of obstructive sleep apnoea treatment success or failure after maxillomandibular advancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, M. H. T.; Apperloo, R. C.; Milstein, D. M. J.; de Lange, J.

    2017-01-01

    Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is an alternative therapeutic option that is highly effective for treating obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). MMA provides a solution for OSA patients that have difficulty accepting lifelong treatments with continuous positive airway pressure or mandibular

  13. An audit of the use of an opiate sparing, multimodal analgesic regime in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea undergoing adenotonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea have an increased incidence of respiratory complications following adenotonsillectomy. This may be partly related to an increase in sensitivity to opiates. An audit of such cases undergoing adenotonsillectomy was performed with the following aims: All patients had Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea confirmed preoperatively by Overnight Oximetry Studies. Oximetry data was expressed as the lowest recorded saturation (SpO2 Low %) and number of significant desaturations (see text) per hour (ODI4%). Case notes and oximetry studies were scrutinized for relevant perioperative anaesthetic and analgesic data, risk factors and complications. The overall incidence of major and minor respiratory complications was low (1.6% and 27% respectively). Children who suffered any complication were more likely to be younger (p=0.0078), have a lower SpO2 Low (p=0.004) and higher ODI4% (p=8 may be the best cut off point in predicting complications (AUC=0.78, sensitivity=0.90) but it showed a poor specificity (0.57). Primary/secondary haemorrhage occurred in 0.4%/1.2% respectively and postoperative nausea and vomiting in 4.4%. A low dose opiate-based, multi modal analgesic regime appears to be effective and safe in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing/Obstructive Sleep Apnoea undergoing adenotonsillectomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vision 20/20: Increased image resolution versus reduced radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritman, Erik L.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of methods, currently and potentially, available for significantly reducing x-ray exposure in medical x-ray imaging. It is stimulated by the radiation exposure implications of the growing use of helical scanning, multislice, x-ray computed tomography for screening, such as for coronary artery atherosclerosis and cancer of the colon and lungs. Screening requires high-throughput imaging with high spatial and contrast resolution to meet the need for high sensitivity and specificity of detection and classification of specific imaged features. To achieve this goal beyond what is currently available with x-ray imaging methods requires increased x-ray exposure, which increases the risk of tissue damage and ultimately cancer development. These consequences limit the utility of current x-ray imaging in screening of at-risk subjects who have not yet developed the clinical symptoms of disease. Current methods for reducing x-ray exposure in x-ray imaging, mostly achieved by increasing sensitivity and specificity of the x-ray detection process, may still have potential for an up-to-tenfold decrease. This could be sufficient for doubling the spatial resolution of x-ray CT while maintaining the current x-ray exposure levels. However, a spatial resolution four times what is currently available might be needed to adequately meet the needs for screening. Consequently, for the proposed need to increase spatial resolution, an additional order of magnitude of reduction of x-ray exposure would be needed just to keep the radiation exposure at current levels. This is conceivably achievable if refraction, rather than the currently used attenuation, of x rays is used to generate the images. Existing methods that have potential for imaging the consequences of refracted x ray in a clinical setting are (1) by imaging the edge enhancement that occurs at the interfaces between adjacent tissues of different refractive indices, or (2) by imaging the changes in interference

  15. Obesity and Hospitalization over the Adult Life Course: Does Duration of Exposure Increase Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2007-01-01

    Consistent with a new genre of research on life-course analyses of health-service use, this study explores the consequences of long-term exposure to a risk factor. Drawing from cumulative-disadvantage theory, the study examines whether obesity, especially chronic obesity, increases hospitalization admission and length of stay. Analyses make use of…

  16. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with Increased respiratory morbiditses and susceptibility to Infections Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet Its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known ‘the greater Mexico City area was the pri...

  17. First aid in the case of increased exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Describes first aid measures for persons who have been exposed to increased radiation, especially certain steps to be taken in the case of external exposure of the whole and/or the partial body, in the case of contamination and incorporation. The pamphlet not only includes definition of terms but also a list of regional radiation protection centres. (RW) [de

  18. Non-exposure parenting increases risk of bullying behavior in junior high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surilena Hasan

    2016-05-01

    Non-exposure parenting was the most relevant risk factor of bullying behavior. Low self-esteem increases the risk of bullying behavior. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying prevention and intervention programs that should have a special focus on families of primary high school students.

  19. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, S; Schulz, R; Werner, G S; Kreuzer, H

    1996-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is characterized by recurring upper airway collapse with continual respiratory effort during sleep, causing apnoea, a fall in arterial oxygen saturation, arousal and excessive daytime sleepiness. It is a common disorder, with an estimated prevalence of about 1-5% in the adult population. OSA is related to arterial hypertension, an essential risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Furthermore, a high dietary intake is a common risk factor for OSA as well as for CAD. To investigate the prevalence of OSA in CAD patients. A random sample of 50 patients (aged 61 +/- 6 years, body mass index 26.8 +/- 3.8 kg/m2) diagnosed to have CAD by coronary angiography was investigated prospectively. Respiration and nocturnal oxygen saturation were registered during one night. Snoring and daytime sleepiness were evaluated by a questionnaire. In 25 patients the apnoea index was > 10/h sleep. Excessive daytime sleepiness was exhibited by eight of these patients. Nineteen of the patients with an apnoea index > 10/h participated in a full night polysomnography. The apnoea index was 17.0 +/- 10.9/h and the apnoea-hypopnoea index was 32.4 +/- 16.5/h sleep. The mean nadir oxygen saturation was 87.3 +/- 1.6% and the minimal oxygen saturation was 75.5 +/- 10.6%. For seven patients the apnoea index was > 20/h. CAD patients have a high prevalence of OSA. Since obstructive apnoeas may trigger severe cardiac events such as myocardial ischaemia or ventricular tachycardias in CAD patients, the presence of OSA in these patients should be considered.

  20. Past exposure to hepatitis B: a risk factor for increase in mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinjuvadia, Raxitkumar; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Antaki, Fadi

    2014-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B has been shown to increase mortality, but association of past exposure to hepatitis B and mortality has not been studied well. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of overall and liver-related mortality in individuals with past exposure to hepatitis B. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) and its related public linked mortality files were used for this study. The participants with presence of anti-HBc ± anti-HBs, in absence of hepatitis B surface antigen were considered to have previous exposure to hepatitis B. The overall mortality from past exposure to hepatitis B was assessed in participants without any chronic liver diseases (CLD) and in participants with chronic hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The Cox proportional regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios. A total of 15,650 individuals were included in the analyses. Past exposure to hepatitis B was an independent predictor of increase in overall mortality in individuals without CLD [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.56; P=0.012] and those with ALD (aHR=2.25; 95% CI, 1.20-4.23; P=0.013). It was also an independent predictor of liver-related mortality in ALD cohort (aHR=7.75; 95% CI, 2.56-23.48; Pincrease in overall or liver-related mortality in chronic hepatitis C or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease cohorts. Past exposure to hepatitis B is associated with significant increase in overall mortality among individuals with ALD and those without CLD.

  1. Stress exposure across the life span cumulatively increases depression risk and is moderated by neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Joëls, Marian; Milaneschi, Yuri; Kahn, René S; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-09-01

    Even though traumatic stress is a major risk factor for depression, most people do not develop a depression. The effects of stress may particularly emerge after repeated exposure in vulnerable individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that (1) increased exposure to stress across the life span is associated with an increased depression risk and (2) this effect is the most pronounced in individuals with high levels of neuroticism. We investigated the effect of childhood maltreatment, major life events, daily hassles, and a composite index thereof (cumulative stress index) on depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD) including the possible moderating role of neuroticism in a discovery sample from the general population (N = 563) and an independent replication sample from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N = 2,274). All stress domains were independently associated with depressive symptoms in the discovery sample. In the replication sample, we confirmed these findings for childhood maltreatment and daily hassles but not for major life events with depressive symptoms as outcome. Nevertheless, all stress domains significantly contributed to the presence of MDD in the replication sample. The cumulative stress index was significantly associated with depression in the discovery (β = 1.42, P discovery: β = 0.013, P stress exposure across different stress domains contributes to depressive symptoms and MDD in adulthood. Moreover, we show that increased exposure to stress across the life span has more impact on vulnerable individuals with high levels of trait neuroticism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Is secondhand smoke exposure associated with increased exacerbation severity among children hospitalized for asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Annie L; Shirley, Nils; Ojukwu, Elizabeth; Robinson, Michelle; Torok, Michelle; Wilson, Karen M

    2015-05-01

    To determine the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and length of stay (LOS) and other exacerbation severity indicators in children hospitalized for asthma. We conducted a retrospective chart review at 2 children's hospitals. Patients aged 2 to 18 hospitalized for asthma in 2012 were included. Outcome variables included LOS, PICU, magnesium, and intravenous (IV) steroids. Bivariate analysis determined differences between SHS-exposed and non-SHS-exposed groups. Geometric means were used for LOS to account for skewed distribution. Logistic and zero-truncated negative binomial regression models were used to determine the independent association between SHS exposure and hospitalization severity indicators. A total of 623 patients were included; 41% reported SHS exposure. Mean LOS was 47.5 hours. In the SHS-exposed group, LOS was 50.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.7-54.0) and in the nonexposed group it was 45.8 (95% CI 43.4-48.4) (P = .02). In regression analysis, institution modified the effect of SHS exposure on LOS. At Children's Hospital Colorado, SHS exposure was associated with a 20% increase in LOS (incidence rate ratio 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3). At the Medical University of South Carolina, there was no significant association. SHS-exposed patients were more likely to receive IV steroids (odds ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3) CONCLUSIONS: Among children hospitalized for asthma, we identified a significant association at 1 institution between SHS exposure and LOS and found that IV steroid use was significantly associated with LOS at both institutions. Eliminating SHS exposure among children with asthma is important. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Whole body static magnetic field exposure increases thermal nociceptive threshold in the snail, Helix pomatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, J F; Hernádi, L

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the effect of homogeneous and inhomogeneous static magnetic field (SMF) exposure on the thermal nociceptive threshold of snail in the hot plate test (43 °C). Both homogeneous (hSMF) and inhomogeneous (iSMF) SMF increased the thermo-nociceptive threshold: 40.2%, 29.2%, or 41.7% after an exposure of 20, 30, or 40 min hSMF by p snail. On the other hand, naloxone as an atypical opioid antagonist in an amount of 1 μg/g was found to significantly decrease the thermo-nociceptive threshold (41.9% by p < 0.002), which could be antagonized by hSMF exposure implying that hSMF exerts its antinociceptive effect partly via opioid receptors.

  4. Can you die from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS)?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, G

    2015-02-01

    Studies suggest an independent association between Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and cardiovascular death. The purpose of our study is to examine doctors\\' awareness of this association and to determine whether this correlates with recording of OSAS on death certificates. We contacted the Central Statistics Office (CSO) and obtained relevant mention of OSAS on death certificates. We surveyed doctors on their view of OSAS-related deaths, CSO data from 2008-2011 reveal two deaths with OSAS documented as a direct cause and 52 deaths with OSAS as a contributory cause. Seventy-five doctors\\' surveyed (41%) believe OSAS can be a direct cause of death and 177 (96%) believe OSAS can be an indirect cause of death. Only 22 (12%) had putdown OSAS as a cause of death. OSAS is seldom recorded on death certificates. This is at odds with epidemiological forecasts and contrary to an opinion poll from a selection of doctors.

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Roar in the Snore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinadh Anne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleeping is an important physiological role in our day to day life. A good laugh and a long sleep are the best cures in the doctor′s book. Sleep disorders of the upper airway result from any condition or disease that causes its partial or complete obstruction when a patient assumes a supine position and goes to sleep. Sleep disorders, particularly untreated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA can be associated with motor vehicle accidents, poor work performance in the office or workplace, and also makes a person prone to occupational accidents and reduced quality of life. Comprehensive management of upper airway sleep disorders requires an interdisciplinary approach. A prosthodontist can play a significant role as the team member in the interdisciplinary approach for the management of upper airway sleep disorders. The present article focuses on the history, clinical examination, investigations, and management of OSA.

  6. Co-exposure to ultrafine particulate matter and ozone causes electrocardiogram changes indicative of increased arrhythmia risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have shown a relationship between acute air pollution exposure and increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Due to the inherent complexity of air pollution, recent studies have focused on co-exposures to better understand potential interactions....

  7. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Audiogenic Seizures and Decreases Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Suren B; Eubig, Paul A; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we observed that developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure resulted in an increase in audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in rats. However, the rats were exposed to loud noise in adulthood, and were not tested for AGS until after 1 year of age, either of which could have interacted with early PCB exposure to increase AGS susceptibility. This study assessed susceptibility to AGS in young adult rats following developmental PCB exposure alone (without loud noise exposure) and investigated whether there was a decrease in GABA inhibitory neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus (IC) that could potentially explain this effect. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from 28 days prior to breeding until the pups were weaned at postnatal day 21. One male-female pair from each litter was retained for the AGS study whilst another was retained for Western blot analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAAα1 receptor in the IC, the site in the auditory midbrain where AGS are initiated. There was a significant increase in the number and severity of AGSs in the PCB groups, with females somewhat more affected than males. GAD65 was decreased but there was no change in GAD67 or GABAAα1 in the IC indicating decreased inhibitory regulation in the PCB group. These results confirm that developmental PCB exposure alone is sufficient to increase susceptibility to AGS, and provide the first evidence for a possible mechanism of action at the level of the IC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Chronic exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles increases ischemic-reperfusion injuries in isolated rat hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milivojević, Tamara; Drobne, Damjana; Romih, Tea; Mali, Lilijana Bizjak [University of Ljubljana, Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty (Slovenia); Marin, Irena; Lunder, Mojca; Drevenšek, Gorazd, E-mail: gorazd.drevensek@mf.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine (Slovenia)

    2016-10-15

    The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in numerous products is increasing, although possible negative implications of their long-term consumption are not known yet. Our aim was to evaluate the chronic, 6-week oral exposure to two different concentrations of ZnO NPs on isolated rat hearts exposed to ischemic-reperfusion injury and on small intestine morphology. Wistar rats of both sexes (n = 18) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) 4 mg/kg ZnO NPs, (2) 40 mg/kg ZnO NPs, and (3) control. After 6 weeks of treatment, the hearts were isolated, the left ventricular pressure (LVP), the coronary flow (CF), the duration of arrhythmias and the lactate dehydrogenase release rate (LDH) were measured. A histological investigation of the small intestine was performed. Chronic exposure to ZnO NPs acted cardiotoxic dose-dependently. ZnO NPs in dosage 40 mg/kg maximally decreased LVP (3.3-fold) and CF (2.5-fold) and increased the duration of ventricular tachycardia (all P < 0.01) compared to control, whereas ZnO NPs in dosage 4 mg/kg acted less cardiotoxic. Goblet cells in the small intestine epithelium of rats, treated with 40 mg ZnO NPs/kg, were enlarged, swollen and numerous, the intestinal epithelium width was increased. Unexpectedly, ZnO NPs in both dosages significantly decreased LDH. A 6-week oral exposure to ZnO NPs dose-dependently increased heart injuries and caused irritation of the intestinal mucosa. A prolonged exposure to ZnO NPs might cause functional damage to the heart even with exposures to the recommended daily doses, which should be tested in future studies.

  9. Second language processing shows increased native-like neural responses after months of no exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Finger, Ingrid; Grey, Sarah; Ullman, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Although learning a second language (L2) as an adult is notoriously difficult, research has shown that adults can indeed attain native language-like brain processing and high proficiency levels. However, it is important to then retain what has been attained, even in the absence of continued exposure to the L2--particularly since periods of minimal or no L2 exposure are common. This event-related potential (ERP) study of an artificial language tested performance and neural processing following a substantial period of no exposure. Adults learned to speak and comprehend the artificial language to high proficiency with either explicit, classroom-like, or implicit, immersion-like training, and then underwent several months of no exposure to the language. Surprisingly, proficiency did not decrease during this delay. Instead, it remained unchanged, and there was an increase in native-like neural processing of syntax, as evidenced by several ERP changes--including earlier, more reliable, and more left-lateralized anterior negativities, and more robust P600s, in response to word-order violations. Moreover, both the explicitly and implicitly trained groups showed increased native-like ERP patterns over the delay, indicating that such changes can hold independently of L2 training type. The results demonstrate that substantial periods with no L2 exposure are not necessarily detrimental. Rather, benefits may ensue from such periods of time even when there is no L2 exposure. Interestingly, both before and after the delay the implicitly trained group showed more native-like processing than the explicitly trained group, indicating that type of training also affects the attainment of native-like processing in the brain. Overall, the findings may be largely explained by a combination of forgetting and consolidation in declarative and procedural memory, on which L2 grammar learning appears to depend. The study has a range of implications, and suggests a research program with

  10. Increased tolerance to oil exposure by the cosmopolitan marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause, Kamille Elvstrøm; Dinh, Khuong Van; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2017-01-01

    M resulted in 100% mortality before adulthood in the first generation. At the pyrene concentration of 100 nM, pyrene reduced grazing rate, increased mortality, reduced the size of females and caused lower egg production and hatching success. Importantly, we found strong evidence for increased tolerance....... Copepods were exposed to an oil compound, the PAH pyrene, at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 and 100+ (the saturated pyrene concentration in seawater) nMover two generations and measured survival, sex ratio, size atmaturity, grazing rate and reproductive success. Exposure to the pyrene concentration of 100+ n...... to pyrene exposure in the second generation: the reduction in size atmaturity of females was less pronounced in the second generation and survival, egg production and hatching success were recovered to control levels in the second generation. The increased tolerance of copepods to oil contamination may...

  11. Intermittent hypoxia alters gut microbiota diversity in a mouse model of sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Torres, Marta; Montserrat, Josep M; Sanchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Gozal, David; Poroyko, Valeryi A; Navajas, Daniel; Queipo-Ortuño, Maria I; Farré, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    We assessed whether intermittent hypoxia, which emulates one of the hallmarks of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), leads to altered faecal microbiome in a murine model. In vivo partial pressure of oxygen was measured in colonic faeces during intermittent hypoxia in four anesthetised mice. 10 mice were subjected to a pattern of chronic intermittent hypoxia (20 s at 5% O2 and 40 s at room air for 6 h·day(-1)) for 6 weeks and 10 mice served as normoxic controls. Faecal samples were obtained and microbiome composition was determined by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analysis by Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology. Intermittent hypoxia exposures translated into hypoxia/re-oxygenation patterns in the faeces proximal to the bowel epithelium (diversity (Shannon index, pgut microbiota (ANOSIM analysis of β-diversity, pdiversity are altered as a result of intermittent hypoxia realistically mimicking OSA, suggesting the possibility that physiological interplays between host and gut microbiota could be deregulated in OSA. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  12. Chronic exposure to neonicotinoids increases neuronal vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction in the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Christopher; Pacheco, Joao Goncalves; Sharp, Sheila; Samson, Andrew J.; Bollan, Karen A.; Huang, Jeffrey; Buckland, Stephen T.; Connolly, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    The global decline in the abundance and diversity of insect pollinators could result from habitat loss, disease, and pesticide exposure. The contribution of the neonicotinoid insecticides (e.g., clothianidin and imidacloprid) to this decline is controversial, and key to understanding their risk is whether the astonishingly low levels found in the nectar and pollen of plants is sufficient to deliver neuroactive levels to their site of action: the bee brain. Here we show that bumblebees (Bombus terrestris audax) fed field levels [10 nM, 2.1 ppb (w/w)] of neonicotinoid accumulate between 4 and 10 nM in their brains within 3 days. Acute (minutes) exposure of cultured neurons to 10 nM clothianidin, but not imidacloprid, causes a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent rapid mitochondrial depolarization. However, a chronic (2 days) exposure to 1 nM imidacloprid leads to a receptor-dependent increased sensitivity to a normally innocuous level of acetylcholine, which now also causes rapid mitochondrial depolarization in neurons. Finally, colonies exposed to this level of imidacloprid show deficits in colony growth and nest condition compared with untreated colonies. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the poor navigation and foraging observed in neonicotinoid treated bumblebee colonies.—Moffat, C., Pacheco, J. G., Sharp, S., Samson, A. J., Bollan, K. A., Huang, J., Buckland, S. T., Connolly, C. N. Chronic exposure to neonicotinoids increases neuronal vulnerability to mitochondrial dysfunction in the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris). PMID:25634958

  13. Maladaptation to Acute Metal Exposure in Resurrected Daphnia ambigua Clones after Decades of Increasing Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Mary Alta

    2017-04-01

    Human environmental impacts have driven some of the strongest and fastest phenotypic changes recorded in wild animal populations. Across populations, this variation is often adaptive, because populations evolve fitness advantages in response to human-modified environments. Yet some populations fail to adapt to changing environments. Evidenced by declines in relative fitness, such seemingly maladaptive outcomes are less common but may be more likely in human-modified contexts. Further, our ability to investigate the dynamics of these adaptive and maladaptive responses over time is typically limited in natural systems. I combined resurrection ecology and paleolimnology approaches to examine evolutionary responses of the freshwater zooplankter Daphnia to exposure to heavy metal contamination over the past 50-75 years, using animals hatched from diapausing egg banks. In contrast to the predicted trend of adaptation to metal exposure over time, I observed an increase in sensitivity to both copper and cadmium exposure associated with increasing historic contamination. This potentially maladaptive trend occurred in Daphnia populations in three lakes. Given that the release of toxicants such as heavy metals is widespread and that other researchers have observed local maladaptation to toxicant exposure, it is important to understand the drivers and implications of this pattern.

  14. Exposure to ozone modulates human airway protease/antiprotease balance contributing to increased influenza A infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Kesic

    Full Text Available Exposure to oxidant air pollution is associated with increased respiratory morbidities and susceptibility to infections. Ozone is a commonly encountered oxidant air pollutant, yet its effects on influenza infections in humans are not known. The greater Mexico City area was the primary site for the spring 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic, which also coincided with high levels of environmental ozone. Proteolytic cleavage of the viral membrane protein hemagglutinin (HA is essential for influenza virus infectivity. Recent studies suggest that HA cleavage might be cell-associated and facilitated by the type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2, whose activities are regulated by antiproteases, such as secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI. Based on these observations, we sought to determine how acute exposure to ozone may modulate cellular protease/antiprotease expression and function, and to define their roles in a viral infection. We utilized our in vitro model of differentiated human nasal epithelial cells (NECs to determine the effects of ozone on influenza cleavage, entry, and replication. We show that ozone exposure disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance within the airway liquid. We also determined that functional forms of HAT, TMPRSS2, and SLPI are secreted from human airway epithelium, and acute exposure to ozone inversely alters their expression levels. We also show that addition of antioxidants significantly reduces virus replication through the induction of SLPI. In addition, we determined that ozone-induced cleavage of the viral HA protein is not cell-associated and that secreted endogenous proteases are sufficient to activate HA leading to a significant increase in viral replication. Our data indicate that pre-exposure to ozone disrupts the protease/antiprotease balance found in the human airway, leading to increased influenza susceptibility.

  15. Risks of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J-C; Koo, M; Hwang, J-H

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) using a nationwide claim database in Taiwan. A population-based case-control study. Data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000 of the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Eleven thousand eight hundred and seventeen adult patients diagnosed with PAOD between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2010 and 35 451 controls without PAOD frequency matched by sex, 10-year age interval and year of index date. Obstructive sleep apnoea and a number of comorbidities prior to the index date were assessed and analysed with logistic regression analyses. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that PAOD was significantly associated with OSA (odds ratio, OR = 1.60, P disease or myocardial infarction, chronic kidney disease, hyperurecaemia and obesity, also showed that PAOD was significantly associated with OSA (adjusted OR = 1.37, P = 0.014). However, the association was attenuated when it was further adjusted for hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus (DM). Findings from this nationwide population-based study indicated that PAOD was significantly associated with OSA. Further studies are warranted to determine whether OSA may contribute to the development of PAOD indirectly via increasing the risks of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and/or DM. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Impact of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Circulating Ischaemia-Modified Albumin Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Uygur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS and the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP on circulating ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA concentrations. The study included 97 newly diagnosed OSAS patients and 30 nonapnoeic controls. Blood samples were obtained in the morning after polysomnography. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, 31 patients with moderate-severe OSAS were reassessed for serum IMA concentrations. Significantly higher serum IMA concentrations were measured in the OSAS group than in the control group [0.518±0.091 absorbance units (ABSU, 0.415±0.068 ABSU, P<0.001]. Serum IMA concentrations correlated significantly with the apnoea-hypopnoea index, mean SaO2, desaturation index, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that OSAS increased the serum IMA concentration independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking habit, and cardiovascular disease. After 3 months of treatment with CPAP, OSAS patients had significantly lower serum IMA concentrations (0.555±0.062 ABSU to 0.431±0.063 ABSU, P<0.001. The results showed that OSAS is associated with elevated concentrations of IMA, which can be reversed by effective CPAP treatment.

  17. Craniofacial differences according to AHI scores of children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: cephalometric study in 39 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, Hueseyin; Mahmutyaziciglu, Kamran; Davsancimath, Halit; Guendogdu, Sadi; Altin, Remzi; Kart, Levent; Soeguet, Ayhan; Tomac, Nazan; Cinar, Fikret; Uzun, Lokman

    2004-01-01

    Cephalometry is useful as a screening test for anatomical abnormalities in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). To evaluate comprehensively the cephalo metric features of children with OSAS, with or without adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) severity. The study population consisted of 39 children, aged 4-12 years, with OSAS. Cephalometry was analysed using 11 measurements of the bony structures, their relationships and the size of the airways. Additionally, adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy were graded. Cranial base angles (BaSN and BaSPNS) were found to correlate with increasing levels of AHI scores (P 0.05). The length of the mandibular plane (GnGo) and the minimal posterior airway space (MPAS) were inversely correlated with AHI scores (P<0.001). There was positive correlation between MPAS and GnGo (r=0.740, P<0.001), and negative correlation between MPAS and gonial angle (ArGoGn) (r=-0.541, P<0.001). There was significant correlation between cephalometric data and adenotonsillar hypertrophy concerning BaSN, BaSPNS, ArGoGn, GnGoH, BaN-GnGo, MPAS, GnGO and MPH. (orig.)

  18. Craniofacial differences according to AHI scores of children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: cephalometric study in 39 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Hueseyin; Mahmutyaziciglu, Kamran; Davsancimath, Halit; Guendogdu, Sadi [Department of Radiology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Kozlu, 67600, Zonguldak (Turkey); Altin, Remzi; Kart, Levent [Department of Pulmonology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Soeguet, Ayhan; Tomac, Nazan [Department of Paediatrics, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University (Turkey); Cinar, Fikret; Uzun, Lokman [Department of Otolaryngology, Medical School, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, (Turkey)

    2004-05-01

    Cephalometry is useful as a screening test for anatomical abnormalities in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). To evaluate comprehensively the cephalo metric features of children with OSAS, with or without adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and to elucidate the relationship between cephalometric variables and apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) severity. The study population consisted of 39 children, aged 4-12 years, with OSAS. Cephalometry was analysed using 11 measurements of the bony structures, their relationships and the size of the airways. Additionally, adenoid and tonsillar hypertrophy were graded. Cranial base angles (BaSN and BaSPNS) were found to correlate with increasing levels of AHI scores (P<0.001). Protrusion of the maxilla (SNA) and mandible (SNB) did not correlate with AHI scores (P>0.05). The length of the mandibular plane (GnGo) and the minimal posterior airway space (MPAS) were inversely correlated with AHI scores (P<0.001). There was positive correlation between MPAS and GnGo (r=0.740, P<0.001), and negative correlation between MPAS and gonial angle (ArGoGn) (r=-0.541, P<0.001). There was significant correlation between cephalometric data and adenotonsillar hypertrophy concerning BaSN, BaSPNS, ArGoGn, GnGoH, BaN-GnGo, MPAS, GnGO and MPH. (orig.)

  19. The effectiveness of combined tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzreil, Bakri; Wong, Eugene Hung Chih; Saraiza, Abu Bakar; Raman, Rajagopalan; Amin, Jalaludin

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to a rising rate of obesity. Multiple surgical techniques used to address obstruction at the palatal level have been associated with significant morbidities. Few studies have reported good outcomes of anterior palatoplasty (AP) in mild-to-moderate OSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of combining tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and OSA. All patients with snoring and OSA treated with tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty were analyzed. The primary outcome was reduction of the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) with surgical success criteria; reduction of AHI by ≥50% and AHI ≤10. The secondary outcomes measured were patients' Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and snoring visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Thirty one patients completed the study, where 19% had mild, 42% moderate, and 39% had severe OSA. The mean surgical success rate was 45% at 3 months and 32% at 1-year post-operatively. There was a significant reduction of ESS and VAS at 3 months and 1-year post-operatively (p snoring and OSA in selected groups of patients (mild-to-moderate OSA with mainly retropalatal obstruction). The surgical success was found to reduce with time, and BMI optimization should be emphasized as part of post-operative care.

  20. Moderate alcohol exposure during early brain development increases stimulus-response habits in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Asbestos exposure increases paracellular transport of fibrin degradation products across human airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Peterson, M W

    1994-03-01

    The inflammatory response to asbestos fiber inhalation suggests that the distal respiratory epithelium is an important early target of asbestos-induced injury. We have previously found that asbestos exposure increases the fibrinolytic activity and mannitol permeability of human airway epithelial cell monolayers. Because fibrin degradation products (FDP) are potent inflammatory mediators, we asked whether asbestos fiber exposure would increase the transepithelial flux of FDP into the interstitial space. To stimulate the pericellular environment following fiber deposition, asbestos-exposed epithelial monolayers grown on permeable filters were covered with human plasma containing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled human fibrinogen. After 24 h, nearly twice as much FITC-FDP appeared in the abluminal chamber of asbestos-exposed monolayers compared with unexposed controls. This did not result solely from increased degradation product production because asbestos-exposed epithelium was more permeable at all apical FDP concentrations. The proteins that crossed asbestos-exposed monolayers included biologically relevant high-molecular-weight FDP, as demonstrated by streptavidin blotting of biotin-labeled FDP. We also found that FDP flux was not vectorial, was not saturable, did not involve proteolytic processing of FDP, and did not require active transport. Thus asbestos exposure increases the paracellular flux of intact FDP across human airway epithelium. This represents a novel mechanism whereby fiber-induced epithelial dysfunction may initiate and sustain inflammation in the distal airspace.

  2. Offspring of prenatal IV nicotine exposure exhibit increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Brown Harrod

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with increased substance abuse in offspring. Preclinical research shows that in utero exposure to nicotine, the primary psychoactive compound in tobacco smoke, influences the neurodevelopment of reward systems and alters motivated behavior in offspring. The present study determined if prenatal nicotine (PN exposure altered the sensitivity to the reinforcing and aversive effects of methamphetamine (METH in offspring using a low dose, intravenous (IV exposure method. Pregnant dams were administered nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection or prenatal saline (PS 3×/day on gestational days 8-21, and adult offspring were tested using METH self-administration (experiment 1 or METH-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA; experiment 2 procedures. For METH self-administration, animals were trained to respond for IV METH (0.05 mg/kg/injection; fixed-ratio 3 and they were tested on varying doses the reinforcer (0.0005-1.0 mg/kg/injection. For METH CTA, rats received three saccharin and METH pairings (0, 0.3, or 0.5 mg/kg, sc followed by fourteen daily extinction trials. Experiment 1: PN and PS animals exhibited inverted U-shaped dose-response curves; however, the PN animal’s curve was shifted to the left, suggesting PN animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of METH. Experiment 2: METH CTA was acquired in a dose-dependent manner and the factor of PN exposure was not related to the acquisition or extinction of METH-induced CTA. There were no sex differences in either experiment. These results indicate that adult offspring of IV PN exposure exhibited altered motivation for the reinforcing effects of METH. This suggests that PN exposure, via maternal smoking, will alter the reinforcing effects of METH during later stages of development, and furthermore, will influence substance use vulnerability in adult human offspring.

  3. Early lead exposure increases the leakage of the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier, in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lewis Zhichang; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The cell type blood–brain barrier (BBB) and blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) is entirely different, ie, endothelia in BBB and epithelia in BCB. Nonetheless, both barriers share a common character – the tight junctions (TJ) between adjacent cells. This study investigated the consequence of lead (Pb) exposure on the tightness of BCB. In an in vitro BCB transwell model, using immortalized choroidal epithelial Z310 cells, we found that early exposure to Pb (prior to the formation of tight barrier) at 5 and 10 μM, significantly reduced the tightness of BCB, as evidenced by a 20% reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values (P 20% increase in the paracellular permeability of [14C]sucrose (P < 0.05). Exposure to Pb after the formation of tight barrier, however, did not cause any detectable barrier dysfunction. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses on typical TJ proteins revealed that Pb exposure decreased both the mRNA and protein levels of claudin-1, with the membrane-bound claudin-1 more profoundly affected than cytosolic claudin-1. Pb exposure, however, had no significant effect on ZO1 and occludin. These data suggest that Pb exposure selectively alters the cellular level of claudin-1, which, in turn, reduces the tightness and augments the permeability of tight blood–CSF barrier. The immature barrier appears to be more vulnerable to Pb toxicity than the mature, well-developed, brain barrier, the fact possibly contributing to Pb-induced neurotoxicity among young children. PMID:17439918

  4. Chronic exposure to ozone and nitric acid vapor results in increased levels of rat pulmonary putrescine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu, R.K.; Kikkawa, Yutaka [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Irvine (United States); Mautz, W.J. [Department of Community and Environmental Medicine, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing public concern for the human health effects of exposure to environmental pollutants. Ozone (O{sub 3}) is one of the most reactive components of photochemical air pollution. Despite extensive investigations by many laboratories on the functional, biochemical, and cellular effects of O{sub 3} exposure in humans, animals, and in vitro systems, questions remain concerning the potential adverse effects to human health represented by chronic near-ambient exposure to this environmental pollutant. In the present investigation, the influence of inhalation of O{sub 3} and nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) vapor on polyamine levels was examined in rat lungs. Male F344/N rats were exposed nose-only to 0.15 ppm O{sub 3} and 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} HNO{sub 3} vapor alone and in combination for 4 hours/day, 3 days/week for a total of 40 weeks. At this time the animals were sacrificed and their lungs were examined for polyamine contents. Exposure to O{sub 3} and O{sub 3} plus HNO{sub 3} vapor caused a significant increase in the putrescine content of the lung compared to the air-exposed controls (P < 0.05). The concentrations of pulmonary spermidine and spermine were not significantly increased by exposure to either O{sub 3} or HNO{sub 3} vapor alone or in combination compared to the air-exposed controls. The role of polyamines in repair and anti-inflammatory processes has been discussed. (orig.) (orig.) With 1 fig., 1 tab., 30 refs.

  5. Effects of hyperoxia and hypoxia on the physiological traits responsible for obstructive sleep apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bradley A; Sands, Scott A; Owens, Robert L; White, David P; Genta, Pedro R; Butler, James P; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen therapy is known to reduce loop gain (LG) in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), yet its effects on the other traits responsible for OSA remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed how hyperoxia and hypoxia alter four physiological traits in OSA patients. Eleven OSA subjects underwent a night of polysomnography during which the physiological traits were measured using multiple 3-min ‘drops’ from therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) levels. LG was defined as the ratio of the ventilatory overshoot to the preceding reduction in ventilation. Pharyngeal collapsibility was quantified as the ventilation at CPAP of 0 cmH2O. Upper airway responsiveness was defined as the ratio of the increase in ventilation to the increase in ventilatory drive across the drop. Arousal threshold was estimated as the level of ventilatory drive associated with arousal. On separate nights, subjects were submitted to hyperoxia (n = 9; FiO2 ∼0.5) or hypoxia (n = 10; FiO2 ∼0.15) and the four traits were reassessed. Hyperoxia lowered LG from a median of 3.4 [interquartile range (IQR): 2.6–4.1] to 2.1 (IQR: 1.3–2.5) (P < 0.01), but did not alter the remaining traits. By contrast, hypoxia increased LG [median: 3.3 (IQR: 2.3–4.0) vs. 6.4 (IQR: 4.5–9.7); P < 0.005]. Hypoxia additionally increased the arousal threshold (mean ± s.d. 10.9 ± 2.1 l min−1 vs. 13.3 ± 4.3 l min−1; P < 0.05) and improved pharyngeal collapsibility (mean ± s.d. 3.4 ± 1.4 l min−1 vs. 4.9 ± 1.3 l min−1; P < 0.05), but did not alter upper airway responsiveness (P = 0.7). This study demonstrates that the beneficial effect of hyperoxia on the severity of OSA is primarily based on its ability to reduce LG. The effects of hypoxia described above may explain the disappearance of OSA and the emergence of central sleep apnoea in conditions such as high altitude. PMID:25085887

  6. Contact with domestic dogs increases pathogen exposure in endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie Woodroffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases have contributed to the decline and local extinction of several wildlife species, including African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus. Mitigating such disease threats is challenging, partly because uncertainty about disease dynamics makes it difficult to identify the best management approaches. Serious impacts on susceptible populations most frequently occur when generalist pathogens are maintained within populations of abundant (often domestic "reservoir" hosts, and spill over into less abundant host species. If this is the case, disease control directed at the reservoir host might be most appropriate. However, pathogen transmission within threatened host populations may also be important, and may not be controllable by managing another host species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated interspecific and intraspecific transmission routes, by comparing African wild dogs' exposure to six canine pathogens with behavioural measures of their opportunities for contact with domestic dogs and with other wild dogs. Domestic dog contact was associated with exposure to canine parvovirus, Ehrlichia canis, Neospora caninum and perhaps rabies virus, but not with exposure to canine distemper virus or canine coronavirus. Contact with other wild dogs appeared not to increase the risk of exposure to any of the pathogens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings, combined with other data, suggest that management directed at domestic dogs might help to protect wild dog populations from rabies virus, but not from canine distemper virus. However, further analyses are needed to determine the management approaches--including no intervention--which are most appropriate for each pathogen.

  7. The risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure after controlling for occupational environment status in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07-1.80) and 1.67 (1.13-2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure.

  8. From dust to dose: Effects of forest disturbance on increased inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Pinder, John E.; Breshears, David D.; Eberhart, Craig F.

    2006-01-01

    Ecosystem disturbances that remove vegetation and disturb surface soils are major causes of excessive soil erosion and can result in accelerated transport of soils contaminated with hazardous materials. Accelerated wind erosion in disturbed lands that are contaminated is of particular concern because of potential increased inhalation exposure, yet measurements regarding these relationships are lacking. The importance of this was highlighted when, in May of 2000, the Cerro Grande fire burned over roughly 30% of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), mostly in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest, and through areas with soils containing contaminants, particularly excess depleted and natural uranium. Additionally, post-fire thinning was performed in burned and unburned forests on about 25% of LANL land. The first goal of this study was to assess the potential for increased inhalation dose from uranium contaminated soils via wind-driven resuspension of soil following the Cerro Grande Fire and subsequent forest thinning. This was done through analysis of post-disturbance measurements of uranium air concentrations and their relationships with wind velocity and seasonal vegetation cover. We found a 14% average increase in uranium air concentrations at LANL perimeter locations after the fire, and the greatest air concentrations occurred during the months of April-June when wind velocities are highest, no snow cover, and low vegetation cover. The second goal was to develop a methodology to assess the relative contribution of each disturbance type towards increasing public and worker exposure to these resuspended soils. Measurements of wind-driven dust flux in severely burned, moderately burned, thinned, and unburned/unthinned forest areas were used to assess horizontal dust flux (HDF) in these areas. Using empirically derived relationships between measurements of HDF and respirible dust, coupled with onsite uranium soil concentrations, we estimate relative increases in

  9. Hypothesis: Urbanization and exposure to urban heat islands contribute to increasing prevalence of kidney stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, David S; Hirsch, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Various etiologies may in part explain this observation including increased prevalence of diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, increased dietary protein and salt content, and decreased dietary dairy products. We hypothesize an additional and novel potential contributor to increasing kidney stone prevalence: migration to urban settings, or urbanization, and resultant exposure of the population to the higher temperatures of urban heat islands (UHIs). Both urbanization and exposure to UHIs are worldwide, continuous trends. Because the difference in temperature between rural and urban settings is greater than the increase in temperature caused by global warming, the potential effect of urbanization on stone prevalence may be of greater magnitude. However, demonstration of a convincing link between urbanization and kidney stones is confounded by many variables simultaneously affected by migration to cities, such as changes in occupation, income, and diet. No data have yet been published supporting this proposed association. We explore the plausibility and limitations of this possible etiology of increasing kidney stone prevalence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Increased tobacco exposure in older children and its effect on asthma and ear infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer S; Berkman, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    To examine selected social determinants of children's exposure to household tobacco use and smoking inside the home and to assess the effect of second-hand smoke exposure on asthma and ear infections across children's age groups. A total of 90,961 parents of children aged 0-17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were included in the study. In all, 26.2% of parents reported that anyone in the household used tobacco products. Parents of children aged 6-11 and 12-17 years were 1.97 (adjusted OR; 95% CI, 1.65-2.36) and 2.93 (2.46-3.49) times more likely, respectively, to report that someone smoked inside the house than parents of younger children. Second-hand smoke exposure varied by children's race/ethnicity, and children from more disadvantaged circumstances were more likely to be exposed. For all children, they were more likely to ever have asthma if someone in their household used tobacco. Although young children's likelihood of recurrent ear infections did not increase with household tobacco use, children aged 12-17 were 1.67 (1.02-2.72) times more likely to have recurrent ear infections if someone smoked inside their home. Family members are increasingly likely to smoke indoors as children age, which may increase adolescents' vulnerability to ear infections. Parents and health professionals should monitor second-hand smoke exposure at home and encourage a smoke-free environment. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased fetal cell trafficking in murine lung following complete pregnancy loss from exposure to lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirby L; Tao, Kai; Stroh, Helene; Kallenbach, Lisa; Peter, Inga; Richey, Lauren; Rust, Daniel; Bianchi, Diana W

    2010-03-15

    To determine whether chemically induced miscarriage affects fetomaternal trafficking in a mouse model, we measured the amount of fetal DNA present in various maternal organs by polymerase chain reaction amplification following exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As the frequency of fetal cells and the number of animals with detectable microchimerism following LPS injection were significantly increased, particularly in lung tissue compared to controls, with no signs of an inflammatory response, we conclude that LPS-induced miscarriage results in increased murine fetomaternal cell trafficking, supporting a relationship between fetal loss and the establishment of fetal cell microchimerism. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Is occupational exposure to solvents associated with an increased risk for developing systemic scleroderma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drexler Hans

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study was aimed to investigate in a German collective if there are any hints for an increased occupational or environmental risk to develop systemic sclerosis, especially, focussing on work-related exposure to solvents. Moreover, we tried to evaluate the feasibility of a sampling method addressing support groups. Methods A standardised questionnaire was published in two journals subscribed by members of two different support groups and all members were asked to complete the questionnaire and to return it anonymously. The subjects were not informed on the scientific hypotheses, nor did they know who of them belonged to the case group (scleroderma or to the control group (multiple sclerosis. Results 175 questionnaires could be included in the statistical analysis. As expected, a female predominance was in our collective. In the male subpopulation, the occupational exposure to solvents was higher in the case group than in the control-group (70% versus 45.8%. Based only on the male subgroup, a tendency for an association between occupational exposure to solvents and the risk to develop systemic sclerosis was found. Conclusion According to our experience in this case-control-study exposure misclassification, qualitative or quantitative, was an eminent problem. Within such a setting, it is generally very difficult to establish an exact dose-response relationship due to incomplete, imprecise or missing data concerning duration of exposure, frequency of use and kind of solvent. Additionally, a well-known problem in studies based on self-reported questionnaires is the so-called volunteer bias. Unfortunately, but similar to other studies assessing epidemiologic factors in such a rare disease, our study was of limited power, especially in the subgroups defined by gender.

  13. Short communication: Artificial ultraviolet B light exposure increases vitamin D levels in cow plasma and milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2015-01-01

    tested the ability of a specially designed UVB lamp to enhance the vitamin D-3 content in milk from dairy cows housed indoors. This study included 16 cows divided into 4 groups. Each group was exposed daily to artificial UVB light simulating 1, 2, 3, or 4 h of summer sun at 56 degrees N for 24 d......, and the group with simulated exposure to 2 h of summer sun daily continued to be monitored for 73 d. We found a significant increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25OHD(3)) levels in plasma as well as vitamin D-3 and 25OHD(3) levels in milk after daily exposure for 24 d in all treatment groups. Extending daily...... exposure to artificial UVB light to 73 d did not lead to an increase of vitamin D-3 or 25OHD(3) level in the milk. In conclusion, the change in production facilities for dairy cows providing cows with no access to pasture and sunlight causes a decrease of vitamin D levels in dairy products. This decrease...

  14. Can Exposure to Environmental Chemicals Increase the Risk of Diabetes Type 1 Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Bodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is an autoimmune disease, where destruction of beta-cells causes insulin deficiency. The incidence of T1DM has increased in the last decades and cannot entirely be explained by genetic predisposition. Several environmental factors are suggested to promote T1DM, like early childhood enteroviral infections and nutritional factors, but the evidence is inconclusive. Prenatal and early life exposure to environmental pollutants like phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated compounds, PCBs, dioxins, toxicants, and air pollutants can have negative effects on the developing immune system, resulting in asthma-like symptoms and increased susceptibility to childhood infections. In this review the associations between environmental chemical exposure and T1DM development is summarized. Although information on environmental chemicals as possible triggers for T1DM is sparse, we conclude that it is plausible that environmental chemicals can contribute to T1DM development via impaired pancreatic beta-cell and immune-cell functions and immunomodulation. Several environmental factors and chemicals could act together to trigger T1DM development in genetically susceptible individuals, possibly via hormonal or epigenetic alterations. Further observational T1DM cohort studies and animal exposure experiments are encouraged.

  15. Peri-pubertal high caffeine exposure increases ovarian estradiol production in immature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoojin; Choi, Hyeonhae; Bae, Jaeman; Choi, Yun-Young; Roh, Jaesook

    2017-04-01

    Chronic caffeine consumption exerts a negligible effect on the reproductive organs of normal adult females, but it is not known whether this is also true for children and adolescents. Here, we investigated the effects of high caffeine exposure on sexual maturation and ovarian estradiol production in immature female rats. Immature female SD rats were divided into controls and caffeine groups fed 120 and 180mg/kg/day for 4 or 8 weeks. There was a significant delay in vaginal opening in the caffeine-fed groups. In addition, serum estradiol levels were elevated in the caffeine-fed animals after 2 and 4 weeks of exposure. Estradiol secretion as well as aromatase expression also increased significantly in the ovarian cells in response to caffeine. These results demonstrate that peripubertal exposure to high caffeine increases estradiol production in the ovary; this may disturb the coordinated regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis, thereby interfering with sexual maturation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  17. International experience in addressing combined exposures: Increasing the efficiency of assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meek, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    More efficient methodology for assessing the impact of combined exposures to multiple chemicals has been considered in a project of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Recommendations regarding terminology and the status of development of the framework, its content, review and application are described. Evolving experience in its application is illustrated by example (polybrominated diphenyls) with special emphasis on the critical content of problem formulation, the role of predictive tools in grouping of chemicals for consideration and the importance of explicit delineation of relative uncertainty and sensitivity for tiered assessment. Priorities in increasing the efficiency of risk assessment not only for combined exposures, but more generally based on experience acquired in developing the framework and its application in case studies are identified and recommendations included

  18. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organismsand biomagnifies within food-webs. Graywolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure inwolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 graywolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S).Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals.

  19. Does exposure to flame retardants increase the risk for preterm birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Morgan R; Koo, Hschi-Chi; Getahun, Darios; Menon, Ramkumar

    2015-02-01

    During the past 40 years, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants and nearly all women have some level of exposure. PBDEs have been isolated from amniotic fluid and cord plasma indicating vertical transmission; however, their effects on pregnancy outcome are largely unknown. Therefore, we quantified PBDE-47, the most common congener in maternal plasma samples collected at the time of labor from women who subsequently had term or preterm birth (PTB). Women were then scored based on whether or not they had very low, low, medium, high or very high peripheral plasma concentrations of PBDE-47. Probit regression analysis suggested that women in the PTB group had a greater chance of scoring higher on this scale (Pmaternal exposure to PBDEs might increase the risk for PTB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases hyperventilation in α4-knock-out mice during mild asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraam, Joanne; Cohen, Gary; Drago, John; Frappell, Peter B

    2015-03-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure alters breathing and ventilatory responses to stress through stimulation of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested the hypothesis that α4-containing nAChRs are involved in mediating the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic responses to intermittent mild asphyxia (MA). Using open-flow plethysmography, we measured ventilation (V̇(E)) and rate of O2 consumption ( V̇(O2)) of wild-type (WT) and α4-knock-out (KO) mice, at postnatal (P) days 1-2 and 7-8, with and without prenatal nicotine exposure (6 mg kg(-1) day(-1) beginning on embryonic day 14). Mice were exposed to seven 2 min cycles of mild asphyxia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), each interspersed with 2 min of air. Compared to WT, α4 KO mice had increased air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) at P7-8, but not P1-2. Irrespective of age, genotype had no effect on the hyperventilatory response (increase in V̇(E)/V̇(O2)) to MA. At P1-2, nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) in both genotypes but did not affect the hyperventilatory response to MA. At P7-8 nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) of only α4 KO's but also significantly enhanced V̇(E) during MA (nearly double that of WT; pprenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic interactions and responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS WITH OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNOEA - OVERLAP SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaddadi Sailendra

    2016-09-01

    , nasal airflow, tracheal breath sounds, thoracic wall movements, abdominal movements, transcutaneous oxygen saturation and body position. The sleep data recorded by the computer were manually scored for sleep stages, apnoeas and hypopnoeas. The sleep scoring was done according to R and K classification. In the study of the 36 COPD patients, 6 patients had mild COPD, 22 had moderate COPD and 8 had severe COPD. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS A Significant Correlation (p value <0.05 between Neck Circumference and RDI is found to exist. There is a small, but insignificant positive correlation between BMI and RDI. No Correlation is found to exist between Sleep Efficiency and RDI. A significant negative correlation (p value <0.05 is found to exist between PO2 and RDI in patients with Severe COPD. None of the other parameters have any significant correlation with RDI. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Our study which consisted of COPD in different stages of severity showed the occurrence of overlap syndrome is 13.88%. We found that neck circumference per se is responsible for the increased AHI in COPD patients (r=0.381, p<0.05. 3 patients from Mild COPD and 2 patients from Moderate COPD had OSA (overlap syndrome. None of the Severe COPD patients had OSA. Pulmonary functions did not predict the occurrence of obstructive sleep apnoea in COPD and only Neck circumference per se contributes to the raised AHI in COPD patients.

  2. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: can our identification of surgical candidates be evidence-based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabla, L; Duffin, J; Flood, L; Blackmore, K

    2018-02-14

    Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea is a common clinical condition managed by most ENT clinicians. However, despite the plethora of publications on the subject, there is wide variability, in the literature and in practice, on key aspects such as diagnostic criteria, the impact of co-morbidities and the indications for surgical correction. A systematic review is presented, addressing four key questions from the available literature: (1) what is the evidence base for any definition of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; (2) does it cause serious systemic illness?; (3) what co-morbidities influence the severity of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; and (4) is there a medical answer? There is a considerable lack of evidence regarding most of these fundamental questions. Notably, screening measures show low specificity and can be insensitive to mild obstructive sleep apnoea. There is a surprising lack of clarity in the definition (let alone estimate of severity) of sleep-disordered breathing, relying on what may be arbitrary test thresholds. Areas of potential research might include investigation of the mechanisms through which obstructive sleep apnoea causes co-morbidities, whether neurocognitive, behavioural, metabolic or cardiovascular, and the role of non-surgical management.

  4. High prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C A; Adam, L; Weisser-Thomas, J; Pingel, S; Vogel, G; Klarmann-Schulz, U; Nickenig, G; Pizarro, C; Skowasch, D

    2015-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) merits increasing attention as cardiovascular risk factor. Whereas carotid and coronary artery disease have been associated with OSA, occurrence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in OSA remains undefined. We screened 100 patients with suspected OSA for PAD. After polysomnography, each patient underwent standardized angiological testing including ankle-brachial index (ABI), central pulse wave velocity, pulse wave index and duplex sonography. Among total study population, PAD prevalence accounted for 88%, of those 68% had asymptomatic plaques and 20% were symptomatic Fontaine ≥ IIa. In confirmed OSA, prevalence raised up to 98%. Except for smoking habits, distribution of established risk factors did not differ between OSA groups (patients without, mild, intermediate and severe OSA). Presence of plaque, Fontaine PAD stages and intermittent claudication exhibited significant gain with increasing AHI. A logistic regression model revealed that age (OR = 1.199, 95% CI [1.066; 1.348]) and the logarithmically transformed AHI (OR = 5.426, 95% CI [1.068; 27.567]) had the strongest influence on plaque presence. Central pulse wave velocity as marker of arterial stiffness was positively correlated with AHI. OSA is associated with a high prevalence of PAD. This implies substantial diseasés under-recognition and a presumable atherogenic role of OSA in the pathogenesis of PAD. However, vasoprotective impact of OSA treatment remains to be determined.

  5. Diet and exercise in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Papandreou, Christopher; Patil, Susheel P.; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is accepted that OSA and obesity commonly coexist. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends dietary-induced weight loss and exercise as lifestyle treatment options for OSA. However, most clinical trials upon which this recommendation is based have focused on establishing the effectiveness of calorie-restricted, often low-fat diets for improving OSA severity, whereas less attention has been given to the means through which weight loss is achieved (e.g. altered dietary quality) or whether diet or exercise mediates the associations between reduced weight, improved OSA severity and the CVD substrate. The current evidence suggests that the benefits of a low-carbohydrate or Mediterranean diet in overweight and obese individuals go beyond the recognised benefits of weight reduction. In addition, exercise has an independent protective effect on vascular health, which may counter the increased oxidative stress, inflammation and sympathetic activation that occur in OSA patients. This review aims to expand our understanding of the effects of diet and exercise on OSA and associated CVD complications, and sets the stage for continued research designed to explore optimal lifestyle strategies for reducing the CVD burden in OSA patients. PMID:28659501

  6. Diet and exercise in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A; Papandreou, Christopher; Patil, Susheel P; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-06-30

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. It is accepted that OSA and obesity commonly coexist. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends dietary-induced weight loss and exercise as lifestyle treatment options for OSA. However, most clinical trials upon which this recommendation is based have focused on establishing the effectiveness of calorie-restricted, often low-fat diets for improving OSA severity, whereas less attention has been given to the means through which weight loss is achieved ( e.g. altered dietary quality) or whether diet or exercise mediates the associations between reduced weight, improved OSA severity and the CVD substrate. The current evidence suggests that the benefits of a low-carbohydrate or Mediterranean diet in overweight and obese individuals go beyond the recognised benefits of weight reduction. In addition, exercise has an independent protective effect on vascular health, which may counter the increased oxidative stress, inflammation and sympathetic activation that occur in OSA patients. This review aims to expand our understanding of the effects of diet and exercise on OSA and associated CVD complications, and sets the stage for continued research designed to explore optimal lifestyle strategies for reducing the CVD burden in OSA patients. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  7. Diet and exercise in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiovascular disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon A. Dobrosielski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD morbidity and mortality. It is accepted that OSA and obesity commonly coexist. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends dietary-induced weight loss and exercise as lifestyle treatment options for OSA. However, most clinical trials upon which this recommendation is based have focused on establishing the effectiveness of calorie-restricted, often low-fat diets for improving OSA severity, whereas less attention has been given to the means through which weight loss is achieved (e.g. altered dietary quality or whether diet or exercise mediates the associations between reduced weight, improved OSA severity and the CVD substrate. The current evidence suggests that the benefits of a low-carbohydrate or Mediterranean diet in overweight and obese individuals go beyond the recognised benefits of weight reduction. In addition, exercise has an independent protective effect on vascular health, which may counter the increased oxidative stress, inflammation and sympathetic activation that occur in OSA patients. This review aims to expand our understanding of the effects of diet and exercise on OSA and associated CVD complications, and sets the stage for continued research designed to explore optimal lifestyle strategies for reducing the CVD burden in OSA patients.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adults: peri-operative considerations: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesslein, Martin; Chung, Frances

    2018-04-01

    : Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common breathing disorder of sleep with a prevalence increasing in parallel with the worldwide rise in obesity. Alterations in sleep duration and architecture, hypersomnolence, abnormal gas exchange and also associated comorbidities may all feature in affected patients.The peri-operative period poses a special challenge for surgical patients with OSA who are often undiagnosed, and are at an increased risk for complications including pulmonary and cardiovascular, during that time. In order to ensure the best peri-operative management, anaesthetists caring for these patients should have a thorough understanding of the disorder, and be aware of the individual's peri-operative risk constellation, which depends on the severity and phenotype of OSA, the invasiveness of the surgical procedure, anaesthesia and also the requirement for postoperative opioids.The objective of this review is to educate clinicians in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnosis of OSA in adults and also to highlight specific tasks in the preoperative assessment, namely to select a suitable intra-operative anaesthesia regimen, and manage the extent and duration of postoperative care to facilitate the best peri-operative outcome.

  9. Combined exposure to anti-androgens causes markedly increased frequencies of hypospadias in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, M.; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2008-01-01

    of several anti-androgenic chemicals. In a mixture (MIX) study with three androgen receptor antagonists, vinclozolin, flutamide and procymidone, rats were gavaged during gestation and lactation with several doses of a MIX of the three chemicals or the chemicals alone. External malformations of the male...... reproductive organs were assessed on PND 47 using a score from 0 to 3 (normal to marked) for hypospadias. Markedly increased frequencies were observed after exposure to a MIX of the three chemicals compared to administration of the three chemicals alone. Anogenital distance at PND 1, nipple retention at PND 13...

  10. Prolonged daily light exposure increases body fat mass through attenuation of brown adipose tissue activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sander; van den Berg, Rosa; Ramkisoensing, Ashna; Boon, Mariëtte R; Kuipers, Eline N; Loef, Marieke; Zonneveld, Tom C M; Lucassen, Eliane A; Sips, Hetty C M; Chatzispyrou, Iliana A; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Meijer, Johanna H; Coomans, Claudia P; Biermasz, Nienke R; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2015-05-26

    Disruption of circadian rhythmicity is associated with obesity and related disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Specifically, prolonged artificial light exposure associates with obesity in humans, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we report that increasing the daily hours of light exposure increases body adiposity through attenuation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, a major contributor of energy expenditure. Mice exposed to a prolonged day length of 16- and 24-h light, compared with regular 12-h light, showed increased adiposity without affecting food intake or locomotor activity. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that prolonged day length decreases sympathetic input into BAT and reduces β3-adrenergic intracellular signaling. Concomitantly, prolonging day length decreased the uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, as well as of glucose from plasma selectively by BAT. We conclude that impaired BAT activity is an important mediator in the association between disturbed circadian rhythm and adiposity, and anticipate that activation of BAT may overcome the adverse metabolic consequences of disturbed circadian rhythmicity.

  11. Exposure to seawater increases intestinal motility in euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijs, Jeroen; Hennig, Grant W; Gräns, Albin; Dekens, Esmée; Axelsson, Michael; Olsson, Catharina

    2017-07-01

    Upon exposure to seawater, euryhaline teleosts need to imbibe and desalinate seawater to allow for intestinal ion and water absorption, as this is essential for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Despite the potential benefits of increased mixing and transport of imbibed water for increasing the efficiency of absorptive processes, the effect of water salinity on intestinal motility in teleosts remains unexplored. By qualitatively and quantitatively describing in vivo intestinal motility of euryhaline rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ), this study demonstrates that, in freshwater, the most common motility pattern consisted of clusters of rhythmic, posteriorly propagating contractions that lasted ∼1-2 min followed by a period of quiescence lasting ∼4-5 min. This pattern closely resembles mammalian migrating motor complexes (MMCs). Following a transition to seawater, imbibed seawater resulted in a significant distension of the intestine and the frequency of MMCs increased twofold to threefold with a concomitant reduction in the periods of quiescence. The increased frequency of MMCs was also accompanied by ripple-type contractions occurring every 12-60 s. These findings demonstrate that intestinal contractile activity of euryhaline teleosts is dramatically increased upon exposure to seawater, which is likely part of the overall response for maintaining osmotic homeostasis as increased drinking and mechanical perturbation of fluids is necessary to optimise intestinal ion and water absorption. Finally, the temporal response of intestinal motility in rainbow trout transitioning from freshwater to seawater coincides with previously documented physiological modifications associated with osmoregulation and may provide further insight into the underlying reasons shaping the migration patterns of salmonids. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Investigations in paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: do we need them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Helen

    2003-12-01

    Ninety percent of normal children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) improve, or are cured, with adenotonsillectomy. However, 10% of apparently normal children show no improvement following this operation and it has a very poor outcome in Down's syndrome, where only about one in six children improve. Adenotonsillectomy is also rarely curative in children with cerebral palsy or craniofacial syndromes. In these children investigations of the site and severity of their obstruction is necessary. Taking a detailed history and asking the parents to fill in a questionnaire for data collection will identify most children with OSA. Pulse oxymetry has some limitations but is a good screening tool. It does not provide enough information for the management of children with complex upper airway obstruction who are likely to have on going problems with OSA throughout their childhood despite intervention. For these children formal sleep studies are needed. Full polysomnography is the gold standard investigation to ascertain the severity of OSA. To ascertain the site of upper airway obstruction during sleep, sleep nasendoscopy has been found to be an excellent tool. This is performed under a light general anaesthetic in main theatres and is demonstrated using video footage in the presentation. This is a new classification to document the site of airway obstruction in paediatric OSA. A micro-layryngobronchoscopy is also required in any child who has daytime noisy breathing, a previous history of cardiac malformation or Down's syndrome, in whom a more distal site of airway obstruction may be present.

  13. Robust classification of neonatal apnoea-related desaturations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monasterio, Violeta; Burgess, Fred; Clifford, Gari D

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory signals monitored in the neonatal intensive care units are usually ignored due to the high prevalence of noise and false alarms (FA). Apneic events are generally therefore indicated by a pulse oximeter alarm reacting to the subsequent desaturation. However, the high FA rate in the photoplethysmogram may desensitize staff, reducing the reaction speed. The main reason for the high FA rates of critical care monitors is the unimodal analysis behaviour. In this work, we propose a multimodal analysis framework to reduce the FA rate in neonatal apnoea monitoring. Information about oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate and signal quality was extracted from electrocardiogram, impedance pneumogram and photoplethysmographic signals for a total of 20 features in the 5 min interval before a desaturation event. 1616 desaturation events from 27 neonatal admissions were annotated by two independent reviewers as true (physiologically relevant) or false (noise-related). Patients were divided into two independent groups for training and validation, and a support vector machine was trained to classify the events as true or false. The best classification performance was achieved on a combination of 13 features with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100% in the training set, and a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 91% and an accuracy of 90% in the validation set. (paper)

  14. Exposure to radiologic contrast media and an increased risk of treated end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Coresh, Josef; Klag, Michael J; Whelton, Paul K; Perneger, Thomas V

    2003-12-01

    Radiologic contrast media can cause acute renal failure, but whether their repeated use is associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unknown. We compared 716 incident case subjects of treated ESRD with 361 control subjects, frequency matched on age, drawn from the general population (age, 20-65 years). Participants were interviewed by telephone regarding their previous exposure (before initiation of dialysis for case subjects and the study interview for control subject) to various imaging procedures. As expected, the case subjects reported having more imaging procedures of the kidneys than did control subjects. Excluding persons who had been subjected to examinations of their kidney from the analysis and adjusting for ultrasound examinations and several possible confounders, persons who had a history of one [odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0, 4.0], 2 or 3 (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2,5.9), or 4 or more (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.0, 12.5) radiocontrast examinations were at higher risk of treated ESRD than persons who reported not having had such procedures. Ultrasound examinations and a history of barium enema were not associated with an increased risk of treated ESRD. In the current study, a graded association was present between increasing exposure to radiologic contrast media and higher risk of treated ESRD. Whether exposure to contrast media accelerates progression to ESRD or is merely a noncausal accompaniment to multiple disease processes occurring concurrently cannot be determined from our observational data. However, if these results are confirmed in future prospective studies, they will have important clinical implications.

  15. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Riha, R L

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the community (up to 20%). A subset of these patients has concurrent symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness attributable to their nocturnal breathing disorder and is classified as having obstructive sleep....... In moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure has been shown to be effective. Questions remain as to how to screen patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Should time-consuming diagnostic procedures with high sensitivity and specificity...... apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (4-5% of the middle-aged population). There is strong evidence for an association of sleep apnoea with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, as well as adverse public health consequences. Treatment and diagnosis have remained largely unchanged over the past 25 yrs...

  16. Radiation protection at workplaces with increased natural radiation exposure in Greece: recording, monitoring and protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potiriadis, C.; Koukoliou, V.

    2002-01-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the regulatory, advisory and competent authority on radiation protection matters. It is the authority responsible for the introduction of Radiation Protection regulations and monitoring of their implementation. In 1997, within the frame of its responsibilities the Board of the GAEC appointed a task group of experts to revise and bring the present Radiation Protection Regulations into line with the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) 96/29/Euratom Directive and the 97/43/Euratom Directive (on health protection of individuals against the dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure). Concerning the Title 7. of the new European BSS Directive, which refers to the Radiation Protection at work places with increased levels of natural radiation exposure, the Radiation Protection Regulations provides that the authority responsible for recording, monitoring and introducing protection measures at these places is the GAEC. Practices where effective doses to the workers due to increased natural radiation levels, may exceed 1mSv/y, have to be specified and authorised by the GAEC. The identification procedure is ongoing

  17. The Management of Co-Morbidities in Patients with Heart Failure – Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Stewart Coats

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF patients are older and frequently present with multiple co-morbidities. Co- morbidities worsen patient symptoms and may contribute to the progression of heart failure, increase mortality or limit the therapeutic response to treatment. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA affects 2–4% of the adult population world-wide and is associated with similar risk factors to HF, meaning it is a frequent finding in HF patients, including HFrEF, HFmrEF and HFpEF. OSA has consistently been shown to be associated with hypertension, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, and stroke. A thorough understanding of the diagnosis and treatment options of OSA is of paramount importance to the practising HF clinician. Patients may present to the HF specialist having been diagnosed by a formal sleep study or may be suspected of OSA because of symptoms of snoring, reports of obstructed breathing by the sleep partner or day-time sleepiness. The mainstay of treatment for OSA is a positive airway pressure mask which can be used in mild moderate and severe OSA. The need for therapy should be discussed with the patient and if the AHI is above 15/ hr then treatment is indicated to reduce this to below 15. This is a consensus recommendation and no adequately powered clinical trials have shown this improves either mortality or the risk of disease progression. Other options are discussed

  18. Free-choice worksheets increase students' exposure to curriculum during museum visits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss; Smart, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    -choice exploration of curricular topics during the museum visit? In the present study, a theoretical framework was constructed to inform the design of worksheets as free-choice learning devices. This framework was used to analyze the design of an existing museum worksheet. Subsequently, curriculum......-related conversations among school groups visiting a museum were monitored in groups supplied with the worksheet and in control groups without. Overall, the worksheet complied well with design criteria synthesized from the free-choice learning literature. Furthermore, the use of the worksheet increased the number...... and diversity of curriculum-related conversations among school groups during the visit. This study documents that the use of carefully designed worksheets may increase students’ exposure to curriculum during a museum visit, and thus may help build better bridges between teacher needs and museum free...

  19. Increasing the understanding of chemical concepts: The effectiveness of multiple exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bius, Janet H.

    Chemistry is difficult because it has multilevels of knowledge with each level presenting challenges in vocabulary, abstract thinking, and symbolic language. Students have to be able to transfer between levels to understand the concepts and the theoretical models of chemistry. The cognitive theories of constructivism and cognitive-load theory are used to explain the difficulties novice learners have with the subject of chemistry and methods to increase success for students. The relationship between external representations, misconceptions and topics on the success of students are addressed. If students do not know the formalisms associated with chemical diagrams and graphs, the representations will decrease student success. Misconceptions can be formed when new information is interpreted based on pre-existing knowledge that is faulty. Topics with large amount of interacting elements that must be processed simultaneously are considered difficult to understand. New variables were created to measure the number of times a student is exposed to a chemical concept. Each variable was coded according to topic and learning environment, which are the lecture and laboratory components of the course, homework assignments and textbook examples. The exposure variables are used to measure the success rate of students on similar exam questions. Question difficulty scales were adapted for this project from those found in the chemical education literature. The exposure variables were tested on each level of the difficulty scales to determine their effect at decreasing the cognitive demand of these questions. The subjects of this study were freshmen science majors at a large Midwest university. The effects of the difficulty scales and exposure variables were measured for those students whose exam scores were in the upper one-fourth percentile, for students whose test scores were in the middle one-half percentile, and the lower one-fourth percentile are those students that scored the

  20. Recurrent exposure to subclinical lipopolysaccharide increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbur Y W Lew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating subclinical lipopolysaccharide (LPS occurs in health and disease. Ingesting high fatty meals increases LPS that cause metabolic endotoxemia. Subclinical LPS in periodontal disease may impair endothelial function. The heart may be targeted as cardiac cells express TLR4, the LPS receptor. It was hypothesized that recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and causes cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were injected with intraperitoneal saline (control, low dose LPS (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, or moderate dose LPS (10 or 20 mg/kg, once a week for 3 months. Left ventricular (LV function (echocardiography, hemodynamics (tail cuff pressure and electrocardiograms (telemetry were measured. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by picrosirius red staining and LV expression of fibrosis related genes (QRT-PCR. Adult cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and exposed to LPS. RESULTS: LPS injections transiently increased heart rate and blood pressure (<6 hours and mildly decreased LV function with full recovery by 24 hours. Mice tolerated weekly LPS for 2-3 months with no change in activity, appearance, appetite, weight, blood pressure, LV function, oximetry, or blood chemistries. Mortality increased after 60-90 days with moderate, but not low dose LPS. Arrhythmias occurred a few hours before death. LV collagen fraction area increased dose-dependently from 3.0±0.5% (SEM in the saline control group, to 5.6±0.5% with low dose LPS and 9.7±0.9% with moderate dose LPS (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS, and each LPS dose vs control. LPS increased LV expression of collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, periostin and IL-6 (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS and vs control. LPS increased α-SMA immunostaining of myofibroblasts. LPS dose-dependently increased IL-6 in isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis.

  1. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were...... for potential confounders and effect modifiers. For the first time increased bulky DNA adducts and MN in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution are found, demonstrating that these transplacental environmental exposures induce DNA damage in newborns. Given that increased DNA damage...... umbilical cords, concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section. Modeled residential traffic density, a proxy measure of traffic-related air pollution exposures, was validated by indoor levels of nitrogen dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 42 non-smoking homes. DNA adduct...

  2. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage attributable to cooking-oil fumes exposure among cooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuebin; Cheng, Jinquan; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zhang, Renli; Zhang, Zhunzhen; Shuai, Zhihong; Wu, Tangchun

    2009-07-01

    Previous investigations have indicated that cooks are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from cooking-oil fumes. However, Emission of PAH and their carcinogenic potencies from cooking oil fumes sources have not been investigated among cooks. To investigate the urinary excretion of a marker for oxidative DNA damage, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in different groups of cooks and different exposure groups, and to study the association between 8-OHdG and 1-hydroxypyrene(1-OHP), a biological marker for PAH exposure. Urine samples were collected from different groups of cooks (n = 86) and from unexposed controls (n = 36); all were male with similar age and smoking habits. The health status, occupational history, smoking, and alcohol consumption 24 h prior to sampling was estimated from questionnaires. The urine samples were frozen for later analyses of 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels by high-performance liquid chromatography. Excretion in urine of 8-OHdG was similar for controls (mean 1.2micromol/mol creatinine, n = 36), and for those who had been in the kitchen with an exhaust-hood operating (mean 1.5micromol/mol creatinine, n = 45). Cooks exposed to cooking-oil fumes without exhaust-hood operation had significantly increased excretion of 8-OHdG (mean 2.3micromol/mol creatinine, n = 18), compared with controls. The urinary levels of ln 1-OHP and ln 8-OHdG were still significantly correlated in a multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that exposure to PAH or possibly other compounds in cooking-oil fumes may cause oxidative DNA damage.

  3. Polyplex exposure inhibits cell cycle, increases inflammatory response, and can cause protein expression without cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Rebecca L; Erickson, Blake; Vaidyanathan, Sriram; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta F; Baker, James R; Orr, Bradford G; Banaszak Holl, Mark M

    2013-04-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between cell division and protein expression when using commercial poly(ethylenimine) (PEI)-based polyplexes. The membrane dye PKH26 was used to assess cell division, and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) was used to monitor protein expression. When analyzed at the whole population level, a greater number of cells divided than expressed protein, regardless of the level of protein expression observed, giving apparent consistency with the hypothesis that protein expression requires cells to pass through mitosis in order for the transgene to overcome the nuclear membrane. However, when the polyplex-exposed population was evaluated for the amount of division in the protein-expressing subpopulation, it was observed that substantial amounts of expression had occurred in the absence of division. Indeed, in HeLa S3 cells, this represented the majority of expressing cells. Of interest, the doubling time for both cell lines was slowed by ~2-fold upon exposure to polyplexes. This change was not altered by the origin of the plasmid DNA (pDNA) transgene promoter (cytomegalovirus (CMV) or elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α)). Gene expression arrays in polyplex-exposed HeLa S3 cells showed upregulation of cell cycle arrest genes and downregulation of genes related to mitosis. Chemokine, interleukin, and toll-like receptor genes were also upregulated, suggesting activation of proinflammatory pathways. In summary, we find evidence that a cell division-independent expression pathway exists, and that polyplex exposure slows cell division and increases inflammatory response.

  4. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Steven D; Van Slyke, Greta A; Palumbo, Michael J; Kramer, Laura D; Ciota, Alexander T

    2015-10-27

    Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance inWNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia.

  5. Cholinergic Submucosal Neurons Display Increased Excitability Following in Vivo Cholera Toxin Exposure in Mouse Ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Fung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cholera-induced hypersecretion causes dehydration and death if untreated. Cholera toxin (CT partly acts via the enteric nervous system (ENS and induces long-lasting changes to enteric neuronal excitability following initial exposure, but the specific circuitry involved remains unclear. We examined this by first incubating CT or saline (control in mouse ileal loops in vivo for 3.5 h and then assessed neuronal excitability in vitro using Ca2+ imaging and immunolabeling for the activity-dependent markers cFos and pCREB. Mice from a C57BL6 background, including Wnt1-Cre;R26R-GCaMP3 mice which express the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator GCaMP3 in its ENS, were used. Ca2+-imaging using this mouse model is a robust, high-throughput method which allowed us to examine the activity of numerous enteric neurons simultaneously and post-hoc immunohistochemistry enabled the neurochemical identification of the active neurons. Together, this provided novel insight into the CT-affected circuitry that was previously impossible to attain at such an accelerated pace. Ussing chamber measurements of electrogenic ion secretion showed that CT-treated preparations had higher basal secretion than controls. Recordings of Ca2+ activity from the submucous plexus showed that increased numbers of neurons were spontaneously active in CT-incubated tissue (control: 4/149; CT: 32/160; Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001 and that cholinergic neurons were more responsive to electrical (single pulse and train of 20 pulses or nicotinic (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP; 10 μM stimulation. Expression of the neuronal activity marker, pCREB, was also increased in the CT-treated submucous plexus neurons. c-Fos expression and spontaneous fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs, recorded by intracellular electrodes, were increased by CT exposure in a small subset of myenteric neurons. However, the effect of CT on the myenteric plexus is less clear as spontaneous Ca2+ activity and

  6. Cholinergic Submucosal Neurons Display Increased Excitability Following in Vivo Cholera Toxin Exposure in Mouse Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Candice; Koussoulas, Katerina; Unterweger, Petra; Allen, Andrew M; Bornstein, Joel C; Foong, Jaime P P

    2018-01-01

    Cholera-induced hypersecretion causes dehydration and death if untreated. Cholera toxin (CT) partly acts via the enteric nervous system (ENS) and induces long-lasting changes to enteric neuronal excitability following initial exposure, but the specific circuitry involved remains unclear. We examined this by first incubating CT or saline (control) in mouse ileal loops in vivo for 3.5 h and then assessed neuronal excitability in vitro using Ca 2+ imaging and immunolabeling for the activity-dependent markers cFos and pCREB. Mice from a C57BL6 background, including Wnt1 -Cre;R26R- GCaMP3 mice which express the fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator GCaMP3 in its ENS, were used. Ca 2+ -imaging using this mouse model is a robust, high-throughput method which allowed us to examine the activity of numerous enteric neurons simultaneously and post-hoc immunohistochemistry enabled the neurochemical identification of the active neurons. Together, this provided novel insight into the CT-affected circuitry that was previously impossible to attain at such an accelerated pace. Ussing chamber measurements of electrogenic ion secretion showed that CT-treated preparations had higher basal secretion than controls. Recordings of Ca 2+ activity from the submucous plexus showed that increased numbers of neurons were spontaneously active in CT-incubated tissue (control: 4/149; CT: 32/160; Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001) and that cholinergic neurons were more responsive to electrical (single pulse and train of 20 pulses) or nicotinic (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP; 10 μM) stimulation. Expression of the neuronal activity marker, pCREB, was also increased in the CT-treated submucous plexus neurons. c-Fos expression and spontaneous fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), recorded by intracellular electrodes, were increased by CT exposure in a small subset of myenteric neurons. However, the effect of CT on the myenteric plexus is less clear as spontaneous Ca 2+ activity and

  7. Newly diagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Anne Roed; Eriksen, Freja; Thorup, Line; Skødeberg, Lykke Bennedsen; Holm, Jonas Peter Yde; Hansen, Klavs Wörgler

    2017-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and is seen in 12-30% of patients with newly diagnosed OSA according to previous studies. Our aim was to determine the referral pattern and prevalence of patients with self-reported type 2 DM in a Danish cohort of patients with newly diagnosed OSA. Furthermore, we compared clinical data related to the sleep disorder in patients with and without type 2 DM and different OSA severities. This retrospective observational study was based on data from a cohort including all patients offered continuous positive airway pressure therapy in the course of a 14-month period after being referred to a sleep disorders clinic. A total of 54 of 696 (7.8%) patients had type 2 DM. The majority of the patients in the type 2 DM group were referred from a general practitioner and only 8% from diabetes clinics. BMI, age and cardiovascular morbidity in type 2 DM patients were significantly higher than in the group without diabetes, while the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, the Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) and the Oxygen Desaturation Index (ODI) were not statistically different. Daytime sleepiness was similar in patients with mild-to-moderate compared with severe OSA. AHI, ESS and ODI were similar in type 2 DM and the non-diabetic group. The prevalence of type 2 DM was lower than expected. Attention of healthcare providers to the association between type 2 DM and OSA is needed. The study was funded by the Central Region Denmark Region Research Fund. not relevant. Articles published in the DMJ are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

  8. High versus standard dose caffeine for apnoea: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, Roos; Miedema, Martijn; Hutten, Gerard J; van Kaam, Anton H; Onland, Wes

    2018-02-07

    Placebo-controlled trials have shown that caffeine is highly effective in treating apnoea of prematurity and reduces the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). To identify, appraise and summarise studies investigating the modulating effect of different caffeine dosages. A systematic review identified all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a high versus a standard caffeine treatment regimen in infants with a gestational age <32 weeks, by searching the main electronic databases and abstracts of the Pediatric Academic Societies. Studies comparing caffeine to placebo or theophylline only were excluded. Primary outcomes were BPD and mortality at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. Secondary key-outcome was neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 and 24 months corrected age. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. Six RCTs including 620 infants were identified. Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in BPD, the combined outcome BPD or mortality, and failure to extubate in infants allocated to a higher caffeine dose. No differences were found in mortality alone and NDI. The quality of the outcome measures were deemed low to very low according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines. Although this review suggests that administering a higher dose of caffeine might enhance its beneficial effect on death or BPD, firm recommendations on the optimal caffeine dose cannot be given due to the low level of evidence. A large RCT is urgently needed to confirm or refute these findings and determine the optimal dose of caffeine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnoea in people with Type 1 diabetes: prevalence and association with micro- and macrovascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, G; Pons, A; Baltzinger, P; Moreau, F; Iamandi, C; Wilhelm, J M; Lenoble, P; Kessler, L; Kessler, R

    2015-01-01

    Few reports have assessed the relationship between Type 1 diabetes and sleep disorders. The purposes of our study were to determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in Type 1 diabetes and to compare the clinical profile of people with Type 1 diabetes with or without obstructive sleep apnoea. In this cross sectional study of 67 consecutive people with Type 1 diabetes, we performed polysomnography as part of their yearly check-ups. In our cohort, with a mean BMI of 25.8 ± 4.7 kg/m(2), the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) > 10/h] was 46%. Severe obstructive sleep apnoea (AHI ≥ 30/h) was present in 19% of the patients. We found no significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, HbA1c or Epworth sleepiness scale score between people with or without obstructive sleep apnoea. People with obstructive sleep apnoea had a longer course of diabetes mellitus (P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of retinopathy (P < 0.01), neuropathy (P = 0.05), cardiovascular disease (P < 0.01) and hypertension (P < 0.01). The occurrence of macrovascular complications was independently associated with the presence of OSA [odds ratio (OR) 8.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.56-43.97; P = 0.013] and the duration of diabetes (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15; P = 0.01). Moreover, retinopathy was independently associated with OSA (OR 4.54; 95% CI, 1.09-18.82; P = 0.04) and the duration of diabetes (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.15; P = 0.001). The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea was high in people with Type 1 diabetes. Obstructive sleep apnoea was independently associated with macrovascular complications and retinopathy. Obesity and excessive daytime sleepiness were uncommon in this population. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  10. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioresi, M. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Enfermagem, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Furieri, L.B.; Simões, M.R.; Ribeiro, R.F. Junior; Meira, E.F.; Fernandes, A.A.; Stefanon, I. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vassallo, D.V. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro de Ciências da Saúde de Vitória, Escola Superior de Ciências da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase and myosin Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension.

  11. Vascular leakage induced by exposure to arsenic via increased production of NO, hydroxyl radical and peroxynitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Chi

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that in situ exposure to arsenic induced increased vascular leakage. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species such as nitric oxide (NO) and hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) are known to affect vascular permeability. Therefore, the goal of our present studies is to investigate the functional impact of the generation of NO or OH(-) on arsenic-induced vascular leakage. Vascular permeability changes were evaluated by means of Evans blue (EB) assay. Rats were anesthetized and intravenously injected with EB. Permeability changes were induced in back skin by intradermal injections of sodium arsenite mixed with NOS inhibitor: N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or aminoguanidine (AG) and OH(-) scavenger: 1,3 Dimethyl-2 thiourea (DMTU). Experiments were also performed to determine whether DMTU mixed with L-NAME would further inhibit arsenic-induced vascular leakage as compared with attenuation effects by either DMTU or L-NAME. One hour after administration, EB accumulated in the skin was extracted and quantified. Both L-NAME (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 micromol/site) and DMTU (0.05, 0.2 and 1.2 micromol/site) inhibited the increase in vascular leakage induced by arsenite. However, only high dose (1 micromol/site) of AG significantly attenuated arsenite-induced vascular leakage. In contrast, neither D-NAME (0.02, 0.1 and 0.5 micromol/site) nor AG (0.04 and 0.2 micromol/site) attenuated increased vascular leakage by arsenic. DMTU mixed with L-NAME caused no further inhibition of arsenic-induced vascular leakage by either DMTU or L-NAME. The techniques of India ink and immunostaining were used to demonstrate both vascular labeling and nitrotyrosine staining in tissue treated with arsenic. L-NAME apparently reduced the density of leaky vessels and the levels of peroxynitrite staining induced by arsenite. These results suggest that NO, OH(-) and peroxynitrite play a role in increased vascular permeability

  12. Laminaria japonica increases plasma exposure of glycyrrhetinic acid following oral administration of Liquorice extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Man; Jiang, Shu-Wen; Chen, Yang; Zhong, Ze-Yu; Wang, Zhong-Jian; Zhang, Mian; Li, Ying; Xu, Ping; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Laminaria japonica (Laminaria) on pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) following oral administration of Liquorice extract in rats. Following oral administrations of single-dose and multi-dose Liquorice extract and Liquorice-Laminaria extract, respectively, plasma samples were obtained at various times and the concentrations of GA, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin were measured by LC-MS. The effects of Laminaria extract on pharmacokinetics of GA were also investigated, following single-dose and multidose of glycyrrhizic acid (GL). The effects of Laminaria extract on intestinal absorption of GA and GL were studied using the in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model. The metabolism of GL to GA in the contents of small and large intestines was also studied. The results showed Liquorice-Laminaria extract markedly increased the plasma concentration of GA, accompanied by a shorter Tmax. Similar alteration was observed following multidose administration. However, pharmacokinetics of neither liquiritigenin nor isoliquiritigenin was affected by Laminaria. Similarly, Laminaria markedly increased concentration and decreased Tmax of GA following oral GL were observed. The data from the intestinal perfusion model showed that Laminaria markedly increased GL absorption in duodenum and jejunum, but did not affect the intestinal absorption of GA. It was found that Laminaria enhanced the metabolism of GL to GA in large intestine. In conclusion, Laminaria increased plasma exposures of GA following oral administration of liquorice or GL, which partly resulted from increased intestinal absorption of GL and metabolism of GL to GA in large intestine. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Albertine

    Full Text Available One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2, a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3, a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.. We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  14. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for obstructive sleep apnoea in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic status, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension and diabetes mellitus could not predict ... Keywords: sleep apnoea, obstructive, risk factors, prevalence, polysomnography, Tanzania. Introduction ... is the treatment of choice though bariatric surgery can be curative in patients with morbid obesity.

  16. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea following head and neck cancer treatment : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, W; Hoekema, A; Stegenga, B; van der Hoeven, JH; de Bont, LGM; Roodenburg, JLN

    The obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) is a sleep-related breathing disorder characterised by repetitive pharyngeal collapse. OSAHS is associated with a reduced quality of life. A high OSAHS prevalence has been reported in patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of

  17. Paediatric traffic accident and obstructive sleep apnoea by antrochoanal polyps: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weder, S; Landis, B N; Banz, Y; Caversaccio, M; Dubach, P

    2011-11-01

    Antrochoanal polyps are hyperplasias of the nasal mucosa, which have their origin in the maxillary sinus and extend through the nasal cavity and the choanae into the naso- and oropharynx. In children antrochoanal polyps represent one of the more frequent manifestations of paediatric nasal polyposis. Most studies on antrochoanal polyps in children report only on nasal obstruction, hyponasal speech and snoring, which are also encountered in the most common cause of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome; i.e. adenoid or tonsillar hyperplasia. Only very few studies report on additional health hazards by antrochoanal polyps ranging from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome to swallowing disorders and cachexia. We present the case of an 8 year old girl with a bicycle accident caused by excessive daytime sleepiness and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome due to an extensive antrochoanal polyp. After a transnasal polypectomy and meatotomy type II the obstructive sleep apnoea and day time sleepiness resolved completely. Awareness of this additional health hazard is important and correct evaluation and timely diagnosis of a potential antrochoanal polyp is mandatory because minimally invasive rhinosurgery is highly curative in preventing further impending problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome among in-patients at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background/Objectives: Sleep problems are commonly reported by persons with severe mental illness. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is commonly co-morbid with mental illness. Screening for OSA and its subsequent management may improve outcomes in this patient population. We screened for risk ...

  19. Craniofacial abnormalities and their relevance for sleep apnoea syndrome aetiopathogenesis in acromegaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálová, S.; Šonka, K.; Šmahel, Zbyněk; Weiss, V.; Marek, J.; Hořínek, D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 144, - (2001), s. 491-497 ISSN 0804-4643 R&D Projects: GA MZd IZ3575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : apnoea syndrome Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2001

  20. Reduced Inspiratory Muscle Strength in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, Thomas; Banghoj, Anne Margareta; Kristiansen, Marie Hvelplund

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is related to type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and it may be associated with reduced inspiratory muscle strength (IMS). The aim of this study was to investigate the IMS in patients with T2DM, with or without OSA. Methods: Patients with T2DM with OSA (n = 33...

  1. The role of the nose in snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgalas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel anatomic obstruction is often present in snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). As the nose is the first anatomical boundary of the upper airway, nasal obstruction may contribute to sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain

  2. Increased risk of severe infant anemia after exposure to maternal HAART, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Shapiro, Roger L; Hughes, Michael D; Powis, Kathleen; Ogwu, Anthony; Moffat, Claire; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2011-04-15

    Maternal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission but may increase the risk for infant anemia. The incidence of first severe anemia (grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding (BF) and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (ZDV) (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and BF (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF). A total of 1719 infants were analyzed-691 HAART-BF, 503 ZDV-BF, and 525 ZDV-FF. Severe anemia was detected in 118 infants (7.4%). By 6 months, 12.5% of HAART-BF infants experienced severe anemia, compared with 5.3% of ZDV-BF (P infants (P infants were at greater risk of severe anemia than ZDV-BF or ZDV-FF infants (adjusted odds ratios 2.6 and 5.8, respectively; P anemias were asymptomatic and improved with iron/multivitamin supplementation and cessation of ZDV exposure. However, 11 infants (0.6% of all infants) required transfusion for symptomatic anemia. Microcytosis and hypochromia were common among infants with severe anemia. Exposure to maternal HAART starting in utero was associated with severe infant anemia. Confirmation of this finding and possible strategies to mitigate hematologic toxicity warrant further study.

  3. Increased Risk of Severe Infant Anemia Following Exposure to Maternal HAART, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Shapiro, Roger L.; Hughes, Michael D.; Powis, Kathleen; Ogwu, Anthony; Moffat, Claire; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Lockman, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), but may increase the risk for infant anemia. Methods The incidence of first severe anemia (Grade 3 or 4, Division of AIDS 2004 Toxicity Table) was assessed among HIV-uninfected infants in the Mashi and Mma Bana MTCT prevention trials in Botswana. Severe anemia rates were compared between 3 groups: infants exposed to maternal HAART in utero and during breastfeeding and 1 month of postnatal zidovudine (HAART-BF); infants exposed to maternal zidovudine (ZDV) in utero, 6 months of postnatal ZDV, and breastfeeding (ZDV-BF); and infants exposed to maternal ZDV in utero, 1 month of postnatal ZDV, and formula-feeding (ZDV-FF). Results A total of 1719 infants were analyzed— 691 HAART-BF, 503 ZDV-BF, and 525 ZDV-FF. Severe anemia was detected in 118 infants (7.4%). By 6 months, 12.5% of HAART-BF infants experienced severe anemia, compared with 5.3% of ZDV-BF (Pinfants (Pinfants were at greater risk of severe anemia than ZDV-BF or ZDV-FF infants (adjusted odds ratios 2.6 and 5.8, respectively; P anemias were asymptomatic and improved with iron/multivitamin supplementation and cessation of ZDV exposure. However, 11 infants (0.6% of all infants) required transfusion for symptomatic anemia. Microcytosis and hypochromia were common among infants with severe anemia. Conclusions Exposure to maternal HAART starting in utero was associated with severe infant anemia. Confirmation of this finding and possible strategies to mitigate hematologic toxicity warrant further study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197587 and NCT00270296. PMID:21266910

  4. Does maternal exposure to artificial food coloring additives increase oxidative stress in the skin of rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, K; Başak, P Y; Doğuç, D K; Aylak, F; Oğuztüzün, S; Bozer, B M; Gültekin, F

    2017-10-01

    Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) metabolize and detoxify carcinogens, drugs, environmental pollutants, and reactive oxygen species. Changes of GST expression in tissues and gene mutations have been reported in association with many neoplastic skin diseases and dermatoses. Widely used artificial food coloring additives (AFCAs) also reported to effect primarily behavioral and cognitive function and cause neoplastic diseases and several inflammatory skin diseases. We aimed to identify the changes in expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in rat skin which were maternally exposed AFCAs. A rat model was designed to evaluate the effects of maternal exposure of AFCAs on skin in rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Immunohistochemical expression of GSTs, CYP1A1, and VEGF was evaluated in their offspring. CYP1A1, glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTP), glutathione S-transferase alpha (GSTA), glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM), glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT), and VEGF were expressed by epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, sebaceous glands, hair follicle, and subcutaneous striated muscle in the normal skin. CYP1A1, GSTA, and GSTT were expressed at all microanatomical sites of skin in varying degrees. The expressions of CYP1A1, GSTA, GSTT, and VEGF were decreased significantly, while GSTM expression on sebaceous gland and hair follicle was increased. Maternal exposure of AFCAs apparently effects expression of the CYP1A1, GSTs, and VEGF in the skin. This prominent change of expressions might play role in neoplastic and nonneoplastic skin diseases.

  5. Desert dust exposure is associated with increased risk of asthma hospitalization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatani, Kumiko T; Ito, Isao; Al-Delaimy, Wael K; Adachi, Yuichi; Mathews, William C; Ramsdell, Joe W

    2010-12-15

    Desert dust particles, including quartz, which causes inflammatory responses in the airway in animal studies, are transported to widespread regions around the globe. Epidemiologically, areas impacted by desert dust storms, such as communities in the Middle East and the Caribbean, seem to have higher incidences of asthma than might be expected. We investigated the magnitude of association between airborne mineral dust concentration and hospitalization of children for asthma exacerbation by using Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) with a polarization analyzer for an exposure measurement, which can distinguish mineral dust particles from other particles. A case-crossover design was used. The exposure measurement was LIDAR's nonspherical extinction coefficient. The outcome measurement was hospitalization of children aged 1 to 15 years for asthma exacerbation in eight principal hospitals in Toyama, a local area in Japan bordering the Japan Sea, during February to April, 2005 to 2009. During the study period, there were 620 admissions for asthma exacerbation, and 6 days with a heavy dust event (daily mineral dust concentration > 0.1 mg/m(3)). Conditional logistic regression showed a statistically significant association between asthma hospitalization and a heavy dust event. The crude odds ratio (OR) of the heavy dust event for hospitalization on the day was 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-3.41; P = 0.037), and the OR of heavy dust event during the previous week was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.31-2.56; P = 0.00043). The OR adjusted by other air pollutant levels, pollen, and meteorological factors was 1.71 (95% CI, 1.18-2.48; P = 0.0050). Heavy dust events are associated with an increased risk of hospitalizations for asthma.

  6. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  7. The influence of the lateral pharyngeal wall anatomy on snoring and sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhan, Ibrahim; Gode, Sercan; Midilli, Rasit; Basoglu, Ozen Kacmaz

    2015-02-01

    To elucidate the variations of the lateral pharyngeal wall anatomy on physical examination and to assess the clinical importance of the examination of the lateral pharyngeal wall on the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey, between May 2010 and April 2011. The patients were divided into four equal groups: Group 1--snoring without apnoea (age 20-40); Group 2--snoring without apnoea (age 40-60); Group 3--apnoea-hypopnoea index 30/hr. Calibrated oropharynx pictures were taken. Distance between palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches, height of palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches, uvula width, uvula length and distance between tonsils were measured. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 80 patients in the study, 44 (55%) were men. Mean distance between palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal arches were 1.55 ± 0.34 cm and 2.70 ± 0.43 cm respectively. Mean height of palatopharyngeal and palatoglossal arches were 0.60 ± 0.21 cm and 1.37 ± 0.36 cm respectively (p > 0.05). Mean uvula width and uvula length were 0.80 ± 0.12cm and 1.25 ± 0.27 cm respectively (p > 0.05). Mean distance between tonsils was 2.24 ± 0.56 cm (p > 0.05). Distance between palatopharyngeal arches was significantly different between groups 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Palatopharyngeal arch anatomy was found to be significantly associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome severity, especially in patients with normal or small tonsil size. Patients with the palatopharyngeal arches, which narrow the oropharyngeal inlet more than the tonsils, should further be investigated with polysomnography.

  8. Pattern recognition of obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinreich, Gerhard; Teschler, Helmut; Armitstead, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of an artificial neural network based on flow-related spectral entropy as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration. A data set of 37 subjects was used for spectral analysis of the airflow by performing a fast Fourier transform. The examined intervals were divided into epochs of 3 min. Spectral entropy S was applied as a measure for the spread of the related power spectrum. The spectrum was divided into several frequency areas with various subsets of spectral entropy. We studied 11 subjects with obstructive apnoeas (n = 267 epochs), 10 subjects with obstructive hypopnoeas (n = 80 epochs), 11 subjects with Cheyne–Stokes respiration (n = 253 epochs) and 5 subjects with normal breathing in non-REM sleep (n = 174 epochs). Based on spectral entropy an artificial neural network was built, and we obtained a sensitivity of 90.2% and a specificity of 90.9% for distinguishing between obstructive apnoeas and Cheyne–Stokes respiration, and a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 94.6% for discriminating between obstructive hypopnoeas and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. This resulted in an accuracy of 91.5% for identifying flow patterns of obstructive sleep apnoea, Cheyne–Stokes respiration and normal breathing in non-REM sleep. It is concluded that the use of an artificial neural network relying on spectral analysis of the airflow could be a useful method as a diagnostic test for obstructive sleep apnoea and Cheyne–Stokes respiration

  9. Nutritional Supplementation Increases Rifampin Exposure among Tuberculosis Patients Coinfected with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denti, Paolo; Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Hagen, Christian Munch; Christiansen, Michael; Changalucha, John; McIlleron, Helen; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Aase Bengaard

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation to tuberculosis (TB) patients has been associated with increased weight and reduced mortality, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is unknown. A cohort of 100 TB patients (58 men; median age, 35 [interquartile range {IQR}, 29 to 40] years, and median body mass index [BMI], 18.8 [17.3 to 19.9] kg/m2) were randomized to receive nutritional supplementation during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Rifampin plasma concentrations were determined after 1 week and 2 months of treatment. The effects of nutritional supplementation, HIV, time on treatment, body weight, and SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype were examined using a population pharmacokinetic model. The model adjusted for body size via allometric scaling, accounted for clearance autoinduction, and detected an increase in bioavailability (+14%) for the patients in the continuation phase. HIV coinfection in patients not receiving the supplementation was found to decrease bioavailability by 21.8%, with a median maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24) of 5.6 μg/ml and 28.6 μg · h/ml, respectively. HIV-coinfected patients on nutritional supplementation achieved higher Cmax and AUC0–24 values of 6.4 μg/ml and 31.6 μg · h/ml, respectively, and only 13.3% bioavailability reduction. No effect of the SLCO1B1 rs4149032 genotype was observed. In conclusion, nutritional supplementation during the first 2 months of TB treatment reduces the decrease in rifampin exposure observed in HIV-coinfected patients but does not affect exposure in HIV-uninfected patients. If confirmed in other studies, the use of defined nutritional supplementation in HIV-coinfected TB patients should be considered in TB control programs. (This study has the controlled trial registration number ISRCTN 16552219.) PMID:24709267

  10. Reaching Nutritional Adequacy Does Not Necessarily Increase Exposure to Food Contaminants: Evidence from a Whole-Diet Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Tangui; Vieux, Florent; Perignon, Marlène; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Micard, Valérie; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Dietary guidelines are designed to help meet nutritional requirements, but they do not explicitly or quantitatively account for food contaminant exposures. In this study, we aimed to test whether dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy were compatible with acceptable exposure to food contaminants. Data from the French national dietary survey were linked with food contaminant data from the French Total Diet Study to estimate the mean intake of 204 representative food items and mean exposure to 27 contaminants, including pesticides, heavy metals, mycotoxins, nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds. For each sex, 2 modeled diets that departed the least from the observed diet were designed: 1) a diet respecting only nutritional recommendations (NUT model), and 2) a diet that met nutritional recommendations without exceeding Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs) and observed contaminant exposures (NUTOX model). Food, nutrient, and contaminant contents in observed diets and NUT and NUTOX diets were compared with the use of paired t tests. Mean observed diets did not meet all nutritional recommendations, but no contaminant was over 48% of its TRV. Achieving all the nutrient recommendations through the NUT model mainly required increases in fruit, vegetable, and fish intake and decreases in meat, cheese, and animal fat intake. These changes were associated with significantly increased dietary exposure to some contaminants, but without exceeding 57% of TRVs. The highest increases were found for NDL-PCBs (from 26% to 57% of TRV for women). Reaching nutritional adequacy without exceeding observed contaminant exposure (NUTOX model) was possible but required further departure from observed food quantities. Based on a broad range of nutrients and contaminants, this first assessment of compatibility between nutritional adequacy and toxicological exposure showed that reaching nutritional adequacy might increase exposure to food

  11. Systemic inflammation: a key factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, S

    2012-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent disease and is recognised as a major public health burden. Large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated an independent relationship between OSAS and various cardiovascular disorders. The pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in OSAS is not completely understood but a multifactorial aetiology is likely. Inflammatory processes have emerged as critical in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis at all stages of atheroma formation. Increased levels of various circulating markers of inflammation including tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 6 (IL6), IL-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported as associated with future cardiovascular risk. There is increasing evidence of elevated inflammatory markers in OSAS with a significant fall after effective treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. This evidence is particularly strong for TNFalpha, whereas studies on IL6 and CRP have yielded conflicting results possibly due to the confounding effects of obesity. Cell culture and animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the association between OSAS and inflammation. Intermittent hypoxia, the hallmark of OSAS, results in activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein (AP)-1. These promote activation of various inflammatory cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes, with the downstream consequence of expression of pro-inflammatory mediators that may lead to endothelial dysfunction. This review provides a critical analysis of the current evidence for an association between OSAS, inflammation and cardiovascular disease, discusses basic mechanisms that may be responsible for this association and proposes future research possibilities.

  12. [Telemonitoring of bike exercise training in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, K-H; Franke, K J; Domanski, U; Schröder, M; Nilius, G

    2013-06-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) suffer from daytime sleepiness, cognitive disorders and are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In addition to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), major lifestyle changes to increase physical activity contribute to risk reduction. The daily training duration should be at least 20 minutes to achieve a relevant effect. In addition to exercise training in groups, home training is useful. However, sufficiently intensive training is often not performed because of unavailable feedback (monitoring). It is not clear yet how many patients accept a bicycle home training and to what extent they meet the specified training time. Of the 152 consecutive OSA patients surveyed, 74 (48.7 %) agreed to a 4-week home exercise bike training. After exclusion of 51 patients, 17 for logistical reasons, and 34 because of severe comorbidities, 23 patients remained (age 51.0 +/- 9.3 years, BMI 33.7 +/- 4.2, ESS score 10.4 +/- 6.7, AHI 33.8 +/- 24.0). The daily duration of training at the ventilatory threshold (VT1) was recorded and transmitted by a wireless module (Cinterion) via Internet to a doctor or instructor. The patients exercised during 27.3 +/- 2.9 days. 19 of the 23 patients (83 %) accomplished the training period of > 20 minutes per day. In 4 patients (17 %) the training time was well below this target level with 5.9 +/- 2.3 min. The average training time of all patients was 24.4 +/- 9.0 min. About 50 % of the OSA patients are interested in a regular physical exercise bike training with telemonitoring, and are performing it quite constantly. The described method of telemonitoring provides a simple and, compared to group training cost-effective way to reduce cardiovascular risk in OSA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Does exposure to sexually explicit Internet material increase body dissatisfaction? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the consequences of exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) has neglected body dissatisfaction as a potential outcome. Additionally, research on body dissatisfaction has ignored exposure to SEIM as a potential predictor. Within a social comparison framework, we studied

  14. Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lee-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970 mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland. Methods We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads. Results There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001. Conclusions Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time. This effect may be due to the chemical toxins in traffic pollutants, or because of disturbed sleep due to traffic noise.

  15. Noise exposure is increased with neonatal helmet CPAP in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V

    2011-01-01

    in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Yun, Miaoying; Fernandez, Camilo; Li, Shengxu; Sun, Dianjianyi; Lai, Chin-Chih; Hua, Yingxiao; Wang, Fu; Zhang, Tao; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Johnson, Carolyn C; Berenson, Gerald S

    2015-06-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure increases cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the association of SHS exposure in childhood and adulthood with adult arterial thickness. The study cohort consisted of 415 nonsmoking adults (301 whites and 114 blacks; ages 26.2-48.0 years) enrolled in 2004-2010. The arterial wall thickness was measured as common, bulb and internal carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). SHS exposure data in childhood and adulthood were obtained by a questionnaire survey. Increased adult composite carotid IMT was significantly associated with SHS exposure (regression coefficient, β = 53.1 μm, p effect may be mitigated and controlled early in the cardiovascular disease process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended light exposure increases stem digestibility and biomass production of switchgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqiao Zhao

    Full Text Available Switchgrass is a photoperiod-sensitive energy grass suitable for growing in the marginal lands of China. We explored the effects of extended photoperiods of low-irradiance light (7 μmol·m-2·s-1, no effective photosynthesis on the growth, the biomass dry weight, the biomass allocation, and, especially, the stem digestibility and cell wall characteristics of switchgrass. Two extended photoperiods (i.e., 18 and 24 h were applied over Alamo. Extended light exposure (18 and 24 h resulted in delayed heading and higher dry weights of vegetative organs (by 32.87 and 35.94%, respectively at the expense of reducing the amount of sexual organs (by 40.05 and 50.87%, respectively. Compared to the control group (i.e., natural photoperiod, the yield of hexoses (% dry matter in the stems after a direct enzymatic hydrolysis (DEH treatment significantly increased (by 44.02 and 46.10% for those groups irradiated during 18 and 24 h, respectively. Moreover, the yield of hexoses obtained via enzymatic hydrolysis increased after both basic (1% NaOH and acid (1% H2SO4 pretreatments for the groups irradiated during 18 and 24 h. Additionally, low-irradiance light extension (LILE significantly increased the content of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs while notably reducing the lignin content and the syringyl to guaiacyl (S/G ratio. These structural changes were in part responsible for the observed improved stem digestibility. Remarkably, LILE significantly decreased the cellulose crystallinity index (CrI of switchgrass by significantly increasing both the arabinose substitution degree in xylan and the content of ammonium oxalate-extractable uronic acids, both favoring cellulose digestibility. Despite this LILE technology is not applied to the cultivation of switchgrass on a large scale yet, we believe that the present work is important in that it reveals important relationships between extended day length irradiations and biomass production and quality. Additionally

  18. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in a patient with retrosternal goiter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevketbeyoglu, H.; Kara, K.; Ince, M.; Karaagac, H.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a large number of predisposing factors (obesity, nasal obstruction, adenoid hypertrophy, macroglossia etc.). In addition to these factors goiter and hypothyroidism have been reported to be associated with OSAS. Objectives and tasks: In our case with retrosternal goiter, values of OSAS before and after thyroidectomy were shown. Materials and methods: Seventy-two years old, BMI: 26,8 kg/m 2 , female patient was admitted our hospital because of complaints to stop breathing during sleep, snoring, morning headache and daytime drowsiness. Results: Thorax CT and ultrasonography of thyroid shown retrosternal goiter and left tracheal deviation. Severe OSAS was diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG). Thyroid function tests were normal. Apneahypopnea index (AHI) was 63,1/h. Patients was performed 7 cm H 2 O nasal continuous positive airway pressure (gvrnCPAP). AHI was 11,4/h under nCPAP. One month after OSAS diagnosis the patient underwent thyroidectomy operation. Pathological examination was reported as multinodular GOITER. In postoperative period CPAP treatment couldn't continue, because patient was not compliant. In postoperative 8-th weeks, PSG was performed; AHI was 34,8/h. The patient's weight and BMI didn't change. Conclusion: In our case, despite absence of continued CPAP treatment after thyroidectomy, symptoms and PSG values improved partially. As a result of these findings, especially, compression of upper airway and deterioration of venous circulation of patients with large goiter may lead to an increase in OSAS symptoms. During patients with OSAS are treated with CPAP, goiter needs to be investigated

  19. Examining uptake of online education on obstructive sleep apnoea in general practitioners: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine; Rose, Shiho; Hensley, Michael; Pretto, Jeffrey; Hardy, Margaret; Henskens, Frans; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Carey, Mariko

    2016-07-19

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects up to 28 % of the adult population in Western countries. The detection and management of OSA by general practitioners (GPs) can be poor. The study aimed to examine what influence enhanced invitations had on uptake of on-line learning modules for OSA by GPs, and whether recent referrals of patients to sleep specialists influenced uptake. Practicing GPs in regional Australia were identified and randomised to receive either an enhanced or standard invitation letter to a new on-line education module for OSA. The enhanced letter included indication that the module was eligible for professional accreditation and described the prevalence and burden of sleep disorders. Some included extra emphasis if the GP had recently referred a patient for diagnostic investigation of OSA. Two reminder letters were sent. Of 796 eligible GPs who received the letters, sixteen (2 %) accessed the website and four completed the modules over the four-month study period. GPs who received an enhanced invitation letter were not significantly more likely to access the website compared to GPs who received the standard invitation letter. Recent referral of a patient for diagnostic investigation was also not a significant factor in influencing use of the module. GP interest in on-line education about OSA appears low, and emphasis of relevant recent past patient(s) and the opportunity for professional education points was not successful in increasing engagement. There is a need to identify effective approaches to improving the detection and management of OSA in general practice.

  20. Increased levels of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine are attributable to organophosphate pesticide exposure among young children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Guodong; Han Song; Wang, Pei; Gao Yu; Shi Rong; Wang, Guoquan; Tian Ying

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as an important mechanism linking pesticide exposure to health effects. A study of 268 young Shanghai children was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure and a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for five nonspecific dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites [dimethyl phosphates (DMs) and diethyl phosphates (DEs)] and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The creatinine-adjusted median of 8-OHdG in urine samples was 3.99 ng/mg. Increased exposure to OPs was associated with greater levels of urinary 8-OHdG [total DAPs: ß (adjusted) = 0.46 per log 10 unit increase, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40–0.53, p = 0.000; DMs: ß (adjusted) = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.28–0.41, p = 0.000; DEs: ß (adjusted) = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.42–0.54, p = 0.000]. Thus, the 8-OHdG biomarker is useful for increasing our understanding of the link between childhood exposure to OPs and health outcomes. - Highlights: ► OP exposures are thought to affect health by mechanisms related to oxidative stress. ► We assessed the correlation between OP exposure and a biomarker of oxidative stress. ► Increased exposure to OPs was associated with greater levels of urinary 8-OHdG. - Environmental exposure to OPs may play an important role in oxidative DNA damage in children.

  1. The risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure after controlling for occupational environment status in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Ha Yoon; Jaehoon Roh; Chi-Nyon Kim; Jong-Uk Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Materials and Methods: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. Results: In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according...

  2. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Kerr, Geoffrey T.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and nonviolent photos while their brain activity was measured, and then gave an ostensible opponent unpleasant noise blasts. Participants low in previous exposure to video game ...

  3. At least one in three people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus referred to a diabetes centre has symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, H; Mortensen, B; Almdal, T

    2014-01-01

    obstructive sleep apnoea. Our data suggest higher age, a compromised plasma lipid profile and a more obese phenotype in patients with Type 2 diabetes who have obstructive sleep apnoea, highlighting the need to focus on screening and treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea in these patients.......AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea in unselected patients with Type 2 diabetes referred to a tertiary diabetes clinic. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, all newly referred patients were offered a stepwise screening for obstructive sleep apnoea with: (1......) The Berlin questionnaire; then, if indicative: (2) overnight home monitoring with the ApneaLink(™) device. Patients with an apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥ 5/h were offered referral for diagnostic polygraphy and treatment initiation. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients participated (61% men; age 59.6 ± 10.5 years...

  4. Quantification of acute vocal fold epithelial surface damage with increasing time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Kojima

    Full Text Available Because the vocal folds undergo repeated trauma during continuous cycles of vibration, the epithelium is routinely susceptible to damage during phonation. Excessive and prolonged vibration exposure is considered a significant predisposing factor in the development of vocal fold pathology. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent of epithelial surface damage following increased time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Forty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to nine groups and received varying phonation time-doses (30, 60, or 120 minutes and magnitude-doses (control, modal intensity phonation, or raised intensity phonation of vibration exposure. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify the degree of epithelial surface damage. Results revealed a significant reduction in microprojection density, microprojection height, and depth of the epithelial surface with increasing time and phonation magnitudes doses, signifying increased epithelial surface damage risk with excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. Destruction to the epithelial cell surface may provide significant insight into the disruption of cell function following prolonged vibration exposure. One important goal achieved in the present study was the quantification of epithelial surface damage using objective imaging criteria. These data provide an important foundation for future studies of long-term tissue recovery from excessive and prolonged vibration exposure.

  5. Analysis of temperature increase in swine gingiva after exposure to a Polywave®LED light curing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucoski, Cristiane; Zarpellon, Driellen Christine; Dos Santos, Fabio Andre; Lipinski, Leandro Cavalcante; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Rueggeberg, Frederick Allen; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the temperature increase in swine gingival temperature after exposure to light emitted by a Polywave ® LED light curing unit (LCU, Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent). After local Ethics Committee approval (protocol 711/2015), 40 pigs were subjected to general anesthesia and the LCU tip was placed 5mm from the buccal gingival tissue (GT) close to lower lateral incisors. A thermocouple probe (Thermes WFI, Physitemp) was inserted into the gingival sulcus before and immediately after exposure to light. Real-time temperature (°C) was measured after the following exposure modes were applied: High Power (20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H) or Turbo mode (5s-T), either with or without the presence of rubber dam (RD) interposed between the LCU tip and GT (n=10). The presence of gingival lesions after the exposures was also evaluated. Peak temperature (°C) and the temperature increase during exposure over that of the pre-exposure baseline value (ΔT) data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc test (α=5%). A binary logistic regression analysis determined the risk of gingival lesion development. Without RD, no significant difference in ΔT was observed among 20s-H, 40s-H, and 60s-H groups, which showed the highest temperature values, while the 5s-T exposure showed the lowest ΔT, regardless of RD. RD reduced ΔT only for the 20s-H group (p=0.004). Gingival lesions were predominantly observed using 40s-H, with RD, and 60s-H, with and without RD. Exposure to a LCU light might be harmful to swine gingiva only when high radiant exposure values are delivered, regardless of the use of RD. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased mitochondrial mass in cells with functionally compromised mitochondria after exposure to both direct gamma radiation and bystander factors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Sharon M E

    2007-07-01

    The bystander effect describes radiation-like damage in unirradiated cells either in the vicinity of irradiated cells or exposed to medium from irradiated cells. This study aimed to further characterize the poorly understood mitochondrial response to both direct irradiation and bystander factor(s) in human keratinocytes (HPV-G) and Chinese hamster ovarian cells (CHO-K1). Oxygen consumption rates were determined during periods of state 4, state 3 and uncoupled respiration. Mitochondrial mass was determined using MitoTracker FM. CHO-K1 cells showed significantly reduced oxygen consumption rates 4 h after exposure to 5 Gy direct radiation and irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and an apparent recovery 12-24 h later. The apparent recovery was likely due to the substantial increase in mitochondrial mass observed in these cells as soon as 4 h after exposure. HPV-G cells, on the other hand, showed a sustained increase in oxygen consumption rates after ICCM exposure and a transient increase 4 h after exposure to 5 Gy direct radiation. A significant increase in mitochondrial mass per HPV-G cell was observed after exposure to both direct radiation and ICCM. These findings are indicative of a stress response to mitochondrial dysfunction that increases the number of mitochondria per cell.

  7. Increased exposure of norethindrone in HIV+ women treated with ritonavir boosted atazanavir therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Barent N.; Atrio, Jessica; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Cherala, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pharmacokinetics of norethindrone in combination oral contraceptive regimen are well described among HIV+ women treated with ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor therapies; however such characterization is lacking in women using progestin-only contraception. Our objective is to characterize pharmacokinetics of norethindrone in HIV+ women using ritonavir boosted atazanavir treatment during progestin-only contraceptive regimens. Study Design An open-label, prospective, non-randomized trial to characterize the pharmacokinetics of norethindrone in HIV+ women receiving ritonavir boosted atazanavir (n=10;treatment group) and other antiretroviral therapy known to not alter norethindrone levels (n=17;control group) was conducted. Following informed consent, women were instructed to take a single daily fixed oral dose of 0.35 mg norethindrone and 300mg/100mg atazanavir/ritonavir for 22 days. On day 22 serial blood samples were collected by venous catheter at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Whole blood was processed to collect serum and stored at −20°C until later analysis using radioimmunoassay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental method. Results In the treatment group, compared to the control group, an increase in area under the curve0-24 (16.69hr*ng/mL vs. 25.20hr*ng/mL; p<0.05) and maximum serum concentration (2.09ng/mL vs. 3.19ng/mL; p<0.05), decrease (25-40%) in apparent volume of distribution and apparent clearance, and unaltered half-life were observed. Conclusion(s) Our findings suggest that progestin-only contraceptives, unlike combination oral contraceptives, benefit from drug-drug interaction and achieve higher levels of exposure. Further studies are needed to establish whether pharmacokinetic interaction leads to favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:25245190

  8. Passive smoking exposure is associated with increased risk of COPD in never smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstad, Stig; Bjerg, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Rönmark, Eva; Lundbäck, Bo

    2014-06-01

    Passive smoking, or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a risk factor for lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and childhood asthma, but a relationship with COPD has not been fully established. Our aim was to study ETS as a risk factor for COPD in never smokers. Data from three cross-sectional studies within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) database were pooled. Of the 2,182 lifelong never smokers, 2,118 completed structured interviews and spirometry of acceptable quality. COPD was defined according to the GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) criteria using postbronchodilator spirometry. The association of COPD with ETS in single and multiple settings was calculated by multivariate logistic regression adjusting for known risk factors for COPD. COPD prevalence was associated with increased ETS exposure: 4.2% (no ETS), 8.0% (ETS ever at home), 8.3% (ETS at previous work), and 14.7% (ETS ever at home and at both previous and current work), test for trend P = .003. Exclusion of subjects aged ≥ 65 years and subjects reporting asthma yielded similar results. ETS in multiple settings, such as ever at home and at both previous and current work, was strongly associated to COPD (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.29-11.2). In this population-based sample of never smokers, ETS was independently associated with COPD. The association was stronger for ETS in multiple settings. ETS in multiple settings was, after age, the strongest risk factor for COPD and comparable to personal smoking of up to 14 cigarettes/d in comparable materials. The findings strongly advocate measures against smoking in public places.

  9. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Mroz, Margaret M; Silveira, Lori J; Strand, Matt; Cragle, Donna L; Tankersley, William G; Wells, Susan M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A

    2011-11-01

    Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPβ chain (DPβE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPβE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DPβE69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DPβE69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 μg/m(3). Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DPβE69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DPβE69 alone appears to be similar.

  10. Exposure and genetics increase risk of beryllium sensitisation and chronic beryllium disease in the nuclear weapons industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dyke, M. V. [National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States). Hollis Lab.; Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Martyny, John W. [National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States). Hollis Lab.; Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado Denver School of Medicine and Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO (United States); Mroz, M. M. [National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States). Hollis Lab.; Silveira, L. J. [National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States). Hollis Lab.; Strand, M. [National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States). Hollis Lab.; Cragle, D. L. [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tankersley, W. G. [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, S. M. [Oak Ridge Associated Univ., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Newman, L. S. [Univ. of Colorado Denver School of Medicine and Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO (United States); Maier, L. A. [National Jewish Health, Denver, CO (United States). Hollis Lab.; Univ. of Colorado Denver School of Medicine and Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO (United States)

    2011-04-02

    Beryllium sensitisation (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) are caused by exposure to beryllium with susceptibility affected by at least one well-studied genetic host factor, a glutamic acid residue at position 69 (E69) of the HLA-DPb chain (DPbE69). However, the nature of the relationship between exposure and carriage of the DPbE69 genotype has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between DP{beta}E69 and exposure in BeS and CBD. Current and former workers (n=181) from a US nuclear weapons production facility, the Y-12 National Security Complex (Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA), were enrolled in a case-control study including 35 individuals with BeS and 19 with CBD. HLA-DPB1 genotypes were determined by PCR-SSP. Beryllium exposures were assessed through worker interviews and industrial hygiene assessment of work tasks. After removing the confounding effect of potential beryllium exposure at another facility, multivariate models showed a sixfold (OR 6.06, 95% CI 1.96 to 18.7) increased odds for BeS and CBD combined among DP{beta}E69 carriers and a fourfold (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.43 to 11.0) increased odds for those exposed over an assigned lifetime-weighted average exposure of 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Those with both risk factors had higher increased odds (OR 24.1, 95% CI 4.77 to 122). DP{beta}E69 carriage and high exposure to beryllium appear to contribute individually to the development of BeS and CBD. Among workers at a beryllium-using facility, the magnitude of risk associated with either elevated beryllium exposure or carriage of DP{beta}E69 alone appears to be similar.

  11. Inhalation exposure of gas-metal arc stainless steel welding fume increased atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdely, Aaron; Hulderman, Tracy; Salmen-Muniz, Rebecca; Liston, Angie; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M; Simeonova, Petia P

    2011-07-04

    Epidemiological studies suggest that welding, a process which generates an aerosol of inhalable gases and metal rich particulates, increases the risk for cardiovascular disease. In this study we analyzed systemic inflammation and atherosclerotic lesions following gas metal arc-stainless steel (GMA-SS) welding fume exposure. Apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice, fed a Western diet, were exposed to GMA-SS at 40mg/m(3) for 3h/day for ten days (∼8.26μg daily alveolar deposition). Mice were sacrificed two weeks after exposure and serum chemistry, serum protein profiling and aortic lesion area were determined. There were no significant changes in serum total cholesterol, triglycerides or alanine aminotransferase. Serum levels of uric acid, a potent antioxidant, were decreased perhaps suggesting a reduced capacity to combat systemic oxidative stress. Inflammatory serum proteins interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3) were increased two weeks after GMA-SS exposure. Analysis of atherosclerotic plaques showed an increase in lesion area as the result of GMA-SS exposure. In conclusion, GMA-SS exposure showed evidence of systemic inflammation and increased plaque progression in apoE(-/-) mice. These results complement epidemiological and functional human studies that suggest welding may result in adverse cardiovascular effects. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Elevated background TV exposure over time increases behavioural scores of 18-month-old toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Sirachairat, Chalermpol; Vijakkhana, Nakul; Wilaisakditipakorn, Tanaporn; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether trends of TV exposure from age six to 18 months and adult TV programmes were associated with behavioural concerns of 18-month-old Thai toddlers. There were 194 healthy infants recruited at age six months and followed up until 18 months of age in this present cohort. TV exposure variables were assessed by interviewing in depth at both six- and 18-month-old visits. A mother of each participant rated the child's behaviours using the Child Behaviour Checklist. Infants who were increasingly exposed to TV from age six to 18 months with adult programmes since six months of age had higher pervasive developmental problems and oppositional defiant behaviours scores. Exposure to adult TV programmes at age six months was also associated with emotionally reactive problems, aggression and externalising behaviours in the final regression models. To promote appropriate toddlers' behaviours at age 18 months, elevated background TV exposure over time should be discouraged. Furthermore, paediatricians should emphasise such effects of TV exposure on child behaviours with parents at health supervision visits. As such, parents will be aware of the detrimental effect of increased background TV exposure over time on their children's behaviours. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evidence of increased exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in individuals with recent onset psychosis but not with established schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolken, Robert; Torrey, E Fuller; Dickerson, Faith

    2017-11-01

    A possible role for Toxoplasma gondii in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is supported by epidemiological studies and animal models of infection. However, recent studies attempting to link Toxoplasma to schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. We performed a nested case-control study measured serological evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in a cohort of 2052 individuals. Within this cohort, a total of 1481 individuals had a psychiatric disorder and 571 of were controls without a psychiatric disorder. We found an increased odds of Toxoplasma exposure in individuals with a recent onset of psychosis (OR 2.44, 95% Confidence Interval 1.4-4.4, p Toxoplasma exposure was not found in individuals with schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorder who did not have a recent onset of psychosis. By identifying the timing of evaluation as a variable, these findings resolve discrepancies in previous studies and suggest a temporal relationship between Toxoplasma exposure and disease onset.

  14. Use of an individual mandibular advancement device for an?obstructive sleep apnoea patient with facial paralysis: a short-term follow-up case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pişkin, B; Sipahi, C; Köse, M; Karakoç, Ö; Şevketbeyoğlu, H; Ataç, G K

    2012-06-01

    This case report aimed to describe the fabrication procedure and treatment efficacy of an individual, one-piece, non-adjustable mandibular advancement device (MAD) for a moderate obstructive sleep apnoea patient with facial paralysis (FP). Mandibular advancement device was fabricated with autopolymerising acrylic resin. The intermaxillary relations were recorded such as to fix the mandible at a protruded position with increased vertical dimension. Initial evaluation of the MAD was made with axial magnetic resonance imaging and polysomnography on the first day of usage. Following evaluations were made on the third and sixth month. After a follow-up period of 6 months, Apnoea/Hypopnea Index (AHI) significantly decreased from 26·7 to 3·0. However, the average oxygen saturation did not improve as expected initially. The MAD therapy decreased the AHI scores of a patient with FP. At the end of a follow-up period of 6 months, the patient did not report any serious complaint except temporary tooth pains. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Mechanical effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of upper airway muscles in awake obstructive sleep apnoea subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Eric; Gakwaya, Simon; Melo-Silva, César Augusto; Sériès, Frédéric

    2015-04-20

    What is the central question of this study? Can repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the genioglossus enhance the beneficial effects observed with transcranial magnetic stimulation single twitches on upper airway mechanical properties? What is the main finding and its importance? We found that both inspiratory and expiratory rTMS protocols induce a different activation pattern of upper airway muscles, with evidence for an increase in genioglossus corticomotor excitability in response to rTMS. This is of major importance because it might open the door for rTMS protocols with the goal of increasing corticomotor excitability and, thus, possibly increasing the tonic genioglossus activity, which is known to be diminished during sleep in subjects with sleep apnoea. Stimulation of upper airway (UA) muscles during sleep by isolated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) twitch can improve airflow dynamics without arousal, but the effect of repetitive TMS (rTMS) on UA dynamics is unknown. Phrenic nerve magnetic stimulation (PNMS) can be used to produce painless experimental twitch-induced flow limitation during wakefulness. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of rTMS applied during wakefulness on UA mechanical properties using PNMS in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Phrenic nerve magnetic stimulation was applied to 10 subjects, with and without simultaneous rTMS, during inspiration and expiration. Flow-limitation characteristics and UA obstruction level were determined [maximal (V̇I,max)and minimal inspiratory airflow (V̇I,min),V̇I,max-V̇I,min flow drop (ΔV̇I),oropharyngeal (POro,peak ) and velopharyngeal peak pressures, oropharyngeal k1 /k2 ratios with k1 and k2 determined by the polynomial regression model between instantaneous flow and pharyngeal pressure and UA resistance]. Both genioglossus and diaphragm root mean squares and motor-evoked potential amplitudes (geniolossus, GGAmp ) and latencies were computed. A flow

  16. Predicting uptake of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy; McNeil, Lindsay; Olaithe, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    diagnosed with OSA. Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised (IPQ-R) were administered at time of sleep study. These, patient demographics and sleep study variables were used to determine factors predicting patient......Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a common disorder, for which continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is a standard treatment. Despite its well-established efficacy, many patients choose not to initiate CPAP treatment. The present study investigated the degree to which...... biological measures (e.g. Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index [AHI]), symptom experiences (e.g. fatigue) and illness representations (e.g. perceived consequences) predict the decision of individuals newly diagnosed with OSA to undergo a trial of CPAP therapy. Methods: Four hundred forty-nine individuals (316 males) newly...

  17. Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements by optical coherence tomography in patients with sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, Oded; Fishelson-Arev, Tagil; Buckman, Gila; Mathalone, Nurit; Wolfson, Julia; Segev, Eitan; Peled, Ron; Lavi, Idit; Geyer, Orna

    2014-03-01

    The study aims to investigate whether retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) abnormalities can be detected in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome with normally appearing optic disc. This is an observational case-control study. One hundred and eight consecutive patients with moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) as determined by overnight polysomnography and normal looking discs and 108 age-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All patients underwent RNFL examinations by optical coherence tomography using fast retinal nerve fibre layer thickness scan. The main outcome measure was RNFL thickness. Multivariate regression analysis results showed that the RNFL was thinner for a patient with OSAHS than that of a normal control in the average by 4.20 μm (P optic nerves will eventually lead to glaucoma. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Medico-legal implications of sleep apnoea syndrome: Driving license regulations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonderis, A.; Barbee, F.; Bonsignore, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS), one of the main medical causes of excessive daytime sleepiness, has been shown to be a risk factor for traffic accidents. Treating SAS results in a normalized rate of traffic accidents. As part of the COST Action B-26, we looked at driving license regulati......Background: Sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS), one of the main medical causes of excessive daytime sleepiness, has been shown to be a risk factor for traffic accidents. Treating SAS results in a normalized rate of traffic accidents. As part of the COST Action B-26, we looked at driving license......; Lithuania, LT; Luxembourg, LU; Malta, MT; Netherlands, NL; Norway, EC; Poland, PL; Portugal, PT; Slovakia, SK; Slovenia, SI; Spain, ES; Sweden, SE; Switzerland, CH; United Kingdom, UK). Results: Driving license regulations date from 1997 onwards. Excessive daytime sleepiness is mentioned in nine, whereas...

  19. Mere Exposure to Money Increases Endorsement of Free-Market Systems and Social Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Baxter, Brittani; Waytz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The present research tested whether incidental exposure to money affects people's endorsement of social systems that legitimize social inequality. We found that subtle reminders of the concept of money, relative to nonmoney concepts, led participants to endorse more strongly the existing social system in the United States in general (Experiment 1)…

  20. Adolescents’ media exposure may increase their cyberbullying behavior: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hamer, A.H.; Konijn, E.A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the effect of adolescents' exposure to media portraying antisocial and risk behavior on cyberbullying behavior over time. Previous research established relatively high prevalence of cyberbullying behavior among adolescents, although not much is known

  1. INCREASED MORTALITY ASSOCIATED WITH WELL-WATER EXPOSURE IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a retrospective mortality and morbidity study in the Inner Mongolia region of China to evaluate health effects associated with arsenic exposure. The village we studied has been affected by arsenic contaminated well water since the 1980s. A complete census of the vil...

  2. Does pre-exposure to warming conditions increase Mytilus galloprovincialis tolerance to Hg contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rosa; Coppola, Francesca; Henriques, Bruno; Wrona, Fredrick; Figueira, Etelvina; Pereira, Eduarda; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which marine invertebrate populations can tolerate extreme weather events, such as short-term exposure to high temperatures, and the underlying biochemical response mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, scarce information is available on how marine organisms respond to the presence of pollutants after exposure to heat stress conditions. Therefore, the present study aimed to understand how the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis responds to Hg pollution after pre-exposure to warming conditions. Mussels were exposed to control (17°C) and warming (21°C) conditions during 14days, followed by Hg contamination during 28days under different temperature regimes (17 and 21°C). The results obtained demonstrated significantly higher Hg concentrations in mussels under 17°C during the entire experiment than in organisms exposed to 21°C during the same period, which resulted in higher oxidative stress in mussels under control temperature. Significantly higher Hg concentrations were also observed in mussels pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure comparing with organisms maintained the entire experiment at 21°C. These results may be explained by higher metabolic capacity in organisms exposed to 17°C after pre-exposure to 21°C that although induced antioxidant defences were not enough to prevent oxidative stress. No significant differences in terms of Hg concentration were found between mussels exposed to 17°C during the entire experiment and organisms pre-exposed to 21°C followed by a 17°C exposure, leading to similar oxidative stress levels in mussels exposed to both conditions. Therefore, our findings demonstrated that pre-exposure to warming conditions did not change mussels' accumulation and tolerance to Hg in comparison to Hg contaminated mussels maintained at control temperature. Furthermore, the present study indicate that organisms maintained under warming conditions for long periods may prevent the accumulation of

  3. The ability of non-computer tasks to increase biomechanical exposure variability in computer-intensive office work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dechristian França; Srinivasan, Divya; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Nogueira, Helen Cristina; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Postures and muscle activity in the upper body were recorded from 50 academics office workers during 2 hours of normal work, categorised by observation into computer work (CW) and three non-computer (NC) tasks (NC seated work, NC standing/walking work and breaks). NC tasks differed significantly in exposures from CW, with standing/walking NC tasks representing the largest contrasts for most of the exposure variables. For the majority of workers, exposure variability was larger in their present job than in CW alone, as measured by the job variance ratio (JVR), i.e. the ratio between min-min variabilities in the job and in CW. Calculations of JVRs for simulated jobs containing different proportions of CW showed that variability could, indeed, be increased by redistributing available tasks, but that substantial increases could only be achieved by introducing more vigorous tasks in the job, in casu illustrated by cleaning.

  4. Obstructive sleep apnoea and polycystic ovary syndrome ; a comprehensive review of clinical interactions and underlying pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Kahal, Hassan; Kyrou, Ioannis; Tahrani, Abd A. (Almagid); Randeva, Harpal S.

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. PCOS is associated with multiple co-morbidities including, obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, as well as mood disorders and impaired quality of life (QoL). Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is also a common medical condition that is often undiagnosed, particularly in women. OSA is associated with a similar spectrum of comorbidities to that observed in PCOS, including manifestatio...

  5. Sleep apnoea diagnosis using respiratory effort-based signals - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Nadi; Jayawardhana, Madhuka; de Chazal, Philip

    2017-07-01

    A measure of the respiratory effort during a sleep study is an important contributor to the diagnosis of sleep apnoea. A common way of measuring respiratory effort is with bands with stretch sensors placed around the chest and/or abdomen. An alternative, and more convenient method from the patient's perspective, is via the ECG derived respiration (EDR) signal which provides an estimate of the respiratory effort at each heartbeat. In this study we performed a side-by-side comparison of the discrimination information for identifying epochs of sleep apnoea contained in the chest respiratory effort signal and three methods of calculating the EDR signal. Using simultaneously recorded chest band and ECG signals extracted from overnight polysomnogram (PSG) data from 8 subjects (4 controls, 4 apnoeas. MIT PhysioNet Apnea-ECG database), we extracted identical features from the two sensors and used the features to train a linear discriminant classifier to classify one-minute epochs as being apneic or normal. Ground truth labelling of each epoch was achieved with an expert using the full PSG as a reference. Our cross validation results revealed that the full respiratory effort signal resulted in an accuracy of 87% in correctly identifying the epoch label. When the respiratory signal was resampled at each heartbeat (as occurs with the EDR signal) the accuracy was 86%, suggesting that the sampling process inherent to the EDR signal does not materially affect its discrimination ability. The best EDR method was based on the calculating the QRS area for every heart and achieved an accuracy of 81%. Our results suggest that, while there is some information loss in the EDR estimation process, the EDR signal is a convenient and useful signal for sleep apnoea diagnosis.

  6. Cold exposure increases slow-type myosin heavy chain 1 (MyHC1) composition of soleus muscle in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Iwamoto, Yohei; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cold exposure on rat skeletal muscle fiber type, according to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform and metabolism-related factors. Male Wistar rats (7 weeks old) were housed individually at 4 ± 2°C as a cold-exposed group or at room temperature (22 ± 2°C) as a control group for 4 weeks. We found that cold exposure significantly increased the slow-type MyHC1 content in the soleus muscle (a typical slow-type fiber), while the intermediate-type MyHC2A content was significantly decreased. In contrast to soleus, MyHC composition of extensor digitorum longus (EDL, a typical fast-type fiber) and gastrocnemius (a mix of slow-type and fast-type fibers) muscle did not change from cold exposure. Cold exposure increased mRNA expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in both the soleus and EDL. Cold exposure also increased mRNA expression of myoglobin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α) and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in the soleus. Upregulation of UCP3 and PGC1α proteins were observed with Western blotting in the gastrocnemius. Thus, cold exposure increased metabolism-related factors in all muscle types that were tested, but MyHC isoforms changed only in the soleus. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Perinatal Lead Exposure Alters Gut Microbiota Composition and Results in Sex-specific Bodyweight Increases in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Wen, Xiaoquan William; Faulk, Christopher; Boehnke, Kevin; Zhang, Huapeng; Dolinoy, Dana C; Xi, Chuanwu

    2016-06-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a principle source of environmental contamination. Epidemiological and animal data suggest that early life lead (Pb) exposure results in critical effects on epigenetic gene regulation and child and adult weight trajectories. Using a mouse model of human-relevant exposure, we investigated the effects of perinatal Pb exposure on gut microbiota in adult mice, and the link between gut microbiota and bodyweight changes. Following Pb exposure during gestation and lactation via maternal drinking water, bodyweight in A(vy) strain wild-type non-agouti (a/a) offspring was tracked through adulthood. Gut microbiota of adult mice were characterized by deep DNA sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Data analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for litter effects. A Bayesian variable selection algorithm was used to analyze associations between bacterial operational taxonomic units and offspring adult bodyweight. Perinatal Pb exposure was associated with increased adult bodyweight in male (P compositions were significantly different (analysis of molecular variance, P gut microbiota were highly associated with adult bodyweight (P = .028; effect size = 2.59). Thus, perinatal Pb exposure results in altered adult gut microbiota regardless of sex, and these changes are highly correlated with increased bodyweight in males. Adult gut microbiota can be shaped by early exposures and may contribute to disease risks in a sex-specific manner. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Exposure to Blue Light Increases Subsequent Functional Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex During Performance of a Working Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Pisner, Derek A.; Vanuk, John R.; Berryhill, Sarah M.; Fridman, Andrew; Shane, Bradley R.; Knight, Sara A.; Killgore, William D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prolonged exposure to blue wavelength light has been shown to have an alerting effect, and enhances performance on cognitive tasks. A small number of studies have also shown that relatively short exposure to blue light leads to changes in functional brain responses during the period of exposure. The extent to which blue light continues to affect brain functioning during a cognitively challenging task after cessation of longer periods of exposure (i.e., roughly 30 minutes or longer), however, has not been fully investigated. Methods: A total of 35 healthy participants (18 female) were exposed to either blue (469 nm) (n = 17) or amber (578 nm) (n = 18) wavelength light for 30 minutes in a darkened room, followed immediately by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while undergoing a working memory task (N-back task). Results: Participants in the blue light condition were faster in their responses on the N-back task and showed increased activation in the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex compared to those in the amber control light condition. Furthermore, greater activation within the VLPFC was correlated with faster N-back response times. Conclusions: This is the first study to suggest that a relatively brief, single exposure to blue light has a subsequent beneficial effect on working memory performance, even after cessation of exposure, and leads to temporarily persisting functional brain changes within prefrontal brain regions associated with executive functions. These findings may have broader implication for using blue-enriched light in a variety of work settings where alertness and quick decision-making are important. Citation: Alkozei A, Smith R, Pisner DA, Vanuk JR, Berryhill SM, Fridman A, Shane BR, Knight SA, Killgore WD. Exposure to blue light increases subsequent functional activation of the prefrontal cortex during performance of a working memory task. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1671–1680. PMID:27253770

  9. Obstructive sleep apnoea is frequent in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banghoej, Anne Margareta; Nerild, Henriette Holst; Kristensen, Peter Lommer

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is frequent in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence of OSA in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In a cross-sectional design, all patients with type 1 diabetes attending the outpatient clinic were offered screening...... for OSA for one night with the ApneaLink+ home-monitoring device. OSA was classified by the Apnoea-Hypopnea index (AHI; apnoeas/hypopneas per hour sleep). Symptoms of OSA were scored using the Epworth Sleepiness Score. Presence of autonomic neuropathy was evaluated by the Vagus® device. RESULTS: A total...... of 200 of 518 eligible patients with type 1 diabetes (39%) participated (68% men; age 52±15years (mean±SD), diabetes duration 24±14years and BMI 25.3±3.3kg/m(2)). OSA was diagnosed in 92 patients (46% (95% CI: 40-53)). Five patients had known OSA, and OSA was newly diagnosed in 87 patients, predominantly...

  10. Efficacy of daytime continuous positive airway pressure titration in severe obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowski, J C; Verschelden, P; Kimoff, R J

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate manual nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) titration during daytime polysomnography compared with conventional overnight titration for patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Thirty-two patients who underwent daytime titration were retrospectively matched (for age, sex, body mass index and apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI)) to a group titrated overnight during the same period. Successful titration was defined as the identification of the nCPAP level (effective nCPAP (Peff)) required to eliminate respiratory events during all sleep stages. After 3 months of therapy on nCPAP at Peff, nCPAP utilization history was obtained and a group of patients underwent a repeat polysomnogram (PSG) and completed a follow-up Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score. Initial titration was successful in 91% of daytime patients and 91% of overnight patients. The success of daytime titration was not related to diagnostic AHI or ESS score. Subjective nCPAP utilization was statistically similar in both groups. On the follow-up PSG, there were no significant differences between daytime (n=11) and overnight (n=11) patients in measures of sleep quality or respiratory disturbance. Both groups demonstrated similar and significant improvements in ESS score. These findings suggest that the effective nasal continuous positive airway pressure can be accurately established during daytime titration in a substantial proportion of severe, symptomatic obstructive sleep apnoea patients.

  11. This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, C.R.; Bartholow, B.D.; Kerr, G.T.; Bushman, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that media violence exposure can cause desensitization to violence, which in theory can increase aggression. However, no study to date has demonstrated this association. In the present experiment, participants played a violent or nonviolent video game, viewed violent and

  12. Pre-exposure to drought increases the resistance of tropical forest soil bacterial communities to extended drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Bouskill; Hsiao Chien Lim; Sharon Borglin; Rohit Salve; Tana Wood; Whendee L. Silver; Eoin L. Brodie

    2013-01-01

    Global climate models project a decrease in the magnitude of precipitation in tropical regions. Changes in rainfall patterns have important implications for the moisture content and redox status of tropical soils, yet little is known about how these changes may affect microbial community structure. Specifically, does exposure to prior stress confer increased resistance...

  13. Chronic exposure to dietary selenomethionine increases gonadal steroidogenesis in female rainbow trout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiseman, Steve, E-mail: steve.wiseman@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Thomas, Jith K.; Higley, Eric; Hursky, Olesya [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Pietrock, Michael [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Raine, Jason C. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Janz, David M. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B3 (Canada); School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5C8 (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    Selenomethionine (Se-Met) is the major dietary form of selenium (Se). Detrimental effects have been associated with exposure to elevated dietary selenium. Previous studies have demonstrated effects of Se on the endocrine system, in particular effects on cortisol and thyroid hormones. However, no information is available regarding effects of Se on sex steroid hormones. In the present study, effects of dietary exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (4.54 mg/kg wet weight (ww)) of Se-Met for 126 days on concentrations of sex steroid hormones in blood plasma of female rainbow trout were determined. Furthermore, the molecular basis for effects of Se-Met on plasma sex steroid hormone concentrations was investigated. Concentrations of androstenedione (A), estrone (E1), and estradiol (E2) were 39.5-, 3.8-, and 12.7-fold greater in plasma of treated females than the untreated controls, respectively. Testosterone (T) was detected only in plasma of treated females. The greater E2 concentration stimulated greater transcript abundance of vitellogenin (vtg) and zona-radiata protein (zrp). Female rainbow trout exposed to Se-Met had greater transcript abundance of key steroidogenic proteins and enzymes, including peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (pbr), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-hsd). Exposure to Se-Met did not affect transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone (lh) or follicle stimulating hormone (fsh). Similarly, there was no change in transcript abundance of luteinizing hormone receptor (lhr) or follicle stimulating hormone receptor (fshr). Long-term exposure to dietary Se-Met has the potential to stimulate vitellogenesis in female rainbow trout by directly stimulating ovarian tissue steroidogenesis. This is the first study to report effects of Se on sex steroid hormone production in fish.

  14. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11–17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 μg/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 μg/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  15. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippler, Maria [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Lindh, Christian [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh); Moore, Sophie E. [MRC Keneba, MRC Laboratories (Gambia); Kabir, Iqbal [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Vahter, Marie [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Broberg, Karin, E-mail: karin.broberg_palmgren@med.lu.se [International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), Dhaka 1212 (Bangladesh)

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  16. Prolonged exposure does not increase soil microbial community compositional response to warming along geothermal gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radujkovic, Dajana; Verbruggen, Erik; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Leblans, Niki I W; Janssens, Ivan A; Vicca, Sara; Weedon, James T

    2018-02-01

    Global change is expected to affect soil microbial communities through their responsiveness to temperature. It has been proposed that prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures may lead to progressively larger effects on soil microbial community composition. However, due to the relatively short-term nature of most warming experiments, this idea has been challenging to evaluate. The present study took the advantage of natural geothermal gradients (from +1°C to +19°C above ambient) in two subarctic grasslands to test the hypothesis that long-term exposure (>50 years) intensifies the effect of warming on microbial community composition compared to short-term exposure (5-7 years). Community profiles from amplicon sequencing of bacterial and fungal rRNA genes did not support this hypothesis: significant changes relative to ambient were observed only starting from the warming intensity of +9°C in the long term and +7°C/+3°C in the short term, for bacteria and fungi, respectively. Our results suggest that microbial communities in high-latitude grasslands will not undergo lasting shifts in community composition under the warming predicted for the coming 100 years (+2.2°C to +8.3°C). © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Increased precipitation of spasms in an animal model of infantile spasms by prenatal stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Ju, Jun; Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Juan; Shang, Ning-Xiu; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun-Yan

    2016-05-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) represent a serious epileptic syndrome, called West syndrome (WS) that occurs in the early infantile age. Although several hypotheses and animal models have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of IS, the pathophysiology of IS has not been elucidated. Recently, we proposed a hypothesis for IS under prenatal stress exposure (also called Zou's hypothesis) by correlating diverse etiologies and prenatal stresses with IS development. This research aims to determine the mechanism through which prenatal stress affects the offspring and establish the potential underlying mechanisms. Pregnant rats were subjected to forced swimming in cold water. Rat pups exposed to prenatal stress were administered with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Exposure to prenatal stress sensitized the rats against development of NMDA-induced spasms. However, this phenomenon was altered by administering adrenocorticotropin. Prenatal stress exposure also altered the hormonal levels and neurotransmitter receptor expression of the developing rats as well as influenced the tissue structure of the brain. These findings suggest that maternal stress could alter the level of endogenous glucocorticoid, which is the basis of IS, and cerebral dysplasia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), inherited metabolic diseases, and other factors activated this disease in developmental brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic ethanol exposure increases voluntary home cage intake in adult male, but not female, Long-Evans rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Melissa; McGinnis, Molly M.; McCool, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    The current experiment examined the effects of 10 days of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure on anxiety-like behavior and home cage ethanol intake using a 20% intermittent access (M, W, F) paradigm in male and female Long-Evans rats. Withdrawal from alcohol dependence contributes to relapse in humans and increases in anxiety-like behavior and voluntary ethanol consumption in preclinical models. Our laboratory has shown that 10 days of CIE exposure produces both behavioral and neurophysiological alterations associated with withdrawal in male rats; however, we have yet to examine the effects of this exposure regime on ethanol intake in females. During baseline, females consumed more ethanol than males but, unlike males, did not show escalations in intake. Rats were then exposed to CIE and were again given intermittent access to 20% ethanol. CIE males increased their intake compared to baseline, whereas air-exposed males did not. Ethanol intake in females was unaffected by CIE exposure. Notably, both sexes expressed significantly elevated withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior in the plus maze. Finally, rats were injected with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A (0, 1, 3, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) which reduced ethanol intake in both sexes. However, females appear to be more sensitive to lower doses of this CB1 receptor antagonist. Our results show that females consume more ethanol than males; however, they did not escalate their intake using the intermittent access paradigm. Unlike males, CIE exposure had no effect on drinking in females. It is possible that females may be less sensitive than males to ethanol-induced increases in drinking after a short CIE exposure. Lastly, our results demonstrate that males and females may have different pharmacological sensitivities to CB1 receptor blockade on ethanol intake, at least under the current conditions. PMID:26515190

  19. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  20. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Linlong [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Magdalou, Jacques [UMR 7561 CNRS-Nancy Université, Faculté de Médicine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Chen, Liaobin [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Hui, E-mail: wanghui19@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Research Center of Food and Drug Evaluation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  2. Initial fracture resistance and curing temperature rise of ten contemporary resin-based composites with increasing radiant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, A; El-Mahy, W; Stewardson, D; Addison, O; Palin, W

    2013-05-01

    The principal objective of this study was to determine whether the bulk fracture resistance of ten light activated composites varied over a clinically realistic range of radiant exposures between 5 and 40 J/cm(2). Ten operators were tested for clinically simulated radiant exposure delivery from a Bluephase(®) (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) LED light to an occlusal cavity floor in tooth 27 in a mannequin head using a MARC(®)-Patient Simulator (Bluelight Analytics Inc., Halifax, NS) device. Notch disc test samples were prepared to determine the torque resistance to fracture (T) of the composites. Samples were irradiated with the same monowave Bluephase(®) light for 10s, 20s or 40s at distances of 0mm or 7 mm. After 24h, storage samples were fractured in a universal testing machine and torque to failure was derived. Radiant exposure delivered in the clinical simulation ranged from 14.3% to 69.4% of maximum mean radiant exposure deliverable at 0mm in a MARC(®)-Resin Calibrator (Bluelight Analytics Inc., Halifax, NS) test device. Mean torque to failure increased significantly (Pradiant exposure for 8 out of 10 products. The micro-fine hybrid composite Gradia Direct anterior (GC) had the lowest mean (S.D.) T between 10.3 (1.8)N/mm and 13.7 (2.2)N/mm over the tested radiant exposure range. Three heavily filled materials Majesty Posterior, Clearfil APX and Clearfil Photo-Posterior (Kuraray) had mean T values in excess of 25 N/mm following 40 J/cm(2) radiant exposure. Mean T for Z100 (3MESPE) and Esthet-X (Dentsply) increased by 10% and 91% respectively over the tested range of radiant exposures. Individual products require different levels of radiant exposure to optimize their fracture resistance. Light activated composites vary in the rate at which they attain optimal fracture resistance. Unless the clinician accurately controls all the variables associated with energy delivery, there is no way of predicting that acceptable fracture resistance will be

  3. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  4. Increased production of hydrogen peroxide by peripheral blood monocytes associated with smoking exposure intensity in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanni Suzana E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is known to be associated with oxidative stress; however, it has not been elucidated whether the oxidative response is influenced by the intensity of smoking exposure. Objectives Evaluate the effect of smoking exposure on the secretion of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 by the peripheral blood monocytes of smokers. Methods A total of 25 smokers (50.3±8.8 years, 48% male underwent the following evaluations: spirometry, pulse oximetry, body composition and total peripheral blood count. Peripheral blood monocyte (PBM cultures were isolated and maintained, and IL-6 and TNF-α were measured in the plasma and in the supernatants of spontaneous and stimulated cultures. H2O2 was evaluated in the supernatants of the PBM cultures, and a subset of the PBM culture supernatants was stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA. We also evaluated 38 healthy controls (49.1±8.2 years, 42% male. Results The spontaneous and stimulated monocytes’ secretion of H2O2 were statistically higher in the smokers than in the healthy controls (p2O2 secretions were statistically significant higher after stimulation with PMA in both groups (p2O2 by PBM culture, adjusted for potential confounding variables. The association between PBM culture secretion of H2O2 and the production of TNF-α and IL-6 was not significant. Conclusion We identified a positive association between higher production of H2O2 in smokers and higher smoking exposure during life. The influence of pack-years smoking may be a key modifiable factor in oxidative stress associated to smoking.

  5. Exposure to Sexual Stimuli Induces Greater Discounting Leading to Increased Involvement in Cyber Delinquency Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2018-02-01

    People frequently encounter sexual stimuli during Internet use. Research has shown that stimuli inducing sexual motivation can lead to greater impulsivity in men, as manifested in greater temporal discounting (i.e., a tendency to prefer smaller, immediate gains to larger, future ones). Extant findings in crime research suggest that delinquents tend to focus on short-term gains while failing to adequately think through the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior. We experimentally tested the possibility that exposure to sexual stimuli is associated with the tendency to engage in cyber delinquency among men, as a result of their overly discounting remote consequences. In Experiment 1, participants exposed to pictures of "sexy" women were more likely to discount the future and were more inclined to make cyber-delinquent choices (e.g., cyberbullying, cyber fraud, cyber theft, and illegal downloading), compared with male participants who rated the sex appeal of less sexy opposite-sex pictures. However, these relationships were not observed in female participants exposed to either highly or less sexy pictures of men. In Experiment 2, male participants exposed to sexual primes showed a greater willingness to purchase a wide range of counterfeit rather than authentic products online and experienced a higher likelihood of logging into the other person's Facebook webpage (i.e., invading online privacy). The discounting tendency mediated the link between exposure to sexual primes and the inclination to engage in cyber-delinquent behavior. These findings provide insight into a strategy for reducing men's involvement in cyber delinquency; that is, through less exposure to sexual stimuli and promotion of delayed gratification. The current results suggest that the high availability of sexual stimuli in cyberspace may be more closely associated with men's cyber-delinquent behavior than previously thought.

  6. Increasing selective exposure to health messages by targeting person versus behavior schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Meridith E; Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

    2006-01-01

    Schema correspondence theory (Brannon and Brock, 1994) was applied to the topic of selective exposure to health information. The following question was asked: When do people prefer to expose themselves to health-relevant information tailored to match their own needs and values (i.e., recipient self-schema matching) versus the values and goals that the healthy behavior brings to mind (i.e., behavior schema matching)? In general, recipient self-schema matched messages tended to be preferred over behavior schema matched messages. However, this tendency was attenuated to the extent that the behavior had a very well defined (prototypical) schema.

  7. Exposure to dairy manure leads to greater antibiotic resistance and increased mass-specific respiration in soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepking, Carl; Avera, Bethany; Badgley, Brian; Barrett, John E; Franklin, Josh; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, Partha P; Smitherman, Crystal; Strickland, Michael S

    2017-03-29

    Intensifying livestock production to meet the demands of a growing global population coincides with increases in both the administration of veterinary antibiotics and manure inputs to soils. These trends have the potential to increase antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities. The effect of maintaining increased antibiotic resistance on soil microbial communities and the ecosystem processes they regulate is unknown. We compare soil microbial communities from paired reference and dairy manure-exposed sites across the USA. Given that manure exposure has been shown to elicit increased antibiotic resistance in soil microbial communities, we expect that manure-exposed sites will exhibit (i) compositionally different soil microbial communities, with shifts toward taxa known to exhibit resistance; (ii) greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes; and (iii) corresponding maintenance of antibiotic resistance would lead to decreased microbial efficiency. We found that bacterial and fungal communities differed between reference and manure-exposed sites. Additionally, the β-lactam resistance gene ampC was 5.2-fold greater under manure exposure, potentially due to the use of cephalosporin antibiotics in dairy herds. Finally, ampC abundance was positively correlated with indicators of microbial stress, and microbial mass-specific respiration, which increased 2.1-fold under manure exposure. These findings demonstrate that the maintenance of antibiotic resistance associated with manure inputs alters soil microbial communities and ecosystem function. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Increase of flood exposure on the Spanish Mediterranean coast over the last decades. The influence of spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Martinez, Francisco; Perez-Morales, Alfredo; Gil-Guirado, Salvador; Illan-Fernandez, Emilio Jose

    2017-04-01

    Since the 1960's, the Spanish Mediterranean coastal area is one of the main tourist destinations in the world and one of the highest rates of population, building and economic growth of Spain. Despite this growth have involved a lot of preventive flood management measures, especially structural measures (dams, water derivations, channelling, etc…), the area has registered an increase in the intensity, frequency and economic losses related to floods in recent decades. However, according to climatic records, this trend is more related to an exposure multiplication derived from economic growth than with the increase of extreme rainfall events produced by climate change. Within this framework it is interesting to evaluate how local governments (institution responsible for the process of spatial planning) have influence on exposure through allowing the construction in flood-prone areas. In this regard, this study quantifies the evolution of number of housing in flood-prone areas according to the cadastral information and the hydrological modelling data for the return periods of 10, 50, 100 and 500 years, respectively. Results highlight an increase in the number of building in flood-prone areas over the years. This increase in physical and economic exposure without any non-structural risk mitigation measure is one of the main factors for flood events. Therefore, results report that local governments did not consider the floodable areas into spatial planning and have made future scenarios characterized by an increase in the number of floods and their consequential damages.

  9. No nuclear mining industries and the increase to natural radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires do Rio, Monica Aquino

    1999-01-01

    Mining and processing activities dealing with mineral ores containing associated uranium and thorium series elements can make these radionuclides available in their products, byproducts and in the environment, leading to the enhancement of the exposure of the public to natural radiation. In the present study, niobium, phosphate, coal and gold mining plants have been selected as case studies, aiming to identify possible radiological impact sources during and after ceasing the operation on these units. In order to achieve that, the radiological characterization of samples from ore processing, drainage water and other liquid emissions was carried out. The potential environmental radiological impact was quantified by means of estimating the effective dose equivalent, H E , for present and future scenarios considering the use of the environment in the vicinities of the units and future tailing storage sites. The results confirm these mining industries as activities potentially enhancing exposure to natural radiation. The possible use of solid wastes, abandoned at the end of operation, represents a long term radiological concern. The acid drainage, as well as the chemical processing of mineral ores constitute relevant impact factors for present and future scenarios. Thus, the legislation for environmental licensing must be reviewed in order to take into account the potential environmental radiological impact caused by these units, as well as the establishment of remediation procedures for waste storage areas in the existing sites. (author)

  10. Effect of positive airway pressure during pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia upon safe duration of apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melveetil S Sreejit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Induction of general anaesthesia per se as also the use of 100% oxygen during induction of anaesthesia, results in the development of atelectasis in dependent lung regions within minutes of anaesthetic induction. We aimed to assess the effect of application of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP of 5 cm H 2 O during pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia on the period of apnoea before the occurrence of clinically significant desaturation. Methods: In this prospective, randomised, and double-blind study, 40 patients posted for elective surgery were enrolled. Duration of apnoea was measured as the time from the administration of succinylcholine hydrochloride to the time when oxygen saturation fell to 93%. Student′s t-test was used for comparing the duration of apnoea. Results: The safe duration of apnoea was found to be significantly longer in patients receiving CPAP of 5 cm H 2 O (Group P; n = 16 compared to the group receiving no CPAP (Group Z; n = 20, that is, 496.56 ± 71.68 s versus 273.00 ± 69.31 s (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The application of CPAP of 5 cm H 2 O using a Mapleson "A" circuit with a fixed positive end-expiratory pressure device during 5 min of pre-oxygenation with 100% oxygen prior to the induction of anaesthesia provides a clearly longer duration of apnoea before clinically significant arterial desaturation occurs.

  11. Effect of positive airway pressure during pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia upon safe duration of apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejit, Melveetil S; Ramkumar, Venkateswaran

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Induction of general anaesthesia per se as also the use of 100% oxygen during induction of anaesthesia, results in the development of atelectasis in dependent lung regions within minutes of anaesthetic induction. We aimed to assess the effect of application of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5 cm H2O during pre-oxygenation and induction of anaesthesia on the period of apnoea before the occurrence of clinically significant desaturation. Methods: In this prospective, randomised, and double-blind study, 40 patients posted for elective surgery were enrolled. Duration of apnoea was measured as the time from the administration of succinylcholine hydrochloride to the time when oxygen saturation fell to 93%. Student's t-test was used for comparing the duration of apnoea. Results: The safe duration of apnoea was found to be significantly longer in patients receiving CPAP of 5 cm H2O (Group P; n = 16) compared to the group receiving no CPAP (Group Z; n = 20), that is, 496.56 ± 71.68 s versus 273.00 ± 69.31 s (P Mapleson A circuit with a fixed positive end-expiratory pressure device during 5 min of pre-oxygenation with 100% oxygen prior to the induction of anaesthesia provides a clearly longer duration of apnoea before clinically significant arterial desaturation occurs. PMID:25937647

  12. Bisphenol A exposure induces increased microglia and microglial related factors in the murine embryonic dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mifumi; Komada, Munekazu; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi; Ikeda, Yayoi

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used compound in the food packaging industry. Prenatal exposure to BPA induces histological abnormalities in the neocortex and hypothalamus in association with abnormal behaviors. Yet, the molecular and cellular neurodevelopmental toxicological mechanisms of BPA are incompletely characterized on neuroinflammatory-related endopoints. To evaluate the neurodevelopmental effects of BPA exposure in mouse embryos, we examined microglial numbers as well as the expression of microglial-related factors in the E15.5 embryonic brain. BPA-exposed embryos exhibited significant increases in Iba1-immunoreactive microglial numbers in the dorsal telencephalon and the hypothalamus compared to control embryos. Further, the expression levels of microglial markers (Iba1, CD16, iNOS, and CD206), inflammatory factors (TNFα and IL4), signal transducing molecules (Cx3Cr1 and Cx3Cl1), and neurotrophic factor (IGF1) were altered in BPA-exposed embryos. These findings suggest that BPA exposure increases microglial numbers in the brain and alters the neuroinflammatory status at a transcriptional level. Together, these changes may represent a novel target for neurodevelopmental toxicity assessment after BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence of increased exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in individuals with recent onset psychosis but not with established schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Yolken

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A possible role for Toxoplasma gondii in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia is supported by epidemiological studies and animal models of infection. However, recent studies attempting to link Toxoplasma to schizophrenia have yielded mixed results. We performed a nested case-control study measured serological evidence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in a cohort of 2052 individuals. Within this cohort, a total of 1481 individuals had a psychiatric disorder and 571 of were controls without a psychiatric disorder. We found an increased odds of Toxoplasma exposure in individuals with a recent onset of psychosis (OR 2.44, 95% Confidence Interval 1.4-4.4, p < .003. On the other hand, an increased odds of Toxoplasma exposure was not found in individuals with schizophrenia or other psychiatric disorder who did not have a recent onset of psychosis. By identifying the timing of evaluation as a variable, these findings resolve discrepancies in previous studies and suggest a temporal relationship between Toxoplasma exposure and disease onset.

  14. Increased tau phosphorylation and beta amyloid in the hipocampus of mouse pups by early life lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N; Yu, Z L; Wang, L; Zheng, Y T; Jia, J X; Wang, Q; Zhu, M J; Liu, X L; Xia, X; Li, W J

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on the learning and memory ability and expression of tau protein phosphorylation (P-tau) and beta amyloid protein (Abeta) in hippocampus of mice offspring. Pb exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Pb acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% groups. On the 21 th of postnatal day, the learning and memory ability of the mouse pups was tested by Water Maze test and the Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of the offspring were also determined. The expression of P-tau and Abeta in hippocampus was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The Pb levels in blood and hippocampus of all exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). In Water Maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% groups were worse than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). The expression of P-tau and Abeta was increased in Pb exposed groups than that of the control group ( P < 0.05). Tau hyper-phosphorylation and Abeta increase in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the impairment of learning and memory associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  15. Infant Dietary Exposures to Sweetness and Fattiness Increase during the First Year of Life and Are Associated with Feeding Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wen Lun; Lange, Christine; Schwartz, Camille; Martin, Christophe; Chabanet, Claire; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-11-01

    Taste is a strong determinant of food intake. Previous research has suggested that early taste exposures could influence preferences and later eating behavior, but little is known about the factors related to this. The aims of this study were to describe infants' exposure to sweetness and fattiness and to examine whether maternal and infant characteristics and feeding practices are related to these exposures in participants from the OPALINE [Observatoire des Préférences Alimentaires du Nourrisson et de l'Enfant (Observatory of Infant and Child Food Preferences)] cohort study. Food consumption frequency was assessed with a 7-d food record completed monthly over the first year. Dietary taste exposure was defined by the consumption frequency of each food multiplied by the intensity of its taste, summed over all foods. The daily sweetness exposure (SweetExp) and fattiness exposure (FatExp) were calculated at 3-6, 7-9, and 10-12 mo of age for 268 infants from complementary feeding initiation (CFI) to 12 mo. Associations between taste exposure and potential factors were tested by multiple linear regressions. Both FatExp and SweetExp increased from 3-6 mo to 10-12 mo (mean ± SD: 7.5 ± 2.3 to 12.2 ± 2.5 and 6.8 ± 2.8 to 14.7 ± 4.1, respectively). Breastfeeding duration ≥6 mo was associated with higher SweetExp at all ages, with a decreasing β [β (95% CI): 2.6 (1.8; 3.4) at 3-6 mo and 1.3 (0.1; 2.4) at 10-12 mo]. CFI at <6 mo was associated with higher SweetExp at all ages but with higher FatExp only at 3-6 mo. Higher SweetExp and FatExp were associated with a higher use of all complementary food types. Boys were more likely to be exposed to SweetExp at 10-12 mo and to FatExp at 3-6 mo and 10-12 mo than were girls. Maternal higher education attainment and return to work after 6 mo were linked with higher FatExp and higher FatExp and SweetExp, respectively. SweetExp and FatExp increased from CFI until 12 mo and were associated with feeding practices in OPALINE

  16. Oxidative stress mediated arterial dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Ben Maria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggest an increase of oxidative stress and a reduction of endothelial function in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS. We assessed the association between OSAS, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Further aim was to evaluate the effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP on oxidative stress and arterial dysfunction. Methods We studied 138 consecutive patients with heavy snoring and possible OSAS. Patients underwent unattended overnight home polysomnography. Ten patients with severe OSAS were revaluated after 6 months of nCPAP therapy. To assess oxidative stress in vivo, we measured urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and serum levels of soluble NOX2-derived peptide (sNOX2-dp. Serum levels of nitrite/nitrate (NOx were also determined. Flow-mediated brachial artery dilation (FMD was measured to asses endothelial function. Results Patients with severe OSAS had higher urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (p Conclusions The results of our study indicate that patients with OSAS and cardiometabolic comorbidities have increased oxidative stress and arterial dysfunction that are partially reversed by nCPAP treatment.

  17. Arsenic exposure from drinking water is associated with decreased gene expression and increased DNA methylation in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Syeda Shegufta; Engström, Karin; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Concha, Gabriela; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2017-04-15

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic increases the risk of cancer and non-malignant diseases. Inefficient arsenic metabolism is a marker for susceptibility to arsenic toxicity. Arsenic may alter gene expression, possibly by altering DNA methylation. To elucidate the associations between arsenic exposure, gene expression, and DNA methylation in peripheral blood, and the modifying effects of arsenic metabolism. The study participants, women from the Andes, Argentina, were exposed to arsenic via drinking water. Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of arsenic metabolites in urine (U-As), using high performance liquid-chromatography hydride-generation inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry, and arsenic metabolism efficiency was assessed by the urinary fractions (%) of the individual metabolites. Genome-wide gene expression (N=80 women) and DNA methylation (N=93; 80 overlapping with gene expression) in peripheral blood were measured using Illumina DirectHyb HumanHT-12 v4.0 and Infinium Human-Methylation 450K BeadChip, respectively. U-As concentrations, ranging 10-1251μg/L, was associated with decreased gene expression: 64% of the top 1000 differentially expressed genes were down-regulated with increasing U-As. U-As was also associated with hypermethylation: 87% of the top 1000CpGs were hypermethylated with increasing U-As. The expression of six genes and six individual CpG sites were significantly associated with increased U-As concentration. Pathway analyses revealed enrichment of genes related to cell death and cancer. The pathways differed somewhat depending on arsenic metabolism efficiency. We found no overlap between arsenic-related gene expression and DNA methylation for individual genes. Increased arsenic exposure was associated with lower gene expression and hypermethylation in peripheral blood, but with no evident overlap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Philip R; Eyeghe-Bickong, Hans A; du Plessis, Kari; Alexandersson, Erik; Jacobson, Dan A; Coetzee, Zelmari; Deloire, Alain; Vivier, Melané A

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) 'Sauvignon Blanc' berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Grapevine Plasticity in Response to an Altered Microclimate: Sauvignon Blanc Modulates Specific Metabolites in Response to Increased Berry Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Kari; Jacobson, Dan A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the metabolic and physiological impacts of an altered microclimate on quality-associated primary and secondary metabolites in grape (Vitis vinifera) ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ berries was determined in a high-altitude vineyard. The leaf and lateral shoot removal in the bunch zones altered the microclimate by increasing the exposure of the berries. The physical parameters (berry diameter and weight), primary metabolites (sugars and organic acids), as well as bunch temperature and leaf water potential were predominantly not affected by the treatment. The increased exposure led to higher levels of specific carotenoids and volatile terpenoids in the exposed berries, with earlier berry stages reacting distinctly from the later developmental stages. Plastic/nonplastic metabolite responses could be further classified to identify metabolites that were developmentally controlled and/or responded to the treatment in a predictable fashion (assessed over two consecutive vintages). The study demonstrates that grapevine berries exhibit a degree of plasticity within their secondary metabolites and respond physiologically to the increased exposure by increasing metabolites with potential antioxidant activity. Taken together, the data provide evidence that the underlying physiological responses relate to the maintenance of stress pathways by modulating antioxidant molecules in the berries. PMID:26628747

  20. The prevalence of chromium allergy in Denmark is currently increasing as a result of leather exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Jensen, P; Carlsen, B C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chromium allergy has traditionally been caused by occupational skin contact with cement. In 1983, Danish legislation made the addition of ferrous sulphate compulsory in cement to reduce the water-soluble chromium content to not more than 2 ppm. An effect from this intervention has...... previously been demonstrated among Danish construction workers. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the development of chromium allergy among patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007 in Denmark. Furthermore, to determine causative exposures in patients with chromium allergy. PATIENTS AND METHODS......: A retrospective analysis of patch test data was performed (n = 16,228) and charts from patients with chromium allergy were reviewed. Comparisons were made using a chi(2) test. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of chromium allergy decreased significantly from...

  1. Single exposure to disclaimers on airbrushed thin ideal images increases negative thought accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimbegović, Leila; Chatard, Armand

    2015-01-01

    Disclaimers on airbrushed thin ideal images can attract attention to the thin ideal standard promoted by the advertisements, which can be damaging rather than helpful. In this study, 48 female college students were exposed to a thin ideal image including a disclaimer, a neutral sentence, or nothing. Two weeks and two months after this, they were again exposed to the same image but with no accompanying text in any of the conditions. Negative thought accessibility was assessed three times, after each exposure to the thin-ideal image, using reaction time measures. Participants randomly assigned to the disclaimer condition systematically showed greater accessibility of negative thoughts than those in the other two conditions, irrespective of the time of measurement. These results suggest that disclaimers on airbrushed images may have some counter-productive effects by accentuating the problems that they precisely aim to address. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Coal-tar pavement sealants might substantially increase children's PAH exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E. Spencer; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Dietary ingestion has been identified repeatedly as the primary route of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven of which are classified as probable human carcinogens (B2 PAHs) by the U.S. EPA. Humans are exposed to PAHs through ingestion of cooked and uncooked foods, incidental ingestion of soil and dust, inhalation of ambient air, and absorption through skin. Although PAH sources are ubiquitous in the environment, one recently identified PAH source stands out: Coal-tar-based pavement sealant—a product applied to many parking lots, driveways, and even playgrounds primarily in the central, southern, and eastern U.S.—has PAH concentrations 100–1000 times greater than most other PAH sources. It was reported recently that PAH concentrations in house dust in residences adjacent to parking lots with coal-tar-based sealant were 25 times higher than in residences adjacent to unsealed asphalt parking lots.

  3. Exposure to Blue Light Increases Subsequent Functional Activation of the Prefrontal Cortex During Performance of a Working Memory Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Pisner, Derek A; Vanuk, John R; Berryhill, Sarah M; Fridman, Andrew; Shane, Bradley R; Knight, Sara A; Killgore, William D S

    2016-09-01

    Prolonged exposure to blue wavelength light has been shown to have an alerting effect, and enhances performance on cognitive tasks. A small number of studies have also shown that relatively short exposure to blue light leads to changes in functional brain responses during the period of exposure. The extent to which blue light continues to affect brain functioning during a cognitively challenging task after cessation of longer periods of exposure (i.e., roughly 30 minutes or longer), however, has not been fully investigated. A total of 35 healthy participants (18 female) were exposed to either blue (469 nm) (n = 17) or amber (578 nm) (n = 18) wavelength light for 30 minutes in a darkened room, followed immediately by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while undergoing a working memory task (N-back task). Participants in the blue light condition were faster in their responses on the N-back task and showed increased activation in the dorsolateral (DLPFC) and ventrolateral (VLPFC) prefrontal cortex compared to those in the amber control light condition. Furthermore, greater activation within the VLPFC was correlated with faster N-back response times. This is the first study to suggest that a relatively brief, single exposure to blue light has a subsequent beneficial effect on working memory performance, even after cessation of exposure, and leads to temporarily persisting functional brain changes within prefrontal brain regions associated with executive functions. These findings may have broader implication for using blue-enriched light in a variety of work settings where alertness and quick decision-making are important. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  5. Prenatal exposure to dexamethasone in the mouse alters cardiac growth patterns and increases pulse pressure in aged male offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids during development can result in later cardiovascular and renal disease in sheep and rats. Although prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with impaired renal development, less is known about effects on the developing heart. This study aimed to examine the effects of a short-term exposure to dexamethasone (60 hours from embryonic day 12.5 on the developing mouse heart, and cardiovascular function in adult male offspring. Dexamethasone (DEX exposed fetuses were growth restricted compared to saline treated controls (SAL at E14.5, but there was no difference between groups at E17.5. Heart weights of the DEX fetuses also tended to be smaller at E14.5, but not different at E17.5. Cardiac AT1aR, Bax, and IGF-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased by DEX compared to SAL at E17.5. In 12-month-old offspring DEX exposure caused an increase in basal blood pressure of ~3 mmHg. In addition, DEX exposed mice had a widened pulse pressure compared to SAL. DEX exposed males at 12 months had an approximate 25% reduction in nephron number compared to SAL, but no difference in cardiomyocyte number. Exposure to DEX in utero appears to adversely impact on nephrogenesis and heart growth but is not associated with a cardiomyocyte deficit in male mice in adulthood, possibly due to compensatory growth of the myocardium following the initial insult. However, the widened pulse pressure may be indicative of altered vascular compliance.

  6. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible fo...

  7. Hypoxia-induced PD-L1/PD-1 crosstalk impairs T-cell function in sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Avendaño-Ortiz, Jose; Hernandez-Jimenez, Enrique; Toledano, Victor; Casas-Martin, Jose; Varela-Serrano, Anibal; Torres, Marta; Almendros, Isaac; Casitas, Raquel; Fernández-Navarro, Isabel; Garcia-Sanchez, Aldara; Aguirre, Luis A; Farre, Ramón; López-Collazo, Eduardo; García-Rio, Francisco

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with higher cancer incidence, tumour aggressiveness and cancer mortality, as well as greater severity of infections, which have been attributed to an immune deregulation. We studied the expression of programmed cell death (PD)-1 receptor and its ligand (PD-L1) on immune cells from patients with OSA, and its consequences on immune-suppressing activity. We report that PD-L1 was overexpressed on monocytes and PD-1 was overexpressed on CD8 + T-cells in a severity-dependent manner. PD-L1 and PD-1 overexpression were induced in both the human in vitro and murine models of intermittent hypoxia, as well as by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α transfection. PD-L1/PD-1 crosstalk suppressed T-cell proliferation and activation of autologous T-lymphocytes and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8 + T-cells. In addition, monocytes from patients with OSA exhibited high levels of retinoic acid related orphan receptor, which might explain the differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Intermittent hypoxia upregulated the PD-L1/PD-1 crosstalk in patients with OSA, resulting in a reduction in CD8 + T-cell activation and cytotoxicity, providing biological plausibility to the increased incidence and aggressiveness of cancer and the higher risk of infections described in these patients. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  8. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Logrieco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  9. Lead concentration increase in the hepatic and gill soluble fractions of European chub (Squalius cephalus)-an indicator of increased Pb exposure from the river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Strižak, Zeljka; Raspor, Biserka

    2012-07-01

    To examine if chronic exposure of feral fish to elevated Pb concentrations in the river water (up to 1 μg L(-1)), which are still lower than European recommendations for dissolved Pb in surface waters (7.2 μg L(-1); EPCEU (Official J L 348:84, 2008)), would result in Pb accumulation in selected fish tissues. Lead concentrations were determined by use of HR ICP-MS in the gill and hepatic soluble fractions of European chub (Squalius cephalus) caught in the Sutla River (Croatia-Slovenia). At the site with increased dissolved Pb in the river water, soluble gill Pb levels (17.3 μg L(-1)) were approximately 20 times higher compared to uncontaminated sites (0.85 μg L(-1)), whereas the ratio between contaminated (18.1 μg L(-1)) and uncontaminated sites (1.17 μg L(-1)) was lower for liver (15.5). Physiological variability of basal Pb concentrations in soluble gill and hepatic fractions associated to fish size, condition, sex, or age was not observed, excluding the possibility that Pb increase in chub tissues at contaminated site could be the consequence of studied biotic parameters. However, in both tissues of Pb-exposed specimens, females accumulated somewhat more Pb than males, making female chubs potentially more susceptible to possible toxic effects. The fact that Pb increase in gill and hepatic soluble fractions of the European chub was not caused by biotic factors and was spatially restricted to one site with increased dissolved Pb concentration in the river water points to the applicability of this parameter as early indicator of Pb exposure in monitoring of natural waters.

  10. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  11. Increase in nephrology advanced trainee numbers in Australia and associated reduction in clinical exposure over the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, L; Toussaint, N D; Phoon, R K; Elias, T J; Levidiotis, V; Campbell, S B; Walker, A M; Harrex, C

    2013-03-01

    Advanced training in nephrology should provide broad experience in all aspects of nephrology. In Australia, the Specialist Advisory Committee in Nephrology oversees nephrology training, and recent increases in advanced trainee numbers have led to concern about dilution of training experience. No study has examined variations in clinical exposure for nephrology trainees in Australia. To assess the changes in nephrology advanced training in Australia with respect to trainee numbers and exposure to patients and procedures over the past 10 years. A retrospective study was performed by obtaining all available Royal Australasian College of Physician supervisor reports from 2000 to 2010 to determine differences in clinical exposure and procedures performed by nephrology trainees. Five hundred and forty-two reports were reviewed involving 208 nephrology trainees in Australia across 53 different training sites. In 2000, 22 trainees were undertaking a core clinical year of training. Trainee numbers have steadily risen from 33 in 2004 to 84 in 2010. The greatest increases have occurred in New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland (sixfold, threefold and fivefold increases respectively). Trainee exposure to dialysis patients has gradually decreased in the past decade. The average number per trainee per year in 2000 compared with 2010 were 66 versus 43 (P = 0.02) and 28 versus 16 (P = 0.01) for haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis respectively. Acute kidney injury cases per trainee showed a gradual nonsignificant reduction over time and average procedural numbers per trainee decreased significantly from 2000 to 2010 with fewer temporary dialysis catheters inserted per year (39 vs 10, P nephrology advanced trainee numbers over the past decade at a more rapid rate than the growth in dialysis and transplant patient numbers. This study suggests that training experience has diminished over the past decade and supports a 3-year core clinical nephrology training programme in Australia

  12. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea: results of a randomised placebo controlled trial using parallel group design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, N.; Svanholt, P.; Solow, B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non......-advancement appliance (MNA); and (c) no intervention. The appliances were custom made, in one piece. The MAAs had a mean protrusion of the mandible of 74% (range 64-85%). Outcome measures, assessed after continuous use for 4 weeks, were AHI (polysomnography), daytime sleepiness (Epworth) and quality of life (SF-36...

  13. Changes of snoring sound after relocation pharyngoplasty for obstructive sleep apnoea: the surgery reduces mean intensity in snoring which correlates well with apnoea-hypopnoea index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Y; Lee, L A; Yu, J F; Lo, Y L; Chen, N H; Fang, T J; Hsin, L J; Lin, W N; Huang, C G; Cheng, W N

    2015-04-01

    To investigate objective changes of snoring after surgery in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and correlate these with changes in the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). Prospective case series. A novel measurement, Snore Map, was used to analyse full-night snore sounds in terms of the maximal/mean intensity, peak/mean frequency, snoring index and energy type (Snore Map type, 0-4). Snore sound was classified into three bands according to frequency energy spectrum: B1 (40-300 Hz), B2 (301-850 Hz) and B3 (851-2000 Hz). Thirty-four male and two female OSA patients (mean age, 39 years; mean AHI, 53.1/h; mean body mass index, 26.8 kg/m(2) ) with favourable anatomic structure were consecutively enrolled. Parameters of polysomnographies and Snore Maps at baseline and six months after operation were compared. Statistical significance was set at P snoring index was insignificant but there were significant decreases in total mean intensity, total peak frequency, total mean frequency and Snore Map type after surgery. There were also significant decreases in the mean intensity in all three bands, the snoring index in B2/B3 and the mean frequency in B1 postoperatively. Changes in the total mean intensity, total mean frequency, B2 mean intensity and B3 snoring index positively correlated with change in the AHI. Relocation pharyngoplasty significantly decreases both the snoring sound intensity and snoring frequency. These reductions are directly proportional to the improvement of OSA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Long-term exposure to benzalkonium chloride disinfectants results in change of microbial community structure and increased antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandukar, Madan; Oh, Seungdae; Tezel, Ulas; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2013-09-03

    The effect of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), a widely used class of quaternary ammonium disinfectants, on microbial community structure and antimicrobial resistance was investigated using three aerobic microbial communities: BACs-unexposed (DP, fed a mixture of dextrin/peptone), BACs-exposed (DPB, fed a mixture of dextrin/peptone and BACs), and BACs-enriched (B, fed only BACs). Long-term exposure to BACs reduced community diversity and resulted in the enrichment of BAC-resistant species, predominantly Pseudomonas species. Exposure of the two microbial communities to BACs significantly decreased their susceptibility to BACs as well as three clinically relevant antibiotics (penicillin G, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin). Increased resistance to BACs and penicillin G of the two BACs-exposed communities is predominantly attributed to degradation or transformation of these compounds, whereas resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin is largely due to the activity of efflux pumps. Quantification of several key multidrug resistance genes showed a much higher number of copies of these genes in the DPB and B microbial communities compared to the DP community. Collectively, our findings indicate that exposure of a microbial community to BACs results in increased antibiotic resistance, which has important implications for both human and environmental health.

  15. Paradoxical reaction of blood pressure on sleep apnoea patients treated with Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chaves Loureiro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS patients may develop hypertension and Positive Airway Pressure (PAP is an effective treatment in blood pressure (BP control. Objectives: Analyse a hypertensive OSAS population with unexpected BP rise after PAP usage and verify correlations between BP rise, either with OSAS severity index or nocturnal ventilatory support compliance. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective analysis of 30 patients with PAP treated OSA, for one year, on average, and with previous controlled hypertension, who developed a rise in BP, defined as augmentation of > 5 mmHg in systolic (SBP and/or diastolic BP (DBP, after PAP usage. Co-relational analysis of BP increase, with OSAS severity indexes and therapy compliance, using Pearson coefficient. Results: Of 508 consecutive patients followed in our Department, treated with nocturnal ventilatory support, 30 evolved with BP rise after initiating treatment (age 58 ± 10.8 years; Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index [AHI], 46.1 ± 18.68. After PAP usage, mean blood pressure (MBP, Systolic BP (SBP and Diastolic BP (DBP variation was 16 ± 15 mmHg, 20 ± 25 mmHg and 6 ± 19.4 mmHg, respectively. No patient showed significant BMI increase. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS value decreased 8.9 ± 5.48 points. MBP, SBP and DBP variations were not correlated with P90/P95, residual AHI, leaks or PAP compliance. Conclusions: No specific characteristics were identified in the group who developed a rise in BP with PAP usage. No correlations were found between rises in BP and OSAS severity indexes or PAP compliance. Neither BMI nor variation in wakefulness status explained the rise in BP. Studies relate polymorphisms of b1-adrenoreceptors with different BP responses to ventilatory support. More studies are needed to clarify the cause of this paradoxical response. Resumo: Introdução: Doentes com síndrome de Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono (SAOS podem desenvolver hipertensão arterial (HTA sendo a

  16. Problematic internet users' skin conductance and anxiety increase after exposure to the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Michela; Roaro, Alessandra; Re, Federica; Osborne, Lisa A; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil

    2017-12-01

    To examine the impact of cessation of an internet session on skin conductance responses and anxiety of higher and lower problem internet users, in order to explore possible physiological withdrawal effects. Participants were measured in terms of their skin conductance before (15min), during (15min), and after (15min) an internet session, and completed self-report measures of state anxiety and problematic internet use. Higher, but not lower, problem users showed increased skin conductance after internet use was stopped, relative to before their internet session. Higher problem users' GSR scores increased, as the time from internet cessation became longer. Higher problem users also showed increased levels of anxiety, following their internet session, which correlated with their skin conductance scores. These results suggest that, following termination of an internet session, withdrawal-like effects are seen, both psychologically and physiologically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnoea is frequent in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banghoej, Anne Margareta; Nerild, Henriette Holst; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Fleischer, Jesper; Jensen, Andreas Emil Kryger; Laub, Michael; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Tarnow, Lise

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is frequent in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence of OSA in patients with type 1 diabetes. In a cross-sectional design, all patients with type 1 diabetes attending the outpatient clinic were offered screening for OSA for one night with the ApneaLink+ home-monitoring device. OSA was classified by the Apnoea-Hypopnea index (AHI; apnoeas/hypopneas per hour sleep). Symptoms of OSA were scored using the Epworth Sleepiness Score. Presence of autonomic neuropathy was evaluated by the Vagus® device. A total of 200 of 518 eligible patients with type 1 diabetes (39%) participated (68% men; age 52±15years (mean±SD), diabetes duration 24±14years and BMI 25.3±3.3kg/m 2 ). OSA was diagnosed in 92 patients (46% (95% CI: 40-53)). Five patients had known OSA, and OSA was newly diagnosed in 87 patients, predominantly mild OSA (60 patients (69%)). OSA was present in 32% of the patients with normal BMI, in 60% of overweight patients, and in 61% of obese patients. Patients with type 1 diabetes and OSA were largely asymptomatic and did not report more sleepiness than patients without OSA. At multivariate analysis, age, BMI and presence of nephropathy were positively associated with risk of OSA. The prevalence of asymptomatic OSA is high in a cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes. Older age, overweight, and presence of nephropathy are associated with OSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of public perception of increased radiofrequency exposure from mobile phone in Southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladapo, O.O.; Ishola, G.A.; Ayokunnnu, D.O.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless communication devices have been increasingly used recently in Nigeria with a corresponding public perception of increase in radiofrequency (RF) radiation. This perception has developed into public concerns, thus requiring verification. For the purpose of verification, a survey in form of an opinion poll was conducted by means of an interview using questionnaires. The survey shows that people actually experienced symptoms like headache, fatigue, dizziness, and heat sensation. However, out of the respondents that have experienced one symptoms or the other, 84% still believe it is safe to use mobile phones. Only 4 % of those that claimed they experienced symptoms had consulted a doctor in connection with the symptoms.

  19. Plant responses to increased inundation and salt exposure: interactive effects on tidal marsh productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flooding and high salinity generally induce physiological stress in wetland vascular plants which may increase in intensity with sea-level rise (SLR). We tested the effects of these factors on seedling growth in a transplant experiment in a macrotidal estuary in the Pacific North...

  20. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  1. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…

  2. Increased exposure to yolk testosterone has feminizing effects in chickens, Gallus gallus domesticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riedstra, B.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    Competing for food by altricial and semiprecocial bird nestlings is a behaviour well known for its sensitivity to maternal androgens during prenatal development. Whether a similar effect is present in precocial species that do not beg is less well known. We therefore increased yolk testosterone

  3. Nutritional supplementation increases Rifampin exposure among tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeremiah, Kidola; Denti, Paolo; Chigutsa, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation to tuberculosis (TB) patients has been associated with increased weight and reduced mortality, but its effect on the pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is unknown. A cohort of 100 TB patients (58 men; median age, 35 [interquartile range {IQR}, 29 to 40] years...

  4. Morbidly obese patient with obstructive sleep apnoea for major spine surgery: An anaesthetic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Redhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbidly obese patients with clinical features of obstructive sleep apnoea can present a myriad of challenges to the anaesthesiologists which must be addressed to minimise the perioperative risks. Initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy early in the pre- and post-operative period along with appropriate anaesthetic planning is of paramount importance in such patients. This case report emphasises the usefulness of CPAP therapy, even for a short duration, to minimise morbidity, improve recovery and hasten early discharge from the hospital after major surgery.

  5. Flextube reflectometry and pressure recordings for level diagnosis in obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, C E; Grymer, L; Hilberg, O

    2002-01-01

    syndrome (OSAS) were included in the study. The mean (standard deviation = SD) number of flextube narrowings per hour recording was 50.2 (20.4) and the mean (SD) RDI (respiratory disturbance index = apnoeas and hypopnoeas per hour recording) determined by the ApneaGraph was 45.7 (20.2). The mean difference...... (SD) between the number of flextube narrowings per hour recording and the RDIs determined by the ApneaGraph was not statistically significantly different from 0. There was no statistically significant correlation between the percentage of retropalatal narrowing of the total narrowing (retropalatal...

  6. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  7. Exposure to Kynurenic Acid during Adolescence Increases Sign-tracking and Impairs Long-term Potentiation in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDeAngeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in brain reward systems are thought to contribute significantly to the cognitive and behavioral impairments of schizophrenia, as well as the propensity to develop co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Presently there are few treatments for persons with a dual-diagnosis and little is known about the neural substrates that underlie co-occurring schizophrenia and substance abuse. One goal of the present study was to determine if a change in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA, a tryptophan metabolite that is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia, affects reward-related behavior. KYNA is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, both of which are critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity, and behavior. In Experiment 1, rats were treated throughout adolescence with l-kynurenine (L-KYN, the precursor of KYNA. As adults, the rats were tested drug-free in an autoshaping procedure in which a lever was paired with food. Rats treated with L-KYN during adolescence exhibited increased sign-tracking behavior (lever pressing when they were tested as adults. Sign-tracking is thought to reflect the lever acquiring incentive salience (motivational value as a result of its pairing with reward. Thus, KYNA exposure may increase the incentive salience of cues associated with reward, perhaps contributing to an increase in sensitivity to drug-related cues in persons with schizophrenia. In Experiment 2, we tested the effects of exposure to KYNA during adolescence on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP. Rats treated with L-KYN exhibited no LTP after a burst of high frequency stimulation that was sufficient to produce robust LTP in vehicle-treated rats. This finding represents the first demonstrated consequence of elevated KYNA concentration during development and provides insight into the basis for cognitive and behavioral deficits that result from exposure to KYNA during

  8. Increased anxiety and impaired spatial memory in young adult rats following adolescent exposure to methylone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Jollee J; Hughes, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility that treatment of adolescent rats with the substituted cathinone, 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone), might result in heightened anxiety and/or impaired memory during early adulthood, as has been shown for other designer drugs. For 10 consecutive days from 35days after birth (PND35-44, early adolescence) or 45days after birth (PND45-54, late adolescence), male and female PVG/c rats were administered saline or 8.0mg/kg methylone via intraperitoneal injection. When 90days old (early adulthood), their anxiety-related behavior was recorded in an open field and a light/dark box. Acoustic startle amplitude was also measured as well as their spatial memory which was determined by their ability to detect which arm of a Y maze had changed in brightness between an acquisition and a retention trial. Previously methylone-treated rats showed increased anxiety-related behavior only in the open field as reflected in decreased ambulation, and increased corner occupancy and defecation. In the latter two cases, the increases depended on the age of treatment. Also, for defecation, only male rats were affected. In addition, methylone-treated rats displayed signs of impaired spatial memory, independent of anxiety, through their reduced ability to detect a novel changed Y-maze arm. The results of the study suggested some possible consequences in adulthood of methylone use during adolescence. There were also several examples of female rats exhibiting higher overall frequencies of activity and anxiety-related responding than males that were consistent with them being the more active and less anxious of the two sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Gray, Joshua P.; Shakarjian, Michael P.; Laskin, Debra L.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) is a widely used herbicide known to induce skin toxicity. This is thought to be due to oxidative stress resulting from the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during paraquat redox cycling. The skin contains a diverse array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein-2 (MT-2), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST). In the present studies we compared paraquat redox cycling in primary cultures of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse keratinocytes and determined if this was associated with oxidative stress and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes. We found that paraquat readily undergoes redox cycling in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes, generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide as well as increased protein oxidation which was greater in differentiated cells. Paraquat treatment also resulted in increased expression of HO-1, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, GSTP1, GSTA3 and GSTA4. However, no major differences in expression of these enzymes were evident between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In contrast, expression of GSTA1-2 was significantly greater in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells after paraquat treatment. No changes in expression of MT-2, Mn-SOD, GPx-1, GSTM1 or the microsomal GST's mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3, were observed in response to paraquat. These data demonstrate that paraquat induces oxidative stress in keratinocytes leading to increased expression of antioxidant genes. These intracellular proteins may be important in protecting the skin from paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity

  10. Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier David A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD or cerebral degeneration (CD (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991–2000 within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD database. TD cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (odds ratio (OR=1.59, p<0.00001, first two-months-of-life (OR=1.59, p<0.00001, and first six-months-of-life (OR=2.97, p<0.00001. Male TD cases were significantly more likely than male controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (OR =1.65, p<0.0001, first two-months-of-life (OR=1.64, p<0.0001, and first six months-of-life (OR=2.47, p<0.05, where as female TD were significantly more likely than female controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first six-months-of-life (OR=4.97, p<0.05. By contrast, CD cases were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB administered at any period studied within the first six-months-of-life. Although routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool to combat infectious diseases, the present study associates increasing organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB and the subsequent risk of a TD diagnosis.

  11. Maternal exposure to ambient PM10during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital heart defects: Evidence from machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhoupeng; Zhu, Jun; Gao, Yanfang; Yin, Qian; Hu, Maogui; Dai, Li; Deng, Changfei; Yi, Lin; Deng, Kui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Xiaohong; Wang, Jinfeng

    2018-02-19

    Previous research suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants and risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs), though the effects of particulate matter ≤10μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) on CHDs are inconsistent. We used two machine learning models (i.e., random forest (RF) and gradient boosting (GB)) to investigate the non-linear effects of PM 10 exposure during the critical time window, weeks 3-8 in pregnancy, on risk of CHDs. From 2009 through 2012, we carried out a population-based birth cohort study on 39,053 live-born infants in Beijing. RF and GB models were used to calculate odds ratios for CHDs associated with increase in PM 10 exposure, adjusting for maternal and perinatal characteristics. Maternal exposure to PM 10 was identified as the primary risk factor for CHDs in all machine learning models. We observed a clear non-linear effect of maternal exposure to PM 10 on CHDs risk. Compared to 40μgm -3 , the following odds ratios resulted: 1) 92μgm -3 [RF: 1.16 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.28); GB: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.35)]; 2) 111μgm -3 [RF: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.14); GB: 1.04 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.08)]; 3) 124μgm -3 [RF: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10); GB: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.02)]; 4) 190μgm -3 [RF: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.44); GB: 1.71 (95% CI: 1.04, 2.17)]. Overall, both machine models showed an association between maternal exposure to ambient PM 10 and CHDs in Beijing, highlighting the need for non-linear methods to investigate dose-response relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sub-lethal cadmium exposure increases phytochelatin concentrations in the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SF, Gonçalves [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); SK, Davies [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bennett, M. [Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Raab, A.; Feldmann, J. [TESLA, Department of Chemistry, University of Aberdeen, Meston Walk, Aberdeen AB24 3UE, Scotland (United Kingdom); Kille, P. [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3US (United Kingdom); Loureiro, S. [Department of Biology & CESAM, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); DJ, Spurgeon [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Maclean Building, Benson Lane, Wallingford OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); JG, Bundy, E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Phytochelatins are metal-binding metabolites found in almost all plant species and some animal groups, including nematodes and annelids, where they can play an important role in detoxifying metals such as cadmium. Species from several other taxa contain a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene orthologue, including molluscs, indicating they may have the potential to synthesize phytochelatins. However, the presence of a gene alone does not demonstrate that it plays a functional role in metal detoxification. In the present study, we show that the aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis produced both penta- and heptapeptide phytochelatins (i.e. phytochelatin-2 and phytochelatin-3), and their levels increased in response to sub-lethal levels of cadmium. - Highlights: • Little is known about the role of phytochelatins in metal detoxification in animals. • We detected phytochelatins (PC{sub 2} and PC{sub 3}) in a mollusc species, Lymnaea stagnalis. • Phytochelatins increased in Lymnaea stagnalis when exposed to cadmium. • Future research on phytochelatin responses in molluscs would be valuable.

  13. Increase in radiation-induced HPRT gene mutation frequency after nonthermal exposure to nonionizing 60 Hz electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, J; Shiu, E C; Hahn, G M

    1999-04-01

    It is widely accepted that moderate levels of nonionizing electric or magnetic fields, for example 50/60 Hz magnetic fields of about 1 mT, are not mutagenic. However, it is not known whether such fields can enhance the action of known mutagens. To explore this question, a stringent experimental protocol, which included blinding and systematic negative controls, was implemented, minimizing the possibility of observer bias or experimental artifacts. As a model system, we chose to measure mutation frequencies induced by 2 Gy gamma rays in the redox-sensitive hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We tested whether a 12-h exposure to a 60 Hz sinusoidally oscillating magnetic-flux density (Brms = 0.7 mT) could affect the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation on the HPRT gene locus. We determined that the magnetic-field exposure induced an approximate 1.8-fold increase in HPRT mutation frequency. Additional experiments at Brms = 0.23 and 0.47 mT revealed that the effect was reduced at lower flux densities. The field exposure did not enhance radiation-induced cytotoxicity or mutation frequencies in cells not exposed to ionizing radiation. These results suggest that moderate-strength, oscillating magnetic fields may act as an enhancer of mutagenesis in mammalian cells.

  14. Exposure to Sublethal Doses of Fipronil and Thiacloprid Highly Increases Mortality of Honeybees Previously Infected by Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidau, Cyril; Diogon, Marie; Aufauvre, Julie; Fontbonne, Régis; Viguès, Bernard; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Texier, Catherine; Biron, David G.; Blot, Nicolas; El Alaoui, Hicham; Belzunces, Luc P.; Delbac, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Background The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is undergoing a worldwide decline whose origin is still in debate. Studies performed for twenty years suggest that this decline may involve both infectious diseases and exposure to pesticides. Joint action of pathogens and chemicals are known to threaten several organisms but the combined effects of these stressors were poorly investigated in honeybees. Our study was designed to explore the effect of Nosema ceranae infection on honeybee sensitivity to sublethal doses of the insecticides fipronil and thiacloprid. Methodology/Finding Five days after their emergence, honeybees were divided in 6 experimental groups: (i) uninfected controls, (ii) infected with N. ceranae, (iii) uninfected and exposed to fipronil, (iv) uninfected and exposed to thiacloprid, (v) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days post-infection (p.i.) to fipronil, and (vi) infected with N. ceranae and exposed 10 days p.i. to thiacloprid. Honeybee mortality and insecticide consumption were analyzed daily and the intestinal spore content was evaluated 20 days after infection. A significant increase in honeybee mortality was observed when N. ceranae-infected honeybees were exposed to sublethal doses of insecticides. Surprisingly, exposures to fipronil and thiacloprid had opposite effects on microsporidian spore production. Analysis of the honeybee detoxification system 10 days p.i. showed that N. ceranae infection induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase activity in midgut and fat body but not in 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity. Conclusions/Significance After exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil or thiacloprid a higher mortality was observed in N. ceranae-infected honeybees than in uninfected ones. The synergistic effect of N. ceranae and insecticide on honeybee mortality, however, did not appear strongly linked to a decrease of the insect detoxification system. These data support the hypothesis that the combination of the increasing

  15. Is there an increase in radiation exposure to the population due to diagnostic dental radiography. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spens, E.

    1983-01-01

    Orthodontic cases were examined to assess the superficial and genetically significant gonadal doses accumulated by the patients. During the period of examination, the radiodiagnostic services showed a retrograde tendency. At an average number of 6 radiographs per patient and terminated case the mean superficial dosis in the maxillofacial region amounted to 0.039 Sv, and the mean genetically significant gonadal dosis to 0.0063 mSv. Consequently, the stochastic-somatic radiation risk was greater than the genetic one. From the relatively low frequency of teleradiographs (2.3%) and on the basis of statistical data indications for the need for teleradiological working places in the ambulatory orthodontic care in the GDR are deduced. According to a trend analysis of the yearly frequency distribution of radiographic techniques used for the visualization of the tooth system an increased utilization of orthopantomography in orthodontics, is necessary

  16. Long- term manure exposure increases soil bacterial community potential for plasmid uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musovic, Sanin; Klümper, Uli; Dechesne, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive and main......Microbial communities derived from soils subject to different agronomic treatments were challenged with three broad host range plasmids, RP4, pIPO2tet and pRO101, via solid surface filter matings to assess their permissiveness. Approximately 1 in 10 000 soil bacterial cells could receive...... and maintain the plasmids. The community permissiveness increased up to 100% in communities derived from manured soil. While the plasmid transfer frequency was significantly influenced by both the type of plasmid and the agronomic treatment, the diversity of the transconjugal pools was purely plasmid dependent...

  17. Neurobehavioral estimation of children with life-long increased lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetou-Marantidou, A.; Nakou, S.; Micheloyannis, J.

    1988-11-01

    A battery of neurobehavioral examinations was carried out on 30 children who were 6-11 yr of age and who had resided near a lead smelter all their lives. Their blood lead levels were 35-60 micrograms/100 ml and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels were greater than 100 micrograms/100 ml. Neurological examination revealed that they had a significantly higher incidence of pathological findings (e.g., muscle hypotonia, increased tendon reflexes, dysarthria, and dysdiadochokinesia) than children from an unpolluted area who were matched for age, sex, family size, and educational and socioeconomic status of the parents, but who had normal erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. The children with elevated blood lead levels showed, after assessment by the Oseretsky test, retardation of motor maturation; they also scored higher on the minimal brain damage scale of the Rutter behavioral questionnaire. These differences persisted at a 4-yr follow-up, and their school performance was consistently poorer than that of the controls.

  18. Time interval of increased risk for Clostridium difficile infection after exposure to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgens, Marjolein P M; Goorhuis, Abraham; Dekkers, Olaf M; Kuijper, Ed J

    2012-03-01

    Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) are common in developed countries and affect >250,000 hospitalized patients annually in the USA. The most important risk factor for the disease is antibiotic therapy. To determine the period at risk for CDI after cessation of antibiotics, we performed a multicentre case-control study in the Netherlands between March 2006 and May 2009. Three hundred and thirty-seven hospitalized patients with diarrhoea and a positive toxin test were compared with 337 patients without diarrhoea. Additionally, a control group of patients with diarrhoea due to a cause other than CDI (n=227) was included. In the month prior to the date of inclusion, CDI patients more frequently used an antibiotic compared with non-diarrhoeal patients (77% versus 49%). During antibiotic therapy and in the first month after cessation of the therapy, patients had a 7-10-fold increased risk for CDI (OR 6.7-10.4). This risk declined in the period between 1 and 3 months after the antibiotic was stopped (OR 2.7). Similar results were observed when the second control group was used. All antibiotic classes, except first-generation cephalosporins and macrolides, were associated with CDI. Second- and third-generation cephalosporins (OR 3.3 and 5.3, respectively) and carbapenems (OR 4.7) were the strongest risk factors for CDI. Patients with CDI used more antibiotic classes and more defined daily doses, compared with non-diarrhoeal patients. Antibiotic use increases the risk for CDI during therapy and in the period of 3 months after cessation of antibiotic therapy. The highest risk for CDI was found during and in the first month after antibiotic use. Our study will aid clinicians to identify high-risk patients.

  19. Exposure to chromium (VI) in the drinking water increases susceptibility to UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Todd; Kluz, Thomas; Burns, Fredric; Rossman, Toby; Zhang, Qunwei; Uddin, Ahmed; Nadas, Arthur; Costa, Max

    2004-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is a well known-human carcinogen with exposures occurring in both occupational and environmental settings. Although lung carcinogenicity has been well documented for occupational exposure via inhalation, the carcinogenic hazard of drinking water exposure to Cr (VI) has yet to be established. We used a hairless mouse model to study the effects of K 2 CrO 4 in the drinking water on ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin tumors. Hairless mice were unexposed or exposed to UVR alone (1.2 kJ/m 2 ), K 2 CrO 4 alone at 2.5 and 5.0 ppm, or the combination of UVR and K 2 CrO 4 at 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 ppm. Mice were observed on a weekly basis for the appearance of skin tumors larger than 2 mm. All the mice were euthanized on day 182. The skin tumors were excised and subsequently analyzed microscopically for malignancy by histopathology. There was a total absence of observable skin tumors in untreated mice and in mice exposed to chromate alone. However, there was a dose-dependent increase in the number of skin tumors greater than 2 mm in mice exposed to K 2 CrO 4 and UV compared with mice exposed to UV alone. The increase in tumors larger than 2 mm was statistically significant (P 2 CrO 4 at the two highest K 2 CrO 4 doses (2.5 and 5.0 ppm), and there was a statistically significant increase in the numbers of malignant tumors per mouse in the UVR plus K 2 CrO 4 (5 ppm) group compared with UV alone. The data presented here indicate that K 2 CrO 4 increases the number of UV-induced skin tumors in a dose-dependent manner, and these results support the concern that regulatory agencies have relative to the carcinogenic health hazards of widespread human exposure to Cr (VI) in drinking water

  20. Probenecid, an organic anion transporter 1 and 3 inhibitor, increases plasma and brain exposure of N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, Fanuel T; Daood, Monica J; Ocque, Jacob A; Nolin, Thomas D; Bayir, Hulya; Poloyac, Samuel M; Kochanek, Patrick M; Clark, Robert S B; Empey, Philip E

    2017-04-01

    1. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is being investigated as an antioxidant for several conditions including traumatic brain injury, but the mechanism by which it crosses membrane barriers is unknown. We have attempted to understand how the transporter inhibitor, probenecid, affects NAC pharmacokinetics and to evaluate the interaction of NAC with transporters. 2. Juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats were administered NAC alone or in combination with probenecid intraperitoneally. Plasma and brain samples were collected serially and NAC concentrations were measured. Transporter studies were conducted with human embryonic kidney-293 cells that overexpress organic anion transporter (OAT)1 or OAT3 and with human multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP)1 or MRP4 membrane vesicles. 3. NAC area under the curve was increased in plasma (1.65-fold) and brain (2.41-fold) by probenecid. The apparent plasma clearance was decreased by 65%. Time- and concentration-dependent NAC uptake that was inhibitable by probenecid was observed with OAT1 and OAT3. No uptake of NAC was observed with MRP1 or MRP4. 4. Our results indicate for the first time that NAC is substrate for OAT1 and OAT3 and that probenecid increases NAC plasma and brain exposure in vivo. These data provide insight regarding how NAC crosses biological barriers and suggest a promising therapeutic strategy to increase NAC exposure.

  1. Increased Serum Insulin Exposure Does Not Affect Age or Stage of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Diagnosis in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David T; Shah, Nilesh H; Zeh, Herbert J; Bahary, Nathan; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E

    2016-02-01

    In considering whether medications that increase insulin levels accelerate pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) development, we hypothesized that PC patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who used exogenous insulin or insulin-stimulating medications should have an earlier age at diagnosis or present with more advanced disease. Patients enrolled in our PC registry from June 1, 2003, to May 31, 2012, were stratified according to treatment solely with insulin, insulin-stimulating medications, or insulin-independent medications. Age at PC diagnosis, PC stage, and years between DM and PC diagnoses were analyzed among the cohorts. Of 122 DM patients (mean age, 67.4 ± 10.2 years), the mean ages at PC diagnosis within the insulin-only (n = 40), insulin-stimulating (n = 11), insulin-independent (n = 71), and non-DM (n = 321) cohorts were 68.7 ± 10.5, 69.6 ± 10.8, 66.3 ± 9.7, and 65.5 ± 10.5 years, respectively. No significant difference among the age at PC diagnosis was observed based on duration or type of DM treatment. There was no correlation between PC stage and increased insulin exposure. Anti-DM medications that increase exposure to insulin do not appear to accelerate PC development using outcomes of mean age at PC diagnosis, PC stage, or duration between DM and PC diagnoses.

  2. Does maternal exposure during pregnancy to higher ambient temperature increase the risk of hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Cakmak, Sedat; Demir, Demirhan Orsan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Yildiz, Yildiray; Horasanli, Kaya; Dalkilic, Ayhan

    2016-12-01

    The association between ambient temperature that the mother is exposed to during pregnancy and hypospadias has not been investigated by the studies, although the recent studies showed the correlation between some congenital malformations (congenital heart disease, neural tube defect, etc.) and ambient temperature. The aim was to investigate the relation between hypospadias and the ambient temperatures that the mother is exposed to during her pregnancy. The data of patients with hypospadias that had their gestational periods in Ankara and Istanbul regions, and had other urological treatments (circumcision, urinary tract infection, pyeloplasty, nephrolithotomy, etc.) between January 2000 and November 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The ambient temperature at 8-14 weeks of gestation was investigated for each patient by reviewing the data of the General Directorate of Meteorology, since this period was risky for development of hypospadias. The data including ambient temperature that the pregnant mother was exposed to, maternal age, parity, economical status, gestational age at birth, and birth weight were compared between two groups. The retrospective nature of the study may be a potential source for selection bias. The data of 1,709 children that had hypospadias repair and 4,946 children that had other urological treatments between 2000 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were no differences between the groups for maternal age, parity, economical status, gestational age at birth, and birth weight (Table). Analysis of exposed maximum and average ambient temperatures at 8-14 weeks of gestation revealed that July and August, hot periods in summer time, were more prevalent in the hypospadias group (p = 0.01). The average and maximum monthly ambient temperatures during summer increased the risk for hypospadias (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.52; and OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.99-1.54, respectively. In this paper, we evaluated the relation between hypospadias and the

  3. Exposure to superfluous information reduces cooperation and increases antisocial punishment in reputation-based interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel edos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is often based on reputation gained from previous interactions with third parties. Such reputation can be built on generous or punitive actions, and both, one’s own reputation and the reputation of others have been shown to influence decision making in experimental games that control for confounding variables. Here we test how reputation-based cooperation and punishment react to disruption of the cognitive processing in different kinds of helping games with observers. Saying a few superfluous words before each interaction was used to possibly interfere with working memory. In a first set of experiments, where reputation could only be based on generosity, the disruption reduced the frequency of cooperation and lowered mean final payoffs. In a second set of experiments where reputation could only be based on punishment, the disruption increased the frequency of antisocial punishment (i.e. of punishing those who helped and reduced the frequency of punishing defectors. Our findings suggest that working memory can easily be constraining in reputation-based interactions within experimental games, even if these games are based on a few simple rules with a visual display that provides all the information the subjects need to play the strategies predicted from current theory. Our findings also highlight a weakness of experimental games, namely that they can be very sensitive to environmental variation and that quantitative conclusions about antisocial punishment or other behavioral strategies can easily be misleading.

  4. Exposure to Tumescent Solution Significantly Increases Phosphorylation of Perilipin in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ilknur; Sutcu, Mustafa; Eren, Hilal; Keskin, Mustafa

    2017-02-01

    Lidocaine and epinephrine could potentially decrease adipocyte viability, but these effects have not been substantiated. The phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes may be predictive of cell viability. Perilipin coats lipid droplets and restricts access of lipases; phospho-perilipin lacks this protective function. The authors investigated the effects of tumescent solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine on the phosphorylation status of perilipin in adipocytes. In this in vitro study, lipoaspirates were collected before and after tumescence from 15 women who underwent abdominoplasty. Fat samples were fixed, sectioned, and stained for histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Relative phosphorylation of perilipin was inferred from pixel intensities of immunostained adipocytes observed with confocal microscopy. For adipocytes collected before tumescent infiltration, 10.08% of total perilipin was phosphorylated. In contrast, 30.62% of total perilipin was phosphorylated for adipocytes collected from tumescent tissue (P < .01). The tumescent technique increases the relative phosphorylation of perilipin in adipocytes, making these cells more vulnerable to lipolysis. Tumescent solution applied for analgesia or hemostasis of the donor site should contain the lowest possible concentrations of lidocaine and epinephrine. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Increased oxygen exposure alters collagen expression and tissue architecture during ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendrareddy, P K; Junges, R; Cygan, G; Zhao, Y; Marucha, P T; Engeland, C G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of increased oxygen availability on gene expression and on collagen deposition/maturation in the periodontium following disease. Male Wistar rats had ligatures placed around their molars to induce periodontal disease, and a subset of animals underwent hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment for 2 h twice per day. At 15 and 28 d, tissue gene expression of COL1A1, transforming growth factor-β1 and alkaline phosphatase was determined; other histological samples were stained with Picrosirius red to evaluate levels of collagen deposition, maturation and thickness. In animals that underwent HBO treatment, type I collagen expression was higher and collagen deposition, maturation and thickness were more robust. Reduced mRNA levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 and alkaline phosphatase in HBO-treated rats on day 28 suggested that a quicker resolution in both soft tissue and bone remodeling occurred following oxygen treatment. No differences in inflammation were observed between groups. The extracellular matrix regenerated more quickly in the HBO-treated group as evidenced by higher collagen expression, deposition and maturation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Surgical exposure of an impacted maxillary canine and increasing a band of keratinized gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate amount of keratinized gingival tissue that is under proper plaque control, is a fundamental requirement for periodontal health. When the teeth erupt uneventfully in the center of the alveolar ridge, an adequate amount of keratinized tissue will surround the erupted permanent tooth. Labially or buccally erupting teeth show reduced dimensions of the gingiva as abnormal eruption of permanent teeth restricts or eliminates the keratinized tissue between the erupting cusp and the deciduous tooth. A lack of attached gingiva poses a potential risk for gingival recession in labially or buccally erupted teeth due to the possibility of accumulation of plaque and/or traumatic tooth-brushing during subsequent orthodontic treatment. A good understanding between the orthodontist and periodontist along with proper management of periodontal tissues, can prevent these problems. Various surgical techniques can be employed to uncover impacted teeth. This paper discusses the validity of utilizing periodontal surgery to increase a band of keratinized tissue in a case of an impacted canine erupting from the alveolar mucosa.

  7. Body compositional and cardiometabolic effects of testosterone therapy in obese men with severe obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Camilla M; Yee, Brendon J; Phillips, Craig L; Machan, Elizabeth A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Liu, Peter Y

    2012-10-01

    The combination of male gender, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity magnifies cardiometabolic risk. There has been no systematic study evaluating whether testosterone therapy can improve cardiometabolic health in obese men with OSA by improving body composition, visceral abdominal fat and insulin sensitivity. To assess body compositional and cardiometabolic effects of testosterone treatment in obese men with severe OSA. An 18-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled and parallel group trial in 67 men. Participants (age=49 ± 12 years, apnoea hypopnoea index=39.9 ± 17.7 events/h, BMI=31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m(2)) were placed on a hypocaloric diet and received i.m. injections of either 1000 mg testosterone undecanoate (n=33) or placebo (n=34) for 18 weeks. Outcomes were the changes in body composition (total muscle mass, total and abdominal fat, total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerised tomography (CT)), weight, insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment), abdominal liver fat (CT), arterial stiffness (pulse wave analysis), resting metabolic rate and respiratory quotient (indirect calorimetry) and blood lipids and metabolic syndrome from baseline to week 18. After 18 weeks, testosterone treatment increased insulin sensitivity (-1.14 units, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -2.27 to -0.01, PTestosterone also decreased arterial stiffness (augmentation index) by 3.2% (95% CI -6.01 to -0.46%, P=0.02) and decreased the respiratory quotient (95% CI -0.04, -0.08 to -0.001, P=0.04) after 18 weeks compared with placebo. Eighteen weeks of testosterone therapy in obese men with OSA improved several important cardiometabolic parameters but did not differentially reduce overall weight or the metabolic syndrome. Longer term studies are required.

  8. Effects of CPAP in patients with obstructive apnoea: is the presence of allergic rhinitis relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, A; Aguilar, F; Montserrat, J M; Àvila, M; Torres, M; Iranzo, A; Berenguer, J; Vilaseca, I

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to compare the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the nasal cavities of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and with or without allergic rhinitis (AR/nonAR). This paper is a prospective, longitudinal study. Thirty-four consecutive CPAP treatment-adherent patients with OSA (17 AR and 17 nonAR) were evaluated before and 2 months after treatment, by means of clinical (otorhinolaryngological symptoms, daytime sleepiness, overall and rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life), anatomical (otorhinolaryngological examination), functional (auditory function, tubal function, nasal airflow, and mucociliary clearance), and biological variables (nasal cytology). No humidifier or anti-allergy medicines were used during treatment. Before treatment, patients with AR presented a higher score, compared to nonAR in rhinitis symptoms (4.82 ± 2.53 vs. 0.93 ± 1.02, p = 0.000), otologic symptoms (2.06 ± 1.95 vs. 0.44 ± 0.72, p = 0.004), cutaneous/ocular symptoms (2.12 ± 2.17 vs. 0.65 ± 1.17, p = 0.052), immunoglobulin E (181.82 ± 126.09 vs. 66.13 ± 97.97, p = 0.004), and nasal neutrophils (14.42 ± 31.94 vs. 0.16 ± 0.39, p = 0.031). After treatment, nonAR and AR groups improved in daytime sleepiness (11.53 ± 4.60 vs. 7.53 ± 2.87, p = 0.000 and 13.76 ± 4.93 vs. 7.53 ± 4.41, p = 0.001) respectively and increased nasal neutrophil (0.16 ± 0.39 vs. 5.78 ± 9.43, p = 0.001 and 14.42 ± 31.94 vs. 79.47 ± 202.08, p = 0.035). The symptoms and quality of life improved in patients with AR. NonAR patients, significantly increase nasal dryness (1.65 ± 1.27 vs. 0.00, p = 0.002) and mucociliary clearance times (38.59 ± 24.90 vs. 26.82 ± 23.18, p = 0.016). CPAP produces inflammation with increased nasal neutrophil levels in AR and nonAR patients. Nevertheless, patients with AR observed an improvement in nasal symptoms and quality of life, whereas in patients

  9. Unrecognised obstructive sleep apnoea is common in severe peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Karri T; Airaksinen, Juhani K; Polo, Olli; Raitakari, Olli T; Pietilä, Mikko J; Scheinin, Harry; Helenius, Hans Y; Leino, Kari A; Kentala, Erkki S; Jalonen, Jouko R; Hakovirta, Harri; Salo, Tiina M; Laitio, Timo T

    2013-03-01

    Patients needing surgery for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represent a severe form of atherosclerosis with an overall 5-yr mortality of 30% after revascularisation. The aetiology for poor post-operative clinical outcome in these high-risk patients is not fully established. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with atherosclerosis and is an independent risk factor for fatal and nonfatal cardiac events. Here, we determine the prevalence of undiagnosed OSA in a homogenous group of PAD patients undergoing subinguinal surgical revascularisation. 82 consecutive patients (mean age 67±9 yrs, 52 males) with sinus rhythm and without congestive heart failure or previously diagnosed OSA were enrolled for pre-operative polysomnography and echocardiography. OSA was present in 70 (85%) patients (95% CI 75-93%), of whom 24 (34%) had severe OSA. OSA was mostly asymptomatic, and age- and sex-adjusted multivariate regression analysis showed no relation to obesity, metabolic syndrome or any manifestation of atherosclerosis, other than PAD. Left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.002) and high-density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio (p = 0.03) were the only independent predictors for the severity of OSA. Thus, prevalence of OSA is unexpectedly high in patients with PAD and is not related to classical risk factors of sleep apnoea.

  10. The development of a screening questionnaire for obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eSanders

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea is a condition which affects an estimated 50% of children with Down syndrome, particularly in their early years. It can cause serious sequelae in affected children but may not be recognised by parents or health professionals. Routine screening has been recommended in some countries but is not standard practice. There are no validated questionnaire based tools available to screen this population of children for this particular sleep-related disorder. Using existing validated sleep questionnaire items, we have developed a questionnaire to screen children with Down syndrome up to 6 years of age for obstructive sleep apnoea, which corresponds with the recommendations made in UK national guidelines. This paper describes these first steps in demonstrating content validity for a new questionnaire which will be subject to further in-depth psychometric analysis. Relevance, clarity and age-appropriateness was rated for 33 items using a content review questionnaire by a group of 18 health professionals with expertise in respiratory paediatrics, neurodevelopmental paediatrics and sleep physiology. The content validity index was calculated for individual items and contributed to decisions about item inclusion. Scale level content validity index for the modified questionnaire of 14 items was at an accepted level of 0.78. Two parents of children with Down syndrome took part in cognitive interviews after completing the modified questionnaire. We describe the development of this 14 item questionnaire to screen for OSA in children with DS from infancy to 6 years.

  11. Memory monitoring and memory control in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daurat, Agnès; Huet, Nathalie; Tiberge, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome exhibit memory deficit. The present study looked at whether this deficit is related to impaired memory monitoring and/or memory control. Here 25 patients and 26 healthy controls performed a paired-associate learning task. After participants had made a judgement of learning for each pair and performed an initial recall test they were free to restudy any items they wished, for as long or little as they wished, within a 5-minute period. They then performed a second recall test. Monitoring and control processes were assessed on the basis of judgements of learning, item selection, and study-time allocation. In spite of their memory impairment, patients accurately predicted their recall. For the restudy phase patients preferentially selected the judged-easy items, while controls selected the judged-difficult items. However, all the participants allocated more restudy time to the judged-difficult items than to the judged-easy ones. There were no significant correlations between memory performance, metamemory processes, and clinical measures (i.e., subjective sleepiness, subjective sleep quality, anxiety, and depression scores). Results suggested that both memory monitoring and memory control were preserved in our sample of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

  12. Assessment of obstructive sleep apnoea treatment success or failure after maxillomandibular advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, M H T; Apperloo, R C; Milstein, D M J; de Lange, J

    2017-11-01

    Maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) is an alternative therapeutic option that is highly effective for treating obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). MMA provides a solution for OSA patients that have difficulty accepting lifelong treatments with continuous positive airway pressure or mandibular advancement devices. The goal of this study was to investigate the different characteristics that determine OSA treatment success/failure after MMA. The apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was used to determine the success or failure of OSA treatment after MMA. Sixty-two patients underwent MMA for moderate and severe OSA. A 71% success rate was observed with a mean AHI reduction of 69%. A statistically significant larger neck circumference was measured in patients with failed OSA treatments following MMA (P=0.008), and older patients had failed OSA treatments with MMA: 58 vs. 53 years respectively (P=0.037). Cephalometric analysis revealed no differences between successful and failed OSA treatment outcomes. There was no difference in maxillary and mandibular advancements between success and failed MMA-treated OSA patients. The complications most frequently reported following MMA were sensory disturbances in the inferior alveolar nerve (60%) and malocclusion (24%). The results suggest that age and neck girth may be important factors that could predict susceptibility to OSA treatment failures by MMA. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring knowledge and attitudes of taxi drivers with regard to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Ridvan T; Gander, Philippa H

    2010-08-27

    To examine the attitudes of taxi drivers towards symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), and to determine whether these attitudes could influence their health and safety as a professional driver. Qualitative research based on three focus groups conducted in Wellington, New Zealand. Participants were 27 taxi drivers who had a high pre-test risk for obstructive sleep apnoea. Assignment to focus groups was based on self-identification as being Maori and Pacific peoples, New Zealand European, or non-Maori and non-Pacific. Participants described avoidance of health issues and dissatisfaction with their general practitioners. These attitudes were attributable to: (i) lack of knowledge, (ii) deliberate avoidance, and (iii) fear of loss of employment and income. The attitudes and level of knowledge of the focus group participants lead us to make the following recommendations. Drivers need systematic education about the effects of insufficient sleep and of OSAS on driving skills and safety. Taxi managers and drivers should cooperate to develop and implement safe driving policies to manage driver fatigue. Clear guidelines are need for drivers, managers, and healthcare professionals on the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders among drivers, and their potential consequences for driver licensing.

  14. Multiclass classification of subjects with sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome through snoring analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà-Soler, Jordi; Fiz, José Antonio; Morera, José; Jané, Raimon

    2012-11-01

    The gold standard for diagnosing sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) is polysomnography (PSG), an expensive, labour-intensive and time-consuming procedure. Accordingly, it would be very useful to have a screening method to allow early assessment of the severity of a subject, prior to his/her referral for PSG. Several differences have been reported between simple snorers and SAHS patients in the acoustic characteristics of snoring and its variability. In this paper, snores are fully characterised in the time domain, by their sound intensity and pitch, and in the frequency domain, by their formant frequencies and several shape and energy ratio measurements. We show that accurate multiclass classification of snoring subjects, with three levels of SAHS, can be achieved on the basis of acoustic analysis of snoring alone, without any requiring information on the duration or the number of apnoeas. Several classification methods are examined. The best of the approaches assessed is a Bayes model using a kernel density estimation method, although good results can also be obtained by a suitable combination of two binary logistic regression models. Multiclass snore-based classification allows early stratification of subjects according to their severity. This could be the basis of a single channel, snore-based screening procedure for SAHS. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of craniofacial and upper spine morphology on mandibular advancement device treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess cephalometric predictive markers in terms of craniofacial morphology including posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology for mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.......01), mandibular prognathism (S-N-Pg; P important factor for the MAD...

  16. Sleep · 4: Sleepiness, cognitive function, and quality of life in obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Engleman, H; Douglas, N

    2004-01-01

    Sleepiness, cognitive performance, and quality of life are overlapping aspects of daytime function that may be affected in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome. The evidence is compatible with hypotheses that these deficits are reversible with treatment, particularly for patients with severe disease.

  17. Simulated driving in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea : effects of oral appliances and continuous positive airway pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Bakker, Marije; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.

    Impaired simulated driving performance has been demonstrated in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generally improves simulated driving performance, the effects of oral-appliance (OA) therapy are unknown. The aims of this

  18. [Obstructive sleep-apnoea syndrome: good results with maxillo-mandibular osteotomy after failure of conservative therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, A.J.; Damen, G.W.J.A.; Schreuder, K.E.; Leverstein, H.

    2005-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman and a 49-year-old man with symptoms of an obstructive sleep-apnoea syndrome benefited insufficiently from the therapy of choice, i.e. treatment with continuous positive airway pressure. Minor surgical procedures to improve the upper airways did not have the desired effect.

  19. An unattended device for sleep-related breathing disorders : Validation study in suspected obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zucconi, M; FeriniStrambi, L; Castronovo, [No Value; Oldani, A; Smirne, S

    Portable devices for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are considered to be an acceptable alternative to polysomnography (PSG), but their validation is essential, The aim of our study was to validate a device specifically designed for OSA diagnosis. Twenty nine suspected OSA patients

  20. Craniofacial morphology, head posture, and nasal respiratory resistance in obstructive sleep apnoea : An inter-ethnic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, M.L.; Sandham, John; Ang, PK; Wong, DC; Tan, WC; Huggare, J

    The aim of this study was to measure craniofacial morphology and nasal respiratory resistance (NRR) in Malay, Indian and Chinese subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The sample consisted of 34 male subjects, 27-52 years of age (Malay n = 11, which included five mild and six moderate-severe

  1. Are We overestimating the prevalence of depression in chronic illness using questionnaires? Meta-analytic evidence in obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanthakumar, Shenooka; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Depression is common in chronic illness, albeit prevalence can be highly variable. This variability may be a function of symptom overlap between depression and chronic illness. Using Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) as an exemplar, this meta-analysis explored whether the proportion of overlapping s...

  2. Atopic dermatitis increases the effect of exposure to peanut antigen in dust on peanut sensitization and likely peanut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Helen A; Liu, Andrew H; Sicherer, Scott; Makinson, Kerry; Douiri, Abdel; Brown, Sara J; Stephens, Alick C; Irwin McLean, W H; Turcanu, Victor; Wood, Robert A; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Lack, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    History and severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) are risk factors for peanut allergy. Recent evidence suggests that children can become sensitized to food allergens through an impaired skin barrier. Household peanut consumption, which correlates strongly with peanut protein levels in household dust, is a risk factor for peanut allergy. We sought to assess whether environmental peanut exposure (EPE) is a risk for peanut sensitization and allergy and whether markers of an impaired skin barrier modify this risk. Peanut protein in household dust (in micrograms per gram) was assessed in highly atopic children (age, 3-15 months) recruited to the Consortium of Food Allergy Research Observational Study. History and severity of AD, peanut sensitization, and likely allergy (peanut-specific IgE, ≥5 kUA/mL) were assessed at recruitment into the Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. There was an exposure-response relationship between peanut protein levels in household dust and peanut skin prick test (SPT) sensitization and likely allergy. In the final multivariate model an increase in 4 log2 EPE units increased the odds of peanut SPT sensitization (1.71-fold; 95% CI, 1.13- to 2.59-fold; P = .01) and likely peanut allergy (PA; 2.10-fold; 95% CI, 1.20- to 3.67-fold; P history of AD (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.26-3.09; P history of severe AD (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30-4.47; P history of AD (OR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.31-4.18; P < .01). Exposure to peanut antigen in dust through an impaired skin barrier in atopically inflamed skin is a plausible route for peanut SPT sensitization and PA. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  4. Sublethal Exposure to Diatomaceous Earth Increases Net Fecundity of Flour Beetles (Tribolium confusum) by Inhibiting Egg Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W.

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0–4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism

  5. Sublethal exposure to diatomaceous earth increases net fecundity of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum by inhibiting egg cannibalism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W Shostak

    Full Text Available Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0-4% diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for

  6. Sublethal exposure to diatomaceous earth increases net fecundity of flour beetles (Tribolium confusum) by inhibiting egg cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Allen W

    2014-01-01

    Population regulation results from an interplay of numerous intrinsic and external factors, and for many insects cannibalism is such a factor. This study confirms a previously-reported observation that sublethal exposure to the fossilized remains of diatoms (i.e. diatomaceous earth) increases net fecundity (eggs produced minus eggs destroyed/day) of flour beetles, Tribolium confusum. The aim was to experimentally test two non-mutually-exclusive ecological mechanisms potentially responsible for the increased net fecundity: higher egg production and lower egg cannibalism. Adult T. confusum were maintained at low or high density in medium containing sublethal (0-4%) diatomaceous earth. Net fecundity increased up to 2.1× control values during diatomaceous earth exposure, and returned to control levels following removal from diatomaceous earth. Cannibalism assays on adults showed that diatomaceous earth reduced the number of eggs produced to 0.7× control values at low density and to 0.8× controls at high density, and also reduced egg cannibalism rates of adults to as little as 0.4× control values, but at high density only. Diatomaceous earth also reduced cannibalism by larvae on eggs to 0.3× control values. So, while the presence of diatomaceous earth reduced egg production, net fecundity increased as a result of strong suppression of the normal egg cannibalism by adults and larvae that occurs at high beetle density. Undisturbed cultures containing sublethal diatomaceous earth concentrations reached higher population densities than diatomaceous earth-free controls. Cohort studies on survival from egg to adult indicated that this population increase was due largely to decreased egg cannibalism by adult females. This is the first report of inhibition of egg cannibalism by diatomaceous earth on larval or adult insects. The ability of diatomaceous earth to alter cannibalism behavior without causing mortality makes it an ideal investigative tool for cannibalism studies.

  7. Prenatal exposure to BPA alters the epigenome of the rat mammary gland and increases the propensity to neoplastic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dhimolea

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental estrogens (xenoestrogens may play a causal role in the increased breast cancer incidence which has been observed in Europe and the US over the last 50 years. The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA leaches from plastic food/beverage containers and dental materials. Fetal exposure to BPA induces preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the adult rat mammary gland. Previous results suggest that BPA acts through the estrogen receptors which are detected exclusively in the mesenchyme during the exposure period by directly altering gene expression, leading to alterations of the reciprocal interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. This initiates a long sequence of altered morphogenetic events leading to neoplastic transformation. Additionally, BPA induces epigenetic changes in some tissues. To explore this mechanism in the mammary gland, Wistar-Furth rats were exposed subcutaneously via osmotic pumps to vehicle or 250 µg BPA/kg BW/day, a dose that induced ductal carcinomas in situ. Females exposed from gestational day 9 to postnatal day (PND 1 were sacrificed at PND4, PND21 and at first estrus after PND50. Genomic DNA (gDNA was isolated from the mammary tissue and immuno-precipitated using anti-5-methylcytosine antibodies. Detection and quantification of gDNA methylation status using the Nimblegen ChIP array revealed 7412 differentially methylated gDNA segments (out of 58207 segments, with the majority of changes occurring at PND21. Transcriptomal analysis revealed that the majority of gene expression differences between BPA- and vehicle-treated animals were observed later (PND50. BPA exposure resulted in higher levels of pro-activation histone H3K4 trimethylation at the transcriptional initiation site of the alpha-lactalbumin gene at PND4, concomitantly enhancing mRNA expression of this gene. These results show that fetal BPA exposure triggers changes in the postnatal and adult mammary gland epigenome and alters gene

  8. Rayleigh scatter based order of magnitude increase in distributed temperature and strain sensing by simple UV exposure of optical fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranger, Sébastien; Gagné, Mathieu; Lambin-Iezzi, Victor; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-06-16

    We present a technique to improve signal strength, and therefore sensitivity in distributed temperature and strain sensing (DTSS) using Frequency domain Rayleigh scatter. A simple UV exposure of a hydrogen loaded standard SMF-28 fibre core is shown to enhance the Rayleigh back-scattered light dramatically by ten-fold, independent of the presence of a Bragg grating, and is therefore created by the UV exposure alone. This increase in Rayleigh back-scatter allows an order-of-magnitude increase in temperature and strain resolution for DTSS compared to un-exposed SMF-28 fibre used as a sensing element. This enhancement in sensitivity is effective for cm range or more sensor gauge length, below which is the theoretical cross-correlation limit. The detection of a 20 mK temperature rise with a spatial resolution of 2 cm is demonstrated. This gain in sensitivity for SMF-28 is compared with a high Ge doped photosensitive fibre with a characteristically high NA. For the latter, the UV enhancement is also present although of lower amplitude, and enables an even lower noise level for sensing, due to the fibre's intrinsically higher Rayleigh scatter signal.

  9. Urinary excretion of LH and testosterone from male rats during exposure to increased gravity: post-spaceflight and centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Morey-Holton, E.

    2000-01-01

    A dissociation between plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) appears to exist during exposure to altered gravity. The pulsatile nature of LH release and the diurnal variability of T secretion may mask or bias the effects of altered gravity on the pituitary-gonadal axis when analyzing plasma concentrations. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the excretion of urinary LH and T in male Sprague-Dawley rats during exposure to increased gravity upon return to Earth following a 14-day spaceflight (n = 6) and by 12 days of centrifugation at 2g (n = 8). Excreted LH and T were elevated on the first 3 days postflight. Excreted T was elevated between Days 1 and 8 of centrifugation; however, excreted LH was reduced on Days 2 and 3 compared with control animals. Excreted LH and T were significantly correlated (R = 0.731 and 0.706, respectively) in postspaceflight and centrifuged animals. Correlation curves had similar slopes (0.0213 and 0.023, respectively), but different y-intercepts (-1.43 and 3.32, respectively). The sustained increase in excreted T during centrifugation suggests that the pituitary-gonadal axis in postspaceflight animals may adapt quicker to increased gravity. The upward shift in the correlation curve exhibited by the centrifuged animals suggests that the sensitivity of LH-induced T release is increased in these animals. The previous dissociation between plasma LH and T during altered gravity was not observed in the present study in which excreted LH and T were measured.

  10. Diagnostic radiography exposure increases the risk for thyroid microcarcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Chen, Yingtai; Huang, Huang; Sandler, Jason; Dai, Min; Ma, Shuangge; Udelsman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence and diagnostic radiography exposures, particularly computed tomography (CT) scanning and nuclear medicine examinations, have increased substantially in the USA. However, very few epidemiologic studies have directly investigated their associations. A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut in 2010-2011, including 462 histologically confirmed incident thyroid cancer cases and 498 population-based controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between diagnostic radiography and the risk of thyroid cancer, controlling for potential confounding factors. Exposure to any form of diagnostic radiography was associated with an increased risk of well-differentiated thyroid microcarcinoma [tumor size≤10 mm, odds ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-5.81]. The highest risk increase occurred with nuclear medicine examinations (excluding cardiology tests and thyroid uptake studies; OR=5.47, 95% CI: 2.10-14.23), followed by chest CT scanning (OR=4.30, 95% CI: 1.66-11.14), head and neck CT scanning (OR=3.88, 95% CI: 1.75-8.63), upper gastrointestinal series (OR=3.56, 95% CI: 1.54-8.21), lower gastrointestinal series (OR=3.29, 95% CI: 1.41-7.66), kidney radiography involving dye injection into a vein or artery (OR=3.21, 95% CI: 1.20-8.54), mammography (OR=2.95, 95% CI: 1.14-7.61), chest radiography (OR=2.93, 95% CI: 1.37-6.29), and abdomen CT scanning (OR=2.54, 95% CI: 1.02-6.30). No significant associations were found between these imaging modalities and thyroid tumors larger than 10 mm. This study provides the first direct evidence that CT scanning and nuclear medicine examinations are associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. The novel finding that an array of diagnostic radiography procedures are associated with thyroid microcarcinomas warrants further investigation.

  11. Co-exposure to lead increases the renal response to low levels of cadmium in metallurgy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, R; Lison, D; D'Haese, P C; Weyler, J; De Graef, E; De Schryver, A; Lamberts, L V; van Sprundel, M

    2013-10-24

    Research on the effect of co-exposure to Cd and Pb on the kidney is scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of co-exposure to these metals on biomarkers of early renal effect. Cd in blood (Cd-B), Cd in urine (Cd-U), Pb in blood (Pb-B) and urinary renal biomarkers, i.e., microalbumin (μ-Alb), beta-2-microglobulin (β₂-MG), retinol binding protein (RBP), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) were measured in 122 metallurgic refinery workers examined in a cross-sectional survey. The median Cd-B, Cd-U, Pb-B were: 0.8 μg/l (IQR = 0.5, 1.2), 0.5 μg/g creatinine (IQR = 0.3, 0.8) and 158.5 μg/l (IQR = 111.0, 219.3), respectively. The impact of Cd-B on the urinary excretion of NAG and IAP was only evident among workers with Pb-B concentrations ≥ 75th percentile. The association between Cd-U and the renal markers NAG and RBP was also evidenced when Pb-B ≥ 75th percentile. No statistically significant interaction terms were observed for the associations between Cd-B or Cd-U and the other renal markers under study (i.e., μ-Alb and β2-MG). Our findings indicate that Pb increases the impact of Cd exposure on early renal biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Daily exposure to a running wheel entrains circadian rhythms in mice in parallel with development of an increase in spontaneous movement prior to running-wheel access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-01

    Entrainment of circadian behavior rhythms by daily exposure to a running wheel was examined in mice under constant darkness. Spontaneous movement was individually monitored for more than 6 mo by a thermal sensor. After establishment of steady-state free running, mice were placed in a different cage equipped with a running-wheel for 3 h once per day at 6 AM. The daily exchange was continued for 80 days. The number of wheel revolutions during exposure to the running wheel was also measured simultaneously with spontaneous movement. In 13 out of 17 mice, circadian behavior rhythm was entrained by daily wheel exposure, showing a period indistinguishable from 24 h. The entrainment occurred in parallel with an increase in spontaneous movement immediately prior to the daily wheel exposure. A similar preexposure increase was observed in only one of four nonentrained mice. The preexposure increase appeared in 19.5 days on average after the start of daily wheel exposure and persisted for 36 days on average after the termination of the exposure schedule. The preexposure increase was detected only when daily wheel exposure came into the activity phase of the circadian behavior rhythm, which was accompanied by an increase in the number of wheel revolutions. These findings indicate that a novel oscillation with a circadian period is induced in mice by daily exposure to a running wheel at a fixed time of day and suggest that the oscillation is involved in the nonphotic entrainment of circadian rhythms in spontaneous movement.

  13. Persistent increases in inflammatory cytokines, Akt, and MAPK/ERK pathways after inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole (LA) or amosite: comparison to effects after intratracheal exposure to LA or naturally occurring asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to LA and other mined or processed asbestos increases risk of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Health risks from exposure to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are not as well-understood. Mechanisms of long-term toxicity were compared in male F344 rats expo...

  14. Increase in hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation induced by prolonged exposure to LPS involves ghrelin and CB1R signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Priscila M S; Vechiato, Fernanda M V; Borges, Beatriz C; Rorato, Rodrigo; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2017-07-01

    Acute administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria induces hypophagia. However, the repeated administration of LPS leads to desensitization of hypophagia, which is associated with increased hypothalamic p-AMPK expression. Because ghrelin and endocannabinoids modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, we hypothesized that these neuromodulators play a role in the reversal of tolerance to hypophagia in rats under long-term exposure to LPS. Male Wistar rats were treated with single (1 LPS, 100μg/kg body weight, ip) or repeated injections of LPS over 6days (6 LPS). Food intake was reduced in the 1 LPS, but not in the 6 LPS group. 6 LPS rats showed an increased serum concentration of acylated ghrelin and reduced ghrelin receptor mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Ghrelin injection (40μg/kg body weight, ip) increased food intake, body weight gain, p-AMPK hypothalamic expression, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti related peptide (AgRP) mRNA expression in control animals (Saline). However, in 6 LPS rats, ghrelin did not alter these parameters. Central administration of a CB1R antagonist (AM251, 200ng/μl in 5μl/rat) induced hypophagia in 6 LPS animals, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system contributes to preserved food intake during LPS tolerance. In the presence of AM251, the ability of ghrelin to phosphorylate AMPK in the hypothalamus of 6 LPS group was restored, but not its orexigenic effect. Our data highlight that the orexigenic effects of ghrelin require CB1R signaling downstream of AMPK activation. Moreover, CB1R-mediated pathways contribute to the absence of hypophagia during repeated exposure to endotoxin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased levels of etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of long-term exposure to pure diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meili; Bin, Ping; Li, Haibin; Zhang, Xiao; Sun, Xin; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Dai, Yufei; Gao, Weimin; Yu, Shanfa; Gu, Guizhen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-02-01

    Etheno-DNA adducts are biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress. In this study, the aim was to detect the level of etheno-DNA adducts and explore the relationship between the etheno-DNA adducts and genotoxicity biomarkers of the diesel engine exhaust (DEE)-exposed workers. We recruited 86 diesel engine testing workers with long-term exposure to DEE and 99 non-DEE-exposed workers. The urinary mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and etheno-DNA adducts (εdA and εdC) were detected by HPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS, respectively. Genotoxicity biomarkers were also evaluated by comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The results showed that urinary εdA was significantly higher in the DEE-exposed workers (p<0.001), exhibited 2.1-fold increase compared with the non-DEE-exposed workers. The levels of urinary OH-PAHs were positively correlated with the level of εdA among all the study subjects (p<0.001). Moreover, we found that the increasing level of εdA was significantly associated with the increased olive tail moment, percentage of tail DNA, or frequency of micronucleus in the study subjects (p<0.01). No significant association was observed between the εdC level and any measured genotoxicity biomarkers. In summary, εdA could serve as an indicator for DEE exposure in the human population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic social comparison: Cognitive load facilitates an increase in negative thought accessibility after thin ideal exposure among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocage-Barthélémy, Yvana; Chatard, Armand; Jaafari, Nematollah; Tello, Nina; Billieux, Joël; Daveau, Emmanuel; Selimbegović, Leila

    2018-01-01

    Women are routinely exposed to images of extremely slim female bodies (the thin ideal) in advertisements, even if they do not necessarily pay much attention to these images. We hypothesized that paradoxically, it is precisely in such conditions of low attention that the impact of the social comparison with the thin ideal might be the most pronounced. To test this prediction, one hundred and seventy-three young female participants were exposed to images of the thin ideal or of women's fashion accessories. They were allocated to either a condition of high (memorizing 10 digits) or low cognitive load (memorizing 4 digits). The main dependent measure was implicit: mean recognition latency of negative words, relative to neutral words, as assessed by a lexical decision task. The results showed that thin-ideal exposure did not affect negative word accessibility under low cognitive load but that it increased it under high cognitive load. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social comparison with the thin ideal is an automatic process, and contribute to explain why some strategies to prevent negative effects of thin-ideal exposure are inefficient.

  17. Extracellular vesicle-packaged miRNA release after short-term exposure to particulate matter is associated with increased coagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pergoli, Laura; Cantone, Laura; Favero, Chiara; Angelici, Laura; Iodice, Simona; Pinatel, Eva; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Letizia, Marilena; Albetti, Benedetta; Tarantini, Letizia; Rota, Federica; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Tirelli, Amedea Silvia; Dolo, Vincenza

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and increased coagulation, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these associations remain unknown. Obesity may increase susceptibility to the adverse effects of PM exposure, exacerbating the effects on cardiovascular diseases. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which travel in body fluids and transfer microRNAs (miRNAs) between tissues, might play an important role in PM-induced cardi...

  18. Arrhythmic song exposure increases ZENK expression in auditory cortical areas and nucleus taeniae of the adult zebra Finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lampen

    Full Text Available Rhythm is important in the production of motor sequences such as speech and song. Deficits in rhythm processing have been implicated in human disorders that affect speech and language processing, including stuttering, autism, and dyslexia. Songbirds provide a tractable model for studying the neural underpinnings of rhythm processing due to parallels with humans in neural structures and vocal learning patterns. In this study, adult zebra finches were exposed to naturally rhythmic conspecific song or arrhythmic song. Immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene ZENK was used to detect neural activation in response to these two types of stimuli. ZENK was increased in response to arrhythmic song in the auditory association cortex homologs, caudomedial nidopallium (NCM and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM, and the avian amygdala, nucleus taeniae (Tn. CMM also had greater ZENK labeling in females than males. The increased neural activity in NCM and CMM during perception of arrhythmic stimuli parallels increased activity in the human auditory cortex following exposure to unexpected, or perturbed, auditory stimuli. These auditory areas may be detecting errors in arrhythmic song when comparing it to a stored template of how conspecific song is expected to sound. CMM may also be important for females in evaluating songs of potential mates. In the context of other research in songbirds, we suggest that the increased activity in Tn may be related to the value of song for assessing mate choice and bonding or it may be related to perception of arrhythmic song as aversive.

  19. Screening and managing obstructive sleep apnoea in nocturnal heart block patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Liu, Zilong; Chang, Su Chi; Fu, Cuiping; Li, Wenjing; Jiang, Hong; Jiang, Liyan; Li, Shanqun

    2016-02-16

    Nocturnal heart block often occurs in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). It is more likely to be undiagnosed in heart block patients who are ignorant of the symptoms of sleep disorder. Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) is a highly reliable way to discover the risk factors of OSA, whereas the validity in sleep-related heart block patients is uncertain. We performed an observational study to address these issues and confirmed the potential protective effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Patients who were previously diagnosed with nocturnal heart block with R-R pauses exceeding 2 seconds were retrospective screened from the ECG centre of Zhongshan hospital. These recruited participants completed Berlin Questionnaire and underwent polysomnography synchronously with 24-hour Holter monitoring. A cross-sectional analysis was performed to confirm the association between nocturnal arrhythmia and OSA, as well as to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the BQ. Subsequently, subjects diagnosed with OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index > 5) underwent 3 consecutive days of CPAP therapy. On the third day, patients repeated 24-hour Holter monitoring within the institution of CPAP. The symptoms of disruptive snoring and hypersomnolence in 72 enrolled patients were more related to the occurrence of nocturnal heart block (r = 0.306, 0.226, respectively, p = 0.015, 0.019) than syncope (r = 0.134, p = 0.282) and palpitations (r = 0.106, p = 0.119), which were prominent trait of our study population. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the BQ at a cut-off point of 5 of AHI for detecting OSA in heart block patients was 81.0 %, 44.4 %, 91.07 % and 25 %. Nocturnal heart block does not appear to occur exclusively in severe sleep apnoea. The frequent occurrence of arrhythmias in prominent oxygen desaturation supports the correlation between them. CPAP therapy resulted in significant decrease in the average number of

  20. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence.

  1. Hair cortisol concentrations and cortisol stress reactivity predict PTSD symptom increase after trauma exposure during military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias; Schönfeld, Sabine; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Trautmann, Sebastian; Alexander, Nina; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-09-01

    Previous evidence on endocrine risk markers for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been inconclusive. Here, we report results of the first prospective study to investigate whether long-term hair cortisol levels and experimentally-induced cortisol stress reactivity are predictive of the development of PTSD symptomatology in response to trauma during military deployment. Male soldiers were examined before deployment to Afghanistan and at a 12-month post-deployment follow-up using dimensional measures for psychopathological symptoms. The predictive value of baseline (i) hair cortisol concentrations (HCC, N=90) and (ii) salivary cortisol stress reactivity (measured by the Trier Social Stress Test, N=80) for the development of PTSD symptomatology after being exposed to new-onset traumatic events was analyzed. Baseline cortisol activity significantly predicted PTSD symptom change from baseline to follow-up upon trauma exposure. Specifically, our results consistently revealed that lower HCC and lower cortisol stress reactivity were predictive of a greater increase in PTSD symptomatology in soldiers who had experienced new-onset traumatic events (explaining 5% and 10.3% of variance, respectively). Longitudinal analyses revealed an increase in HCC from baseline to follow-up and a trend for a negative relationship between HCC changes and the number of new-onset traumatic events. Additional pre-deployment analyses revealed that trauma history was reflected in lower HCC (at trend level) and that HCC were negatively related to stressful load. Our data indicate that attenuated cortisol secretion is a risk marker for subsequent development of PTSD symptomatology upon trauma exposure. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings in other samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CORRELATION OF SEVERITY OF APNOEA HYPOPNOEA INDEX (AHI WITH FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME 1 (FEV1 IN OVERLAP SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Narasimhan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Overlap syndrome was first described by David Flenley in 1980 refers to the coexistence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA. The global prevalence of Overlap syndrome is 11-14% and 7.5% in India Overlap patients are at higher risk of developing Nocturnal desaturations, hypertension, congestive heart failure, stroke etc. resulting in greater mortality and morbidity. There are very few studies in India correlating factors like poor lung function, body mass index, high ESS score, MMRC dyspnea grading in COPD patients with OSA .Hence, this study was undertaken to correlate the association and severity of OSA using AHI with Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1, Body Mass Index (BMI, Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea grade (MRC and high Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective observational study, done in 66 COPD patients in Department of Respiratory Medicine, CHRI, Chennai. The diagnosis of COPD was based upon GOLD guidelines 2016. The OSA was diagnosed based on the American Academy of Sleep Medicine guidelines (AASMA. All COPD patients were subjected to detailed clinical history, thorough physical examination, ENT examination to rule out Upper airway obstruction. All patients were asked to fill up the Epworth sleepiness questionnaire. BMI was recorded. Dyspnea grading was done using MMRC scale. Patient was also subjected to Spirometry and overnight Polysomnography, RESULTS In patients with overlap syndrome, no correlation of statistical significance between the AHI and FEV1. Though, the grade of AHI showed an increase as the FEV1 decreased. Significant positive correlation was observed between AHI and MMRC as well as AHI and ESS. CONCLUSION In COPD patients FEV1 did not correlate with AHI grade and hence lung function cannot be used as predictor of OSA in COPD. However, simple clinical parameters like ESS and MMRC which show a positive correlation with AHI

  3. Association of daytime sleepiness with obstructive sleep apnoea and comorbidities varies by sleepiness definition in a population cohort of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Robert J; Appleton, Sarah L; Vakulin, Andrew; Lang, Carol; Martin, Sean A; Taylor, Anne W; McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick A; Catcheside, Peter G; Wittert, Gary A

    2016-10-01

    To determine correlates of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) identified with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and a more broad definition, while accounting for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in community dwelling men. Participants of the Men Androgens Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) Study (n = 837, ≥ 40 years) without a prior OSA diagnosis, underwent in-home full unattended polysomnography (PSG, Embletta X100), completed the ESS, STOP questionnaire and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in 2010-2011. In 2007-2010, questionnaires and biomedical assessment (in South Australian public hospital-based clinics) identified medical conditions. An alternate EDS definition (EDSAlt ) consisted of ≥ 2 of 3 problems (feeling sleepy sitting quietly; feeling tired/fatigued/sleepy; trouble staying awake). EDSAlt (30.4%, n = 253), but not ESS ≥ 11 (EDSESS , 12.6%, n = 104), increased significantly across OSA severity and body mass index categories. In adjusted analyses, EDSESS was significantly associated with depression: odds ratio (OR), 95%CI: 2.2 (1.3-3.8) and nocturia: 2.0 (1.3-3.2). EDSAlt was associated with depression, financial stress, relationship, work-life balance problems and associations with nocturia and diabetes were borderline. After excluding men with EDSESS , EDSAlt was associated with oxygen desaturation index (3%) ≥ 16 and the highest arousal index quartile but not with comorbidities. Sleepiness not necessarily leading to dozing, but not ESS ≥ 11, was related to sleep disordered breathing. Clinicians should be alert to (1) differing perspectives of sleepiness for investigation and treatment of OSA, and (2) the presence of depression and nocturia in men presenting with significant Epworth sleepiness regardless of the presence of OSA. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Behavioral teratologic studies using microwave radiation: is there an increased risk from exposure to cellular phones and microwave ovens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensh, R P

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the investigations presented in this review was to determine if there are adverse effects due to chronic prenatal microwave exposure in rats at term and/or alterations in neonatal and adult offspring psychophysiologic development and growth. Following the establishment of a nonhyperthermal power density level of microwave radiation, pregnant rats were exposed throughout pregnancy to continuous wave 915 MHz, 2450 MHz, or 6000 MHz radiation at power density levels of 10, 20, or 35 mW/cm2, respectively. Teratologic evaluation included the following parameters: maternal weight and weight gain; mean litter size; maternal organ weight and organ weight/body weight ratios; body weight ratios of brain, liver, kidneys, and ovaries; maternal peripheral blood parameters including hematocrit, hemoglobin, and white cell counts; number of resorptions and resorption rate; number of abnormalities and abnormality rate; mean term fetal weight. Mothers were rebred, and the second, nonexposed litters were evaluated for teratogenic effects. Exposed offspring were evaluated using the following perinatal and adult tests: eye opening, surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, open field, activity wheel, swimming, and forelimb hanging. Offspring were also monitored for weekly weight and weight gain. Animals exposed to 915 MHz did not exhibit any consistent significant alterations in any of the above parameters. Exposure to 2450 MHz resulted only in a significantly increased adult offspring activity level compared to nonexposed offspring. Offspring exposed to 6000 MHz radiation exhibited an initial slight, but significant, retardation in term weight, while mothers had a significantly reduced monocyte count. No changes in any of the other term parameters were observed. A few postnatal parameters were affected in offspring exposed to 6000 MHz. Weekly weights were lower in the exposed offspring, but they recovered by the fifth week. Eye opening was

  5. Effectiveness of transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange versus traditional preoxygenation followed by apnoeic oxygenation in delaying desaturation during apnoea: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Rajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE during apnoea has shown to delay desaturation. The primary objective was to compare time to desaturate to 200 mmHg even at 12 min of apnoea with a significant rise in PaCO2along with fall in pH after 6 min. Conclusion: During apnoeic periods time to desaturate to <90% was significantly prolonged with use of THRIVE.

  6. Increased CCL24/eotaxin-2 with postnatal ozone exposure in allergen-sensitized infant monkeys is not associated with recruitment of eosinophils to airway mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Debbie L.; Gerriets, Joan E. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schelegle, Edward S.; Hyde, Dallas M. [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, Lisa A., E-mail: lmiller@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Epidemiology supports a causal link between air pollutant exposure and childhood asthma, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have previously reported that ozone exposure can alter the anatomic distribution of CD25+ lymphocytes in airways of allergen-sensitized infant rhesus monkeys. Here, we hypothesized that ozone may also affect eosinophil trafficking to allergen-sensitized infant airways. To test this hypothesis, we measured blood, lavage, and airway mucosa eosinophils in 3-month old monkeys following cyclical ozone and house dust mite (HDM) aerosol exposures. We also determined if eotaxin family members (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) are associated with eosinophil location in response to exposures. In lavage, eosinophil numbers increased in animals exposed to ozone and/or HDM. Ozone + HDM animals showed significantly increased CCL24 and CCL26 protein in lavage, but the concentration of CCL11, CCL24, and CCL26 was independent of eosinophil number for all exposure groups. In airway mucosa, eosinophils increased with exposure to HDM alone; comparatively, ozone and ozone + HDM resulted in reduced eosinophils. CCL26 mRNA and immunofluorescence staining increased in airway mucosa of HDM alone animals and correlated with eosinophil volume. In ozone + HDM animal groups, CCL24 mRNA and immunofluorescence increased along with CCR3 mRNA, but did not correlate with airway mucosa eosinophils. Cumulatively, our data indicate that ozone exposure results in a profile of airway eosinophil migration that is distinct from HDM mediated pathways. CCL24 was found to be induced only by combined ozone and HDM exposure, however expression was not associated with the presence of eosinophils within the airway mucosa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ozone can modulate the localization of eosinophils in infant allergic airways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of eotaxins within the lung is affected by ozone and allergen exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCL24 induction by

  7. Ketogenic diet improves the spatial memory impairment caused by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia through increased acetylation of histones in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Huang, Xin; Cheng, Xiang; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Tong; Wu, Liying; Yu, Xiaodan; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes neuron cell damage, resulting in impaired cognitive function. Effective interventions to antagonize hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment are in urgent need. Ketogenic diet (KD) has been successfully used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and improves cognitive behaviors in epilepsy patients and other pathophysiological animal models. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential beneficial effects of a KD on memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia and the underlying possible mechanisms. We showed that the KD recipe used was ketogenic and increased plasma levels of ketone bodies, especially β-hydroxybutyrate. The results of the behavior tests showed that the KD did not affect general locomotor activity but obviously promoted spatial learning. Moreover, the KD significantly improved the spatial memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude of 6000 m, 24 h). In addition, the improving-effect of KD was mimicked by intraperitoneal injection of BHB. The western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed that KD treatment not only increased the acetylated levels of histone H3 and histone H4 compared to that of the control group but also antagonized the decrease in the acetylated histone H3 and H4 when exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Furthermore, KD-hypoxia treatment also promoted PKA/CREB activation and BDNF protein expression compared to the effects of hypoxia alone. These results demonstrated that KD is a promising strategy to improve spatial memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia, in which increased modification of histone acetylation plays an important role.

  8. Voriconazole more likely than posaconazole increases plasma exposure to sublingual buprenorphine causing a risk of a clinically important interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fihlman, Mari; Hemmilä, Tuija; Hagelberg, Nora M; Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Backman, Janne T; Laitila, Jouko; Laine, Kari; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Olkkola, Klaus T; Saari, Teijo I

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to determine possible effects of voriconazole and posaconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacological effects of sublingual buprenorphine. We used a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study design with 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were given a dose of 0.4 mg (0.6 mg during placebo phase) sublingual buprenorphine after a 5-day oral pretreatment with either (i) placebo, (ii) voriconazole 400 mg twice daily on the first day and 200 mg twice daily thereafter or (iii) posaconazole 400 mg twice daily. Plasma and urine concentrations of buprenorphine and its primary active metabolite norbuprenorphine were monitored over 18 h and pharmacological effects were measured. Compared to placebo, voriconazole increased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-∞ ) of buprenorphine 1.80-fold (90 % confidence interval 1.45-2.24; P Voriconazole, unlike posaconazole, increased the urinary excretion of norbuprenorphine 1.58-fold (90 % confidence interval 1.18-2.12; P Voriconazole, and to a minor extent posaconazole, increase plasma exposure to sublingual buprenorphine, probably via inhibition of cytochrome P450 3 A and/or P-glycoprotein. Care should be exercised in the combined use of buprenorphine with triazole antimycotics, particularly with voriconazole, because their interaction can be of clinical importance.

  9. Tongue-lip adhesion and tongue repositioning for obstructive sleep apnoea in Pierre Robin sequence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, M; Noller, M W; Zaghi, S; Reckley, L K; Fernandez-Salvador, C; Ho, E; Dunn, B; Chan, D K

    2017-05-01

    To search for studies on tongue-lip adhesion and tongue repositioning used as isolated treatments for obstructive sleep apnoea in children with Pierre Robin sequence. A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and three additional databases, from inception through to 8 July 2016, was performed by two authors. Seven studies with 90 patients (59 tongue-lip adhesion and 31 tongue repositioning patients) met the inclusion criteria. Tongue-lip adhesion reduced the mean (± standard deviation) apnoea/hypopnoea index from 30.8 ± 22.3 to 15.4 ± 18.9 events per hour (50 per cent reduction). The apnoea/hypopnoea index mean difference for tongue-lip adhesion was -15.28 events per hour (95 per cent confidence interval = -30.70 to 0.15; p = 0.05). Tongue-lip adhesion improved the lowest oxygen saturation from 75.8 ± 6.8 to 84.4 ± 7.3 per cent. Tongue repositioning reduced the apnoea/hypopnoea index from 46.5 to 17.4 events per hour (62.6 per cent reduction). Tongue repositioning improved the mean oxygen saturation from 90.8 ± 1.2 to 95.0 ± 0.5 per cent. Tongue-lip adhesion and tongue repositioning can improve apnoea/hypopnoea index and oxygenation parameters in children with Pierre Robin sequence and obstructive sleep apnoea.

  10. Diagnostic x-ray exposure increases the risk of thyroid microcarcinoma: a population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Chen, Yingtai; Huang, Huang; Sandler, Jason; Dai, Min; Ma, Shuangge; Udelsman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Thyroid cancer incidence and diagnostic x-ray exposures, particularly CT scans and nuclear medicine examinations have increased substantially in the United States. However, very few epidemiologic studies have directly investigated their associations. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut in 2010–2011 including 462 histologically confirmed incident thyroid cancer cases and 498 population-based controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between diagnostic x-rays and risk of thyroid cancer controlling for potential confounding factors. Results Exposure to any diagnostic x-rays was associated with an increased risk of well-differentiated thyroid microcarcinoma (tumor size ≤10 mm, OR=2.76, 95%CI: 1.31–5.81). The highest risk increase occurred with nuclear medicine examinations (excluding cardiology tests and thyroid uptake studies; OR=5.47, 95%CI: 2.10–14.23), followed by chest CT scans (OR=4.30, 95%CI: 1.66–11.14), head and neck CT scans (OR=3.88, 95%CI: 1.75–8.63), upper gastrointestinal series (OR=3.56, 95%CI: 1.54–8.21), lower gastrointestinal series (OR=3.29, 95%CI: 1.41–7.66), kidney x-rays involving dye injection into a vein or artery (OR=3.21, 95%CI: 1.20–8.54), mammograms (OR=2.95, 95%CI: 1.14–7.61), chest x-rays (OR=2.93, 95%CI: 1.37–6.29), and abdomen CT scans (OR=2.54, 95%CI: 1.02–6.30). No significant associations were found between these imaging modalities and thyroid tumors larger than 10 mm. Conclusions This study provides the first direct evidence that CT scans and nuclear medicine examinations are associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. The novel finding that an array of diagnostic x-ray procedures are associated thyroid microcarcinomas warrants further investigation. PMID:25932870

  11. Determinants of sexual dysfunction and interventions for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinke, E; Palm Johansen, P; Fridlund, B

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) may negatively affect a couple's sexual relationship. This systematic review evaluated what characteristics are determinants of sexual function and dysfunction in women and men with OSA, and what interventions are shown to be effective. METHODS: A systematic...... literature review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane and TRIP, and articles published between January 2004 and December 2014 in English; original research; adults ≥ 18 years; and both experimental and non-experimental designs. The Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool...... for Quantitative Studies was used to assess study quality. Of 21 studies, six studies (no randomised control trials, RCTs) included women and 15 (with six RCTs) studies included men. Extracted data were scrutinised and adjusted until consensus was reached; suitable quantitative data were pooled in statistical meta...

  12. Adolescent alcohol exposure reduces behavioral flexibility, promotes disinhibition, and increases resistance to extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Justin T; Glen, William Bailey; McGonigal, Justin T; Trantham-Davidson, Heather; Lopez, Marcelo F; Randall, Patrick K; Yaxley, Richard; Floresco, Stan B; Chandler, L Judson

    2014-10-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a brain region that is critically involved in cognitive function and inhibitory control of behavior, and adolescence represents an important period of continued PFC development that parallels the maturation of these functions. Evidence suggests that this period of continued development of the PFC may render it especially vulnerable to environmental insults that impact PFC function in adulthood. Experimentation with alcohol typically begins during adolescence when binge-like consumption of large quantities is common. In the present study, we investigated the effects of repeated cycles of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure (postnatal days 28-42) by vapor inhalation on different aspects of executive functioning in the adult rat. In an operant set-shifting task, AIE-exposed rats exhibited deficits in their ability to shift their response strategy when the rules of the task changed, indicating reduced behavioral flexibility. There were no differences in progressive ratio response for the reinforcer suggesting that AIE did not alter reinforcer motivation. Examination of performance on the elevated plus maze under conditions designed to minimize stress revealed that AIE exposure enhanced the number of entries into the open arms, which may reflect either reduced anxiety and/or disinhibition of exploratory-like behavior. In rats that trained to self-administer ethanol in an operant paradigm, AIE increased resistance to extinction of ethanol-seeking behavior. This resistance to extinction was reversed by positive allosteric modulation of mGluR5 during extinction training, an effect that is thought to reflect promotion of extinction learning mechanisms within the medial PFC. Consistent with this, CDPPB was also observed to reverse the deficits in behavioral flexibility. Finally, diffusion tensor imaging with multivariate analysis of 32 brain areas revealed that while there were no differences in the total brain volume, the volume of

  13. Aflatoxin B1exposure increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis C virus infection or alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yu-Ju; Yang, Hwai-I; Wu, Hui-Chen; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Liu, Jessica; Wang, Li-Yu; Lu, Sheng-Nan; Jen, Chin-Lan; You, San-Lin; Santella, Regina M; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2018-03-10

    Hepatocarcinogenicity of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) has rarely been studied in populations with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and those without hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV infection (non-B-non-C). This case-control study nested in a community-based cohort aimed to investigate the HCC risk associated with AFB 1 in HCV-infected and non-B-non-C participants. Baseline serum AFB 1 -albumin adduct levels were measured in 100 HCC cases and 1767 controls seronegative for anti-HCV and HBsAg (non-B-non-C), and another 103 HCC cases and 176 controls who were anti-HCV-seropositive and HBsAg-seronegative. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. In 20 years of follow-up, the follow-up time to newly developed HCC was significantly shorter in participants with higher serum AFB 1 -albumin adduct levels in non-B-non-C (p = 0.0162) and HCV-infected participants (p < 0.0001). Within 8 years of follow-up, HCV infection and AFB 1 exposure were independent risk factors for HCC. Elevated serum AFB 1 -albumin adduct levels were significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC newly developed within 8 years of follow-up in non-B-non-C participants with habitual alcohol consumption [crude OR (95% CI) for high vs. low/undetectable levels, 4.22 (1.16-15.37)] and HCV-infected participants [3.39 (1.31-8.77)], but not in non-B-non-C participants without alcohol drinking habit. AFB 1 exposure remained an independent risk predictor for HCV-related HCC after adjustment for other HCC predictors (multivariate-adjusted OR [95% CI], 3.65 [1.32-10.10]). AFB 1 exposure contributes to the development of HCC in participants with significant risk factors for cirrhosis including alcohol and HCV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep apnoea is associated with major cardiac events in peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Karri T; Airaksinen, Juhani K; Polo, Olli; Laitio, Ruut; Pietilä, Mikko J; Scheinin, Harry; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino, Kari A; Kentala, Erkki S; Jalonen, Jouko R; Hakovirta, Harri; Parkkola, Riitta; Virtanen, Sami; Laitio, Timo T

    2014-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents severe atherosclerosis with a high mortality after vascular surgery. The role of OSA in the prognosis of these patients is not yet established. 84 patients (aged 67 ± 9 years) scheduled for sub-inguinal surgical revascularisation were enrolled for preoperative polysomnography. The threshold for significant OSA was an apnoea/hypopnoea index ≥ 20 events·h(-1). Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, angina pectoris requiring hospitalisation and stroke, were used as a combined end-point. During follow-up (median 52 months), 17 out of 39 patients with and six out of 45 patients without significant OSA suffered MACCE. In the multivariate Cox regression, the primary predictors of MACCE were significant OSA (hazard ratio (HR) 5.1 (95% CI 1.9-13.9); p=0.001) and pre-existing coronary artery disease (HR 4.4 (95% CI 1.8-10.6); p=0.001). Other significant predictors were a ≥ 4 year history of PAD (HR 3.8 (95% CI 1.3-11.5); p=0.02) and decreasing high-density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio (HR 0.95 per percentage (95% CI 0.90-1.00); p=0.048). OSA is associated with poor long-term outcome in patients with PAD following revascularisation. OSA might have an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients. ©ERS 2014.

  15. Continuous positive airway pressure requirements in patients with tetraplegia and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, M C; Cistulli, P A; Berlowitz, D J

    2012-11-01

    Clinic-based retrospective case-control study. To compare continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) requirements between patients with tetraplegia and able-bodied patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Melbourne, Australia. Diagnostic and CPAP titration polysomnograms of 219 able-bodied, and 25 patients with tetraplegia and OSA were compared for apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) and CPAP levels required to effectively treat OSA. Demographics and body mass index (BMI) were obtained for each patient. ASIA score and injury date were obtained for patients with tetraplegia. There was no significant difference in AHI (P=0.102) between the two groups; however, able-bodied patients were significantly older (P=0.003), required significantly higher levels of CPAP to control their OSA (Ptetraplegia. In the tetraplegia group, there was no significant correlation between AHI and effective CPAP (r=0.022, P=0.92) or between AHI and BMI (r=-0.196, P=0.35). There was a significant correlation between effective CPAP and BMI (r=0.411, P=0.041). Among able-bodied patients, over two-thirds (68.8%) required 10-16 cm H(2)0 to control their OSA and nearly one-third required over 16 cm H(2)0. In contrast, over two-thirds (68.8%) in the tetraplegia group required less than 10 cm H(2)0 of CPAP to control their OSA. This retrospective study suggests that OSA patients with tetraplegia require significantly less CPAP to treat their OSA at any given AHI than those who are able-bodied. This suggests that additional unknown factors may contribute to the high prevalence of OSA in tetraplegia.

  16. Biomarkers of carcinogenesis and tumour growth in patients with cutaneous melanoma and obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria-Martos, Fernando; Benítez, Ivan; Girón, Cristina; Barbé, Ferran; Martínez-García, Miguel-Angel; Hernández, Luis; Montserrat, Josep M; Nagore, Eduardo; Martorell, Antonio; Campos-Rodriguez, Francisco; Corral, Jaime; Cabriada, Valentin; Abad, Jorge; Mediano, Olga; Troncoso, Maria F; Cano-Pumarega, Irene; Fortuna Gutierrez, Ana Maria; Diaz-Cambriles, Trinidad; Somoza-Gonzalez, Maria; Almendros, Isaac; Farre, Ramon; Gozal, David; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and the levels of carcinogenesis- and tumour growth-related biomarkers in patients with cutaneous melanoma.This multicentre observational study included patients who were newly diagnosed with melanoma. The patients were classified as non-OSA (apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) 0-5 events·h -1 ), mild OSA (AHI 5-15 events·h -1 ) and moderate-severe OSA (AHI >15 events·h -1 ). ELISAs were performed to analyse the serum levels of hypoxia- and tumour adhesion-related biomarkers (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin (IL)-8, intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1) and markers of tumour aggressiveness (S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA)). A logistic model adjusted for age, sex and body mass index was fitted to each biomarker, and the AHI served as the dependent variable.360 patients were included (52.2% male, median (interquartile range) age 55.5 (43.8-68.0) years and AHI 8.55 (2.8-19.5) events·h -1 ). The levels of VEGF, IL-8, ICAM-1, S100B and MIA were not related to the severity of OSA. The levels of VCAM-1 were higher in patients with OSA than those without OSA (mild OSA: odds ratio (OR) 2.07, p=0.021; moderate-severe OSA: OR 2.35, p=0.013).In patients with cutaneous melanoma, OSA was associated with elevated circulating levels of VCAM-1 that could indicate the contribution of OSA in tumorigenesis via integrin-based adhesion. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as a cause of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, M; Valença, J; Felizardo, M; Caeiro, F; Moreira, S; Staats, R; Bugalho de Almeida, A A

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) patients have a higher rate of road traffic accidents. Our study aimed to analyse any differences in OSAS patients between those who reported having had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who did not. We studied 163 patients with OSAS (apnoea- hypopnoea index (AHI)>10/h) diagnosed using nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG), all drivers, 18.4% of whom drove for a living. Patients were asked at their first clinical interview to self-report road traffic accidents and/or near misses over the past 3 years which had been caused by abnormal daytime drowsiness. This allowed patients to be divided into two groups, those who had had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who had not. Both were compared as to age, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), daytime PaO2 and PaCO2, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) test and NPSG data. This latter was total sleep time (TTS), sleep efficiency, sleep stages, arousal index (ARI), AHI, minimal and average SaO2, % of time with SaO2 TDAH) (T test). Group I (no road traffic accidents) No=89 patients; group II (road traffic accidents) No=74 patients. Age (years) was 57.6+/-11.8 vs. 54.7+/-10.9 (ns); male gender, 75% vs. 78.4%; ESS, 12.3+/-5.4 vs. 17.6+/-4.3 (pTDAH (minutes), 98.5+/-63.7 vs. 133.3+/-83.2 (p=0,005). In our experience patients who had road traffic accidents and/or near misses had a more severe OSAS, with higher AHI, excessive daytime sleepiness and lower quality of life.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of obstructive sleep apnoea in young children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Evans, Hazel J; Elphick, Heather; Farquhar, Michael; Pickering, Ruth M; Kingshott, Ruth; Martin, Jane; Reynolds, Janine; Joyce, Anna; Rush, Carla; Gavlak, Johanna C; Gringras, Paul

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are vulnerable to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) because of their unique craniofacial anatomy and hypotonia. Understanding the predictors of OSA in DS may enable targeted screening. Children with DS (n = 202) aged from six months to below six years (110 boys) were recruited from three UK children's hospitals. The clinical assessment included height, weight and tonsillar size. The parents either set up cardiorespiratory polygraphy at home or chose laboratory studies. Studies with less than four hours of interpretable data were repeated where possible. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) 2012 scoring criteria were used to derive an obstructive apnoea/hypopnoea index (OAHI). Predictors of moderate to severe OSA were examined. In total, 188/202 (93%) participants were successfully studied. Of these, 169 studies were completed at home and 19 in a sleep laboratory. Moderate to severe OSA, defined by an OAHI of >5/h, was found in 14% and mild to moderate OSA (1/h≥OAHI <5/h) was found in 59% of the children. Male gender and habitual snoring predicted OSA but did not have independent predictive power in the presence of the other factors. Age in months, body mass index (BMI) centile and tonsillar size did not predict OSA. Moderate to severe OSA is common in very young children with DS. Examination of tonsillar size did not predict OSA severity. Population-based screening for OSA is recommended in these children, and domiciliary cardiorespiratory polygraphy is an acceptable screening approach. Further research is required to understand the natural history, associated morbidity, optimal screening methodology and treatment modality for OSA in these children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of nasal CPAP in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome due to mandibular hypoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Miller, Stanley D W

    2012-02-01

    Melnick Needles syndrome (MNS), Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) and Pierre Robin syndrome (PRS) are congenital abnormalities with characteristic facial appearances that include micrognathia. A 20-year-old girl with MNS, a 16-year-old boy with TCS and a 12-year-old girl with PRS attended the sleep apnoea clinic at our institution at different times. Diagnostic sleep studies were initially performed on all three patients to confirm the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). They subsequently commenced nasal CPAP (nCPAP) treatment and their progress was followed. A limited sleep study on the patient with MNS demonstrated moderate\\/severe OSAS with an AHI of 33 events\\/h. Commencement of nCPAP resulted in symptomatic improvement. Overnight oximetry in the patient with TCS showed repeated desaturation to SpO2<90%. Subsequent treatment by nCPAP almost completely abolished the desaturation events. Overnight polysomnography in the patient with PRS demonstrated severe OSAS with an AHI of 49 events\\/h. After 3 years of nCPAP therapy, this patient requested discontinuation of treatment. Subsequent polysomnography without nCPAP revealed an AHI of <5 events\\/h. The use of nCPAP in the patients with MNS and TCS resulted in effective control of their sleep abnormalities. Mandibular growth and enlargement of the posterior airway space led to resolution of OSAS in the patient with PRS. There is a definite role for nCPAP therapy in patients with congenital micrognathia and OSAS. The use of nCPAP may obviate the need for more invasive corrective surgery for OSAS and is not necessarily a life-long requirement.

  20. Relationship between habitual sleep duration, obesity and depressive symptoms in patients with sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylen, Elena; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked with obesity in general population, but this issue has not been addressed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) separately. Depressive symptoms are frequent in OSAS and may affect sleep and energy balance. Our purpose was to assess the association of habitual sleep duration, psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and excessive daytime sleepiness with measures of obesity in patients with OSAS. 210 middle aged consecutive patients (111 men and 99 women) referred for evaluation of suspected OSAS were divided into subgroups based on apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and treatment suggested by a sleep physician. OSAS (AHI>5/h plus symptoms) was diagnosed in 75.7% of the patients. Their sleep duration correlated negatively with psychological distress (r=-0.22, p=0.043) and depressive symptoms (r=-0.27, p=0.013) in men. No association was found between self-reported habitual sleep duration and measures of obesity or subjective sleepiness. In patients considered for CPAP therapy, sleep duration associated inversely with depressive symptoms both in men (r=-0.28, p=0.024) and women (r=-0.33, p=0.037). After adjusting for age and Epworth Sleepiness Score, the results remained essentially similar. Our results suggest that self-reported habitual sleep duration does not associate with obesity in patients with OSAS. Shorter habitual sleep duration seems to associate with higher scores of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and sleep bruxism: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokubauskas, L; Baltrušaitytė, A

    2017-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a clinical risk factor for sleep bruxism (SB). Both OSAS and SB are reported to be associated with sleep-related arousal reactions, although no clear causative link has been established. An electronic literature search was conducted of the MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online Library, SAGE Journals and EBSCOhost databases covering the period January 2006 and September 2016. Sequential screenings at the title, abstract and full-text levels were performed. The review included observational studies in the English language with a clearly established aim to assess the relationship between OSAS and SB using full-night PSG. The seven-item quality-assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies was used to assess the methodology across the studies. After a comprehensive screening of titles, abstracts and full texts, only three studies that met the pre-defined criteria were finally included in this systematic review. Two studies gave evidence that OSAS is associated with the occurrence of SB events: (i) SB events frequently occur during micro-arousal events consequent on apnoea-hypopnoea (AH) events and (ii) most SB events occur in temporal conjunction with AH events termination. However, one study did not report a strong association between AH and SB events. It can be concluded that there are not enough scientific data to define a clear causative link between OSAS and SB. However, they appear to share common clinical features. Further studies should focus on the intermediate mechanisms between respiratory and SB events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Endothelin-1 plasma levels are not elevated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpen, F; Kanne, P; Schulz, E; Hagenah, G; Hasenfuss, G; Andreas, S

    2000-02-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, is released mainly by vascular endothelial cells under the influence of hypoxia and other stimuli. ET-1 is related to endothelial dysfunction, as well as arterial and pulmonary hypertension, all of which are thought to be associated with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). This study evaluated venous plasma concentrations of ET-1 and noradrenaline and 24-h systemic blood pressure in 29 patients with OSA (age=56.9+/-1.6 yrs; body mass index=29.5+/-0.7 kg x m2 (mean+/-SEM)). Blood samples were taken in the morning, evening and during sleep. In the same way, the patients were assessed during a night of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and after 13.9+/-1.4 months while still on CPAP. ET-1 levels were compared to those of control subjects, who were selected from in- and outpatients and were matched to patients for age, sex, presence of arterial hypertension and coronary artery disease. ET-1 plasma levels were not elevated in the patients compared to the controls (41.6+/-2.2 and 44.9+/-1.3 pg x mL(-1), respectively, p=0.20). The ET-1 concentration did not change significantly, neither during sleep nor in the first night on CPAP therapy, nor under long-term treatment with CPAP. ET-1 neither correlated to the severity of OSA nor to that of systemic hypertension. The results suggest that endothelin-1 does not play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnoea.

  3. Acute ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of the donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion injury after transplantation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiliang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many donor organs come from youths involved in alcohol-related accidental death. The use of cardiac allografts for transplantation from donors after acute poisoning is still under discussion while acute ethanol intoxication is associated with myocardial functional and morphological changes. The aims of this work were 1 to evaluate in rats the time-course cardiac effects of acute ethanol-exposure and 2 to explore how its abuse by donors might affect recipients in cardiac pump function after transplantation. METHODS: Rats received saline or ethanol (3.45 g/kg, ip. We evaluated both the mechanical and electrical aspects of cardiac function 1 h, 6 h or 24 h after injection. Plasma cardiac troponin-T and glucose-levels were measured and histological examination of the myocardium was performed. In addition, heart transplantation was performed, in which donors received ethanol 6 h or 24 h prior to explantation. Graft function was measured 1 h or 24 h after transplantation. Myocardial TBARS-concentration was measured; mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Ethanol administration resulted in decreased load-dependent (-34 ± 9% and load-independent (-33 ± 12% contractility parameters, LV end-diastolic pressure and elevated blood glucose levels at 1 h, which were reversed to the level of controls after 6 h and 24 h. In contrast to systolic dysfunction, active relaxation and passive stiffness are slowly recovered or sustained during 24 h. Moreover, troponin-T-levels were increased at 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after ethanol injection. ST-segment elevation (+47 ± 10%, elongated QT-interval (+38 ± 4%, enlarged cardiomyocyte, DNA-strand breaks, increased both mRNA and protein levels of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxydase-4, cytochrome-c-oxidase and metalloproteinase-9 were observed 24 h following ethanol-exposure. After heart transplantation, decreased myocardial

  4. Exposure to TBT increases accumulation of lipids and alters fatty acid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, Gemma; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Porte, Cinta

    2007-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that organotin compounds affect lipid homeostasis in vertebrates, probably through interaction with RXR and/or PPARgamma receptors. Molluscs are sensitive species to the toxic effects of tributyltin (TBT), particularly to masculinization, and TBT has been recently shown to bind to molluscs RXR. Thus, we hypothesized that exposure to TBT could affect lipid homeostasis in the ramshorn snail Marisa cornuarietis. For comparative purposes, the synthetic androgen methyl-testosterone (MT) was included in the study due to its masculinization effects, but its lack of binding to the RXR receptor. M. cornuarietis was exposed to different concentrations of TBT (30, 125, 500 ng/L as Sn) and MT (30, 300 ng/L) for 100 days. Females exposed to 500 ng/L TBT showed increased percentage of lipids and increased levels of fatty acids in the digestive gland/gonad complex (2- to 3-fold). In addition, fatty acid profiles were altered in both males and females exposed to 125 and 500 ng/L TBT. These effects were not observed in females exposed to MT. Overall, this work suggest that TBT acts as a potent inducer of lipid and fatty acid accumulation in M. cornuarietis as shown in vertebrate studies earlier, and that sex differences in sensitivity do exist.

  5. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Altered calcium handling and increased contraction force in human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes following short term dexamethasone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmidis, Georgios; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Meer, Berend van; Ward-van Oostwaard, Dorien [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Passier, Robert [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); MIRA, University of Twente (Netherlands); Tertoolen, Leon G.J.; Mummery, Christine L. [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Casini, Simona, E-mail: s.casini@amc.uva.nl [Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-11-27

    One limitation in using human pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) for disease modeling and cardiac safety pharmacology is their immature functional phenotype compared with adult cardiomyocytes. Here, we report that treatment of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) with dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, activated glucocorticoid signaling which in turn improved their calcium handling properties and contractility. L-type calcium current and action potential properties were not affected by dexamethasone but significantly faster calcium decay, increased forces of contraction and sarcomeric lengths, were observed in hESC-CMs after dexamethasone exposure. Activating the glucocorticoid pathway can thus contribute to mediating hPSC-CMs maturation. - Highlights: • Dexamethasone accelerates Ca{sup 2+} transient decay in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone enhances SERCA and NCX function in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone increases force of contraction and sarcomere length in hESC-CMs. • Dexamethasone does not alter I{sub Ca,L} and action potential characteristics in hESC-CMs.

  7. Effect of increased exposure times on amount of residual monomer released from single-step self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunsoy, Mustafa; Botsali, Murat Selim; Tosun, Gonca; Yasar, Ahmet

    2015-10-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure times on the amount of residual Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, HEMA and UDMA released from single-step self-etch adhesive systems. Two adhesive systems were used. The adhesives were applied to bovine dentin surface according to the manufacturer's instructions and were polymerized using an LED curing unit for 10, 20 and 40 seconds (n = 5). After polymerization, the specimens were stored in 75% ethanol-water solution (6 mL). Residual monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA and HEMA) that were eluted from the adhesives (after 10 minutes, 1 hour, 1 day, 7 days and 30 days) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. Among the time periods, the highest amount of released residual monomers from adhesives was observed in the 10th minute. There were statistically significant differences regarding released Bis-GMA, UDMA, HEMA and TEGDMA between the adhesive systems (p<0.05). There were no significant differences among the 10, 20 and 40 second polymerization times according to their effect on residual monomer release from adhesives (p>0.05). Increasing the polymerization time did not have an effect on residual monomer release from single-step self-etch adhesives.

  8. Increased cytosine DNA-methyltransferase activity in A/J mouse lung cells following carcinogen exposure and during tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Issa, J.-P.J.; Baylin, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable evidence has accumulated that 5-methylcytosine modification of mammalian DNA, both in exons and CpG rich islands located in promoter regions, is important in gene regulation. For example, a decrease of 5-methylcytosine in 5' flanking regions or exons of genes has been associated with increased gene transcription. In addition, hypermethylation at specific regions of chromosomes 17p and 3p have also been observed in lung and colon cancer. During colon cancer development, these hypermethylation changes precede allelic loss. In addition, the activity of the enzyme which maintains the methylation status at CpG dinucleotides, DNA methyltransferase (MT), has been shown to increase during colon cancer progression. These observations suggest changes in methylation patterns within specific genes could result in either inappropriate gene expression or gene deletion, both of which would contribute to the establishment of the malignant phenotype. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if DNA MT activity is elevated in target (alveolar type II), but not in nontarget (Clara, endothelial, macrophage) lung cells isolated from the A/J mouse following exposure to nitrosamine 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In addition, the activity of this enzyme during tumor progression was examined

  9. The Increase in Animal Mortality Risk following Exposure to Sparsely Ionizing Radiation Is Not Linear Quadratic with Dose

    OpenAIRE

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bo...

  10. Randomized control trial assessing impact of increased sunlight exposure versus Vitamin D supplementation on lipid profile in Indian Vitamin D deficient men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek G Patwardhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite abundance of sunshine in India, Vitamin D deficiency is common and therefore there is an increasing trend toward taking Vitamin D supplements either as prescription medicine or as a nutritional supplement. Studies have suggested that duration of sun exposure may influence serum lipid profile. Objectives: To study the effect of increased sunlight exposure versus Vitamin D supplementation on Vitamin D status and lipid profile in individuals with Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25OHD] 50 nmol/L, n = 50 and intervention (<50 nmol/L, n = 100 groups. Individuals from intervention group were randomly allocated to two groups; either “increased sunlight exposure group” (n = 50, received at least 20 min sunlight exposure to forearms and face between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. over and above their current exposure or “cholecalciferol supplement group” (n = 50, received oral cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day. Results: Significant increase in 25OHD concentrations was seen in both intervention groups (P < 0.01. Significant decrease in total cholesterol (TC, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C was seen in individuals with increased sunlight exposure (P < 0.05. Cholecalciferol supplement group showed a significant increase in TC and HDL-C (P < 0.05 and insignificant increase in LDL-C. Conclusions: Increase in Vitamin D concentrations through sunlight exposure significantly reduced TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C concentrations, and cholecalciferol supplementation increased TC and HDL-C concentrations.

  11. Ketogenic diet improves the spatial memory impairment caused by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia through increased acetylation of histones in rats.

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    Ming Zhao

    Full Text Available Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes neuron cell damage, resulting in impaired cognitive function. Effective interventions to antagonize hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment are in urgent need. Ketogenic diet (KD has been successfully used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and improves cognitive behaviors in epilepsy patients and other pathophysiological animal models. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential beneficial effects of a KD on memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia and the underlying possible mechanisms. We showed that the KD recipe used was ketogenic and increased plasma levels of ketone bodies, especially β-hydroxybutyrate. The results of the behavior tests showed that the KD did not affect general locomotor activity but obviously promoted spatial learning. Moreover, the KD significantly improved the spatial memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia (simulated altitude of 6000 m, 24 h. In addition, the improving-effect of KD was mimicked by intraperitoneal injection of BHB. The western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed that KD treatment not only increased the acetylated levels of histone H3 and histone H4 compared to that of the control group but also antagonized the decrease in the acetylated histone H3 and H4 when exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Furthermore, KD-hypoxia treatment also promoted PKA/CREB activation and BDNF protein expression compared to the effects of hypoxia alone. These results demonstrated that KD is a promising strategy to improve spatial memory impairment caused by hypobaric hypoxia, in which increased modification of histone acetylation plays an important role.

  12. Increased intestinal permeability correlates with sigmoid mucosa alpha-synuclein staining and endotoxin exposure markers in early Parkinson's disease.

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    Christopher B Forsyth

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. The pathological hallmark of PD is neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies whose main component is alpha-synuclein protein. The finding of these Lewy bodies in the intestinal enteric nerves led to the hypothesis that the intestine might be an early site of PD disease in response to an environmental toxin or pathogen. One potential mechanism for environmental toxin(s and proinflammatory luminal products to gain access to mucosal neuronal tissue and promote oxidative stress is compromised intestinal barrier integrity. However, the role of intestinal permeability in PD has never been tested. We hypothesized that PD subjects might exhibit increased intestinal permeability to proinflammatory bacterial products in the intestine. To test our hypothesis we evaluated intestinal permeability in subjects newly diagnosed with PD and compared their values to healthy subjects. In addition, we obtained intestinal biopsies from both groups and used immunohistochemistry to assess bacterial translocation, nitrotyrosine (oxidative stress, and alpha-synuclein. We also evaluated serum markers of endotoxin exposure including LPS binding protein (LBP. Our data show that our PD subjects exhibit significantly greater intestinal permeability (gut leakiness than controls. In addition, this intestinal hyperpermeability significantly correlated with increased intestinal mucosa staining for E. coli bacteria, nitrotyrosine, and alpha-synuclein as well as serum LBP levels in PD subjects. These data represent not only the first demonstration of abnormal intestinal permeability in PD subjects but also the first correlation of increased intestinal permeability in PD with intestinal alpha-synuclein (the hallmark of PD, as well as staining for gram negative bacteria and tissue oxidative stress. Our study may thus shed new light on PD pathogenesis as well as provide a new method for earlier

  13. Tobacco smoke increases the risk of otitis media among Greenlandic Inuit children while exposure to organochlorines remain insignificant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to environmental levels of organochlorines (OCs) has been demonstrated to have immunotoxic effects in humans. We investigated the relationship between prenatal exposure to OCs and the occurrence of otitis media (OM) among Inuit children in Greenland. METHODS: We...

  14. Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion is increased in rats after 24 hours of exposure to vertical 50 Hz, 100 {micro}T magnetic field

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    Bakos, J.; Nagy, N.; Thuroczy, G.; Szabo, L.D. [National Frederic Joliot-Curie Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-05-01

    The effect of exposure to a 50 Hz, vertical magnetic field on the excretion of urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) of rats was studied in a self-controlled experiment. Ten male Wistar rats were kept under 9:15 h light:dark conditions in metabolic cages. The rats were exposed to 1.0 or 100 {micro}T flux density for 24 h. The excretion of aMT6s, which is the primary metabolite of melatonin in the urine, did not show a statistically significant decrease, as measured by {sup 125}I radioimmunoassay, during or after magnetic field exposure of rats to either flux density. At 100 {micro}T flux density, the increase of aMT6s excretion on the day after exposure was statistically significant (P < .02), compared with the value under exposure, but was not significant compared with the baseline values before exposure.

  15. Increased Microleakage of Amalgam Restorations after Exposure to 2.4 Ghz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields from Common Wi-Fi Routers

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    Mortazavi SMJ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Previous studies have shown that exposure of dental amalgam fillings to MRI and mobile phones can increase microleakage of amalgam restorations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from indoor Wi-Fi access devices on microleakage of amalgam restorations. Materials and Methods: Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 69 extracted human premolar teeth. The samples were divided into two exposure groups and one non-exposed control group of 23 teeth each. The specimens in the experimental groups were exposed to a radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from a commercial 2.4 GHz Wi Fi router. The distance between the Wi-Fi router and samples was 30 cm and the router was exchanging data with a laptop computer that was placed 20 m away from the router. Teeth samples in the first exposure group (group A were exposed to RF for 3 days while the second exposure group (group B was exposed for 6 days. Then the teeth were sectioned and scored for microleakage under a stereomicroscope. Results: The score of microleakage was significantly higher in the exposure group A compared to that of the control group. However, the score of microleakage was not significantly different between the exposure group B and control group. Furthermore, the scores of microleakage was signifi-cantly higher in the exposure group A than that of the exposure group B. Conclusions: Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofre-quency waves emitted from commercial Wi-Fi routers can lead to in-creased microleakage of amalgam restorations.

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases osteoarthritis susceptibility in female rat offspring by programming a low-functioning IGF-1 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qubo; Tan, Yang; Zhang, Xianrong; Luo, Hanwen; Deng, Yu; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that osteoarthritis (OA) and prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) are both associated with low birth weight but possible causal interrelationships have not been investigated. To investigate the effects of PEE on the susceptibility to OA in adult rats that experienced intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), and to explore potential intrauterine mechanisms, we established the rat model of IUGR by PEE and dexamethasone, and the female fetus and 24-week-old adult offspring subjected to strenuous running for 6 weeks were sacrificed. Knee joints were collected from fetuses and adult offspring for histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and qPCR assays. Histological analyses and the Mankin score revealed increased cartilage destruction and accelerated OA progression in adult offspring from the PEE group compared to the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway components. Furthermore, fetuses in the PEE group experienced IUGR but exhibited a higher postnatal growth rate. The expression of many IGF-1 signaling components was downregulated, which coincided with reduced amounts of type II collagen in the epiphyseal cartilage of fetuses in the PEE group. These results suggest that PEE enhances the susceptibility to OA in female adult rat offspring by down-regulating IGF-1 signaling and retarding articular cartilage development.

  17. Long-term exposure of E-mu-Pim1 transgenic mice to 898.4 MHz microwaves does not increase lymphoma incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utteridge, Tammy D; Gebski, Val; Finnie, John W; Vernon-Roberts, Barrie; Kuchel, Tim R

    2002-09-01

    A total of 120 E mu-Pim1 heterozygous mice and 120 wild-type mice were exposed for 1 h/day 5 days/week at each of the four exposure levels in "Ferris-wheel" exposure systems for up to 104 weeks to GSM-modulated 898.4 MHz radiation at SARs of 0.25, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 W/kg. In addition, 120 heterozygous and 120 wild-type mice were sham-exposed; there was also an unrestrained negative control group. Four exposure levels were used to investigate whether a dose-response effect could be detected. Independent verification confirmed that the exposures in the current study were nonthermal. There was no significant difference in the incidence of lymphomas between exposed and sham-exposed groups at any of the exposure levels. A dose-response effect was not detected. The findings showed that long-term exposures of lymphoma-prone mice to 898.4 MHz GSM radiofrequency (RF) radiation at SARs of 0.25, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 W/kg had no significant effects when compared to sham-irradiated animals. A previous study (Repacholi et al., Radiat. Res. 147, 631-640, 1997) reported that long-term exposure of lymphoma-prone mice to one exposure level of 900 MHz RF radiation significantly increased the incidence of non-lymphoblastic lymphomas when compared to sham-irradiated animals.

  18. Increasing medical student exposure to musculoskeletal medicine: the initial impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group

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    Mickelson DT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dayne T Mickelson,1 Philip K Louie,2 Kenneth R Gundle,3 Alex W Farnand,4 Douglas P Hanel5 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 4Department of General Surgery, Presence Saint Joseph Hospital – Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Purpose: To investigate the impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group (OSSMIG on medical student interest and confidence in core musculoskeletal (MSK concepts through supplemental education and experiences at a single tertiary, academic institution.Methods: Medical student OSSMIG members at various levels of training were anonymously surveyed at the beginning and end of the 2014–2015 academic year.Results: Eighteen (N=18 medical student interest group members completed the survey. Significant improvement in their level of training was observed with regard to respondents’ self-assessed competence and confidence in MSK medicine (p<0.05. Additionally, respondents’ attitudes toward exposure and support from the interest group were significantly higher than those provided by the institution (p<0.05. Members believed OSSMIG increased interest in MSK medicine, improved confidence in their ability to perform orthopedics-related physical exams, strengthened mentorship with residents and attendings, and developed a connection with the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and its residents (median “Strongly Agree”, interquartile range one and two scale items.Conclusion: Since its inception 8 years ago, OSSMIG has been well received and has positively impacted University of Washington School of Medicine students through various interventions

  19. Interleukin 10-Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Augusto M; Cristal, Juqueline R; Muniz, Aline C; Carvalho, Lucas P; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2015-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells, including Foxp3(+) cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P < .05) in macrophages cocultured with saliva-stimulated lymphocytes from exposed individuals and addition of anti-IL-10 reverted this effect. Positive correlation between antibody response to saliva and cellular response to Leishmania was not found. Importantly, individuals seropositive to saliva are 2.1 times more likely to develop CL (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-4.2; P < .05). Exposure to L. intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Cadaver-Based Simulation Increases Resident Confidence, Initial Exposure to Fundamental Techniques, and May Augment Operative Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Steven C; Fisher, Jeremy G; Delman, Keith A; Hinman, Johanna M; Srinivasan, Jahnavi K

    Surgical simulation is an important adjunct in surgical education. The majority of operative procedures can be simplified to core components. This study aimed to quantify a cadaver-based simulation course utility in improving exposure to fundamental maneuvers, resident and attending confidence in trainee capability, and if this led to earlier operative independence. A list of fundamental surgical procedures was established by a faculty panel. Residents were assigned to a group led by a chief resident. Residents performed skills on cadavers appropriate for PGY level. A video-recorded examination where they narrated and demonstrated a task independently was then graded by attendings using standardized rubrics. Participants completed surveys regarding improvements in knowledge and confidence. The course was conducted at the Emory University School of Medicine and the T3 Laboratories in Atlanta, GA. A total of 133 residents and 41 attendings participated in the course. 133 (100%) participating residents and 32 (78%) attendings completed surveys. Resident confidence in completing the assigned skill independently increased from 3 (2-3) to 4 (3-4), p 80%), p < 0.04. Attendings were more likely to grant autonomy in the operating room after this exercise (4 [3-5]). A cadaveric skills course focused on fundamental maneuvers with objective confirmation of success is a viable adjunct to clinical operative experience. Residents were formally exposed to fundamental surgical maneuvers earlier as a result of this course. This activity improved both resident and attending confidence in trainee operative skill, resulting in increased attending willingness to grant a higher level of autonomy in the operating room. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Increase in Animal Mortality Risk following Exposure to Sparsely Ionizing Radiation Is Not Linear Quadratic with Dose.

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    Benjamin M Haley

    Full Text Available The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII, which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS. It was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limited number of animal studies.We argue that the linear-quadratic model does not provide appropriate support to estimate the risk of contemporary exposures. In this work, we re-estimated DDREFLSS using 15 animal studies that were not included in BEIR VII's original analysis. Acute exposure data led to a DDREFLSS estimate from 0.9 to 3.0. By contrast, data that included both acute and protracted exposures led to a DDREFLSS estimate from 4.8 to infinity. These two estimates are significantly different, violating the assumptions of the linear-quadratic model, which predicts that DDREFLSS values calculated in either way should be the same.Therefore, we propose that future estimates of the risk of protracted exposures should be based on direct comparisons of data from acute and protracted exposures, rather than from extrapolations from a linear-quadratic model. The risk of low dose exposures may be extrapolated from these protracted estimates, though we encourage ongoing debate as to whether this is the most valid approach. We also encourage efforts to enlarge the datasets used to estimate the risk of protracted exposures by including both human and animal data, carcinogenesis outcomes, a wider range of exposures, and by making more radiobiology data publicly accessible. We believe that these steps will contribute to better estimates

  2. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  3. A single exposure to acrolein desensitizes baroreflex responsiveness and increases cardiac arrhythmias in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background – Short-term exposure to air pollutants has been linked to acute cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Even in the absence of overt symptoms, pollutants can cause subtle disruptions of internal regulatory mechanisms, which maintain homeostatic balance, thereby reduci...

  4. Reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of the SGC‑7901 gastric cancer cell line on exposure to GDC‑0449.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuanqing; Cheng, Ji; Hu, Shaobo; Deng, Rui; Muangu, Yamba Willy; Shi, Liang; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Peng; Chang, Weilong; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong

    2016-02-01

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is known to be vital in embryonic development and cancer propagation due to its irreplaceable role in cell proliferation and differentiation. GDC‑0449, a basal cell skin cancer target drug approved by the Food and Drugs Administration, is a smoothened (Smo)-specific antagonist. Although it has been clinically verified as a valid drug for the treatment of skin and pancreatic cancer, the application of GDC‑0449 in gastric cancer requires further investigation. In the present study, high-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 10% fetal bovine serum was used for routine SGC‑7901 cell line culture. A Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay was employed for determination of the reproductive rate of the cells. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the apoptosis status of the SGC‑7901 cell line through Q4 analysis. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were used as target molecule detection vehicles. As expected, GDC‑0449 reduced the expression levels of Shh‑associated molecules, including Smo and gli1, compared with the blank group. The rate of cell proliferation was markedly limited and was accompanied by an increase in the apoptotic rate following GDC‑0449 exposure. In addition, further investigations confirmed B cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2) as the downstream molecular mechanism of GDC‑0449 efficacy. Of note, representatives of the cancer stem cell (CSC) surface marker, CD44 and CD133, demonstrated a similar trend to the Smo restriction observed. By repressing the expression of Bcl‑2, GDC‑0449 inhibited the normal proliferation of SGC‑7901 cells, and accelerated the apoptotic rate of the cells. It may also alter CSC properties due to the reduction in the expression of surface markers.

  5. Rural Residents in China Are at Increased Risk of Exposure to Tick-Borne Pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis

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    Lijuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As emerging tick born rickettsial diseases caused by A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis have become a serious threat to human and animal health throughout the world. In particular, in China, an unusual transmission of nosocomial cases of human granulocytic anaplasmosis occurred in Anhui Province in 2006 and more recent coinfection case of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis was documented in Shandong Province. Although the seroprevalence of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (former human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, HGE has been documented in several studies, these data existed on local investigations, and also little data was reported on the seroprevalence of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME in China. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA proposed by WHO was used to detect A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis IgG antibodies for 7,322 serum samples from agrarian residents from 9 provinces/cities and 819 urban residents from 2 provinces. Our data showed that farmers were at substantially increased risk of exposure. However, even among urban residents, risk was considerable. Seroprevalence of HGA and HME occurred in diverse regions of the country and tended to be the highest in young adults. Many species of ticks were confirmed carrying A. phagocytophilum organisms in China while several kinds of domestic animals including dog, goats, sheep, cattle, horse, wild rabbit, and some small wild rodents were proposed to be the reservoir hosts of A. phagocytophilum. The broad distribution of vector and hosts of the A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis, especially the relationship between the generalized susceptibility of vectors and reservoirs and the severity of the disease’s clinical manifestations and the genetic variation of Chinese HGA isolates in China, is urgently needed to be further investigated.

  6. Increased Suicide Risk among Workers following Toxic Metal Exposure at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant From 1952 to 2003: A Cohort Study

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    LW Figgs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a problem worldwide and occupation is an important risk factor. In the last decade, 55 200 deaths in the US were attributed to occupational risk factors. Objective: To determine if toxic metal exposure was associated with suicide risk among Paducah gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP workers. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine metal exposure likelihood. Uranium exposure was also assessed by urinalysis. All suicide/self-injury International Classification for Disease (ICD codes were used to identify suicides. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, odds ratios (OR, and hazard ratios (HR were used to estimate suicide risk. Results: PGDP suicide victims typically were younger white men. Within exposure likelihood categories, several suicide SMRs were typically elevated for several metals. Only beryllium exposure likelihood was associated with an increased HR. Uranium urine concentration was associated with an elevated suicide risk after stratification by urinalysis frequency. Conclusion: Suicide risk is associated with uranium exposure.

  7. Increased suicide risk among workers following toxic metal exposure at the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant from 1952 to 2003: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figgs, L W; Holsinger, H; Freitas, S J; Brion, G M; Hornung, R W; Rice, C H; Tollerud, D

    2011-10-01

    Suicide is a problem worldwide and occupation is an important risk factor. In the last decade, 55 200 deaths in the US were attributed to occupational risk factors. To determine if toxic metal exposure was associated with suicide risk among Paducah gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP) workers. We assembled a cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM) was used to determine metal exposure likelihood. Uranium exposure was also assessed by urinalysis. All suicide/self-injury International Classification for Disease (ICD) codes were used to identify suicides. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR), odds ratios (OR), and hazard ratios (HR) were used to estimate suicide risk. PGDP suicide victims typically were younger white men. Within exposure likelihood categories, several suicide SMRs were typically elevated for several metals. Only beryllium exposure likelihood was associated with an increased HR. Uranium urine concentration was associated with an elevated suicide risk after stratification by urinalysis frequency. Suicide risk is associated with uranium exposure.

  8. Chronic cigarette smoke exposure increases the pulmonary retention and radiation dose of 239Pu inhaled as 239PuO2 by F344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, G.L.; Lundgren, D.L.; Barr, E.B.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Nikula, K.J.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    As a portion of a study to examine how chronic cigarette smoke exposure might alter the risk of lung tumors from inhaled 239 PuO 2 in rats, the effects of smoke exposure on alpha-particle lung dosimetry over the life-span of exposed rats were determined. Male and female rats were exposed to inhaled 239 PuO 2 alone or in combination with cigarette smoke. Animals exposed to filtered air along served as controls for the smoke exposure. Whole-body exposure to mainstream smoke diluted to concentrations of either 100 or 250 mg total particulate matter m -3 began at 6 wk of age and continued for 6 h d -1 , 5 d wk -1 , for 30 mo. A single, pernasal, acute exposure to 239 PuO 2 was given to all rats at 12 wk of age. Exposure to cigarette smoke caused decreased body weight gains in a concentration dependent manner. Lung-to-body weight ratios were increased in smoke-exposed rats. Rats exposed to cigarette smoke before the 239 PuO 2 exposure deposited less 239 Pu in the lung than did controls. Except for male rats exposed to LCS, exposure to smoke retarded the clearance of 239 Pu from the lung compared to control rats through study termination at 870 d after 239 PuO 2 exposure. Radiation doses to lungs were calculated by sex and by exposure group for rats on study for at least 360 d using modeled body weight changes, lung-to-body weight ratios, and standard dosimetric calculations. For both sexes, estimated lifetime radiation doses from the time of 239 PuO 2 exposure to death were 3.8 Gy, 4.4 Gy, or 6.7 Gy for the control, LCS, or HCS exposure groups, respectively. Assuming an approximately linear dose-response relationship between radiation dose and lung neoplasm incidence, approximate increases of 20% or 80% in tumor incidence over controls would be expected in rats exposed to 239 PuO 2 and LCS or 239 PuO 2 and HCS, respectively

  9. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Histamine H3 Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Rat Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael K; Allen, Nyika A; Rosenberg, Martina J; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2018-02-01

    We have reported that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)-induced deficits in dentate gyrus, long-term potentiation (LTP), and memory are ameliorated by the histamine H 3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. Curiously, ABT-239 did not enhance LTP or memory in control offspring. Here, we initiated an investigation of how PAE alters histaminergic neurotransmission in the dentate gyrus and other brain regions employing combined radiohistochemical and electrophysiological approaches in vitro to examine histamine H 3 receptor number and function. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution 4 hours each day throughout gestation. This pattern of drinking, which produces a mean peak maternal serum ethanol concentration of 60.8 ± 5.8 mg/dl, did not affect maternal weight gain, litter size, or offspring birthweight. Radiohistochemical studies in adult offspring revealed that specific [ 3 H]-A349821 binding to histamine H 3 receptors was not different in PAE rats compared to controls. However, H 3 receptor-mediated G i /G o protein-effector coupling, as measured by methimepip-stimulated [ 35 S]-GTPγS binding, was significantly increased in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and dentate gyrus of PAE rats compared to control. A LIGAND analysis of detailed methimepip concentration-response curves in dentate gyrus indicated that PAE significantly elevates receptor-effector coupling by a lower affinity H 3 receptor population without significantly altering the affinities of H 3 receptor subpopulations. In agreement with the [ 35 S]-GTPγS studies, a similar range of methimepip concentrations also inhibited electrically evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential responses and increased paired-pulse ratio, a measure of decreased glutamate release, to a significantly greater extent in dentate gyrus slices from PAE rats than in controls. These results suggest that a PAE-induced elevation in H 3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release from

  10. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in men with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, S D; Nicoll, D J; Stradling, J R

    2006-01-01

    Background A study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in men with type 2 diabetes. Methods Men with type 2 diabetes from local hospital and selected primary care practitioner databases received questionnaires about snoring, apnoeas, and daytime sleepiness based on the Berlin questionnaire. Selected respondents had overnight oximetry to establish whether they had OSA. Comparisons of oximetry were made with those from a previous general population study. HbA1c results were collected. Results 1682 men were sent questionnaires, 56% of whom replied. 57% scored as “high” and 39% as “low” risk for OSA; 4% were already known to have OSA. Oximetry was performed in 240 respondents from both risk groups: 31% of the “high” and 13% of the “low” risk group had significant OSA (more than 10 >4% Sao2 dips/hour or Sao2 tracing consistent with OSA). These results were verified by detailed sleep studies. Extrapolation of the oximetry data to the questionnaire respondent population suggests that 23% had OSA. Comparison of the oximetry results with men from a previous general population study (using only more than 10 >4% Sao2 dips/hour to define OSA) showed the prevalence of OSA is significantly higher in this diabetes population (17% v 6%, p<0.001). Multiple linear regression revealed BMI and diabetes as significant independent predictors of OSA. Following correction for BMI (which explained 13% of the variance in OSA), diabetes explained a further 8% of the variance (p<0.001). There was a low correlation between OSA severity and HbA1c in the subgroup recruited from the hospital database (r = 0.2, p = 0.006) which remained significant after allowing for obesity (p = 0.03). Conclusions OSA is highly prevalent in men with type 2 diabetes; most are undiagnosed. Diabetes itself may be a significant independent contributor to the risk of OSA. PMID:16928713

  11. Genotype-phenotype correlations in hyperekplexia: apnoeas, learning difficulties and speech delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rhys H; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Wood, Sian E; Cushion, Thomas D; Drew, Cheney J G; Hammond, Carrie L; Vanbellinghen, Jean-Francois; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Rees, Mark I

    2013-10-01

    Congenital hyperekplexia is a rare, potentially treatable neuromotor disorder. Three major genes of effect are known, and all three affect glycinergic neurotransmission. Two genes encode for subunits of the postsynaptic inhibitory glycine receptor, GLRA1 encoding the α1 subunit and GLRB encoding the β subunit. The third, SLC6A5, encodes the cognate presynaptic glycine transporter 2. Ninety-seven individuals had a clinical diagnosis of hyperekplexia confirmed by genetic testing: 61 cases had mutations in GLRA1, 24 cases in SLC6A5 and 12 in GLRB. Detailed retrospective clinical analysis ascertained that all gene-positive cases present in the neonatal period (occasionally prenatally) and that clonazepam is the treatment of choice (95% found it to be efficacious). We confirm that hyperekplexia is predominantly a recessive condition but dominant cases are seen (16%). We found no genetic evidence for 'major' or 'minor' forms of hyperekplexia on a population basis. Thirty-five gene-negative cases were studied for comparison, their cardinal feature was presentation after the first month of life (P < 0.001). In addition to the characteristic 'stiffness, startles and stumbles' of hyperekplexia, apnoea attacks (50 of 89) and delayed development (47 of 92) were frequently reported. Patients with SLC6A5 mutations were significantly more likely to have had recurrent infantile apnoeas (RR1.9; P < 0.005) than those with GLRA1 mutations. Patients with GLRB and SLC6A5 mutations were more likely to have developmental delay (RR1.5 P < 0.01; RR1.9 P < 0.03) than those with GLRA1 mutations; 92% of GLRB cases reported a mild to severe delay in speech acquisition. Molecular modelling of pathogenic mutations demonstrates specific patterns of protein disruption that can be used to predict phenotype severity. The developmental delay in hyperekplexia, and speech acquisition in particular, may represent failure of developmental neural networks or subtle neurogenic migration defects in the

  12. Attenuation of G2 cell cycle checkpoint control in human tumor cells is associated with increased frequencies of unrejoined chromosome breaks but not increased cytotoxicity following radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Cowan, J.; Grdina, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of G 2 cell cycle checkpoint control to ionizing radiation responses was examined in ten human tumor cell lines. Most of the delay in cell cycle progression seen in the first cell cycle following radiation exposure was due to blocks in G 2 and there were large cell line-to-cell line variations in the length of the G 2 block. Longer delays were seen in cell lines that had mutations in p53. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between the length of G 2 delay and the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks seen as chromosome terminal deletions in mitosis, and observation that supports the hypothesis that the signal for G 2 delay in mammalian cells is an unrejoined chromosome break. There were also an inverse correlation between the length of G 2 delay and the level of chromosome aneuploidy in each cell line, suggesting that the G 2 and mitotic spindel checkpoints may be linked to each other. Attenuation in G 2 checkpoint control was not associated with alterations in either the frequency of induced chromosome rearrangements or cell survival following radiation exposure suggesting that chromosome rearrangements, the major radiation-induced lethal lesion in tumor cells, form before cells enters G 2 . Thus, agents that act solely to override G 2 arrest should produce little radiosensitization in human tumor cells

  13. Increase in dermal collagen fibril diameter and elastogenesis with UVB exposure: an optical and ultrastructural study in albino Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho; Cassia, Flavia de Freire; Pascarelli, Bernardo Miguel; Souza, Sonia Oliveira; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Filgueira, Absalom Lima; Japiassu, Maria Augusta; Takiya, Christina Maeda

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous aging is a complex biological phenomenon, dependent not only on the innate or intrinsic process ("biological clock"), but also on extrinsic elements, primarily chronic sun exposure (photoaging). In order to verify dermal morphological changes in the elastic fiber system and collagen associated with aged skin, we performed a light and electron microscopic study on exposed-shaved albino mice, which were exposed to UVB radiation. The experimental group consisted of 48 exposed animals, randomly distributed in three groups and submitted to different radiation doses (A, 28800 J/m2; B, 57600 J/m2; and C, 86400 J/m2) and studied 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure discontinuation. Nonexposed-shaved and nonexposed-nonshaved animals were included as controls. From the day of exposure discontinuation and subsequently, the elastic system and collagen network were progressively modified. The increase in collagen fibril diameter was prominent in the 60 and 90 day groups (p<0.05), as noticed on electron microscopy. Elastic fiber density also increased after irradiation (p<0.05). On electron microscopy, elastogenesis was seen in the deep dermis. The comparative study among the groups disclosed clear relationship between doses and "elastotic changes". It also showed that chronological aging of mice skin was apparently intensified after UVB exposure. Skin elastogenesis seems to be a major consequence of UVB exposure, apart from elastolysis, and occurs not only in humans but also in hairless mice submitted to continuous, long-term UVB exposure.

  14. Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6-8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin ideal animated characters or (2) animated characters with no thin ideal features or (3) 'real' human actors with no thin ideal features. After watching, their state body satisfaction was measured. Girls with higher levels of thin ideal internalisation showed higher body satisfaction after exposure to the thin ideal characters than after exposure to animated or real characters featuring no thin ideal features. No differences on body satisfaction between the exposure conditions were found in girls with lower levels of thin ideal internalisation. The results might suggest that young girls who internalised the thin ideal are inspired by thin ideal characters in children's media.

  15. Food Emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate Increases Internal Exposure Levels of Six Priority Controlled Phthalate Esters and Exacerbates Their Male Reproductive Toxicities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hai-Tao; Xu, Run; Cao, Wei-Xin; Zhou, Xu; Yan, Ye-Hui-Mei; Lu, Lingeng; Xu, Qian; Shen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human beings are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). Processed, packaged foods are popular nowadays, in which emulsifiers are frequently added as food additives. It is unclear how emulsifiers affect the bioavailability of ingested PAEs contaminants and their toxicities. The purposes of our study were to explore whether food emulsifier Glycerin Monostearate (GMS) could increase the internal exposure levels of six priority controlled PAEs and affect their reproductive toxicities when male rats are exposed to PAEs mixture (MIXPs). The male rats were exposed to MIXPs by gavage for thirty days in combination with or without given GMS. Phthalate monoesters (MPAEs), primary metabolites of PAEs, in rat urine were used as biomarkers to predict the internal exposure levels of the six PAEs, and their concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS. The reproductive toxicity was evaluated using serum testosterone levels test and histopathology of testes. Results showed that compared to PAEs exposure alone, the internal exposure levels of PAEs increased by 30%-49% in the presence of GMS. PAEs exposure led to the reduction of testosterone level by 23.4%-42.1% in the presence and absence of GMS, respectively, compared to the baseline. Testosterone levels in MIXPs+GMS and DEHP+GMS group were decreased by 9.1% and 13.6%, respectively, compared with MIXPs and DEHP group. Histopathology showed that injuries of testis (deciduous spermatids) were observed, and GMS exacerbated the injuries. The results indicated food emulsifiers chronically taken up might increase safety risks of food PAEs contaminants.

  16. In utero exposure to diesel exhaust air pollution promotes adverse intrauterine conditions, resulting in weight gain, altered blood pressure, and increased susceptibility to heart failure in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad S Weldy

    Full Text Available Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM₂.₅ is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM₂.₅ during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE air pollution, a major source of urban PM₂.₅, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to disease. We exposed pregnant female C57Bl/6J mice to DE (≈300 µg/m³ PM₂.₅, 6 hrs/day, 5 days/week from embryonic day (E 0.5 to 17.5. At E17.5 embryos were collected for gravimetric analysis and assessed for evidence of resorption. Placental tissues underwent pathological examination to assess the extent of injury, inflammatory cell infiltration, and oxidative stress. In addition, some dams that were exposed to DE were allowed to give birth to pups and raise offspring in filtered air (FA conditions. At 10-weeks of age, body weight and blood pressure were measured. At 12-weeks of age, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography. Susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart failure was then determined after transverse aortic constriction surgery. We found that in utero exposure to DE increases embryo resorption, and promotes placental hemorrhage, focal necrosis, compaction of labyrinth vascular spaces, inflammatory cell infiltration and oxidative stress. In addition, we observed that in utero DE exposure increased body weight, but counterintuitively reduced blood pressure without any changes in baseline cardiac function in adult male mice. Importantly, we observed these mice to have increased susceptibility to pressure-overload induced heart failure, suggesting this in utero exposure to DE 'reprograms' the heart to a heightened susceptibility to failure. These observations provide important data to suggest that developmental

  17. The Efficacy of Art and Writing Therapy: Increasing Positive Mental Health Outcomes and Participant Retention After Exposure to Traumatic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Research has shown that traumatic stress has negative effects on overall health and well-being. Traumatic exposure has been linked to higher rates of psychological and physical health problems. Writing about trauma or stress has been shown to improve health and reduce stress, but can negatively affect mood. The purpose of this study was to examine…

  18. Prolonged increase of cis-urocanic acid levels in human skin and urine after single total-body ultraviolet exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kammeyer, A.; Pavel, S.; Asghar, S. S.; Bos, J. D.; Teunissen, M. B.

    1997-01-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), a mediator of immunosuppression, is formed from trans-UCA upon UV-exposure of the skin. This study describes a liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous quantification of cis- and trans-UCA in skin, urine and plasma of nonirradiated volunteers. It also describes

  19. Early life antibiotic exposure increases the risk of developing allergic symptoms later in life: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmadizar, Fariba; Vijverberg, Susanne J. H.; Arets, Hubertus G. M.; de Boer, Anthonius; Lang, Jason E.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically reviewed and quantified the relationship between exposure to antibiotics during the first 2 years of life and the risk of allergies/atopies including hay fever, eczema, food allergy, positive skin prick testing (SPT) or elevated allergen-specific serum/plasma immunoglobulin

  20. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  1. Nasal inflammation in sleep apnoea patients using CPAP and effect of heated humidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsourelakis, I; Vagiakis, E; Perraki, E; Karatza, M; Magkou, C; Kopaka, M; Roussos, C; Zakynthinos, S

    2011-03-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can cause undesirable nasal symptoms, such as congestion to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients, whose symptoms can be attenuated by the addition of heated humidification. However, neither the nature of nasal symptoms nor the effect of heated humidification on nasal pathophysiology and pathology are convincingly known. 20 patients with OSA on nasal CPAP who exhibited symptomatic nasal obstruction were randomised to receive either 3 weeks of CPAP treatment with heated humidification or 3 weeks of CPAP treatment with sham-heated humidification, followed by 3 weeks of the opposite treatment, respectively. Nasal symptom score, nasal resistance, nasal lavage interleukin-6, interleukin-12 and tumour necrosis factor-α and nasal mucosa histopathology were assessed at baseline and after each treatment arm. Heated humidification in comparison with sham-heated humidification was associated with decrease in nasal symptomatology, resistance and lavage cytokines, and attenuation of inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis of the nasal mucosa. In conclusion, nasal obstruction of OSA patients on CPAP treatment is inflammatory in origin and the addition of heated humidification decreases nasal resistance and mucosal inflammation.

  2. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Is it a route for infection in those with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Mercieca

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA, with limited data about the prevalence of respiratory infections and microbial colonization in these patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine if CPAP use is associated with respiratory infections and to identify the organisms that colonize or infect these patients. Method: A retrospective, case-controlled study in patients diagnosed with OSA was carried out. 137 patients were recruited and interviewed using a questionnaire. A nasal swab was taken from each patient. Patients using CPAP machines had swabs taken from masks and humidifiers. Results: 66 (48.2% patients received CPAP treatment with 60.6% of them having a heated humidifier. 78.8% were male, with the majority using a full face mask (63.6%. No significant difference was seen in the prevalence of rhinosinusitis, lower respiratory tract infections and hospital admissions for pneumonia between CPAP and non-CPAP treated patients. The presence of a humidifier did not influence the prevalence of infections. Commensal flora was predominantly cultured from nasal swabs from both patient groups. Coagulase Negative Staphylococci and Diphtheroids were the main organisms cultured from masks and humidifiers respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that the use of CPAP, choice of mask and humidifier have no significant impact on the prevalence of infections and micro-organisms isolated. This is very reassuring to the physician prescribing CPAP therapy and users.

  3. Ambulatory monitoring in the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Corral-Peñafiel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is a highly prevalent disorder associated with complications such as arterial hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and traffic accidents. The resources allocated for OSA are insufficient and OSA is a significant public health problem. Portable recording devices have been developed for the detection of OSA syndrome and have proved capable of providing an equivalent diagnosis to in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG, at least in patients with a high pre-test probability of OSA syndrome. PSG becomes important in patients who have symptoms and certain comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or stroke, as well as in patients with a clinical history suggesting a different sleep disorder. Continuous positive airway pressure is the most effective treatment in OSA. Ambulatory monitoring of the therapeutic modalities has been evaluated to enhance the care process and reduce costs compared to the conventional approach, without sacrificing efficiency. This review evaluates the role of portable monitoring devices in the diagnostic process of OSA and the search for alternative strategies based on ambulatory management protocols.

  4. The use of tracheal sounds for the diagnosis of sleep apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal sounds have been the subject of many research studies. In this review, we describe the state of the art, original work relevant to upper airways obstruction during sleep, and ongoing research concerning the methods used when analysing tracheal sounds. Tracheal sound sensors are a simple and noninvasive means of measurement and are more reliable than other breathing sensors. Developments in acoustic processing techniques and enhancements in tracheal sound signals over the past decade have led to improvements in the accuracy and clinical relevance of diagnoses based on this technology. Past and current research suggests that they may have a significant role in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Key points Tracheal sounds are currently a topic of significant interest but are not yet used in most routine sleep study systems. Measured at the suprasternal notch, tracheal sounds can provide reliable information on breathing sounds, snoring sounds and respiratory efforts. Tracheal sounds may be used as a noninvasive method of studying abnormalities of the upper airways during wakefulness. Educational aims To understand the principles of tracheal sound measurement and analysis. To highlight the importance of tracheal sounds for the diagnosis of sleep apnoea–hypopnoea syndrome. To present the most relevant clinical studies that have validated the use of tracheal sound sensors and to make future clinical validation studies possible. PMID:29184596

  5. A manic episode after CPAP in a patient with obstructive sleep apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Lobo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive slee apnoea (OSA is a common sleep disorder. It has been recognized a link between OSA and depression , which is most of the times resistant to treatment. Other aspects of OSA are metabolic: insulin resistance, hypertension and obesity. A common treatment for OSA is Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP. This treatment may reverse the cognitive and affective dysfunction but in some cases with residual impairment. The author reports a case of a 48 years old man with family history of bipolar disorder but no past history of psychiatric disorders. A diagnosis of OSA led to the use of CPAP. Ten days later he started hypomanic symptoms and 15 days later he was strongly manic. He was hospitalized and treated with olanzapine, lorazepam and divalproate. CPAP treatment was interrupted. After recovery the patient became depressed and, since then, although he doesn't meet the criteria for major depression, depressive symptoms persisted even with olanzapine and lamotrigibne. Meanwhile he was diagnosed with diabettes mellitus 2 and olanzapine was discontinued and he was put on ziprasidone. The author discusses the contribution of the OSA and treatment with CPAC to the appearance and maintenance of the affective disorder in a patient with family susceptibility. The discussion also includes the metabolic aspects of OSA that can be worsened with the medication to control the affective disorder.

  6. Lessons from healthcare utilization in children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Beneyto, Paz; Soria Checa, Cristina E; Botella-Rocamora, Paloma; Rincon-Piedrahita, Inés; Garcia Callejo, Francisco J; Algarra, Jaime Marco

    Paediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnoea-Hypopnoea Syndrome (OSAS) is a multisystemic condition affecting child's health status that may be investigated analyzing demand for healthcare. to quantify the frequency of medical consultations in children with OSAS over a 5-year period, compared to a healthy population. A longitudinal, case-control, ambispective study was conducted at a hospital pertaining to the national public health system. 69 consecutive children referred for OSAS were recruited with no diseases other than OSAS so that healthcare demand was purely attributed to this condition. Matched healthy control children were selected to compare these data. Data regarding frequency of the medical consultations were obtained over 5 years: the year of the treatment ("Year0"), 1 and 2 years before ("Year -1" and "Year -2" respectively), and 1 and 2 years after treatment ("Year+1" and "Year+2") RESULTS: Frequentation Index (FI), as ratio between the use of health services by OSAS children and healthy controls was 1.89 during Year-2, and 2.15 during Year-1 (Pde Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticide in Taiwanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C-J; Du, J-C; Chiou, H-C; Chung, M-Y; Yang, W; Chen, Y-S; Fuh, M-R; Chien, L-C; Hwang, B; Chen, M-L

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is male predominated, and the etiology of this disorder remains unclear. Past studies have assessed the association of low-level organophosphate pesticide exposure with childhood ADHD cross-sectionally and prospectively. However, the results have been inconsistent. A first case-control study was performed to investigate the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and ADHD with adjusted covariates. We recruited 97 doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases and 110 non-ADHD controls who were 4-15 years of age. Exposure was assessed using urinary levels of dialkylphosphate metabolites, which are biomarkers of OP pesticide exposure. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. The sociodemographics and lifestyles of the children and of the mothers during pregnancy were collected using a questionnaire. The blood lead levels of both groups were similar (1.57 ± 0.73 vs. 1.73 ± 0.77 μg/dL, p = 0.15). Significant urinary concentration differences in one of the six dialkylphosphate metabolites, dimethylphosphate (DMP), were found between ADHD and control subjects (322.92 ± 315.68 vs. 224.37 ± 156.58 nmol/g cr., p Organophosphate pesticide exposure may have deleterious effects on children's neurodevelopment, particularly the development of ADHD. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  8. Fetal and infant exposure to severe Chinese famine increases the risk of adult dyslipidemia: Results from the China health and retirement longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenghe; Li, Changwei; Yang, Zhongping; Ma, Jun; Zou, Zhiyong

    2017-06-14

    To explore the associations between the Chinese famine exposure in early life and the dyslipidemia in adulthood. We selected 2752 participants from the baseline survey of China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) 2011-2012 to evaluate the associations of early life the Chinese famine exposure with risk of dyslipidemia in adulthood. Dyslipidemia was defined as TC (Total Cholesterol): HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) ratio ≥ 5.0 or use cholesterol lowering drugs. Famine exposure cohorts were categorized by birthdates of participants. Binary logistics regression model was used to examine the associations of early-life famine exposure with the risk of dyslipidemia. The dyslipidemia prevalence of the non-exposed cohort, fetal stage-, infant stage-, and preschool stage-exposed cohorts in adulthood was 15.7%, 23.1%, 22.0%, and 18.6%, respectively. Early-life exposure to the Chinese famine significantly increased LDL cholesterol concentrations in adulthood after adjusted for age. The risks of dyslipidemia in fetal (OR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.23-2.03; P dyslipidemia in female adults. However, the similar association was not observed for male adults. Early-life exposure to severe Chinese famine could link with the higher dyslipidemia risk in female adulthood, but not in male adulthood. This gender-specific effect might be associated with the hypothesis that parents in China prefer boys to girls traditionally or survivors' bias.

  9. Children's exposure to violent political conflict stimulates aggression at peers by increasing emotional distress, aggressive script rehearsal, and normative beliefs favoring aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Landau, Simha F; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir; Shikaki, Khalil

    2017-02-01

    We examine the hypothesis that children's exposure to ethnic-political conflict and violence over the course of a year stimulates their increased aggression toward their own in-group peers in subsequent years. In addition, we examine what social cognitive and emotional processes mediate these effects and how these effects are moderated by gender, age, and ethnic group. To accomplish these aims, we collected three waves of data from 901 Israeli and 600 Palestinian youths (three age cohorts: 8, 11, and 14 years old) and their parents at 1-year intervals. Exposure to ethnic-political violence was correlated with aggression at in-group peers among all age cohorts. Using a cross-lagged structural equation model from Year 1 to Year 3, we found that the relation between exposure and aggression is more plausibly due to exposure to ethnic-political violence stimulating later aggression at peers than vice versa, and this effect was not moderated significantly by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. Using three-wave structural equation models, we then showed that this effect was significantly mediated by changes in normative beliefs about aggression, aggressive script rehearsal, and emotional distress produced by the exposure. Again the best fitting model did not allow for moderation by gender, age cohort, or ethnic group. The findings are consistent with recent theorizing that exposure to violence leads to changes both in emotional processes promoting aggression and in the acquisition through observational learning of social cognitions promoting aggression.

  10. The effects of exercise modality and intensity on energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory response in adults with obesity and treated obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachael A; Dolmage, Thomas E; Robles, Priscila G; Brooks, Dina; Goldstein, Roger S

    2017-11-01

    To inform recommendations for the exercise component of a healthy lifestyle intervention for adults with obesity and treated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), we investigated the total energy expenditure (EE) and cardiorespiratory response to weight-supported (cycling) and unsupported (walking) exercise. Individuals with treated OSA and a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m 2 performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill to determine the peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text]. Participants subsequently completed two endurance tests on each modality, matched at 80% and 60% of the highest [Formula: see text] determined by the incremental tests, to intolerance. The cardiorespiratory response was measured and total EE was estimated from the [Formula: see text]. Sixteen participants completed all six tests: mean [SD] age 57 [13] years and median [IQ range] BMI 33.3 [30.8-35.3] kg/m 2 . Total EE during treadmill walking was greater than cycling at both high (158 [101] vs. 29 [15] kcal; p pattern of EE during rest, exercise and recovery. Contrary to current guidelines, walking might be the preferred training modality to achieve the combination of weight loss and increased cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with obesity and treated OSA.

  11. One versus five-days of exposure to varying concentrations of B100 soya biodiesel exhaust reveals a threshold concentration for increased sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although biodiesel (BD) is rapidly being considered as an alternative to diesel fuel, its health effects have not been thoroughly characterized. We previously used the aconitine challenge test to demonstrate that a single exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust (DE) increases the ri...

  12. The reinforcing value of vegetables does not increase with repeated exposure during a randomized controlled provided vegetable intervention among overweight and obese adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of vegetables compared to a snack food can be increased through repeated exposure (incentive sensitization) to amounts of vegetables recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for A...

  13. Effect of increased intake of fish and mussels on exposure to toxic trace elements in a healthy, middle-aged population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outzen, Malene; Tjønneland, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are rich in essential nutrients, but are also a source of exposure to environmental contaminants. We aimed to investigate the effect of increased fish and mussel intake on mercury, arsenic, lead and cadmium blood concentrations. We randomly assigned 102 healthy men and women (a...

  14. Early exposure to nonlethal predation risk by size-selective predators increases somatic growth and decreases size at adulthood in threespined sticklebacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, A. M.; Dingemanse, N. J.; Hankison, S. J.; Langenhof, M. B. W.; Rollins, K.

    Predation has an important influence on life history traits in many organisms, especially when they are young. When cues of trout were present, juvenile sticklebacks grew faster. The increase in body size as a result of exposure to cues of predators was adaptive because larger individuals were more

  15. Ketogenic diet improves the spatial memory impairment caused by exposure to hypobaric hypoxia through increased acetylation of histones in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ming; Huang, Xin; Cheng, Xiang; Lin, Xiao; Zhao, Tong; Wu, Liying; Yu, Xiaodan; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia causes neuron cell damage, resulting in impaired cognitive function. Effective interventions to antagonize hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment are in urgent need. Ketogenic diet (KD) has been successfully used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and improves cognitive behaviors in epilepsy patients and other pathophysiological animal models. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential beneficial effects of a KD on memory impairment caused by hypo...

  16. In vitro ozone exposure increases release of arachidonic acid products from a human bronchial epithelial cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, K.P.; Madden, M.C.; Noah, T.L.; Devlin, R.B. (TRC Environmental Corporation, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Eicosanoids released after ozone exposure of a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-S6, were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) of supernatants from exposed cells prelabeled with [3H]arachidonic acid. BEAS cells released thromboxane B2 (TxB2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), LTD4, LTE4, and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) after exposure to ozone at concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 ppm. The eicosanoids were identified by coelution with authentic standards. The largest product from ozone-exposed BEAS cells was the most polar peak, designated Peak 1. Release of cyclooxygenase products such as TxB2, PGE2, and HHT was inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid. Peaks that migrated with authentic standards for LTB4, LTC4, and LTD4 were inhibited by the lipoxygenase inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The leukotrienes LTB4 and LTC4/D4 could also be detected by immunoassay of concentrated peak fractions. Thus BEAS cells released eicosanoids from cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism following exposure to ozone. Airway epithelial cells may be an important source of eicosanoids following ozone stimulation in humans.

  17. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  18. Pneumocystis murina infection and cigarette smoke exposure interact to cause increased organism burden, development of airspace enlargement, and pulmonary inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Paul J; Preston, Angela M; Ling, Tony; Du, Ming; Fields, W Bradley; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Beck, James M

    2008-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction and lung destruction with airspace enlargement. In addition to cigarette smoking, respiratory pathogens play a role in pathogenesis, but specific organisms are not always identified. Recent reports demonstrate associations between the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in lung specimens or respiratory secretions and the presence of emphysema in COPD patients. Additionally, human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals who smoke cigarettes develop early emphysema, but a role for P. jirovecii in pathogenesis remains speculative. We developed a new experimental model using immunocompetent mice to test the interaction of cigarette smoke exposure and environmentally acquired Pneumocystis murina infection in vivo. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke and P. murina would interact to cause increases in total lung capacity, airspace enlargement, and pulmonary inflammation. We found that exposure to cigarette smoke significantly increases the lung organism burden of P. murina. Pulmonary infection with P. murina, combined with cigarette smoke exposure, results in changes in pulmonary function and airspace enlargement characteristic of pulmonary emphysema. P. murina and cigarette smoke exposure interact to cause increased lung inflammatory cell accumulation. These findings establish a novel animal model system to explore the role of Pneumocystis species in the pathogenesis of COPD.

  19. Intrauterine exposure to fine particulate matter as a risk factor for increased susceptibility to acute broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A; Perera, Frederica P; Spengler, John D; Mroz, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Flak, Elżbieta; Majewska, Renata; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-07-01

    Over the last decades many epidemiologic studies considered the morbidity patterns for respiratory diseases and lung function of children in the context of ambient air pollution usually measured in the postnatal period. The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood. The study included 214 children who had measurements of personal prenatal PM2.5 exposure and regularly collected data on the occurrence of acute bronchitis and pneumonia diagnosed by a physician from birth over the seven-year follow-up. The effect of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was adjusted in the multivariable logistic models for potential confounders, such as prenatal and postnatal ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), city residence area as a proxy of postnatal urban exposure, children's sensitization to domestic aeroallergens, and asthma. In the subgroup of children with available PM2.5 indoor levels, the effect of prenatal exposure was additionally adjusted for indoor exposure as well. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for incidence of recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections (five or more spells of bronchitis and/or pneumonia) recorded in the follow-up significantly correlated in a dose-response manner with the prenatal PM2.5 level (OR=2.44, 95%CI: 1.12-5.36). In conclusion, the study suggests that prenatal exposure to PM2.5 increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and may program respiratory morbidity in early childhood. The study also provides evidence that the target value of 20μg/m(3) for the 24-h mean level of PM2.5 protects unborn babies better than earlier established EPA guidelines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-traumatic trans-diaphragmatic intercostal hernia and cor pulmonale in a patient with poorly controlled obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Syed Basharath; Madi, Salem; Sudworth, Jordan

    2016-10-28

    Trans-diaphragmatic intercostal hernia is a rare entity. Patient with multiple medical comorbidities, including obstructive sleep apnoea, presents with shortness of breath, leg oedema and a bulging swelling through the right chest wall. CT shows partial herniation of the right lung and liver through intercostal space and an echocardiogram reveals right heart failure. He was treated initially with continuous positive airway pressure with poor response and subsequently treated with adaptive servo ventilation with much better symptomatic relief and treatment tolerance. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Does maternal exposure to benzene and PM10 during pregnancy increase the risk of congenital anomalies? A population-based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Malagoli, Carlotta; Malavolti, Marcella; Cherubini, Andrea; Maffeis, Giuseppe; Rodolfi, Rossella; Heck, Julia E.; Astolfi, Gianni; Calzolari, Elisa; Nicolini, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have suggested an association between maternal exposure to ambient air pollution from vehicular traffic and risk of congenital anomalies in the offspring, but epidemiologic evidence is neither strong nor entirely consistent. In a population-based case-control study in a Northern Italy community encompassing 228 cases of birth defects and 228 referent newborns, we investigated if maternal exposure to PM10 and benzene from vehicular traffic during early pregnancy, as estimated through a dispersion model, was associated with excess teratogenic risk. In conditional logistic regression analysis, and with adjustment for the other pollutant, we found that higher exposure to PM10 but not benzene was associated with increased risk of birth defects overall. Anomaly categories showing the strongest dose-response relation with PM10 exposure were musculoskeletal and chromosomal abnormalities but not cardiovascular defects, with Down syndrome being among the specific abnormalities showing the strongest association, though risk estimates particularly for the less frequent defects were statistically very unstable. Further adjustment in the regression model for potential confounders did not considerably alter the results. All the associations were stronger for average levels of PM10 than for their maximal level. Findings of this study give some support for an excess teratogenic risk following maternal exposure during pregnancy to PM10, but not benzene. Such association appears to be limited to some birth defect categories. PMID:26410719

  2. Exposure to the tsunami disaster, PTSD symptoms and increased substance use – an Internet based survey of male and female residents of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisson Jonathan I

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the tsunami disaster in the Indian Ocean basin an Internet based self-screening test was made available in order to facilitate contact with mental health services. Although primarily designed for surviving Swiss tourists as well as relatives and acquaintances of the victims, the screening instrument was open to anyone who felt psychologically affected by this disaster. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences between self-declared increased substance use in the aftermath of the tsunami disaster, trauma exposure and current PTSD symptoms. Methods One section of the screening covered addiction related behavior. We analyzed the relationship between increased substance use, the level of PTSD symptoms and trauma exposure using multivariable logistic regression with substance use as the dependent variable. Included in the study were only subjects who reported being residents of Switzerland and the analyses were stratified by gender in order to control for possible socio-cultural or gender differences in the use of psychotropic substances. Results In women PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure enlarged the odds of increased alcohol, pharmaceuticals and cannabis use significantly. In men the relationship was more specific: PTSD symptoms and degree of exposure only enlarged the odds of increased pharmaceutical consumption significantly. Increases in alcohol, cannabis and tobacco use were only significantly associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. Conclusion The tsunami was associated with increased substance use. This study not only replicates earlier findings but also suggests for a gender specificity of post-traumatic substance use increase.

  3. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Noelle [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Wong, Michael [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Holloway, Alison C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Hardy, Daniel B., E-mail: Daniel.Hardy@schulich.uwo.ca [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Children' s Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  4. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC expos