WorldWideScience

Sample records for exposure incidents pilot

  1. Laser exposure incidents: pilot ocular health and aviation safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W

    2008-09-01

    A database of aviation reports involving laser illumination of flight crewmembers has been established and maintained at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. A review of recent laser illumination reports was initiated to investigate the significance of these events. Reports that involved laser exposures of civilian aircraft in the United States were analyzed for the 13-month period (January 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005). There were 90 reported instances of laser illumination during the study period. A total of 53 reports involved laser exposure of commercial aircraft. Lasers illuminated the cockpit in 41 (46%) of the incidents. Of those, 13 (32%) incidents resulted in a visual impairment or distraction to a pilot, including 1 incident that reportedly resulted in an ocular injury. Nearly 96% of these reports occurred in the last 3 months of the study period. There were no aviation accidents in which laser light illumination was found to be a contributing factor. Operational problems have resulted from laser illumination incidents in the national airspace system. Eye care practitioners, to provide effective consultations to their pilot patients, should be familiar with the problems that can occur with laser exposure.

  2. Effects of malicious ocular laser exposure in commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakkamanil, Mathew M; Fielden, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Intentional malicious laser strikes on commercial pilots are committed by individuals who target a laser into airplane cockpits during takeoff and landing. Because laser exposure to pilots is a relatively new but growing occurrence, our study investigates the ocular effect of this laser exposure in pilots. Retrospective chart review by a single ophthalmologist. All commercial airline pilots (58 male, 3 female) who experienced a laser strike while flying between April 2012 and November 2014 who presented to our clinic were included. A retrospective chart review was performed in a retinal specialist's practice. Ocular assessment was performed within 3 days of laser exposure. A complete ophthalmic evaluation was conducted, including Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus examination, colour fundus photographs, and ocular coherence tomography. Sixty-four laser strike incidents involving commercial pilots were included. All pilots in the study experienced some degree of immediate ocular irritation or light sensitivity. No definite cases of ocular damage were attributed to laser strikes. No pilot had any functional ocular deficits. Our study revealed that laser strikes on aircraft did not result in permanent visual functional or structural deficits. However, laser strikes cause immediate visual effects, including glare, flash blindness, and ocular irritation that can interfere with a pilot's visual function. Given the widespread accessibility of high-power lasers and the rapid increase in incidents, laser strikes threaten to jeopardize aviation safety unless effective preventative measures are put in place. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot Critical Incident Reports as a Means to Identify Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Alan; Cardoza, Colleen; Null, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    It has been estimated that aviation accidents are typically preceded by numerous minor incidents arising from the same causal factors that ultimately produced the accident. Accident databases provide in-depth information on a relatively small number of occurrences, however incident databases have the potential to provide insights into the human factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) operations based on a larger volume of less-detailed reports. Currently, there is a lack of incident data dealing with the human factors of unmanned aircraft systems. An exploratory study is being conducted to examine the feasibility of collecting voluntary critical incident reports from RPAS pilots. Twenty-three experienced RPAS pilots volunteered to participate in focus groups in which they described critical incidents from their own experience. Participants were asked to recall (1) incidents that revealed a system flaw, or (2) highlighted a case where the human operator contributed to system resilience or mission success. Participants were asked to only report incidents that could be included in a public document. During each focus group session, a note taker produced a de-identified written record of the incident narratives. At the end of the session, participants reviewed each written incident report, and made edits and corrections as necessary. The incidents were later analyzed to identify contributing factors, with a focus on design issues that either hindered or assisted the pilot during the events. A total of 90 incidents were reported. Human factor issues included the impact of reduced sensory cues, traffic separation in the absence of an out-the-window view, control latencies, vigilance during monotonous and ultra-long endurance flights, control station design considerations, transfer of control between control stations, the management of lost link procedures, and decision-making during emergencies. Pilots participated willingly and enthusiastically in the study

  4. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  5. Duty hours and incidents in flight among commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Anna Donnla; Issartel, Johann; Fletcher, Richard; Warrington, Giles

    2016-01-01

    Working long duty hours has often been associated with increased risk of incidents and accidents in transport industries. Despite this, information regarding the intermediate relationship between duty hours and incident risk is limited. This study aimed to test a work hours/incident model to identify the interplay of factors contributing to incidents within the aviation industry. Nine hundred and fifty-four European-registered commercial airline pilots completed a 30-item survey investigating self-report attitudes and experiences of fatigue. Path analysis was used to test the proposed model. The fit indices indicated this to be a good fit model (χ(2) = 11.066, df = 5, p = 0.05; Comparative Fit Index = 0.991; Normed Fit Index = 0.984; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.962; Root Mean Square of Approximation = 0.036). Highly significant relationships were identified between duty hours and sleep disturbance (r = 0.18, p hours through to self-reported incidents in flight was identified. Further investigation employing both objective and subjective measures of sleep and fatigue is needed.

  6. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: overview and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Salient features of the 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident are discussed. Comparisons are made with previous human and animal exposure data, and conclusions drawn relative to the injured workman, to health physics practices, and to the adequacy of current exposure limits

  7. 1976 Hanford Americium exposure incident: hematologic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, H.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-05-01

    Hematologic evaluation of an individual with an initial systemic body burden of approx. 200 μCi 241 Am revealed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction of total leukocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes. This effect on total leukocytes and neutrophils was evident approx. 30 days after exposure, appeared to stabilize at about 3 months after exposure, and remained at this lower level thorugh a 52-months observation period. The effect on lymphocytes was apparent by 3 days after exposure, stabilizing at approx. 50% of pre-exposure values for about 7 months, with a return to pre-exposure levels in the following 4 y. There was a progressive and significant (P < 0.001) decline in platelet counts during the 52-months postexposure period. The pattern of response in erythrocyte parameters was complex. Immediately after the accident, these values were less than the pre-exposure mean level; they gradually increased (P < 0.001) for approx. 2 y and then began a progressive decline (P < 0.001)

  8. A remotely piloted aircraft system in major incident management: concept and pilot, feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Håkon B

    2015-06-10

    Major incidents are complex, dynamic and bewildering task environments characterised by simultaneous, rapidly changing events, uncertainty and ill-structured problems. Efficient management, communication, decision-making and allocation of scarce medical resources at the chaotic scene of a major incident is challenging and often relies on sparse information and data. Communication and information sharing is primarily voice-to-voice through phone or radio on specified radio frequencies. Visual cues are abundant and difficult to communicate between teams and team members that are not co-located. The aim was to assess the concept and feasibility of using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) system to support remote sensing in simulated major incident exercises. We carried out an experimental, pilot feasibility study. A custom-made, remotely controlled, multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle with vertical take-off and landing was equipped with digital colour- and thermal imaging cameras, a laser beam, a mechanical gripper arm and an avalanche transceiver. We collected data in five simulated exercises: 1) mass casualty traffic accident, 2) mountain rescue, 3) avalanche with buried victims, 4) fisherman through thin ice and 5) search for casualties in the dark. The unmanned aerial vehicle was remotely controlled, with high precision, in close proximity to air space obstacles at very low levels without compromising work on the ground. Payload capacity and tolerance to wind and turbulence were limited. Aerial video, shot from different altitudes, and remote aerial avalanche beacon search were streamed wirelessly in real time to a monitor at a ground base. Electromagnetic interference disturbed signal reception in the ground monitor. A small remotely piloted aircraft can be used as an effective tool carrier, although limited by its payload capacity, wind speed and flight endurance. Remote sensing using already existing remotely piloted aircraft technology in pre

  9. 1976 Hanford americium exposure incident: psychological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Accidents involving exposure to radiation or radioactive materials may involve an unusual degree of emotional trauma. Methods that may be employed in dealing with such trauma are discussed in relation to a specific accident in which a radiation worker was injured and seriously contaminated with americium-241

  10. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...

  11. Epidemiology of biological-exposure incidents among Spanish healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, V; Mato, G; Mariano, A; Fernández, C; Fereres, J

    2001-12-01

    To determine the frequency and the epidemiological characteristics of biological-exposure incidents occurring among healthcare personnel. Prospective surveillance study. Participating Spanish primary-care and specialty centers from January 1994 to December 1997. 70 centers in 1994, 87 in 1995, 97 in 1996, and 104 in 1997. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated for several variables (position held, area of care, type of injuring object, activity, etc) and for the different categories of each variable. There were 20,235 registered incidents. Annual incidence rates were as follows: 1994, 51 per 1,000; 1995, 58 per 1,000, 1996, 54 per 1,000; and 1997, 59 per 1,000. Mean age of accident victims was as follows: 1994, 35.68 (standard deviation [SD], 16.26); 1995, 33.6 (SD, 11.9); 1996,38.2 (SD, 17.27); and 1997, 36.7 (SD, 16.33) years. Of the 20,235 incidents, 15,860 (80.7%) occurred to women; 50% (9,833) accidents were among nursing staff. The type of incident most frequently reported was percutaneous injury (81.1%). The highest frequency of accidents was seen in medical and surgical areas (28% and 25.6%, respectively). Blood and blood products were the most commonly involved material (87.6%). Administration of intramuscular or intravenous medication was the activity associated with the highest accident rate (20.3%). The most frequent immediate action in response was rinsing and disinfecting (65.6%). The incident registry was highly stable in terms of incidence rates over the observation period and served to highlight the large number of incidents recorded each year. The potential implications of the results are the need to explore reasons for increased exposures in certain areas, with the aim of focusing prevention efforts, and, similarly, to establish the factors associated with diminished incidence rates to model successful measures.

  12. Leptospirosis in Ireland: annual incidence and exposures associated with infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, P

    2013-08-05

    SUMMARY Human leptospirosis is found throughout the world, albeit with a higher incidence in tropical regions. In temperate regions it is associated with certain occupational and recreational activities. This paper reports both on the incidence of human leptospirosis in Ireland and on possible associated exposures, using leptospirosis case notification, enhanced surveillance, hospital discharge data and death registrations. Based on official notification data, there was a threefold increase in the reported incidence of leptospirosis in Ireland between 1995-1999 and 2004-2009, which appears partially to be due to improved reporting. The exposures most associated with infection were those involving contact with livestock or water-based recreational sports, in particular kayaking. Advice on prevention should continue to be targeted in the first instance at these groups. The variety of potential transmission routes reported should inform clinicians to consider leptospirosis in individuals with a compatible clinical profile who were not from occupational groups historically considered at risk.

  13. Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, Majid A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Qayad, Mohammed; Saleheen, Hassan; Runyan, Desmond; Almuneef, Maha

    2015-04-01

    Studies in other countries, including countries with mandated reporting by professionals and a long history of recognition of the problem, have found child abuse to be seriously under reported. This population-based pilot study was conducted to determine the magnitude of adolescents' exposure to CAN at home, and to identify ethical and methodological challenges to conducting a survey on a culturally sensitive subject. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Kharj city in 2011-2012. Through a stratified multistage cluster random sampling of schools, a sample of adolescents (15-18 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child: Home version (ICAST-CH) was used for data collection. The previous year's incidence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to violence were assessed. A total of 2,043 students participated in the study (mean age, 16.6 years; 58%, female). The incidence of psychological abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect, and sexual abuse were 74.9%, 57.5%, 50.7%, 50.2%, and 14.0%, respectively. Female participants were at higher risk for psychological and physical abuse, exposure to violence, and neglect, but not for sexual abuse. The rates and gender distribution of CAN at home differ from findings of health-based records. Our results are comparable to other regional population-based studies. Thus, population-based data are necessary to inform and guide professionals and decision makers for prevention policies and resource allocation. Insights to ethical and methodological challenges surrounding the sensitive nature of this type of study are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms

  15. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms.

  16. Environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aimed at providing an epidemiological approach of the hypothesis of the existence of an association between environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. From 1990 to 2001, 5,330 cases of acute leukaemia were registered by the French National Registry of Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma in children under 15 years of age and living in mainland France at the time of diagnosis. Indoor radon concentration was estimated using 13,240 measurements carried out by the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), and covering the whole country. Exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation was based on continuous measurements, using thermoluminescent dosimeters, at about 1,000 sites covering the whole of France, in order to monitor the level of environmental radioactivity in France. Analyses were conducted using Poisson regressions, including ecological co-variates, at the level of the 'Departments' (95 administrative geographical units in France). A significant positive ecological association between indoor radon concentration and the incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia was evidenced (SIR=1.19 per 100 Bq/m 3 - 95% confidence interval=[1.03-1.38]) and remained significant in multivariate regression analyses including exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and/or some ecological co-variates. Conversely, there was no evidence of an ecological association between exposure to terrestrial gamma radiation and childhood leukaemia incidence. The epidemiological studies of the incidence of childhood leukaemia around nuclear sites analyzed incidence with respect to the distance from the plants, without considering any information on the levels or geographic distribution of the radiation dose due to discharges from the plants. The present study investigated for the first time the incidence of childhood leukaemia around French nuclear installations using a geographic zoning based on estimated doses due to gaseous

  17. Medical exposure to children - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingilizova, K.; Borisova, R.

    2008-01-01

    Patient dose assessment during medical exposure in paediatric diagnostic radiology is of highest importance in view of the greater radiation hazard to children compared to adults. It is conditioned by their higher sensitivity to ionizing radiation and their greater life expectancy. The risk of stochastic effects is several times greater for children than for adults. The attributive risk to children exposed to ionizing radiation during the first 10 years is 3 to 5 times greater than the risk to adults exposed between 30 and 40 years of age, and 6 to 7 times greater compared to the risk to adults exposed after their 50 year. The children dose distribution studies are carried out in order to elaborate national diagnostic reference levels. The dose assessment is complicated by the great variation in body size and anatomical features of children belonging to different age groups. There is a series of difficulties in the definition of image quality criteria and guidelines for good practice due to the dynamically changing body proportions and the anatomical features as a result of the active growth process from infancy through early childhood to adolescence. (author)

  18. Copycats in Pilot Aircraft-Assisted Suicides after the Germanwings Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Laukkala

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft-assisted pilot suicide is a rare but serious phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pilot aircraft-assisted suicide risks, i.e., a copycat effect, in the U.S. and Germany after the Germanwings 2015 incident in the French Alps. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides were searched in the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB accident investigation database and in the German Bundestelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung (BFU Reports of Investigation database five years before and two years after the deliberate crash of the Germanwings flight into the French Alps in 2015. The relative risk (RR of the aircraft-assisted pilot suicides was calculated. Two years after the incident, three out of 454 (0.66% fatal incidents were aircraft-assisted suicides compared with six out of 1292 (0.46% in the prior five years in the NTSB database. There were no aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the German database during the two years after or five years prior to the Germanwings crash. The relative aircraft-assisted pilot suicide risk for the U.S. was 1.4 (95% CI 0.3–4.2 which was not statistically significant. Six of the pilots who died by suicide had told someone of their suicidal intentions. We consider changes in the rate to be within a normal variation. Responsible media coverage of aircraft incidents is important due to the large amount of publicity that these events attract.

  19. Copycats in Pilot Aircraft-Assisted Suicides after the Germanwings Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorio, Alpo; Bor, Robert; Budowle, Bruce; Navathe, Pooshan; Pukkala, Eero; Sajantila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Aircraft-assisted pilot suicide is a rare but serious phenomenon. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pilot aircraft-assisted suicide risks, i.e., a copycat effect, in the U.S. and Germany after the Germanwings 2015 incident in the French Alps. Aircraft-assisted pilot suicides were searched in the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigation database and in the German Bundestelle für Flugunfalluntersuchung (BFU) Reports of Investigation database five years before and two years after the deliberate crash of the Germanwings flight into the French Alps in 2015. The relative risk (RR) of the aircraft-assisted pilot suicides was calculated. Two years after the incident, three out of 454 (0.66%) fatal incidents were aircraft-assisted suicides compared with six out of 1292 (0.46%) in the prior five years in the NTSB database. There were no aircraft-assisted pilot suicides in the German database during the two years after or five years prior to the Germanwings crash. The relative aircraft-assisted pilot suicide risk for the U.S. was 1.4 (95% CI 0.3–4.2) which was not statistically significant. Six of the pilots who died by suicide had told someone of their suicidal intentions. We consider changes in the rate to be within a normal variation. Responsible media coverage of aircraft incidents is important due to the large amount of publicity that these events attract. PMID:29534475

  20. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J.

    2000-01-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated dose rate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years reflect the

  1. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots: Exposure pattern as a function of aircraft type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.; Haldorsen, T.; Reitan, J

    2000-07-01

    The project presented here has been carried out as part of an epidemiological project on Norwegian aircraft personnel, entitled 'Exposure to low level ionising radiation and incidence of cancer in airline pilots and crew'. The purpose of the main project is to determine if there may be a relationship between exposure to cosmic radiation at aircraft cruising altitudes and the incidence of cancer. The methodology used as basis for estimating the radiation exposures is presented. The information used as basis for the dose estimations comes from a variety of sources: the files at the Personnel Licensing Section and the Aviation Medical Section of Norwegian Aviation Administration, the route tables of Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), large amounts of expert information contributed by members of the Pilot's Associations in Norway and a couple of non-Norwegian pilots and from other members of the staff of SAS and other airlines. The estimation for each pilot was based on individual information of annual block hours and an estimated doserate for each type of aircraft. The latter was estimated as a weighted average of CARI-estimated doses on a selection of routes flown by the airplanes in the different time periods. The project includes all pilots that have been licensed in Norway since 1946. These pilots have been flying a large variety of different types of aircraft and routes. The cosmic radiation intensity is a function of altitude in the atmosphere and, less markedly, of geographical latitude and of the intensity of the radiation from the sun (quantified as the heliocentric potential). Different types of aircraft fly at different altitudes and are used for different purposes (passenger traffic, cargo, air photography, preparation of maps etc) and used on different routes. The end results of the project described in this article are radiation exposures per block hour for each type of aircraft, and for each individual year (the differences between years

  2. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  3. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration's computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs

  4. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian pilots flying aircraft not used by SAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-05-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots flying a great diversity of different aircrafts. Aircrafts that appear in the time-tables of the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) have been treated in an earlier report. The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircrafts in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for the work in this report is information provided by several active pilots, members of the Pilots Associations, along with calculations performed using US Federal Aviation Administration`s computer code CARI-3N. 2 refs.

  5. Daily personal exposure to black carbon: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ryan D.; Knibbs, Luke D.

    2016-05-01

    Continuous personal monitoring is the benchmark for air pollution exposure assessment. Black carbon (BC) is a strong marker of primary combustion like vehicle and biomass emissions. There have been few studies that quantified daily personal BC exposure and the contribution that different microenvironments make to it. In this pilot study, we used a portable aethalometer to measure BC concentrations in an individual's breathing zone at 30-s intervals while he performed his usual daily activities. We used a GPS and time-activity diary to track where he spent his time. We performed twenty 24-h measurements, and observed an arithmetic mean daily exposure concentration of 603 ng/m3. We estimated that changing commute modes from bus to train reduced the 24-h mean BC exposure concentration by 29%. Switching from open windows to closed windows and recirculated air in a car led to a reduction of 32%. Living in a home without a wood-fired heater caused a reduction of 50% compared with a wood-heated home. Our preliminary findings highlight the potential utility of simple approaches to reduce a person's daily BC exposure.

  6. Introduction of a prehospital critical incident monitoring system--pilot project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Julian; Davis, Anna; Jennings, Paul; Bartley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Hospital medical incident monitoring improves preventable morbidity and mortality rates. Error management systems have been adopted widely in this setting. Data relating to incident monitoring in the prehospital setting is limited. Implementation of an incident monitoring process in a prehospital setting. This is a prospective, descriptive study of the pilot phase of the implementation of an incident monitoring process in a regional prehospital setting, with a focus on trauma care. Paramedics and emergency department staff submitted anonymous incident reports, and a chart review was performed on patients who met major trauma criteria. Selected trauma cases were analyzed by a structured interview/debriefing process to elucidate undocumented incidents. A project committee coded and logged all incidents and developed recommendations. Of 4,429 ambulance responses, 41 cases were analyzed. Twenty-four (58.5%; 95% CI = 49.7-67.4%) were reported anonymously, and the rest were major trauma patients. A total of 77 incidents were identified (mean per case = 1.8; CI = 1.03-2.57). Anonymous cases revealed 26 incidents (mean = 1.1; CI = 0.98-1.22); eight trauma debriefings revealed 38 incidents (mean = 4.8; CI = 0.91-8.69) and nine trauma chart reviews revealed 13 incidents (mean = 1.6; CI = 1.04-2.16). A total of 56 of 77 (72.7%; CI = 65.5-80.0%) incidents related to system inadequacies, and 15 (57.7%; CI = 46.7-68.6%) anonymously reported incidents related to resource problems. A total of 35 of 77 (45.5%; CI = 40.4-50.5%) incidents had minimal or no impact on the patients' outcomes. Thirty-four of 77 (44.2%; CI = 39.3-49.1%) incidents were considered mitigated by circumstance. Incident monitoring led to generalized feedback in most cases (65 of 77; 84.4%; CI = 77.6-91.3%); in three cases (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%), specific education occurred; two cases were reported to an external body (2.6%; CI = 2.5-2.7%); three cases resulted in remedial action (3.9%; CI = 3.7-4.1%); four for

  7. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-02-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS). The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project, be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found in the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Associations

  8. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U.

    1997-02-01

    The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The project has been partially financed by the Norwegian Research Council. Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started or are in the planning stage in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the Scandinavian Airline System (SAS). The results presented in this report (radiation doserates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) will, in a later stage of the project, be utilized to estimate the individual radiation exposure histories. The major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found in the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Associations.

  9. Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Stafoggia, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).......To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)....

  10. Case studies of hydrogen sulphide occupational exposure incidents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate

    2014-12-15

    The UK Health and Safety Executive has investigated several incidents of workplace accidents involving hydrogen sulphide exposure in recent years. Biological monitoring has been used in some incidents to determine the cause of unconsciousness resulting from these incidents and as a supporting evidence in regulatory enforcement. This paper reports on three case incidents and discusses the use of biological monitoring in such cases. Biological monitoring has a role in identifying hydrogen sulphide exposure in incidents, whether these are occupational or in the wider environment. Sample type, time of collection and sample storage are important factors in the applicability of this technique. For non-fatal incidents, multiple urine samples are recommended at two or more time points between the incident and 15 h post-exposure. For routine occupational monitoring, post-shift samples should be adequate. Due to endogenous levels of urinary thiosulphate, it is likely that exposures in excess of 12 ppm for 30 min (or 360 ppm/min equivalent) would be detectable using biological monitoring. This is within the Acute Exposure Guideline Level 2 (the level of the chemical in air at or above which there may be irreversible or other serious long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) for hydrogen sulphide. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Variation in interpretation and counselling of blood exposure incidents by different medical practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T.L. van; Pelk-Jongen, M; Wijkmans, C.J.; Voss, A.; Timen, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood exposure incidents pose a risk for transmission of bloodborne pathogens for both health care workers and public health. Despite several national and international guidelines, counsellors have often different opinions about the risks caused by these incidents. Little is known about

  12. Rodenticide incidents of exposure and adverse effects on non-raptor birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in the adverse effects of rodenticides on birds has focused primarily on raptors. However, non-raptor birds are also poisoned (rodenticide exposure resulting in adverse effects including mortality) by rodenticides through consumption of the rodenticide bait and contaminated prey. A literature search for rodenticide incidents (evidence of exposure to a rodenticide, adverse effects, or exposure to placebo baits) involving non-raptor birds returned 641 records spanning the years 1931 to 2016. The incidents included 17 orders, 58 families, and 190 non-raptor bird species. Nineteen anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant rodenticide active ingredients were associated with the incidents. The number of incidents and species detected were compared by surveillance method. An incident was considered to have been reported through passive surveillance if it was voluntarily reported to the authorities whereas the report of an incident found through field work that was conducted with the objective of documenting adverse effects on birds was determined to be from active surveillance. More incidents were reported from passive surveillance than with active surveillance but a significantly greater number of species were detected in proportion to the number of incidents found through active surveillance than with passive surveillance (z = 7.61, p raptor bird poisonings from rodenticides may increase incident reportings and can strengthen the predictions of harm characterized by risk assessments.

  13. Piloting violence and incident reporting measures on one acute mental health inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Phil; Ashley, Carolyn; Kayto, Denise; Heusdens, Carol

    2008-05-01

    During May, 2006, on one acute mental health inpatient unit, nursing staff evaluated each patient three times a day (i.e., once each nursing shift) using the Broset Violence Checklist (BVC). Associated data were collected using the Staff Observation and Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) if an adverse incident occurred. At the end of the data collection period, the nursing staff were asked to complete a short questionnaire anonymously to evaluate how useful they had found the instruments. N = 93 patients were admitted to the unit during the month of study. Seven incidents were reported using the SOAS-R. A slight trend was noted for higher BVC score in aggressive patients. A potential high occurrence of underreporting on incidents was observed. There was limited feedback data from nursing staff at the end of the study, but the responses received were encouraging for continued use of the instruments in practice. The pilot study fulfilled its purpose in two ways. First, it allowed staff on the unit to experience using structured instruments to support their practice. Second, it allowed an opportunity to raise awareness of potential underreporting and tolerance of aggression on the unit.

  14. [Malignant mesothelioma in Emilia-Romagna: incidence and asbestos exposure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangone, Lucia; Romanelli, Antonio; Campari, Cinzia; Candela, Silvia

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the activity, the sources of informations, methods and results of the "Emilia-Romagna Mesothelioma Registry" (ReM). The Registry started in 1996 and collects all cases of Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) occurring in Emilia-Romagna. 323 new cases (225 males and 98 females) have been detected during the period 1996-2001. Most cases (n = 286) concerned pleura. Other observed localizations were: peritoneum (n = 30), tunica vaginalis testis (n = 4) and pericardium (n = 3). Most of the cases were reported by the Institutes of Pathology and Occupational Health and by the Safety Services (respectively the 62% and the 18%). 87% of all the cases were histologically, 8% TC, 4% radiologically and only 1% clinically confirmed. The regional incidence rate (for 10(5) person-years, age standardized on the 1991 Italian population), has been estimated to be 1.98 in males and 0.88 in females. The highest rates were registered in Piacenza and Reggio Emilia province among men and Reggio Emilia and Ravenna province among women. 72% of cases have been classified as exposed to asbestos (64% occupationally and 8% as domestic/environmentally exposed).

  15. Association of arsenic exposure with lung cancer incidence rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J Putila

    Full Text Available Although strong exposure to arsenic has been shown to be carcinogenic, its contribution to lung cancer incidence in the United States is not well characterized. We sought to determine if the low-level exposures to arsenic seen in the U.S. are associated with lung cancer incidence after controlling for possible confounders, and to assess the interaction with smoking behavior.Measurements of arsenic stream sediment and soil concentration obtained from the USGS National Geochemical Survey were combined, respectively, with 2008 BRFSS estimates on smoking prevalence and 2000 U.S. Census county level income to determine the effects of these factors on lung cancer incidence, as estimated from respective state-wide cancer registries and the SEER database. Poisson regression was used to determine the association between each variable and age-adjusted county-level lung cancer incidence. ANOVA was used to assess interaction effects between covariates.Sediment levels of arsenic were significantly associated with an increase in incident cases of lung cancer (P<0.0001. These effects persisted after controlling for smoking and income (P<0.0001. Across the U.S., exposure to arsenic may contribute to up to 5,297 lung cancer cases per year. There was also a significant interaction between arsenic exposure levels and smoking prevalence (P<0.05.Arsenic was significantly associated with lung cancer incidence rates in the U.S. after controlling for smoking and income, indicating that low-level exposure to arsenic is responsible for excess cancer cases in many parts of the U.S. Elevated county smoking prevalence strengthened the association between arsenic exposure and lung cancer incidence rate, an effect previously unseen on a population level.

  16. Analysis of general aviation single-pilot IFR incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of incident data obtained from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) has been made to determine the problem areas in general aviation single-pilot IFR (SPIFR) operations. The Aviation Safety Reporting System data base is a compilation of voluntary reports of incidents from any person who has observed or been involved in an occurrence which was believed to have posed a threat to flight safety. This paper examines only those reported incidents specifically related to general aviation single-pilot IFR operations. The frequency of occurrence of factors related to the incidents was the criterion used to define significant problem areas and, hence, to suggest where research is needed. The data was cataloged into one of five major problem areas: (1) controller judgment and response problems, (2) pilot judgment and response problems, (3) air traffic control (ATC) intrafacility and interfacility conflicts, (4) ATC and pilot communication problems, and (5) IFR-VFR conflicts. In addition, several points common to all or most of the problems were observed and reported. These included human error, communications, procedures and rules, and work load.

  17. Can exposure to electromagnetic radiation in diathermy operators be estimated from interview data A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, A.I.; Skotte, J. (Central Hospital, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    As preparation for a case-control study dealing with possible teratogenic property of short waves, a pilot study was conducted in order to compare exposure assessment from different sources. In 11 physiotherapy clinics, exposure assessments based on interviews within 1 week among the exposed physiotherapists were compared with exposure assessments based on observations including measurements. It was possible to discriminate between recent high and low peak exposure. Furthermore, an interview index reflecting the duration of the exposure correlated to some extent with the corresponding measurements.

  18. Indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure monitoring of particulate air pollution: the Baltimore elderly epidemiology-exposure pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ron; Creason, John; Zweidinger, Roy; Watts, Randall; Sheldon, Linda; Shy, Carl

    A 17-day pilot study investigating potential PM exposures of an elderly population was conducted near Baltimore, Maryland. Collection of residential indoor, residential outdoor, and ambient monitoring data associated with the subjects living at a common retirement facility was integrated with results from a paired epidemiological pilot study. This integration was used to investigate the potential pathophysiological health effects resulting from daily changes in estimated PM exposures with results reported elsewhere. Objectives of the exposure study were to determine the feasibility of performing PM exposure assessment upon an elderly population and establishing relationships between the various exposure measures including personal monitoring. PM 2.5 was determined to be the dominant outdoor size fraction (0.83 PM 2.5/PM 10 mass ratio by dichot monitoring). Individual 24-h PM 1.5 personal exposures ranged from 12 to 58 μg m -3. Comparison of data from matched sampling dates resulted in mean daily PM 1.5 personal, PM 2.5 outdoor, and PM 1.5 indoor concentrations of 34, 17, and 17 μg m -3, respectively. Activity patterns of the study population indicated a generally sedentary population spending a mean of 96% of each day indoors. Future studies would benefit from the use of a consistent sampling methodology across a larger number of PM measurement sites relevant to the elderly subjects, as well as a larger personal PM exposure study population to more successfully collect data needed in matched epidemiological-exposure studies.

  19. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection Technique; Pineau, J.F. [ALGADE, Bessines (France); Chameaud, J. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 87 - Razes (France)

    1994-12-31

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10{sup 6} J.m{sup -3} (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author).

  20. Lung cancer incidence after exposure of rats to low doses of radon: influence of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlier, J.P.; Morin, M.; Monchaux, G.; Fritsch, P.; Lafuma, J.; Masse, R.; Chameaud, J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect on lung cancer incidence of a long exposure to low levels of radon, 500 male 3-months-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were exposed to a cumulative dose of 25 WLM of radon and its daughters, 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, during 18 months. Exposure conditions were controlled in order to maintain a defined PAEC: 42 x 10 6 J.m -3 (2 WL), in the range of domestic and environmental exposures. Animals were kept until they died or given euthanasia when moribund. Mean survival times were similar in both irradiated and control groups: 828 days (SD = 169) and 830 days (SD = 137), as well as lung cancer incidence, 0.60% at 25 WLM and 0.63% for controls. The incidence of lung lesions was compared statistically with controls and those previously obtained at cumulative exposures of 25 and 50 WLM delivered over a 4-6 month period, inducing a significant increase of lung cancer, 2.2% and 3.8% respectively. Such a comparison showed a decreased lung cancer incidence related to a decrease in the dose rate for low levels of radon exposure. (author)

  1. Ambient air pollution exposure and the incidence of related health effects among racial/ethnic minorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    Differences among racial and ethnic groups in morbidity and mortality rates for diseases, including diseases with environmental causes, have been extensively documented. However, documenting the linkages between environmental contaminants, individual exposures, and disease incidence has been hindered by difficulties in measuring exposure for the population in general and for minority populations in particular. After briefly discussing research findings on associations of common air pollutants with disease incidence, the authors summarize recent studies of radial/ethnic subgroup differences in incidence of these diseases in the US. They then present evidence of both historic and current patterns of disproportionate minority group exposure to air pollution as measured by residence in areas where ambient air quality standards are violated. The current indications of disproportionate potential exposures of minority and low-income populations to air pollutants represent the continuation of a historical trend. The evidence of linkage between disproportionate exposure to air pollution of racial/ethnic minorities and low-income groups and their higher rates of some air pollution-related diseases is largely circumstantial. Differences in disease incidence and mortality rates among racial/ethnic groups are discussed for respiratory diseases, cancers, and lead poisoning. Pollutants of concern include CO, Pb, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, and particulates.

  2. Residential Radon Exposure and Incidence of Childhood Lymphoma in Texas, 1995–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C. Peckham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n = 2147 provided case information for the period 1995–2011. Denominator data were obtained from the United States Census. Regional arithmetic mean radon concentrations were obtained from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey and linked to residence at diagnosis. Exposure was assessed categorically: ≤25th percentile (reference, >25th to ≤50th percentile, >50th to ≤75th percentile, and >75th percentile. Negative binomial regression generated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We evaluated lymphoma overall and by subtype: Hodgkin (HL; n = 1248, Non-Hodgkin excluding Burkitt (non-BL NHL; n = 658, Burkitt (BL; n = 241, and Diffuse Large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 315. There was no evidence that residential radon exposure was positively associated with lymphoma overall, HL, or BL. Areas with radon concentrations >75th percentile had a marginal increase in DLBCL incidence (aIRR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–2.91. In one of the largest studies of residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma, we found little evidence to suggest a positive or negative association; an observation consistent with previous studies.

  3. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  4. Mercury Exposure in Young Adulthood and Incidence of Diabetes Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ka; Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, Steve; Reis, Jared; Guallar, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Laboratory studies suggest that exposure to methylmercury at a level similar to those found in fish may induce pancreatic islet β-cell dysfunction. Few, if any, human studies have examined the association between mercury exposure and diabetes incidence. We examined whether toenail mercury levels are associated with incidence of diabetes in a large prospective cohort. RESEACH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective cohort of 3,875 American young adults, aged 20–32 years, free of diabetes in 1987 (baseline), were enrolled and followed six times until 2005. Baseline toenail mercury levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident diabetes was identified by plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetes medications. RESULTS A total of 288 incident cases of diabetes occurred over 18 years of follow-up. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and magnesium, and toenail selenium, toenail mercury levels were positively associated with the incidence of diabetes. The hazard ratio (95% CI) of incident diabetes compared the highest to the lowest quintiles of mercury exposure was 1.65 (1.07–2.56; P for trend = 0.02). Higher mercury exposure at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function index (P for trend mercury exposure in young adulthood may have elevated risk of diabetes later in life. PMID:23423697

  5. Estimating the incidence of lung cancer attributable to occupational exposure in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi-Jarrahi Yasaman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the fraction of lung cancer incidence in Iran attributed to occupational exposures to the well-established lung cancer carcinogens, including silica, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, chromium, diesel fumes, beryllium, and asbestos. Methods Nationwide exposure to each of the mentioned carcinogens was estimated using workforce data from the Iranian population census of 1995, available from the International Labor Organization (ILO website. The prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in each industry was estimated using exposure data from the CAREX (CARcinogen EXposure database, an international occupational carcinogen information system kept and maintained by the European Union. The magnitude of the relative risk of lung cancer for each carcinogen was estimated from local and international literature. Using the Levin modified population attributable risk (incidence fraction, lung cancer incidence (as estimated by the Tehran Population-Based Cancer Registry attributable to workplace exposure to carcinogens was estimated. Results The total workforce in Iran according to the 1995 census identified 12,488,020 men and 677,469 women. Agriculture is the largest sector with 25% of the male and 0.27% of female workforce. After applying the CAREX exposure estimate to each sector, the proportion exposed to lung carcinogens was 0.08% for male workers and 0.02% for female workers. Estimating a relative risk of 1.9 (95% CI of 1.7–2.1 for high exposure and 1.3 (95% CI 1.2–1.4 for low exposure, and employing the Levin modified formula, the fraction of lung cancer attributed to carcinogens in the workplace was 1.5% (95% CI of 1.2–1.9 for females and 12% (95% CI of 10–15 for males. These fractions correspond to an estimated incidence of 1.3 and 0.08 cases of lung cancer per 100,000 population for males and females, respectively. Conclusion The incidence of lung cancer due to occupational exposure is low in

  6. A Prospective Study of Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Incidence of Skin Lesions in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argos, Maria; Kalra, Tara; Pierce, Brandon L.; Chen, Yu; Parvez, Faruque; Islam, Tariqul; Ahmed, Alauddin; Hasan, Rabiul; Hasan, Khaled; Sarwar, Golam; Levy, Diane; Slavkovich, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Ahsan, Habibul

    2011-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic in groundwater pose a public health threat to millions of people worldwide. The authors aimed to evaluate the association between arsenic exposure and skin lesion incidence among participants in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS). The analyses used data on 10,182 adults free of skin lesions at baseline through the third biennial follow-up of the cohort (2000–2009). Discrete-time hazard regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident skin lesions. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for incident skin lesions comparing 10.1–50.0, 50.1–100.0, 100.1–200.0, and ≥200.1 μg/L with ≤10.0 μg/L of well water arsenic exposure were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 1.49), 1.69 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.14), 1.97 (95% CI: 1.58, 2.46), and 2.98 (95% CI: 2.40, 3.71), respectively (Ptrend = 0.0001). Results were similar for the other measures of arsenic exposure, and the increased risks remained unchanged with changes in exposure in recent years. Dose-dependent associations were more pronounced in females, but the incidence of skin lesions was greater in males and older individuals. Chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water was associated with increased incidence of skin lesions, even at low levels of arsenic exposure (<100 μg/L). PMID:21576319

  7. Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C L; Lombard, C J; Gwebushe, N

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences. Methods We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological and physical aggression between co‐workers. Open ended questions addressed additional stressors. Results Critical incident exposure and rates of general psychopathology were higher than in studies in the developed world. Exposure to critical incidents was associated with general psychopathology, symptoms of PTSD, and with aggression between co‐workers, but not with alcohol use. Ambulance, fire, and sea rescue services had lower general psychopathology scores than traffic police. The sea rescue service also scored lower than traffic police on PTSD and psychological aggression. The defence force had higher rates of exposure to physical assault, and in ambulance services, younger staff were more vulnerable to assault. Women had higher rates of general psychopathology and of exposure to psychological aggression. Other stressors identified included death notification, working conditions, and organisational problems. Conclusions Service organisations should be alert to the possibility that their personnel are experiencing work ‐related mental health and behavioural problems, and should provide appropriate support. Attention should also be given to organisational issues that may add to the stress of incidents. Workplace programmes should support vulnerable groups, and address death notification and appropriate expression of anger. PMID:16498167

  8. Residential exposure to traffic noise and risk of incident atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Maria; Sajadieh, Ahmad; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz

    2016-01-01

    with adjustment for lifestyle, socioeconomic position and air pollution. Results A 10 dB higher 5-year time-weighted mean exposure to road traffic noise was associated with a 6% higher risk of A-fib (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.00–1.12) in models adjusted for factors...

  9. Bladder cancer incidence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among asphalt pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Kromhout, Hans; Johansen, Christoffer; Langard, Sverre; Kauppinen, Timo; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the association between exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that arises during asphalt paving, and risk of bladder cancer. 7298 men included in the historical cohort were first employed between 1913 and 1999 in companies applying asphalt in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Israel. The minimal duration of employment for inclusion in the cohort was two seasons of work. Occupational histories were extracted from personnel files. A follow-up for cancer incidence was conducted through national cancer registries. The authors estimated exposures to benzo(a)pyrene as a marker for 4-6 ring PAH. Exposures were reconstructed by using information about changes in asphalt paving technology in each company over time, the modelled relation between production characteristics and exposure levels, and job histories. Relative risks and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression. 48 bladder cancers among asphalt paving workers were detected; of these, 39 cases were exposed at least 15 years before the diagnosis. Cumulative exposure to PAH was not associated with the incidence of bladder cancer. The association with average exposure became stronger when 15-year lag was considered, revealing a twofold increase in relative bladder cancer risk in the two higher exposure categories. There was an indication of exposure-response association with lagged averaged exposure. Risk estimates were adjusted for age, country, duration of employment and calendar period, did not show heterogeneity among countries and did not materially change when re-estimated after excluding non-primary cancers from follow-up. Previously conducted sensitivity analysis indicates that confounding by cigarette smoking is an unlikely explanation for the observed exposure-response trends. The authors were unable to control for all possible sources of confounding and bias. The results do not allow conclusion on the presence or absence of a causal link between

  10. Methylmercury Exposure and Incident Diabetes in U.S. Men and Women in Two Prospective Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J Steven

    2013-01-01

    compared, and in analyses stratified by fish or omega-3 consumption, BMI, and age.CONCLUSIONSThese findings from two separate large prospective cohorts do not support adverse effects of methylmercury on development of diabetes in men or women at usual levels of exposure seen in these populations.......OBJECTIVEEmerging in vitro and animal evidence suggests that methylmercury could increase type 2 diabetes, but little evidence exists in humans. We aimed to prospectively determine associations of mercury exposure, as assessed by biomarker measurement, with incident diabetes.RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODSWe used neutron activation analysis to measure toenail mercury, an objective biomarker of methylmercury exposure, in 9,267 adults free of diabetes at baseline in two separate U.S. prospective cohorts. Incident diabetes was identified from biennial questionnaires and confirmed by validated...

  11. Exposure to ambient air pollution and the incidence of dementia: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Copes, Ray; Hystad, Perry; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Tu, Karen; Brook, Jeffrey R; Goldberg, Mark S; Martin, Randall V; Murray, Brian J; Wilton, Andrew S; Kopp, Alexander; Burnett, Richard T

    2017-11-01

    Emerging studies have implicated air pollution in the neurodegenerative processes. Less is known about the influence of air pollution, especially at the relatively low levels, on developing dementia. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada, where the concentrations of pollutants are among the lowest in the world, to assess whether air pollution exposure is associated with incident dementia. The study population comprised all Ontario residents who, on 1 April 2001, were 55-85years old, Canadian-born, and free of physician-diagnosed dementia (~2.1 million individuals). Follow-up extended until 2013. We used population-based health administrative databases with a validated algorithm to ascertain incident diagnosis of dementia as well as prevalent cases. Using satellite observations, land-use regression model, and an optimal interpolation method, we derived long-term average exposure to fine particulate matter (≤2.5μm in diameter) (PM 2.5 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ), respectively at the subjects' historical residences based on a population-based registry. We used multilevel spatial random-effects Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for individual and contextual factors, such as diabetes, brain injury, and neighborhood income. We conducted various sensitivity analyses, such as lagging exposure up to 10years and considering a negative control outcome for which no (or weaker) association with air pollution is expected. We identified 257,816 incident cases of dementia in 2001-2013. We found a positive association between PM 2.5 and dementia incidence, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.05) for every interquartile-range increase in exposure to PM 2.5 . Similarly, NO 2 was associated with increased incidence of dementia (HR=1.10; 95% CI: 1.08-1.12). No association was found for O 3 . These associations were robust to all sensitivity analyses examined. These estimates translate to 6.1% of

  12. Construction of pilot system for the Korea information system of occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Seong Ho; Park, Moon Il; Im, Bok Soo; Lee, Seon Mi; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chae, Eun Yeong

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the construction of Korea Information System of Occupational Exposure (KISOE) system is designed with occupational exposure control system based on information evaluation technology and it makes the reliability of the personal exposure by use of personal dose verification. While the operation of national based radiation worker protection system, this system are settled the control system for radiation worker and ALARA. The purpose of construction and operation of pilot system of KISOE systematically is to derive the master plan of KISOE, stable development of this system, and serve the high quality radiation use internationally

  13. Construction of pilot system for the Korea information system of occupational exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Il; Im, Bok Soo; Lee, Seon Mi; Kim, Hyung Uk; Chae, Eun Yeong [ADDLAB Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-15

    In this study, the construction of Korea Information System of Occupational Exposure (KISOE) system is designed with occupational exposure control system based on information evaluation technology and it makes the reliability of the personal exposure by use of personal dose verification. While the operation of national based radiation worker protection system, this system are settled the control system for radiation worker and ALARA. The purpose of construction and operation of pilot system of KISOE systematically is to derive the master plan of KISOE, stable development of this system, and serve the high quality radiation use internationally.

  14. Long-term exposure to low-level arsenic in drinking water and diabetes incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Established causes of diabetes do not fully explain the present epidemic. High-level arsenic exposure has been implicated in diabetes risk, but the effect of low-level arsenic exposure in drinking water remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to low......-level arsenic in drinking water in Denmark is associated with an increased risk of diabetes using a large prospective cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for diabetes occurrence from enrollment until 31 December 2006. We traced and geocoded residential...... exposure and diabetes incidence, separately for two definitions of diabetes: all cases and a more strict definition in which cases of diabetes based solely on blood glucose results were excluded. RESULTS: Over a mean follow-up period of 9.7 years for 52,931 eligible participants, there were a total of 4...

  15. Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2014-12-01

    During the Vietnam War, US and allied military sprayed approximately 77 million liters of tactical herbicides including Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined the association between Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence among Korean veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. An Agent Orange exposure index, based on the proximity of the veteran's military unit to the area that was sprayed with Agent Orange, was developed using a geographic information system-based model. Cancer incidence was followed for 180,251 Vietnam veterans from 1992 through 2003. After adjustment for age and military rank, high exposure to Agent Orange was found to significantly increase the risk of all cancers combined (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.08). Risks for cancers of the mouth (aHR, 2.54), salivary glands (aHR, 6.96), stomach (aHR, 1.14), and small intestine (aHR, 2.30) were found to be significantly higher in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Risks for cancers of all sites combined (aHR, 1.02) and for cancers of the salivary glands (aHR, 1.47), stomach (aHR, 1.03), small intestine (aHR, 1.24), and liver (aHR, 1.02) were elevated with a 1-unit increase in the exposure index. Exposure to Agent Orange several decades earlier may increase the risk of cancers in all sites combined, as well as several specific cancers, among Korean veterans of the Vietnam War, including some cancers that were not found to be clearly associated with exposure to Agent Orange in previous cohort studies primarily based on Western populations. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  16. Ambient ultraviolet radiation exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma incidence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hart, Jaime E; Laden, Francine

    2017-08-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most commonly occurring type of primary liver cancer, has been increasing in incidence worldwide. Vitamin D, acquired from sunlight exposure, diet, and dietary supplements, has been hypothesized to impact hepatocarcinogenesis. However, previous epidemiologic studies examining the associations between dietary and serum vitamin D reported mixed results. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and HCC risk in the U.S. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database provided information on HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2014 from 16 population-based cancer registries across the U.S. Ambient UV exposure was estimated by linking the SEER county with a spatiotemporal UV exposure model using a geographic information system. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between ambient UV exposure per interquartile range (IQR) increase (32.4 mW/m 2 ) and HCC risk adjusting for age at diagnosis, sex, race, year of diagnosis, SEER registry, and county-level information on prevalence of health conditions, lifestyle, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. Higher levels of ambient UV exposure were associated with statistically significant lower HCC risk (n = 56,245 cases; adjusted IRR per IQR increase: 0.83, 95% CI 0.77, 0.90; p ambient UV and HCC risk was observed among males (p for interaction = 0.01) and whites (p for interaction = 0.01). Higher ambient UV exposure was associated with a decreased risk of HCC in the U.S. UV exposure may be a potential modifiable risk factor for HCC that should be explored in future research.

  17. Breast cancer incidence following low-dose rate environmental exposure: Techa River Cohort, 1956–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroumova, E; Preston, D L; Ron, E; Krestinina, L; Davis, F G; Kossenko, M; Akleyev, A

    2008-01-01

    In the 1950s, the Mayak nuclear weapons facility in Russia discharged liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River causing exposure of riverside residents to protracted low-to-moderate doses of radiation. Almost 10 000 women received estimated doses to the stomach of up to 0.47 Gray (Gy) (mean dose=0.04 Gy) from external γ-exposure and 137Cs incorporation. We have been following this population for cancer incidence and mortality and as in the general Russian population, we found a significant temporal trend of breast cancer incidence. A significant linear radiation dose–response relationship was observed (P=0.01) with an estimated excess relative risk per Gray (ERR/Gy) of 5.00 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80, 12.76). We estimated that approximately 12% of the 109 observed cases could be attributed to radiation. PMID:19002173

  18. Incidence of childhood leukemia in relation to proximity and general characteristics of different environmental exposure sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermage-Faure, C.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the environment in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL) is currently investigated. In this context, the aim of the present work is to study the association between the incidence of AL and the proximity of nuclear power plants (NPP) and to high voltage overhead power lines (HV OLs). At first, the geographical variations of AL have been studied at the Departement level. The cases included in the studies are all cases of AL of the French National Registry of Childhood Haemopatopoietic Malignancies on the studied periods: 1990-2004 for the study of incidence on Departements and 2002-2007 for the studies of association between incidence of AL and environmental exposure factors. Concerning those latter studies, a case-control approach has been used. The control sample, representative of the French pediatric population, contains 30,000 subjects and has been drawn by the INSEE. The precise localization of addresses of subjects and of exposure sources in relation with the type of sources is essential to build indicators of exposure reflecting the probability and intensity of exposure. * The study of AL by Departement has highlighted neither trend nor spatial structure in the incidence at this geographical level globally as well as by age, gender and subtype of leukemia.* On 2002-2007, on the contrary of on previous periods, the incidence of AL at less than 5 km from a NPP was nearly twice higher than expected, with the case-control study as well as with the incidence approach. This result was not specific to any age group, NPP, a type of NPP and was not associated with the geographic zoning of gaseous discharges of NPPs. * The study of the proximity to HV OLs highlighted an association between the incidence of AL and the close proximity (≤ 50 m) of lines of more than 225 kV, association which was restricted to children of less than 5 y.o. or living in non-urban areas; but not with the proximity to lines of less than 150 kV. (author)

  19. Population exposure to ultraviolet radiation in Finland 1920-1995: Exposure trends and a time-series analysis of exposure and cutaneous melanoma incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Katja; Jansen, Christer T.; Nybom, Pia; Huurto, Laura; Laihia, Jarmo; Ilus, Taina; Auvinen, Anssi

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the principal cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). However, the relation between CMM and UVR exposure is not clear. We present the trends of population exposure to UVR and conduct a time-series analysis of the relation between UVR exposure and incidence of CMM. Data on CMM incidence were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Clothing coverage of the body was scored from archival photographs and the proportion of uncovered skin was used as a measure of solar exposure. Information on the number of sunny resort holidays, duration of annual holidays, and sunscreen sales were obtained from various sources. Exposed skin area doubled from 1920 to 1985. The average duration of annual holidays increased 30-fold. The number of sunny resort holidays and the sales of sunscreens increased rapidly from 1980. CMM was most strongly associated with solar exposure of 5-19 years earlier. There is a considerable decrease in clothing coverage during the 20th century. UVR exposure preceding CMM occurrence 4 years or less does not appear relevant, whereas the period 5-19 years prior to CMM occurrence might be the most relevant period. However, findings of ecological studies may not be applicable at the individual level

  20. Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Metabolism, and Incident Diabetes in the Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Lee, Elisa; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known about arsenic metabolism in diabetes development. We investigated the prospective associations of low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with diabetes incidence in the Strong Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,694 diabetes-free participants aged 45–75 years were recruited in 1989–1991 and followed through 1998–1999. We used the proportions of urine inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) over their sum (expressed as iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%) as the biomarkers of arsenic metabolism. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dL, self-reported diabetes history, or self-reported use of antidiabetic medications. RESULTS Over 11,263.2 person-years of follow-up, 396 participants developed diabetes. Using the leave-one-out approach to model the dynamics of arsenic metabolism, we found that lower MMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence. The hazard ratios (95% CI) of diabetes incidence for a 5% increase in MMA% were 0.77 (0.63–0.93) and 0.82 (0.73–0.92) when iAs% and DMA%, respectively, were left out of the model. DMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence only when MMA% decreased (left out of the model) but not when iAs% decreased. iAs% was also associated with higher diabetes incidence when MMA% decreased. The association between MMA% and diabetes incidence was similar by age, sex, study site, obesity, and urine iAs concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Arsenic metabolism, particularly lower MMA%, was prospectively associated with increased incidence of diabetes. Research is needed to evaluate whether arsenic metabolism is related to diabetes incidence per se or through its close connections with one-carbon metabolism. PMID:25583752

  1. Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; de Vathaire, F.; Charles, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure are not significantly different for those exposed in childhood and for those exposed in adulthood, if adjustment is made for the effects on the relative risk of age at exposure. For those irradiated in childhood, there is a statistically significant annual reduction of 5.8% (95% Cl 2.8, 8.9) in excess relative risk, and there are no strong indications of inter-cohort heterogeniety in the speed of reduction of relative risk. After adjustment for the effects of age at exposure, there is a significant annual reduction of 3.6% (95% Cl 1.6, 5.6) in excess relative risk in all age-at-exposure groups. There are significant reductions of 5.2% (95% Cl 3.7, 6.8) in excess relative risk per year of age at exposure. There are statistically significant (P = 0.04) interactions between the exponential adjustments to the excess relative risk for age at exposure and time since exposure in the Japanese data, but no indications (P = 0.38) of such interactions when powers of time since exposure and attained age are used to adjust the excess relative risk, so that the fit of the model with power adjustments is to be preferred to that of the model with exponential adjustments. (author)

  2. Incidence of nephrolithiasis in relation to environmental exposure to lead and cadmium in a population study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Azusa; Yang, Wen-Yi; Petit, Thibault; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Gu, Yu-Mei; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Odili, Augustine N. [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of Abuja (Nigeria); Thijs, Lutgarde [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Hasselt (Belgium); Staessen, Jan A., E-mail: jan.staessen@med.kuleuven.be [Studies Coordinating Centre, Research Unit Hypertension and Cardiovascular Epidemiology, KU Leuven Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); R& D Group VitaK, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-02-15

    Whether environmental exposure to nephrotoxic agents that potentially interfere with calcium homeostasis, such as lead and cadmium, contribute to the incidence of nephrolithiasis needs further clarification. We investigated the relation between nephrolithiasis incidence and environmental lead and cadmium exposure in a general population. In 1302 participants randomly recruited from a Flemish population (50.9% women; mean age, 47.9 years), we obtained baseline measurements (1985–2005) of blood lead (BPb), blood cadmium (BCd), 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) and covariables. We monitored the incidence of kidney stones until October 6, 2014. We used Cox regression to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for nephrolithiasis. At baseline, geometric mean BPb, BCd and UCd was 0.29 µmol/L, 9.0 nmol/L, and 8.5 nmol per 24 h, respectively. Over 11.5 years (median), nephrolithiasis occurred in 40 people. Contrasting the low and top tertiles of the distributions, the sex- and age-standardized rates of nephrolithiasis expressed as events per 1000 person-years were 0.68 vs. 3.36 (p=0.0016) for BPb, 1.80 vs. 3.28 (p=0.11) for BCd, and 1.65 vs. 2.95 (p=0.28) for UCd. In continuous analysis, with adjustments applied for sex, age, serum magnesium, and 24-h urinary volume and calcium, the hazard ratios expressing the risk associated with a doubling of the exposure biomarkers were 1.35 (p=0.015) for BPb, 1.13 (p=0.22) for BCd, and 1.23 (p=0.070) for UCd. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental lead exposure is a risk factor for nephrolithiasis in the general population. - Highlights: • Prevalence and incidence rates of nephrolithiasis are increasing worldwide. • Lead and cadmium interfere with calcium homeostasis and might cause nephrolithiasis. • Environmental exposure to lead, not cadmium, predicts nephrolithiasis in the population. • Safety standards for environmental lead exposure need to account for nephrolithiasis. • Reducing environmental

  3. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia ? A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. Methods The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was use...

  4. Aprotinin decreases the incidence of cognitive deficit following CABG and cardiopulmonary bypass: a pilot randomized controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic C

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Cognitive deficit after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) has a high prevalence and is persistent. Meta-analysis of clinical trials demonstrates a decreased incidence of stroke after CABG when aprotinin is administrated perioperatively. We hypothesized that aprotinin administration would decrease the incidence of cognitive deficit after CABG. METHODS: Thirty-six ASA III-IV patients undergoing elective CABG were included in a prospective, randomized, single-blinded pilot study. Eighteen patients received aprotinin 2 x 10(6) KIU (loading dose), 2 x 10(6) KIU (added to circuit prime) and a continuous infusion of 5 x 10(5) KIU.hr(-1). A battery of cognitive tests was administered to patients and spouses (n = 18) the day before surgery, four days and six weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: Four days postoperatively new cognitive deficit (defined by a change in one or more cognitive domains using the Reliable Change Index method) was present in ten (58%) patients in the aprotinin group compared to 17 (94%) in the placebo group [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.10-0.62, P = 0.005); (P = 0.01)]. Six weeks postoperatively, four (23%) patients in the aprotinin group had cognitive deficit compared to ten (55%) in the placebo group (95% CI 0.80-0.16, P = 0.005); (P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this prospective pilot study, the incidence of cognitive deficit after CABG and cardiopulmonary bypass is decreased by the administration of high-dose aprotinin.

  5. Pesticide exposure and self-reported incident depression among wives in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John D; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2013-10-01

    Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and drop out, wives' incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands' ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' incident depression. Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels

  6. Long Term Exposure to NO2 and Diabetes Incidence in the Black Women's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F.; White, Laura F.; Yu, Jeffrey; Burnett, Richard T.; Marshall, Julian D.; Seto, Edmund; Brook, Robert D.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Jerrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    While laboratory studies show that air pollutants can potentiate insulin resistance, the epidemiologic evidence regarding the association of air pollution with diabetes incidence is conflicting. The purpose of the present study was to assess the association of the traffic-related nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with the incidence of diabetes in a longitudinal cohort study of African American women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for diabetes associated with exposure to NO2 among 43,003 participants in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). Pollutant levels at participant residential locations were estimated with 1) a land use regression model for participants living in 56 metropolitan areas, and 2) a dispersion model for participants living in 27 of the cities. From 1995-2011, 4387 cases of diabetes occurred. The hazard ratios per interquartile range of NO2 (9.7 ppb), adjusted for age, metropolitan area, education, vigorous exercise, body mass index, smoking, and diet, were 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06) using the land use regression model estimates and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.10) using the dispersion model estimates. The present results do not support the hypothesis that exposure to NO2 contributes to diabetes incidence in African American women. PMID:27124624

  7. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994. Revised Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1999-02-01

    The present report is a revised version of an earlier report (IFE/KR/E-96/008). The revision has been carried out since a completely new version of the computational tool has recently been released. All calculations have been redone. The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). The result presented in this report (radiation dose rates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) were calculated with the most recent computer program for this purpose, the CARI-5E from the United States Civil Aviation Authority. The other major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found the the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Association in Norway

  8. Cosmic radiation and airline pilots. Exposure patterns of Norwegian SAS-pilots 1960 to 1994. Revised Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveten, U

    1999-02-01

    The present report is a revised version of an earlier report (IFE/KR/E-96/008). The revision has been carried out since a completely new version of the computational tool has recently been released. All calculations have been redone. The work which is presented in this report is part of a Norwegian epidemiological project, carried out in cooperation between Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), the Norwegian Cancer Registry (NCR) and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). Originating from the Norwegian project, a number of similar projects have been started in a number of European countries. The present report lays the ground for estimation of individual exposure histories to cosmic radiation of pilots employed by the the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS). The result presented in this report (radiation dose rates for the different types of aircraft in the different years) were calculated with the most recent computer program for this purpose, the CARI-5E from the United States Civil Aviation Authority. The other major sources of information used as basis for this work is the collection of old SAS time tables found the the SAS Museum at Fornebu Airport in Oslo, and information provided by members of the Pilots Association in Norway.

  9. Traffic-related air pollution exposure and incidence of stroke in four cohorts from Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korek, Michal J; Bellander, Tom D; Lind, Tomas; Bottai, Matteo; Eneroth, Kristina M; Caracciolo, Barbara; de Faire, Ulf H; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Leander, Karin; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Pershagen, Göran; Penell, Johanna C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke related to long-term ambient air pollution exposure, in particular the role of various exposure time windows, using four cohorts from Stockholm County, Sweden. In total, 22,587 individuals were recruited from 1992 to 2004 and followed until 2011. Yearly air pollution levels resulting from local road traffic emissions were assessed at participant residences using dispersion models for particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). Cohort-specific hazard ratios were estimated for time-weighted air pollution exposure during different time windows and the incidence of stroke, adjusted for common risk factors, and then meta-analysed. Overall, 868 subjects suffered a non-fatal or fatal stroke during 238,731 person-years of follow-up. An increment of 20 μg/m(3) in estimated annual mean of road-traffic related NOX exposure at recruitment was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI 0.83-1.61), with evidence of heterogeneity between the cohorts. For PM10, an increment of 10 μg/m(3) corresponded to a hazard ratio of 1.14 (95% CI 0.68-1.90). Time-window analyses did not reveal any clear induction-latency pattern. In conclusion, we found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to NOX and PM10 from local traffic and stroke at comparatively low levels of air pollution.

  10. Study on exposures in incidents situations involving X-ray generators of industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Paulo B.; Rios, Denise A. da S.

    2014-01-01

    Case studies of accidents involving radiation sources provides valuable information for the improvement of equipment and procedures to be adopted to prevent their recurrence. Therefore, they are recommended as part of the licensing process of radiative facilities. However, when the equipment has no radiological protection requirements or have no record of accidents, an effective method to appropriate this knowledge necessary to improvements of process and project is the investigation of reported incidents and the proposition limit situations where exposures unlikely and even low intensity can occur. This work reviews incidents in X-ray equipment and thickness meters. Emergency situations are also studied in this type of equipment and in an accelerator of electrons self-shielded for curing of paints and varnishes. The exposure estimates are calculated from data collected in workplaces on the distance and time for each proposed case. Although there is no severe consequences to occupational health, the results can be used to improve the quality of training for operators and maintenance technicians, for proposing of new alarm systems and emergency teams procedures and may serve as a warning in inadvertent and avoidable situations of unnecessary exposures

  11. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and the Incidence of Oral, Pharyngeal and Cervical Cancer and Melanoma: An Analysis of the SEER Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Spencer; Lin, Jie; Brown, Derek; Shriver, Craig D; Zhu, Kangmin

    2016-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure can cause DNA damage that may activate dormant viruses such as human papilloma virus, a recent ecological study, which estimated state-level UVR exposure, reported positive correlations between annual UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer in 16 U.S. states using the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) data. The purpose of the current study was to further investigate whether the annual UVR level, estimated on a county level, is associated with incidence rates of such cancers using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 data. If UVR exposure is associated with incidence of these cancer types, we would expect to see a similar or stronger association with melanoma because UVR exposure is a well-demonstrated risk factor for this disease. Thus, we also included melanoma in the study. The study subjects were White and Black individuals with oral, pharyngeal, cervical cancer or melanoma diagnosed between 1973 and 2011 from the SEER 18 data. UVR was estimated at the county level and grouped into high-, medium- and low-exposure levels. Age-adjusted incidence rates of cancer were calculated and compared among the UVR exposure groups. The comparisons were also stratified by sex and race. There was an inverse association between UVR exposure and incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer. The inverse association was also observed for melanoma. When stratified by race and sex, the inverse associations remained except for melanoma among Blacks. In contrast to a previous study, our study found that there were inverse associations between UVR exposure and the incidence of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer, as well as of melanoma. Our findings are in agreement with several other published studies reporting no positive correlation between UVR exposure and the incidence rates of oral, pharyngeal, and cervical

  12. Is nelfinavir exposure associated with cancer incidence in HIV-positive individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettiger, David C; Sabin, Caroline A; Grulich, Andrew; Ryom, Lene; Bonnet, Fabrice; Reiss, Peter; Monforte, Antonella d'arminio; Kirk, Ole; Phillips, Andrew; Bower, Mark; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Lundgren, Jens D; Law, Matthew

    2016-06-19

    Nelfinavir exhibits potent anticancer properties against a range of tumours. However, in 2006/2007, nelfinavir supplies were accidently contaminated with a carcinogen. This analysis investigated the association between nelfinavir use and cancer risk in HIV-positive persons. Observational cohort study. D:A:D study data was analysed using Poisson regression models to examine associations between cancer incidence and cumulative nelfinavir exposure, current nelfinavir exposure, and exposure to nelfinavir between 1 July 2006-30 June 2007. A total of 42 006 individuals (50% white, 73% male) contributed 303 005 person-years of follow-up between 1 January 2004 and 1 February 2014. At study enrolment, median age was 40 [interquartile range (IQR) 33-46] years and 8305 individuals had a history of nelfinavir use [median duration 1.7 (IQR 0.7-3.4) years]. During follow-up, nelfinavir was used by 2476 individuals for a median of 1.7 (IQR 0.7-3.8) years; 1063 were exposed to nelfinavir between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007. Overall, 2279 cancers were diagnosed at a rate of 0.75 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.72-0.78] per 100 person-years. Neither greater cumulative exposure to nelfinavir [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 0.93 for every additional 5 years, 95% CI 0.82-1.06, P = 0.26] nor current use of nelfinavir (aRR 0.98 vs other protease inhibitor use, 95% CI 0.68-1.41, P = 0.92) were associated with cancer risk. The adjusted risk of cancer for participants exposed to nelfinavir between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007 compared to those receiving other treatment over this period was 1.07 (95% CI 0.78-1.46, P = 0.68). Nelfinavir use was not associated with a lower cancer incidence than other protease inhibitor regimens. As of February 2014, exposure to the 2006/2007 contamination of nelfinavir does not appear to be associated with increased cancer incidence.

  13. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémen Thomas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural history of occupational asthma (OA is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. Methods A nested case–control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as ‘confirmed’ or ‘probable’ OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31. Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196. Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Results Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 – 36.65]. Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 – 1.48] and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 – 3.05] are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 – 36.75]. Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy; the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01. Conclusion This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings.

  14. Diet, occupational exposure and early asthma incidence among bakers, pastry makers and hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémen, Thomas; Acouetey, Dovi-Stéphanie; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2012-05-29

    The natural history of occupational asthma (OA) is influenced by many determinants. This study aims to assess the combined roles of personal characteristics, including occupational exposure and nutritional habits, on the incidence of OA during the first years at work. A nested case-control study was conducted within a retrospective cohort of young workers in the bakery, pastry-making and hairdressing sectors. Cases were subjects diagnosed as 'confirmed' or 'probable' OA consecutively to a medical visit (N = 31). Controls were subjects without OA (N = 196). Atopy was defined after blood specific IgE analysis, based on the PhadiatopTM test. Occupational exposure was characterized by standardized questionnaires and diet patterns by a food frequency questionnaire. Among bakers and pastry-makers, only atopy is an independent risk factor of OA (OR = 10.07 95%CI [2.76 - 36.65]). Among hairdressers, several variables are associated with OA. Body mass index (unit OR = 1.24 [1.03 - 1.48]) and the score of exposure intensity (unit OR = 1.79 [1.05 - 3.05]) are independent predictors of OA, but the role of atopy is weak (OR = 4.94 [0.66 - 36.75]). Intake of vitamin A is higher among hairdressers cases (crude p = 0.002, adjusted p = 0.01 after control for body mass index and atopy); the same observation is made for vitamin D (crude p = 0.004, adjusted p = 0.01). This study suggests that the influence of several factors on the incidence of OA, including dietary vitamins, might vary across exposure settings.

  15. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Brederode, Nelly E; Bos, Peter M J; Nijhuis, Nicole J; van de Weerdt, Rik H J; van der Woude, Irene; Eggens, Martin L

    2014-12-15

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency responders. Such exposure information may also be used to respond to individual concerns such as questions about a possible relationship between the chemicals released during the incident and health effects. In The Netherlands a guideline was prepared to support early decision-making about the possible use of HBM for exposure assessment during or as soon as possible following a chemical incident. The application of HBM in such an emergency setting is not much different from situations where HBM is normally used but there are some issues that need extra attention such as the choice of the biomarker, the biological media to be sampled, the time point at which biological samples should be collected, the ethics approval and technical implementation of the study protocol and the interpretation and communication of the study results. These issues addressed in the new guideline will support the use of HBM in the management of chemical disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  17. Pigmentation Traits, Sun Exposure, and Risk of Incident Vitiligo in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Rachel; Wu, Shaowei; Wilmer, Erin; Cho, Eunyoung; Li, Wen-Qing; Lajevardi, Newsha; Qureshi, Abrar

    2017-06-01

    Vitiligo is the most common cutaneous depigmentation disorder worldwide, yet little is known about specific risk factors for disease development. Using data from the Nurses' Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 51,337 white women, we examined the associations between (i) pigmentary traits and (ii) reactions to sun exposure and risk of incident vitiligo. Nurses' Health Study participants responded to a question about clinician-diagnosed vitiligo and year of diagnosis (2001 or before, 2002-2005, 2006-2009, 2010-2011, or 2012+). We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of incident vitiligo associated with exposures variables, adjusting for potential confounders. We documented 271 cases of incident vitiligo over 835,594 person-years. Vitiligo risk was higher in women who had at least one mole larger than 3 mm in diameter on their left arms (hazard ratio = 1.37, 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.83). Additionally, vitiligo risk was higher among women with better tanning ability (hazard ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.54) and in women who experienced at least one blistering sunburn (hazard ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.15-4.10). In this study, upper extremity moles, a higher ability to achieve a tan, and history of a blistering sunburn were associated with a higher risk of developing vitiligo in a population of white women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Belief disconfirmation versus habituation approaches to situational exposure in panic disorder with agoraphobia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkovskis, Paul M; Hackmann, Ann; Wells, Adrian; Gelder, Michael G; Clark, David M

    2007-05-01

    Exposure therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) are both effective in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Cognitive theories suggest that the way in which exposure to avoided situations is implemented in either treatment may be crucial. In particular, it is suggested that clinical improvement will be greatest if opportunities for disconfirmation of feared catastrophes are maximized. In a small pilot study, 16 patients with panic disorder and (moderate or severe) agoraphobia were randomly allocated to either habituation based exposure therapy (HBET) or exposure planned as a belief disconfirmation strategy and accompanied by dropping of safety-seeking behaviours. Both treatments were brief (total of 3.25 h of exposure) and were similar in terms of expectancy of change. Patients in the CBT condition showed significantly greater improvements in self-report measures of anxiety, panic and situational avoidance. They also completed significantly more steps in a standardized behavioural walk, during which they experienced significantly less anxiety. The controlled effect sizes for CBT were substantial (range 1.7-2.7), which suggests it may be a particularly efficient way of managing therapeutic exposure to feared situations in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism of change involved.

  19. Noise exposure and auditory thresholds of German airline pilots: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Reinhard; Schneider, Joachim

    2017-05-30

    The cockpit workplace of airline pilots is a noisy environment. This study examines the hearing thresholds of pilots with respect to ambient noise and communication sound. The hearing of 487 German pilots was analysed by audiometry in the frequency range of 125 Hz-16 kHz in varying age groups. Cockpit noise (free-field) data and communication sound (acoustic manikin) measurements were evaluated. The ambient noise levels in cockpits were found to be between 74 and 80 dB(A), and the sound pressure levels under the headset were found to be between 84 and 88 dB(A).The left-right threshold differences at 3, 4 and 6 kHz show evidence of impaired hearing at the left ear, which worsens by age.In the age groups <40/≥40 years the mean differences at 3 kHz are 2/3 dB, at 4 kHz 2/4 dB and at 6 kHz 1/6 dB.In the pilot group which used mostly the left ear for communication tasks (43 of 45 are in the older age group) the mean difference at 3 kHz is 6 dB, at 4 kHz 7 dB and at 6 kHz 10 dB. The pilots who used the headset only at the right ear also show worse hearing at the left ear of 2 dB at 3 kHz, 3 dB at 4 kHz and at 6 kHz. The frequency-corrected exposure levels under the headset are 7-11 dB(A) higher than the ambient noise with an averaged signal-to-noise ratio for communication of about 10 dB(A). The left ear seems to be more susceptible to hearing loss than the right ear. Active noise reduction systems allow for a reduced sound level for the communication signal below the upper exposure action value of 85 dB(A) and allow for a more relaxed working environment for pilots. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Characteristics and outcomes of e-cigarette exposure incidents reported to 10 European Poison Centers: a retrospective data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vardavas, Constantine I.; Girvalaki, Charis; Filippidis, Filippos T; Oder, Mare; Kastanje, Ruth; de Vries, Irma; Scholtens, Lies; Annas, Anita; Plackova, Silvia; Turk, Rajka; Gruzdyte, Laima; Rato, F?tima; Genser, Dieter; Schiel, Helmut; Bal?zs, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of e-cigarettes has increased during the past few years. Exposure to e-cigarette liquids, whether intentional or accidental, may lead to adverse events our aim was to assess factors associated with e-cigarette exposures across European Union Member States (EU MS). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of exposures associated with e-cigarettes reported to national poison centers was performed covering incidents from 2012 to March 2015 from 10 EU MS. De-identified and anonymous ...

  1. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    and occurrence of a first stroke was evaluated. Individual air pollution exposures were predicted from land-use regression models developed within the "European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects" (ESCAPE). The exposures were: PM2.5 (particulate matter [PM] below 2.5 µm in diameter), coarse PM (PM...... between 2.5 and 10 µm), PM10 (PM below 10 µm), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Cohort-specific analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. Random-effects meta-analysis was used for pooled effect estimation. RESULTS: 99,446 subjects were included, 3......,086 of whom developed stroke. A 5-μg/m(3) increase in annual PM2.5 exposure was associated with 19% increased risk of incident stroke (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.62). Similar findings were obtained for PM10. The results were robust to adjustment for an extensive list...

  2. Mycotoxin exposure in rural residents in northern Nigeria: a pilot study using multi-urinary biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Warth, Benedikt; Ogara, Isaac M; Abia, Wilfred A; Ezekiel, Victoria C; Atehnkeng, Joseph; Sulyok, Michael; Turner, Paul C; Tayo, Grace O; Krska, Rudolf; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit

    2014-05-01

    A pilot, cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted in eight rural communities in northern Nigeria to investigate mycotoxin exposures in 120 volunteers (19 children, 20 adolescents and 81 adults) using a modern LC-MS/MS based multi-biomarker approach. First morning urine samples were analyzed and urinary biomarker levels correlated with mycotoxin levels in foods consumed the day before urine collection. A total of eight analytes were detected in 61/120 (50.8%) of studied urine samples, with ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1 and fumonisin B1 being the most frequently occurring biomarkers of exposure. These mycotoxin biomarkers were present in samples from all age categories, suggestive of chronic (lifetime) exposures. Rough estimates of mycotoxin intake suggested some exposures were higher than the tolerable daily intake. Overall, rural consumer populations from Nasarawa were more exposed to several mixtures of mycotoxins in their diets relative to those from Kaduna as shown by food and urine biomarker data. This study has shown that mycotoxin co-exposure may be a major public health challenge in rural Nigeria; this calls for urgent intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative assessment of airborne exposures generated during common cleaning tasks: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Melissa J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between exposure to cleaning products with asthma and other respiratory disorders. Thus far, these studies have conducted only limited quantitative exposure assessments. Exposures from cleaning products are difficult to measure because they are complex mixtures of chemicals with a range of physicochemical properties, thus requiring multiple measurement techniques. We conducted a pilot exposure assessment study to identify methods for assessing short term, task-based airborne exposures and to quantitatively evaluate airborne exposures associated with cleaning tasks simulated under controlled work environment conditions. Methods Sink, mirror, and toilet bowl cleaning tasks were simulated in a large ventilated bathroom and a small unventilated bathroom using a general purpose, a glass, and a bathroom cleaner. All tasks were performed for 10 minutes. Airborne total volatile organic compounds (TVOC generated during the tasks were measured using a direct reading instrument (DRI with a photo ionization detector. Volatile organic ingredients of the cleaning mixtures were assessed utilizing an integrated sampling and analytic method, EPA TO-17. Ammonia air concentrations were also measured with an electrochemical sensor embedded in the DRI. Results Average TVOC concentrations calculated for 10 minute tasks ranged 0.02 - 6.49 ppm and the highest peak concentrations observed ranged 0.14-11 ppm. TVOC time concentration profiles indicated that exposures above background level remained present for about 20 minutes after cessation of the tasks. Among several targeted VOC compounds from cleaning mixtures, only 2-BE was detectable with the EPA method. The ten minute average 2- BE concentrations ranged 0.30 -21 ppm between tasks. The DRI underestimated 2-BE exposures compared to the results from the integrated method. The highest concentration of ammonia of 2.8 ppm occurred

  4. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Malcolm; McKenna, Lisa

    2016-12-11

      The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was used. The anonymous questionnaire took 10 to 20 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the data with a two-tailed t-test used to compare groups. The main form of workplace violence was verbal abuse 18% and intimidation 17%.  There was a statistically significant difference between midwifery and paramedic students for intimidation (t (134) =-3.143, CI: -0.367 to -0.082, p=0.002) and between females and males for sexual harassment (t (134) =2.029, CI: 0.001 to 0.074, p=0.045), all other results were not statistically different. This pilot study is the first of its kind in Australia and internationally to identify exposure rates of workplace violence by undergraduate paramedic students during clinical placements and one of very few to identify midwifery students' exposure rates of workplace violence. The study identified that students were exposed to a range of workplace violence acts from verbal abuse through to sexual harassment. These findings highlight a need for investigation of workplace violence exposure of medical, nursing and allied health students during the clinical phase of their studies.

  5. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing prenatal phthalate exposure through maternal dietary changes: results from a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S.; Velez, Marissa; Qiu, Xing; Chen, Shaw-Ree

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Diet is a major source of exposure to certain phthalates, a class of environmental chemicals associated with endocrine disruption in animal models and humans. Several studies have attempted to lower phthalate exposure through carefully designed dietary interventions, with inconsistent results. We conducted a dietary intervention pilot study with the objective to lower phthalate exposure in low-income pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable population. Methods Ten pregnant women consumed a provided diet consisting of mostly fresh, organic foods for three days. We collected urine samples before, during, and after the intervention and conducted semi-structured interviews to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We used repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests to assess differences in urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations across the study, focusing on the metabolites of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), a phthalate of particular interest, and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Results Phthalate metabolite concentrations did not change appreciably during the intervention period. We observed no significant difference in ∑DEHP metabolite concentrations across the three time periods (F=0.21; adjusted p-value=0.65), and no reduction during the intervention as compared to baseline (t=−1.07, adjusted p-value=0.51). Results of interviews indicated that participants were not motivated to make dietary changes to potentially reduce chemical exposures outside of the study. Conclusions Despite the small sample size, our results suggest that promoting dietary changes to lower phthalate exposure may not be an effective public health measure. Reducing the use of phthalates in food processing and packaging may be a better solution to lowering exposure on a population level. PMID:25652062

  7. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: Severe reactor accident overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, T.J.; Martin, J.A.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Severe Reactor Accident Overview is the second in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes elementary perspectives on severe accidents and accident assesment. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  8. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.; Perkins, K.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Response is the fifth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume describes NRC response modes, organizations, and official positions; roles of other federal agencies are also described briefly. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  9. Effectiveness of a stress management pilot program aimed at reducing the incidence of sports injuries in young football (soccer) players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Zafra, Aurelio; Rubio, Victor J; Ortega, Enrique; García-Mas, Alexandre

    2017-03-01

    Several attempts to reduce the incidence of sport injuries using psychosocial interventions produced fruitful, although inconclusive results. This paper presents the effectiveness and implementation issues of a pilot 3-month stress-management and muscle relaxation program aimed at reducing sport injury incidence. Pre-post treatment-non treatment group comparison. The program was administered by a trained psychologist on a once-a-week, 1-h session basis. Seventy-four male soccer players from four National Youth league teams voluntarily participated. Teams were randomly assigned to either treatment/non-treatment group. Injury protocol, Self-monitoring cards, Athletes' satisfaction and commitment survey, Coaches' interview. Group main effect and Time-Group interaction effect were both statistically significant, F(1,60) = 8.30, p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.121, with the average number of injuries larger in the post-treatment phase of non-treatment group (p = 0.005, η 2 p  = 0.077). There was a significant decrease in the average number of injuries for the intervention group before and after implementing the program (p youth soccer sport injuries, with a high level of satisfaction and commitment from the athletes, as well as high acceptance from the coaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mesothelioma incidence and community asbestos exposure; Incidence du mesotheliome et exposition environnementale a l'amiante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, M.

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the importance of environmental exposure, non professional, to asbestos in the supervening of mesothelioma among the inhabitants of Manville( Somerset county, New Jersey, United States) where is the most important factory making products with asbestos of the North America. (N.C.)

  11. Self-Reported Minimalist Running Injury Incidence and Severity: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Katrina; Ridpath, Lance; Hanna, Jandy B

    2016-08-01

    Minimalist running entails using shoes with a flexible thin sole and is popular in the United States. Existing literature disagrees over whether minimalist running shoes (MRS) improve perceived severity of injuries associated with running in traditional running shoes (TRS). Additionally, the perceived injury patterns associated with MRS are relatively unknown. To examine whether injury incidence and severity (ie, degree of pain) by body region change after switching to MRS, and to determine if transition times affect injury incidences or severity with MRS. Runners who were either current or previous users of MRS were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey regarding self-reported injury before switching to MRS and whether self-reported pain from that injury decreased after switching. Questions regarding whether new injuries developed in respondents after switching to MRS were also included. Analyses were calculated using t tests, Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and Fischer exact tests. Forty-seven runners completed the survey, and 16 respondents reported injuries before switching to MRS. Among these respondents, pain resulting from injuries of the feet (P=.03) and knees (P=.01) decreased. Eighteen respondents (38.3%) indicated they sustained new injuries after switching to MRS, but the severity of these did not differ significantly from no injury. Neither time allowed for transition to MRS nor use or disuse of a stretching routine during this period was correlated with an increase in the incidence or severity of injuries. After switching to MRS, respondents perceived an improvement in foot and knee injuries. Additionally, respondents using MRS reported an injury rate of 38.3%, compared with the approximately 64% that the literature reports among TRS users. Future studies should be expanded to determine the full extent of the differences in injury patterns between MRS and TRS.

  12. Vehicular Traffic?Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H.; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Richardson, David B.; Millikan, Robert C.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Objectives Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Methods Residential histories of 1,508 particip...

  13. A pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellet, S.; Giczi, F.; Gaspardy, G.; Temesi, A.; Ballay, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the past 25 years, considerable number of new therapeutic procedures have been worked out and adopted in radiology. These interventional procedures are mainly based on angiographic methods. During these procedures the exposure of patients and staff are usually greater than of conventional radiography and fluoroscopy as a consequence of longer fluoroscopy times and great number of cine-radiography. In the latest years radiation-induced skin injuries occurred in some patients. Injuries to physicians and staff performing interventional procedures have also been observed. In our days interventional procedures are widely used and more sophisticated procedures are worked out and adopted. Consequently, there is a need for the protection of the patient and the staff on a higher level. Radiation protection of intervention radiology deserves a distinguish attention. In Hungary interventional radiology were performed in 36 laboratories in 2003. According to statistical data the gross number of interventional radiological procedures were 19442. The most frequently performed procedures were the P.T.C.A., the coronary and ilio-femoral stent implantation and chemo-embolization. In 2004, the National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radio-hygiene and the National Patient Dose Evaluation Program started a pilot study of radiation exposures arising from interventional radiology procedures. During the study the patient exposure were measured by D.A.P.-meters. The patient skin dose and the staff dose were performed by thermoluminescent chips. In their presentation the authors present the most important results of the study. (authors)

  14. Long-term exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and respiratory disease incidence in in Toronto, Canada: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Bai, Li; Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Van Ryswyk, Keith; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Jerrett, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Burnett, Richard T; Lu, Hong; Chen, Hong

    2017-06-19

    Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012. UFP exposures were assigned to residential locations using a land use regression model. Random-effect Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) describing the association between ambient UFPs and respiratory disease incidence adjusting for ambient fine particulate air pollution (PM 2.5 ), NO 2 , and other individual/neighbourhood-level covariates. In total, 74,543 incident cases of COPD, 87,141 cases of asthma, and 12,908 cases of lung cancer were observed during follow-up period. In single pollutant models, each interquartile increase in ambient UFPs was associated with incident COPD (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09) but not asthma (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.01) or lung cancer (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.03). Additional adjustment for NO 2 attenuated the association between UFPs and COPD and the HR was no longer elevated (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.03). PM 2.5 and NO 2 were each associated with increased incidence of all three outcomes but risk estimates for lung cancer were sensitive to indirect adjustment for smoking and body mass index. In general, we did not observe clear evidence of positive associations between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and respiratory disease incidence independent of other air pollutants. Further replication is required as few studies have evaluated these relationships.

  15. Measurement of neutron radiation exposure of commercial airline pilots using bubble detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.J.; Kosierb, R. (Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Cousins, T. (Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Space Systems and Technology Section); Hudson, D.F. (Air Canada Flight Operations, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)); Guery, G. (Air France-Direction des Operations Aeriennes, Roissy Charles de Gaulle (France))

    1994-06-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been used over a 1-yr period by commercial airline pilots from Air Canada and Air France to measure the high-altitude neutron radiation exposure produced by galactic cosmic rays. The present work yielded measurements of the neutron flux of 1.0 to 4.6 n/cm[sup 2][center dot]s, and the neutron dose equivalent rates of 1.7 to 7.7 [mu]S[nu]/h. These measurements are in agreement with previous studies using high-altitude aircraft and conventional neutron instrumentation. The total dose equivalents for the Air Canada flights are also consistent with predictions of the CARI code. Considering that the neutron component contributes [approximately] 50% of the total dose equivalent, this study indicates that the annual dose for the air crew member would exceed the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) for the general public.

  16. Measurement of neutron radiation exposure of commercial airline pilots using bubble detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.J.; Kosierb, R.; Guery, G.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron bubble detectors have been used over a 1-yr period by commercial airline pilots from Air Canada and Air France to measure the high-altitude neutron radiation exposure produced by galactic cosmic rays. The present work yielded measurements of the neutron flux of 1.0 to 4.6 n/cm 2 ·s, and the neutron dose equivalent rates of 1.7 to 7.7 μSν/h. These measurements are in agreement with previous studies using high-altitude aircraft and conventional neutron instrumentation. The total dose equivalents for the Air Canada flights are also consistent with predictions of the CARI code. Considering that the neutron component contributes ∼ 50% of the total dose equivalent, this study indicates that the annual dose for the air crew member would exceed the new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP-60) for the general public

  17. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure in Portuguese airline pilots: study of a possible correlation with oxidative biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodrigo; Folgosa, Filipe; Soares, Paulo; Pereira, Alice S; Garcia, Raquel; Gestal-Otero, Juan Jesus; Tavares, Pedro; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R

    2013-05-01

    Several studies have sought to understand the health effects of occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. However, only few biologic markers or associations with disease outcomes have so far been identified. In the present study, 22 long- and 26 medium-haul male Portuguese airline pilots and 36 factory workers who did not fly regularly were investigated. The two groups were comparable in age and diet, were non-smokers, never treated with ionizing radiation and other factors. Cosmic radiation exposure in pilots was quantified based on direct monitoring of 51 flights within Europe, and from Europe to North and South America, and to Africa. Indirect dose estimates in pilots were performed based on the SIEVERT (Système informatisé d'évaluation par vol de l'exposition au rayonnement cosmique dans les transports aériens) software for 6,039 medium- and 1,366 long-haul flights. Medium-haul pilots had a higher cosmic radiation dose rate than long-haul pilots, that is, 3.3 ± 0.2 μSv/h and 2.7 ± 0.3 μSv/h, respectively. Biological tests for oxidative stress on blood and urine, as appropriate, at two time periods separated by 1 year, included measurements of antioxidant capacity, total protein, ferritin, hemoglobin, creatinine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Principal components analysis was used to discriminate between the exposed and unexposed groups based on all the biological tests. According to this analysis, creatinine and 8OHdG levels were different for the pilots and the unexposed group, but no distinctions could be made among the medium- and the long-haul pilots. While hemoglobin levels seem to be comparable between the studied groups, they were directly correlated with ferritin values, which were lower for the airline pilots.

  18. Characteristics and outcomes of e-cigarette exposure incidents reported to 10 European Poison Centers: a retrospective data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine I. Vardavas

    2017-08-01

    Our study highlighted parameters related to e-cigarette exposure incidents in 10 EU MS, the results of which indicate that consideration should be given to the design features which may mitigate risks, thereby protecting users, non-users and especially children.

  19. Reduction in Fall Rate in Dementia Managed Care Through Video Incident Review: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Eleonore; Jacquemot, Julien; Netscher, George; Agrawal, Pulkit; Tabb Noyce, Lynn; Bayen, Alexandre

    2017-10-17

    Falls of individuals with dementia are frequent, dangerous, and costly. Early detection and access to the history of a fall is crucial for efficient care and secondary prevention in cognitively impaired individuals. However, most falls remain unwitnessed events. Furthermore, understanding why and how a fall occurred is a challenge. Video capture and secure transmission of real-world falls thus stands as a promising assistive tool. The objective of this study was to analyze how continuous video monitoring and review of falls of individuals with dementia can support better quality of care. A pilot observational study (July-September 2016) was carried out in a Californian memory care facility. Falls were video-captured (24×7), thanks to 43 wall-mounted cameras (deployed in all common areas and in 10 out of 40 private bedrooms of consenting residents and families). Video review was provided to facility staff, thanks to a customized mobile device app. The outcome measures were the count of residents' falls happening in the video-covered areas, the acceptability of video recording, the analysis of video review, and video replay possibilities for care practice. Over 3 months, 16 falls were video-captured. A drop in fall rate was observed in the last month of the study. Acceptability was good. Video review enabled screening for the severity of falls and fall-related injuries. Video replay enabled identifying cognitive-behavioral deficiencies and environmental circumstances contributing to the fall. This allowed for secondary prevention in high-risk multi-faller individuals and for updated facility care policies regarding a safer living environment for all residents. Video monitoring offers high potential to support conventional care in memory care facilities. ©Eleonore Bayen, Julien Jacquemot, George Netscher, Pulkit Agrawal, Lynn Tabb Noyce, Alexandre Bayen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 17.10.2017.

  20. Cancer incidence and specific occupational exposures in the Swedish leather tanning industry: a cohort based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoczy, Z; Schütz, A; Strömberg, U; Hagmar, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the effect on the incidence of cancer of exposure to chemicals handled in the leather tanning industry. MATERIALS AND METHODS--A case-control study was performed within a cohort of 2487 workers employed for at least six months during the period 1900-89 in three Swedish leather tanneries. 68 cancer cases (lung, stomach, bladder, kidney, nasal, and pancreatic cancers and soft tissue sarcomas) and 178 matched controls were studied. Effects of chemical exposures on cancer incidence, adjusted for age at risk, sex, and plant were estimated with a conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS--A significant association was found between exposure to leather dust and pancreatic cancer (odds ratio (OR) 7.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.44 to 35-89). An association was indicated between leather dust from vegetable tanning and lung cancer. After adjustment for smoking habits a tentative association between organic solvents and lung cancer lost its significance. No association was found between exposure to chlorophenols and soft tissue sarcomas. CONCLUSIONS--The significant association between leather tanning and soft tissue sarcomas that was found in our previous cohort analysis could not be explained by exposure to chlorophenols. On the other hand a significant association was found between exposure to leather dust and pancreatic cancer, and exposure to leather dust from vegetable tanning was often present in cases with lung cancer. Due to the small numbers of cases, the results can, however, only lead to tentative conclusions. PMID:8704870

  1. Exposure assessment of carbon nanotubes at pilot factory focusing on quantitative determination of catalytic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Nobuyuki; Nagaya, Taiki; Matsui, Yasuto; Yoneda, Minoru

    2017-11-25

    The application of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) currently extends to various fields. However, it has been reported that exposure to CNT causes hazardous effects on animals and cells. The purpose of this study was to quantify the exposure to MWCNT in MWCNT/polymer composites for exposure assessment. We focused on catalytic metals included in the MWCNT and the diameter of dust released during the working processes. Although the Co in MWCNTs is not a common catalyst, it was used as a tracer in this study. A field survey was conducted in a MWCNT/polymer composite pilot factory. Airborne MWCNTs were monitored using black carbon monitors (BCMs) and optical particle sizers (OPSs) and collected on a filter. The MWCNT powder, all polymer resins used during the working processes, and the filter were analyzed in our lab using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and electron microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne MWCNT contained in the collected dust was 0.92 μg/m 3 a few meters away from the extruder during the working processes (using elemental analysis). The maximum concentration measured using BCMs was shown to be seven times higher than the base concentration during the pelletizing process of polycarbonate (PC) and MWCNT composites. However, free, isolated, and unbound agglomerated MWCNTs were not detected using scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation. The result obtained by elemental analysis indicated it was possible to quantify MWCNT in composites. The mean concentration at this factory was lower than the recommended exposure limit. However, additional studies during the pelletizing process are required in the future.

  2. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Samuel Y; Zalk, David M; Swuste, Paul

    2008-08-01

    Control banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  3. Menarche, menopause, years of menstruation, and the incidence of osteoporosis: the influence of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Samantha E; Troisi, Rebecca; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Strohsnitter, William C; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2014-02-01

    Estrogen is critical for bone formation and growth in women. Estrogen exposures occur throughout life, including prenatally, and change with reproductive events, such as menarche and menopause. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age at menarche, age at menopause, and years of menstruation with incidence of osteoporosis and assess the impact of prenatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen, on such associations. Participants were 5573 women in the National Cancer Institute Combined Cohort Study of DES (1994-2006). Data on reproductive history and medical conditions were collected through questionnaires at baseline in 1994 and subsequently in 1997, 2001, and 2006. Age-stratified Cox regression models were used to calculate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Effect measure modification by prenatal DES exposure was assessed using cubic restricted spline regression models. Osteoporosis was the main outcome measure. The IRRs for osteoporosis incidence with age at menarche less than 11 years and age at menopause of 50 years or younger were 0.82 (CI 0.59, 1.14) and 0.61 (CI 0.40, 0.92), respectively. Fewer than 25 years of menstruation was associated with an increased incidence of osteoporosis (IRR 1.80; CI 1.14, 2.86) compared with 35 years or more of menstruation. Associations were stronger among women who had not been prenatally exposed to DES. Our data support the hypothesis that lifetime cumulative exposure to estrogens is protective against osteoporosis. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to estrogen appears to modify these associations, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown.

  4. Vehicular Traffic-Related Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Breast Cancer Incidence: The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project (LIBCSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordukhovich, Irina; Beyea, Jan; Herring, Amy H; Hatch, Maureen; Stellman, Steven D; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Richardson, David B; Millikan, Robert C; Engel, Lawrence S; Shantakumar, Sumitra; Steck, Susan E; Neugut, Alfred I; Rossner, Pavel; Santella, Regina M; Gammon, Marilie D

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in laboratory animals. However, the association between PAHs and breast cancer in women is unclear. Vehicular traffic is a major ambient source of PAH exposure. Our study aim was to evaluate the association between residential exposure to vehicular traffic and breast cancer incidence. Residential histories of 1,508 participants with breast cancer (case participants) and 1,556 particpants with no breast cancer (control participants) were assessed in a population-based investigation conducted in 1996-1997. Traffic exposure estimates of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), as a proxy for traffic-related PAHs, for the years 1960-1995 were reconstructed using a model previously shown to generate estimates consistent with measured soil PAHs, PAH-DNA adducts, and CO readings. Associations between vehicular traffic exposure estimates and breast cancer incidence were evaluated using unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (95% CI) was modestly elevated by 1.44 (0.78, 2.68) for the association between breast cancer and long-term 1960-1990 vehicular traffic estimates in the top 5%, compared with below the median. The association with recent 1995 traffic exposure was elevated by 1.14 (0.80, 1.64) for the top 5%, compared with below the median, which was stronger among women with low fruit/vegetable intake [1.46 (0.89, 2.40)], but not among those with high fruit/vegetable intake [0.92 (0.53, 1.60)]. Among the subset of women with information regarding traffic exposure and tumor hormone receptor subtype, the traffic-breast cancer association was higher for those with estrogen/progesterone-negative tumors [1.67 (0.91, 3.05) relative to control participants], but lower among all other tumor subtypes [0.80 (0.50, 1.27) compared with control participants]. In our population-based study, we observed positive associations between vehicular traffic

  5. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers. Methods We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available. Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders. Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites. Results For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva. Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine. For three sites, inverse relationships were seen that varied markedly by sex: esophagus (stronger in males than females, gallbladder (stronger in females than males, and thyroid (only seen in females. No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers. A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer. Conclusion This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers. The relative risks for cancer

  6. Solar ultraviolet-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1993–2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscoe, Francis P; Schymura, Maria J

    2006-01-01

    An inverse relationship between solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure and non-skin cancer mortality has long been reported. Vitamin D, acquired primarily through exposure to the sun via the skin, is believed to inhibit tumor development and growth and reduce mortality for certain cancers. We extend the analysis of this relationship to include cancer incidence as well as mortality, using higher quality and higher resolution data sets than have typically been available. Over three million incident cancer cases between 1998 and 2002 and three million cancer deaths between 1993 and 2002 in the continental United States were regressed against daily satellite-measured solar UV-B levels, adjusting for numerous confounders. Relative risks of reduced solar UV-B exposure were calculated for thirty-two different cancer sites. For non-Hispanic whites, an inverse relationship between solar UV-B exposure and cancer incidence and mortality was observed for ten sites: bladder, colon, Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloma, other biliary, prostate, rectum, stomach, uterus, and vulva. Weaker evidence of an inverse relationship was observed for six sites: breast, kidney, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, pancreas, and small intestine. For three sites, inverse relationships were seen that varied markedly by sex: esophagus (stronger in males than females), gallbladder (stronger in females than males), and thyroid (only seen in females). No association was found for bone and joint, brain, larynx, liver, nasal cavity, ovary, soft tissue, male thyroid, and miscellaneous cancers. A positive association between solar UV-B exposure and cancer mortality and incidence was found for anus, cervix, oral cavity, melanoma, and other non-epithelial skin cancer. This paper adds to the mounting evidence for the influential role of solar UV-B exposure on cancer, particularly for some of the less-well studied digestive cancers. The relative risks for cancer incidence are similar to those for cancer mortality for most

  7. The unified approach of management and critical incident stress management: helping flight attendants and pilots in the aftermath of September 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Tania

    2006-01-01

    Experience suggests that effective and appropriate responses of an organization's management after a traumatic incident can help mitigate the reactions of primary, secondary, and tertiary victims. This commentary addresses the managerial response of Southwest Airlines to the trauma induced by September 11. It highlights the effectiveness of the unity between the company, the unions, and the Critical Incident Response Team, as well as the types of interventions that were highly regarded by flight attendants and pilots who received such services. This commentary also defines the phenomenon known as fear of flight.

  8. Calculation of lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands by smoking and radon exposure. Implications for the effect of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.; Brugmans, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Although the main cause of lung cancer is smoking cigarettes, part of the cases are subscribed to radon exposure, in particular α-radiation from daughter products. However, the relation between lung cancer and radon exposure is rather insecure. Based on international reports (e.g. BEIR VI) and extrapolation of lung cancer incidence in uranium mine workers to the population of the USA and subsequently to the Netherlands, the number of lung cancer cases in the Netherlands is estimated to be circa 800 per year, varying between 200-2000. Results of the analysis are summarized in this article. 10 refs

  9. The application of equilibrium models to incidence situations using the example of the exposure pathway human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Martin; Karcher, Klaus; Nosske, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    The radiation exposure after a short-term release of radioactive substances is often calculated assuming equilibrium conditions. An example is that of the German Incident Calculation Bases for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Here, the contamination of human milk is calculated using transfer factors. Applying this equilibrium model to incident situations raises the question whether baby's radiation exposure is adequately assessed. This contribution shows that compliance with the relevant dose limits of paragraph 49 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance is ensured for design basis accidents on the assumption that the hypothetical breastfeeding period starts at the beginning of the activity release. Comparative analyses were performed against the biokinetic models applied by ICRP for radiation protection purposes, taking the reference nuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 241 Am and long-lived plutonium isotopes as examples. (orig.)

  10. The application of equilibrium models to incidence situations using the example of the exposure pathway human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin; Karcher, Klaus; Nosske, Dietmar [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    The radiation exposure after a short-term release of radioactive substances is often calculated assuming equilibrium conditions. An example is that of the German Incident Calculation Bases for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Here, the contamination of human milk is calculated using transfer factors. Applying this equilibrium model to incident situations raises the question whether baby's radiation exposure is adequately assessed. This contribution shows that compliance with the relevant dose limits of paragraph 49 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance is ensured for design basis accidents on the assumption that the hypothetical breastfeeding period starts at the beginning of the activity release. Comparative analyses were performed against the biokinetic models applied by ICRP for radiation protection purposes, taking the reference nuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 131}I, {sup 241}Am and long-lived plutonium isotopes as examples. (orig.)

  11. Long-term exposure to residential ambient fine and coarse particulate matter and incident hypertension in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Trenton; Eliot, Melissa N; Eaton, Charles B; Whitsel, Eric; Stewart, James D; Mu, Lina; Suh, Helen; Szpiro, Adam; Kaufman, Joel D; Vedal, Sverre; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2017-08-01

    Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of incident hypertension, a key determinant of cardiovascular risk. However, whether long-term exposure to PM is associated with incident hypertension remains unclear. Using national geostatistical models incorporating geographic covariates and spatial smoothing, we estimated annual average concentrations of residential fine (PM 2.5 ), respirable (PM 10 ), and course (PM 10-2.5 ) fractions of particulate matter among 44,255 post-menopausal women free of hypertension enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. We used time-varying Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between long-term average residential pollutant concentrations and incident hypertension, adjusting for potential confounding by sociodemographic factors, medical history, neighborhood socioeconomic measures, WHI study clinical site, clinical trial, and randomization arm. During 298,383 person-years of follow-up, 14,511 participants developed incident hypertension. The adjusted hazard ratios per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and PM 10-2.5 were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.17), 1.06 (1.03, 1.10), and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.04), respectively. Statistically significant concentration-response relationships were identified for PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions. The association between PM 2.5 and hypertension was more pronounced among non-white participants and those residing in the Northeastern United States. In this cohort of post-menopausal women, ambient fine and respirable particulate matter exposures were associated with higher incidence rates of hypertension. These results suggest that particulate matter may be an important modifiable risk factor for hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cancer incidence in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: disentangling the effect of occupational versus lifestyle exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Silva, Isabel; De Stavola, Bianca; Pizzi, Costanza; Evans, Anthony D; Evans, Sally A

    2013-01-15

    Flight crew are occupationally exposed to several potentially carcinogenic hazards; however, previous investigations have been hampered by lack of information on lifestyle exposures. The authors identified, through the United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority medical records, a cohort of 16,329 flight crew and 3,165 air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and assembled data on their occupational and lifestyle exposures. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated to compare cancer incidence in each occupation to that of the general population; internal analyses were conducted by fitting Cox regression models. All-cancer incidence was 20-29% lower in each occupation than in the general population, mainly due to a lower incidence of smoking-related cancers [SIR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.27-0.38) and 0.42 (0.28-0.60) for flight crew and ATCOs, respectively], consistent with their much lower prevalence of smoking. Skin melanoma rates were increased in both flight crew (SIR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.45-2.38) and ATCOs (2.66; 1.55-4.25), with rates among the former increasing with increasing number of flight hours (p-trend = 0.02). However, internal analyses revealed no differences in skin melanoma rates between flight crew and ATCOs (hazard ratio: 0.78, 95% CI = 0.37-1.66) and identified skin that burns easily when exposed to sunlight (p = 0.001) and sunbathing to get a tan (p = 0.07) as the strongest risk predictors of skin melanoma in both occupations. The similar site-specific cancer risks between the two occupational groups argue against risks among flight crew being driven by occupation-specific exposures. The skin melanoma excess reflects sun-related behaviour rather than cosmic radiation exposure. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  13. The effect of a perioperative ketamine infusion on the incidence of chronic postsurgical pain-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, P J; Wu, C; Jacobson, T; Hogg, M; Zia, F; Leslie, K

    2017-07-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a common and debilitating complication of major surgery. We undertook a pilot study at three hospitals to assess the feasibility of a proposed large multicentre placebo-controlled randomised trial of intravenous perioperative ketamine to reduce the incidence of CPSP. Ketamine, 0.5 mg/kg pre-incision, 0.25 mg/kg/hour intraoperatively and 0.1 mg/kg/hour for 24 hours, or placebo, was administered to 80 patients, recruited over a 15-month period, undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery under general anaesthesia. The primary endpoint was CPSP in the area of the surgery reported at six-month telephone follow-up using a structured questionnaire. Fourteen patients (17.5%) reported CPSP (relative risk [95% confidence interval] if received ketamine 1.18 [0.70 to 1.98], P =0.56). Four patients in the treatment group and three in the control group reported ongoing analgesic use to treat CPSP and two patients in each group reported their worst pain in the previous 24 hours at ≥3/10 at six months. There were no significant differences in adverse event rates, quality of recovery scores, or cumulative morphine equivalents consumption in the first 72 hours. Numeric Rating Scale pain scores (median [interquartile range, IQR]) for average pain in the previous 24 hours among those patients reporting CPSP were 17.5 [0 to 40] /100 with no difference between treatment groups. A large (n=4,000 to 5,000) adequately powered multicentre trial is feasible using this population and methodology.

  14. Distribution of Trauma Care Facilities in Oman in Relation to High-Incidence Road Traffic Injury Sites: Pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sara M; Naiem, Ahmed A; Taqi, Kadhim M; Al-Gheiti, Najla M; Al-Toobi, Ikhtiyar S; Al-Busaidi, Nasra Q; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z; Taqi, Alaa M; Ba-Alawi, Sharif A; Al-Qadhi, Hani A

    2017-11-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are considered a major public health problem worldwide. In Oman, high numbers of RTIs and RTI-related deaths are frequently registered. This study aimed to evaluate the distribution of trauma care facilities in Oman with regards to their proximity to RTI-prevalent areas. This descriptive pilot study analysed RTI data recorded in the national Royal Oman Police registry from January to December 2014. The distribution of trauma care facilities was analysed by calculating distances between areas of peak RTI incidence and the closest trauma centre using Google Earth and Google Maps software (Google Inc., Googleplex, Mountain View, California, USA). A total of 32 trauma care facilities were identified. Four facilities (12.5%) were categorised as class V trauma centres. Of the facilities in Muscat, 42.9% were ranked as class IV or V. There were no class IV or V facilities in Musandam, Al-Wusta or Al-Buraimi. General surgery, orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery services were available in 68.8%, 59.3% and 12.5% of the centres, respectively. Emergency services were available in 75.0% of the facilities. Intensive care units were available in 11 facilities, with four located in Muscat. The mean distance between a RTI hotspot and the nearest trauma care facility was 34.7 km; however, the mean distance to the nearest class IV or V facility was 83.3 km. The distribution and quality of trauma care facilities in Oman needs modification. It is recommended that certain centres upgrade their levels of trauma care in order to reduce RTI-associated morbidity and mortality in Oman.

  15. Exposure of aircraft maintenance technicians to organophosphates from hydraulic fluids and turbine oils: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Koslitz, Stephan; Weiss, Tobias; Broding, Horst Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fluids and turbine oils contain organophosphates like tricresyl phosphate isomers, triphenyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate from very small up to high percentages. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if aircraft maintenance technicians are exposed to relevant amounts of organophosphates. Dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites of seven organophosphates were quantified in pre- and post-shift spot urine samples of technicians (N=5) by GC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction and derivatization. Pre- and post shift values of tributyl phosphate metabolites (dibutyl phosphate (DBP): median pre-shift: 12.5 μg/L, post-shift: 23.5 μg/L) and triphenyl phosphate metabolites (diphenyl phosphate (DPP): median pre-shift: 2.9 μg/L, post-shift: 3.5 μg/L) were statistically higher than in a control group from the general population (median DBP: <0.25 μg/L, median DPP: 0.5 μg/L). No tricresyl phosphate metabolites were detected. The aircraft maintenance technicians were occupationally exposed to tributyl and triphenyl phosphate but not to tricresyl phosphate, tri-(2-chloroethyl)- and tri-(2-chloropropyl)-phosphate. Further studies are necessary to collect information on sources, routes of uptake and varying exposures during different work tasks, evaluate possible health effects and to set up appropriate protective measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. E-virtual reality exposure therapy in acrophobia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Fanny; Leboucher, Pierre; Rautureau, Gilles; Jouvent, Roland

    2016-06-01

    Virtual reality therapy is already used for anxiety disorders as an alternative to in vivo and in imagino exposure. To our knowledge, however, no one has yet proposed using remote virtual reality (e-virtual reality). The aim of the present study was to assess e-virtual reality in an acrophobic population. Six individuals with acrophobia each underwent six sessions (two sessions per week) of virtual reality exposure therapy. The first three were remote sessions, while the last three were traditional sessions in the physical presence of the therapist. Anxiety (STAI form Y-A, visual analog scale, heart rate), presence, technical difficulties and therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) were measured. In order to control the conditions in which these measures were made, all the sessions were conducted in hospital. None of the participants dropped out. The remote sessions were well accepted. None of the participants verbalized reluctance. No major technical problems were reported. None of the sessions were cancelled or interrupted because of software incidents. Measures (anxiety, presence, therapeutic alliance) were comparable across the two conditions. e-Virtual reality can therefore be used to treat acrophobic disorders. However, control studies are needed to assess online feasibility, therapeutic effects and the mechanisms behind online presence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Overcoming Barriers to Disseminating Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Disorders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Training Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Harned, Melanie S.; Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Skutch, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated methods for training mental health providers (N=46) in exposure therapies (ETs) for anxiety disorders. A pilot randomized controlled trial compared: 1) an interactive, multimedia online training (ET OLT), 2) the ET OLT plus a brief Motivational Interviewing-based intervention (ET OLT + MI), and 3) a placebo control OLT. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-training, and one week following training. Both ET OLT and ET OLT + MI received high satisfaction rati...

  18. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated...

  19. Adverse incidents resulting in exposure to body fluids at a UK dental teaching hospital over a 6-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A Hughes,1 L Davies,1 R Hale,1 JE Gallagher21Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 2King's College London Dental Institute, London, United KingdomBackground: The safety and protection of patients and health care workers is of paramount importance in dentistry, and this includes students in training who provide clinical care. Given the nature of dental care, adverse incidents can and do occur, exposing health care workers to body fluids and putting them at risk of infection, including contracting a blood-borne virus. The aim of this research was to analyze trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital from 2005 to 2010.Methods: Descriptive analysis of trends in the volume, rate, nature, management, and outcome of adverse incidents reported at one dental teaching hospital over a six-year period was undertaken in relation to the level of outpatient and day surgery activity.Results: In total, 287 incidents were reported over a six-year period, which amounted to 0.039% of outpatient or day surgery appointments. Nearly three quarters of all the incidents (n = 208, 72% took place during treatment or whilst clearing away after the appointment. The most frequent incidents were associated with administration of local anesthetic (n = 63, 22%, followed by burs used in dental hand pieces (n = 51, 18%.Conclusion: This research confirms that adverse incidents are a feature of dental hospitals and reports the common sources. The importance of accurate and consistent reporting of data to ensure that these issues are monitored to inform action and reduce risks to staff, students, and patients are highlighted.Keywords: risk management, blood-borne virus, dental hospital, body fluids exposure, adverse event reporting

  20. Human biomonitoring after chemical incidents and during short-term maintenance work as a tool for exposure analysis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M; Van Weyenbergh, T; Verwerft, E; Van Pul, J; Lang, S; Oberlinner, C

    2014-12-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is frequently used for the analysis and assessment of exposure to chemicals under routine working conditions. In recent years, HBM has also been applied to monitor the exposure of the general population, and of emergency responders in the aftermath of chemical incidents. Two examples of targeted HBM programs in the chemical industry are described and discussed in this paper: (1) analysis and assessment of the exposure of firefighters and chemical workers after the spill of p-chloroaniline from a burning chemical barrel, and (2) biomonitoring of maintenance workers potentially exposed to benzene during regular turnarounds. The results of these investigations underline that human biomonitoring contributes substantially to comprehensive exposure analyses, human health risk assessments and communication. In addition, regular HBM surveillance and feedback can assist in the continuous improvement of workplace safety measures and exposure control. In conclusion, data on accidental or short-term exposure to hazardous chemicals are an important source of information for the further development of limit and assessment values, the validation of biomarkers and of targeted HBM programs for both routine monitoring and disaster management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of an asbestos cement factory on mesothelioma incidence: global assessment of effects of occupational, familial, and environmental exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensi, Carolina; Riboldi, Luciano; De Matteis, Sara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) associated with distinct sources of asbestos exposure (occupational, familial, or environmental). We assessed the impact of asbestos exposure-global and by source-on the incidence of MM in Broni, an Italian town in which an asbestos cement factory once operated (1932-1993). Based on data collected by the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we calculated the number of observed and expected MM cases among workers, their cohabitants, and people living in the area in 2000-2011. We identified 147 MM cases (17.45 expected), 138 pleural and nine peritoneal, attributable to exposure to asbestos from the factory. Thirty-eight cases had past occupational exposure at the factory (2.33 expected), numbering 32 men (26 pleural, six peritoneal) and six women (four pleural, two peritoneal). In the families of the workers, there were 37 MM cases (4.23 expected), numbering five men (all pleural) and 32 women (31 pleural, one peritoneal). Among residents in Broni or in the adjacent/surrounding towns, there were 72 cases of pleural MM (10.89 expected), numbering 23 men and 49 women. The largest MM excess was found in the towns of Broni (48 observed, 3.68 expected) and Stradella (16 observed, 1.85 expected). This study documents the large impact of the asbestos cement factory, with about 130 excess MM cases in a 12-year period. The largest MM burden was among women, from non-occupational exposure. Almost half of the MM cases were attributable to environmental exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational blood exposures in health care workers: incidence, characteristics, and transmission of bloodborne pathogens in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers (HCWs are at high risk for occupational blood exposures (OBEs and transmission of bloodborne pathogens. This study elucidated the incidence rate and epidemiological characteristics of OBEs among HCWs and investigated the pathogen transmission rate for hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Methods Self-reported OBEs from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015 were obtained from the electronic recording system. OBE incidence densities per 100 person-years and per 100 bed-years were calculated with a 5-year trend analysis. OBE characteristics and pathogen transmission rates were evaluated. Results Among 10,452 HCWs and 1072 average yearly beds, 1076 OBEs were reported. OBE incidence rate was 5.6 cases per 100 person (full-time equivalent-years and 20.3 per 100 bed-years. Incidence rate decreased and was significantly associated with a decrease of beds served per HCW. Housekeeping showed the highest OBE rate (14.8% followed by doctors (8.5% and nurses (6.2%. OBEs occurred in wards, emergency rooms, and operating rooms (38.1%, 13.3% and 12.2%, respectively via percutaneous (86.7% and mucocutaneous exposures (13.2%. Of OBEs associated with HBV (n = 133, HCV (n = 126, and HIV (n = 25, only one led to an infection (HCV; transmission rate of 0.8%. Neither HBV nor HIV infection occurred. Conclusions OBE incidence rate in a Korean university hospital was 5.6 cases per 100 person-years and 20.3 per 100 bed-years and was related to HCW workload and work proficiency. Though the actual bloodborne pathogen transmission rate was low, efforts to prevent OBE should be made for hospital safety.

  3. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses...... exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....

  4. Simulation model of lung cancer incidence related to smoking and radon daughter exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolowijk, J.A.J.

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model of lung cancer and radon daughter exposure is presented. It is aimed to provide a quantitative estimate in the form of dose-effect relationship. The nature of the cigarette smoking and radon exposure interaction it is shown to be a multiplicative or sub-multiplicative function rather than a simpler model in which the effect of the two exposures would be summed. The model was written in the SAS programming language. An annotated listing of the program is given. 4 refs

  5. An evaluation of early countermeasures to reduce the risk of internal radiation exposure after the Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shuhei; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Gilmour, Stuart; Hayano, Ryugo S; Watanabe, Yuni N; Kami, Masahiro; Kanazawa, Yukio; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi

    2016-05-01

    After a radiation-release incident, intake of radionuclides in the initial stage immediately following the incident may be the major contributor to total internal radiation exposure for individuals in affected areas. However, evaluation of early internal contamination risk is greatly lacking. This study assessed the relationship between initial stage evacuation/indoor sheltering and internal radiation contamination levels 4 months after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident in Japan and estimated potential pathways of the contamination. The study population comprised 525 participants in the internal radiation screening program at Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital, 23 km north of the Fukushima nuclear plant. The analysed dataset included the results of a screening performed in July 2011, 4 months after the incident, and of a questionnaire on early-incident response behaviours, such as sheltering indoors and evacuations, completed by participants. Association between such early countermeasures and internal contamination levels of cesium-134 were assessed using Tobit multiple regression analyses. Our study shows that individuals who evacuated to areas outside Fukushima Prefecture had similar contamination levels of cesium-134 to individuals who stayed in Fukushima (relative risk: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.74-0.99). Time spent outdoors had no significant relationship with contamination levels. The effects of inhalation from radiological plumes released from the nuclear plant on total internal radiation contamination might be so low as to be undetectable by the whole-body counting unit used to examine participants. Given the apparent limited effectiveness of evacuation and indoor sheltering on internal contamination, the decision to implement such early responses to a radiation-release incident should be made by carefully balancing their potential benefits and health risks. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For

  6. Occupational exposure to dusts, gases, and fumes and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, A.J.; Miedinger, D.; Keidel, D.; Bettschart, R.; Bircher, A.; Bridevaux, P.O.; Curjuric, I; Kromhout, H.; Rochat, T.; Rothe, T.; Russi, E.W.; Schikowski, T.; Schindler, C.; Schwartz, J.; Turk, A.; Vermeulen, R.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Künzli, N.

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE There is limited evidence from population-based studies demonstrating incidence of spirometric-defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in association with occupational exposures. OBJECTIVES We evaluated the association between occupational exposures and incidence of COPD in

  7. Self-Reported Youth and Adult Exposure to Alcohol Marketing in Traditional and Digital Media: Results of a Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Pilot Study on Long Term Effects of HZE Exposure on the Canine Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, T.; Brennan, K.; Pearlstein, R.

    A ground-based pilot experiment was initiated in December 1992 to evaluate the long term effects on health and aging after HZE cosmic radiation of the canine brain. Six adult male beagle dogs (1 yr) from the UC Davis breeding colony at the Laboratory for Energy Related Health Research were researched in this study. Iron nuclei at 600 MeV/amu (180 keV/mm) were used to irradiate the whole brain. The fluence of 3 x 106 iron nuclei/ cm2 mimics the HZE exposure (all > He) for a 2- year mission to Mars. The HZE irradiation was a fully stripped iron particle beam at the LBNL BEVALAC. Using a Raster Scanner we were able to spread the beam to deliver a uniform dose over the brain. The total dose to the brain was 200 cGy. Four dogs were whole brain irradiated with iron and two dogs served as litter-mate controls. The control dogs received a similar amount of background neutron irradiation as the irradiated dogs. One of the control dogs died suddenly 3/98 of intestinal cancer unrelated to the brain irradiation. That brain was not harvested before autolysis had prevented analysis. Periodic PET metabolism and yearly MRI studies have been done on these dog's brain since irradiation. All dogs had yearly physical, neurological and blood chemistry work-ups. PET imaging was performed with the Donner 600-crystal high-resolution PET (2.6 mm resolution) and with the commercial PET, CTI/Siemens ECAT 951 PET Scanner (5 mm resolution). NMR imaging is performed with the 1 5T GE Signa at UCSF using T spoiled gradient imaging.1 sequences for T1 contrast at 1 mm resolution as well as a T2 weighted spin echo imaging sequence at 1 mm resolution. A major goal of this work is to present an accurate method for measuring surface areas and volumes of the irradiated vs the non-irradiated canine brain using MRI data which are isotropic in resolution at the 1 mm level. This allows us to monitor the changes in brain size with aging and radiation exposure. Nine years post irradiation, these dog brains

  9. Exposure to reactive intermediate-inducing drugs during pregnancy and the incident use of psychotropic medications among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Yen-Hao; Groen, Henk; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    2017-03-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate (RI)-inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children. We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered exposed when they received a prescription of RI-inducing drugs. These drugs could be either used alone (RI+/FAA-) or combined with drugs exhibiting folic acid antagonism (FAA, RI+/FAA+). The reference group included pregnant women who did not receive any RI-inducing drugs or FAA drugs. We analyzed 4116 exposed and 30 422 reference pregnancies. The hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.27 (95%CI 1.15-1.41) for pregnancies exposed to RI-inducing drugs as a whole. Considering subgroups of RI-inducing drugs, prenatal exposure to both RI+/FAA+ and RI+/FAA- was associated with the children's initiation of psychotropic medications, HRs being 1.35 (95%CI 1.10-1.66) and 1.26 (1.13-1.41), respectively. The HRs were increased with prolonged exposure to RI-inducing drugs, especially in the first and second trimesters. In a detailed examination of the psychotropics, the incidences of receiving antimigraine preparations and psychostimulants were significantly increased for the exposed children, compared with the reference children. The incidences of receiving antipsychotics and hypnotics were also higher for the exposed children; however, the HRs did not reach significance after adjustment. We found a significantly increased incident use of psychotropic medications among children prenatally exposed to RI-inducing drugs, especially during the first and second trimesters. This suggests a detrimental effect during critical periods of brain development. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Pilot Study Comparing Observational and Questionnaire Surrogate Measures of Pesticide Exposure Among Residents Impacted by the Ecuadorian Flower Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J; McGough-Maduena, Alison; Páez, Maritza; Skipper, Betty; Rowland, Andrew S; Fenske, Richard A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported measures of residential pesticide exposure are commonly used in epidemiological studies, especially when financial and logistical resources are limited. However, self-reporting is prone to misclassification bias. This pilot study assesses the agreement between self-report of residential pesticide exposure with direct observation measures, in an agricultural region of Ecuador, as a cross-validation method in 26 participants (16 rose workers and 10 controls), with percent agreement and kappa statistics calculated. Proximity of homes to nearby flower farms was found to have only fair agreement (kappa =.35). The use of discarded plastics (kappa =.06) and wood (kappa =.13) were found to have little agreement. Results indicate that direct observation or measurement may provide more accurate appraisals of residential exposures, such as proximity to industrial farmland and the use of discarded materials obtained from the flower farms.

  11. Young adult non-smokers' exposure to real-world tobacco marketing: results of an ecological momentary assessment pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Niaura, Ray

    2017-08-31

    The aims of this pilot study were to assess and characterize non-current smoking young adults' exposure to tobacco marketing through an ecological momentary assessment protocol. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) consists of repeated measurement of momentary phenomena and is well-suited to capture sporadic experiences in the real-world, such as exposure to tobacco marketing. EMA has the potential to capture detailed information about real-world marketing exposures in ways that reduce recall bias and increase ecological validity. In this study, young adults (n = 31; ages 18-25) responded to random prompts regarding their momentary exposure to tobacco marketing via text messages on their smartphones for 14 days (n = 1798 observations). Unadjusted and adjusted analyses were conducted using multilevel logistic regression to assess the odds of exposure accounting for correlation of multiple repeated measures within individuals while controlling for variability between individuals. Respondents reported, on average, two momentary exposures to tobacco advertising in the 14-day study period. In adjusted analyses, African-American (aOR 3.36; 95% CI 1.07, 10.54) and Hispanic respondents (aOR 5.08; 95% CI 1.28, 20.13) were more likely to report exposure to tobacco advertising. Respondents were also more likely to report exposure when also exposed to others using tobacco products and when they were at stores compared with at home (aOR 14.82; 95% CI 3.61, 60.88). Non-smoking young adults report exposure to tobacco marketing particularly at the point-of-sale, with the highest likelihood of exposure among African-American and Hispanic young people. EMA protocols can be effective in assessing the potential impact of point-of-sale tobacco marketing on young adults.

  12. Accidents and incidents with external and/or internal radiation-exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    An individual radiation exposure accident is an unexpected and unintended event which gives rise to an overexposure (external or internal). By overexposure one means all external or internal exposure which could lead to the exceeding of the regulatory norms. Going beyond these limits does not always produce pathological manifestations. The term radiological accident is, in practice, used only when there is an occurrence of some biological or clinical response, or when some therapeutic action is required. A radio-exposure accident can occur: within or from a nuclear power plant or from a center employing ionizing radiation. These are the most frequent; and during the transport of radioactive materials. These are exceptional events. The tanks and containers used in the transport of highly radioactive substances are exhaustively studied for their resistance to accidents, and the conditions of transport determined by very strict national and international regulations. The transport of substances of low radioactivity (labelled molecules, radiopharmaceuticals...) carries only minor risks

  13. Lung cancer incidence after smoking and exposure to radon using a two-mutation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenhouts, H.P.

    1997-01-01

    A study to analyze lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and smoking, used three types of data: population statistics in non-smokers habits of British radiologists and radon exposure of the Colorado uranium miners. Using a simplified two-mutation carcinogenesis model and only six unknown variables yielded a coherent description of lung cancer dependence on exposure to radon and smoking. For risk estimates the radiation effect of radon can be concluded to be highly dependent on smoking habits, e.g. the radiation effect differs (in absolute terms) by a factor of about 7 between non-smokers, but the relative risk is much higher in non-smokers than in smokers. The results to data justify a thorough investigation of the analysis method to realize improved radon risk estimates. (author)

  14. Lung cancer incidence after smoking and exposure to radon using a two-mutation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenhouts, H.P. [RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1997-03-01

    A study to analyze lung cancer in humans as a function of exposure to radon and smoking, used three types of data: population statistics in non-smokers habits of British radiologists and radon exposure of the Colorado uranium miners. Using a simplified two-mutation carcinogenesis model and only six unknown variables yielded a coherent description of lung cancer dependence on exposure to radon and smoking. For risk estimates the radiation effect of radon can be concluded to be highly dependent on smoking habits, e.g. the radiation effect differs (in absolute terms) by a factor of about 7 between non-smokers, but the relative risk is much higher in non-smokers than in smokers. The results to data justify a thorough investigation of the analysis method to realize improved radon risk estimates. (author)

  15. The impact of normal saline on the incidence of exposure keratopathy in patients hospitalized in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Davoodabady

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU have impaired ocular protective mechanisms that lead to an increased risk of ocular surface diseases including exposure keratopathy (EK. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of normal saline (NS on the incidence and severity of EK in critically ill patients. Materials and Methods: This single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 50 patients admitted to ICUs. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. One eye of each patient, randomly was allocated to intervention group (standard care with NS and the other eye to control group (standard care. In each patient, one eye (control group randomly received standard care and the other eye (intervention group received NS every 6 h in addition to standard care. The presence and severity of keratopathy was assessed daily until day 7 of hospitalization using fluorescein and an ophthalmoscope with cobalt blue filter. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis in SPSS software. Results: Before the study ( first day there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence and severity of EK between groups. Although, the incidence and severity of EK after the study (7th day was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group, their differences were not statistically significant. Although, the incidence and severity of EK, from the 1st day until the 7th, increased within both groups, this increase was statistically significant only in the intervention (NS group. Conclusions: The use of NS as eye care in patients hospitalized in ICUs can increase the incidence and severity of EK and is not recommended.

  16. The incidence and nature of injuries sustained on grass and 3rd generation artificial turf: a pilot study in elite Saudi National Team footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutawa, M; Scott, M; George, K P; Drust, B

    2014-02-01

    To compare the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained by Saudi National Team footballers during match-play and training on natural grass and 3rd generation (3G) artificial turf. Injury data was collected on all Saudi National Team players competing at the Gulf Cup (Yemen December 2010: 3G) and the Asian Cup (Qatar January 2011; grass). A total of 49 players were studied (mean ± SD; Age 27 ± 4 yr; body mass 71.4 ± 6.7 kg; height 176.8 ± 6.3 cm; professional playing experience 9 ± 3 yr) of which 31 competed at the Gulf Cup, 32 at the Asian Cup (14 at both). A prospective cohort design was used to investigate the incidence, nature and severity of injuries sustained with data collected using a standardised injury questionnaire. All data were collected by the team physiotherapist with the definition of injury set at any injury that required player and clinician contact. Injury and exposure data were collected and reported for games, training and all football activity. A total of 82 injuries [incidence - 56.1 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Asian Cup (grass) and 72 injuries [incidence - 37.9 per 1000 h total game and training exposure] were recorded at the Gulf Cup (3G). Incidence data for training, game and all football exposure injury rates were higher when playing on grass. The vast majority of injuries on both surfaces were very minor that, whilst requiring medical attention, did not result in loss of match/training exposure. Injuries that resulted in 1-3 days absence from training or game play had similar incidence rates (Grass: 7.4 vs. 3G: 7.4 injuries per 1000 h exposure). More severe injuries were less frequent but with a higher incidence when playing on grass. Lower limb injuries were the most common in both tournaments with a higher incidence on grass (Grass: 14.2 vs. 3G: 7.9 injuries per 1000 h exposure). Muscle injuries were the most frequent of all injuries with similar incidence rates on

  17. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic noise at normal urban levels can lead to stress and sleep disturbances. Both excess of stress hormones and reduction in sleep quality and duration may lead to higher risk for type 2 diabetes.Objective: We investigated whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise...

  18. Exposure Estimation for Risk Assessment of the Phthalate Incident in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chih Chen

    Full Text Available In May 2011, di(2-ethylhexyl phthalates (DEHP and, to a lesser extent, di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP were found to have been illegally used for many years in Taiwan as clouding agents in foods including sports drinks, juice beverages, tea drinks, fruit jam/nectar/jelly, and health or nutrient supplements.To estimate the DEHP exposure for the study participants for the follow-up epidemiological study and health risk assessment.A total of 347 individuals possibly highly exposed to phthalate-tainted foods participated in the study. Exposure assessment was performed based on the participants' responses to a structured questionnaire, self-report of exposure history, urinary metabolite concentrations, and DEHP concentration information in 2449 food records. A Bayesian statistical approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation was employed to deal with the uncertainties in the DEHP concentrations of the contaminated foods and the participants' likelihood of being exposed.An estimated 37% and 15% of children younger than 12 years old were exposed to DEHP at medium (20-50 μg / kg_bw / day and high AvDIs (50-100 μg / kg_bw / day, respectively, prior to the episode (9% and 3% in adults, respectively. Moreover, 11% of children and 1% of adults were highly exposed (> 100 μg / kg_bw / day, with a maximum of 414.1 μg / kg_bw / day and 126.4 μg / kg_bw / day, respectively.The phthalate exposure-associated adverse health effects for these participants warrant further investigation. The estimation procedure may be applied to other exposure assessment with various sources of uncertainties.

  19. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and breast cancer incidence in the Danish nurse cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ravnskjær, Line; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1...... the 3-year running mean of each pollutant and breast cancer incidence using a time-varying Cox regression. RESULTS: We found no association between breast cancer and PM2.5 (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.99; 0.94-1.10 per interquartile range of 3.3 µg/m3), PM10 (1.02; 0.94-1.10 per 2.9 µg/m3......) or NO2 (0.99; 0.93-1.05 per 7.4 µg/m3). CONCLUSIONS: Air pollution is not associated with breast cancer risk. IMPACT: Exposure to air pollution in adulthood does not increase the risk of breast cancer, but more data on the effects of early exposure, before first birth, are needed....

  20. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter and incidence of diabetes in the Danish Nurse Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Busch; Ravnskjær, Line; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: It has been suggested that air pollution may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes but data on particulate matter with diameter PM2.5) are inconsistent. We examined the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and diabetes incidence. METHODS: We used the Danish Nurse...... Cohort with 28,731 female nurses who at recruitment in 1993 or 1999 reported information on diabetes prevalence and risk factors, and obtained data on incidence of diabetes from National Diabetes Register until 2013. We estimated annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, particulate matter with diameter ... diabetes. We detected a significant positive association between PM2.5 and diabetes incidence (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.11; 1.02-1.22 per interquartile range of 3.1μg/m(3)), and weaker associations for PM10 (1.06; 0.98-1.14 per 2.8μg/m(3)), NO2 (1.05; 0.99-1.12 per 7.5μg/m(3)), and NOx (1...

  1. High incidence of hydrocephalus following prenatal exposure to X-irradiation at early gestational stage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aolad, H.; Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Darmanto, W.; Murata, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is one of the severe brain anomalies. Several causes of congenital hydrocephalus have been reported and, it is known that radiation is one of those. The current study was designed to obtain postnatally viable hydrocephalic offspring at a high incidence following X-radiation. This finding will be helpful to elucidate the mechanism of congenital hydrocephalus caused by X-radiation. Twenty pregnant Slc:ICR mice, 5 in each group, were exposed to X-irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy on gestational days 7 (G7), G8, G9 or G10. The incidence of hydrocephalus was high in the group exposed on G7. An additional 21 pregnant mice were then exposed to a dose of 1.2 Gy, 1.3 Gy, 1.4 Gy or 1.5 Gy X-radiation on G7. The highest incidence of hydrocephalic offspring was found following exposure to 1.4 Gy X-radiation. (author)

  2. Causality of relationship between paternal radiation exposure and leukaemia incidence in the children of Sellafield workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Mairs, R.J.; Barrett, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this letter the author comments on K.E. Baverstock's case (1991) against the likelihood of a causal relationship between reported leukemia incidence and paternal radiation dose in the children of Sellafield workers, and emphasizes the desirability of devising experimental tests of the germ-cell line damage hypothesis as well as the evaluation of its plausibility. Particular reference is made to the role played by dose-rates and by the two-hit model for childhood acute leukemia. (Letter to the Editor)

  3. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  4. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups : a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Chorus, Astrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE ( Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  5. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  6. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: A comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Heuvelen, M.J.G. van; Chorus, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  7. Additional exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs from the diet as a consequence of the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the discovery of elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs in a porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. To estimate additional exposure to dioxins and PCBs due to the contamination incident, all data associated with the contamination incident were collected and reviewed. An exposure model was devised that took into account the proportion of contaminated product reaching the final consumer during the contamination incident window and which utilised all additional information that became available after the incident occurred. Exposure estimates derived for both dioxins and PCBs showed that the body burden of the general population remained largely unaffected by the contamination incident and only approximately 10% were exposed to elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs. Whilst this proportion of the population experienced quite a significant additional load to the existing body burden, the estimated exposure values do not suggest that these would be associated with adverse health effects, based on current knowledge. The exposure period was also limited in time to approximately 3 months, following the recall of contaminated meat immediately on detection of the contamination.

  8. Self-reported physical exposure association with medial and lateral epicondylitis incidence in a large longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, Alexis; Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Herquelot, Eléonore; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-09-01

    Although previous studies have related occupational exposure and epicondylitis, the evidence is moderate and mostly based on cross-sectional studies. Suspected physical exposures were tested over a 3-year period in a large longitudinal cohort study of workers in the USA. In a population-based study including a variety of industries, 1107 newly employed workers were examined; only workers without elbow symptoms at baseline were included. Baseline questionnaires collected information on personal characteristics and self-reported physical work exposures and psychosocial measures for the current or most recent job at 6 months. Epicondylitis (lateral and medial) was the main outcome, assessed at 36 months based on symptoms and physical examination (palpation or provocation test). Logistic models included the most relevant associated variables. Of 699 workers tested after 36 months who did not have elbow symptoms at baseline, 48 suffered from medial or lateral epicondylitis (6.9%), with 34 cases of lateral epicondylitis (4.9%), 30 cases of medial epicondylitis (4.3%) and 16 workers who had both. After adjusting for age, lack of social support and obesity, consistent associations were observed between self-reported wrist bending/twisting and forearm twisting/rotating/screwing motion and future cases of medial or lateral epicondylitis (ORs 2.8 (1.2 to 6.2) and 3.6 (1.2 to 11.0) in men and women, respectively). Self-reported physical exposures that implicate repetitive and extensive/prolonged wrist bend/twisting and forearm movements were associated with incident cases of lateral and medial epicondylitis in a large longitudinal study, although other studies are needed to better specify the exposures involved.

  9. Addressing the impact of urban exposure on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The PERU MIGRANT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Alejos, Andrea; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Gilman, Robert H; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2018-04-03

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of T2DM in three population groups: rural, rural-to-urban migrants and urban dwellers. Data from the PERU MIGRANT Study was analysed. The baseline assessment was conducted in 2007-2008 using a single-stage random sample and further follow-up was undertaken in 2015-16. T2DM was defined based on fasting glucose and self-reported diagnosis. Poisson regression models and robust variance to account for cluster effects were used for reporting risk ratios (RR) and 95%CI. At baseline, T2DM prevalence was 8% in urban, 3.6% in rural-to-urban migrants and 1.5% in rural dwellers. After 7.7 (SD: 1.1) years, 6,076 person-years of follow-up, 61 new cases were identified. The incidence rates in the urban, migrant and rural groups were 1.6, 0.9 and 0.5 per 100 person-years, respectively. Relative to rural dwellers, a 4.3-fold higher risk (95%CI: 1.6-11.9) for developing T2DM was found in urban dwellers and 2.7-fold higher (95%CI: 1.1-6.8) in migrants with ≥30 years of urban exposure. Migration and urban exposure were found as significant risk factors for developing T2DM. Within-country migration is a sociodemographic phenomenon occurring worldwide; thus, it is necessary to disentangle the effect of urban exposure on non-healthy habits and T2DM development.

  10. Mathematical modeling of HIV prevention measures including pre-exposure prophylaxis on HIV incidence in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.

  11. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teras, Lauren R., E-mail: lauren.teras@cancer.org [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Diver, W. Ryan [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Turner, Michelle C. [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Krewski, Daniel [McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Disease Prevention, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sahar, Liora [Statistics and Evaluation Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, Elizabeth [Intramural Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gapstur, Susan M. [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m{sup 3}) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m{sup 3}) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR{sub continuous}=1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m{sup 3}; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor

  12. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  13. Lung cancer incidence and long-term exposure to air pollution from traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer.Objective: We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer.Methods: We identified 592 lung cancer cases...... for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit.Results: For the highest compared with the lowest...... of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly.Conclusions: This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air...

  14. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: histologic and autoradiographic observations on skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Examination of biopsies from exposed and relatively unexposed areas of the face revealed changes that were consistent with actinic elastic degeneration associated with solar exposure, except in the areas in which sources of alpha radiation were detected in the upper dermis. In those areas particles judged to be ion exchange resin were found within a few macrophages and extracellularly among connective tissue fibers. Elastic fibers in those areas showed more advanced degenerative change than fibers not closely associated with heavy concentrations of alpha radiation

  15. Domestic dog exposure at birth reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, S; Thyssen, J P; Stokholm, J

    2016-01-01

    without atopic disease (adjusted HR = 0.92 [0.49-1.73], P = 0.79). Paternal atopic status did not affect the risk of atopic dermatitis. We found no significant interaction between the CD14 T/T genotype and domestic dog exposure in either cohort (COPSAC2000 , P = 0.36; and COPSAC2010 cohort, P = 0...... (COPSAC2010 ) were analyzed following the same protocols at the same research site. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed prospectively according to the Hanifin-Rajka criteria. Parental history of asthma, eczema, or rhinitis was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis. In the COPSAC2000 , maternal specific...

  16. Paramedic and midwifery student exposure to workplace violence during clinical placements in Australia – A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this pilot study was to identify the type of workplace violence experienced by undergraduate paramedic and midwifery students. Methods The study used a cross-sectional methodology with the self-administered paper-based Paramedic Workplace Violence Exposure Questionnaire to elicit undergraduate paramedic and midwife responses to workplace violence whilst on clinical placements. There were 393 students eligible for inclusion in the study. A convenience sample was used. The anonymous questionnaire took 10 to 20 minutes to complete. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise the data with a two-tailed t-test used to compare groups. Results The main form of workplace violence was verbal abuse 18% and intimidation 17%. There was a statistically significant difference between midwifery and paramedic students for intimidation (t(134)=-3.143, CI: -0.367 to -0.082, p=0.002) and between females and males for sexual harassment (t(134)=2.029, CI: 0.001 to 0.074, p=0.045), all other results were not statistically different. Conclusions This pilot study is the first of its kind in Australia and internationally to identify exposure rates of workplace violence by undergraduate paramedic students during clinical placements and one of very few to identify midwifery students’ exposure rates of workplace violence. The study identified that students were exposed to a range of workplace violence acts from verbal abuse through to sexual harassment. These findings highlight a need for investigation of workplace violence exposure of medical, nursing and allied health students during the clinical phase of their studies. PMID:27941182

  17. HESI pilot project: Testing a qualitative approach for incorporating exposure into alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greggs, Bill; Arnold, Scott; Burns, Thomas J.

    -quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical and product exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four exposure examples were examined to test the concept, to understand...

  18. Exposure to phthalates among premenstrual girls from rural and urban Gharbiah, Egypt: A pilot exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hablas Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalates have been identified as endocrine active compounds associated with developmental and reproductive toxicity. The exposure to phthalates in premenstrual Egyptian females remains unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize phthalate exposure of a potentially vulnerable population of premenstrual girls from urban and rural Egypt. Materials and methods We collected one spot urine sample from 60 10-13 year old females, 30 from rural Egypt, and 30 from urban Egypt from July to October 2009. Samples were analyzed for 11 phthalate metabolites. Additionally, we collected anthropometrics as well as questionnaire data concerning food storage behaviors, cooking practices, and cosmetic use. Phthalate metabolite concentrations were compared between urban and rural Egyptians as well as to age and gender matched Americans. Results Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, was detected at the highest concentration in urine of Egyptian girls (median: 43.2 ng/mL in rural, 98.8 ng/mL in urban. Concentrations of urinary metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate were comparable between Egyptians and age matched US girls. Storage of food in plastic containers was a statistically significant predictor of urinary mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP concentrations when comparing covariate adjusted means. Conclusions Urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites were similar in Egyptian and US populations, suggesting that phthalate exposure also occurs in developing nations. Dietary intake is likely an important route of exposure to phthalates in both urban and rural populations.

  19. Pilot Study for the Creation of a European Union Radiation Accident and Incident Data Exchange System (EURAIDE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Lefaure, C; Czarwinski, R.

    2004-01-01

    This study has had the objective of evaluating the feasibility of: (i) facilitating the establishment of national radiation accident and incident databases where there are none and to encourage the compatibility of such databases, (ii) establishing a European network to exchange radiological protection feedback from accidents and incidents, (iii) establishing summary reports of relevant accidents and incidents with the aim of identifying lessons to be learned, so that they can be used in radiation protection training programs, and (iv) upgrading the radiological safety in the countries applying to join the EU, by integrating them into the above efficient feedback exchange system. This report details the first stage of the project, which was to review the status of existing (or proposed) national mechanisms for collating data on radiation incidents. The objectives of this initial review were to: i) obtain detailed information regarding the means of capturing and collating data, the format of established or proposed data systems and accessibility of the final data, ii) to use this information to consider how a European platform to gather relevant data/accident reports might be established., and iii) to consider how the various elements of national data systems might be harmonised in order to facilitate the presentation and distribution of lessons learned. It was considered that the key aspects that would need to be addressed in order to determine the feasibility of a European wide data exchange mechanism were: - the criteria used for the classification and categorisation of incidents, - criteria for the selection of incidents from national data systems for inclusion in a European-wide system, - the implication of possible language problems. In order to illicit the required information a detailed questionnaire was sent to a total of 31 countries, being existing European Member States, applicant or associated countries. A full list of the countries and institutions

  20. Long-term exposure to transportation noise and air pollution in relation to incident diabetes in the SAPALDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ikenna C; Foraster, Maria; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Vienneau, Danielle; Héritier, Harris; Rudzik, Franziska; Thiesse, Laurie; Pieren, Reto; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Schindler, Christian; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Röösli, Martin; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have inconsistently linked transportation noise and air pollution (AP) with diabetes risk. Most studies have considered single noise sources and/or AP, but none has investigated their mutually independent contributions to diabetes risk. We investigated 2631 participants of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA), without diabetes in 2002 and without change of residence between 2002 and 2011. Using questionnaire and biomarker data, incident diabetes cases were identified in 2011. Noise and AP exposures in 2001 were assigned to participants' residences (annual average road, railway or aircraft noise level during day-evening-night (Lden), total night number of noise events, intermittency ratio (temporal variation as proportion of event-based noise level over total noise level) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels. We applied mixed Poisson regression to estimate the relative risk (RR) of diabetes and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) in mutually-adjusted models. Diabetes incidence was 4.2%. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] road, railway, aircraft noise and NO2 were 54 (10) dB, 32 (11) dB, 30 (12) dB and 21 (15) μg/m3, respectively. Lden road and aircraft were associated with incident diabetes (respective RR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.02-1.78 and 1.86; 95% CI: 0.96-3.59 per IQR) independently of Lden railway and NO2 (which were not associated with diabetes risk) in mutually adjusted models. We observed stronger effects of Lden road among participants reporting poor sleep quality or sleeping with open windows. Transportation noise may be more relevant than AP in the development of diabetes, potentially acting through noise-induced sleep disturbances. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  1. Pulmonary Function and Incidence of Selected Respiratory Diseases Depending on the Exposure to Ambient PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Badyda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is essential in pulmonary disease research to take into account traffic-related air pollutant exposure among urban inhabitants. In our study, 4985 people were examined for spirometric parameters in the presented research which was conducted in the years 2008–2012. The research group was divided into urban and rural residents. Traffic density, traffic structure and velocity, as well as concentrations of selected air pollutants (CO, NO2 and PM10 were measured at selected areas. Among people who live in the city, lower percentages of predicted values of spirometric parameters were noticed in comparison to residents of rural areas. Taking into account that the difference in the five-year mean concentration of PM10 in the considered city and rural areas was over 17 μg/m3, each increase of PM10 by 10 μg/m3 is associated with the decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration by 1.68%. These findings demonstrate that traffic-related air pollutants may have a significant influence on the decline of pulmonary function and the growing rate of respiratory diseases.

  2. Monte Carlo mixture model of lifetime cancer incidence risk from radiation exposure on shuttle and international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, L.E.; Cucinotta, F.A.

    1999-01-01

    Estimating uncertainty in lifetime cancer risk for human exposure to space radiation is a unique challenge. Conventional risk assessment with low-linear-energy-transfer (LET)-based risk from Japanese atomic bomb survivor studies may be inappropriate for relativistic protons and nuclei in space due to track structure effects. This paper develops a Monte Carlo mixture model (MCMM) for transferring additive, National Institutes of Health multiplicative, and multiplicative excess cancer incidence risks based on Japanese atomic bomb survivor data to determine excess incidence risk for various US astronaut exposure profiles. The MCMM serves as an anchor point for future risk projection methods involving biophysical models of DNA damage from space radiation. Lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for the MCMM based on low-LET Japanese data for nonleukemia (all cancers except leukemia) were 2.77 (90% confidence limit, 0.75-11.34) for males exposed to 1 Sv at age 45 and 2.20 (90% confidence limit, 0.59-10.12) for males exposed at age 55. For females, mixture model risks for nonleukemia exposed separately to 1 Sv at ages of 45 and 55 were 2.98 (90% confidence limit, 0.90-11.70) and 2.44 (90% confidence limit, 0.70-10.30), respectively. Risks for high-LET 200 MeV protons (LET=0.45 keV/μm), 1 MeV α-particles (LET=100 keV/μm), and 600 MeV iron particles (LET=180 keV/μm) were scored on a per particle basis by determining the particle fluence required for an average of one particle per cell nucleus of area 100 μm 2 . Lifetime risk per proton was 2.68x10 -2 % (90% confidence limit, 0.79x10 -3 %-0.514x10 -2 %). For α-particles, lifetime risk was 14.2% (90% confidence limit, 2.5%-31.2%). Conversely, lifetime risk per iron particle was 23.7% (90% confidence limit, 4.5%-53.0%). Uncertainty in the DDREF for high-LET particles may be less than that for low-LET radiation because typically there is very little dose-rate dependence. Probability density functions for

  3. No Association between Mycotoxin Exposure and Autism: A Pilot Case-Control Study in School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Duringer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to assess current exposure. Zearalenone, zearalenone-4-glucoside, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and altenuene were detected in 9/54 (20% samples, most near the limit of detection. No mycotoxin/group of mycotoxins was associated with ASD-diagnosed children. To identify potential correlates of mycotoxin presence in urine, we further compared the nine subjects where a urinary mycotoxin was confirmed to the remaining 45 participants and found no difference based on the presence or absence of mycotoxin for age (t-test; p = 0.322, gender (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.456, exposure or not to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (Fisher’s exact test; p = 0.367, or to other medications (Fisher’s exact test; p = 1.00. While no positive association was found, more sophisticated sample preparation techniques and instrumentation, coupled with selectivity for a smaller group of mycotoxins, could improve sensitivity and detection. Further, broadening sampling to in utero (mothers and newborn-toddler years would cover additional exposure windows.

  4. Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of Parkinson's disease: A nested case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Previous studies revealed that chronic exposure to air pollution can significantly increase the risk of the development of Parkinson's disease (PD, but this relationship is inconclusive as large-scale prospective studies are limited and the results are inconsistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to ascertain the adverse health effects of air pollution exposure in a nationwide population using a longitudinal approach.We conducted a nested case-control study using the National Health Insurance Research Dataset (NHIRD, which consisted of 1,000,000 beneficiaries in the National Health Insurance Program (NHI in the year 2000 and their medical records from 1995 to 2013 and using public data on air pollution concentrations from monitoring stations across Taiwan released from the Environmental Protection Administration to identify people with ages ≥ 40 years living in areas with monitoring stations during 1995-1999 as study subjects. Then, we excluded subjects with PD, dementia, stroke and diabetes diagnosed before Jan. 1, 2000 and obtained 54,524 subjects to follow until Dec. 31, 2013. In this observational period, 1060 newly diagnosed PD cases were identified. 4240 controls were randomly selected from those without PD using a matching strategy for age, sex, the year of PD diagnosis and the year of entering the NHI program at a ratio of 1:4. Ten elements of air pollution were examined, and multiple logistic regression models were used to measure their risks in subsequent PD development.The incidence of PD in adults aged ≥ 40 years was 1.9%, and the median duration for disease onset was 8.45 years. None of the chemical compounds (SO2, O3, CO, NOx, NO, NO2, THC, CH4, or NMHC significantly affected the incidence of PD except for particulate matter. PM10 exposure showed significant effects on the likelihood of PD development (T3 level: > 65μg/m3 versus T1 level: ≤ 54μg/m3; OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.12-1.62, 0.001 ≤ P < 0.01. In addition

  5. Changes in resting-state brain function of pilots after hypoxic exposure based on methods for fALFF and ReHo analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the basic changes in brain activity of pilots after hypoxic exposure with the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI and regional homogeneity (ReHo method. Methods Thirty healthy male pilots were successively subjected to normal and hypoxic exposure (with an oxygen concentration of 14.5%. Both the fALFF and ReHo methods were adopted to analyze the resting-state functional MRI data before and after hypoxic exposure of the subjects, the areas of the brain with fALFF and ReHo changes after hypoxic exposure were observed. Results  After hypoxic exposure, the pulse was 64.0±10.6 beats/min, and the oxygen saturation was 92.4%±3.9% in these 30 pilots, and it was lower than those before exposure (71.4±10.9 beats/min, 96.3%±1.3%, P<0.05. Compared with the condition before hypoxic exposure, the fALFF value was decreased in superior temporal gyri on both sides and the right superior frontal gyrus, and increase in the left precuneus, while the value of ReHo was decreased in the right superior frontal gyrus (P<0.05. No brain area with an increase in ReHo value was found. Conclusions Hypoxic exposure could significantly affect the brain functions of pilots, which may contribute to change in their cognitive ability. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.06.18

  6. Feasibility and outcome of dialogical exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study with 25 outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butollo, Willi; König, Julia; Karl, Regina; Henkel, Christine; Rosner, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The research on psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stems predominantly from a cognitive-behavioral orientation while other approaches are underrepresented. We evaluated dialogical exposure in trauma therapy (DET), a treatment for PTSD combining cognitive-behavioral elements with an interpersonal, gestalt-based framework. In this uncontrolled pilot trial, 25 PTSD patients were treated with DET in an outpatient setting and 21 completed therapy. There was a significant reduction in self-rated PTSD symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Effect sizes were large in the completer sample and moderate to large in the intent-to-treat sample. General psychopathology also decreased significantly. The dropout rate was rather low at 16%. These results show that further research on DET as a treatment for PTSD is warranted.

  7. Genome response to ionizing radiation exposure in a sample of long haul pilots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, G.F.; Fuciarelli, M.; Piacentini, S.; Romano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In 1990 ICPR accepted definitively that on average flying-crew personnel and pilots are exposed per year, for professional reasons, to ionizing radiation doses 5 to 10 times over that of people at ground level. Although these values are below the level stated by the ICPR as upper risk limit (20 mSv/y), because a number of epidemiological studies evidenced an increase of some specific tumors (among them: melanomas, breast cancer and leukemia) among pilots of different national companies, suspect arises on that these pathologies were a consequence of the over-amount of radiation absorbed for professional reasons. In order to give an answer to this question several studies have been developed in the last two decades, using the analysis of the frequency distribution of the chromosomal aberrations (mainly: dicentric and ring chromosomes and chromatic aberrations) as the most sensitive method to detect the long tern radio-biological damage (bio-dosimetric method). As the result reported in the previous literature are contradictory and thus largely questionable, a new study was performed taking into account some limits of the previous researches and treating to overcome the consequent criticisms. This paper is devoted to report the results obtained in such a study and refers on the cytogenetic and molecular analyses performed in our laboratories on a sample of 32 pilots employed in the national civil airline on long haul routes from at least 7 years. For comparison, a sample of 29 healthy males' donors of comparable age has been taken into account. New evidences on the increase of chromosomal translocations are presented and widely discussed. Furthermore, results obtained in an unusual attempt to study the association between the frequency and the 'category' of the chromosomal aberrations and the presence or absence of specific polymorphisms of genes encoding for some detoxifying enzymes (GSTs family) are also presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Incidence of Raynaud's phenomenon in relation to hand-arm vibration exposure among male workers at an engineering plant a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundström Ronnie

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of Raynaud's phenomenon in relation to hand-arm vibration exposure in a cohort consisting of male office and manual workers. Methods The baseline population consisted of 94 office and 147 manual workers at an engineering plant. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP was assessed at baseline and at follow up (at 5, 10 and 15 years. A retrospective and a prospective cohort analysis of data were done. Hand-arm vibration exposure dose was defined as the product of exposure duration and the weighted hand-arm vibration exposure value according to ISO 5349-1. Results The retrospective/prospective incidence of Raynaud's phenomenon was 16/14 per 1000 exposure years among exposed and 2.4/5.0 per 1000 years among the not exposed. The retrospective dose response curve based on 4 dose classes showed that class 2, 3 and 4 had similar response and showed higher incidence than the not-exposed. The dose with RP response to hand-arm vibration corresponded to a 10 year A(8 value between 0.4–1.0 m/s2. Conclusion The results indicate that the EU directive on an action value for hand-arm vibration of 2.5 m/s2 is not too low. Rather, it suggests that employers should take on actions even at exposure values of 1 m/s2A(8.

  9. Pilot program: NRC severe reactor accident incident response training manual: Public protective actions: Predetermined criteria and initial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A. Jr.; McKenna, T.J.; Miller, C.W.; Hively, L.M.; Sharpe, R.W.; Giitter, J.G.; Watkins, R.M.

    1987-02-01

    This pilot training manual has been written to fill the need for a general text on NRC response to reactor accidents. The manual is intended to be the foundation for a course for all NRC response personnel. Public Protective Actions - Predetermined Criteria and Initial Actions is the fourth in a series of volumes that collectively summarize the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) emergency response during severe power reactor accidents and provide necessary background information. This volume reviews public protective action criteria and objectives, their bases and implementation, and the expected public response. Each volume serves, respectively, as the text for a course of instruction in a series of courses for NRC response personnel. These materials do not provide guidance or license requirements for NRC licensees. Each volume is accompanied by an appendix of slides that can be used to present this material. The slides are called out in the text

  10. Assessing arsenic exposure from consumption of seafood from Vieques-Puerto Rico: a pilot biomonitoring study using different biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla-Rivera, Imar; Nazario, Cruz M; Ramírez-Marrero, Farah A; Crespo, Carlos J; Rodríguez-Sierra, Carlos J

    2014-02-01

    The various toxic effects associated with inorganic arsenic (iAs) warrants that exposure sources be identified. This pilot study evaluated if greater seafood consumption from Vieques-Puerto Rico is associated with increased exposure to iAs. Nail, hair, and urine samples were used as biomarkers of iAs exposure in adult women and men from Vieques classified as high (n = 31) and low (n = 21) seafood consumers, who reported eating fish and/or shellfish ≥1 time per week and once per month or less, respectively. The sum of urinary iAs (As III + As V), monomethylarsonic acid (MA[V]), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA[V]), denoted as SumAs, fluctuated from 3.3 µg/g Cr (1.2 μg/L) to 42.7 μg/g Cr (42 μg/L) (n = 52). Levels of As in nail samples (n = 49) varied from 0.04 to 0.82 μg/g dry weight (dw), whereas in hair (n = 49) As was only detected in 49 % of the samples with a maximum value of 0.95 μg/g dw. None of the biomarkers of exposure to As exceeded exposure reference values for urine (50 μg/g Cr or 50 μg/L), nails (1 μg/g), or hair (1 μg/g). However, median (10.0 μg/g Cr; 10.6 μg/L) and 95th percentile (31.9 μg/g Cr; 40.4 μg/L) of urinary SumAs were higher in Vieques samples than in the those from the general population of other countries. Among the three biomarkers of exposure, nail samples reflected better the exposure to iAs from seafood consumption with significantly higher average As concentrations in high (0.24 μg/g) than low (0.12 μg/g) seafood consumers. Multivariate results for As in nail samples (R(2) = 0.55, p < 0.0001) showed a positive association with fish consumption, particularly for men, with levels increasing with years of residency in Vieques.

  11. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  12. Exposure-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Abdominal Pain: A Pilot Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lalouni

    Full Text Available Children with pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (P-FGIDs have an increased risk for school absenteeism, depression, anxiety and low quality of life. Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT has shown large treatment effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome, but has not been tested for children 8-12 years with P-FGIDs.The aim of this trial was to test the feasibility, acceptability and potential efficacy of a newly developed exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs.The children (n = 20 with a P-FGID, were referred by their treating physicians. The participants received 10 weekly sessions of exposure-based CBT and were assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up.Children improved significantly on the primary outcome measure pain intensity at post (Cohen's d = 0.40, p = 0.049 and at 6-month follow-up (Cohen's d = 0.85, p = 0.004. Improvements were also seen in pain frequency, gastrointestinal symptoms, quality of life, depression, anxiety, school absenteeism and somatic symptoms. Improvements were maintained or further increased at 6-month follow-up. The children engaged in the exposures and were satisfied with the treatment.Exposure-based CBT for children with P-FGIDs is feasible, acceptable and potentially efficacious.

  13. An incident study about acute and chronic human exposure to uranium by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Ritsema, Rob

    2008-01-01

    From the year 2003 to 2005 around 1700 Dutch soldiers made a part of the international stabilisation force in Iraq. An incident happened as a group of four Dutch soldiers found a 30 mm bullet identified as containing depleted uranium (DU). The main pathway of the acute exposure is via inhalation of

  14. Incidence and severity of gingival invaginations associated with early versus late initiation of orthodontic space closure after tooth extraction : A multicenter pilot and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Christoph; Kutschera, Eric; Plötz, Christina; Scharf, Sven; Gölz, Lina; Fimmers, Rolf; Fuhrmann, Christine; Wahl, Gerhard; Braumann, Bert; Jäger, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Gingival invaginations are a common side effect of orthodontic extraction-space closure. The timing of initiating the closure of an extraction space varies greatly in clinical practice. In this multicenter pilot and randomized controlled trial, we prospectively investigated whether initiating space closure in the early stage of wound healing would benefit the incidence and severity of invaginations developing in the extraction sites. A total of 368 patients were screened for indications to extract at least one mandibular premolar. Those recruited were randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: initiation of space closure either 2-4 weeks (arm A) or ≥12 weeks (arm B) after tooth extraction. Clinical data regarding treatment process and periodontal tissue response were recorded during and after space closure and analyzed by a specialized biometrics unit. The study was performed under continuous surveillance by an independent study control center. A total of 74 extraction sites were analyzed. Regarding the incidence of gingival invaginations, there were no significant intergroup differences [p = 0.13; group A comprising 37/44 (84.1%) and group B 29/30 (96.7%) invaginated sites]. The same was true based on either maxillary (p = 0.52) or mandibular (p = 0.21) sites only, and the severity of the invaginations did not differ between the treatment arms. As to the incidence and severity of gingival invaginations, we did not notice any statistically significant differences between the two timeframes. Our data do, however, provide a basis to identify additional confounders and to improve the accuracy of case-load estimations for future trials.

  15. Nausea and vomiting after exposure to non-ionic contrast media: incidence and risk factors focusing on preparatory fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Yoon, Soon Ho; Choi, Young Hun; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Whal; Goo, Jin Mo

    2018-04-25

    To prospectively evaluate the incidence of nausea and vomiting after exposure to non-ionic iodinated contrast media (ICM), and to identify potential risk factors, with a focus on fasting duration for solid food and fluids, separately. From January to March 2017, 1175 patients (605 males, 570 females; median age, 60 years; range, 20-91 years) undergoing ICM-enhanced CT were included in this study. Patients received instructions for a 6 h preparatory fast from solid food. Nausea and vomiting after ICM exposure were assessed on a 3-point scale (mild, moderate, severe). Patients' characteristics and the fasting duration were evaluated to identify risk factors using logistic regression analysis. Of the 1175 patients, 34 (2.9%; 95% CI, 2.0-4.0%) experienced mild nausea. No patients experienced vomiting (95% CI, 0.0000-0.0005%). 1173 (99.8%) carried out a 6 h fast, and the median fasting durations were 14 h for solid food (IQR, 12.5-15.5 h) and 11 h for fluid (IQR, 0-13.5 h), respectively. Fasting durations for solid food and fluids were not associated with nausea on uni-variate regression analyses (p = 0.282-1.000 andP=0.146-1.000, respectively). Multi-variate regression analysis revealed that a history of drug hypersensitivity (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 1.85-17.52; p = .039) was independent risk factors for nausea, whereas iobitridol was less nauseous (OR = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.90; p = .032). Mild nausea occurred in 2.9% of patients and none vomited in our study population with a 6 h preparatory fast from solid food. Many patients underwent excessive fasting for fluids as well as solid food and their fasting durations were not associated with nausea. Advances in knowledge: We firstly evaluated fasting durations for solid food and fluids, and their impacts on vomiting or nausea after ICM exposure with an instruction of 6 h preparatory fast for solid food: many patients underwent excessive fasting for fluids and the fasting duration was unrelated to

  16. A pilot study of changes in otoacoustic emissions after exposure to live music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte; Borg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to document typical sound exposure levels at concerts and to relate them to measurable changes on hearing. Changes in the auditory function of human subjects were measured using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Transient Evoked...... Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAE). Sound exposure was measured using a Behind the Ear Hearing aid (BTE) modified to log equivalent levels. The main observations from this study are: There are measurable changes in the auditory function after attendance to a single concert; The DPOAE measurements were more robust...

  17. Influence of inhomogeneous static magnetic field-exposure on patients with erosive gastritis: a randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, single centre, pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Márk; Nagy, Viktor L; Székely, Hajnal; Kocsis, Dorottya; Tulassay, Zsolt; László, János F

    2014-09-06

    This pilot study was devoted to the effect of static magnetic field (SMF)-exposure on erosive gastritis. The randomized, self- and placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study included 16 patients of the 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Semmelweis University diagnosed with erosive gastritis. The instrumental analysis followed a qualitative (pre-intervention) assessment of the symptoms by the patient: lower heartburn (in the ventricle), upper heartburn (in the oesophagus), epigastric pain, regurgitation, bloating and dry cough. Medical diagnosis included a double-line upper panendoscopy followed by 30 min local inhomogeneous SMF-exposure intervention at the lower sternal region over the stomach with peak-to-peak magnetic induction of 3 mT and 30 mT m(-1) gradient at the target site. A qualitative (post-intervention) assessment of the same symptoms closed the examination. Sham- or SMF-exposure was used in a double-blind manner. The authors succeeded in justifying the clinically and statistically significant beneficial effect of the SMF- over sham-exposure on the symptoms of erosive gastritis, the average effect of inhibition was 56% by p = 0.001, n = 42 + 96. This pilot study was aimed to encourage gastroenterologists to test local, inhomogeneous SMF-exposure on erosive gastritis patients, so this intervention may become an evidence-based alternative or complementary method in the clinical use especially in cases when conventional therapy options are contraindicated. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: a proof-of-concept pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Kampmann, I.L.; Emmelkamp, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction

  19. [Reduction of exposure to particulate matter in classrooms by improved cleaning: extent of exposure and results of a pilot study in Bavaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardella, D; Fromme, H; Dietrich, S; Dietrich, W C

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the research project were (I) to describe the exposure to particulate matter in Bavarian schools and identify predictors of increased exposure and (II) to evaluate whether exposure can be reduced by improving the ventilation and/or cleaning routine. Air quality was measured in 46 schools, two classrooms each, in the City of Munich and Dachau county. Each classroom was measured on one school day in both winter 2004/2005 and summer 2005. The continuously generated data on particulate matter during the teaching hours were summarised to daily medians and the possible association of the median concentration with classroom characteristics was tested using non-parametric methods. In winter, the median PM (2.5) concentration was 18.8 microg/m (3), in summer 12.7 microg/m (3). The median PM (10) concentration was 91.5 microg/m (3) in winter and 64.9 microg/m (3) in summer. Determinants of a high particulate matter concentration were the winter period, an increased number of pupils or decreased room size, a high CO(2) concentration, and a low class level. Following this survey, a pilot study on the effects of improved cleaning and ventilation routines was conducted in autumn 2005. Three conditions were tested in two classrooms of one school: (a) standard, (b) improved airing (3 min during short and 20 min during long breaks), and (c) improved airing and improved cleaning (thorough cleaning once and vacuuming before wet wiping). Each condition was implemented for 2 weeks and particulate matter concentrations measured concurrently. In both rooms a reduction of both PM (2.5) and PM (10) concentration was found following improved airing and a further reduction occurred when improved cleaning was introduced in addition. However, in a linear regression accounting for other factors (room, physical activity of the pupils, outdoor concentration of particulate matter) the effect of improved airing was no longer significant, while the effect of improved cleaning remained at

  20. Risky substance exposure during pregnancy: a pilot study from Lebanese mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al-Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Zein, Salam; Saleh, Nadine; Salameh, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Samar Rachidi,1 Sanaa Awada,1 Amal Al-Hajje,1 Wafaa Bawab,1 Salam Zein,1 Nadine Saleh,1,2 Pascale Salameh1,21Laboratory of Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Public Health Labanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: The harmful effects of medication and licit substance use during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern. Our study aims to assess risky exposure of Lebanese pregnant women to drugs, tobacco, caff...

  1. Social interactions in virtual reality exposure therapy: A proof-of-concept pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-01-01

    Research on virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has demonstrated good treatment efficacy with regards to several anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of knowledge about the value of integrating interaction between clients and virtual humans in VRET. Such interaction might prove effective in treating psychological complaints that involve social interactions, such as social anxiety. A VRET system specifically designed to expose clients with social anxiety disorder to anxiety provoking social situations was applied to 16 and 18 individuals with high and low levels of social anxiety, respectively. Participants engaged in two exposure sessions in several free speech dialogues with virtual humans while being monitored by a therapist. Participants with high levels of social anxiety reported significantly lower levels of social anxiety three months after exposure to two virtual reality interaction sessions than before treatment (p anxiety, no significant change of social anxiety was reported between pre-treatment and follow-up. Additionally, participants in both groups reported higher self-efficacy three months after treatment than before treatment (ps ≤ 0.001). These findings indicate that virtual reality technology that incorporates social interactions may be successfully applied for therapeutic purposes.

  2. Risk of Potential Exposure Incident in Non-healthcare Workers in Contact with Infectious and Municipal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanisek, Sanja; Gmajnić, Rudika; Barać, Ivana

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The proper classification of sharp and infectious waste in situ by the healthcare workers is an important measure of prevention of sharps and other exposure incidents in non-healthcare workers, who handle such waste. The aim was to examine the practice of classifying sharp and infectious waste in family and dental practices. Methods An analysis of 50 bags of infectious and 50 bags of municipal waste from five family and five dental practices for five days in October 2016 at the Health centre Osijek. Results Healthcare workers in 70% of the practices deposited sharps in infectious waste. In 56% of infectious waste bags, sharp object were found. More risky bags of infectious waste were produced by family practices (64%), but with no significant differences in relation to dental practices (48%), (P=0.143). Disposing of infectious into municipal waste was the case in 90% of the practitioners, where in 60% of municipal waste bags, infectious waste was disposed. Dental practices produced more risky bags of municipal waste (76%) in relation to family practices (44%), but with no significant difference (P=0.714). Conclusions The results of this research point to importance of performing audits of proper disposal of sharps and infectious waste to reduce the risks of injury to non-healthcare workers who come into contact with the said waste. Given results could be used for framing written protocols of proper disposal of sharps and infectious waste that should be visibly available in family and dental practices and for education of healthcare workers. PMID:29651317

  3. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  4. Pre-exposure prophylaxis to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection (PROUD): effectiveness results from the pilot phase of a pragmatic open-label randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Sheena; Dunn, David T; Desai, Monica; Dolling, David I; Gafos, Mitzy; Gilson, Richard; Sullivan, Ann K; Clarke, Amanda; Reeves, Iain; Schembri, Gabriel; Mackie, Nicola; Bowman, Christine; Lacey, Charles J; Apea, Vanessa; Brady, Michael; Fox, Julie; Taylor, Stephen; Antonucci, Simone; Khoo, Saye H; Rooney, James; Nardone, Anthony; Fisher, Martin; McOwan, Alan; Phillips, Andrew N; Johnson, Anne M; Gazzard, Brian; Gill, Owen N

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Randomised placebo-controlled trials have shown that daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir–emtricitabine reduces the risk of HIV infection. However, this benefit could be counteracted by risk compensation in users of PrEP. We did the PROUD study to assess this effect. Methods PROUD is an open-label randomised trial done at 13 sexual health clinics in England. We enrolled HIV-negative gay and other men who have sex with men who had had anal intercourse without a condom in the previous 90 days. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive daily combined tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (245 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) either immediately or after a deferral period of 1 year. Randomisation was done via web-based access to a central computer-generated list with variable block sizes (stratified by clinical site). Follow-up was quarterly. The primary outcomes for the pilot phase were time to accrue 500 participants and retention; secondary outcomes included incident HIV infection during the deferral period, safety, adherence, and risk compensation. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (number ISRCTN94465371) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02065986). Findings We enrolled 544 participants (275 in the immediate group, 269 in the deferred group) between Nov 29, 2012, and April 30, 2014. Based on early evidence of effectiveness, the trial steering committee recommended on Oct 13, 2014, that all deferred participants be offered PrEP. Follow-up for HIV incidence was complete for 243 (94%) of 259 patient-years in the immediate group versus 222 (90%) of 245 patient-years in the deferred group. Three HIV infections occurred in the immediate group (1·2/100 person-years) versus 20 in the deferred group (9·0/100 person-years) despite 174 prescriptions of post-exposure prophylaxis in the deferred group (relative reduction 86%, 90% CI 64–96, p=0·0001; absolute difference 7·8/100 person-years, 90% CI 4·3–11·3). 13 men (90% CI 9–23

  5. Chemical mixtures and environmental effects: a pilot study to assess ecological exposure and effects in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Bradley, Paul M.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Mills, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and management of the risks of exposure to complex chemical mixtures in streams are priorities for human and environmental health organizations around the world. The current lack of information on the composition and variability of environmental mixtures and a limited understanding of their combined effects are fundamental obstacles to timely identification and prevention of adverse human and ecological effects of exposure. This report describes the design of a field-based study of the composition and biological activity of chemical mixtures in U.S. stream waters affected by a wide range of human activities and contaminant sources. The study is a collaborative effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Scientists sampled 38 streams spanning 24 States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-four of the sites were located in watersheds impacted by multiple contaminant sources, including industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, crop and animal agricultural runoff, urban runoff, and other point and nonpoint contaminant sources. The remaining four sites were minimally development reference watersheds. All samples underwent comprehensive chemical and biological characterization, including sensitive and specific direct analysis for over 700 dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals and field parameters, identification of unknown contaminants (environmental diagnostics), and a variety of bioassays to evaluate biological activity and toxicity.

  6. Florida Red Tide and Human Health: A Pilot Beach Conditions Reporting System to Minimize Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-01-01

    With over 50% of the US population living in coastal counties, the ocean and coastal environments have substantial impacts on coastal communities. While may of the impacts are positive, such as tourism and recreation opportunities, there are also negative impacts, such as exposure to harmful algal blooms (HABs) and water borne pathogens. Recent advances in environmental monitoring and weather prediction may allow us to forecast these potential adverse effects and thus mitigate the negative impact from coastal environmental threats. One example of the need to mitigate adverse environmental impacts occurs on Florida’s west coast, which experiences annual blooms, or periods of exuberant growth, of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces a suite of potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins. Wind and wave action can break up the cells, releasing toxin that can then become part of the marine aerosol or sea spray. Brevetoxins in the aerosol cause respiratory irritation in people who inhale it. In addition, asthmatics who inhale the toxins report increase upper and lower airway lower symptoms and experience measurable changes in pulmonary function. Real-time reporting of the presence or absence of these toxic aerosols will allow asthmatics and local coastal residents to make informed decisions about their personal exposures, thus adding to their quality of life. A system to protect public health that combines information collected by an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) has been designed and implemented in Sarasota and Manatee Counties, Florida. This system is based on real-time reports from lifeguards at the eight public beaches. The lifeguards provide periodic subjective reports of the amount of dead fish on the beach, apparent level of respiratory irritation among beach-goers, water color, wind direction, surf condition, and the beach warning flag they are flying. A key component in the design of the observing system was an easy reporting

  7. Exposure to Folate Receptor Alpha Antibodies during Gestation and Weaning Leads to Severe Behavioral Deficits in Rats: A Pilot Study.

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    Jeffrey M Sequeira

    Full Text Available The central nervous system continues to develop during gestation and after birth, and folate is an essential nutrient in this process. Folate deficiency and folate receptor alpha autoantibodies (FRα-AuAb have been associated with pregnancy-related complications and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this pilot study, we investigated the effect of exposure to FRα antibodies (Ab during gestation (GST, the pre-weaning (PRW, and the post weaning (POW periods on learning and behavior in adulthood in a rat model. In the open field test and novel object recognition task, which examine locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior, deficits in rats exposed to Ab during gestation and pre-weaning (GST+PRW included more time spent in the periphery or corner areas, less time in the central area, frequent self-grooming akin to stereotypy, and longer time to explore a novel object compared to a control group; these are all indicative of increased levels of anxiety. In the place avoidance tasks that assess learning and spatial memory formation, only 30% of GST+PRW rats were able to learn the passive place avoidance task. None of these rats learned the active place avoidance task indicating severe learning deficits and cognitive impairment. Similar but less severe deficits were observed in rats exposed to Ab during GST alone or only during the PRW period, suggesting the extreme sensitivity of the fetal as well as the neonatal rat brain to the deleterious effects of exposure to Ab during this period. Behavioral deficits were not seen in rats exposed to antibody post weaning. These observations have implications in the pathology of FRα-AuAb associated with neural tube defect pregnancy, preterm birth and neurodevelopmental disorders including autism.

  8. A randomised controlled pilot study: the effectiveness of narrative exposure therapy with adult survivors of the Sichuan earthquake

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    Zang Yinyin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is a common psychological reaction after large-scale natural disasters. Given the number of people involved and shortage of resources in any major disaster, brief, pragmatic and easily trainable interventions are needed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET as a short-term treatment for PTSD using Chinese earthquake survivors. Methods A randomized waiting-list control pilot study was conducted between December 2009 and March 2010, at the site of the Sichuan earthquake in Beichuan County, China. Adult participants with newly diagnosed Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD were randomly allocated to Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET or a Waiting-List (WL condition. The latter received NET treatment after a two-week waiting period. To compare the effectiveness of NET in traumatised earthquake survivors, both groups were assessed on PTSD symptoms, general mental health, anxiety and depression, social support, coping style and posttraumatic change before and after treatment and two months post treatment. Results Adult participants (n=22 were randomly allocated to receive NET (n=11 or WL (n=11. Twenty two participants (11 in NET group, 11 in WL were included in the analysis of primary outcomes. Compared with WL, NET showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression, general mental stress and increased posttraumatic growth. The WL group later showed similar improvements after treatment. These changes remained stable for a two-month follow-up. Measures of social support and coping showed no stable effects. Conclusions NET is effective in treating post-earthquake traumatic symptoms in adult Chinese earthquake survivors. The findings help advance current knowledge in the management of PTSD after natural disasters and inform future research. Larger sample sizes are needed to extend the present findings. Trial registration Chinese

  9. Risky substance exposure during pregnancy: a pilot study from Lebanese mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachidi S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Samar Rachidi,1 Sanaa Awada,1 Amal Al-Hajje,1 Wafaa Bawab,1 Salam Zein,1 Nadine Saleh,1,2 Pascale Salameh1,21Laboratory of Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Public Health Labanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: The harmful effects of medication and licit substance use during pregnancy may potentially constitute a major public health concern. Our study aims to assess risky exposure of Lebanese pregnant women to drugs, tobacco, caffeine, and alcohol, and to determine their effect on postnatal outcomes.Methods: Women at term were addressed after delivery in five university hospitals of Beirut and Mount Lebanon between February and June 2012. A standardized questionnaire was administered to them. Moreover, medical files of both mothers and their respective newborns were checked to confirm information given by mothers, and to assess the health outcome of the babies.Results: Among the interviewed 350 women, active and passive smoking of tobacco (cigarette or water pipe, and consumption of category C, D, and X drugs were common during pregnancy in Lebanon; they were shown to negatively affect the neonatal outcome in multivariate analyses: they significantly decreased Apgar scores and increased the risk of underweight and medical complications of babies (P < 0.05.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Lebanese women were exposed during pregnancy to multiple medications and licit substances that affected the neonates' health. Our findings have implications for clinical obstetric practice and prevention programs in Lebanon. Efforts should be made to decrease exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy.Keywords: pregnancy, smoking, cigarette, water pipe, caffeine, alcohol, drugs, Apgar score

  10. Treatment experiences among LGBT veterans with discrimination-based trauma exposure: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipherd, Jillian C; Ruben, Mollie A; Livingston, Nicholas A; Curreri, Andrew; Skolnik, Avy A

    2018-01-01

    Past research suggests that rates of trauma exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are elevated among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) veterans compared to heterosexual and cisgender veterans. Given higher rates of trauma exposure and PTSD, and the culture associated with the Department of Defense's history of policies excluding LGBT people, it is important to understand if LGBT veterans are seeking PTSD treatment following discrimination-based traumatic events, where they seek care, and if they are satisfied with treatment. This study aimed to describe the experiences of discrimination-based trauma-exposed LGBT veterans' (n = 47) experiences with PTSD treatment, including location of treatment (Veterans Health Administration [VHA] versus non-VHA) and satisfaction with care. The majority of veterans had received a PTSD diagnosis from a health-care provider in their lifetimes (78.72%, n = 37), and over half reported currently experiencing PTSD symptoms. Approximately 47% of LGBT veterans with discrimination-based trauma histories preferred to seek PTSD treatment exclusively at VHA (46.81%) or with a combination of VHA and non-VHA services (38.30%). Veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from VHA reported higher satisfaction ratings (7.44 on 0-9 scale) than veterans who received PTSD treatment exclusively from outside VHA (5.25 on 0-9 scale). For veterans who sought PTSD treatment at both VHA and non-VHA facilities, there were no significant differences regarding satisfaction ratings for their PTSD treatment in the two settings. Results are discussed in terms of VHA's continued efforts to establish equitable, patient-centered health care for all veterans and the importance of non-VHA facilities to recognize veteran identities.

  11. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Chua, Kia-Chong; Dewey, Michael E; Liu, Zhaorui; Mayston, Rosie; Valhuerdi, Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%). We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period influences

  12. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Valhuerdi, Adolfo

    2018-01-01

    Background Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause), and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence. Methods Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later. Results 9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72–98% responding by site. The ‘at risk’ cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4–7.2 by site), generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988–1.015) did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002–1.059, I2 = 0.0%). Conclusions We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous

  13. Reproductive period, endogenous estrogen exposure and dementia incidence among women in Latin America and China; A 10/66 population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J Prince

    Full Text Available Exposure to endogenous estrogen may protect against dementia, but evidence remains equivocal. Such effects may be assessed more precisely in settings where exogenous estrogen administration is rare. We aimed to determine whether reproductive period (menarche to menopause, and other indicators of endogenous estrogen exposure are inversely associated with dementia incidence.Population-based cohort studies of women aged 65 years and over in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico and China. Sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaires were administered to all participants, including ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause, and parity, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 dementia, and mortality, three to five years later.9,428 women participated at baseline, with 72-98% responding by site. The 'at risk' cohort comprised 8,466 dementia-free women. Mean age varied from 72.0 to 75.4 years, lower in rural than urban sites and in China than in Latin America. Mean parity was 4.1 (2.4-7.2 by site, generally higher in rural than urban sites. 6,854 women with baseline reproductive period data were followed up for 26,463 person years. There were 692 cases of incident dementia, and 895 dementia free deaths. Pooled meta-analysed fixed effects, per year, for reproductive period (Adjusted Sub-Hazard Ratio [ASHR] 1.001, 95% CI 0.988-1.015 did not support any association with dementia incidence, with no evidence for effect modification by APOE genotype. No association was observed between incident dementia and; ages at menarche, birth of first child, and menopause: nulliparity; or index of cumulative endogenous estrogen exposure. Greater parity was positively associated with incident dementia (ASHR 1.030, 95% CI 1.002-1.059, I2 = 0.0%.We found no evidence to support the theory that natural variation in cumulative exposure to endogenous oestrogens across the reproductive period

  14. Graded Exposure for Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Kuss, Katrin; Becker, Annette; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; de Jong, Jeroen; Flatau, Brigitta; Laekeman, Marjan; Mattenklodt, Peter; Schuler, Matthias; Vlaeyen, Johan; Quint, Sabine

    Fear-avoidance beliefs in older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) can lead to disability. Graded exposure-based active physical therapy could be an option to enhance physical ability in older patients with CLBP. The purpose of this study was to develop a standardized graded exposure treatment according to the fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain for older patients with CLBP and to examine its effectiveness and feasibility in the German health care system. The study represents a phase I/phase II trial of a complex intervention. Taking a first step into the hierarchy of growing empirical evidence, a prospective 1-factor observational study was conducted with repeated measurements 1 week before and within 2 weeks after the intervention. Three physical therapists, who completed an introductory workshop, provided the treatment in the form of individual therapies. Sixteen participants 65 years or older with CLBP and perceived physical limitations were recruited. Four patient-reported outcome measures and semistructured interviews were conducted. The primary outcome was physical ability measured with the Hanover Functional Ability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes were the numerical pain rating scale, and an age-specific and adapted 11-item short-form of the Patient Anxiety Symptom Scale, the KVS-D 65+, which quantified catastrophizing and avoidance beliefs. Fear of falling was measured with the Falls Efficacy Scale-International. For the analysis, Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired samples and an α level of .05 were chosen. For the qualitative evaluation, semistructured interviews were conducted with the patients and physical therapists explored indicators of feasibility such as demands, acceptability, satisfaction, adaptation needs, and implementation. For content analysis, codes were primarily derived deductively and complemented by inductively derived new themes. A significant increase in physical ability after the treatment was observed with an

  15. Virtual reality exposure versus cognitive restructuring for treatment of public speaking anxiety: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Helene S; Safir, Marilyn P; Bar-Zvi, Margalit

    2011-01-01

    To determine the utility of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRE) in comparison with Cognitive Therapy (CT ) and with Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT). Subjects suffering from public speaking anxiety (PSA) were randomly allocated to VRE and CT , and received 12 therapy sessions, employing standardized treatment manuals. Outcome (questionnaires, observer and self ratings of a behavioral task) was compared to results of subjects in a previous study CBT and Wait List Controls who were not significantly different on demographic data. CT was not superior to VRE on cognitive measures, but was superior to VRE on one behavioral measure (LSAS fear). VRE was superior to CT on one behavioral measure (fear reduction on a behavioral task). No differences were found between either CT , or VRE, and CBT and all were superior to WL. Subject group was small and homogeneous. It appeared advisable to increase number of therapy sessions. VRE and CT proved to be equally effective to CBT in reducing PSA relative to a control group, with minimal differential effects between them. Therefore, employing either one may be satisfactory and sufficient.

  16. Exposure to toxics during pregnancy and childhood and asthma in children: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil Hallit

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors, pesticides, alcohol and smoking are linked to asthma in children. The association of toxic substances exposure with asthma has not been evaluated. Our objective is to assess such associations among children aged less than 16 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted between January and May 2015, using a sample of Lebanese students from private schools in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. Out of 700 distributed questionnaires, 527 (75.2% were returned to us. Verbal informed consent was also obtained from all parents prior to participating in the study. A significant association was found between waterpipe smoking and diagnosed asthma (p = 0.003; ORa = 13.25; 95% CI 2.472–71.026. Alcohol during pregnancy, waterpipe smoking during pregnancy and parents respiratory problems significantly increased the risk of respiratory problems by approximately 5 times, 6 times and 2 times respectively (p = 0.016; ORa = 4.889; 95% CI 1.339–17.844, p = 0.021; ORa = 6.083; 95% CI 1.314–28.172, p = 0.004; ORa = 1.748; 95% CI 1.197–2.554 respectively. Waterpipe smoking, alcohol during pregnancy, recurrent otitis and humidity at home seem to be significantly correlated with asthma in children. Spreading awareness by health care professionals is needed to permit a reduction of the prevalence of these allergic diseases, especially asthma, in children.

  17. Narrative exposure therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy. A pilot randomized controlled trial with Rwandan genocide orphans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Susanne; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment modules for trauma spectrum disorders in a sample of Rwandan genocide orphans. Twenty-six orphans (originally 27) who presented with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at first assessment continued to meet a PTSD DSM-IV diagnosis 6 months after their initial assessment. They were offered participation in a controlled treatment trial. A group adaptation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT, n = 14) was compared to individual narrative exposure therapy (NET, n = 12). The last NET session involved guided mourning. Each treatment program consisted of 4 weekly sessions. Main outcome measures were diagnostic status and symptoms of PTSD and depression assessed before treatment, at 3 months post-test and at 6 months follow-up using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and Hamilton Rating Scale. At post-test, there were no significant group differences between NET and IPT on any of the examined outcome measures. At 6-month follow-up, only 25% of NET, but 71% of IPT participants still fulfilled PTSD criteria. There was a significant time x treatment interaction in the severity of PTSD [Wilks' Lambda = 0.75, F(2,23) = 3.93; p < 0.05] and depression symptoms [Wilks' Lambda = 0.23, F(2,23) = 3.40; p = 0.05]. At follow-up, NET participants were significantly more improved than IPT participants with respect to both the severity of symptoms of PTSD and depression. Individual NET in combination with group-based mourning comprises an effective treatment for traumatized survivors who have to bear the loss of loved ones and have been suffering from symptoms of PTSD and depression. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A Naturalistic, Randomized Pilot Trial of E-Cigarettes: Uptake, Exposure, and Behavioral Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Heckman, Bryan W; Wahlquist, Amy E; Wagener, Theodore L; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Gray, Kevin M; Froeliger, Brett; Cummings, K Michael

    2017-12-01

    Background: Most studies of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) compare self-selected users versus nonusers. The few randomized studies to date generally support a positive impact on reducing smoking behavior, but these studies are focused on guided ENDS use. This study presents a randomized, naturalistic trial of ENDS with prospective outcomes of uptake and behavioral changes in smoking. Methods: Adult smokers with minimal ENDS history were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive product for 3 weeks ( n = 46), or not ( n = 22). Changes in nicotine delivery (16 vs. 24 mg), midway through the study allowed a compelling opportunity to examine two ENDS products compared with the control group. Primary outcomes, assessed via daily diaries during sampling period and in-person laboratory visits over 4 months, included uptake and usage of ENDS, cessation-related outcomes, and exposure to smoke constituents. Results: All ENDS participants tried product at least once, with 48% of 24 mg and 30% of 16 mg using their assigned product for the entire sampling period. Within the 24 mg ENDs group, 57% made an independent purchase of ENDS, versus 28% of 16 mg, and 14% of control participants ( P = 0.01). Smokers in both ENDS groups significantly reduced their smoking, whereas control participants did not ( P = 0.03). Cessation behaviors (quit attempts, biologically verified abstinence) numerically but not statistically favored ENDS participants. Conclusions: Results suggest that cigarette smokers are willing to use ENDS with trends toward reduced cigarette smoking and positive changes in cessation-related behaviors. Impact: Randomized, naturalistic trials such as presented herein are needed to understand the population impact of e-cigarettes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(12); 1795-803. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Exposure to Mobile Source Air Pollution in Early-life and Childhood Asthma Incidence: The Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Bates, Josephine T; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Hansen, Craig; Russell, Armistead G; Tolbert, Paige E; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2018-01-01

    Early-life exposure to traffic-related air pollution exacerbates childhood asthma, but it is unclear what role it plays in asthma development. The association between exposure to primary mobile source pollutants during pregnancy and during infancy and asthma incidence by ages 2 through 6 was examined in the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, a racially diverse birth cohort of 24,608 children born between 2000 and 2010 and insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia. We estimated concentrations of mobile source fine particulate matter (PM2.5, µg/m), nitrogen oxides (NOX, ppb), and carbon monoxide (CO, ppm) at the maternal and child residence using a Research LINE source dispersion model for near-surface releases. Asthma was defined using diagnoses and medication dispensings from medical records. We used binomial generalized linear regression to model the impact of exposure continuously and by quintiles on asthma risk. Controlling for covariates and modeling log-transformed exposure, a 2.7-fold increase in first year of life PM2.5 was associated with an absolute 4.1% (95% confidence interval, 1.6%, 6.6%) increase in risk of asthma by age 5. Quintile analysis showed an increase in risk from the first to second quintile, but similar risk across quintiles 2-5. Risk differences increased with follow-up age. Results were similar for NOX and CO and for exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life owing to high correlation. Results provide limited evidence for an association of early-life mobile source air pollution with childhood asthma incidence with a steeper concentration-response relationship observed at lower levels of exposure.

  20. Association of Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and Traffic-Related Air Pollution with the Incidence of Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael; Frank, Lawrence D; Davies, Hugh W

    2017-08-31

    Evidence for an association between transportation noise and cardiovascular disease has increased; however, few studies have examined metabolic outcomes such as diabetes or accounted for environmental coexposures such as air pollution, greenness, or walkability. Because diabetes prevalence is increasing and may be on the causal pathway between noise and cardiovascular disease, we examined the influence of long-term residential transportation noise exposure and traffic-related air pollution on the incidence of diabetes using a population-based cohort in British Columbia, Canada. We examined the influence of transportation noise exposure over a 5-y period (1994-1998) on incident diabetes cases in a population-based prospective cohort study (n=380,738) of metropolitan Vancouver (BC) residents who were 45-85 y old, with 4-y of follow-up (1999-2002). Annual average transportation noise (Lden), air pollution [black carbon, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter Transportation noise was associated with the incidence of diabetes [interquartile range (IQR) increase, 6.8 A-weighted decibels (dBA); OR=1.08 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.10)]. This association remained after adjustment for environmental coexposures including traffic-related air pollutants, greenness, and neighborhood walkability. After adjustment for coexposure to noise, traffic-related air pollutants were not associated with the incidence of diabetes, whereas greenness was protective. We found a positive association between residential transportation noise and diabetes, adding to the growing body of evidence that noise pollution exposure may be independently linked to metabolic health and should be considered when developing public health interventions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1279.

  1. Characteristics and outcomes of e-cigarette exposure incidents reported to 10 European Poison Centers : a retrospective data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Girvalaki, Charis; Filippidis, Filippos T.; Oder, Mare; Kastanje, Ruth; de Vries, Irma; Scholtens, Lies; Annas, Anita; Plackova, Silvia; Turk, Rajka; Gruzdyte, Laima; Rato, Fátima; Genser, Dieter; Schiel, Helmut; Balázs, Andrea; Donohoe, Elaine; Vardavas, Alexander I; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    BACKGROUND: The use of e-cigarettes has increased during the past few years. Exposure to e-cigarette liquids, whether intentional or accidental, may lead to adverse events our aim was to assess factors associated with e-cigarette exposures across European Union Member States (EU MS). METHODS: A

  2. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P pollution, combined local dry season + La Nina and combined local dry season + El Nino were the most significant predictors of incident hematologic malignancy. These findings highlight the importance of aging, pollution, the dry season, El Nino and La Nina as related to global warming as determinants of hematologic malignancies among African patients from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Cancer registries in DRC and other African countries will provide more robust database for future researches on

  3. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Kateryna B; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Basagaña, Xavier; Gruzieva, Olena; Hampel, Regina; Oftedal, Bente; Sørensen, Mette; Wolf, Kathrin; Aamodt, Geir; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Becker, Thomas; Beelen, Rob; Brunekreef, Bert; Caracciolo, Barbara; Cyrys, Josef; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Foraster, Maria; Fratiglioni, Laura; Hilding, Agneta; Houthuijs, Danny; Korek, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Marrugat, Jaume; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Penell, Johanna; Pershagen, Göran; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Swart, Wim J R; Peters, Annette; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), ≤10 µm (PM10), >2.5, and ≤10 µm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI):1.08; 1.37] per 5 µg/m³) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI:1.02; 1.24] per 10 - 5m - 1). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Unequal Exposure or Unequal Vulnerability? Contributions of Neighborhood Conditions and Cardiovascular Risk Factors to Socioeconomic Inequality in Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mustafa; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Hastert, Theresa A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Bertoni, Alain G; Baylin, Ana

    2017-11-23

    Risk factors can drive socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) through differential exposure and differential vulnerability. We show how econometric decomposition directly enables simultaneous, policy-oriented assessment of these two mechanisms. We specifically estimated contributions via these mechanisms of neighborhood environment and proximal risk factors to socioeconomic inequality in CVD incidence. We followed 5,608 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012) until the first CVD event (median follow-up 12.2 years). We used a summary measure of baseline socioeconomic position (SEP). Covariates included baseline demographics, neighborhood, psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical risk factors. Using Poisson models, we decomposed the difference (inequality) in incidence rates between low- and high-SEP groups into contributions of 1) differences in covariate means (differential exposure), and 2) differences in CVD risk associated with covariates (differential vulnerability). Notwithstanding large uncertainty in neighborhood estimates, our analysis suggests that differential exposure to poorer neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, adverse social environment, diabetes, and hypertension accounts for most of inequality. Psychosocial and behavioral contributions were negligible. Further, neighborhood SEP, female gender, and White race were more strongly associated with CVD among low-SEP (vs. high-SEP) participants. These differentials in vulnerability also accounted for nontrivial portions of the inequality, and could have important implications for intervention. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Association of Low-Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with Incident Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Perez, Maria; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Gribble, Matthew O; Balakrishnan, Poojitha; Jones Spratlen, Miranda; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Umans, Jason G; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Cole, Shelley A; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-12-20

    High arsenic exposure has been related to diabetes, but at low-moderate levels the evidence is mixed. Arsenic metabolism, which is partly genetically controlled and may rely on certain B vitamins, plays a role in arsenic toxicity. We evaluated the prospective association of arsenic exposure and metabolism with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. We included 1,838 American Indian men and women free of diabetes (median age, 36 y). Arsenic exposure was assessed as the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) urine concentrations (ΣAs). Arsenic metabolism was evaluated by the proportions of iAs, MMA, and DMA over their sum (iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%). Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was measured at baseline and follow-up visits. Incident diabetes was evaluated at follow-up. Median ΣAs, iAs%, MMA%, and DMA% was 4.4 μg/g creatinine, 9.5%, 14.4%, and 75.6%, respectively. Over 10,327 person-years of follow-up, 252 participants developed diabetes. Median HOMA2-IR at baseline was 1.5. The fully adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] for incident diabetes per an interquartile range increase in ΣAs was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.18, 2.08) in participants without prediabetes at baseline. Arsenic metabolism was not associated with incident diabetes. ΣAs was positively associated with HOMA2-IR at baseline but negatively with HOMA2-IR at follow-up. Increased MMA% was associated with lower HOMA2-IR when either iAs% or DMA% decreased. The association of arsenic metabolism with HOMA2-IR differed by B-vitamin intake and AS3MT genetics variants. Among participants without baseline prediabetes, arsenic exposure was associated with incident diabetes. Low MMA% was cross-sectional and prospectively associated with higher HOMA2-IR. Research is needed to confirm possible interactions of arsenic metabolism with B vitamins and AS3MT variants on diabetes risk. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2566.

  6. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Breast Cancer Incidence in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Ravnskjaer, Line; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1......,145) until 2013 in the Danish Cancer Register. We estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter nurses' residences since 1990 using an atmospheric chemistry transport model. We examined the association between...

  7. Exposure to reactive intermediate-inducing drugs during pregnancy and the incident use of psychotropic medications among children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Yen-Hao; Groen, Henk; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Hak, Eelko; Wilffert, Bob

    Purpose Our study aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to reactive intermediate (RI)-inducing drugs and the initiation of psychotropic medications among children. Methods We designed a cohort study using a pharmacy prescription database. Pregnant women were considered

  8. Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and risk of incident breast cancer in the nurses' health study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jaime E; Bertrand, Kimberly A; DuPre, Natalie; James, Peter; Vieira, Verónica M; VoPham, Trang; Mittleman, Maggie R; Tamimi, Rulla M; Laden, Francine

    2018-03-27

    Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, to date, no nationwide studies have evaluated these possible associations. Our objective was to examine the impacts of mammary carcinogen and estrogen disrupting HAPs on risk of invasive breast cancer in a nationwide cohort. We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). Risk of overall invasive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+), and ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer with increasing quartiles of exposure were assessed in time-varying multivariable proportional hazards models, adjusted for traditional breast cancer risk factors. A total of 3321 invasive cases occurred (2160 ER+, 558 ER-) during follow-up 1989-2011. Overall, there was no consistent pattern of elevated risk of the HAPs with risk of breast cancer. Suggestive elevations were only seen with increasing 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane exposures (multivariable adjusted HR of overall breast cancer = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98-1.29; ER+ breast cancer HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.30; ER- breast cancer HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; each in the top exposure quartile compared to the lowest). Exposures to HAPs during adulthood were not consistently associated with an increased risk of overall or estrogen-receptor subtypes of invasive breast cancer in this nationwide cohort of women.

  9. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian L; Mizon, Karen J; Dickson, Bruce L; Korsch, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon (222Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206Pb/204Pb from the high uranium content, low 208Pb/204Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees.

  10. The effect of exposure to employees from mining and milling operations in a uranium mine on lead isotopes. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian L.; Mizon, Karen J.; Dickson, Bruce L.; Korsch, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Potential exposure during mining and milling of uranium ore has resulted in the industry being highly regulated. Exposure can arise from inhalation of the daughter product radioactive gas radon ( 222 Rn), inhalation of radioactive dust particles from mining and milling, direct irradiation from outside the body, and ingestion of radionuclides (e.g. uranium or radium) in food or water. Making use of the highly unusual lead isotopic signature for uranium ores (high 206 Pb/ 204 Pb from the high uranium content, low 208 Pb/ 204 Pb from the low Th/U ratio), we undertook a pilot study of nine male mine employees and three controls from the Ranger uranium mine in the Northern Territory Australia to determine if it was feasible to use lead isotopes in blood to identify exposure to uranium-derived materials. The lead isotopic data for the mine employees and controls plot in two distinct fields which are consistent with predicted isotopic patterns. Assuming retention of 10% of the ingested lead, then the increases seen in 206 Pb represent intakes of between 0.9 and 15 mg, integrated over the years of exposure. The small amount of lead does not affect blood lead concentrations, but appears to be sufficient to be detectable with sensitive isotopic methods. Further studies, including those on urine, should be undertaken to confirm the veracity of the lead isotope method in monitoring exposure of uranium industry employees

  11. Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Akleyev, A.V.; Hall, P.

    2003-01-01

    As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

  12. Effective energies and exposure determinations of two different energy X-ray beams incident on a personnel monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, E.; Cruz, M.T. da

    1984-01-01

    The effective energy of one X or gamma ray beam can be determined by means of two thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeters mounted between suitable filters. However, it has been observed that personnel monitors exposed to two different energy ionizing radiations provide different effective energies depeding on the type of TL phosphor used. This fact could be a powerful tool for identifying exposures to radiation with quite different effective energies which are very common in practice. Two types of TL dosemeters were used : pellets of cold pressed natural fluoride and NaCl developed in our own laboratory, and LiF, TLD-100 from Harshaw Chemical Co.. Experimental results obtained with these combined dosemeters after irradiation with different sets of exposures and energy values of ionizing radiations are also presented. (Author) [pt

  13. Chronic CO2 exposure markedly increases the incidence of cataracts in juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moran, Damian; Tubbs, Lincoln; Støttrup, Josianne G.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the affect of chronic exposure to elevated dissolved carbon dioxide on juvenile Atlantic cod. The CO2 treatment concentrations were designated as low (1–2mgL−1, 1000μatm), medium (8mgL−1, 3500μatm) and high (18mgL−1, 8500μatm), and the fish were reared at 10°C and 2...

  14. Energy drink exposures reported to Texas poison centers: Analysis of adverse incidents in relation to total sales, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borron, Stephen W; Watts, Susan H; Herrera, Jessica; Larson, Joshua; Baeza, Salvador; Kingston, Richard L

    2018-05-21

    The ill-defined term "energy drink" includes a disparate group of products (beverages, shots, concentrates, and workout powders) having large differences in caffeine content and concentration and intended use. Hence, inaccurate conclusions may be drawn when describing adverse events associated with "energy drinks". The FDA is considering new regulation of these products but product specificity is needed to evaluate safety. To help address this, we queried Texas Poison Center Network data for single substance exposures to "energy drinks" from 2010 to 2014, then analyzed adverse events by product type. We specifically compared energy beverage exposures with sales data for the same time period to evaluate the safety profile of this category of energy drinks. Among 855 documented "energy drink" exposures, poison center-determined outcome severity revealed 291 with no/minimal effects, 417 judged nontoxic or minor/not followed, 64 moderate and 4 major effects, and no deaths. Serious complications included 2 seizures and 1 episode of ventricular tachycardia. Outcome severity by category for beverages: 11 moderate/1 major effects (none in children energy drinks". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term Exposure to Particulate Matter Constituents and the Incidence of Coronary Events in 11 European Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Kathrin; Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia

    2015-01-01

    with incident coronary events. METHODS: Eleven cohorts from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy participated in this analysis. 5,157 incident coronary events were identified within 100,166 persons followed on average for 11.5 years. Long-term residential concentrations of PM PM 2.5 μm...... (PM2.5), and a priori selected constituents (copper, iron, nickel, potassium, silicon, sulfur, vanadium, and zinc) were estimated with land-use regression models. We used Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for a common set of confounders to estimate cohort-specific component effects...... with and without including PM mass, and random effects meta-analyses to pool cohort-specific results. RESULTS: A 100 ng/m³ increase in PM10 K and a 50 ng/m³ increase in PM2.5 K were associated with a 6% (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.06 [1.01, 1.12]) and 18% (1.18 [1.06, 1.32]) increase in coronary...

  16. Incidence of respiratory disorders in neonates born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation following exposure to antenatal corticosteroids between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventolini, Gary; Neiger, Ran; Mathews, Lindsey; Adragna, Norma; Belcastro, Marc

    2008-02-01

    We studied the effect of antenatal corticosteroids on the incidence of respiratory disorders in singleton neonates born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation. Retrospective analysis was conducted of the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and other respiratory disorders (need for mechanical ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure, and prolonged oxygen therapy) among singleton neonates delivered between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation who were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids, compared with neonates who were not exposed. Statistical analyses included two-tailed T tests, two-way analysis of variance for continuous data, and chi-square analysis for ratios. A probability of 0.05 was considered significant. Between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004, 1078 neonates were born between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation. Information regarding antenatal corticosteroids was available in 1044: 574 neonates (53.2%) were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids and 470 (43.6%) were not. One thousand and eighteen neonates were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Respiratory disorders were diagnosed in 140 of those exposed to antenatal steroids (24.4%) and in 382 of the nonexposed (81.3%) ( P < 0.0001). Two hundred and ten neonates (20.6%) developed RDS: Of those, 43 were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids and 167 were not (incidence of RDS was 7.5% and 35.5%, respectively; P = 0.0001). The beneficial effects of corticosteroids were similar in both genders. It appears that the exposure of singleton pregnancies to antenatal corticosteroids between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation is associated with a significantly lower incidence of respiratory disorders among neonates born at 34 to 36 weeks of gestation. Further studies are needed to determine whether administering antenatal steroids to women experiencing preterm labor after 34 weeks of gestation would be associated with a similar beneficial effect.

  17. Exposure conditions, lung function and airway symptoms in industrial production of wood pellets. A pilot project; Exponeringsfoerhaallanden, lungfunktion och luftvaegsbesaer vid industriell produktion av traepellets. Ett pilotprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edman, Katja; Loefstedt, Haakan; Berg, Peter; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, Cecilia; Selden, Anders [Oerebro Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Eriksson, Kaare [Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Holmstroem, Mats; Rask- Andersen, Anna [Uppsala Univ. Hospital (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    The production of wood pellets is a relatively new branch of the Swedish wood industry and has increased during the last years. A pilot study was performed to investigate the prevalence of airway symptoms, lung function and exposure among all 39 men employed in industrial production of wood pellets at six companies. The study included a questionnaire, medical examination, registration of nasal-PEF (peak expiratory flow) during a week, allergy screening (Phadiatop) and lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift. The results were compared with different reference data from other Swedish studies. Exposure measurements of monoterpenes and wood dust on filter and with a data logger (DataRAM) were also performed. The study group reported a higher frequency of cough without phlegm, awakening due to breathlessness and current asthma medication compared with reference data. For five of the six participants with physician-diagnosed asthma the disease debuted before the current employment and the results did not indicate an unusual asthma morbidity. Spirometry showed lower lung function before work shift than expected. However no difference over work shift was observed. A negative and non-significant correlation was seen between time with current work task and lung function. The study group reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms mostly blockage, sneezing and dryness compared with reference data. The registrations of nasal-PEF did not show any differences between work and spare time. The prevalence of positive Phadiatop (23 %) did not differ from reference data. No association between exposure (wood dust and monoterpenes) and acute effects on lung function was observed. The wood dust exposure (0.16-19 mg/m{sup 3}) was high and 11 of 24 measurements exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 2 mg/m{sup 3}. Peak exposures could be identified, e.g. at cleaning of engines with compressed air, with the DataRAM. The exposure to monoterpenes (0

  18. Some comments on the feasibility of an epidemiological study on incidence of lung cancer due to exposure to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsasser, U.

    1988-01-01

    For two different designs of a study - cohort and case control study - estimates of required sample size have been made on the basis of lung cancer risk assessment data for exposure to radon and radon daughters. The estimates have shown that a cohort study is not feasible for reasons of unjustifiably high requirements. A case control study, however, may contribute to clarifying the lung cancer risk, especially if the basic overall entity is limited to the population group of over 50 years of age. (orig.) [de

  19. Changes in dive behavior during naval sonar exposure in killer whales, long-finned pilot whales, and sperm whales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Fahlman, A.; Lam, F.P.A.; Tyack, P.L.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic underwater sound in the environment might potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals enough to have an impact on their reproduction and survival. Diving behavior of four killer whales (Orcinus orca), seven long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas), and four sperm whales

  20. Incidence of thyroid cancer in women in relation to previous exposure to radiation therapy and history of thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTiernan, A.M.; Weiss, N.S.; Daling, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Female residents of 13 counties of Western Washington, in whom papillary, follicular, or mixed papillary-follicular thyroid carcinomas had been diagnosed between 1974 and 1979 were interviewed regarding their medical and reproductive histories and past exposure to radiation treatments. For comparison, a random sample of women from the same population was interviewed. Women who had received radiation treatments to the head or neck prior to 5 years before interview were 16.5 times (95% confidence interval . 8.1-33.5) more likely than unexposed women to develop cancer. The relative risk (RR) was highest for papillary cancer (19.4) but also was elevated substantially for follicular and mixed papillary-follicular tumors. Women first irradiated at age 19 years or younger had a much higher RR than did women irradiated at age 20 or older. Regardless of prior radiation exposure, women who ever had had a goiter were at increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. Women who had ever developed a goiter had 17 times the risk of developing follicular cancer and almost 7 times the risk of developing papillary cancer as compared with women who never had had a goiter. Risk of thyroid cancer was elevated even among women who had had a history of goiter many years prior to diagnosis. A history of thyroid nodules was also a risk factor for papillary and mixed thyroid cancer. Neither a history of hypothyroidism nor hyperthyroidism was found to increase the risk of thyroid cancer

  1. Analysis of the Relation Between Exposure to Ionising Radiation from Computed Tomography Scans in Childhood and Cancer Incidence within the 'Cohorte Enfant Scanner' Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Journy, Neige

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a powerful imaging technique that provides great benefits for diagnosis and medical management of patients. Nonetheless, the widespread use of this procedure raises many concerns about the potential adverse effects induced by X-rays exposure, both in clinical practice and in terms of public health. First epidemiological studies have suggested an increased risk of cancer associated with CT scan exposures in childhood or adolescence. The interpretation of these results is, however, controversial, and evidence about radiation-induced risks of cancer is still limited at this level of exposure and during childhood. In France, the 'Enfant Scanner' cohort was set up by IRSN to study the incidence of cancer among more than 100,000 children who received CT scans before the age of 10 in 21 university hospitals. This study is part of the European Epi-CT project - coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer - which includes nine national cohorts set up on the basis of a common protocol. The current thesis, based on the French cohort, focuses on characterizing the exposure of children receiving diagnostic CT scans and quantifying the risk of cancer associated with these exposures. Dosimetric assessment was performed from the radiological protocols used in paediatrics between 2000 and 2011 in the participating hospitals. This study presents the evolution of the exposures during the period and the variability of practices in the radiology departments. The results show that there is a leeway for optimizing the procedures and limiting the exposure of patients, especially for scans of the head that account for most of the examinations in paediatrics. A quantitative assessment of cancer risk potentially induced by CT scans in paediatrics was performed - on the basis of estimates of risk in other contexts of ionizing radiation exposure. The results show that each CT scan could be associated with an excess risk of tumours of the

  2. Initial Incidence of White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Sherman, Paul; McGuire, Steve; Kochunov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous literature has described the increase in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden associated with hypobaric exposure in the U-2 and altitude chamber operating personnel. Although astronauts have similar hypobaric exposure pressures to the U2 pilot population, astronauts have far fewer exposures and each exposure would be associated with a much lower level of decompression stress due to rigorous countermeasures to prevent decompression sickness. Therefore, we postulated that the WMH burden in the astronaut population would be less than in U2 pilots. Methods: Twenty-one post-flight de-identified astronaut MRIs (5 mm slice thickness FLAIR sequences) were evaluated for WMH count and volume. The only additional data provided was an age range of the astronauts (43-57) and if they had ever performed an EVA (13 yes, 8 no). Results: WMH count in these 21 astronaut MRI was 21.0 +/- 24.8 (mean+/- SD) and volume was 0.382 +/- 0.602 ml, which was significantly higher than previously published results for the U2 pilots. No significant differences between EVA and no EVA groups existed. Age range of astronaut population is not directly comparable to the U2 population. Discussion: With significantly less frequent (sometimes none) and less stressful hypobaric exposures, yet a much higher incidence of increased WMH, this indicates the possibility of additional mechanisms beyond hypobaric exposure. This increase unlikely to be attributable just to the differences in age between astronauts and U2 pilots. Forward work includes continuing review of post-flight MRI and evaluation of pre to post flight MRI changes if available. Data mining for potential WMH risk factors includes collection of age, sex, spaceflight experience, EVA hours, other hypobaric exposures, hyperoxic exposures, radiation, high performance aircraft experience and past medical history. Finally, neurocognitive and vision/eye results will be evaluated for any evidence of impairment linked to

  3. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumours: The Danish Nurse Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Johansen, Martin Søes; Ravnskjær, Line

    2016-01-01

    -reported information on lifestyle was collected. We obtained data on the incidence of brain tumours until 2013 from the Danish Cancer Register, and estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameterPM2.5), particulate matter with diameter... positive association between total brain tumours and PM2.5 (1.06; 0.80-1.40 per 3.37μg/m(3)), NO2 (1.09; 0.91-1.29) per 7.5μg/m(3), and NOx (1.02; 0.93-1.12 per 10.22μg/m(3)), and none with PM10 (0.93; 0.70-1.23 per 3.31μg/m(3)). Associations with PM2.5 and NO2 were stronger for tumours located in meninges...... than in brain, and for benign than for malignant tumours. Finally, association of total brain tumours with PM2.5 was modified by BMI, and was statistically significantly enhanced in obese women (2.03; 1.35-3.05). CONCLUSION: We found weak evidence for association between risk of brain tumours and long...

  4. Variation of energy absorption and exposure buildup factors with incident photon energy and penetration depth for boro-tellurite (B2O3-TeO2) glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyed, M. I.; Elhouichet, H.

    2017-01-01

    The gamma ray energy absorption (EABF) and exposure buildup factors (EBF) of (100-x)TeO2-xB2O3 glass systems (where x=5, 10, 15, 20, 22.5 and 25 mol%) have been calculated in the energy region 0.015-15 MeV up to a penetration depth of 40 mfp (mean free path). The five parameters (G-P) fitting method has been used to estimate both EABF and EBF values. Variations of EABF and EBF with incident photon energy and penetration depth have been studied. It was found that EABF and EBF values were higher in the intermediate energy region, for all the glass systems. Furthermore, boro-tellurite glass with 5 mol% B2O3, was found to present the lowest EABF and EBF values, hence it is superior gamma-ray shielding material. The results indicate that the boro-tellurite glasses can be used as radiation shielding materials.

  5. The use of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis in forensic medicine following incidents of sexual violence in Hamburg, Germany: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Julia; Sperhake, Jan Peter; Degen, Olaf; Schröder, Ann Sophie

    2018-05-18

    In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016. One thousand two hundred eighteen incidents of sexual violence were reviewed. In 18% of these cases, HIV PEP was initially prescribed by the FMS. HIV PEP indication depended on the examination occurring within 24 h after the incident, no/unknown condom use, the occurrence of ejaculation, the presence of any injury, and the perpetrator being from population at high risk for HIV. Half of the HIV PEP recipients returned for a reevaluation of the HIV PEP indication by an infectious disease specialist, and just 16% completed the full month of treatment. Only 131 potential perpetrators were tested for HIV, with one found to be HIV positive. No HIV seroconversion was registered among the study sample. Provision of HIV PEP by an FMS after sexual assault ensures appropriate and prompt care for victims. However, patient compliance and completion rates are low. HIV testing of perpetrators must be carried out much more rigorously.

  6. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, D.; Olff, Miranda

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  7. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosaura Polak, A.; Witteveen, Anke B.; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of

  8. Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, William E; Swan, Susan S; McDaniel, Mary M; Stebbins, John G; Seixas, Noah S; Morgan, Michael S

    2002-10-01

    Washington State has experienced a striking increase in workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in one industry with a high rate of hearing loss claims. We evaluated 10 representative foundries with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews, and existing audiometry. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85 dBA. All companies were out of compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees with important findings on audiograms were not aware of their findings. There was a significant positive correlation between management-interview scores and worksite-average employee-interview scores (r = 0.70, P = 0.02). Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation program activities can achieve a greater positive impact on employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programs in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing substantial risk of occupational hearing loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Exposure of liquid lithium confined in a capillary structure to high plasma fluxes in PILOT-PSI—Influence of temperature on D retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Rojo, A.B., E-mail: anabmr2010@hotmail.com [Ciemat, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oyarzabal, E. [Ciemat, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fundación UNED Guzman el Bueno, 133, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Tabarés, F.L. [Ciemat, Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Av Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Experiments on deuterium retention on liquid lithium confined in a capillary structure followed by ex-situ thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) at high plasma fluxes (∼10{sup 23} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}) and high temperatures (440 °C and 580 °C) have been performed. Deuterium plasmas were generated at the PILOT-PSI linear plasma device and the targets were a 30 mm diameter stainless steel disc, 5 mm thick, covered with a porous mesh and filled with lithium. The settings (current) of the plasma source were varied in order to get different sample surface temperatures during irradiation. The targets were kept at floating potential during the exposure. Hydrogen and Li emission signals were monitored during the plasma exposure and TDS analysis was made afterwards in a separated system. Decreased retention at high exposure temperatures was deduced from the analysis of the hydrogen emission signals. Nevertheless, the results from TDS signal analysis were not conclusive.

  10. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children's Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Xia; Liang, Gang; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-11-08

    Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children's SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%), did not smoke at home at all (37%), did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%), or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57%) were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49%) and in the car (22%) were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children's SHS exposure.

  11. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Julian

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data. Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  12. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R; Pickering, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing) to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  13. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to PAHs in air: a pilot study among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethery, Elizabeth; Wheeler, Amanda J; Fisher, Mandy; Sjödin, Andreas; Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C; Foster, Warren; Arbuckle, Tye E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have linked increased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and adverse fetal health outcomes. Urinary PAH metabolites are of interest for exposure assessment if they can predict PAHs in air. We investigated exposure to PAHs by collecting air and urine samples among pregnant women pre-selected as living in "high" (downtown and close to steel mills, n=9) and "low" (suburban, n=10) exposure areas. We analyzed first-morning urine voids from all 3 trimesters of pregnancy for urinary PAH metabolites and compared these to personal air PAH/PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) samples collected in the 3rd trimester. We also evaluated activities and home characteristics, geographic indicators and outdoor central site PM(2.5)/NO(2)/NO(X) (all trimesters). Personal air exposures to the lighter molecular weight (MW) PAHs were linked to indoor sources (candles and incense), whereas the heavier PAHs were related to outdoor sources. Geometric means of all personal air measurements were higher in the "high" exposure group. We suggest that centrally monitored heavier MW PAHs could be used to predict personal exposures for heavier PAHs only. Urine metabolites were only directly correlated with their parent air PAHs for phenanthrene (Pearson's r=0.31-0.45) and fluorene (r=0.37-0.58). Predictive models suggest that specific metabolites (3-hydroyxyfluorene and 3-hydroxyphenanthrene) may be related to their parent air PAH exposures. The metabolite 2-hydroxynaphthalene was linked to smoking and the metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene was linked to dietary exposures. For researchers interested in predicting exposure to airborne lighter MW PAHs using urinary PAH metabolites, we propose that hydroxyfluorene and hydroxyphenanthrene metabolites be considered.

  14. Centrifuge-induced neck and back pain in F-16 pilots: a report of four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Britt; Nielsen, René Tyranski; Skejø, Pernille Bro; Toft, Palle

    2013-07-01

    Early in their careers, as an important part of their training to become fighter pilots, pilots undergo centrifuge training in order to learn effective anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM) and to test their G tolerance. The exposure of pilots, especially early in their careers, to training that could lead to injuries should be avoided. This is a report of four cases of neck pain experienced during G-tolerance training, some of which may have caused ongoing problems for the pilot. Four cases, describing four different injuries experienced during G-tolerance training, are presented, including the history of the incident, radiographic description, and physical examination. Three main questions were identified in regards to the training of fighter pilots in centrifuges: 1) should the seat be positioned to imitate a specific aircraft's seat? 2) should the pilot wear a helmet and a mask? 3) what is the appropriate amount of head support? Based on the four cases reported it is recommended that pilots should be given the best possible conditions concerning neck support and load on the neck and the back for G-tolerance testing. Training the pilot in an anatomical neutral sitting position, without a helmet, and with maximal neck support minimizes head movements in cases of conscious or unconscious loss of muscle control. To test the stability of the neck in a setup similar to the environment where the pilot is going to operate, the pilot should be given the opportunity to prepare himself or herself accordingly in advance.

  15. Dietary exposure to persistent organochlorine compounds and health effects in women and their infants. Epidemiological studies on birth-weight, cancer incidence, and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rylander, L

    1997-05-01

    In Sweden the main exposure route for both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other persistent organochlorine compounds is through consumption of fatty fish species from the Baltic Sea (the eastern coast of Sweden). Cohorts of fishermen`s wives from the Swedish east and west coasts were established. Interviewed east and west coast cohort women ate locally caught fish at least twice as often as women from the general population. The east coast cohort women displayed during the period 1968-1989 an increased breast cancer incidence and mortality in ischemic heart disease as compared with the west coast cohort. Due to lack of individual data on exposure and confounding factors, it is not possible to conclude that the differences were caused by fish intake. Infants from the east coast cohort had during the period 1973-1991 an increased risk for low birth weight, as compared with infants from the west coast cohort. A nested case-referent study within the east coast cohort indicated an increased risk of low birth weight among infants born to mothers who reported a relatively high current intake of fish from the Baltic Sea, as well as among mothers who had grown up in a fishing village. Moreover, maternal 2,2`,4,4`,5,5`-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153, which was showed to be a feasible biomarker for exposure to PCB) concentrations in plasma drawn in 1995 and the estimated concentrations during the year of childbirth showed effects on the risk for having an infant with low birth weight. Employing alternative plausible kinetic models, an increased risk for low birth weight was observed at a CB-153 concentration in plasma during year of childbirth around 300-400 ng/g lipid. 117 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  16. The incidence of post-transplant cancer among kidney transplant recipients is associated with the level of tacrolimus exposure during the first year after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Shelly; Rahamimov, Ruth; Green, Hefziba; Fox, Benjamin D; Mor, Eytan; Gafter, Uzi; Chagnac, Avry; Rozen-Zvi, Benaya

    2017-07-01

    Immunosuppressive therapy plays a major role in the development of post-transplant cancer. In this nested case-control study of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), we investigated whether the incidence of post-transplant cancer is associated with the level of tacrolimus exposure over time. We screened the Rabin Medical Center database for adults who received kidney transplants between 2001 and 2014 and developed post-transplant cancer (excluding basal and squamous cell skin cancers). They were matched against KTRs without cancer. All patients received a maintenance immunosuppressive treatment with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. The degree of exposure to tacrolimus was estimated as the time-weighted average (tTWA) value of tacrolimus blood levels. The tTWA was calculated as the area under the curve divided by time at 1, 6, and 12 months after transplantation and at time of cancer diagnosis. Thirty-two cases were matched against 64 controls. tTWA values above 11 ng/mL at 6 and 12 months after transplantation were associated with odds ratio (OR) of 3.1 (95% CI 1.1-9) and 11.7 (95% CI = 1.3-106), respectively, for post-transplant cancer; and with OR of 5.2 (95% CI 1.3-20.5) and 14.1 (95% CI = 1.5-134.3), respectively, for cancer diagnosed more than 3 years after transplantation. Exposure to a tacrolimus time-weighted average level above 11 ng/mL at 6 or 12 months after kidney transplantation is associated with an increased risk of developing cancer.

  17. High HIV incidence in men who have sex with men following an early syphilis diagnosis: is there room for pre-exposure prophylaxis as a prevention strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Nicolò; Gutierrez, Angela; Nwokolo, Nneka; McOwan, Alan; Whitlock, Gary

    2017-08-01

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is becoming a pivotal strategy for HIV prevention. Understanding the impact of risk factors for HIV transmission to identify those at highest risk would favour the implementation of PrEP, currently limited by costs. In this service evaluation, we estimated the incidence of bacterial STIs in men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with early syphilis attending a London sexual health clinic according to their HIV status. In addition, we estimated the incidence of HIV infection in HIV-negative MSM, following a diagnosis of early syphilis. We undertook a retrospective case note review of all MSM patients diagnosed with early syphilis between January and June 2014. A number of sexual health screens and diagnoses of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and HIV were prospectively analysed following the syphilis diagnosis. 206 MSM were diagnosed with early syphilis. 110 (53%) were HIV-negative at baseline, 96 (47%) were HIV-positive. Only age (37 vs 32 years, p=0.0005) was significantly different according to HIV status of MSM at baseline. In HIV-negative versus HIV-positive MSM, incidence of rectal chlamydia infection at follow-up was 27 cases vs 50/100 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) (p=0.0039), 33 vs 66/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for rectal gonorrhoea and 10 vs 26/100 PYFU (p=0.0044) for syphilis reinfection, respectively. Total follow-up for 110 HIV-negative MSM was 144 person-years. HIV incidence was 8.3/100 PYFU (CI 4.2 to 14). A diagnosis of early syphilis carries a high risk of consequent HIV seroconversion and should warrant prioritised access to prevention measures such as PrEP and regular STI screening to prevent HIV transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and the Incidence of CKD in Low to Moderate Exposed Areas of Taiwan: A 14-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ling-I; Hsieh, Fang-I; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Lai, Tai-Shuan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

    2017-12-01

    Arsenic exposure is associated with decreased kidney function. The association between low to moderate arsenic exposure and kidney disease has not been fully clarified. The association between arsenic exposure from drinking water and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was examined in a long-term prospective observational study. 6,093 participants 40 years and older were recruited from arseniasis-endemic areas in northeastern Taiwan. Arsenic levels were 28.0, 92.8, and 295.7μg/L at the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles, respectively. Well-water arsenic and urinary total arsenic (inorganic plus methylated arsenic species) concentrations, adjusted for urinary creatinine concentration. Kidney diseases (ICD-9 codes: 250.4, 274.1, 283.11, 403.*1, 404.*2, 404.*3, 440.1, 442.1, 447.3, or 580-589) and CKD (ICD-9 code: 585) ascertained using Taiwan's National Health Insurance database 1998 to 2011. HRs contrasting CKD risk across arsenic exposure levels were estimated using Cox regression. Prevalence ORs for proteinuria (protein excretion ≥ 200mg/g) comparing quartiles of total urinary arsenic concentrations were estimated using logistic regression. We identified 1,104 incident kidney disease cases, including 447 CKD cases (incidence rates, 166.5 and 67.4 per 10 4 person-years, respectively). A dose-dependent association between well-water arsenic concentrations and kidney diseases was observed after adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and analgesic use. Using arsenic concentration ≤ 10.0μg/L as reference, multivariable-adjusted HRs for incident CKD were 1.12 (95% CI, 0.88-1.42), 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03-1.72), and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.00-1.77) for arsenic concentrations of 10.1 to 49.9, 50.0 to 149.9, and ≥150.0μg/L, respectively (P for trend=0.02). The association between arsenic concentration and kidney diseases was stronger for women (P for interaction=0.06). Arsenic values in the range of 50th to 75th and 75th to 100th

  19. The Montbeliard Radiation Protection Pilot Project: a global approach of radiation protection addressing occupational, public and patient exposures at the level of a large urban community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, Caroline; Lochard, Jacques; Badajoz, Coralie; Bataille, Celine; Croueail, Pascal; Klein, Didier; Klopfenstein, Jean-Francois; Makovicka, Libor

    2008-01-01

    The Montbeliard Radiation Protection Pilot Project started in March 2004, at the initiative of the Inter- City Council of the Montbeliard Country in cooperation with CEPN. It aims at improving the radiation protection of the inhabitants of the Montbeliard Country in the various exposure situations which can be potentially encountered on the territory (hospital, dwellings, environment,...) as well as at promoting the creation of a pole of competence in the field of radiation protection in the Montbeliard Country. The project relies on the involvement of all relevant stakeholders at the local, national and international level. This paper provides with a quick insight of the project organisation, followed by a synthetic description of the main achievements of the various project areas. (author)

  20. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N.; Stark, A.; Ju, C.

    1991-05-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ''above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210

  1. Rating of transport and radiation source events. Draft additional guidance for the INES national officers for pilot use and feedback; Echelle de classement des incidents de radioprotection: document d'application du systeme international propose par l'AIEA pour les sources radioactives et les transports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-15

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means for promptly communicating to the public in consistent terms the safety significance of any reported event associated with radioactive material and/or radiation and to any event occurring during the transport of radioactive material. As described in the 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual, events are classified on the scale at seven levels: the upper levels (4-7) are termed accidents. and the lower levels (1-3) incidents. Events which have no safety significance are classified below scale at Level 0 and termed deviations. An overview of the principles for the rating under INES together with flow charts summarizing the rating process is provided in Appendix I. The 2001 Edition of the INES User.s Manual provides some guidance for the rating of transport and radiation source events. At the technical meeting held in 2002 the INES National Officers requested the IAEA/NEA Secretariat to prepare additional guidance. Progress was reported at the Technical Meeting of the INES National Officers in March 2004 where preparation of this draft additional guidance was requested for pilot use. This note provides additional guidance on the rating of transport and radiation source events. It is for pilot use and feedback and is broadly consistent with the INES User.s Manual. It provides more detailed information and an expanded approach for the rating based on actual exposure of workers and members of the public. It is designed to be used as a self-standing document with limited need for reference to the INES User Manual. (author)

  2. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krille, L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Dreger, S.; Zeeb, H. [University of Bremen, Leibniz - Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Research Focus Health Sciences Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Schindel, R.; Blettner, M. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Albrecht, T. [Vivantes, Klinikum Neukoelln, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Asmussen, M. [Zentralinstitut fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Barkhausen, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig Holstein, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Campus Luebeck, Luebeck (Germany); Berthold, J.D. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Chavan, A. [Klinikum Oldenburg GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische and Interventionelle Radiologie, Oldenburg (Germany); Claussen, C. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Forsting, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Gianicolo, E.A.L. [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Lecce (Italy); Jablonka, K. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Bremen (Germany); Jahnen, A. [Centre de Recherche Public Henri Tudor, Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Langer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Freiburg (Germany); Laniado, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Institut und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Dresden (Germany); Lotz, J. [Universitaetsmedizin Goettingen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Goettingen (Germany); Mentzel, H.J. [Universitaetsklinikum Jena, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Jena (Germany); Queisser-Wahrendorf, A. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Zentrum fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Mainz (Germany); Rompel, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Radiologisches Institut, Erlangen (Germany); Schlick, I. [Klinikum Nuernberg Sued, Institut fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Nuremberg (Germany); Schneider, K.; Seidenbusch, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Munich (Germany); Schumacher, M. [Universitaetsklinik Freiburg, Klinik fuer Neuroradiologie, Neurozentrum, Freiburg (Germany); Spix, C. [University Medical Center Mainz, German Childhood Cancer Registry, Mainz (Germany); Spors, B. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Kinderradiologie, Standort Campus Virchow Klinikum, Berlin (Germany); Staatz, G. [Universitaetsmedizin Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Sektion Kinderradiologie, Mainz (Germany); Vogl, T. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt/Main, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Frankfurt (Germany); Wagner, J. [Vivantes, Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Institut fuer Radiologie und Interventionelle Therapie, Berlin (Germany); Weisser, G. [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Mannheim (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates. (orig.)

  3. Risk of cancer incidence before the age of 15 years after exposure to ionising radiation from computed tomography: results from a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krille, L; Dreger, S; Schindel, R; Albrecht, T; Asmussen, M; Barkhausen, J; Berthold, J D; Chavan, A; Claussen, C; Forsting, M; Gianicolo, E A L; Jablonka, K; Jahnen, A; Langer, M; Laniado, M; Lotz, J; Mentzel, H J; Queißer-Wahrendorf, A; Rompel, O; Schlick, I; Schneider, K; Schumacher, M; Seidenbusch, M; Spix, C; Spors, B; Staatz, G; Vogl, T; Wagner, J; Weisser, G; Zeeb, H; Blettner, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to assess the risk of developing cancer, specifically leukaemia, tumours of the central nervous system and lymphoma, before the age of 15 years in children previously exposed to computed tomography (CT) in Germany. Data for children with at least one CT between 1980 and 2010 were abstracted from 20 hospitals. Cancer cases occurring between 1980 and 2010 were identified by stochastic linkage with the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR). For all cases and a sample of non-cases, radiology reports were reviewed to assess the underlying medical conditions at time of the CT. Cases were only included if diagnosis occurred at least 2 years after the first CT and no signs of cancer were recorded in the radiology reports. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) using incidence rates from the general population were estimated. The cohort included information on 71,073 CT examinations in 44,584 children contributing 161,407 person-years at risk with 46 cases initially identified through linkage with the GCCR. Seven cases had to be excluded due to signs possibly suggestive of cancer at the time of first CT. Overall, more cancer cases were observed (O) than expected (E), but this was mainly driven by unexpected and possibly biased results for lymphomas. For leukaemia, the SIR (SIR = O/E) was 1.72 (95 % CI 0.89-3.01, O = 12), and for CNS tumours, the SIR was 1.35 (95 % CI 0.54-2.78, O = 7). Despite careful examination of the medical information, confounding by indication or reverse causation cannot be ruled out completely and may explain parts of the excess. Furthermore, the CT exposure may have been underestimated as only data from the participating clinics were available. This should be taken into account when interpreting risk estimates.

  4. Effects of tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette vapor exposure on the oral and gut microbiota in humans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christopher J; Auchtung, Thomas A; Ajami, Nadim J; Velasquez, Kenia; Smith, Daniel P; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2018-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) has increased drastically over the past five years, primarily as an alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes. However, the adverse effects of acute and long-term use of ECs on the microbiota have not been explored. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if ECs or tobacco smoking alter the oral and gut microbiota in comparison to non-smoking controls. We examined a human cohort consisting of 30 individuals: 10 EC users, 10 tobacco smokers, and 10 controls. We collected cross-sectional fecal, buccal swabs, and saliva samples from each participant. All samples underwent V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Tobacco smoking had a significant effect on the bacterial profiles in all sample types when compared to controls, and in feces and buccal swabs when compared to EC users. The most significant associations were found in the gut, with an increased relative abundance of Prevotella ( P = 0.006) and decreased Bacteroides ( P = 0.036) in tobacco smokers. The Shannon diversity was also significantly reduced ( P = 0.009) in fecal samples collected from tobacco smokers compared to controls. No significant difference was found in the alpha diversity, beta-diversity or taxonomic relative abundances between EC users and controls. From a microbial ecology perspective, the current pilot data demonstrate that the use of ECs may represent a safer alternative compared to tobacco smoking. However, validation in larger cohorts and greater understanding of the short and long-term impact of EC use on microbiota composition and function is warranted.

  5. Effects of tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette vapor exposure on the oral and gut microbiota in humans: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Stewart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The use of electronic cigarettes (ECs has increased drastically over the past five years, primarily as an alternative to smoking tobacco cigarettes. However, the adverse effects of acute and long-term use of ECs on the microbiota have not been explored. In this pilot study, we sought to determine if ECs or tobacco smoking alter the oral and gut microbiota in comparison to non-smoking controls. Methods We examined a human cohort consisting of 30 individuals: 10 EC users, 10 tobacco smokers, and 10 controls. We collected cross-sectional fecal, buccal swabs, and saliva samples from each participant. All samples underwent V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Tobacco smoking had a significant effect on the bacterial profiles in all sample types when compared to controls, and in feces and buccal swabs when compared to EC users. The most significant associations were found in the gut, with an increased relative abundance of Prevotella (P = 0.006 and decreased Bacteroides (P = 0.036 in tobacco smokers. The Shannon diversity was also significantly reduced (P = 0.009 in fecal samples collected from tobacco smokers compared to controls. No significant difference was found in the alpha diversity, beta-diversity or taxonomic relative abundances between EC users and controls. Discussion From a microbial ecology perspective, the current pilot data demonstrate that the use of ECs may represent a safer alternative compared to tobacco smoking. However, validation in larger cohorts and greater understanding of the short and long-term impact of EC use on microbiota composition and function is warranted.

  6. The effect of music video exposure on students' perceived clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F; Mori-Inoue, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of video exposure on music therapy students' perceptions of clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy. Fifty-one participants were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to a popular song in either audio-only or music video format. Participants were asked to indicate clinical applications; specifically, participants chose: (a) possible population(s), (b) most appropriate population(s), (c) possible age range(s), (d) most appropriate age ranges, (e) possible goal area(s) and (f) most appropriate goal area. Data for each of these categories were compiled and analyzed, with no significant differences found in the choices made by the audio-only and video groups. Three items, (a) selection of the bereavement population, (b) selection of bereavement as the most appropriate population and (c) selection of the age ranges of pre teen/mature adult, were additionally selected for further analysis due to their relationship to the video content. Analysis results revealed a significant difference between the video and audio-only groups for the selection of these specific items, with the video group's selections more closely aligned to the video content. Results of this pilot study suggest that music video exposure to popular music can impact how students choose to implement popular songs in the field of music therapy.

  7. Breathing biofeedback as an adjunct to exposure in cognitive behavioral therapy hastens the reduction of PTSD symptoms: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaura Polak, A; Witteveen, Anke B; Denys, Damiaan; Olff, Miranda

    2015-03-01

    Although trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) with exposure is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), not all patients recover. Addition of breathing biofeedback to exposure in TF-CBT is suggested as a promising complementary technique to improve recovery of PTSD symptoms. Patients (n = 8) with chronic PTSD were randomized to regular TF-CBT or TF-CBT with complementary breathing biofeedback to exposure. PTSD symptoms were measured before, during and after TF-CBT with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The results show that breathing biofeedback is feasible and can easily be complemented to TF-CBT. Although PTSD symptoms significantly decreased from pre to post treatment in both conditions, there was a clear trend towards a significantly faster (p = .051) symptom reduction in biofeedback compared to regular TF-CBT. The most important limitation was the small sample size. The hastened clinical improvement in the biofeedback condition supports the idea that breathing biofeedback may be an effective complementary component to exposure in PTSD patients. The mechanism of action of breathing biofeedback may relate to competing working memory resources decreasing vividness and emotionality, similar to eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Future research is needed to examine this.

  8. Changes in the rat lung after exposure to radon and its progeny: Effects on incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine in epithelial cells and on the incidence of nuclear aberrations in Alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, A.; Morgan, A.; Baker, S.T.; Humphreys, J.A.H.; Collier, C.G.; Bisson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some responses of cells in the rat respiratory tract as a function of time after inhalation exposure to various levels of radon and its progeny. Rats were exposed to a constant concentration of radon and its progeny to give cumulative exposure levels of 120, 225, 440 and 990 working level months (WLM). An additional unexposed group of rats served as controls. The end points selected for investigation were (a) the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in epithelial cells of the conducting airways and of the alveolar region of the respiratory tract and (b) the incidence of alveolar macrophages with nuclear aberrations. After exposure, the incidence of epithelial cells incorporating BrdU-the labeling index-increased in all regions of the respiratory tract examined, but the increase occurred later in alveolar than in airway epithelial cells. The highest labeling index was found in bronchial epithelial cells, which probably received the highest radiation dose. After an initial induction period, the incidence of alveolar macrophages with nuclear aberrations also increased. The possibility of using the labeling index of alveolar and airway epithelial cells, and/or the incidence of nuclear aberrations in alveolar macrophages, to estimate the radiation dose to various regions of the respiratory tract after exposure of rats to radon and its progeny is discussed. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  10. The effects of low-level ionizing radiation and copper exposure on the incidence of antibiotic resistance in lentic biofilm bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, J Vaun; Dicks, Christian A; Bryan, A Lawrence; Tuckfield, R Cary

    2017-09-01

    Environmental reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria are poorly understood. Understanding how the environment selects for resistance traits in the absence of antibiotics is critical in developing strategies to mitigate this growing menace. Indirect or co-selection of resistance by environmental pollution has been shown to increase antibiotic resistance. However no attention has been given to the effects of low-level ionizing radiation or the interactions between radiation and heavy metals on the maintenance or selection for antibiotic resistance (AR) traits. Here we explore the effect of radiation and copper on antibiotic resistance. Bacteria were collected from biofilms in two ponds - one impacted by low-level radiocesium and the other an abandoned farm pond. Through laboratory controlled experiments we examined the effects of increasing concentrations of copper on the incidence of antibiotic resistance. Differences were detected in the resistance profiles of the controls from each pond. Low levels (0.01 mM) of copper sulfate increased resistance but 0.5 mM concentrations of copper sulfate depressed the AR response in both ponds. A similar pattern was observed for levels of multiple antibiotic resistance per isolate. The first principal component response of isolate exposure to multiple antibiotics showed significant differences among the six isolate treatment combinations. These differences were clearly visualized through a discriminant function analysis, which showed distinct antibiotic resistance response patterns based on the six treatment groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia using the PneuX System with or without elective endotracheal tube exchange: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blunt Mark

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PneuX System is a novel endotracheal tube and tracheal seal monitor, which has been designed to minimise the aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions. We aimed to determine the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP in patients who were intubated with the PneuX System and to establish whether intermittent subglottic secretion drainage could be performed reliably and safely using the PneuX System. Findings In this retrospective observational study, data was collected from 53 sequential patients. Nine (17% patients were initially intubated with the PneuX System and 44 (83% patients underwent elective exchange to the PneuX System. There were no episodes of VAP while the PneuX System was in situ. On an intention to treat basis, the incidence VAP was 1.8%. There were no complications from, or failure of, subglottic secretion drainage during the study. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that a low incidence of VAP is possible using the PneuX System. Our study also demonstrates that elective exchange and intermittent subglottic secretion drainage can be performed reliably and safely using the PneuX System.

  12. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinneym, Patrick L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi’s low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern. PMID:26034383

  13. A pilot study on the reproductive risks of maternal exposure to magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Waseem; Roivainen, Päivi; Herrala, Mikko; Tiikkaja, Maria; Sallmén, Markku; Hietanen, Maila; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2018-02-26

    We investigated the feasibility of a large-scale epidemiological study on reproductive effects of intermediate frequency (IF) magnetic field (MF) exposure among cashiers working near electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems. The study cohort included 4157 women who had worked as cashiers in supermarkets with EAS devices (considered as exposed) or grocery stores without EAS devices (considered as unexposed) between 2008 and 2015. 536 births and 38 miscarriages occurred among these women during the study period, based on information from nationwide health registries. Measurements were also performed to characterize the MF exposure of cashiers. Cashiers were found to be exposed to 8.2 MHz MFs only when passing by the gates at short distance. Static fields of about 0.1 mT were observed at cashier's seat. Extremely low frequency MFs were higher at stores without EAS devices. No differences on the risk of miscarriage, reduced birth weight or preterm birth were observed between cashiers in different store types. Any further studies should attempt to include study subjects working near EAS systems that produce stronger IF MFs at kHz frequencies. Exposure to ELF MFs should be assessed as a possible confounding factor.

  14. Occupational exposure to roadway emissions and inside informal settlements in sub-Saharan Africa: A pilot study in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nicole S.; Gatari, Michael; Yan, Beizhan; Chillrud, Steven N.; Bouhamam, Kheira; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2015-06-01

    Few studies examine urban air pollution in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), yet urbanization rates there are among the highest in the world. In this study, we measured 8-hr average occupational exposure levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), ultra violet active-particulate matter (UV-PM), and trace elements for individuals who worked along roadways in Nairobi, specifically bus drivers, garage workers, street vendors, and women who worked inside informal settlements. We found BC and re-suspended dust were important contributors to PM2.5 levels for all study populations, particularly among bus drivers, while PM2.5 exposure levels for garage workers, street vendors, and informal settlement residents were not statistically different from each other. We also found a strong signal for biomass emissions and trash burning, which is common in Nairobi's low-income areas and open-air garages. These results suggest that the large portion of urban residents in SSA who walk along roadways would benefit from air quality regulations targeting roadway emissions from diesel vehicles, dust, and trash burning. This is the first study to measure occupational exposure to urban air pollution in SSA and results imply that roadway emissions are a serious public health concern.

  15. Long-Term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Incidence of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer in 15 European Cohorts within the ESCAPE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Pedersen, Marie; Galassi, Claudia; Jørgensen, Jeanette T.; Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Olsson, David; Oftedal, Bente; Marit Aasvang, Gunn; Aamodt, Geir; Pyko, Andrei; Pershagen, Göran; Korek, Michal; De Faire, Ulf; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Fratiglioni, Laura; Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Tjønneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Plusquin, Michelle; Key, Timothy J.; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Lang, Alois; Wang, Meng; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Fournier, Agnes; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Migliore, Enrica; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Amiano, Pilar; Dorronsoro, Miren; Vermeulen, Roel; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Keuken, Menno; de Hoogh, Kees; Beelen, Rob; Vineis, Paolo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Objective: We examined the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. Methods: In 15 cohorts from nine European countries, individual estimates of air pollution levels at the residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and Transport related Air Pollution and Health impacts - Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter (TRANSPHORM) projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5μm, ≤10μm, and 2.5–10μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse, respectively); PM2.5 absorbance; nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx); traffic intensity; and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations between breast cancer and air pollutants using Cox regression models, adjusting for major lifestyle risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Of 74,750 postmenopausal women included in the study, 3,612 developed breast cancer during 991,353 person-years of follow-up. We found positive and statistically insignificant associations between breast cancer and PM2.5 {hazard ratio (HR)=1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77, 1.51] per 5 μg/m3}, PM10 [1.07 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.30) per 10 μg/m3], PMcoarse [1.20 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.49 per 5 μg/m3], and NO2 [1.02 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.07 per 10 μg/m3], and a statistically significant association with NOx [1.04 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) per 20 μg/m3, p=0.04]. Conclusions: We found suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in European women. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1742 PMID:29033383

  16. Inhalation Exposure to Dioxins and dl-PCBs Depending on the Season in Upper Silesia, Poland: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubanek, Grzegorz; Marchwińska, Ewa; Hajok, Ilona; Piekut, Agata

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal fluctuation of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs levels in the ambient air of Upper Silesia in the aspect of human inhalation exposure as well as the estimation of health risk attributed to this exposure pathway to dioxins and dl-PCBs. In the study air samples were taken in five urban districts of Upper Silesia, Poland, where the houses are heated with coal. The same sampling points in summer and winter were analyzed for dioxins/furans and dl-PCBs. In addition, information was collected on awareness of the residents about the co-incineration of plastic waste and effects of this activity on human health. The results show that the average daily exposure of residents of Upper Silesia to TCDD and DLCs in the heating season was about 6.5.-fold higher than in summer. The risk assessment showed that expected excess of cancer cases per 1,000,000 people ranged from 4.5 to 13.2 in winter and from 0.9 to 2.1 in summer. The practice of mixing waste with coal for houses heating has been confirmed by investigated families, who do not associate it with the possibility of negative health effects. Air pollution can be a significant source of dioxin and dl-PCB for people during the winter season, as a result of co-burning coal and waste containing plastics. The dose of dioxins inhaled through the respiratory pathway in winter can be associated with the higher cancer risk in the population of Upper Silesia. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  17. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

    1984-01-01

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 μg benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  18. Acute spinal injury after centrifuge training in asymptomatic fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Wook; Shin, Young Ho; Kang, Seungcheol

    2015-04-01

    Many countries have hypergravity training centers using centrifuges for pilots to cope with a high gravity (G) environment. The high G training carries potential risk for the development of spinal injury. However, no studies evaluated the influence of centrifuge training on the spines of asymptomatic fighter pilots on a large scale. Study subjects were 991 male fighter pilots with high G training at one institution. Subject variables included information about physical characteristics, flight hours of pilots prior to the training, and G force exposure related factors during training. The two dependent variables were whether the pilots developed acute spinal injury after training and the severity of the injury (major/minor). The incidence of acute spinal injury after high G training was 2.3% (23 of 991 subjects). There were 19 subjects who developed minor injury and 4 subjects who developed a herniated intervertebral disc, which is considered a major injury. In multivariate analysis, only the magnitude of G force during training was significantly related to the development of acute spinal injury. However, there was no significant factor related to the severity of the injury. These results suggest that high G training could cause negative effects on fighter pilots' spines. The magnitude of G force during training seemed to be the most significant factor affecting the occurrence of acute spinal injury.

  19. Human exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury through fish and seafood product consumption in Italy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, A A; Baldini, M; Stacchini, P; Baldini, G; Morelli, S; Sagratella, E; Zaza, S; Ciardullo, S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of selected toxic heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), was investigated in fish and seafood products, namely, blue mussel, carpet shell clam, European squid, veined squid, deep-water rose shrimp, red mullet, European seabass, gilthead seabream, Atlantic cod, European hake, Atlantic bluefin tuna and swordfish so as to assess their human exposure through diet. Metals were detected by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg-AAS). Measurements of Cd, Pb and Hg were performed by means of analytical methods validated in compliance with UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025 [2005. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. Milano (Italy): UNI Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione]. The exposure assessment was undertaken matching the levels of Cd, Pb and total Hg with consumption data related to fish and seafood products selected for this purpose. In order to establish human health implications, the estimated weekly intakes (EWIs) for Cd, Pb and Hg were compared with the standard tolerable weekly intakes (TWI) for Cd and provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Hg stipulated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). The found metal concentrations were largely below the maximum levels (MLs) established at the European Union level with the exception of Cd. This metal exceeded the MLs in squid, red mullet, European hake and Atlantic cod. Squid and blue mussel showed the highest Pb concentrations which accounted for 60% and 10% of the MLs, respectively. Highest Hg levels were found in predatory fish. The concentrations of Hg in swordfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna and red mullet accounted for 50%, 30% and 30% of the MLs, respectively. The EWIs for Cd, Pb and Hg related to the consumption

  20. The effects of music exposure and own genre preference on conscious and unconscious cognitive processes: a pilot ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, George N; Riby, Leigh M

    2007-12-01

    Did Beethoven and Mozart have more in common with each other than Clapton and Hendrix? The current research demonstrated the widely reported Mozart Effect as only partly significant. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 16 professional classical and rock musicians during a standard 2 stimulus visual oddball task, while listening to classical and rock music. During the oddball task participants were required to discriminate between an infrequent target stimulus randomly embedded in a train of repetitive background or standard stimuli. Consistent with previous research, the P3 and N2 ERPs were elicited in response to the infrequent target stimuli. Own genre preference resulted in a reduction in amplitude of the P3 for classical musicians exposed to classical music and rock musicians exposed to rock music. Notably, at the pre-attentive stage of processing (N2) beneficial effects of exposure to classical music were observed for both groups of musicians. These data are discussed in terms of short and long-term music benefits on both conscious and unconscious cognitive processes.

  1. Calculation of lung cancer incidence in the Netherlands by smoking and radon exposure. Implications for the effect of radon; Berekening van de longkankerincidentie in Nederland door roken en blootstelling aan radon. Implicaties voor het effect van radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenhouts, H.P.; Brugmans, J.P. [Laboratorium voor Stralingsonderzoek, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-09-01

    Although the main cause of lung cancer is smoking cigarettes, part of the cases are subscribed to radon exposure, in particular {alpha}-radiation from daughter products. However, the relation between lung cancer and radon exposure is rather insecure. Based on international reports (e.g. BEIR VI) and extrapolation of lung cancer incidence in uranium mine workers to the population of the USA and subsequently to the Netherlands, the number of lung cancer cases in the Netherlands is estimated to be circa 800 per year, varying between 200-2000. Results of the analysis are summarized in this article. 10 refs.

  2. Influence of Teaching Strategies and its Order of Exposure on Pre-Clinical Teeth Arrangement - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Mani, Uma Maheswari; Christian, Jayanth; Seenivasan, Madhan Kumar; Natarajan, Parthasarathy; Vaidhyanathan, Anand Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Teeth arrangement is a vital skill for the undergraduate dental student. The attainment of skills depends largely on the methodology of teaching. In a dental curriculum, the students are exposed to a wide variety of inputs and teaching methodologies from different sources. The educational unit in dental school must identify the sequence of teaching methods that enhance the learning and practising ability of students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three different teaching methodologies for teeth arrangement and compare the differences between the orders of exposure to each teaching methodology on the development of teeth arrangement skills. The first year B.D.S students were study participants and were divided into three groups A, B, C. They were exposed to three teaching patterns namely live demonstration with video assisted teaching, group discussion with hand-outs and lectures with power point presentation. After each teaching methodology, their skill was assessed. The groups were exposed to three methodologies in different order for three arrangements. The scores obtained were analysed using Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Dunn test for statistical significance. Significantly higher scores in the teeth arrangement procedure were obtained by the Group A students who were exposed initially to live demonstration with video-assisted teaching. Difference in the scores was noted among and within the groups. The difference between Group A and Group C was statistically significant after both first and third teeth arrangement (p=0.0031, p=0.0057). The study suggests each pre-clinical practice should begin with a live demonstration to enhance immediate learning absorption followed by lectures with power point presentation and group discussion for retention of knowledge and memory retrieval.

  3. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  4. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To study cancer risk patterns among waiters in the Nordic countries. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 16,134 male and 81,838 female waiters from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. During the follow-up period from 1961 to 2005, we found that 19,388 incident cancer cases were...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...... INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...

  5. Does early indoor microbial exposure reduce the risk of asthma? The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, J; van Strien, R; Doekes, G; Smit, Jet; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Travier, N; Brunekreef, B

    Background: Exposure to microbial agents might inhibit the development of atopy and asthma. Objective: We measured the association between microbial exposure assessed at 3 months and the development of atopic sensitization and doctor-diagnosed (DD) asthma and wheeze in the first 4 years in a birth

  6. Biologically based analysis of lung cancer incidence in a large Canadian occupational cohort with low-LET low-dose radiation exposure, and comparison with Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazelton, W.D.; Curtis, S.B.; Moolgavkar, S.H.; Hutchinson, F.; Krewski, D.

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g. initiation with one or more stages, clonal expansion, or malignant conversion. Fixed lag or lag distributions are used to model time from first malignant cell to incidence. Background rates are analyzed by gender, job classification and birth cohort. Lacking individual smoking data, surrogate doses based on US annual per capita cigarette consumption appear to account for much of the birth cohort effect. Males, with mean cumulative exposure for gamma and tritium of 11.5 mSv and 322 incident lung cancer cases have a significant dose-response with 33 cases attributable to radiation. Female dose-response, with mean cumulative exposure of 1.7 mSv and 78 incident cases, appears similar but is not statistically significant. Findings for males include an inverse-dose-rate effect (increased risk with protraction of a given dose) and dose-response effects on initiation, promotion and malignant conversion, although the effect on initiation is not statistically significant. The excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) depend on age at exposure, duration, dose, and age at follow-up. The ERR increases with dose, tapering off at higher doses, making a plot of ERR against dose concave-downward, similar to apparent low-dose results seen below 1 Sv for solid tumor mortality of atomic bomb survivors. The concave-downward trend of ERR and the inverse-dose-rate effect are both counter to prevailing beliefs about effects of low

  7. Pilot study testing a European human biomonitoring framework for biomarkers of chemical exposure in children and their mothers: experiences in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Karen; Aerts, Dominique; Biot, Pierre; Casteleyn, Ludwine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Schwedler, Gerda; Castaño, Argelia; Angerer, Jürgen; Koch, Holger M; Esteban, Marta; Schindler, Birgit K; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Horvat, Milena; Bloemen, Louis; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Joas, Reinhard; Joas, Anke; Sepai, Ovnair

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to a number of environmental chemicals in UK mothers and children has been assessed as part of the European biomonitoring pilot study, Demonstration of a Study to Coordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES). For the European-funded project, 17 countries tested the biomonitoring guidelines and protocols developed by COPHES. The results from the pilot study in the UK are presented; 21 school children aged 6-11 years old and their mothers provided hair samples to measure mercury and urine samples, to measure cadmium, cotinine and several phthalate metabolites: mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxo-hexyl)phthalate (5oxo-MEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). Questionnaire data was collected on environment, health and lifestyle. Mercury in hair was higher in children who reported frequent consumption of fish (geometric mean 0.35 μg/g) compared to those that ate fish less frequently (0.13 μg/g, p = 0.002). Cadmium accumulates with age as demonstrated by higher levels of urinary cadmium in the mothers (geometric mean 0.24 μg/L) than in the children(0.14 μg/L). None of the mothers reported being regular smokers, and this was evident with extremely low levels of cotinine measured (maximum value 3.6 μg/L in mothers, 2.4 μg/L in children). Very low levels of the phthalate metabolites were also measured in both mothers and children (geometric means in mothers: 5OH-MEHP 8.6 μg/L, 5oxo-MEHP 5.1 μg/L, MEHP 1.2 μg/L, MEP 26.8 μg/L, MiBP 17.0 μg/L, MBzP 1.6 μg/L and MnBP 13.5 μg/L; and in children: 5OH-MEHP 18.4 μg/L, 5oxo-MEHP 11.4 μg/L, MEHP 1.4 μg/L, MEP 14.3 μg/L, MiBP 25.8 μg/L, MBzP 3.5 μg/L and MnBP 22.6 μg/L). All measured biomarker levels were similar to or below population-based reference values published by the US National Health and Nutrition

  8. Study on exposures in incidents situations involving X-ray generators of industrial use; Estudo de exposicoes em situacoes de incidentes envolvendo geradores de raios-X de uso industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Paulo B., E-mail: paulo@inovafi.com.br [Fisica aplicada a Inovacao Ltda. (INOVAFI), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rios, Denise A. da S., E-mail: denise@inovafi.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Case studies of accidents involving radiation sources provides valuable information for the improvement of equipment and procedures to be adopted to prevent their recurrence. Therefore, they are recommended as part of the licensing process of radiative facilities. However, when the equipment has no radiological protection requirements or have no record of accidents, an effective method to appropriate this knowledge necessary to improvements of process and project is the investigation of reported incidents and the proposition limit situations where exposures unlikely and even low intensity can occur. This work reviews incidents in X-ray equipment and thickness meters. Emergency situations are also studied in this type of equipment and in an accelerator of electrons self-shielded for curing of paints and varnishes. The exposure estimates are calculated from data collected in workplaces on the distance and time for each proposed case. Although there is no severe consequences to occupational health, the results can be used to improve the quality of training for operators and maintenance technicians, for proposing of new alarm systems and emergency teams procedures and may serve as a warning in inadvertent and avoidable situations of unnecessary exposures.

  9. Cancer incidence rate after diagnostic X-ray exposure in 1976-2003 among patients of a university children's hospital; Inzidenz von Kinderkrebs nach Roentgendiagnostik im Patientenkollektiv der Jahre 1976-2003 einer Universitaets-Kinderklinik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, G.P.; Zeeb, H.; Blettner, M. [Mainz Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik (IMBEI); Seidenbusch, M.C.; Schneider, K. [Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Regulla, D. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - Deutsches Forschungszentrum fuer Gesundheit und Umwelt, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Spix, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Deutsches Kinderkrebsregister

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Although the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation is well known, knowledge gaps persist on the health effects of low-dose radiation, especially in children. The cancer incidence rate in a cohort of 92,957 children diagnosed using X-rays in the years 1976-2003 in the radiology department of a large university clinic was studied. Materials and Methods: Individual radiation doses per examination were reconstructed using an algorithm taking into account the dose area product and other exposure parameters together with conversion factors computed specifically for the equipment and protocols used in the radiology department. Incident cancer cases in the period 1980-2006 were identified via record linkage to the German Childhood Cancer Registry using pseudonymized data. Results: A total of 87 cancers occurred in the cohort between 1980 and 2006: 33 leukemia, 13 lymphoma, 10 brain tumors, and 31 other tumors. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 0.99 (95 % CI: 0.79 1.22). A dose-response relationship was not observed for all cancers, leukemia and lymphoma or solid tumors. The cancer risks for boys and girls did not differ. Conclusion: No increase in the cancer incidence risk in relation to very low doses of diagnostic ionizing radiation was observed in this study. However, the results are compatible with a broad range of risk estimates. (orig.)

  10. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianling; Xun, Pengcheng; Morris, Steve; Jacobs, David R.; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that chromium deficiency is associated with elevated levels of fasting blood glucose, circulating insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides, and decreased proportion of lean body mass. However, data directly relating chromium levels to metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk are lacking. A total of 3,648 American adults from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, aged 20–32 years, were prospectively examined for the incidence of MetS and its five components from 1987–88 to 2010–11. Baseline toenail chromium levels were measured with instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Incident MetS was defined by the NCEP-ATP III criteria. During the 23-year follow-up, 878 incident MetS cases were identified. Baseline toenail chromium was inversely associated with incidence of MetS as well as its blood lipid components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of MetS comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of toenail chromium levels was 0.80 (0.66–0.98; Plinear trend = 0.006). The adjusted HRs were 0.82 (0.68–0.98; Ptrend = 0.045) for having abnormal triglycerides levels and 0.75 (0.64–0.88; Ptrend  = 0.030) for having abnormal HDL cholesterol levels. Toenail chromium levels were inversely and longitudinally associated with incidence of MetS in American young adults. This inverse association was mainly explained by its relation to blood lipids. PMID:26489690

  11. Wheelchair incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen AW van; Roszek B; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Kallewaard M; Wassenaar C; LGM

    2002-01-01

    This RIVM study was performed to gain insight into wheelchair-related incidents with powered and manual wheelchairs reported to the USA FDA, the British MDA and the Dutch Center for Quality and Usability Research of Technical Aids (KBOH). The data in the databases do not indicate that incidents with

  12. Two 238Pu inhalation incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of 238 Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B ( 238 PuNO 3 ) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A ( 238 PuO 2 ) received no therapy

  13. Pilot Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Maria Ie

    by conducting a literature review. The concept of pilot implementation, although commonly used in practice, is rather disregarded in research. In the literature, pilot implementations are mainly treated as secondary to the learning outcomes and are presented as merely a means to acquire knowledge about a given...... objective. The prevalent understanding is that pilot implementations are an ISD technique that extends prototyping from the lab and into test during real use. Another perception is that pilot implementations are a project multiple of co-existing enactments of the pilot implementation. From this perspective......This PhD dissertation engages in the study of pilot (system) implementation. In the field of information systems, pilot implementations are commissioned as a way to learn from real use of a pilot system with real data, by real users during an information systems development (ISD) project and before...

  14. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of

  15. Incident report and estimates of personnel exposure for a staff present in maze corridor of linac room while radiation beam on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, R.; Davis, C.A.; Ghamrawy, Kamal El; Arunkumar, L.S.

    2007-01-01

    The radiation safety features of high energy linear accelerator installations include primary and secondary barriers made of concrete (radiation bunkers), provision of maze wall for eliminating first scatter reaching the entrance door, locating room entrance perpendicular to maze corridor to reduce neutron dose. In addition, special motorized doors with lead lining and paraffin blocks, electrically interlocked to beam on-off system is provided for radiation safety. A radiation incident took place involving presence of a staff inside the Clinac 2300 CD room in September 2006 has been described

  16. Cancer incidence and community exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants in Contra Costa County, California: A critical epidemiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto Wong; Bailey, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The northern part of Contra Costa County, California is heavily industrialized with a number of petroleum refineries, chemical facilities and other small industrial plants. Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the country to assess cancer risk in relation to estimated air pollution levels. In this paper, the air monitoring data, air pollution modeling and the epidemiologic studies are critically reviewed. The association between cancer risk and estimated emissions is critically evaluated. The role of occupational and lifestyle (such as cigarette smoking and diet) confounding exposures is also assessed. The importance of validating exposure data generated by air pollution models in epidemiologic studies is emphasized. Pollutants of major concern are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons

  17. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  18. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  19. Contaminated Mexican steel incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report documents the circumstances contributing to the inadvertent melting of cobalt 60 (Co-60) contaminated scrap metal in two Mexican steel foundries and the subsequent distribution of contaminated steel products into the United States. The report addresses mainly those actions taken by US Federal and state agencies to protect the US population from radiation risks associated with the incident. Mexico had much more serious radiation exposure and contamination problems to manage. The United States Government maintained a standing offer to provide technical and medical assistance to the Mexican Government. The report covers the tracing of the source to its origin, response actions to recover radioactive steel in the United States, and return of the contaminated materials to Mexico. The incident resulted in significant radiation exposures within Mexico, but no known significant exposure within the United States. Response to the incident required the combined efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Department of State, and US Customs Service (Department of Treasury) personnel at the Federal level and representatives of all 50 State Radiation Control Programs and, in some instances, local and county government personnel. The response also required a diplomatic interface with the Mexican Government and cooperation of numerous commercial establishments and members of the general public. The report describes the factual information associated with the event and may serve as information for subsequent recommendations and actions by the NRC. 8 figures

  20. Incidence of infection in 39-month-old ewes with TMEM154 diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" after natural exposure to ovine progressive pneumonia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymaster, K A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Heaton, M P

    2015-01-01

    Production and well-being of sheep and goats in many countries are harmfully impacted by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) that cause incurable, progressive diseases. Susceptibility to ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), the North American form of SRLV, is influenced by variants of the ovine transmembrane protein 154 gene (TMEM154). The experimental objective was to estimate additive and dominance effects of TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3 on susceptibility of breeding ewes to infection after natural exposure to OPPV from birth to 39 mo of age. Sires and dams were heterozygous for TMEM154 haplotypes 1 and 3, producing ewe lambs with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3." These lambs were raised by mature, infected dams to ensure natural, maternal exposure to OPPV. Ewe lambs (n = 108) were kept for breeding and joined an infected flock of ewes to guarantee natural, nonmaternal exposure to OPPV. Ewes were bred to lamb at 1, 2, and 3 yr of age. Serum samples were collected at breeding, 1 mo before lambing and shortly after weaning each year to monitor infection status to 39 mo of age. During the experiment, 9 of the 108 ewes died while uninfected and data collected on these ewes were not analyzed. Infection status of the remaining 99 ewes at 39 mo of age was analyzed using logistic regression procedures. Effects of ewe type of birth, ewe type of rearing, and breed type of dam were not detected (P > 0.10), and the estimated sire variance component was nil. Ewe diplotype affected infection status (P ewes with diplotypes "1 1," "1 3," and "3 3" were 0.10, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and confidence intervals for diplotypes "1 3" and "3 3" were distinct from "1 1." Haplotype 3 was completely dominant to haplotype 1 at 39 mo of age. The probability of infection for ewes with either diplotype "1 3" or "3 3" averaged 8.5 times that of ewes with diplotype "1 1." Diplotype "1 3" and "3 3" ewes were highly susceptible to nonmaternal transmission of OPPV, in contrast to

  1. Prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in Dutch psychogeriatric nursing home residents by weekly half-body UVB exposure after showering: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chel, V.G.M.; Ooms, M.E.; Pavel, S.; de Gruijl, F.; Brand, A.; Lips, P.T.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: in older people, induction of cutaneous vitamin D production by ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure may be preferable to oral supplementation: it cannot cause toxic levels, it helps to prevent polypharmacy and, moreover, there are indications that UVB exposure has beneficial effects on health

  2. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children’s Secondhand Smoke (SHS Exposure in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children’s SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%, did not smoke at home at all (37%, did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%, or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57% were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49% and in the car (22% were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children’s SHS exposure.

  3. Risk factors for asthma and timing of exposure among first generation Arab immigrants: a pilot effort to elucidate the role of exposure to risk factors over multiple life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable controversy exists over the role of aero-allergens in asthma etiology. Some studies show increased risk with microbe and allergen exposure, while others show decreased risk. These discrepancies may be explained by timing of exposure. Previous research suggests that e...

  4. Incidence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids and measures taken by health care workers before and after exposure in regional hospitals of a developing country: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabermoghaddam, Mohsen; Sarbaz, Masoumeh; Lashkardoost, Hossein; Kaviani, Amine; Eslami, Saeid; Rezazadeh, Javad

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 health care workers working in government hospitals in the Northern Khorasan province of Iran. Exposure to sharp objects was 44% and 31% of participants had a history of being in contact with blood or body fluids of patients. Among health care workers who had needlestick injuries, 82 had a positive hepatitis B surface antibody titer measured after injury. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimated Internal and External Radiation Exposure of Caregivers of Patients With Pediatric Neuroblastoma Undergoing 131I Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangwon; Yoo, Seon Hee; Koh, Kyung-Nam; Lee, Jong Jin

    2017-04-01

    Current recommendations suggest that family members should participate in the care of children receiving in-hospital I metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy for neuroblastoma. The present study aimed to measure the external radiation exposure and estimate the internal radiation exposure of caregivers during the hospital stay for I MIBG therapy. Caregivers received radiation safety instructions and a potassium iodide solution for thyroid blockade before patient admission. External radiation exposure was determined using a personal pocket dosimeter. Serial 24-hour urine samples were collected from caregivers during the hospital stay. Estimated internal radiation exposure was calculated based on the urine activity. Twelve cases (mean age, 6.2 ± 3.5 years; range, 2-13 years) were enrolled. The mean administered activity was 233.3 ± 74.9 (range, 150.0-350.0) mCi. The mean external radiation dose was 5.8 ± 7.2 (range, 0.8-19.9) mSv. Caregivers of children older than 4 years had significantly less external radiation exposure than those of children younger than 4 years (1.9 ± 1.0 vs 16.4 ± 5.0 mSv; P = 0.012). The mean estimated internal radiation dose was 11.3 ± 10.2 (range, 1.0-29.8) μSv. Caregivers receive both external and internal radiation exposure while providing in-hospital care to children receiving I MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma. However, the internal radiation exposure was negligible compared with the external radiation exposure.

  6. Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekri, Mohamed; Cheung, Ivy N; Reid, Kathryn J; Wang, Chia-Hui; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-06-15

    This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions--role limitation due to physical problems and vitality--as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy. We suggest that architectural design of office environments should place more emphasis on sufficient daylight exposure of the workers in order to promote office workers' health and well-being.

  7. Tracking Adolescents With Global Positioning System-Enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Wiebe, Douglas J; Morrison, Christopher N; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E

    2015-08-01

    Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents' activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 years carried global positioning system (GPS)-enabled smartphones for 1 week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting global positioning system points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained nine times more alcohol outlets than that of residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low-socioeconomic status exposure was related to marijuana use. Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pilot implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2012-01-01

    A recurrent problem in information-systems development (ISD) is that many design shortcomings are not detected during development, but first after the system has been delivered and implemented in its intended environment. Pilot implementations appear to promise a way to extend prototyping from...... the laboratory to the field, thereby allowing users to experience a system design under realistic conditions and developers to get feedback from realistic use while the design is still malleable. We characterize pilot implementation, contrast it with prototyping, propose a iveelement model of pilot...... implementation and provide three empirical illustrations of our model. We conclude that pilot implementation has much merit as an ISD technique when system performance is contingent on context. But we also warn developers that, despite their seductive conceptual simplicity, pilot implementations can be difficult...

  9. Air transport pilot involvement in general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    General aviation (GA) fatal accident records of airport transport pilots (ATPs) : were : compared to those of private pilots (PVTs). : ATPs are safer GA pilots than the PVTs. : They have comparable exposure in GA airplanes and account for 7.5% of all...

  10. Pilot assessment of mercury exposure in selected biota from the lowlands of Nicaragua [Evaluacion piloto de exposicion al mercurio en biota selecta de las tierras bajas de Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    O.P. Lane; W.J. Arendt; M.A. Torrez; J.C. Gamez Castellon

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury, a potent neurotoxin, can damage health of humans and wildlife. In 2012, we collected 73 blood and feather samples from birds among diverse foraging guilds to assess mercury exposure in wetland habitats associated with Lakes Managua and Nicaragua. Blood levels (0.72 parts per million) in a piscivorous Neotropic Cormorant Phalacrocorax brasilianus from...

  11. Effect of cell phone radiofrequency radiation on body temperature in rodents: Pilot studies of the National Toxicology Program's reverberation chamber exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyde, Michael E; Horn, Thomas L; Capstick, Myles H; Ladbury, John M; Koepke, Galen; Wilson, Perry F; Kissling, Grace E; Stout, Matthew D; Kuster, Niels; Melnick, Ronald L; Gauger, James; Bucher, John R; McCormick, David L

    2018-04-01

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) causes heating, which can lead to detrimental biological effects. To characterize the effects of RFR exposure on body temperature in relation to animal size and pregnancy, a series of short-term toxicity studies was conducted in a unique RFR exposure system. Young and old B6C3F1 mice and young, old, and pregnant Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) RFR (rats = 900 MHz, mice = 1,900 MHz) at specific absorption rates (SARs) up to 12 W/kg for approximately 9 h a day for 5 days. In general, fewer and less severe increases in body temperature were observed in young than in older rats. SAR-dependent increases in subcutaneous body temperatures were observed at exposures ≥6 W/kg in both modulations. Exposures of  ≥10 W/kg GSM or CDMA RFR induced excessive increases in body temperature, leading to mortality. There was also a significant increase in the number of resorptions in pregnant rats at 12 W/kg GSM RFR. In mice, only sporadic increases in body temperature were observed regardless of sex or age when exposed to GSM or CDMA RFR up to 12 W/kg. These results identified SARs at which measurable RFR-mediated thermal effects occur, and were used in the selection of exposures for subsequent toxicology and carcinogenicity studies. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:190-199, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 The Authors. Bioelectromagnetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exposure to air pollution is associated with lung hyperinflation in healthy children and adolescents in Southwest Mexico City: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Mora-Tiscareño, A; Chung, C J; Valencia, G; Fordham, L A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Romero, L; Acuña, H; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Koren, H S

    2000-06-01

    Air pollution produces adverse health effects. The consequences of lifelong daily exposures to atmospheric pollutants upon the respiratory apparatus of healthy children are of considerable clinical importance. We investigated the association between exposure to a highly polluted urban environment with a complex mixture of air pollutants-ozone and particulate matter the predominant ones-and chest x-ray abnormalities in 59 healthy Mexican children who are lifelong residents of Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), with a negative history of tobacco exposure and respiratory illnesses. Their clinical results and x-ray findings were compared to those of 19 Mexican control children, residents of a low-pollution area, with a similar negative history of tobacco exposure and respiratory illnesses. Ozone concentrations in SWMMC exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O(3): 0.08 ppm as 1-h maximal concentration, not to be exceeded more than 4 times a year, on 71% of days in 1986 and 95% in 1997, with values as high as 0.48 ppm. Ozone maximal peaks are usually recorded between 2 and 5 pm coinciding with children's outdoor physical activities. Children in the control group reported no upper or lower respiratory symptomatology. Every SWMMC child complained of upper and/or lower respiratory symptoms, including epistaxis, nasal dryness and crusting, cough, shortness of breath, and chest discomfort. Children aged 7-13 yr had the most symptomatology, while 5- to 6-year olds and adolescents with the lowest number of statistically significant outdoor exposure hours had less respiratory symptoms. Bilateral symmetric mild lung hyperinflation was significantly associated with exposure to the SWMMC atmosphere (p = .0004). Chronic and sustained inhalation of a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone and particulate matter (PM), is associated with lung hyperinflation, suggestive of small airway disease

  13. An etiologic prediction model incorporating biomarkers to predict the bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Pavanello, Sofia; Porru, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Background No etiological prediction model incorporating biomarkers is available to predict bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. Methods Cases were 199 bladder cancer patients. Clinical, laboratory and genetic data were predictors in logistic regression models (full and short) in which the dependent variable was 1 for 15 patients with aromatic amines related bladder cancer and 0 otherwise. The receiver operating characteristics approach was adopted; th...

  14. Effects of exposure to pesticides during pregnancy on placental maturity and weight of newborns: a cross-sectional pilot study in women from the Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Maldonado, Brenda; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2009-08-01

    It is known that pesticides cross the placental barrier and can cause alterations in the development of placental structures resulting in adverse effects in reproduction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pesticide exposure during pregnancy on placental maturity and to evaluate the relationship between placental maturity, gestational age and birth weight. We collected the placentas from singleton pregnancies from women exposed (n = 9) and non-exposed (n = 45 full-term and n = 31 preterm) to pesticides as evaluated geographically, by questionnaire and by acetylcholinesterase levels. Placental morphometry from the central and peripheral regions was examined by microscopy and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The placental maturity index (PMI) was estimated by dividing the number of epithelial plates in terminal villi to their thickness in 1 mm(2) of the placental parenchyma. Gestational age, birth weight and the following characteristics of the mother were also recorded: pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and hemoglobin concentrations. Birth weight and the gestational age were correlated with PMI (r = .54 and r = .44, respectively; p Pesticide exposure was associated with a higher PMI (beta = 7.38, p = .01) after adjusting by variables related to placental maturity. In conclusion, the results suggest a relationship between prenatal exposure to pesticides and placental maturity and may potentially affect the nutrient transport from the mother to the fetus.

  15. Development of an EDV-supported decision instrument for site pre-selection of nuclear power plants. EDV-supported instrument for calculation of the space distribution of the collective dose rate and area contamination. Vol. 1. Radiation exposure through air- and water paths under authorized operating conditions and during incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruessermann, K; Eschhaus, M; Kreymborg, A; Muenster, M; Schommer, N

    1980-01-01

    The collective dose rate and the area contamination form a basis for site criteria going beyond the individual considerations of distribution of the population, hydrology, meteorology etc. The possibilities of radio-ecological models on the radiation exposure through air- and water paths during operation and incidents are described by example of Biblis, Muelheim-Kaerlich and Esensham. Comparative evaluations were effected for Fessenheim.

  16. Occupational exposure to vapor, gas, dust, or fumes and chronic airflow limitation, COPD, and emphysema: the Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study (SCAPIS pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén K

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Kjell Torén,1 Jenny Vikgren,2 Anna-Carin Olin,1 Annika Rosengren,3 Göran Bergström,3 John Brandberg2 1Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, 2Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the occupational burden of airflow limitation, chronic airflow limitation, COPD, and emphysema.Materials and methods: Subjects aged 50–64 years (n=1,050 were investigated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC. Airflow limitation was defined as FEV1/FVC <0.7 before bronchodilation. Chronic airflow limitation was defined after bronchodilation either according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD as FEV1/FVC <0.7 or according to the lower limit of normal (LLN approach as FEV1/FVC < LLN. COPD was defined as chronic airflow limitation (GOLD in combination with dyspnea, wheezing, or chronic bronchitis. Emphysema was classified according to findings from computed tomography of the lungs. Occupational exposure was defined as self-reported occupational exposure to vapor, gas, dust, or fumes (VGDF. Odds ratios (OR were calculated in models adjusted for age, gender, and smoking; population-attributable fractions and 95% CI were also calculated.Results: There were significant associations between occupational exposure to VGDF and COPD (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4–51, airflow limitation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.5, and emphysema (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1. The associations between occupational exposure to VGDF and chronic airflow limitation were weaker, and for the OR, the CIs included unity. The population-attributable fraction for occupational exposure to VGDF was 0.37 (95% CI 0.23–0.47 for COPD and 0.23 (95% CI 0.05–0.35 for emphysema.Conclusion: The

  17. Validation of exposure assessment and assessment of recruitment methods for a prospective cohort study of mobile phone users (COSMOS) in Finland: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinävaara, Sirpa; Tokola, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi

    2011-03-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and operator-derived estimates of call time based on a three-month monitoring period, as well as the consistency of mobile phone use over time. Alternative approaches to improve participation in a cohort study of mobile phone users were also compared. A total of 5,400 subjects were identified from network operators' subscriber databases for recruitment to the pilot study. Operator and questionnaire data were used to quantify mobile phone use. Operator data were available for a subset of the subjects for a three-month period in three consecutive years. We also evaluated the effect of the length of the questionnaire and one- or two-phase recruitment on participation. The average response rate for both questionnaires and recruitment procedures was 12%. The response rate was not affected by the length of the questionnaire or the recruitment method.Operator data were available for 83% of the participants for 2007, the first study year. The agreement between self-reported and operator-derived call times decreased with the level of use among intermediate and heavy mobile phone users. During 2007-2009, mobile phone use increased fairly constantly over time. The agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and operator databases was moderate and overestimation of the call time by participants was common. A prospective cohort study would be feasible in Finland, although the potentially low participation rate would increase the resources required for recruitment.

  18. The impact of critical incidents on mental health : An exploratory pilot study into the moderating effects of social support on the impact of adverse events in Dutch rescue workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.; Gaillard, A.W.K.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated mental health- and work-related problems of 67 rescue workers (police officers and medical emergency drivers) caused by the accumulation of critical incidents during their career. Using Hobfoll’s theory of conservation of resources, this is one of the first studies in The

  19. Lead exposure and fear-potentiated startle in the VA Normative Aging Study: a pilot study of a novel physiological approach to investigating neurotoxicant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashow, Rachel; Miller, Mark W; McKinney, Ann; Nie, Linda H; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2013-01-01

    Physiologically-based indicators of neural plasticity in humans could provide mechanistic insights into toxicant actions on learning in the brain, and perhaps prove more objective and sensitive measures of such effects than other methods. We explored the association between lead exposure and classical conditioning of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR)-a simple form of associative learning in the brain-in a population of elderly men. Fifty-one men from the VA Normative Aging Study with cumulative bone lead exposure measurements made with K-X-Ray-Fluorescence participated in a fear-conditioning protocol. The mean age of the men was 75.5years (standard deviation [sd]=5.9) and mean patella lead concentration was 22.7μg/g bone (sd=15.9). Baseline ASR eyeblink response decreased with age, but was not associated with subsequent conditioning. Among 37 men with valid responses at the end of the protocol, higher patella lead was associated with decreased awareness of the conditioning contingency (declarative learning; adjusted odds ratio [OR] per 20μg/g patella lead=0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84, 0.99, p=0.03). Eyeblink conditioning (non-declarative learning) was 0.44sd less (95% CI: -0.91, 0.02; p=0.06) per 20μg/g patella lead after adjustment. Each result was stronger when correcting for the interval between lead measurement and startle testing (awareness: OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99, p=0.04; conditioning: -0.79sd less, 95% CI: -1.56, 0.03, p=0.04). This initial exploration suggests that lead exposure interferes with specific neural mechanisms of learning and offers the possibility that the ASR may provide a new approach to physiologically explore the effects of neurotoxicant exposures on neural mechanisms of learning in humans with a paradigm that is directly comparable to animal models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reported incidences and factors associated with percutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsoft Office User

    precautions, training and reduction of long working hours are necessary in order to reduce infections from .... -4-. Incidences of percutaneous injuries and mucocutaneous blood exposure ... than 40 hours per week (14.9 %) (p= 0.001).

  1. Narrative Exposure Therapy as a treatment for child war survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: Two case reports and a pilot study in an African refugee settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuner Frank

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little data exists on the effectiveness of psychological interventions for children with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD that has resulted from exposure to war or conflict-related violence, especially in non-industrialized countries. We created and evaluated the efficacy of KIDNET, a child-friendly version of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET, as a short-term treatment for children. Methods Six Somali children suffering from PTSD aged 12–17 years resident in a refugee settlement in Uganda were treated with four to six individual sessions of KIDNET by expert clinicians. Symptoms of PTSD and depression were assessed pre-treatment, post-treatment and at nine months follow-up using the CIDI Sections K and E. Results Important symptom reduction was evident immediately after treatment and treatment outcomes were sustained at the 9-month follow-up. All patients completed therapy, reported functioning gains and could be helped to reconstruct their traumatic experiences into a narrative with the use of illustrative material. Conclusions NET may be safe and effective to treat children with war related PTSD in the setting of refugee settlements in developing countries.

  2. Exposure to psychosocial risks at work in prisons: does contact with inmates matter? A pilot study among prison workers in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Ali; Ronda, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Álvares, Nahum; Mateo, Inmaculada

    2011-04-01

    Research has lately increased its focus on work conditions as predictors of stress among prison workers but only few studies have focused on how the exposure of workers to psychosocial risks vary according to their occupational groups and their contact with inmates. Work psychosocial risks (demands, control and social support) were assessed using the Spanish version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire among 164 Spanish prison workers (43 per cent of those surveyed). Regression analysis was used to explore how psychosocial hazards and their combinations (outcome variables) vary according to occupational groups. Results suggest that psychosocial risks were highest among guards that have more contact with inmates. Implications of the findings for policy making and practice application are discussed. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Pilot Greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot greenhouse was built in collaboration with the "Association des Maraichers" of Geneva in the frame of the study for making use of the heat rejected as warm water by CERN accelerators and experiments. Among other improvements, more automated and precise regulation systems for heating and ventilation were developed. See also 8305598X.

  4. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. An etiologic prediction model incorporating biomarkers to predict the bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Carta, Angela; Arici, Cecilia; Pavanello, Sofia; Porru, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    No etiological prediction model incorporating biomarkers is available to predict bladder cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to aromatic amines. Cases were 199 bladder cancer patients. Clinical, laboratory and genetic data were predictors in logistic regression models (full and short) in which the dependent variable was 1 for 15 patients with aromatic amines related bladder cancer and 0 otherwise. The receiver operating characteristics approach was adopted; the area under the curve was used to evaluate discriminatory ability of models. Area under the curve was 0.93 for the full model (including age, smoking and coffee habits, DNA adducts, 12 genotypes) and 0.86 for the short model (including smoking, DNA adducts, 3 genotypes). Using the "best cut-off" of predicted probability of a positive outcome, percentage of cases correctly classified was 92% (full model) against 75% (short model). Cancers classified as "positive outcome" are those to be referred for evaluation by an occupational physician for etiological diagnosis; these patients were 28 (full model) or 60 (short model). Using 3 genotypes instead of 12 can double the number of patients with suspect of aromatic amine related cancer, thus increasing costs of etiologic appraisal. Integrating clinical, laboratory and genetic factors, we developed the first etiologic prediction model for aromatic amine related bladder cancer. Discriminatory ability was excellent, particularly for the full model, allowing individualized predictions. Validation of our model in external populations is essential for practical use in the clinical setting.

  6. Effect of a Brief Heat Exposure on Blood Pressure and Physical Performance of Older Women Living in the Community—A Pilot-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Stotz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is affecting health and mortality, particularly in vulnerable populations. High ambient temperatures decrease blood pressure (BP in young and middle aged adults and may lead to orthostatic hypotension, increasing the risk of falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a test protocol to investigate BP response and aerobic capacity of older adults in a hot indoor environment. BP response and aerobic capacity were assessed in 26 community-dwelling older women (median age 75.5 years at a room temperature of either 20 °C or 30 °C. The protocol was well tolerated by all participants. In the 30 °C condition systolic and diastolic BP (median difference 10 and 8 mmHg, respectively and distance walked in 6 min (median difference 29.3 m were lower than in the 20 °C condition (all p < 0.01. Systolic BP decreased after standing up from a lying position in the 30 °C (17.4 mmHg and 20 °C (14.2 mmHg condition (both p < 0.001. In conclusion, the protocol is feasible in this cohort and should be repeated in older adults with poor physical performance and impaired cardio-vascular response mechanisms. Furthermore, aerobic capacity was reduced after exposure to hot environmental temperatures, which should be considered when recommending exercise to older people during the summer months.

  7. Incidence of aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis in Latin America: the LATIN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare but life-threatening disorders, often caused by drugs and other environmental exposures. Reported incidence of these diseases seems to vary between different geographic regions, and few data on their incidence are available for Latin American countries. The aim of this work is to determine the incidence of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Incidence study. Seven centers took part in the pilot phase, so as to represent all Brazilian regions. METHODS: Each center conducted an active search for new cases in a defined region by means of regular contacts with all hematologists, main clinical laboratories and clinicians in hospitals of the region. RESULTS: 74 patients with aplastic anemia and 16 with agranulocytosis were identified. Patients with agranulocytosis had a median age of 31 years (interquartile range, IQR: 12.5-48.2; 32.2% were male and 81.2% were white. The median age of aplastic anemia patients was 21 years (IQR 15.0-35.2; 62.2% were male, 50.0% were white and 39.2% mulatto. The incidence of agranulocytosis was estimated to be 0.5 cases per million individuals per year, ranging from 0.0 to 1.1 cases per million per year between regions. The incidence of aplastic anemia was 2.7 cases per million per year, ranging from 1.1 to 7.1 cases per million per year between regions. CONCLUSIONS: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare diseases in Brazil. However, there is considerable variability in their incidences between different regions.

  8. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmeester, G.H.; Swart, A.; Dijk, E. van

    1984-01-01

    In May 1980 it was decided to organize an intercomparison of personal dosimeters for photon radiations. The Commission of the European Communities initiated the intercomparison by starting a pilot study in which three laboratories NPL (United Kingdom), PTB (Germany) and RIV (The Netherlands) were asked to irradiate a series of personal dosemeters from institutes, GSF (Muenchen), CEA (Fontenay-aux-Roses), CNEN (Bologna) and CEGB (Berkeley). The latter institutes are secondary standard laboratories and have a radiation protection service as well. A new aspect of this pilot study is the fact that the irradiations also take place in front of a phantom. Irradiations took place in July and August 1980. The results of 4 institutes show that the personal dosemeters are quite capable of measuring the backscattered photon components

  9. Prevalence of fatigue in a group of airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cátia; Mestre, Catarina; Canhão, Helena

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is a common phenomenon in airline pilots that can impair alertness and ability of crewmembers to safely operate an aircraft and perform safety related tasks. Fatigue can increase the risk of an incident or even an accident. This study provides the first prevalence values for clinically significant fatigue in Portuguese airline pilots. The hypothesis that medium/short-haul pilots may currently present different levels of fatigue than long-haul pilots was also tested. A survey was conducted by requesting Portuguese airline pilots to complete questionnaires placed in the pilots' personal lockers from 1 April until 15 May 2012. The questionnaire included the self-response Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) to measure subjective fatigue and some additional questions concerning perception of fatigue by pilots. The prevalence values for total and mental fatigue achieved in the Portuguese airline pilots were: 89.3% (FSS > or = 4) and 94.1% (FSS > or = 4) when splitting the sample in two subsamples, long- and medium/short-haul pilots. Levels of total and mental fatigue were higher for medium/short-haul pilots. The analysis of fatigue levels in each type of aviator showed that medium/short-haul pilots presented the highest levels of total and mental fatigue. This study produced the first prevalence values of total and mental fatigue among Portuguese airline pilots, which represents a great step to understanding and addressing this critical phenomenon.

  10. Pilot study for natural radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.; Driscoll, C.M.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Miles, J.C.H.

    1983-01-01

    NRPB's national survey of natural radiation exposure in homes commenced in 1982 and will run until 1984. A pilot survey was undertaken in over 100 homes for one year, using passive thermoluminescent dosemeters to measure external radiation from terrestrial and cosmic sources and passive radon dosemeters to measure the radon-222 gas concentration. A preliminary analysis of the results obtained from the pilot survey is given. The main value of the pilot survey was in providing experience and various administrative and scientific procedures have been simplified or automated for the national survey. (U.K.)

  11. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  12. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  13. PILOT STUDY: THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools for children in the age range of 1-5 years old. The pilot study focused on (a) simple, cost-...

  14. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources; Zwischenfaelle mit gefaehrlichen Strahlenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule

    2016-07-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  15. Centrifuge-induced neck and back pain in F-16 pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Nielsen, René Tyranski; Skejø, Pernille Bro

    2013-01-01

    Early in their careers, as an important part of their training to become fighter pilots, pilots undergo centrifuge training in order to learn effective anti-G straining maneuvers (AGSM) and to test their G tolerance. The exposure of pilots, especially early in their careers, to training that could...

  16. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  17. 75 FR 56857 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...-2006-26661; Amendment No., 141-14] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School..., certification, and operating requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools...: Background On August 21, 2009, the FAA published the ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School...

  18. Incidence of shoulder and neck pain in a working population: effect modification between mechanical and psychosocial exposures at work? Results from a one year follow up of the Malmö shoulder and neck study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Per-Olof; Hanson, Bertil S; Balogh, Istvan; Ektor-Andersen, John; Isacsson, Agneta; Orbaek, Palle; Winkel, Jörgen; Isacsson, Sven-Olof

    2005-09-01

    To assess the impact of mechanical exposure and work related psychosocial factors on shoulder and neck pain. A prospective cohort study. 4919 randomly chosen, vocationally active men and women ages 45-65 residing in a Swedish city. Neck and shoulder pain were determined by the standardised Nordic questionnaire. Mechanical exposure was assessed by an index based on 11 items designed and evaluated for shoulder and neck disorders. Work related psychosocial factors were measured by the Karasek and Theorell demand-control instrument. High mechanical exposure was associated with heightened risk for shoulder and neck pain among men and women during follow up. Age adjusted odds ratios (OR) were 2.17 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.65, 2.85) and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.22, 2.06), respectively. In women, job strain (high psychological job demands and low job decision latitude) correlated with heightened risk (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.29, 2.31). These risk estimates remained statistically significant when controlled for high mechanical exposure regarding job strain (and vice versa), and for sociodemographic factors. Testing for effect modification between high mechanical exposure and job strain showed them acting synergistically only in women. Job related mechanical exposure in both sexes, and psychosocial factors in women, seem independently of each other to play a part for development of shoulder and neck pain in vocationally active people. The effect of psychosocial factors was more prominent in women, which could be the result of biological factors as well as gender issues. These results suggest that interventions aiming at reducing the occurrence of shoulder and neck pain should include both mechanical and psychosocial factors.

  19. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petterson, J.S.

    1988-06-01

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  20. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  1. Pilot Boarding Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot boarding areas are locations at sea where pilots familiar with local waters board incoming vessels to navigate their passage to a destination port. Pilotage is...

  2. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  3. The impact of transition training on adapting to Technically Advanced Aircraft at regional airlines: Perceptions of pilots and instructor pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Renzo, John Carl, Jr.

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesis about pilot and instructor pilot perceptions of how effectively pilots learn and use new technology, found in Technically Advanced Aircraft (TAA), given initial type of instrumentation training. New aviation technologies such as Glass Cockpits in technically advanced aircraft are complex and can be difficult to learn and use. The research questions focused on the type of initial instrumentation training to determine the differences among pilots trained using various types of instrumentation ranging from aircraft equipped with traditional analog instrumentation to aircraft equipped with glass cockpits. A convenience sample of Pilots in Training (PT) and Instructor Pilots (IP) was selected from a regional airline. The research design used a mixed methodology. Pilots in training completed a thirty-two question quantitative questionnaire and instructor pilots completed a five question qualitative questionnaire. Findings and conclusions. This investigation failed to disprove the null hypothesis. The type of instrumentation training has no significant effect on newly trained regional airline pilot perceived ability to adapt to advanced technology cockpits. Therefore, no evidence exists from this investigation to support the early introduction and training of TAA. While the results of this investigation were surprising, they are nonetheless, instructive. Even though it would seem that there would be a relationship between exposure to and use of technically advanced instrumentation, apparently there was no perceived relationship for this group of airline transport pilots. However, a point of interest is that these pilots were almost evenly divided in their opinion of whether or not their previous training had prepared them for transition to TAA. The majority also believed that the type of initial instrumentation training received does make a difference when transitioning to TAA. Pilots believed

  4. APMP Pilot Study on Transmittance Haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Chun; Hwang, Jisoo; Koo, Annette; Wu, Houping; Leecharoen, Rojana; Yu, Hsueh-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Five NMIs within APMP, including CMS/ITRI, MSL, NIM, NIMT and KRISS from TCPR applied to the APMP technical committee initiative project for funding to carry out a pilot comparison of transmittance haze in 2012. The project started in 2014 and the final report was completed at the end of 2016. In this pilot comparison, three different haze standards were adopted, and transmittance haze for each standard was measured according to ASTM D1003 or ISO 14782. This paper presents the first results of an APMP pilot study of transmittance haze and the analysis of the variation among different haze measurement systems which are commonly used. The study shows that the variables such as sphere multiplier, transmittance distribution, fluorescence of samples and optical path of the incident beam cause discrepancies among NMIs and highlight deficiencies in current documentary standards.

  5. Aquisition of age- and sex-dependent patient data for the calculation of annual radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: a German pilot study; Erfassung alters- und geschlechtsbezogener Daten nuklearmedizinischer Untersuchungen zur Berechnung der jaehrlichen Strahlenexposition in der BRD: Eine Pilotstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell-Inderst, P.; Hacker, M.; Weiss, M.; Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Nosske, D.; Stamm-Meyer, A.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Aim: a pilote study for estimation of radiation exposure due to diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine using routine data of hospitals and practices in Germany. Methods: hospitals and practices willing to participate in the study supplied data of one year (1997), containing information on patients' identification number, age, sex, type of diagnostic procedure, radiopharmaceutical, administered activity, type of health insurance (private/public), inpatient/outpatient status, and so-called leistungsziffer, which describes the type of medical performances in Germany. The effective dose per examination was calculated according to ICRP 80. Mean, standard deviation, median, 5{sup th} and 95{sup th} percentiles of the effective dose were calculated, stratified by type of organ system and also by sex and age, including patients of {>=} 18 years. Results: 82 039 examinations from patients of 9 hospitals and practices were analyzed. The median (5-95{sup th} percentiles) of the effective dose per examination for all patients was 2.9 mSv (0.4-8.5 mSv); 1.2 examinations per patient and year were performed on average. The three most frequent examinations were bone scans (median 3.4 mSv; 2.9-5.1), thyroid (0.9 mSv; 0.4-2.2) and cardiovascular studies (7.3 mSv; 3.8-20.2). The median effective dose for 18 to 40 years old women was 1.0 mSv (0.4-5.8), for women between 41 and 65 years 2.2 mSv (0.4-7.3) and for women older than 65 years 2.4 mSv (0.5-7.6). The corresponding values for men were 2.6 mSv (0.3-7.6); 3.3 mSv (0.4-9.1), and 3.4 mSv (0.5-8.8). Conclusion: it was possible to gain an accurate determination of radiation exposure of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine by routine data. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Pilotstudie zur Ermittlung der Strahlenexposition in Deutschland bei Untersuchungen in der nuklearmedizinischen Diagnostik anhand von Routinedaten aus Kliniken und Praxen. Methoden: Kliniken und Praxen in Deutschland lieferten 1997 routinemaessig erhobene

  6. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godar, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290-320 nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321-400 nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to∼ 50 degree N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  7. Cognitive engineering in aerospace application: Pilot interaction with cockpit automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Nadine R.; Woods, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Because of recent incidents involving glass-cockpit aircraft, there is growing concern with cockpit automation and its potential effects on pilot performance. However, little is known about the nature and causes of problems that arise in pilot-automation interaction. The results of two studies that provide converging, complementary data on pilots' difficulties with understanding and operating one of the core systems of cockpit automation, the Flight Management System (FMS) is reported. A survey asking pilots to describe specific incidents with the FMS and observations of pilots undergoing transition training to a glass cockpit aircraft served as vehicles to gather a corpus on the nature and variety of FMS-related problems. The results of both studies indicate that pilots become proficient in standard FMS operations through ground training and subsequent line experience. But even with considerable line experience, they still have difficulties tracking FMS status and behavior in certain flight contexts, and they show gaps in their understanding of the functional structure of the system. The results suggest that design-related factors such as opaque interfaces contribute to these difficulties which can affect pilots' situation awareness. The results of this research are relevant for both the design of cockpit automation and the development of training curricula specifically tailored to the needs of glass cockpits.

  8. The Association Between Pitch Conditions and the Incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shown to influence incidence of rugby injuries. Harsh weather conditions and detrimental effect on poor Kenyan rugby pitches create a unique environment for injury exposure. We conducted a whole population prospective cohort study to determine the association of pitch conditions with injury incidence and severity.

  9. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  10. Cancer incidence study in Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouimette, D.R.; Ferguson, S.W.; Zoglo, D.; Murphy, S.; Alley, S.; Bahler, S.

    1983-01-01

    In November of 1982 the Colorado Department of Health completed an epidemiologic investigation of leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, stomach, pancreas and colon in Mesa County, Colorado for the years 1970 to 1979. This investigation was performed in response to a concern that the presence of uranium mill tailings in some Mesa County homes presents a potential cancer hazard. The results of the investigation show that the incidence of multiple myeloma, colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer are not above expected rates. The incidence of leukemia is not above expected rates for the entire study period, 1970 to 1979. The incidence of lung cancer appears elevated when compared to the The Third National Cancer Survey data for Colorado but lower than expected when compared to Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data. To further examine the leukemia and lung cancer incidence findings, a case/control study was conducted. The controls consisted of colon, stomach and pancreatic cancer cases. The results of the leukemia case/control analysis show no association with the radiation exposure variables: occupational radiation exposure; uranium mining exposure; having ever lived in a type A home (uranium tailings home); and radiation therapy. The lung cancer case/control analysis shows a significant association with only the radiation exposure variable, uranium mining history, indicating cases were more likely to have been uranium miners than were controls. As with leukemia, the study found no association between lung cancer and living in a uranium mill tailings home. The relatively low radiation exposures typical of type A homes and the small number of persons exposed make it very difficult to establish, by epidemiologic methods, that a risk exists

  11. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  12. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  13. Prediction of Safety Incidents

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Safety incidents, including injuries, property damage and mission failures, cost NASA and contractors thousands of dollars in direct and indirect costs. This project...

  14. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  15. Acute incidents during anaesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of acute incidents and the prevention of ... High or total (complete) spinal blocks in obstetric .... Pain and opioid analgesics lead to delayed ... Step up postoperative care and use ... recognise suprasternal and supraclavicular.

  16. Thyroid cancer incidence in the Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident: comparison with spontaneous incidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.; Kairo, I.; Likhtarev, I.; Heidenreich, W.F.; Jacob, P.; Goulko, G.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid cancer incidence in the Ukraine among those born in the period 1968-1986 was analyzed with the aim to identify the enhancement due to the Chernobyl accident. Since any Ukrainian data referring to the time period before the accident are scarce and the variation of spontaneous incidences in other countries is immense, the Ukrainian incidences in the period 1986-1989 were used to estimate the baseline risk. Following 1990, the incidence in the southern part of the Ukraine increased by about 30%, independent of age. In the other parts the increase of the incidence depended on age at exposure. In the age group of 9-year-old children, the incidences in three regions defined as the 'high-dose area', the northern, and the middle oblasts, increased by factors of 50, 20, and 6, respectively. These rates (1991-1995) are well above spontaneous rates in other countries. In the age group of 17-year-old juveniles, the incidence increased by a factor of 6 for the 'high dose area' and in the three northern oblasts, whereas in the nine 'middle' oblasts it was similar to the incidence of the 'southern' Ukraine. These rates are within the range found in other countries. (orig.)

  17. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  18. Hazards of radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis form the main risks to health from exposure to low levels of radiation. There is scant data on somatic and genetic risks at environmental and occupational levels of radiation exposure. The available data on radiation induced carcinogenesis and mutagenesis are for high doses and high dose rates of radiation. Risk assessments for low level radiation are obtained using these data, assuming a linear dose-response relationship. During uranium mining the chief source of radiation hazard is inhalation of radon daughters. The correlation between radon daughter exposure and the increased incidence of lung cancer has been well documented. For radiation exposures at and below occupational limits, the associated risk of radiation induced cancers and genetic abnormalities is small and should not lead to a detectable increase over naturally occurring rates

  19. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  20. [Developing indices for caloric restriction related to World War II--a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shi; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2011-04-01

    The vast numbers of studies regarding caloric restriction (CR) and breast cancer risk are based on war-related extreme situations. Studying the impact of CR in Jews during World War II (WW II) is challenging due to its variance and duration. To develop novel research tools in order to assess CR exposure in Jews that occurred more than 60 years ago during WW II. A pilot study based on Israeli women born in Europe in 1926-45, who lived there during WWII. Primary incident breast cancer patients and population-based controls were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire referring to demographic, obstetric factors and WW II experiences. Exposure to WWII-related CR was assessed by several proxy variables based on this information. The individual hunger score was higher in the exposed cases [mean score 141.06 vs. 130.07 in the controls). The same trend was observed for self perceived hunger score (mean score 2.75 in cases vs. 2.40 in controls) and hunger symptoms score (4.89 vs. 3.56, respectively). The novel research tools are appropriate for comparative assessment of CR exposure in case control studies.

  1. Overview of medical occupational exposure issues in the European Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.; Legaure, C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to set the scene for this, the 6th European ALARA Network (EAN) Workshop, the topic of which is Occupational Exposure Optimisation in the Medical Field and Radiopharmaceutical Industry. As with previous Workshops, apart from providing a forum for the exchange of information and experiences, it has an objective, the identification of recommendations to the European Commission, regulatory bodies and other involved parties. The previous five Workshops have rise to some 35 recommendations. Stemming from these several new projects have been started. For example. . The nd Workshop on Good Practices in Industry and Research identified the need to improve the mechanisms for improving feedback and learning the lessons from accidents and incidents. This lead to an EC pilot study, European Union Radiation Accident and Incident Data Exchange Project (EURAIDE) which is covered in a later paper. . The 3rd Workshop on Managing Internal Internal Exposure gave rise to an EC project: Strategies and Methods for Optimisation of Internal Exposure (SMOPIE) of workers from industrial processes involving naturally occurring radioactive material. . The 5th Workshop Industrial Radiography-Improvements in Radiation Protection has give rise to an EC supported Joint Working Group from EAN and the European Non-Destructive Testing Society to take forward improvements in industrial radiography. The progress of these initiative can be followed in the EAN newsletter. It is to be hoped that the recommendations from this Workshop, will similarly lead to useful programmes of work. . In order to facilitate the development of recommendations, the Workshop Programme includes two sessions where participants will split into a number of Working Groups to develop ideas. These will be reported on in the final session of the programme and we will attempt to bring together the strands into a coherent set of recommendations. As a further aid to this process this paper briefly reviews the

  2. Automation surprise : results of a field survey of Dutch pilots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, R.J.; Hurts, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Automation surprise (AS) has often been associated with aviation safety incidents. Although numerous laboratory studies have been conducted, few data are available from routine flight operations. A survey among a representative sample of 200 Dutch airline pilots was used to determine the prevalence

  3. Upper respiratory infections and barotrauma among commercial pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Nina Monrad; Klokker, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health incapacitation is a serious threat to flight safety. Therefore, a study conducted 10 yr ago examined the incidents of ear-nose-throat (ENT) barotrauma and upper respiratory infection (URI) among commercial pilots and found that a large number continued to carry out their duties...

  4. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  5. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelock, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author)

  6. Preparing Pilots for Takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravage, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Why would schools consider partnering with a vendor to operate a pilot? Why not just wait until the final product is released? For starters, pilots provide schools with a golden opportunity to get an early look at the software, take it for a test flight, and ask for changes tailored to their operating environment and business needs. In some cases,…

  7. Acceptability and perceived utility of drone technology among emergency medical service responders and incident commanders for mass casualty incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexander; Chai, Peter R; Griswold, Matthew K; Lai, Jeffrey T; Boyer, Edward W; Broach, John

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management. Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15). A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. Front-line emergency medical service (EMS) providers and senior EMS personnel in Incident Commander roles. Data from this pilot study indicate that EMS responders are accepting to deploying and operating UAV technology in a disaster scenario. Additionally, they perceived UAV technology as easy to adopt yet impactful in improving MCI scene management.

  8. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  9. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...

  10. Incidence Rate and Distribution of Common Cancers among Iranian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographic differences in the incidence of cancers may suggest unique genetic or environmental exposures that impact the risk of acquiring cancer. This research aims to determine the incidence rate and geographical distribution of common cancers among Iranian children. Methods: In this ecological study, we extracted data that pertained to the incidence rate of common cancers among children from reports by the National Registry of Cancer and Disease Control and Prevention in 2008. A map of the cancer incidence rates was designed by using geographic information system. Results:The most common cancer sites among children were the hematology system, brain and central nervous system, and lymph nodes. The central provinces had the lowest cancer incidences. Conclusion: The considerable variation in incidence of childhood cancers in Iran suggests a possible potential environmental risk factor or genetic background related to this increased risk among children.

  11. High injury incidence in adolescent female soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Møller, Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies report varying rates of time-loss injuries in adolescent female soccer, ranging from 2.4 to 5.3 per 1000 athlete-exposures or 2.5 to 3.7 per 1000 hours of exposure. However, these studies collected data using traditional injury reports from coaches or medical staff......, with methods that significantly underestimate injury rates compared with players' self-reports. PURPOSE: The primary aim was to investigate the injury incidence in adolescent female soccer using self-reports via mobile telephone text messaging. The secondary aim was to explore the association between soccer...... exposure, playing level, and injury risk. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study and cohort study; Level of evidence, 2 and 3. METHODS: During a full adolescent female soccer season in Denmark (February-June 2012), a population-based sample of 498 girls aged 15 to 18 years was included...

  12. Tuberculosis incidence in prisons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio

    2010-12-21

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  13. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe A Teasdale

    Full Text Available Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI is high among pregnant women in certain settings. We estimated STI incidence and compared STI risk in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Data came from the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa (MIRA study conducted in South Africa and Zimbabwe 2003-2006. Women aged 18-50 years with at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of enrollment were included. Follow-up visits included laboratory testing for pregnancy, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, and HIV, as well as self-report of hormonal contraceptive (HC use, sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices. All visits were classified according to pregnancy status. Incidence of each STI was calculated using follow-up time. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted using pregnancy as a time-varying exposure and sexual behaviors and intravaginal practices as time-varying covariates. Among 4,549 women, 766 (16.8% had a positive pregnancy test. Median follow-up time was 18 months [IQR: 12-24]. The overall incidence rate of chlamydia was 6.7 per 100 person years (py and 9.9/100py during pregnancy; gonorrhea incidence was 2.7/100py and 4.9/100py during pregnancy; trichomoniasis incidence was 7.1/100py overall and 9.2/100py during pregnancy. Overall HIV incidence was 3.9/100py and 3.8/100py during pregnancy. In crude models, pregnancy increased risk for chlamydia (hazard ratio (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-1.2, however there was no increased risk of any measured STI in adjusted models. STI Incidence was high during pregnancy however pregnancy did not increase STI risk after adjustment for sexual behaviors. Greater efforts are needed to help pregnant women avoid STIs.

  14. Differences in physical workload between military helicopter pilots and cabin crew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Oord, Marieke H. A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    The 1-year prevalence of regular or continuous neck pain in military helicopter pilots of the Dutch Defense Helicopter Command (DHC) is 20%, and physical work exposures have been suggested as risk factors. Pilots and cabin crew perform different tasks when flying helicopters. The aims of the current

  15. Pilots of the future - Human or computer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, A. B.; Nagel, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    In connection with the occurrence of aircraft accidents and the evolution of the air-travel system, questions arise regarding the computer's potential for making fundamental contributions to improving the safety and reliability of air travel. An important result of an analysis of the causes of aircraft accidents is the conclusion that humans - 'pilots and other personnel' - are implicated in well over half of the accidents which occur. Over 70 percent of the incident reports contain evidence of human error. In addition, almost 75 percent show evidence of an 'information-transfer' problem. Thus, the question arises whether improvements in air safety could be achieved by removing humans from control situations. In an attempt to answer this question, it is important to take into account also certain advantages which humans have in comparison to computers. Attention is given to human error and the effects of technology, the motivation to automate, aircraft automation at the crossroads, the evolution of cockpit automation, and pilot factors.

  16. Pilot evaluation of the use of contract towing and first responder strategies in the Virginia Department of Transportation's Staunton District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the contract towing and first responder pilot projects in the Virginia Department of Transportations : Staunton District. The evaluation included before and after studies of incident duration and comparisons of clearance time....

  17. Maximum Credible Incidents

    CERN Document Server

    Strait, J

    2009-01-01

    Following the incident in sector 34, considerable effort has been made to improve the systems for detecting similar faults and to improve the safety systems to limit the damage if a similar incident should occur. Nevertheless, even after the consolidation and repairs are completed, other faults may still occur in the superconducting magnet systems, which could result in damage to the LHC. Such faults include both direct failures of a particular component or system, or an incorrect response to a “normal” upset condition, for example a quench. I will review a range of faults which could be reasonably expected to occur in the superconducting magnet systems, and which could result in substantial damage and down-time to the LHC. I will evaluate the probability and the consequences of such faults, and suggest what mitigations, if any, are possible to protect against each.

  18. Nuclear incident monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes an improved instrument to detect radiation that would be emitted by the accidental assembly of a critical mass of fissionable material. The instrument is a solid-state model designed to supersede a vacuum-tube-circuit model that has been in use for several years. The new instrument provides audible and visible alarms within 4 seconds after exposure to gamma radiation exceeding 1 R/hr. The instrument alarms within 0.3 second after exposure to a 50 microsecond burst of radiation that induces a dose of 0.6 mR

  19. White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in High-Altitude U-2 Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    SUBJECT TERMS MRI; white matter hyperintensities; hypobaric exposure; neurological decompression sickness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...normal controls and did not increase with age in pilots, suggesting that hypobaric exposure produces white matter damage different from that occurring in...relapse we observed in 3 NDCS pilots after successful hyperbaric treatment (US Navy Treatment Table 6; 100% fraction of inspired oxygen; 2.8 atm absolute

  20. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  1. Agile Web Pilot Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lang, Mark

    1997-01-01

    ... in an increasingly competitive global marketplace. The pilot program allowed 18 small and medium sized enterprises to experiment with new agile business practices in competitive manufacturing environments by forming virtual organizations within...

  2. CERN pilot greenhouse

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This pilot installation was situated near Bld. BA6 opposite to the main entrance of the Meyrin site, with respect to Route de Meyrin. See Weekly Bulletin 3/83, and also photo 8305594X, 8505898X, 8302200.

  3. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social-Emotional Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Combat-related PTSD is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused using a novel group therapy (Mindfulness-based Exposure Therapy in Afghanistan (OEF or Iraq (OIF combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N=23 were treated with MBET (N = 14 or a comparison group therapy (Present-centered group therapy [PCGT], N = 9. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale (CAPS. Functional neuroimaging (3 Tesla fMRI before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces. Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = .92 but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = .43. Improvement in PTSD symptoms from Pre- to Post treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral ACC, dorsal medial PFC, and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left medial PFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social-emotional threat related to symptom reduction.

  4. Risk assessment of several incidents in nuclear waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buetow, E.; Memmert, G.; Storck, R.; Weymann, J.; Matthies, M.; Vogt, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Regarding surface facilities two incidents of MAVA (failure of the filter in the exhaust gas system, fire in the bituminization system) and one incident in the Krypton storage and regarding underground systems the water inlet in the pit building have been evaluated. According to the calculations only the two nuclides Tc-99 and J-129 can involve a considerable exposure. The barrier system of overlying rocks and the pit system as a whole is largely redundant and diverse. (DG) [de

  5. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  6. Ergonomic work analysis of airbus pilots job in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Tathiana Passeri; Marques, Diego Cesar; Barbosa, Victor Gonçalves; Uatanabe, Priscila

    2012-01-01

    This article is the result of a case study of ergonomic work analysis carried out in a Brazilian airline company, focused on the safety of the activity of Airbus pilots from the company's national lines. The study was divided in three parts, each one with different approach. First step is how critical situations such as accidents and incidents are dealt with during flight. Then it comes to discuss about adversities found in the working place, the airbus cockpit, and the development of risk map. Last but not least, the study focused in how the irregular working journey compromises the biological clock of the pilots end may cause social issues.

  7. Patent foramen ovale and asymptomatic brain lesions in military fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Kim, Joon-Tae; Choi, Won-Ho; Park, Won-Ju; Shin, Young Ho; Choi, Kang-Ho

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have reported higher incidence of white matter lesions (WMLs) in military pilots. The anti-gravity straining maneuver, which fighter military pilots perform numerously during a flight is identical to the valsalva maneuver. We sought to investigate the prevalence of right-to-left shunt (RLS) associated with WMLs in military pilots. A prospective study was performed involving military pilots who visited the Airomedical Center. The pilots underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and transcranial Doppler (TCD) with intravenous injection of agitated saline solution for the detection of RLS. Periventricular WMLs (PVWMLs) on MRI were graded using Fazeka's scale, and deep WMLs (DWMLs) were graded using Scheltens's scale. This study included 81 military pilots. RLS on TCD was observed less frequently in non-fighter pilots than in fighter pilots (35.5% vs. 64.5%, p=0.011). Fighter pilot was an independently associated factor with RLS on the TCD. DWMLs were independently associated with RLSs through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) (OR 3.507, 95% CI 1.223-10.055, p=0.02). The results suggest that DWMLs in military pilots may significantly be associated with RLS via PFO. Additional investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne E. Godar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320 nm exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400 nm passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it definitely decreases with increasing latitude up to ~50°N where it reverses and increases with the increasing latitude. The inversion in the incidence of CMM may occur because there is more UVA relative to UVB for most of the year at higher latitudes. If windows, allowing UVA to enter our indoor-working environment and cars, are at least partly responsible for the increasing incidence of CMM, then UV filters can be applied to reduce the rate of increase worldwide.

  9. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  10. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: decontamination and treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.R.; McMurray, B.J.; Jech, J.J.; Breitenstein, B.D.; Quigley, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    An injured worker, contaminated with over 6 mCi of americium-241, required special treatment and housing for 4 months. This paper is a description of the design and management of the facility in which most of the treatment and housing occurred. The problems associated with contamination control, waste handling, supplies, and radiological concerns during the two-stage transfer of the patient from a controlled situation to his normal living environment are discussed in detail

  11. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: external decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jech, J.J.; Berry, J.R.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    An accident resulted in the deposition on an injured workman's skin surfaces, in acid-burned areas and in lacerations, of something in excess of 6 mCi americium-241. The external decontamination procedures used, the change in americium content of the skin during the course of treatment, and some of the unusual problems encountered from the extrusion of foreign material and flaking of skin and scar tissue are described

  12. 1976 Hanford americium-exposure incident: accident description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    An accident is described, involving the explosion of an ion-exchange column containing about 100 g of 241 Am. A chemical operator was injured in this accident, receiving acid burns and superficial cuts on the upper part of his body. From 1 to 5 curies of 241 Am is estimated to have been deposited on the injured worker and on his clothing

  13. Incident of inadvertent radiation exposure in a linac bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Implementation of a new Biomedical Equipment and service database poses special challenges. This paper describes the challenges and solutions during implementation of BEIMS (Mercury Computers) at RPAH and other sites within SSWAHS. During implementation we faced challenges of Code/Label design, workflow redesign, and data cleanup. Considerable time and effort went into the design of descriptive codes for breakdowns, tests, equipment types, meta-categories and the like. Some of the codes are explored and described to allow adoption by other entities if desired. Workflow redesign required us to include considerations of biomedical Technicians and Nurse Requestors. A simplified document was created for the self-education of Requestors and a full user manual (complete with screen shots) was created for Biomeds. More work remains, including simplification of standardised reports and ability to generate KPI's. The result is a system with improved utility compared to the old system and a flexible design enabling future improvements. (author)

  14. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs.

  15. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  16. Ambient air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence in four European cohorts within the ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Marie; Andersen, Zorana J; Stafoggia, Massimo; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Galassi, Claudia; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Tjønneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Grioni, Sara; Marcon, Alessandro; Krogh, Vittorio; Ricceri, Fulvio; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ranzi, Andrea; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Hoogh, Kees de; Wang, Meng; Beelen, Rob|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483100X; Vineis, Paolo; Brunekreef, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; Hoek, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069553475; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of cancer in the liver, but little is known about the possible risk associated with exposure to ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association between residential exposure to air pollution and primary liver cancer incidence.

  17. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  18. DIRAC universal pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; Consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.

  19. PULSE Pilot Certification Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Pape-Lindstrom

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The pilot certification process is an ambitious, nationwide endeavor designed to motivate important changes in life sciences education that are in line with the recommendations of the 2011 Vision and Change Report: A Call to Action (American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 2011.  It is the goal of the certification process to acknowledge departments that have progressed towards full implementation of the tenets of Vision and Change and to motivate departments that have not begun to adopt the recommendations to consider doing so.  More than 70 life science departments applied to be part of the pilot certification process, funded by a National Science Foundation grant, and eight were selected based on initial evidence of transformed and innovative educational practices.  The programs chosen represent a wide variety of schools, including two-year colleges, liberal-arts institutions, regional comprehensive colleges, research universities and minority serving institutions.  Outcomes from this pilot were released June 1, 2015 (www.pulsecommunity.org, with all eight programs being recognized as having progressed along a continuum of change.  Five levels of achievement were defined as PULSE Pilot Progression Levels.  Of the eight departments in the pilot, one achieved “PULSE Progression Level III: Accomplished”.  Six departments achieved “PULSE Progression Level II: Developing” and one pilot department achieved “PULSE Progression Level I: Beginning”.  All of the schools have made significant movement towards the recommendations of Vision and Change relative to a traditional life sciences curriculum.  Overall, the response from the eight pilot schools has been positive. 

  20. Prenatal and childhood exposure to phthalate diesters and sex steroid hormones in 2-, 5-, 8-, and 11-year-old children: A pilot study of the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hui-Ju; Sie, Lillian; Su, Pen-Hua; Chuang, Chia-Jui; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Sun, Chien-Wen; Huang, Li-Hua; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Julie Wang, Shu-Li

    2017-11-01

    Phthalate diesters are commonly used and have been well established as environmental endocrine disruptors. However, few studies have examined their effects on sex steroid hormones in children. We followed children over time to examine the association between pre- and post-natal phthalate exposure and sex steroid hormone levels at 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We recruited 430 pregnant women from central Taiwan from 2000 to 2001 and assessed their children at birth, 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. We studies children with at least one measurement for both phthalate and hormone levels during each any of the follow-up time point (n = 193). Estradiol, free testosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were measured from venous blood. Three monoesters of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate, and mono-methyl phthalate were measured in maternal urine collected during the 3rd trimester and child urine collected at each follow-up point. The sum of mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (∑MEHP) was calculated by summing the concentrations of the three DEHP monoesters. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis with repeated measures was used to estimate associations between phthalate metabolites and hormone levels. After adjustment for potential confounders, maternal ∑MEHP level was associated with decreased levels of progesterone in girls (β = -0.309 p = 0.001). The child ∑MEHP concentration was associated with decreased levels of progesterone for girls (β = -0.194, p = 0.003) and with decreased levels of free testosterone for boys (β = -0.124, p = 0.004). Early-life DEHP exposure may alter sex steroid hormones of children over time, which may pose potential reproductive health risks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  2. Linking the Pilot Structural Model and Pilot Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Aponso, Bimal; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots using markedly different control techniques while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to either issue or cease a pulse command. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to sense and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess's pilot Structural Model. A Pilot Cost Index was developed, whose elements include estimated workload, performance, and the degree to which the pilot employs kinesthetic feedback. Preliminary results suggest that a pilot's operating point (parameter values) may be based on control style and index minimization.

  3. 76 FR 54095 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... [Docket No.: FAA-2008-0938; Amendment Nos. 61-128, 91-324, 141-15, and 142-7] RIN 2120-AJ18 Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification Rules AGENCY... regulations concerning pilot, flight instructor, and pilot school certification. This rule will require pilot...

  4. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  5. NSTAR Smart Grid Pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabari, Anil [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States); Fadipe, Oloruntomi [NSTAR Electric, Manchester, NH (United States)

    2014-03-31

    NSTAR Electric & Gas Corporation (“the Company”, or “NSTAR”) developed and implemented a Smart Grid pilot program beginning in 2010 to demonstrate the viability of leveraging existing automated meter reading (“AMR”) deployments to provide much of the Smart Grid functionality of advanced metering infrastructure (“AMI”), but without the large capital investment that AMI rollouts typically entail. In particular, a central objective of the Smart Energy Pilot was to enable residential dynamic pricing (time-of-use “TOU” and critical peak rates and rebates) and two-way direct load control (“DLC”) by continually capturing AMR meter data transmissions and communicating through customer-sited broadband connections in conjunction with a standardsbased home area network (“HAN”). The pilot was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (“DOE”) through the Smart Grid Demonstration program. NSTAR was very pleased to not only receive the funding support from DOE, but the guidance and support of the DOE throughout the pilot. NSTAR is also pleased to report to the DOE that it was able to execute and deliver a successful pilot on time and on budget. NSTAR looks for future opportunities to work with the DOE and others in future smart grid projects.

  6. Radiation exposure of the crew in commercial air traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Markovic, P.; Petrovic, Z.

    1993-01-01

    The routine radiation exposure of the crews in Yugoslav Airlines (JAT) has been studied and some previous results are presented. The flights of four selected groups of pilots (four aircraft types) have been studied during one year. Annual exposures and dose equivalents are presented. Some additional results and discussions are given. (1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  7. Epidemiologic studies of pilots and aircrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, J D; Blettner, M; Auvinen, A

    2000-11-01

    During flight, pilots and cabin crew are exposed to increased levels of cosmic radiation which consists primarily of neutrons and gamma rays. Neutron dosimetry is not straightforward, but typical annual effective doses are estimated to range between two and five mSv. Higher dose rates are experienced at the highest altitudes and in the polar regions. Mean doses have been increasing over time as longer flights at higher altitudes have become more frequent. Because there are so few populations exposed to neutrons, studies of airline personnel are of particular interest. However, because the cumulative radiation exposure is so low, statistical power is a major concern. Further, finding an appropriate comparison group is problematic due to selection into these occupations and a number of biases are possible. For example, increased rates of breast cancer among flight attendants have been attributed to reproductive factors such as nulliparity and increased rates of melanoma among pilots have been attributed to excessive sun exposure during leisure time activities. Epidemiologic studies conducted over the last 20 y provide little consistent evidence linking cancer with radiation exposures from air travel.

  8. Sunglass Filter Transmission and Its Operational Effect in Solar Protection for Civilian Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorley, Adrian C; Lyachev, Andrey; Higlett, Michael P; Khazova, Marina; Benwell, Martin J; Evans, Bruce J W

    2016-05-01

    The ocular effects of excess solar radiation exposure are well documented. Recent evidence suggests that ocular ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to professional pilots may fall outside international guideline limits unless eye protection is used. Nonprescription sunglasses should be manufactured to meet either international or national standards. The mean increase in UVR and blue light hazards at altitude has been quantified and the aim of this research was to assess the effectiveness of typical pilot sunglasses in reducing UVR and blue light hazard exposure in flight. A series of sunglass filter transmittance measurements were taken from personal sunglasses (N = 20) used by pilots together with a series of new sunglasses (N = 18). All nonprescription sunglasses measured conformed to international standards for UVR transmittance and offered sufficient UVR protection for pilots. There was no difference between right and left lenses or between new and used sunglasses. All sunglasses offered sufficient attenuation to counter the mean increase in blue light exposure that pilots experience at altitude, although used sunglasses with scratched lenses were marginally less effective. One pair of prescription sunglasses offered insufficient UVR attenuation for some flights, but would have met requirements of international and national standards for UV-A transmittance. This was likely due to insufficient UVR blocking properties of the lens material. Lenses manufactured to minimally comply with standards for UVR transmittance could result in excess UVR exposure to a pilot based on in-flight irradiance data; an additional requirement of less than 10% transmittance at 380 nm is recommended.

  9. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... implementation as a method for participatory design. We find that to foster participation and learning about user needs a pilot implementation must create a space for reflecting on use, in addition to the space for using the pilot system. The space for reflection must also exist during the activities preparing...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  10. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  11. Short-term Exposure to a Mediterranean Environment Influences Attitudes and Dietary Profile in U.S. College Students: The MEDiterranean Diet in AMEricans (A-MED-AME) Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroka, Katherine; Dinu, Monica; Hoover, Chelsea; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term exposure to a Mediterranean diet during a structured abroad experience could influence dietary habits and attitudes. This study used a cross-sectional design. The study was conducted on the Florence University of the Arts (FUA) campus, Italy. Fifty-four (47 females, 7 males; mean age 21.1 ± 1.9 years) college students from 12 different states, mainly located in the central United States, were enrolled in this study. Outcome measures included adherence score to Mediterranean diet and self-reported perceptions of diet and food availability. A demographic survey was used to collect data regarding personal characteristics, anthropometrics, duration of stay, and residency status. Chi-square test, independent T-test, and Mann-Whitney test were used to perform analyses. At 3 weeks' follow-up, 94% of the population reported that availability of foods affected their food choices. Interestingly, students reported that they consumed less meat with respect to their usual dietary habits in the United States (p Mediterranean diet significantly increased by about 1 point, going from 9.9 ± 2.4 to 10.9 ± 2.0 (p Mediterranean diet was observed. Future research should explore the relationship between length of time spent in a foreign country and dietary adherence in a cultural context.

  12. A pilot randomized controlled trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy with and without the Dialectical Behavior Therapy Prolonged Exposure protocol for suicidal and self-injuring women with borderline personality disorder and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Melanie S; Korslund, Kathryn E; Linehan, Marsha M

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of integrating PTSD treatment into Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for women with borderline personality disorder, PTSD, and intentional self-injury. Participants were randomized to DBT (n=9) or DBT with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol (n=17) and assessed at 4-month intervals during the treatment year and 3-months post-treatment. Treatment expectancies, satisfaction, and completion did not differ by condition. In DBT+DBT PE, the DBT PE protocol was feasible to implement for a majority of treatment completers. Compared to DBT, DBT+DBT PE led to larger and more stable improvements in PTSD and doubled the remission rate among treatment completers (80% vs. 40%). Patients who completed the DBT PE protocol were 2.4 times less likely to attempt suicide and 1.5 times less likely to self-injure than those in DBT. Among treatment completers, moderate to large effect sizes favored DBT+DBT PE for dissociation, trauma-related guilt cognitions, shame, anxiety, depression, and global functioning. DBT with the DBT PE protocol is feasible, acceptable, and safe to administer, and may lead to larger improvements in PTSD, intentional self-injury, and other outcomes than DBT alone. The findings require replication in a larger sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  14. The Application of Critical Incident Procedures for an Initial Audit of Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, R. Stanley

    This paper discusses the concept of the critical incidents technique, traces its early development in the training of airplane pilots during World War II, sketches the requirements of the typical steps, notes the few studies in communication using this technique, provides an evaluation, and briefly describes a study concerning department chairmen.…

  15. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  16. Pilot project as enabler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neisig, Margit; Glimø, Helle; Holm, Catrine Granzow

    This article deals with a systemic perspective on transition. The field of study addressed is a pilot project as enabler of transition in a highly complex polycentric context. From a Luhmannian systemic approach, a framework is created to understand and address barriers of change occurred using...... pilot projects as enabler of transition. Aspects of how to create trust and deal with distrust during a transition are addressed. The transition in focus is the concept of New Public Management and how it is applied in the management of the Employment Service in Denmark. The transition regards...

  17. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  18. Pilot pulsar surveys with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, T.

    2013-01-01

    We are performing two complementary pilot pulsar surveys as part of LOFAR commissioning. The LOFAR Pilot Pulsar Survey (LPPS) is a shallow all-sky survey using an incoherent combination of LOFAR stations. The LOFAR Tied-Array Survey (LOTAS) is a deeper pilot survey using 19 simultaneous tied-array

  19. Proposed classification scale for radiological incidents and accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The scale proposed in this report is intended to facilitate communication concerning the severity of incidents and accidents involving the exposure of human beings to ionising radiations. Like the INES, it comprises eight levels of severity and uses the same terms (accident, incident, anomaly, serious and major) for keeping the public and the media informed. In a radiological protection context, the severity of an event is considered as being directly proportional to the risk run by an individual (the probability of developing fatal or non-fatal health effects) following exposure to ionising radiation in an incident or accident situation. However for society, other factors have to be taken into account to determine severity. The severity scale proposed is therefore based on assessment of the individual radiological risk. A severity level corresponding to exposure of a member of the public in an incident or accident situation is determined on the basis of risk assessment concepts and methods derived from international consensus on dose/effect relationships for both stochastic and deterministic effects. The severity of all the possible exposure situations - worker exposure, collective exposure, potential exposure - is determined using a system of weighting in relation to situations involving members of the public. In the case of this scale, to indicate the severity of an event, it is proposed to make use of the most penalizing level of severity, comparing: - the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of deterministic effects and the severity associated with the probability of occurrence of stochastic effects, when the event gives rise to both types of risk; - the severity for members of the public and the severity for exposed workers, when both categories of individuals are involved; - the severity on the proposed radiological protection scale and that obtained using the INES, when radiological protection and nuclear safety aspects are associated with

  20. Recurrent and Transient Spinal Pain Among Commercial Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide information on the occurrence of spinal pain, i.e., low back and neck pain, among commercial helicopter pilots, along with possible associations between pain and anthropometric and demographic factors and flying exposure. Data were collected through a subjective and retrospective survey among all the 313 (294 men, 19 women) full-time pilots employed by two helicopter companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the extent of spinal complaints in a transient and recurrent pain pattern along with information on physical activities, occupational flying experience, and airframes. The survey had 207 responders (194 men, 13 women). The pilots had extensive flying experience. Spinal pain was reported by 67%. Flying-related transient pain was reported among 50%, whereas recurrent spinal pain, not necessarily associated with flying, was reported by 52%. Women experienced more pain, but sample size prevented further conclusions. Male pilots reporting any spinal pain flew significantly more hours last year (median 500 h, IQR 400-650) versus men with no pain (median 445 h, IQR 300-550). Male pilots with transient or recurrent spinal pain did not differ from nonaffected male colleagues in the measured parameters. Spinal pain is a frequent problem among male and female commercial helicopter pilots. For men, no significant associations were revealed for transient or recurrent spinal pain with age, flying experience in years, total hours, annual flying time, type of aircraft, or anthropometric factors except for any spinal pain related to hours flown in the last year.

  1. PILOT DECONTAMINATION THROUGH PILOT SEQUENCE HOPPING IN MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    path between one of the users and one of the base stations define one of the channels. The system comprises a pilot generation unit configured to assign pilot sequences randomly among the users and a pilot processing unit configured to filter the pilot sequences received from a user of interest so...... that the channel coefficient of the channel of the user of interest is determined. The pilot sequences received from the user of interest are contaminated by other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from other users of the cell of interest or other cells. The filter is configured so that the contamination...... caused by the other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from the other users is reduced....

  2. Evaluatie pilot Financieringslink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenboom, N.; Rougoor, W.; Fijnje, J.; Biesenbeek, C.

    Veel mkb-ondernemers hebben moeite om financiering te krijgen. Daarom heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken in 2015 de pilot Financieringslink (Fink) opgezet– een online portal waar het mkb een financieringsverkenning kan indienen. Het hoofddoel van Fink is het verbeteren, standaardiseren en

  3. The Epoch Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenberg, Donald M.; Molenaar, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a program for high school students who are between their junior and senior years which provides an opportunity to take part in aviation courses at the University of North Dakota. Students take courses leading to a private pilot license, and earn college credit for their efforts. (JN)

  4. Evaluatie pilot Endogene Factoren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viet AL; Fiolet D; Voortman JK; Rover C de; Hanning C; Uitenbroek D; Loon AJM van; PZO; GGD Achterhoek; GGD Midden Holland; GG&GD Amsterdam

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the project on the Local and National Monitor for Public Health several pilot studies were carried out in three Municipal Health Centres (GGDs). The first aim was to investigate the feasibility of a physical examination at the health centre in combination with a health interview (or

  5. Cancer incidence among firefighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pukkala, Eero; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data for this......OBJECTIVES: Firefighters are potentially exposed to a wide range of known and suspected carcinogens through their work. The objectives of this study were to examine the patterns of cancer among Nordic firefighters, and to compare them with the results from previous studies. METHODS: Data...... for this study were drawn from a linkage between the census data for 15 million people from the five Nordic countries and their cancer registries for the period 1961-2005. SIR analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for the entire national study populations used as reference rates. RESULTS......: A total of 16 422 male firefighters were included in the final cohort. A moderate excess risk was seen for all cancer sites combined, (SIR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.11). There were statistically significant excesses in the age category of 30-49 years in prostate cancer (SIR=2.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 4...

  6. Precursor incident program at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.; Maliverney, B.; Rozenholc, M.; Piovesan, C.

    1998-01-01

    The precursor program was started by EDF in 1994, after an investigation of the US NRC's Accident Sequence Precursor Program. Since then, reported operational events identified as Safety Outstanding Events have been analyzed whenever possible using probabilistic methods based on PSAs. Analysis provides an estimate of the remaining protection against core damage at the time the incident occurred. Measuring the incidents' severity enables to detect incidents important regarding safety. Moreover, the most efficient feedback actions can be derived from the main accident sequences identified through the analysis. Therefore, incident probabilistic analysis provides a way to assess priorities in terms of treatment and resource allocation, and so, to implement countermeasures preventing further occurrence and development of the most significant incidents. As some incidents cannot be analyzed using this method, probabilistic analysis can only be one among the methods used to assess the nuclear power plants' safety level. Nevertheless, it provides an interesting complement to classical methods of deterministic studies. (author)

  7. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozada, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am 241 Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  8. County-level cumulative environmental quality associated with cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Messer, Lynne C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2017-08-01

    Individual environmental exposures are associated with cancer development; however, environmental exposures occur simultaneously. The Environmental Quality Index (EQI) is a county-level measure of cumulative environmental exposures that occur in 5 domains. The EQI was linked to county-level annual age-adjusted cancer incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program state cancer profiles. All-site cancer and the top 3 site-specific cancers for male and female subjects were considered. Incident rate differences (IRDs; annual rate difference per 100,000 persons) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using fixed-slope, random intercept multilevel linear regression models. Associations were assessed with domain-specific indices and analyses were stratified by rural/urban status. Comparing the highest quintile/poorest environmental quality with the lowest quintile/best environmental quality for overall EQI, all-site county-level cancer incidence rate was positively associated with poor environmental quality overall (IRD, 38.55; 95% CI, 29.57-47.53) and for male (IRD, 32.60; 95% CI, 16.28-48.91) and female (IRD, 30.34; 95% CI, 20.47-40.21) subjects, indicating a potential increase in cancer incidence with decreasing environmental quality. Rural/urban stratified models demonstrated positive associations comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles for all strata, except the thinly populated/rural stratum and in the metropolitan/urbanized stratum. Prostate and breast cancer demonstrated the strongest positive associations with poor environmental quality. We observed strong positive associations between the EQI and all-site cancer incidence rates, and associations differed by rural/urban status and environmental domain. Research focusing on single environmental exposures in cancer development may not address the broader environmental context in which cancers develop, and future research should address cumulative environmental

  9. L-037: EPR-First Responders: Action Guides commander of incident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is about the main action guides responses implemented by the incident commander in a radiological emergency. The public exposure, the contamination, the radioactive sources and suspicious material are important aspects to be considered by the first responders

  10. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  11. Seaside, Oregon, Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Varner, J.

    2006-12-01

    The results of a pilot study to assess the risk from tsunamis for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon region will be presented. To determine the risk from tsunamis, it is first necessary to establish the hazard or probability that a tsunami of a particular magnitude will occur within a certain period of time. Tsunami inundation maps that provide 100-year and 500-year probabilistic tsunami wave height contours for the Seaside-Gearhart, Oregon, region were developed as part of an interagency Tsunami Pilot Study(1). These maps provided the probability of the tsunami hazard. The next step in determining risk is to determine the vulnerability or degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of tsunamis due to exposure and fragility. The tsunami vulnerability assessment methodology used in this study was developed by M. Papathoma and others(2). This model incorporates multiple factors (e.g. parameters related to the natural and built environments and socio-demographics) that contribute to tsunami vulnerability. Data provided with FEMA's HAZUS loss estimation software and Clatsop County, Oregon, tax assessment data were used as input to the model. The results, presented within a geographic information system, reveal the percentage of buildings in need of reinforcement and the population density in different inundation depth zones. These results can be used for tsunami mitigation, local planning, and for determining post-tsunami disaster response by emergency services. (1)Tsunami Pilot Study Working Group, Seaside, Oregon Tsunami Pilot Study--Modernization of FEMA Flood Hazard Maps, Joint NOAA/USGS/FEMA Special Report, U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2006, Final Draft. (2)Papathoma, M., D. Dominey-Howes, D.,Y. Zong, D. Smith, Assessing Tsunami Vulnerability, an example from Herakleio, Crete, Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol. 3, 2003, p. 377-389.

  12. 76 FR 63183 - Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...-0938; Amendment Nos. 61-128, 91-324, 141-15, and 142-7] RIN 2120-AJ18 Pilot in Command Proficiency Check and Other Changes to the Pilot and Pilot School Certification Rules; Correction AGENCY: Federal... regulations to revise the pilot, flight instructor, and pilot school certification requirements. In particular...

  13. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  14. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  15. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammon, M.D.; Eng, S.M.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; Britton, J.A.; Kabat, G.C.; Hatch, Maureen; Paykin, A.B.; Neugut, A.I.; Santella, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure throughout the life course, the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer were not substantially elevated in relation to ETS exposure, active smoking, or a joint measure of active and passive smoking (OR, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.90, 1.48). An increased OR, however, was noted among nonsmokers who lived with a smoking spouse for over 27 years (2.10, 95% CI, 1.47, 3.02), although no dose-response was evident. Also, among women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors only, the OR for both active and passive smoking was increased (1.42 for ER + PR + , 95% CI, 1.00, 2.00). Our data suggest that if there is an effect for ETS on breast cancer, that effect is restricted to selected subgroups of women, such as those with long-term exposure from a smoking spouse

  17. A review of the cohorts with environmental and occupational mineral fiber exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metintas, Selma; Ak, Guntulu; Metintas, Muzaffer

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine factors associated with Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) incidence rate of the groups with occupational asbestos and environmental asbestos or erionite exposure in rural area. In this ecological study, a total of 21 cohort datasets (8 environmental and 13 occupational) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression analysis model. In environmental cohorts, the risk of MM incidence was higher in women and people exposed to erionite. In this cohort, the incidence rate of MM increased as the median exposure time increased, while the incidence decreased as the median cumulative exposure dose increased. In occupational cohorts, the incidence rate of MM was positively correlated with the median cumulative exposure dose. The risk of mesothelioma was lower in those exposed to tremolite than others. Environmental asbestos exposure is as important as occupational exposure to develop MM, and it has its own unique exposure features on the risk of MM.

  18. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  19. Exposures to natural radiation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, Ch.; Gurtner, A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. There are two main sources that contribute to this exposure: high-energy cosmic-ray particles incident to the earth's atmosphere and radioactive nuclides that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment, including human body itself. Both external and internal exposures to humans arise from these sources. Exposures to natural radiation sources in Switzerland and some of their variations are here summarised and the resulting effective doses are compared to those from man-made sources exposures. It results that the natural background exposures are more significant for the population than most exposures to man-made sources. (authors)

  20. Process Experimental Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was built to convert transuranic contaminated solid waste into a form acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located near Carlsbad, New Mexico. There are about 2.0 million cubic ft of transuranic waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) located at the RWMC will examine this stored transuranic waste to determine if the waste is acceptable for direct shipment to and storage at WIPP, or if it requires shipment to PREPP for processing before shipment to WIPP. The PREPP process shreds the waste, incinerates the shredded waste, and cements (grouts) the shredded incinerated waste in new 55-gal drums. Unshreddable items are repackaged and returned to SWEPP. The process off-gas is cleaned prior to its discharge to the atmosphere, and complies with the effluent standards of the State of Idaho, EPA, and DOE. Waste liquid generated is used in the grouting operation

  1. 76 FR 19267 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    .... No. 61-127] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical... for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools. This document reinstates two... entitled, ``Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Final Rule'' (74 FR 42500). That...

  2. Acute Chemical Incidents With Injured First Responders, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikova, Natalia; Wu, Jennifer; Yang, Alice; Orr, Maureen

    2018-04-01

    IntroductionFirst responders, including firefighters, police officers, emergency medical services, and company emergency response team members, have dangerous jobs that can bring them in contact with hazardous chemicals among other dangers. Limited information is available on responder injuries that occur during hazardous chemical incidents. We analyzed 2002-2012 data on acute chemical incidents with injured responders from 2 Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry chemical incident surveillance programs. To learn more about such injuries, we performed descriptive analysis and looked for trends. The percentage of responders among all injured people in chemical incidents has not changed over the years. Firefighters were the most frequently injured group of responders, followed by police officers. Respiratory system problems were the most often reported injury, and the respiratory irritants, ammonia, methamphetamine-related chemicals, and carbon monoxide were the chemicals more often associated with injuries. Most of the incidents with responder injuries were caused by human error or equipment failure. Firefighters wore personal protective equipment (PPE) most frequently and police officers did so rarely. Police officers' injuries were mostly associated with exposure to ammonia and methamphetamine-related chemicals. Most responders did not receive basic awareness-level hazardous material training. All responders should have at least basic awareness-level hazardous material training to recognize and avoid exposure. Research on improving firefighter PPE should continue. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:211-221).

  3. Neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prillinger, G.; Konynenburg, R.A. van

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. In chapter 6, LWR-PV neutron transport calculations and dosimetry methods and how they are combined to evaluate the neutron exposure of the steel of pressure vessels are discussed. An effort to correlate neutron exposure parameters with damage is made

  4. LANCELOT pilot report, June 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente

    The aim of the Lancelot pilot evaluation process was to understand how teachers learn to teach and to relate to the online environment through the specific context of the Lancelot live online course. Following the Action Research in the autumn of 2006 the LANCELOT live online language course...... was revised for the piloting in the spring of 2007. A second aim of the pilot evaluation has therefore been to assess the revision of the course following the Action Research....

  5. Dow's chemical exposure index guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.T.; Mundt, A.

    1995-01-01

    A number of events in the 1970's and 1980's impacted the course of process safety. Incidents such as Flixborough, Seveso, Three-Mile Island, and Bhopal are well known throughout industry and are recognized as examples of major disasters. Even though events leading up to these disasters were completely different they had one common element between them: a substance was released from a manufacturing unit, became airborne and presented a hazard of such magnitude as to place the safety of both employees and the surrounding public in jeopardy. As a result, industry became increasingly concerned regarding potential loss, in human and economic terms, as plants and equipment grew in size. The Flixborough incident raised the level of concern for process safety, particularly in terms of the hazards presented by fire and explosion. Seveso and Three-Mile Island emphasized the need to consider far-field exposure. The Bhopal incident created an urgent need to recognize and understand the expected downwind impact of potential releases of acutely toxic substances to the air. In order to meet this need, the Dow Chemical Company, a recognized leader in the area of safety and loss prevention, presented a Chemical Exposure Index in 1986. AIChE has recently published an updated version entitled Dow's Chemical Exposure Index Guide. 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. The Importance of Pilot Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Hundley, Vanora

    2001-01-01

    The term 'pilot studies' refers to mini versions of a full-scale study (also called 'feasibility' studies), as well as the specific pre-testing of a particular research instrument such as a questionnaire or interview schedule. \\ud Pilot studies are a crucial element of a good study design. Conducting a pilot study does not guarantee success in the main study, but it does increase the likelihood. \\ud Pilot studies fulfil a range of important functions and can provide valuable insights for othe...

  7. Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain in a Helicopter Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Babak

    2015-10-01

    Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.

  8. Personal solar UVR exposure studies using a new miniature electronic dosimeter/datalogger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.P.; Roy, C.R.; Toomey, S.; Borland, R.; Dixon, H.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) has been involved in a number of different collaborative studies around Australia using polysulphone (PS) film dosimeters in the measurement of personal exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) (Herlihy E et al, Photochem Photobiol 60:288-294, 1994; Gies HP et al, Photochem Photobiol 62:1015-1021, 1995). These PS dosimeters have proven useful in measuring cumulative exposures during different outdoor occupational and recreational activities. Recent advances in both UV photodiodes and miniature dataloggers have allowed the development of UV dosimeters which can log the incident UVR exposure with time (Diffey BL and Saunders PJ, Photochem Photobiol 61:615-618, 1995). This provides information on the variation of UVR exposure with time of day and also on the effect of variations in local environment, activity and possibly behaviour on exposure. A pilot study to examine the performance of the UV dosimeter/ datalogger and to refine a suitable questionnaire for a much larger follow up study was undertaken in 1995. Two of the new dosimeter/dataloggers were available and a third, less portable unit was used to monitor ambient solar UVR. The site chosen was a recreation park within 5 km of ARL where calibrated ambient UVR monitoring occurs. The UVR exposures of people undertaking outdoor activities were measured. The subjects wore the UV detector attached to clothing on their back, so that it was out of sight and therefore less likely to cause them to consciously modify their behaviour during their activity. On completion the subjects were asked a number of standard questions about their activities while wearing the UV dosimeters. Of particular interest was whether the data collected could be used to determine whether subjects have modified their behaviour when in the sun as a result of educational campaigns on sun exposure run by the Cancer Councils. Comparison of the subjects UV data record with the simultaneous

  9. Exposure Prophylaxis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    health care workers who report exposure to HIV at work whether given PEP or not ... breast milk, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid ... or skin lesions [1]. Other body fluid like sweat, tears, saliva, urine and stool do not contain significant quantities of HIV unless there is blood mixed with them[1,2]. HIV is not ...

  10. POST-EXPOSURE IMMUNOLOGICAL PREVENTION AGAINST VARICELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.K. Tatochenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on immunological prevention of varicella, particularly efficacy and advisability of vaccinating contact individuals in a pocket (post-exposure vaccination: its role in reducing the epidemiological process and economic burden of the infection, in achieving control over outbreak disease incidence. It features data obtained by foreign researchers and own research results. It demonstrates that vaccination of children and adults immediately after contact with the individual suffering from varicella allows significant reduction in disease incidence. Key words: varicella, vaccination, post-exposure immunological prevention, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(4:30-33

  11. Dietary recommendations regarding pilot whale meat and blubber in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Weihe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For centuries the pilot whale has been an important part Faroese life – both in regard to food and culture. However, studies dating back to 1977 have shown an increase in contamination of the meat, blubber, liver and kidneys of pilot whales. Several birth cohorts have been established in the Faroes in order to discover the health effects related to mercury and organchlorine exposure. In short the results have so far shown that: mercury from pilot whale meat adversely affects the foetal development of the nervous system; the mercury effect is still detectable during adolescence; the mercury from the maternal diet affects the blood pressure of the children; the contaminants of the blubber adversely affect the immune system so that the children react more poorly to immunizations; contaminants in pilot whales appear to increase the risk of developing Parkinson's disease in those who often eat pilot whale; the risk of hypertension and arteriosclerosis of the carotid arteries is increased in adults who have an increased exposure to mercury; septuagenarians with type 2 diabetes or impaired fasting glycaemia tended to have higher PCB concentrations and higher past intake of traditional foods, especially during childhood and adolescence. Also impaired insulin secretion appears to constitute an important part of the type 2 diabetes pathogenesis associated with exposure to persistent lipophilic food contaminants. From the latest research results, the authors consider that the conclusion from a human health perspective must be to recommend that pilot whale is no longer used for human consumption.

  12. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  13. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  14. Incidents Associated with Gas Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szer J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows incidents associated with the use of gas as an energy carrier. It presents selected incidents which have occurred in Poland and around the world in recent decades. Based on this, consequences of gas and air mixture explosions were analysed as well. The article presents the main causes of gas incidents which have taken place, as per instances which are similar worldwide. Incidents associated with the use of gas are not frequent, but at the same time very tragic as they often lead to illness or even death. In Poland, in the last twenty years, construction area disasters caused by gas explosions account for only 5% of all which have occurred, but the number of fatalities resulting from these cases is approximately 14%. The number of individuals injured reached 39% of all construction disaster victims. Considering all these facts, it is necessary to undertake wide preventive measures in order to increase safety in the use of gaseous fuels.

  15. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obralic, N.; Gavrankapetanovic, F.; Dizdarevic, Z.; Duric, O.; Sisic, F.; Selak, I.; Balta, S.; Nakas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  16. Patterns in blood pressure medication use in US incident dialysis patients over the first 6 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St Peter, Wendy L.; Sozio, Stephen M.; Shafi, Tariq; Ephraim, Patti L.; Luly, Jason; McDermott, Aidan; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Meyer, Klemens B.; Crews, Deidra C.; Scialla, Julia J.; Miskulin, Dana C.; Tangri, Navdeep; Jaar, Bernard G.; Michels, Wieneke M.; Wu, Albert W.; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2013-01-01

    Several observational studies have evaluated the effect of a single exposure window with blood pressure (BP) medications on outcomes in incident dialysis patients, but whether BP medication prescription patterns remain stable or a single exposure window design is adequate to evaluate effect on

  17. Functional analysis of controbloc incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouffon, A.; Jorel, M.

    1992-11-01

    The subject of the present paper is the survey jointly carried out in 1989 by the IPSN Safety Analysis Department and the Firm BERTIN and Co. on significant incidents related to the Controbloc system equipping the EDF 1300 MWe PWR power plants in France. This survey consisted in a general review of Controbloc operating problems, together with analysis of the safety consequences of the incidents discussed. The survey enabled improvements to be recommended in this respect and provided a basis for safety analysis

  18. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  19. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairakova, A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  20. Urgent medical response in CBR incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castulik, P.; Slabotinsky, J.; Kralik, L.; Bradka, S.

    2009-01-01

    During CBR incidents with releases of hazardous materials (HazMat), there is extremely urgent aim of first rescuing responders to safe the life for as much as possible victims and reducing health consequences from the exposure of the HazMat. Highest priority of the response is to be applied, if victims are exposed with chemicals through their airways and/or mucous membranes. There is general approach in the emergency medical services (EMS) stated that the victims being in critical status have to receive emergency medical care on-site even prior the transportation to a medical facility. However, in a case of CBR events the EMS prefer to provide the First Aid for victims to be already decontaminated as mass casualties, e.g. by the firemen and transferred to a safe zone. This approach is to be time consuming and thus creating delays in medical care not in the favor of a victim's successful survival. In order to overcome this approach, there are needs for eminent ceasing of the victims exposure, protection of breathing tract/ventilation support and administration of antidotes, if available. All this have to be done in shortest time since HazMat incident/accident occurs. This presentation is focusing on emergency provisions for saving victims directly in contaminated environment through the assistance by responders, concentrating on search and rescue of victims, their emergency decontamination, breathing protection, clothing removal, ventilation support, antidote administration, fixing and bandage of trauma injuries prior transportation and/or mass decontamination. This experience is shared based on a field exercise with the EMS volunteers (Red Cross), fire brigade volunteers and university's students.(author)

  1. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  2. Pilot plant study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories undertook the design and fabrication of an 8 ton/day dry sewage sludge irradiatior. The facility is intended (1) to function as a high-gamma-dose rate research facility; (2) to be a testbed for the unique electrical and mechanical components to be used in larger facilities; (3) to fulfill the formal requirements of a pilot plant so that design and construction of a demonstration facility could proceed; and (4) to provide accurate data base on construction and operating experience for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), and the cost analyses for a larger facility. The facility and its component systems are described in detail

  3. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus; Ie Pedersen, Maria

    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an action research study about effects specifications. It is a part of larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews and a workshop we have identified and specified the main effects that comprise...... the basis for the evaluation of the project. The study indicates that cross-organisational effects specifications cause a significant number of effects. To further prioritize these we argue that both interview and workshop must be facilitated as mutual learning processes between interviewer and interviewee....

  4. Radiation exposure from radium-226 ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, D.H.; Fenyves, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of radium to total radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of natural levels of 226 Ra in several public water supplies in an Oklahoma county was determined. A pilot-level study of total dietary intake indicated that the culinary use of water anomalously high in radium and the consumption of water-based beverages contributed significantly to radiation exposure. The mean dietary intake of 226 Ra was 20.6 pCi/day in one community and resulted in an estimated bone dose of 310 mrem/year

  5. Enlisted or Officer Drone Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the property of the United States government. AU/ACSC/Rafnson, Gary B/AY10 3 Abstract This paper compares remotely piloted aircraft— drones ...operations in both the US Army and US Air Force. It argues that officers should continue to pilot Air Force drones because of the increased risks and

  6. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  7. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Animal data suggest that subtherapeutic doses, including micro doses, of lithium may influence mood, and lithium levels in drinking water have been found to correlate with the rate of suicide. It has never been investigated whether consumption of lithium may prevent the development...... of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long......-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. METHODS: We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania...

  8. Environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study follows a study realised in the late 80's by the National cancer institute to analyse the rate of cancers near american nuclear power plants (Jablon S and al, Jama 1991). The rates of mortality for the leukemia of child remain near 1 but increased in the proximity of nuclear power plants still in operation, in a statistically significant way only for old ones; they decreased in the proximity of nuclear power plants that are no more in operation. However, we must be cautious with the interpretation of these results. the question arises of an influence of environmental radioisotopes but other factors can occur ( social situation, other atmospheric pollutants, proximity of medical centers). Otherwise, the incidence of the child leukemia has very much increased these last years without any clear explanation ( =28% in Usa between 1975 and 2004). On the other hand, the rate of mortality decreased because of more efficient treatments (-49% on the same period). These findings justify to continue studies on leukemia of child in the vicinity of nuclear power plants, studies of incidences got from registers susceptible to give the most interesting results. (N.C.)

  9. Prediction of pilot induced oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin PANĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important problem in the design of flight-control systems for aircraft under pilotedcontrol is the determination of handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations (PIO tendencieswhen significant nonlinearities exist in the vehicle description. The paper presents a method to detectpossible pilot-induced oscillations of Category II (with rate and position limiting, a phenomenonusually due to a misadaptation between the pilot and the aircraft response during some tasks in whichtight closed loop control of the aircraft is required from the pilot. For the analysis of Pilot in the LoopOscillations an approach, based on robust stability analysis of a system subject to uncertainparameters, is proposed. In this analysis the nonlinear elements are substituted by linear uncertainparameters. This approach assumes that PIO are characterized by a limit cycle behavior.

  10. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham-Nordling, Mirna; Byström, Kristina; Törring, Ove; Lantz, Mikael; Berg, Gertrud; Calissendorff, Jan; Nyström, Helena Filipsson; Jansson, Svante; Jörneskog, Gun; Karlsson, F Anders; Nyström, Ernst; Ohrling, Hans; Orn, Thomas; Hallengren, Bengt; Wallin, Göran

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of hyperthyroidism has been reported in various countries to be 23-93/100,000 inhabitants per year. This extended study has evaluated the incidence for ~40% of the Swedish population of 9 million inhabitants. Sweden is considered to be iodine sufficient country. All patients including children, who were newly diagnosed with overt hyperthyroidism in the years 2003-2005, were prospectively registered in a multicenter study. The inclusion criteria are as follows: clinical symptoms and/or signs of hyperthyroidism with plasma TSH concentration below 0.2 mIE/l and increased plasma levels of free/total triiodothyronine and/or free/total thyroxine. Patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism or thyroiditis were not included. The diagnosis of Graves' disease (GD), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) and solitary toxic adenoma (STA), smoking, initial treatment, occurrence of thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs, and demographic data were registered. A total of 2916 patients were diagnosed with de novo hyperthyroidism showing the total incidence of 27.6/100,000 inhabitants per year. The incidence of GD was 21.0/100,000 and toxic nodular goiter (TNG=STA+TMNG) occurred in 692 patients, corresponding to an annual incidence of 6.5/100,000. The incidence was higher in women compared with men (4.2:1). Seventy-five percent of the patients were diagnosed with GD, in whom thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs occurred during diagnosis in every fifth patient. Geographical differences were observed. The incidence of hyperthyroidism in Sweden is in a lower range compared with international reports. Seventy-five percent of patients with hyperthyroidism had GD and 20% of them had thyroid-associated eye symptoms/signs during diagnosis. The observed geographical differences require further studies.

  11. Specific requirements for public exposure in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2012-01-01

    The cause of radiation sources, by exposure to the public, has excluded all those medical and occupational exposures and exposure to natural background radiation normal, in the area. The main sources of public exposure that have found are: practices, discharges or spills, food or merchandise contaminated, chronic exposure scenarios (radon, NORM), waste management (predisposal management, storage, disposal). Public exposure can occur in two forms. One has been by procedure: transport, storage, handling of sources, radioactive waste, radioactive patient. The second has been per incident: transportation accidents, loss of sources, spread of contamination, unchecked pollution. (author) [es

  12. Live Piloting and Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current trends in service design research concerning large scale projects aimed at generating changes at a local scale. The strategy adopted to achieve this, is to co-design solutions including future users in the development process, prototyping and testing system of products and services before their actual implementation. On the basis of experience achieved in the European Project Life 2.0, this paper discusses which methods and competencies are applied in the development of these projects, eliciting the lessons learnt especially from the piloting phase in which the participatory design (PD approach plays a major role. In the first part, the topic is introduced jointly with the theoretical background where the user center design and participatory design methods are presented; then the Life 2.0 project development is described; finally the experience is discussed from a service design perspective, eliciting guidelines for piloting and prototyping services in a real context of use. The paper concludes reflecting on the designers’ role and competencies needed in this process.

  13. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint' Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson R. de [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEX), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  14. Radiological terrorism and estimate leukemia incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint'Yves, Thalis Leon de Avila; Maia, Arlei; Andrade, Edson R. de

    2011-01-01

    Radiological dispersal devices (RDD) are widely used as a terrorist tool leading to major environmental and public health concerns. This work is focused on simulating a dispersive scenario where an amount of most common radionuclide for this purpose is released. In order to estimate the total effective dose from such release, an affected urban area was chosen as a potential public mass concentration during World Cup in 2014 and Olympics in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro. Specialized simulation software called HotSpot Health Physics Code using a semi-empirical Gaussian model, was used to simulate dispersion of Cs-137 following detonation of a RDD. The simulation was designed to determine dose curves as a function of distance from the hot site. Additionally, it was determined the relative risk of leukemia incidence as well as statistical correlation between malignancies and exposure to radiation, based on probability of causation calculations. Results was suggestive that exists dependence on age at exposure time and the probability of leukemia development. This study emphasizes the importance of fast response, using a user-friendly computational method that may help, at first sight, to guide the response from the basic actions to the complete decision making process looking after health effects on public and environmental detriment. (author)

  15. Radiation incidents with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, R G; Tolbert, D D; Pailwal, B R; Radtke, R R [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1976-08-01

    Three radiation incidents associated with source drive failures on one particular /sup 60/Co teletherapy unit, which took place during a single year's operation, are discussed. In each case the extra treatment time of the patient, the exposure to the technician, the cause of the breakdown and the subsequent action taken are detailed. Recommendations for users of /sup 60/Co teletherapy units to minimise the results of the malfunctioning of such a system are given.

  16. Radiation incidents with a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.G.; Tolbert, D.D.; Pailwal, B.R.; Radtke, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    Three radiation incidents associated with source drive failures on one particular 60 Co teletherapy unit, which took place during a single year's operation, are discussed. In each case the extra treatment time of the patient, the exposure to the technician, the cause of the breakdown and the subsequent action taken are detailed. Recommendations for users of 60 Co teletherapy units to minimise the results of the malfunctioning of such a system are given. (U.K.)

  17. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  18. A pilot study to determine the effect of radiographer training on radiostereometric analysis imaging technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Producing x-ray images for radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a demanding technique. Suboptimal examinations result in a high percentage of exposure repetition. The aim of this pilot study was to use an experiential training approach to sharpen the skills of radiographers in acquir......INTRODUCTION: Producing x-ray images for radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a demanding technique. Suboptimal examinations result in a high percentage of exposure repetition. The aim of this pilot study was to use an experiential training approach to sharpen the skills of radiographers...

  19. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F; McNab, A; Luzzi, C

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be s...

  20. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  1. Adult air pollution exposure and risk of infertility in the Nurses' Health Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, S; Hart, J E; Laden, F; Farland, L V; Hewlett, M M; Chavarro, J; Aschengrau, A; Missmer, S A

    2016-03-01

    infertility diagnosis, we do not have the exact date of diagnosis or the exact timing of the start of attempting conception. As infertility status and subtypes of infertility were prospectively collected biennially, we were unable to tightly examine the timing of exposures on incidence of infertility. In terms of exposure quantification, we used ambient air pollution exposures as a proxy for personal exposures, potentially leading to exposure misclassification. However, several studies suggest that ambient measurements are an acceptable surrogate for individual level exposures in most populations. We observed an association between all size fractions of PM exposure, as well as traffic-related air pollution, and incidence of infertility. Of note, the strongest association was observed between cumulative average exposures over the course of follow-up and the risk of infertility, suggesting that chronic exposures may be of greater importance than short-term exposures. The work for this paper was supported by the following: S.M.: Reproductive Scientist Development Program HD000849, and the Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health HD043444, the Boston University CTSI 1UL1TR001430, and a research grant from the Boston University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, S.A.M.: R01HD57210 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Environmental Health Sciences Translational Pilot Project Program, R01CA50385 from the National Cancer Institute, J.E.H. and F.L.: 5R01ES017017 from the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, 5 P42 ES007381 from the National Institute of Environmental Health at the National Institute of Health. L.V.F.: T32HD060454 in reproductive, perinatal, and pediatric epidemiology from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. The Nurses' Health Study II is additionally supported by infrastructure grant UM1CA

  2. Incidence of silicosis among ceramic workers in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavariani, F; Di Pietro, A; Miceli, M; Forastiere, F; Biggeri, A; Scavalli, P; Petti, A; Borgia, P

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of radiological silicosis was studied among 2480 male workers employed in the ceramics industry. The subjects entered the surveillance program during 1974-1987 and were followed through 1991 with annual chest radiographs. The cumulative risk of silicosis (1/1 or greater; p,q,r) reached 48% (95% confidence interval 41.5-54.9) after 30 years of employment. In a multivariate Cox's proportional hazards model, the effect of duration of exposure increased linearly up to the category of 25-29 years; an extremely high hazard risk of 14.6 was found among those with 30 years or more of exposure in comparison with those employed 10 years or less. Smoking habit also significantly contributed to the model, although its role in the biological process is unclear. In conclusion, exposure to silica dust has been associated with a high incidence of silicosis among ceramics workers. The risk estimates are consistent with the recent findings of silicosis incidence among South African gold miners.

  3. Increased frequency of chromosome translocations in airline pilots with long-term flying experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, L C; Sigurdson, A J; Ward, E M; Waters, M A; Whelan, E A; Petersen, M R; Bhatti, P; Ramsey, M J; Ron, E; Tucker, J D

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are an established biomarker of cumulative exposure to external ionising radiation. Airline pilots are exposed to cosmic ionising radiation, but few flight crew studies have examined translocations in relation to flight experience. We determined the frequency of translocations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 83 airline pilots and 50 comparison subjects (mean age 47 and 46 years, respectively). Translocations were scored in an average of 1039 cell equivalents (CE) per subject using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) whole chromosome painting and expressed per 100 CE. Negative binomial regression models were used to assess the relationship between translocation frequency and exposure status and flight years, adjusting for age, diagnostic x ray procedures, and military flying. There was no significant difference in the adjusted mean translocation frequency of pilots and comparison subjects (0.37 (SE 0.04) vs 0.38 (SE 0.06) translocations/100 CE, respectively). However, among pilots, the adjusted translocation frequency was significantly associated with flight years (p = 0.01) with rate ratios of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.82) for a 1- and 10-year incremental increase in flight years, respectively. The adjusted rate ratio for pilots in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of flight years was 2.59 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.33). Our data suggests that pilots with long-term flying experience may be exposed to biologically significant doses of ionising radiation. Epidemiological studies with longer follow-up of larger cohorts of pilots with a wide range of radiation exposure levels are needed to clarify the relationship between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk.

  4. Integrating Art into Group Treatment for Adults with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol-Lynne J.

    2015-01-01

    Current research supports the use of exposure-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and integrated treatments show potential for enhanced symptom reduction. This pilot study developed a manualized group treatment integrating art interventions with exposure, grounding, and narrative therapy for five adults with PTSD who were…

  5. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB) [de

  6. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Past exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dropkin, G.; Clark, D.

    1992-01-01

    Past Exposure uses confidential company documents, obtained by the Namibia Support Committee over several years, to draw attention to risks to workers' health and the environment at Roessing Uranium mine. Particular reference is made to discussion of dust levels, radiation hazards, uranium poisoning, environmental leaks, especially from the tailings dam, and the lack of monitoring of thorium. In relation to agreements between trades unions and mines, agreements reached by RTZ-owned Canadian in Canada, and British Nuclear Fuels in the UK, are discussed. (UK)

  8. 76 FR 78141 - Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification; Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...-26661; Amdt. No. 61-129] RIN 2120-AI86 Pilot, Flight Instructor, and Pilot School Certification... requirements for pilots, flight instructors, ground instructors, and pilot schools. This document corrects an... a practical test for the issuance of a sport pilot certificate in a light-sport aircraft other than...

  9. 49 CFR 230.110 - Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pilots. 230.110 Section 230.110 Transportation... and Equalizing System § 230.110 Pilots. (a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached... clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance shall...

  10. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  11. Cancer incidence among merchant seafarers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig Petersen, Kajsa; Volk, Julie; Kaerlev, Linda

    2018-01-01

    on the incidence of specific cancers among both male and female seafarers. Methods: Using records from the Danish Seafarer Registry, all seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 were identified, resulting in a cohort of 33 084 men and 11 209 women. Information on vital status and cancer was linked...... to each member of the cohort from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry using the unique Danish personal identification number. SIRs were estimated for specific cancers using national rates. Results: The overall incidence of cancer was increased for both male and female...

  12. Effects of a lighter, smaller football on acute match injuries in adolescent female football: a pilot cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebis, Mette K; Thorborg, Kristian; Andersen, Lars L; Møller, Merete; Christensen, Karl B; Clausen, Mikkel B; Hölmich, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Andersen, Thomas B; Krustrup, Peter

    2018-05-01

    The high injury incidence during match-play in female adolescent football is a major concern. In football, males and females play matches with the same football size. No studies have investigated the effect of football size on injury incidence in female adolescent football. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introducing a lighter, smaller football on the injury pattern in female adolescent football. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial including 26 football teams representing 346 adolescent female football players (age 15-18 years). The teams were randomized to a new lighter, smaller football (INT, N.=12 teams) or a traditional FIFA size 5 football (CON, N.=14 teams) during a full match-season. Acute time-loss injuries and football-exposure during match-play were reported weekly by text-message questions and verified subsequently by telephone interview. In total, 46 acute time-loss injuries were registered (5 severe injuries), yielding an incidence rate of 15.2 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 8.5-27.2) in INT and 18.6 injuries per 1000 hours of match-play (95% CI: 14.0-24.8) in CON. The estimated 22% greater injury incidence rate risk (IRR: 1.22 [95% CI: 0.64-2.35]) in the CON group was not significant. With an IRR of 1.22, a future RCT main study would need to observe 793 acute time-loss injuries during match-play, in order to have a power of 80%. A large-scaled RCT is required to definitively test for beneficial or harmful effects of a lighter, smaller football in adolescent female football.

  13. Kvanefjeld refinery pilot plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, Damien; Furfaro, Domenic

    2016-01-01

    Greenland Minerals and Energy is a junior project development company which is listed on the Australian Stock Exchange (asx:GGG). It is developing the Kvanefjeld rare earth and uranium project located in the southern tip of Greenland. The project has completed a Feasibility Study and is currently in the permitting phase. Last year was a busy time for the company as it completed a Feasibility Study, a mining licence application (draft submitted in December 2015) and pilot plant operations. Beneficiation pilot plant operations were completed at GTK in Finland in April 2015. This pilot plant treated approximately 30 tonnes of ore to producing almost 2 tonnes of rare earth mineral concentrate. Later in the year a hydrometallurgical pilot plant was performed which mimicked the Refinery process. This pilot plant was performed at Outotec’s Pori Research laboratories in Finland from September till October 2015. The pilot plant treated approximately 200 kilograms of concentrate over 4 split operating campaigns. Each campaign was performed to focus on the performance of a specific part of the refinery flowsheet. This allowed for full operating focus on a single unit operation to ensure that it was operating correctly. The pilot plant operations were quite successful with no major issues with the flowsheet identified through continuous operation. Some fine tuning of conditions was required to ensure adequate removal of impurities was performed with recycle streams incorporated. Overall the leach extractions observed in the pilot plant exceeded the design assumptions in the Feasibility Study. These programs were partially funded by the EURARE program. The EURARE program aims to encourage the sustainable development of European based rare earth projects. This has the goal of allowing Europe to become less reliant on importation of these key raw materials. The professionalism and performance of both GTK and Outotec contributed significantly to the success of the pilot plant

  14. Experiences from the ITRAP pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.; Beck, P.

    2001-01-01

    Illicit trafficking and inadvertent movement of nuclear and other radioactive materials is not a new phenomenon. However, concern about such activities has increased remarkably in the last decade. Although the number of such incidents has risen, the overall extent of the problem is not restricted to Europe and not to nuclear proliferation. A few percent of these incidents involve so-called 'special nuclear materials', which may be used for nuclear weapons and therefore cause a threat of nuclear proliferation. The vast majority of these incidents, however, involve radioactive sources, low-enriched, natural or depleted uranium, which are not usable for weapons. There have been instances in which loss of control over radioactive materials has led to serious, even fatal, consequences to persons. Examples include unintentional incorporation of radioactive materials into recycled steel, recovery of lost radioactive sources by unsuspecting individuals, and deliberate purloining of radioactive material. The ITRAP project - financed by the Austrian Government and executed by the Austrian Research Center in close cooperation with the IAEA, World Customs Organisation (WCO) and Interpol - aimed at finding international consensus on specifications for detection equipment and instrumentation as well as verification of such specifications in laboratory tests and field installations. Under the umbrella of the pilot study, 23 international companies participated in the study and many of them devised improvements of their monitoring equipment. An important element of this study was the harmonized establishment of detection thresholds for practical implementation at borders or similar checkpoints. However, equally important was the verification of agreed specifications in controlled laboratory conditions and in realistic operating environments (field tests). All crucial parameters, as inter alia the false alarm rate, were verified by a significant testing effort as compared to

  15. Priming a Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt; Pedersen, Maria Ie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. We report on the initial findings of an exploratory action research study about effects specifications using the systems development method Effects-driven IT development. It is part of a larger IS pilot implementation project conducted in the Danish healthcare sector. Through interviews...... and a workshop we have identified and specified effects that comprise the basis for an evaluation of the project between several organisational agents with diverse professional backgrounds. Gathering organisational participants at a workshop with a common goal of discussing and prioritizing a finished list...... of effects has proved to be a valuable approach to create mutual learning process amongst the participants and the facilitators of the workshop. The challenges we experienced during the effects specification process were to balance a dichotomous focus between on one hand the visions of the participants...

  16. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  17. Exposure to lead and specific attentional problems in schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minder, B.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Brand, E.F.J.M.; Orlebeke, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out to investigate the relationship between exposure to lead and attention in children. The participants were 43 boys, 8 to 12 years of age, attending special schools for children with educational and/or learning problems (so called LOM schools). Children with probable

  18. PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  19. EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FINDINGS FROM THE TAMPA ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S STUDY (TACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot study that focused on developing and evaluating air pollution exposure assessment methods and participant recruiting tools. The four-week study was performed in October and November, 2003. The study involved repeated daily...

  20. Health care worker decompression sickness: incidence, risk and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Inadvertent exposure to radiation, chemical agents and biological factors are well recognized hazards associated with the health care delivery system. Less well appreciated yet no less harmful is risk of decompression sickness in those who accompany patients as inside attendants (IAs) during provision of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Unlike the above hazards where avoidance is practiced, IA exposure to decompression sickness risk is unavoidable. While overall incidence is low, when calculated as number of cases over number of exposures or potential for a case during any given exposure, employee cumulative risk, defined here as number of cases over number of IAs, or risk that an IA may suffer a case, is not. Commonly, this unique occupational environmental injury responds favorably to therapeutic recompression and a period of recuperation. There are, however, permanent and career-ending consequences, and at least two nurses have succumbed to their decompression insults. The intent of this paper is to heighten awareness of hyperbaric attendant decompression sickness. It will serve as a review of reported cases and reconcile incidence against largely ignored individual worker risk. Mitigation strategies are summarized and an approach to more precisely identify risk factors that might prompt development of consensus screening standards is proposed. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  1. Incidence of sialolithiasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine Attrup; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a frequent disorder affecting the salivary glands. The incidence rate (IR) has been reported to be 2.9-5.5 per 100,000 person-years, but all previous studies have been based on selected hospital data. In this study, we conducted a population-based study evaluating the IR...

  2. Modification of radiation-induced murine thymic lymphoma incidence by curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dange, P.S.; Yadav, H.D.; Kumar, Vimalesh; Bhilwade, H.N.; Pandey, B.N.; Sarma, H.D.

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a known antioxidant, preventing radiation damage including carcinogenesis. However, concentration and feeding schedule of curcumin in modification of radiation induced thymic lymphoma incidence in vivo model has not been studied. We report here modification of incidence of γ-radiation-induced thymic lymphoma in mice fed with different doses of curcumin (0.05 to 1 %) in diet. Results: Female Swiss mice (6-8 weeks) fed with normal diet and exposed to 3 Gy whole body "6"0Co γ-irradiation (WBI) showed 85 % incidence of thymic lymphoma (TL) at 120 days post-irradiation. A concentration of 1 % curcumin was found the most effective in TL incidence prevention than other fed concentrations. The TL incidence was remarkably reduced when curcumin was fed to the mice before than after the radiation exposure. These results suggest modification of TL incidence by curcumin in irradiated mice involving DNA damage and apoptotic death mechanisms

  3. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...... and results show that a simple decision tree classifier can learn incidence type with satisfactory results from news data....

  4. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  5. Rockfish Pilot Permit Program (RPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rockfish Pilot Program was a five-year project that allowed harvesters to form voluntary cooperatives and receive an exclusive harvest privilege for groundfish...

  6. US Daily Pilot Balloon Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pilot Balloon observational forms for the United States. Taken by Weather Bureau and U.S. Army observers. Period of record 1918-1960. Records scanned from the NCDC...

  7. WIPP: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are discussed briefly: history and site selection; salt as a disposal medium; transporting waste materials; early key events; impacts on New Mexico; project organization; and site certification profile

  8. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  9. Occupational exposure to blood in medical students | Rabbitts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specific focus on the preceding events and the situation in which the incidents occurred (department, time of day, procedure performed, and whether the student was on call), exposure to HIV (patient's retroviral status), use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) (whether used, when initiated), and the consequences of the ...

  10. Exposure to asbestos in patients with malignant mesothelioma in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pouryaghoub

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: The results of our study specified the jobs with high risks of exposure to asbestos and approved the relationship between the exposure to asbestos and the inci-dence of mesothelioma in Iran, according to researches in other countries. So the con-sumption of asbestos in Iran, like 20 other countries in the world is necessary to be banned.

  11. Neurophysiologic and Neuropathologic Effects in Monkeys of Low Level Exposures to Sarin, Pyridostigmine, Pesticides and Botulinum Toxoid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Carl

    1998-01-01

    .... Pilot studies are being performed to select doses of pyridostigmine bromide (PB), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and sarin (GE) to be used in two-week exposures with a 9-month post-dosing evaluation period...

  12. PSF support pilot program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this program is to observe the center of Omega Cen {which has a nice flat distribution of reasonably-spaced-out stars} in order to construct a PSF model for ACS's three workhorse filters: F435W, F606W, and F814W. These also happen to be the three ACS filters that will be used in the Frontier-Field program. PI-Anderson will use the data to consturct an 9x10 array of fiducial PSFs that describe the static variation of the PSF across the frame for each filter. He will also provide some simple routines that the public can use to insert PSFs into images.The observations will dither the center of the cluster around in a circle with a radius of about 30" such that any single star never falls in the ACS gap more than once. This has the additional benefit that we can use this large dither to validate or improve the distortion solution at the same time we are solving for the PSF. We will get four exposures through each of the ACS filters. The exposure times for the three ACS filters {F435W, F606W, and F814W} were chosen to maximize the number of bright unsaturated stars while simultaneously minimizing the number of saturated stars present. To do this, we made sure that the SGB {which is where the LF rises precipitously} is just below the saturation level. We used archival images from GO-9444 and GO-10775 to ensure that 339s for F435W, 80s in F606W, and 90s in F814W is perfect for this.In addition to the ACS exposures, we also take parallels with WFC3/IR. These exposures will sample a field that is 6' off center. The core radius is 2.5', so this outer field should have a density that is 5x lower than at the center, meaning the typical star is maybe 2.5x farther away. This should compensate for the larger WFC3/IR pixels and will allow us to construct PSFs that are appropriate. We take a total of 32 WFC3/IR exposures, each with an exposure time of 103s, and divide these 32 exposures among the four FF WFC3/IR exposures: F105W, F125W, F140W, and F160W. We will use

  13. An assessment of predominant causal factors of pilot deviations that contribute to runway incursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Denado M.

    The aim of this study was to identify predominant causal factors of pilot deviations in runway incursions over a two-year period. Runway incursion reports were obtained from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), and a qualitative method was used by classifying and coding each report to a specific causal factor(s). The causal factors that were used were substantiated by research from the Aircraft Owner's and Pilot's Association that found that these causal factors were the most common in runway incursion incidents and accidents. An additional causal factor was also utilized to determine the significance of pilot training in relation to runway incursions. From the reports examined, it was found that miscommunication and situational awareness have the greatest impact on pilots and are most often the major causes of runway incursions. This data can be used to assist airports, airlines, and the FAA to understand trends in pilot