Egger, Peter; Köthenbürger, Marko
This paper presents empirical evidence of a positive effect of council size on government spending using a data set of 2,056 municipalities in the German state of Bavaria over a period of 21 years. We apply a regression discontinuity design to avoid an endogeneity bias. In particular, we exploit ...
Egger, Peter; Köthenbürger, Marko
This paper presents empirical evidence of a positive effect of council size on government spending using a dataset of 2,056 municipalities in the German state of Bavaria over a period of 21 years. We apply a regression discontinuity design to avoid an endogeneity bias. In particular, we exploit d...
H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); O.H. Swank (Otto)
textabstractands. The time series analysis, covering the period 1953–1993, allows for different types of government spending. In general, spending is inspired by ideological and opportunistic motives: all government expenditure categories show an upward drift during election times and the partisan
Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...... effectiveness canexceed the welfare loss from introducing new distortions. Moreover, it is found that the investment subsidy is gradually phased out of the welfare maximizing policy, which may be a policy combining the two subsidies, when the level of government spending is increased.Keywords: welfare ranking......, indirect and direct policy instruments, restricted government spending JEL: E61, O21, O41...
Ig. Sigit Murwito; Boedi Rheza; Sri Mulyati; Elizabeth Karlinda; Ratnawati Muyanto
We study on how a larger local government budget on infrastructure does not reflect into good quality of road in forty-one district/city across Indonesia given the fact of low infrastructure quality and low government spending on infrastructure. This study excels its preceded studies done by Tanzi and Davoodi (1997) at country level. The methodology used is a combination of quantitative and qualitative approach since our main research query is to seek facts on why a larger government spending...
Daniel J. Wilson
The severe global economic downturn and the large stimulus programs that governments in many countries adopted in response have generated a resurgence in research on the effects of fiscal policy. One key lesson emerging from this research is that there is no single fiscal multiplier that sums up the economic impact of fiscal policy. Rather, the impact varies widely depending on the specific fiscal policies put into effect and the overall economic environment.
Full Text Available Abstract This study considers three questions: 1. What are the Canadian public’s prioritization preferences for new government spending on a range of public health-related goods outside the scope of the country’s national system of health insurance? 2. How homogenous or heterogeneous is the Canadian public in terms of these preferences? 3. What factors are predictive of the Canadian public’s preferences for new government spending? Data were collected in 2008 from a national random sample of Canadian adults through a telephone interview survey (n =1,005. Respondents were asked to rank five spending priorities in terms of their preference for new government spending. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. As a first priority, Canadian adults prefer spending on child care (26.2%, followed by pharmacare (23.1%, dental care (20.8%, home care (17.2%, and vision care (12.7%. Sociodemographic characteristics predict spending preferences, based on the social position and needs of respondents. Policy leaders need to give fair consideration to public preferences in priority setting approaches in order to ensure that public health-related goods are distributed in a manner that best suits population needs.
This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...
Full Text Available This paper proposes an alternative dynamic model of government spending in Indonesia. The model is based on short term disequilibrium assumption, in which multi period of shocks variables may play an important role. This research applies a loss function approach and uses optimum shock variables as the determinant for government spending during 1970-2010. The result shows that real GDP, population, and multi period shock of government spending are statistically significant. It provides evidence of the impact of multi period shocks to the realization of government spending. It implies that government faces a serious disequilibrium in determining their spending both in short and long terms.Keywords: Fiscal, government spending, deficit budget, shockJEL classification numbers: H53, H62, C22
Sugata Ghosh; Andros Gregoriou
In an endogenous growth model with two public goods, we analytically derive the optimal composition of government spending in the presence of corruption. Although corruption results in a loss of productivity per se, an increase in corruption in the category of public spending that is harmed relatively more by corruption could have a favourable effect on growth, as it would encourage a benevolent government to divert spending towards the public good that is more productive, net of corruption.
Christopher J. Nekarda; Valerie A. Ramey
This paper investigates industry-level effects of government purchases in order to shed light on the transmission mechanism for government spending on the aggregate economy. We begin by highlighting the different theoretical predictions concerning the effects of government spending on industry labor market equilibrium. We then create a panel data set that matches output and labor variables to shifts in industry-specific government demand. The empirical results indicate that increases in gover...
The quality of governance and education spending in Africa. ... and democracy, on the public budget allocation to education by using data for a panel of 28 African countries over the period 1995–2004. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Masataka Eguchi; Yuhki Hosoya
This paper investigates how does the response of private consumption to government spending be changed by intratemporal substitution among private consumption, government spending and leisure. We show that the response of private consumption to government spending can be positive even if private consumption and government spending are not complements and private consumption and leisure are not substitutes. In this case, substitution between leisure and government spending plays important role...
Barnichon, Régis; Matthes, Christian
Despite intense scrutiny, estimates of the government spending multiplier remain highly uncertain, with values ranging from 0.5 to 2. While an increase in government spending is generally assumed to have the same (mirror-image) effect as a decrease in government spending, we show that relaxing this assumption is important to understand the effects of fiscal policy. Regardless of whether we identify government spending shocks from (i) a narrative approach, or (ii) a timing restr...
Full Text Available This article aims to provide direct empirical evidence on business cycle relations between government spending and economic growth in the Czech Republic. Government spending plays an important role in a fiscal policy as a possible automatic stabilizer. We analyzed annual data on government spending in compliance with the COFOG international standard. We use cross-correlation on cyclically filtered adjusted time series over the period 1995–2008. The cyclical properties of GDP and government spending function were, in average, found as weakly correlated. However, we report considerable differences in correlations across the spending functions. The lowest correlation coefficient (0.06 was found for recreation, culture and religion and the highest average was reported for economic affairs (−0.51. As regards to using government spending as the stabilizer, total government spending, general public services, defense, economic affairs and education spending were negative correlated and it confirms countercyclical relation between these spending functions and GDP. It is in line with theory suggestion. On the other hand, the highest spending function (social protection correlated weak positive and it expresses procyclical development.The results of Johansen cointegration test proved the existence of long-run relationship between GDP and total government spending, GDP and public order and safety spending and GDP and economic affairs spending.
Andriansyah, Yuli; Anto, M. Bekti Hendrie
This research is aimed to analyse government spending in Indonesia based on its types and functions according to Islamic economic perspective. Data used in this research are government spending classified based on type and function which were secondary one collected from financial note of government and national budget and spending or Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara in Bahasa of Republic of Indonesia, 2005-2013. Theoretical framework used in this research includes modern approach to go...
Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.
This paper provides new evidence on the effects of government spending shocks and the fiscal transmission mechanism in the euro area for the period 1980-2008. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we investigate changes in the macroeconomic impact of government spending shocks using time-varying
public budget allocation to education by using data for a panel of ... social sector spending categories, education accounts for the highest share of GDP. (5.3%), which ..... that politically stable countries will devote more resources to education.
Full Text Available This paper presents the results for testing for causal relationship between economic growth and goverment spending for OIC countries covering the time series data 1970~2006. There are usually two propositions regarding the relation between economic growth and government spending: Wagner’s Law states that as GDP grows, the public sector tends to grow; and the Keynesian framework postulates that public expenditure causes GDP to grow. The primary strength and originality of this paper is that we used aggregate data as well as disaggregate data for Granger causality test. By testing for causality between economic growth and government spending, we find that government spending does cause economic growth in Iran, Nigeria and Tunisia, which are compatible with Keynesian’s theory. However, the economic growth does cause the increase in goverment spending in Algeria, Burkina Faso, Benin, Indonesia, Libya Malaysia, Marocco, and Saudi, which are well-suited with Wagner’s law.
Full Text Available This paper explains the long-run demand for central government spending in Finland by analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes in the spending behavior, examining possible links between variables in a VAR-framework, and performing multivariate analysis of the demand factors. The results was shoved that a explained by a lack of military versus social spending tradeoff effect. Even though certain other variables were found to be relevant in explaining this demand, this lack of a tradeoff increased the Finnish spending levels substantially during the twentieth centurt welfare state expansion.
Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes County spending data for Montgomery County government. It does not include agency spending. Data considered sensitive or confidential and will...
Mulder, A.W. (Bert); Hartog, M.W. (Martijn)
This research focuses an optimal arrangement of open spending as added instrumental value to the accountability incommunicating financial information towards citizens within The Netherlands. Open Spending is more and more of relevance in the Netherlands and is addressed as one of the key action points in the Open Government Partnership Action plan of The Netherlands. In order to adequately communicate financial information towards citizens, 5 arrangement variables of accountability (transpare...
Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S
The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Roshaiza Taha; Nanthakumar Loganathan
The trend of tax collection in Malaysia is inconsistent, changing upward and downward depending upon economic conditions. However, over a 30 year period, most years show an increasing increment in total collection. The exceptions are when there is an abnormal economic condition such as financial crisis, war or increase in world oil prices. Total tax revenue has always been a major contribution to Malaysiaâ€™s federal government revenue. Income tax is one of the surest ways to fund the governm...
The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future spending can be beneficial for policy makers and planners, and can identify financing gaps. In this study, we estimate future gross domestic product (GDP), all-sector government spending, and health spending disaggregated by source, and we compare expected future spending to potential future spending. We extracted GDP, government spending in 184 countries from 1980-2015, and health spend data from 1995-2014. We used a series of ensemble models to estimate future GDP, all-sector government spending, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending through 2040. We used frontier analyses to identify patterns exhibited by the countries that dedicate the most funding to health, and used these frontiers to estimate potential health spending for each low-income or middle-income country. All estimates are inflation and purchasing power adjusted. We estimated that global spending on health will increase from US$9·21 trillion in 2014 to $24·24 trillion (uncertainty interval [UI] 20·47-29·72) in 2040. We expect per capita health spending to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 5·3% (UI 4·1-6·8) per year. This growth is driven by continued growth in GDP, government spending, and government health spending. Lower-middle income countries are expected to grow at 4·2% (3·8-4·9). High-income countries are expected to grow at 2·1% (UI 1·8-2·4) and low-income countries are expected to grow at 1·8% (1·0-2·8). Despite this growth, health spending per capita in low-income countries is expected to remain low, at $154 (UI 133-181) per capita in 2030 and $195 (157-258) per capita in 2040. Increases in national health spending
Jacobs, Lerike; Moolman, Anneke Maré
Adam Smith provides guidance through the four Canons of Taxation to assist government to design a good tax system based on a set of principles. These principles are being applied throughout the world, as well as in South Africa. However, the South African government has been challenged to reduce income inequality and promote growth. This has led to an increase in government spending. Although literature provides information about governmental spending, spending patterns have not been in...
Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.
This paper applies structural vector autoregressions with time-varying parameters in order to investigate changes in the effects of government spending shocks in the euro area, and the driving forces of those changes. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we present evidence that the short-run impact
Kuehn, S.; Veen, van A.P. (Tom); Muysken, J.
Empirical evidence shows that government spending crowds in private consumption, a Keynesian phenomenon. The current state of the art, New Keynesian models based on optimising households and firms, is not able to predict such a result. We show with a graphical framework as well as a formal model why
Full Text Available The issue of whether government expenditure helps or hinders economic growth is still debatable. This study examines the contribution of government spending towards economic growth in South Africa using annual data from 1980 – 2014. The cointegration approach and Vector Error Correction Model were used to analyse the data. The cointegration test results indicate that there is long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in South Africa. The VECM outcome indicates a positive and significant link between economic growth and expenditure on the long run. There is a positive and significant relationship between exchange rate and economic growth and a significant and negative relationship between economic growth and private consumption. Based on these findings, the correlation between government expenditure and economic growth showed that there is positive relationship on the long run in South Africa, while there is a negative and significant relationship between government spending and economic growth on the short run. More spending should therefore be directed towards important sectors such as infrastructural development and industrial development in order to accelerate economic growth. There is also a need for fiscal policy to be used as an instrument to regulate the amount of money in the economy.
Koole, K.; Vis, B.
Over the last years, the level of spending on maternal employment supporting policies has risen in most countries. Still, the variation across governments in this level is substantial. Under which conditions do governments spend relatively much? Drawing on the critical mass literature, we argue that
Tandon, Ajay; Fleisher, Lisa; Li, Rong; Yap, Wei Aun
Countries vary widely with respect to the share of government spending on health, a metric that can serve as a proxy for the extent to which health is prioritized by governments. World Health Organization (WHO) data estimate that, in 2011, health's share of aggregate government expenditure averaged 12% in the 170 countries for which data were available. However, country differences were striking: ranging from a low of 1% in Myanmar to a high of 28% in Costa Rica. Some of the observed differences in health's share of government spending across countries are unsurprisingly related to differences in national income. However, significant variations exist in health's share of government spending even after controlling for national income. This paper provides a global overview of health's share of government spending and summarizes some of the key theoretical and empirical perspectives on allocation of public resources to health vis-à-vis other sectors from the perspective of reprioritization, one of the modalities for realizing fiscal space for health. The paper argues that theory and cross-country empirical analyses do not provide clear-cut explanations for the observed variations in government prioritization of health. Standard economic theory arguments that are often used to justify public financing for health are equally applicable to many other sectors including defence, education and infrastructure. To date, empirical work on prioritization has been sparse: available cross-country econometric analyses suggest that factors such as democratization, lower levels of corruption, ethnolinguistic homogeneity and more women in public office are correlated with higher shares of public spending on health; however, these findings are not robust and are sensitive to model specification. Evidence from case studies suggests that country-specific political economy considerations are key, and that results-focused reform efforts - in particular efforts to explicitly expand the
Bernardini, Marco; Peersman, Gert
Using state-dependent local projection methods and historical U.S. data, we find that government spending multipliers are considerably larger in periods of private debt overhang. In particular, we find significant crowding-out of personal consumption and investment in low-debt states, resulting in multipliers that are significantly below one. Conversely, in periods of private debt overhang, there is a strong crowding-in effect, while multipliers are much larger than one. In high-debt states, ...
Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar
Full Text Available Linkage of credit on BI rate, funds rate, inflation, and government spending on capital provides evidence from Indonesia. This paper found advance explanation about banks credit as monetary transmission channel and its role on Indonesian economy. We used credit depth as a ratio of banks credit to GDP nominal, to explain the role of credit in Indonesian economy. We developed a VAR model to measure the response of credit to BI rate, funds rate and inflation rate, and OLS method to find out how banks credit response to government spending on capital. This paper revealed bi-direction causality between credit and BI rate, credit and funds rate, and credit and inflation. There is trade-off between credit and BI rate, credit and funds rate, and credit and inflation, but government spending on capital promotes credit depth. We found that Indonesian banking is bank view, allocated their credit based on their performance, not merely on the monetary policy determined by central bank. For bank view perspectives, we analyzed the link between LDR as an indicator of credit channel mechanism to NPLs and CAR. We found that there is no significant effect of CAR to LDR, but has a strong negatively relationship between NPLs to LDR. This evidence indicates that commercial banks in Indonesia allocated their credit do not related to their capital but merely to the quality of their credit portfolio.
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of government spending shocks on the current account and the real exchange rate for 20 OECD countries using panel VAR model, in order to provide empirical stylized facts. The countries were grouped based on openness and size, and the influence of openness and size on the effects of government spending shocks. The main findings are as follows. First, in the analysis of all 20 countries, in response to government spending shocks, the worsening of the current account is significant, but real exchange rate appreciation is not significant. Second, real exchange rate appreciation is more significant and worsening of the current account is more temporary in the group of countries with higher openness than in those with low openness. Third, the worsening of the current account is more significant in the group of large countries than in the group of small countries. Although real exchange rate depreciation under fiscal expansion is not consistent with traditional theories, the results are broadly consistent with the existing theories that incorporate openness and the size of the country.
Taylor, A.; Bramley, M.; Winfield, M.
This study investigates government spending in the Canadian oil and gas industry within the context of greenhouse gas emission trends and Kyoto commitments. Various forms of provincial and federal government support provided between 1996 and 2002 through grants, tax expenditures, and government program expenditures for conventional oil and gas and oil sands sectors are presented. The paper contextualizes government support for oil and gas production, discusses what constitutes a subsidy, presents the methodology and approach used to establish expenditure estimates, presents the study findings and discusses expenditure estimates and puts the results into the context of other public policy work. The conclusion recommends policy changes and describes important areas for future research related to public expenditure on oil and gas production. The study concludes that while it is understood that reform or removal of environmentally harmful subsidies will not solve environmental problems alone, such actions are important in order to achieve environmental improvements and objectives. 163 refs., 24 tabs, 5 figs
David Alan Aschauer
This paper contains an investigation of the effects of different means of financing government spending on economic growth, inflation, and welfare. In this setting, two different types of government spending are considered: productive expenditures which provide services to the private sector in its production activities; and unproductive expenditures which have no direct influence on the private economy. In turn, two different forms of finance are considered: proportional income taxation; and...
Maruthappu, Mahiben; Shalhoub, Joseph; Tariq, Zoon; Williams, Callum; Atun, Rifat; Davies, Alun H; Zeltner, Thomas
The global economic downturn has been associated with unemployment rises, reduced health spending, and worsened population health. This has raised the question of how economic variations affect health outcomes. We sought to determine the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality globally. Data were obtained from the World Bank and World Health Organization. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in unemployment and government healthcare expenditure on cerebrovascular mortality. Country-specific differences in infrastructure and demographics were controlled for. One- to five-year lag analyses and robustness checks were conducted. Across 99 countries worldwide, between 1981 and 2009, every 1% increase in unemployment was associated with a significant increase in cerebrovascular mortality (coefficient 187, CI: 86.6-288, P = 0.0003). Every 1% rise in government healthcare expenditure, across both genders, was associated with significant decreases in cerebrovascular deaths (coefficient 869, CI: 383-1354, P = 0.0005). The association between unemployment and cerebrovascular mortality remained statistically significant for at least five years subsequent to the 1% unemployment rise, while the association between government healthcare expenditure and cerebrovascular mortality remained significant for two years. These relationships were both shown to be independent of changes in gross domestic product per capita, inflation, interest rates, urbanization, nutrition, education, and out-of-pocket spending. Rises in unemployment and reductions in government healthcare expenditure are associated with significant increases in cerebrovascular mortality globally. Clinicians may also need to consider unemployment as a possible risk factor for cerebrovascular disease mortality. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.
A. M. Khamatkanova
Full Text Available The article suggests that it is critical to optimise the State's expenses on research and development (R&D. The authors suggest that one of the key instruments for increasing efficiency in spending of government's resources on R&D sector would be to introduce new models of financing projects from the entrepreneurial sector of science. This sector uses the largest gross expenditures on R&D (60% and more than half of State resources. According to international practice it is evident that the entrepreneurial sector of science is precisely the one that should take the lead in moving R&D towards new technological milestones. However, a relative analysis of State and entrepreneurial sectors of Russian science has shown that the industrial sector, having spent 60% of National resources on R&D and owing 47% of total scientific personnel, has yet not contributed to re-industrialisation of domestic industry.
de Senna, Viviane; Souza, Adriano Mendonça
Since the 1988 Federal Constitution social assistance has become a duty of the State and a right to everyone, guaranteeing the population a dignified life. To ensure these rights federal government has created programs that can supply the main needs of people in extreme poverty. Among the programs that provide social assistance to the population, the best known are the ;Bolsa Família; Program - PBF and the Continuous Cash Benefit - Continuous Cash Benefit - BPC. This research's main purpose is to analyze the relationship between the main macroeconomic variables and the Federal government spending on social welfare policy in the period from January 2004 to August 2014. The used methodologies are the Vector auto regression model - VAR and Error Correction Vector - VEC. The conclusion, was that there is a meaningful relationship between macroeconomic variables and social assistance programs. This indicates that if the government takes a more abrupt resolution in changing the existing programs it will result in fluctuations in the main macroeconomic variables interfering with the stability of Brazilian domestic economy up to twelve months.
Karim, Zulkefly Abdul; Asri, Norain Mod; Abdullah, Azrina Al-Hadi; Antoni, Antoni; Mohd.Yusoff, Zetty Zahureen
The main objectives of this paper is to examine the long run relationship between total expenditure, revenue (tax and nontax) and economic growth in ASEAN-5 countries namely by Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines. According to the prior studies, there are several hypotheses to explain the relationship between revenue and spend-ing such as (1) spend-revenue hypotheses, (2) revenue-spend hypotheses and (3)bi-directional causality hypotheses. To test the validity of these hy...
Mohd.Yusoff, Zetty Zahureen; Antoni, Antoni; Abdullah, Azrina Al-Hadi; Asri, Norain Mod; Karim, Zulkefly Abdul
The main objectives of this paper is to examine the long run relationship between total expenditure, revenue (tax and nontax) and economic growth in ASEAN-5 countries namely by Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines. According to the prior studies, there are several hypotheses to explain the relationship between revenue and spend-ing such as (1) spend-revenue hypotheses, (2) revenue-spend hypotheses and (3)bi-directional causality hypotheses. To test the validity of these hy...
Goldsmith, Arthur H.
Standard introductory textbook authors assert that an increase in government spending expands aggregate demand in the short run but also raises the interest rate and, thus, crowds out private investment in the long run. Because the decrease in investment results in a smaller capital stock, potential output or production capacity decreases. The…
Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.
The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…
A.W. (Bert) Mulder; M.W. (Martijn) Hartog
This research focuses an optimal arrangement of open spending as added instrumental value to the accountability incommunicating financial information towards citizens within The Netherlands. Open Spending is more and more of relevance in the Netherlands and is addressed as one of the key action
Bee, C. Adam
Chapter 1 assesses the impact of household car ownership on individual labor supply. Various economic theories suggest one reason for low rates of employment among low-skill, inner-city residents is that their residences are spatially separated from suburban jobs. To measure this, I exploit changes in state insurance rate regulation which has been shown to suppress auto insurance prices, thereby decreasing the cost of owning a car. I find that rate regulation increases multi-car ownership among married couples with children. I find that the additional car in the household consequently encourages married mothers to decrease their labor supply while their husbands increase their labor supply. One possible explanation of this result is that second cars are stronger complements to time spent in home production (and especially childrearing) than they are to time spent in the labor market. Chapter 2 (with Shawn Moulton) tests for political budget cycles among US municipalities. According to the political budget cycle hypothesis, in election years government officials engage in opportunistic fiscal policy manipulation for electoral gains. This chapter tests that hypothesis using data on taxes and spending for a panel of 268 US cities over the period 1970-2004. While our estimates provide no evidence of altered total expenditures or taxes in election years, we do find a 0.7 percent increase in total municipal employment, including increases in police, education, and sanitation employment. Chapter 3 (with Andrew Deines, David Lodge, and Richard Jensen) assesses trade-offs between fisheries and hydropower production in a tropical floodplain fishery. We compile catch per unit effort, total harvest, and monthly-mean hydrographs from the Kafue River in Zambia for the years 1955-1996 and develop population growth models to test for effects of density, total fisheries harvest, and water regime. We find that alteration of the flood regime has reduced fish density but enhanced
Government contractors, particularly those involved with hazardous waste response action activities, are encountering increased risks for environmental tort liabilities. Contracts often include tasks and work assignments requiring the management of industrial, chemical, nuclear or mining wastes, spent fuels, munitions or other toxic substances. Contractors exposure to liability for damages results directly from the environmental laws and regulations pursuant to which the Government has contracted them to respond. Additionally, contractors may be exposed to common law liability under such dogmas as nuisance, trespass and strict liability in tort
Liang, Li-Lin; Mirelman, Andrew J
A consensus exists that rising income levels and technological development are among key drivers of total health spending. Determinants of public sector health expenditure, by contrast, are less well understood. This study examines a complex relationship across government health expenditure (GHE), sociopolitical risks, and international aid, while taking into account the impacts of national income, debt and tax financing and aging populations on health spending. We apply a fixed-effects two-stage least squares regression method to a panel dataset comprising 120 countries for the years 1995 through 2010. Our results show that democratic accountability has a diminishing positive correlation with GHE, and that levels of GHE are higher when government is more stable. Corruption is associated with less GHE in developing countries, but with higher GHE in developed countries. We also find that development assistance for health (DAH) is fungible with domestically financed government health expenditure (DGHE). For an average country, a 1% increase in DAH to government is associated with a 0.03-0.04% decrease in DGHE. Furthermore, the degree of fungibility of DAH to government is higher in countries where corruption or ethnic tensions are widespread. However, DAH to non-governmental organizations is not fungible with DGHE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Makuta, Innocent; O'Hare, Bernadette
The population in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) suffers poor health as manifested in high mortality rates and low life expectancy. Economic growth has consistently been shown to be a major determinant of health outcomes. However, even with good economic growth rates, it is not possible to achieve desired improvements in health outcomes. Public spending on health (PSH) has long been viewed as a potential complement to economic growth in improving health. However, the relationship between PSH and health outcomes is inconclusive and this inconclusiveness may, in part, be explained by governance-related factors which mediate the impact of the former on the latter. Little empirical work has been done in this regard on SSA. This paper investigates whether or not the quality of governance (QoG) has a modifying effect on the impact of public health spending on health outcomes, measured by under-five mortality (U5M) and life expectancy at birth (LE), in SSA. Using two staged least squares regression technique on panel data from 43 countries in SSA over the period 1996-2011, we estimated the effect of public spending on health and quality of governance U5M and LE, controlling for GDP per capita and other socio-economic factors. We also interacted PSH and QoG to find out if the latter has a modifying effect on the former's impact on U5M and LE. Public spending on health has a statistically significant impact in improving health outcomes. Its direct elasticity with respect to under-five mortality is between -0.09 and -0.11 while its semi-elasticity with respect to life expectancy is between 0.35 and 0.60. Allowing for indirect effect of PSH spending via interaction with quality of governance, we find that an improvement in QoG enhances the overall impact of PSH. In countries with higher quality of governance, the overall elasticity of PSH with respect to under-five mortality is between -0.17 and -0.19 while in countries with lower quality of governance, it is about -0.09. The
Allers, Maarten A.; Ishemoi, Lewis J.
Decentralisation of government creates fiscal disparities: some subnational governments can provide their citizens with more public services than others. Many countries try to equalise fiscal disparities by targeting grants at disadvantaged jurisdictions. This is especially difficult for developing
E A S Nelson
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. OBJECTIVE: To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. METHODS: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$ for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. FINDINGS: In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013% and United Kingdom (0.0085% disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024% and Canada (0.008% made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a vaccine procurement; and b immunization programs.
Nelson, E A S; Bloom, David E; Mahoney, Richard T
The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$) for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013%) and United Kingdom (0.0085%) disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024%) and Canada (0.008%) made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a) vaccine procurement; and b) immunization programs.
Full Text Available East Kalimantan Province is one of the rich provinces in natural resources such as coal mining oil and gas. Utilization of the natural resources is expected to be used optimally to improve the welfare of the community. The purpose of this research is to find out how big the influence of natural resources sector which the consist of mining and quarrying sector and processing industry sector and government expenditure for education against poverty alleviation in East Kalimantan Province. This research uses explanatory method with time-series and cross-section data and applying multiple regression model with Ordinary Least Square OLS method. The results of this study show that a the natural resource sector and government spending on education have no effect on per capita income growth b economic growth as measured by per capita income growth positively affects on poverty and government spending on education is not significantly influential to poverty reduction and c the natural resource sector has no significant effect on the poverty headcount in East Kalimantan.
Budhdeo, Sanjay; Watkins, Johnathan; Atun, Rifat; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Maruthappu, Mahiben
Economic measures such as unemployment and gross domestic product are correlated with changes in health outcomes. We aimed to examine the effects of changes in government healthcare spending, an increasingly important measure given constrained government budgets in several European Union countries. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the effect of changes in healthcare spending as a proportion of total government expenditure, government healthcare spending as a proportion of gross domestic product and government healthcare spending measured in purchasing power parity per capita, on five mortality indicators. Additional variables were controlled for to ensure robustness of data. One to five year lag analyses were conducted. European Union countries 1995-2010. Neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, one to five years of age mortality, under five years of age mortality, adult male mortality, adult female mortality. A 1% decrease in government healthcare spending was associated with significant increase in all mortality metrics: neonatal mortality (coefficient -0.1217, p = 0.0001), postneonatal mortality (coefficient -0.0499, p = 0.0018), one to five years of age mortality (coefficient -0.0185, p = 0.0002), under five years of age mortality (coefficient -0.1897, p = 0.0003), adult male mortality (coefficient -2.5398, p = 0.0000) and adult female mortality (coefficient -1.4492, p = 0.0000). One per cent decrease in healthcare spending, measured as a proportion of gross domestic product and in purchasing power parity, was both associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in all metrics. Five years after the 1% decrease in healthcare spending, significant increases (p < 0.05) continued to be observed in all mortality metrics. Decreased government healthcare spending is associated with increased population mortality in the short and long term. Policy interventions implemented in response to the financial crisis may be associated with worsening
This report on governance in Brazil's unified health system assesses resource allocation and management, planning and budgeting functions, and budget execution at different levels of government for public expenditures on health services. The emphasis is on understanding the incentives generated for service providers, and the overall soundness of the accountabilities established in the publ...
Raphael T Mpofu
Full Text Available The study looked at the relationship between GDP per capita and health expenditure per capita as well as that of GDP per capita and education expenditure per capita in South Africa between 1994 and 2012. Adolph Wagner’s “Law” proposes that a state will increase its government expenditure relatively to the national income (Henrekson, 1993. Any change in the amount of health expenditure will influence the per capita health expenditure in a country. In this study, using the Human Development Index (HDI as the yardstick for Quality of Life (QoL, the concepts of Standard of Living (SoL and per capita income were examined closely in relation to the role of government in its public expenditure programmes and how these programmes in turn influenced QoL. In particular, the role of government expenditure on health and education seems to signify the commitment of a government in improving the HDI or QoL. Using data on government expenditure in South, the relationships amongst these variables were examined. Since Quality of Life is related to health expenditure per capita, then QoL too should change as government health expenditure increases. The same is expected of an increase in education expenditure. From the study results, it is clear that total tax revenue has increased sharply since 2000 and at a much faster rate than its contribution to GDP but the government deficit has also burgeoned in tandem with government revenue collection as if in tango. The reality is that government expenditure has increased sharply since 1993 but has this been directed at QoL? Public service protests tell a different story. The departments of Cooperative Governance and Traditional Affairs and the Police seem to be receiving the largest revenue votes, raising the question of whether there is real value added and whether this expenditure is warrantied in terms of SoL.
Ahmad Hassan Ahmad
Full Text Available This paper investigates the short-run and long-run relationships between three main macroeconomic variables in Oman using the Johansen multivariate co-integration techniques as well as the stationary VAR for the period between 1971 and 2013. The results indicate that there is a long-run relationship between these three macroeconomic variables; the real GDP, the real government expenditure and the real oil revenues. The estimated coefficients for the real oil revenues and the real government expenditure are correctly signed and statistically significant at 5% level. Both variables depict positive relationship with GDP which are 0.672 and 0.872 respectively. The impulse response functions and the variance decomposition from the stationary VAR show that these variables are very important to the short-run dynamics of the Omani economy. Overall, government expenditure appears to be the main source for economic growth in long-run, and in short run variations in government expenditure are generally derived by oil revenue shocks. Therefore, the volatility in oil revenue requires public expenditure management reforms and the need to diversify income sources in order to enhance economic stability and growth.
Physical and monetary accounts for the oil and gas sectors in Alberta from 1963 through 1988 are used to adjust Alberta's Gross Domestic Product and Gross Domestic Investment for changes in oil and gas reserves. Other resources, non-renewable and renewable, are important to Alberta, but the change in oil and gas reserves over the past quarter century deserves attention in itself. Growth rates of income and investment during the 1970s and 1980s differ significantly when the adjustments are made to conventional income accounts. Since policies are often based on conventional statistics, alternative measures yielding very different results warrant attention. The oil and gas accounts also permit comparison of past expenditures of resource revenues with what would be spent under a rule of thumb such as Robert Solow's (1986) suggestion that allowable consumption be interest on an initial patrimony of resource endowment. Such a comparison indicates the provincial government may, at times, have overspent resource revenues during the past quarter century; at other times its policies appear to have been quite conservative. The estimates presented require various assumptions, and therefore are but one possible set of adjustments deserving consideration. 26 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs
An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development. We also identify countries that deviate from the trends. We estimated national health spending by type of care and by source, including development assistance for health, based on a diverse set of data including programme reports, budget data, national estimates, and 964 National Health Accounts. These data represent health spending for 184 countries from 1995 through 2014. We converted these data into a common inflation-adjusted and purchasing power-adjusted currency, and used non-linear regression methods to model the relationship between health financing, time, and economic development. Between 1995 and 2014, economic development was positively associated with total health spending and a shift away from a reliance on development assistance and out-of-pocket (OOP) towards government spending. The largest absolute increase in spending was in high-income countries, which increased to purchasing power-adjusted $5221 per capita based on an annual growth rate of 3·0%. The largest health spending growth rates were in upper-middle-income (5·9) and lower-middle-income groups (5·0), which both increased spending at more than 5% per year, and spent $914 and $267 per capita in 2014, respectively. Spending in low-income countries grew nearly as fast, at 4·6%, and health spending increased from $51 to $120 per capita. In 2014, 59·2% of all health spending was financed by the government, although in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 29·1% and 58·0% of spending was OOP
Nelson, E. A. S.; Bloom, David E.; Mahoney, Richard T.
Background The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments – both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of the share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that governments spend on their own vaccine procurement. Objective To determine realistic targets for VPA and VPB. Methods Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and World Bank data for 2009 were analyzed to determine the proportions of bilateral ODA from the 23 Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries disbursed (as % of GDP in current US$) for infectious disease control. DAC country contributions to the GAVI Alliance for 2009 were assessed as a measure of multilateral donor support for vaccines and immunization programs. Findings In 2009, total DAC bilateral ODA was 0.16% of global GDP and 0.25% of DAC GDP. As a percentage of GDP, Norway (0.013%) and United Kingdom (0.0085%) disbursed the greatest proportion of bilateral ODA for infectious disease control, and Norway (0.024%) and Canada (0.008%) made the greatest contributions to the GAVI Alliance. In 2009 0.02% of DAC GDP was US$7.61 billion and 0.02% of the GDP of the poorest 117 countries was US$2.88 billion. Conclusions Adopting 0.02% GDP as minimum targets for both VPA and VPB is based on realistic estimates of what both developed and developing countries should spend, and can afford to spend, to jointly ensure procurement of vaccines recommended by national and global bodies. New OECD purpose codes are needed to specifically track ODA disbursed for a) vaccine procurement; and b) immunization programs. PMID:24586899
The House of Commons Energy Committee recently reported in the Department of Energy's spending plans for 1990-91. This Memorandum represents the Government's response to their recommendations. A review of the structure and size of research and development expenditure is anticipated. Research should focus on pollution reduced coal-based electricity generation and wave energy provided prospects prove sufficiently promising. The reasons for the closure of the Winfrith Reactor are outlined. Fusion power is seen as expensive, too long term and unlikely to be economically viable, but the Joint European Torus (JET) programme will be supported until 1996. Cost of decommissioning JET are a cause for concern. Nuclear Electric is deemed to be acting too slowly in setting proper financial targets. No change is envisaged in the Government's arrangements to fund overseas atomic energy programmes in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Authority. The costs of publicity promoting civilian nuclear programmes is seen as too high. (author)
Essays in economics: 1. Pre-committed government spending and partisan politics. 2. Investment in energy efficiency: Do the characteristics of firms matter? 3. Information processing and organizational structure
Watkins, William Edward, Jr.
1. Spending commitments requiring future outlays are important for understanding partisan politics because they prevent a conservative government from scaling back spending programs. In a one-government-good model, a "stubborn liberal" policy maker can use precommitted spending to prevent a later conservative government from imposing spending cuts. In a model where parties differ about spending priorities, re-election uncertainty creates a bias towards higher government spending and higher taxes. 2. The literature on energy efficiency provides examples of profitable technologies that are not universally adopted. Theory indicates that firms should undertake all investments with a positive net present value, and that the discount rate for computing the present value of a project should be the return available on other projects in the same risk class, not on characteristics of the firm. This model is tested by examining whether firms' characteristics influence their decision to join the Environmental Protection Agency's Green Lights program. A discrete choice regression is estimated over a sample of participating and non-participating firms. Missing values in the data matrix are replaced with multiple imputations using the EM algorithm. The results show that: (1) substantial improvements in the power of hypothesis tests can be achieved through imputation of missing data, and (2) characteristics of firms do affect their decision to join Green Lights. 3. Standard theories of the firm stress profit maximization as the foundation for derivation of predictable behavior. Yet evidence continues to accumulate that firms do not act as required by the neoclassical framework. Instead of being represented by ever more elaborate maximization models, the firm can be modeled simply as a network of information-processing agents. The actions of the firm are then a function only of the network structure and the information-processing capabilities of the agents. This approach can be
City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...
Provides an example for how to set up a pocket spending guide. By filling out the guide and keeping it with you, you can easily see at any time how much money you have available to spend in each category. A pocket spending guide will help you adjust your spending plan to make your money go where you really want it to go.
Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi
Brazil's Unified National Health System is financed according to a model known as fiscal federalism, the fund-sharing rules of the Social Security Budget, Ministry of Health norms, and Constitutional Amendment 29 (EC-29), which links Federal, State, and municipal resources to health. This article discusses the sustainability of public spending on health at the municipal level. Twenty-one municipalities were studied, using municipal budget data. From 1996 to 2006, total current per capita revenues increased by 280% above the accumulated inflation and Gross Domestic Product, varying by size of municipality, which also defined the composition of the municipal budgets. Meanwhile, the budget comprising the basis for EC-29 increased less (178%), thus placing limits on the municipal share of health spending. The results observed in these municipalities are believed to reflect the reality in thousands of other Brazilian municipalities, thus jeopardizing the capacity for municipal investment in health, especially beginning in 2008. The situation may become even worse, considering the repeal of the so-called Bank Transaction Tax (CPMF), Bills of Law 306/08 and 233/08 (currently under review in the National Congress), and the world recession stemming from the U.S. financial crisis.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...
Nelson, E. A. S.; Bloom, David E.; Mahoney, Richard T.
BACKGROUND: The Global Vaccine Action Plan will require, inter alia, the mobilization of financial resources from donors and national governments - both rich and poor. Vaccine Procurement Assistance (VPA) and Vaccine Procurement Baseline (VPB) are two metrics that could measure government performance and track resources in this arena. VPA is proposed as a new subcategory of Official Development Assistance (ODA) given for the procurement of vaccines and VPB is a previously suggested measure of...
A notable feature of Australian drug policy is the limited public and professional attention given to the financial costs of drug abuse and to the levels and patterns of government expenditures incurred in preventing and responding to this. Since 1991, Collins and Lapsley have published scholarly reports documenting the social costs of drug abuse in Australia and their reports also contain estimates of governments' drug budgets: revenue and expenditures. They show that, in 2004-2005, Australian governments expended at least $5288 million on drug abuse, with 50% of the expenditure directed to preventing and dealing with alcohol-related problems, 45% to illicit drugs and just 5% to tobacco. Some 60% of the expenditure was directed at drug crime and 37% at health interventions. This pattern of resource allocation does not adequately reflect an evidence-informed policy orientation in that it largely fails to focus on the drug types that are the sources of the most harm (tobacco and alcohol rather than illicit drugs), and the sectors for which we have the strongest evidence of the cost-effectiveness of the available interventions (treatment and harm reduction rather than legislation and law enforcement). The 2010-2014 phase of Australia's National Drug Strategy should include incremental changes to the resource allocation mix, and not simply maintain the historical resource allocation formulae. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
De Grauwe, Paul; Polan, Magdalena
We provide evidence indicating that countries with well-developed social security systems do not necessarily face a trade-off between social spending and competitiveness. On average, countries that spend a lot on social needs score well in the competitiveness league. We investigate the importance of a reverse causality from competitiveness to social spending, and find that this is weak. We also present some possible explanations for our empirical finding. Finally, we interpret our findings in...
Tan Juat Hong
The paper investigates the causal relationships between government spending and revenue for Malaysia. The study uses annual data, a Johansen cointegration test and an error-correction model. A preliminary test shows that government revenue and expenditure are cointegrated. Empirical results support the spend-and-tax hypothesis. Furthermore, they underscore the fact that fiscal policy may not be effective enough to curb the rising budget deficits over the long term and may even reduce private ...
McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S
We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.
Jammet, H.; Nenot, J.C.
The growing use of radionuclides, whether at hospital, laboratory or nuclear facility level, increases the risk of internal contamination. Not only that, some particularly dangerous elements are being handled more and more frequently. Hence the importance of therapeutic concepts based on the general principles governing action to be taken in cases of internal contamination. These principles should be applicable without the nature of the contaminant having to be taken into account, and irrespective of whether it is transferable and of the route of entry, i.e. healthy skin, wound or bronchial tree. The basic principle is the concept of urgency: ''blind'' treatment should be applied merely on the supposition of internal contamination. It is desirable, moreover, that the first aid should be given at the site of the accident. Hence, the product used should be non-toxic under normal conditions of use and should be simple to apply, as, for example, the administration of an aerosol. It is not until later that the doctor should undertake treatment in the proper sense of the term, the emergency treatment having afforded him sufficient time to carry out the preliminary examination required to gain an exact idea of the internal contamination. (author)
The results highlight the need for policy makers to shift public outlays towards investment in physical infrastructure which will stimulate growth and consequently improve fiscal sustainability as opposed to recurrent expenditure. Keywords: Economic Growth, Fiscal Policy, Cointegration, Causality, Wagner' Law ...
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Gørtz, Mette; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene
is responsible for more than twice as much spending on health as the richest, and this reverse social gradient is even stronger for long-term care and is stronger among men than among women, especially in hospital expenses. Expenditures in the year (over the three years) before death are nearly 12 times...... (respectively nine times) higher than average, but nevertheless are only 11 per cent (respectively a quarter) of lifetime spending. Out-of-pocket expenses on prescription drugs only amount to 3 per cent of total health expenditures and are less concentrated than these....
Borger, Christine; Rutherford, Thomas F; Won, Gregory Y
We present a dynamic general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy and the medical sector in which the adoption of new medical treatments is endogenous and the demand for medical services is conditional on the state of technology. We use this model to prepare 75-year medical spending forecasts and a projection of the Medicare actuarial balance, and we compare our results to those obtained from a method that has been used by government actuaries. Our baseline forecast predicts slower health spending growth in the long run and a lower Medicare actuarial deficit relative to the previous projection methodology.
Abdi, Zeinab; Masih, Mansur
This Malaysia is a developing Islamic state that faced government budget deficit since 1998. It is undeniable that a budget deficit or inability to cover government spending is not positively seen by external parties. The optimum level of government budget is the state where government spending is totally offset by government revenue and that can be achieved through an increase in tax revenue or decrease in spending. The paper aims to discover the existence of a theoretical relationship betwe...
Full Text Available This text deals with the importance of studying environment public spending. Initially, we discuss the concept of environment public spending and how it became a public accounting function. Later, an analysis of several studies on the theme was carried out to promote a discussion on the environment public funds allocated by governments. Next, a discussion on the relevance of the theme and the need for further studies is presented, since investments on environment management still need to be better allocated and duly dimensioned. Currently, transparence in public spending has promoted the realization of more studies, leading to a more careful observation of environmental issues by the society, showing that these issues still need more attention from the goverment.
A report published by the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, claims that government figures for R&D spending are misleading. They apparently include military projects that are more concerned with product development than original research.
Industry estimates are that Italian refiners' capital outlays will total almost 12 trillion lire ($7.2 billion), in 1990 currencies, in the 1990's. Most spending will be earmarked to develop cleaner fuels and plant-specific environmental mitigation measures related to new European Community regulations. Italian refiners generally have lagged some of their counterparts in Europe and North America on environmental spending. That's because they have faced a continuing margin squeeze as a result of product prices remaining under tight government controls. Last year, the government began to implement price deregulation in line with EC directives. At the same time, the government is enforcing stiffer emissions rules to improve air quality in urban areas. The paper describes spending plans; demand for oxygenates; demand for low sulfur fuel oil for power plants; and price regulations
Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of this Spending Disclosure Fiscal Year 12 dataset is to allow the public to search and view summary information on payments made to recipients (referred...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...
Leider, Jonathon P
Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to
Alfonso, Y Natalia; Ding, Guiru; Bishai, David
Using cross-country data on gross domestic product and national expenditure on vaccines, we estimate and compare the income elasticity of vaccine expenditure and general curative healthcare expenditure. This study provides the first evidence on the national income elasticity of vaccination spending. Both fixed and random effects models are applied to data from 84 countries from 2010 to 2011. The income elasticities for healthcare expenditure and vaccine expenditure are 0.844 and 0.336, respectively. Despite vaccines' high cost-effectiveness, the national propensity to spend income on vaccines as income increases lags behind general health care. The low income elasticity of vaccine spending means that relying on economic growth alone will provide an unacceptably slow trajectory to achieving high vaccine coverage levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi. B O'Hare, M Curtis. Abstract. This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax ...
Jerald A Schiff; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta
The decline in military spending that began in the mid-1980s continued through 1995, and this decline was widespread both geographically and by level of development. Cuts in military spending appear to have potentially important implications for nonmilitary spending and fiscal adjustment. In contrast to findings for previous periods, military spending has declined more than proportionately in those countries that have reduced total spending. Countries with Fund programs have reduced military ...
De Grasse, Robert; Murphy, Paul
Evaluates President Reagan's proposed military buildup in light of the cuts such expenditures would necessitate in approximately 300 domestic programs. Suggests that the dramatic proposed increase in military spending risks higher inflation and slower economic growth. Concludes with a plea for rethinking of Reagan's dramatic shift in national…
Farmer, Lesley; Shontz, Marilyn
This year's "School Library Journal's" spending survey showed that, despite the recession, the vast majority of media centers around the country have retained their credentialed media specialists. For example, almost 85% of elementary schools and more than 95% of middle and high schools have a full-time certified librarian. In addition, salaries…
private - sector spending for health insurance increases each year has raised many questions about the meaning of the trend and its implications for the future. According to the federal government’s national health accounts (NHA), the annual growth rate of private health insurance expenditures tumbled from around 14 percent in 1990 to less than 3 percent in 1994 and 1995. Understanding the factors that contribute to that reduction is of particular concern to policymakers who are seeking ways to slow the growth of Medicare spending. At the same time that fundamental
Tamim Bayoumi; Fernando M. Gonçalves
Trends in the size of U.S. government are examined. In the postwar period, general government primary spending rose by ¼ percent of GDP a year through 1975, stabilizing thereafter. With higher social transfers offset by a lower burden of defense spending, expansion reflected a baby-boom driven rise in education spending. The parallel improvement in tax efficiency helped equate the benefits of higher spending with the costs from higher taxation, in accordance with a marginalist view of the siz...
A healthy, well-fed, educated populace is synonymous with a prospering economy. Yet, when planning their budgets, governments tend to emphasize infrastructural/industrial projects and defence rather than investing in health, education and other social programmes to eliminate the widespread poverty and high mortality of its population, which would assure a more promising future in the long-term. As citizens, nurses are responsible for initiating and supporting action to meet the health and social needs of the public. And in keeping with ICN's 1989 resolution on nuclear war, INR presents some facts on social and defence spending to show how health needs are often being deprived by emphasis on others sectors, particularly defence. The aim is "to encourage nurses to critically appraise expenditure on health and welfare at a national and global level in relation to that spent on conventional and nuclear arms and to assist nurses to develop strategies of action to contribute to international peace."
Full Text Available This article investigates inequality in parental spending on young children over the period from 1972 to 2010. I find increased spending among parents at the top of the income distribution but little change among parents at the bottom of the income distribution. The gap in spending is equally attributable to increased spending on center-based care for preschool-age children and spending on enrichment goods and activities. The article examines potential causes of increased spending, including income, parental education, and wife’s work status, using decomposition analysis. Results indicate that higher incomes are the largest cause of the increased gap in spending but that increases in wife’s earnings, college completion, and wife’s work hours are also important for growth in spending.
Seitz, Michael; Tarasov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Roman
This paper develops a quantitative model of trade, military conflicts, and defense spending. Trade liberalization between two countries reduces probability of an armed conflict between them, causing both to cut defense spending. This in turn causes a domino effect on defense spending by other countries. As a result, both countries and the rest of the world are better off. We estimate the model using data on trade, conflicts, and military spending. We find that, after reduction of costs of tra...
The aim of this paper is to analyze the new model of centralization of purchases in Italy after the approval of the 2016 Stability Law, with particular reference to the health sector. In fact, the spending review process in Italy in the health sector has had a strong evolution with the 2016 Stability Law, which has introduced the obligation for the institutions of the National Health Service to obtain supplies, exclusively, from aggregators subjects, for certain product categories of the health sector. The legislature, over the years, was mainly characterized by measures to reduce the spending limits for purchases of goods and services or by resetting the fees, including the provision of an obligation for the renegotiation of health goods and services contracts, in order to ensure the effective implementation of the expenditure rationalization by aggregation of goods and services. From 2016, the legislature has provided an innovative model of centralization of purchases based on a new network governance model on several levels, national and regional, which should ensure an efficiency of procurement processes. The proper functioning of the governance model adopted can be an important driver of economic policy in order to understand that it is important not only to spend less, but to spend better. This can be realized in the public administration with a strong innovation process in this administration and also with a strong investment in skills, in order to ensure the same service quality throughout the national territory to the health sector.
Cockx, Lara; Francken, Nathalie
In line with the rising interest in harnessing natural resource revenues for economic and human development through productive government investments, this paper aims to address an important blind spot in our understanding of the “resource curse” by contributing innovative insights on how natural resource wealth impacts government priorities and expenditure practices. Using a large panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009, we find an adverse effect of resource dependence on public education expenditures relative to GDP that is robust to controlling for a range of additional covariates. Furthermore, our findings indicate that this resource curse effect on the government prioritization of education mainly stems from point-source natural resources. These results are of particular importance for the sustainable management of natural resource wealth in developing countries, as they could achieve especially high returns by investing resource revenues in public goods such as education. While this paper underlines the importance of institutions and government accountability, our findings also raise questions on the role of the private sector as a partner in development, as the extractives industry could consider increasing funding for education through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. - Highlights: •We use a panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009. •We find an inverse relationship between resource dependence and education spending. •The effect of resource dependence is robust to controlling for several covariates. •Indirect effects through a decline in accountability and the service industry. •This curse mainly stems from point-source resource dependence.
Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Jie
We study the association between the timing of the Great Recession (GR) and health spending among uninsured adults distinguishing by citizenship/nativity status and time of U.S. residence. Uninsured U.S. citizens and noncitizens from the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The probability of reporting any health spending and the natural logarithm of health spending are our main dependent variables. We compare health spending across population categories before/during the GR. Subsequently, we implement two-part regression analyses of total and specific health-spending measures. We predict average health spending before/during the GR with a smearing estimation. The probability of reporting any spending diminished for recent immigrants compared to citizens during the GR. For those with any spending, recent immigrants reported higher spending during the GR (27 percent). Average reductions in total spending were driven by the decline in the share of the population reporting any spending among citizens and noncitizens. Our study findings suggest that recent immigrants could be forgoing essential care, which later translates into higher spending. It portrays the vulnerability of a population that would remain exposed to income shocks, even after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) implementation. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Stefano DellaVigna; Ruben Durante; Brian Knight; Eliana La Ferrara
An extensive literature has studied lobbying by special interest groups. We analyze a novel lobbying channel: lobbying businessmen-politicians through business proxies. When a politician controls a business, firms attempting to curry favors shift their spending towards the politician's business. The politician benefits from increased revenues, and the firms hope for favorable regulation in return. We investigate this channel in Italy where government members, including the prime minister, are...
Bonam, D.; Lukkezen, J.H.J.
Keynesian theory predicts output responses upon a fiscal expansion in a small open economy to be larger under fixed than floating exchange rates. We analyse the effects of fiscal expansions using a New Keynesian model and find that the reverse holds in the presence of sovereign default risk. By
Dadgostar, Bahram; Mirabelli, Frank
Does the provision of Canadian government capital expenditures and government deficits displace private economic activity? In the U.S., Erenburg (1993) found that private sector investment spending is enhanced by expected increases in public spending on infrastructure, while also showing that deficit spending has no significant effect on private investment. There is no empirical study to date that addresses the relationship between government capital investment and government debt on private ...
O'Hare, B; Curtis, M
This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax revenues foregone by the government of Malawi by two main routes: Illicit financial flows (IFF) from the country, Tax incentives. We find that there are significant financing gaps in the health sector; for example, government expenditure is United States Dollars (USD) 177 million for 2013/2014 while projected donor contribution in 2013/2014 is USD 207 million and the total cost for the minimal health package is USD 535 million. Thus the funding gap between the government budget for health and the required spending to provide the minimal package for 2013/2014 is USD 358 million. On the other hand we estimate that almost USD 400 million is lost through IFF and corporate utilization of tax incentives each year. The revenues foregone plus the current government health spending would be sufficient to cover the minimal public health package for all Malawians and would help tackle Malawi's disease burden. Every effort must be made, including improving transparency and revising laws, to curtail IFF and moderate tax incentives.
Afonso, António; Schuknecht, Ludger; Tanzi, Vito
In this paper we examine the impact of public spending, education, and institutions on income distribution in advanced economies. We also assess the efficiency of public spending in redistributing income by using a DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) nonparametric approach. We find that public policies significantly affect income distribution, notably via social spending, and indirectly via high quality education/human capital and via sound economic institutions. Moreover, for our set of OECD cou...
Chinese are normally believed to be thrifty.However,economic development has had a tremendous impact upon Chinese society,uprooting the long-engraved ideas.With the emergence of the credit cards,spending tomorrow's money becomes a reality.In this way,people are in dilemma:saving money or spending tomorrow's money.Firstly,this paper focuses on the benefits of spending tomorrow's money.Secondly,it shows that spending tomorrow's money is confronted with many challenges.Finally,the paper comes up with some suggestions to solve these problems.
Reed, Sherrie; Rose, Heather
Examining resource allocation practices, including savings, of charter schools is critical to understanding their financial viability and sustainability. Using 9 years of finance data from California, we find charter schools spend less on instruction and pupil support services than traditional public schools. The lower spending on instruction and…
Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.
This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…
Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Espinosa, Nathan; Catlin, Aaron; The National Health Expenditure Accounts Team
Total nominal US health care spending increased 4.3 percent and reached $3.3 trillion in 2016. Per capita spending on health care increased by $354, reaching $10,348. The share of gross domestic product devoted to health care spending was 17.9 percent in 2016, up from 17.7 percent in 2015. Health spending growth decelerated in 2016 following faster growth in 2014 and 2015 associated with coverage expansions under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and strong retail prescription drug spending growth. In 2016 the slowdown was broadly based, as spending for the largest categories by payer and by service decelerated. Enrollment trends drove the slowdown in Medicaid and private health insurance spending growth in 2016, while slower per enrollee spending growth influenced Medicare spending. Furthermore, spending for retail prescription drugs slowed, partly as a result of lower spending for drugs used to treat hepatitis C, while slower use and intensity of services drove the slowdown in hospital care and physician and clinical services.
Muhamamd Guzali Tafalas; Deddy T. Tikson; Baharuddin; Hj. Hasniati
The purpose of this study is to explain and analyze in detail The positive association Government spending in education PP with a Gross Enrolment Ratio GER and net enrollment ratio NER in East Java Province. Government spending on education is less associated significantly to the gross enrollment ratio at primary education. gross enrollment GER especially at the level of elementary education. As for the middle and high school level of education government spending on education was significant...
Mexico's government this year will introduce petroleum tax reforms that will transform how its state owned petroleum company approaches capital spending. Effective Jan. 1, 1994, the Mexican government began to implement a revamped tax regime designed to accompany the breakup of Petroleos Mexicanos into four new operating subsidiaries. Each of the four new companies -- Pemex Exploration and Production, Pemex Refining, Pemex Natural Gas and Basic Petrochemicals, and Pemex Secondary Petrochemicals -- will be responsible for paying a new income tax. Levies on E and P will be tied to a ring-fence mechanism tailored after the scheme employed by the U.K. and Norwegian governments in the North Sea. The paper discusses the affected investment rationale, the North Sea ring-fence model, other tax changes, and shifting the burden
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis documents findings on the relationship of government budget deficits and defense spending for France, Germany, Greece, and the United Kingdom in detail and for NATO and OECD country collectives. The thesis topic is relevant, as many European countries are justifying their recent cuts in defense spending with high government budget deficits. The author looked at different data sources and metrics to graphically analyze the ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...
Martin, Anne; Lassman, David; Whittle, Lekha; Catlin, Aaron
In 2009, US health care spending grew 4.0 percent--a historically low rate of annual increase--to $2.5 trillion, or $8,086 per person. Despite the slower growth, the share of the gross domestic product devoted to health spending increased to 17.6 percent in 2009 from 16.6 percent in 2008. The growth rate of health spending continued to outpace the growth of the overall economy, which experienced its largest drop since 1938. The recession contributed to slower growth in private health insurance spending and out-of-pocket spending by consumers, as well as a reduction in capital investments by health care providers. The recession also placed increased burdens on households, businesses, and governments, which meant that fewer financial resources were available to pay for health care. Declining federal revenues and strong growth in federal health spending increased the health spending share of total federal revenue from 37.6 percent in 2008 to 54.2 percent in 2009.
Hoffman, Allison K; Jackson, Howell E
Even though most American retirees benefit from Medicare coverage, a mounting body of research predicts that many will face large and increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for healthcare costs in retirement and that many already struggle to finance these costs. It is unclear, however, whether the general population understands the likely magnitude of these out-of-pocket expenditures well enough to plan for them effectively. This study is the first comprehensive examination of Americans' expectations regarding their out-of-pocket spending on healthcare in retirement. We surveyed over 1700 near retirees and retirees to assess their expectations regarding their own spending and then compared their responses to experts' estimates. Our main findings are twofold. First, overall expectations of out-of-pocket spending are mixed. While a significant proportion of respondents estimated out-of-pocket costs in retirement at or above expert estimates of what the typical retiree will spend, a disproportionate number estimated their future spending substantially below what experts view as likely. Estimates by members of some demographic subgroups, including women and younger respondents, deviated relatively further from the experts' estimates. Second, respondents consistently misjudged spending uncertainty. In particular, respondents significantly underestimated how much individual health experience and changes in government policy can affect individual out-of-pocket spending. We discuss possible policy responses, including efforts to improve financial planning and ways to reduce unanticipated financial risk through reform of health insurance regulation.
Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.
Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...
Brady, Eoghan S; Leider, Jonathon P; Resnick, Beth A; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David
Government public health expenditure data sets require time- and labor-intensive manipulation to summarize results that public health policy makers can use. Our objective was to compare the performances of machine-learning algorithms with manual classification of public health expenditures to determine if machines could provide a faster, cheaper alternative to manual classification. We used machine-learning algorithms to replicate the process of manually classifying state public health expenditures, using the standardized public health spending categories from the Foundational Public Health Services model and a large data set from the US Census Bureau. We obtained a data set of 1.9 million individual expenditure items from 2000 to 2013. We collapsed these data into 147 280 summary expenditure records, and we followed a standardized method of manually classifying each expenditure record as public health, maybe public health, or not public health. We then trained 9 machine-learning algorithms to replicate the manual process. We calculated recall, precision, and coverage rates to measure the performance of individual and ensembled algorithms. Compared with manual classification, the machine-learning random forests algorithm produced 84% recall and 91% precision. With algorithm ensembling, we achieved our target criterion of 90% recall by using a consensus ensemble of ≥6 algorithms while still retaining 93% coverage, leaving only 7% of the summary expenditure records unclassified. Machine learning can be a time- and cost-saving tool for estimating public health spending in the United States. It can be used with standardized public health spending categories based on the Foundational Public Health Services model to help parse public health expenditure information from other types of health-related spending, provide data that are more comparable across public health organizations, and evaluate the impact of evidence-based public health resource allocation.
Laktionova Olexandra A.
Full Text Available A possible impact of introducing fiscal regulation of spending into the budgetary mechanism, if used before the financial crisis of 2008—2009 or afterwards, has been studied. Accumulation of public finance imbalances in the form of government deficit and debt was taken as an introduction effect. Two approaches are considered as a variant of the spending regulation — limitation of spending depending on the state revenue growth and depending on the nominal GDP growth as well. According to the dynamics, the model defined by the GDP dynamics has more tight restrictions but it is more correlated with the business activity dynamics and is more procyclical. Provided the application of the spending regulation at the beginning of the financial crisis, its level in the GDP would have amounted to 9—21%, the reserve of fiscal space according to this indicator would have amounted to 1—16 percentage points.
Lassman, David; Sisko, Andrea M; Catlin, Aaron; Barron, Mary Carol; Benson, Joseph; Cuckler, Gigi A; Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Whittle, Lekha
As the US health sector evolves and changes, it is informative to estimate and analyze health spending trends at the state level. These estimates, which provide information about consumption of health care by residents of a state, serve as a baseline for state and national-level policy discussions. This study examines per capita health spending by state of residence and per enrollee spending for the three largest payers (Medicare, Medicaid, and private health insurance) through 2014. Moreover, it discusses in detail the impacts of the Affordable Care Act implementation and the most recent economic recession and recovery on health spending at the state level. According to this analysis, these factors affected overall annual growth in state health spending and the payers and programs that paid for that care. They did not, however, substantially change state rankings based on per capita spending levels over the period. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available Expansionary fiscal policy is mired in controversy. Its proponents suggest that during recession, it stimulates investors’ activity and has a stabilizing effect on economic growth. However, its opponents point to the costs associated with the budget deficit and public debt handling. Increased public spending may result in an increase in the interest rates, which may, in turn, hinder private investment and weaken the multiplier effect of public spending. The following study examines how private spending and market interest rates reacted to changes in public spending in Poland. The study has shown that public spending stimulates private spending, which is consistent with the Keynesian model, but it also leads to an increase in market interest rates, which is consistent with the neoclassical model.
Tan, Timothy M; Spiegel, Paul; Haskew, Christopher; Greenough, P Gregg
Numerous simultaneous complex humanitarian emergencies strain the ability of local governments and the international community to respond, underscoring the importance of cost-effective use of limited resources. At the end of 2011, 42.5 million people were forcibly displaced, including 10.4 million refugees under the mandate of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR spent US$1.65 billion on refugee programs in 2011. We analyze the impact of aggregate-level UNHCR spending on mortality of refugee populations. Using 2011 budget data, we calculated purchasing power parity adjusted spending, disaggregated by population planning groups (PPGs) and UNHCR Results Framework objectives. Monthly mortality reported to UNHCR's Health Information System from 2011 to 2012 was used to calculate crude (CMR) and under-5 (U5MR) mortality rates, and expressed as ratios to country of asylum mortality. Log-linear regressions were performed to assess correlation between spending and mortality. Mortality data for 70 refugee sites representing 1.6 million refugees in 17 countries were matched to 20 PPGs. Median 2011 spending was $623.27 per person (constant 2011 US$). Median CMR was 2.4 deaths per 1,000 persons per year; median U5MR was 18.1 under-5 deaths per 1,000 live births per year. CMR was negatively correlated with total spending ( p = 0.027), and spending for fair protection processes and documentation ( p = 0.005), external relations ( p = 0.034), logistics and operations support ( p = 0.007), and for healthcare ( p = 0.046). U5MR ratio was negatively correlated with total spending ( p = 0.015), and spending for favorable protection environment ( p = 0.024), fair protection processes and documentation ( p = 0.003), basic needs and essential services ( p = 0.027), and within basic needs, for healthcare services ( p = 0.007). Increased UNHCR spending on refugee populations is correlated with lower mortality
Houlberg, Kurt; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Pedersen, Lene Holm
This article investigates politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending. The research questions are where do politicians prefer to cut, where do they prefer to spend and how is this influenced by political ideology? These questions are investigated in a large-scale survey experiment fielded...... to Danish local councillors, who are randomly assigned to a decision-making situation, where the block grant provided to their municipality is either increased or reduced. The results show that the politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending are asymmetric, in the sense that the policy areas, which...... are assigned the least cuts when the grant is reduced, are rarely the ones which are assigned extra money when the grant is increased. Areas with well-organised interests and a target group which is perceived as deserving are granted more money, whereas policy areas where the target group is perceived as less...
The federal government could take a cue from its regulation of charitable organizations in monitoring the freewheeling fiscal habits of big-time college athletics, a leading tax lawyer says. The author reports on the ideas offered by John D. Colombo, a professor at the University of Illinois College of Law, for monitoring big spending on college…
Full Text Available This paper evaluates the factors responsible for maintaining substantial military expenditures in Greece and Turkey. The presented research encompasses theoretical and empirical aspects. First, defense spending by both countries was analyzed based on statistical data from international sources. Next, the theoretical determinants of budgetary spending are reviewed, which consider political, economic and military factors behind high expenditures on the army in Greece and in Turkey. Finally, Granger causality tests is applied to determine whether a causal relation between variables exists in the case of these two countries.
Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Mattila, Anna S.
Hotel managers and investors commonly analyze the impact of advertising spending on firm performance. This paper investigates such an impact using a comprehensive framework incorporating the moderating effects of hotel size and star ratings. We estimated sales performance via dynamic, stochastic...... frontier modelling. Using longitudinal data from a sample of Slovenian and Croatian hotels, we demonstrate that advertising spending has a positive impact on hotel sales performance, and that the relationship strengthens for larger hotels and hotels with higher star ratings. Theoretical and managerial...
Holahan, John; Ghosh, Arunabh
Growth in Medicaid spending averaged 10.2 percent per year between 2000 and 2003, resulting in a one-third increase in program spending. Spending growth was lower from 2002 to 2003 because of slower growth in enrollment and in spending per enrollee, particularly for acute care services, and declines in disproportionate-share hospital (DSH) payments and upper payment limit (UPL) programs. For the entire 2000-2003 period, Medicaid spending increases were largely driven by enrollment growth, much of which was attributable to the economic downturn. Increases in spending per enrollee over the period were faster than inflation but slower than increases in private insurance spending.
Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ... Employing the Keynesian income-expenditure approach to measuring the Gross Domestic ... reduce wastage, enhance the effectiveness of government spending, ensure ...
357 B SPENDING OPTIONS BY BUDGET FUNCION ...... 363 TABLES 1. Baseline Deficit Projections, Fiscal Years 1993-2004...direct control of the Congress. abled beneficiaries and beneficiaries with end-stage renal disease. Nonhealth changes enacted in The total that is
Emanuel, Richard; Adams, Jim; Baker, Kim; Daufin, E. K.; Ellington, Coke; Fitts, Elizabeth; Himsel, Jonathan; Holladay, Linda; Okeowo, David
This study sought to assess how college students spend their time communicating and what impact, if any, communications devices may be having on how that time is spent. Undergraduates (N = 696) at four southeastern colleges were surveyed. Results revealed that listening comprises 55.4% of the total average communication day followed by reading…
Congressional Budget Office, 2013
In fiscal year 2011, the federal government provided $607 billion in grants to state and local governments. Those funds accounted for 17 percent of federal outlays, 4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), and a quarter of spending by state and local governments that year. Over the past 30 years, those "intergovernmental" grants--financial…
2015, $562·6 billion (531·1 billion to 621·9 billion) was spent on HIV/AIDS worldwide. Governments financed 57·6% (52·0 to 60·8) of that total. Global HIV/AIDS spending peaked at 49·7 billion (46·2-54·7) in 2013, decreasing to $48·9 billion (45·2 billion to 54·2 billion) in 2015. That year, low-income and lower-middle-income countries represented 74·6% of all HIV/AIDS disability-adjusted life-years, but just 36·6% (34·4 to 38·7) of total HIV/AIDS spending. In 2015, $9·3 billion (8·5 billion to 10·4 billion) or 19·0% (17·6 to 20·6) of HIV/AIDS financing was spent on prevention, and $27·3 billion (24·5 billion to 31·1 billion) or 55·8% (53·3 to 57·9) was dedicated to care and treatment. From 1995 to 2015, total health spending increased worldwide, with the fastest per capita growth in middle-income countries. While these national disparities are relatively well known, low-income countries spent less per person on health and HIV/AIDS than did high-income and middle-income countries. Furthermore, declines in development assistance for health continue, including for HIV/AIDS. Additional cuts to development assistance could hasten this decline, and risk slowing progress towards global and national goals. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dieleman, Joseph L; Templin, Tara; Sadat, Nafis; Reidy, Patrick; Chapin, Abigail; Foreman, Kyle; Haakenstad, Annie; Evans, Tim; Murray, Christopher J L; Kurowski, Christoph
A general consensus exists that as a country develops economically, health spending per capita rises and the share of that spending that is prepaid through government or private mechanisms also rises. However, the speed and magnitude of these changes vary substantially across countries, even at similar levels of development. In this study, we use past trends and relationships to estimate future health spending, disaggregated by the source of those funds, to identify the financing trajectories that are likely to occur if current policies and trajectories evolve as expected. We extracted data from WHO's Health Spending Observatory and the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation's Financing Global Health 2015 report. We converted these data to a common purchasing power-adjusted and inflation-adjusted currency. We used a series of ensemble models and observed empirical norms to estimate future government out-of-pocket private prepaid health spending and development assistance for health. We aggregated each country's estimates to generate total health spending from 2013 to 2040 for 184 countries. We compared these estimates with each other and internationally recognised benchmarks. Global spending on health is expected to increase from US$7·83 trillion in 2013 to $18·28 (uncertainty interval 14·42-22·24) trillion in 2040 (in 2010 purchasing power parity-adjusted dollars). We expect per-capita health spending to increase annually by 2·7% (1·9-3·4) in high-income countries, 3·4% (2·4-4·2) in upper-middle-income countries, 3·0% (2·3-3·6) in lower-middle-income countries, and 2·4% (1·6-3·1) in low-income countries. Given the gaps in current health spending, these rates provide no evidence of increasing parity in health spending. In 1995 and 2015, low-income countries spent $0·03 for every dollar spent in high-income countries, even after adjusting for purchasing power, and the same is projected for 2040. Most importantly, health spending in many low
Cuckler, Gigi; Martin, Anne; Whittle, Lekha; Heffler, Stephen; Sisko, Andrea; Lassman, Dave; Benson, Joseph
Provide a detailed discussion of baseline health spending by state of residence (per capita personal health care spending, per enrollee Medicare spending, and per enrollee Medicaid spending) in 2009, over the last decade (1998-2009), as well as the differential regional and state impacts of the recent recession. State Health Expenditures by State of Residence for 1991-2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Office of the Actuary. In 2009, the 10 states where per capita spending was highest ranged from 13 to 36 percent higher than the national average, and the 10 states where per capita spending was lowest ranged from 8 to 26 percent below the national average. States with the highest per capita spending tended to have older populations and the highest per capita incomes; states with the lowest per capita spending tended to have younger populations, lower per capita incomes, and higher rates of uninsured. Over the last decade, the New England and Mideast regions exhibited the highest per capita personal health care spending, while states in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions had the lowest per capita spending. Variation in per enrollee Medicaid spending, however, has consistently been greater than that of total per capita personal health care spending or per enrollee Medicare spending from 1998-2009. The Great Lakes, New England, and Far West regions experienced the largest slowdown in per person health spending growth during the recent recession, largely as a result of higher unemployment rates. Public Domain.
Cuckler, Gigi; Martin, Anne; Whittle, Lekha; Heffler, Stephen; Sisko, Andrea; Lassman, Dave; Benson, Joseph
Objective Provide a detailed discussion of baseline health spending by state of residence (per capita personal health care spending, per enrollee Medicare spending, and per enrollee Medicaid spending) in 2009, over the last decade (1998–2009), as well as the differential regional and state impacts of the recent recession. Data Source State Health Expenditures by State of Residence for 1991–2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Office of the Actuary. Principal Findings In 2009, the 10 states where per capita spending was highest ranged from 13 to 36 percent higher than the national average, and the 10 states where per capita spending was lowest ranged from 8 to 26 percent below the national average. States with the highest per capita spending tended to have older populations and the highest per capita incomes; states with the lowest per capita spending tended to have younger populations, lower per capita incomes, and higher rates of uninsured. Over the last decade, the New England and Mideast regions exhibited the highest per capita personal health care spending, while states in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions had the lowest per capita spending. Variation in per enrollee Medicaid spending, however, has consistently been greater than that of total per capita personal health care spending or per enrollee Medicare spending from 1998–2009. The Great Lakes, New England, and Far West regions experienced the largest slowdown in per person health spending growth during the recent recession, largely as a result of higher unemployment rates. PMID:22340779
Francisca Guedes de Oliveira
Full Text Available We develop a Solow type growth model where firms produce a single homogenous good using labor, private capital and a public good. The "amount" of public good depends on current government spending and government quality. Quality is the result of the accumulation of public capital. Governments charge distortionary taxes and provide the public good, investing also in "quality" by accumulating public capital. We analyze how the composition of government spending between current expenditures and quality affects the equilibrium levels. We aim to understand the difference in terms of steady state levels between leviathan, quality driven and benevolent governments.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.
Full Text Available Most buyers on the business spending markets use one or more of the following buying methods: description, inspection, sampling and negotiating. Products are usually standardized according to their characteristics (size, shape, weight or color. The buyer is able to buy only depending in the description or quantity or other characteristic. In some cases buyer may specify business brand or its equivalent when describing desired product.
This paper analyses some of the results of a survey of public opinion carried out in Ireland in the early Autumn of 1989. The survey itself was an innovation in the political economy of taxation and public spending in Ireland in that it was the first time a fully articulated exercise was mounted to establish the actual preferences of the population over specified areas of the economics of the public sector.[extract
important part of regional growth. UI ACCA 9o1n For ’NDis i - Dljt s i-: . TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION .. .. .. .... ..... .... .... .... ..... .. 7...Mideast and Great Lakes, all show spending to taxation ratios of less than one on a per capita basis, yet the Southwest and Rocky Mountain states have...because businesses look beyond the obvious nominal rate and locate according to effective rates of taxation , ie. actual tax liability. In addition, tax
Leung, Gabriel M; Tin, Keith Y K; Chan, Wai-Sum
To derive actuarial projection estimates of Hong Kong's total domestic health expenditure to the year 2033. Disaggregating health expenditure by age, sex, unit cost and utilisation level, we estimated future health spending by projecting utilisation (by public/private, inpatient/outpatient care) to reflect demographic changes and associated increase in demand (from higher expectations and greater intensity of care), and then multiplying such by the projected unit costs (incorporating the impact of key cost drivers such as public expectations, technological changes and potential productivity gains) to obtain total expenditure estimates. The model was most sensitive to the excess health care price inflation rate, i.e. the annual price/cost growth of medical goods and services over and above per capita GDP growth. Population ageing and growth per se, without taking into account related technologic innovation for chronic conditions that particularly afflict older adults, contribute relatively little to overall spending growth. Given the model assumptions, it is possible to limit total health spending to below 10% of GDP by 2033, where the public share would gradually decline from the current 57% to between 46% and 49%. Expenditure control through global budgeting, technology assessment and demand-side constraints should be considered although their effectiveness remains inconclusive.
Sommers, Benjamin D; Gruber, Jonathan
As states weigh whether to expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicaid reform remains a priority for some federal lawmakers, fiscal considerations loom large. As part of the ACA's expansion of eligibility for Medicaid, the federal government paid for 100 percent of the costs for newly eligible Medicaid enrollees for the period 2014-16. In 2017 states will pay some of the costs for new enrollees, with each participating state's share rising to 10 percent by 2020. States continue to pay their traditional Medicaid share (roughly 25-50 percent, depending on the state) for previously eligible enrollees. We used data for fiscal years 2010-15 from the National Association of State Budget Officers and a difference-in-differences framework to assess the effects of the expansion's first two fiscal years. We found that the expansion led to an 11.7 percent increase in overall spending on Medicaid, which was accompanied by a 12.2 percent increase in spending from federal funds. There were no significant increases in spending from state funds as a result of the expansion, nor any significant reductions in spending on education or other programs. States' advance budget projections were also reasonably accurate in the aggregate, with no significant differences between the projected levels of federal, state, and Medicaid spending and the actual expenses as measured at the end of the fiscal year. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between government budget spending and the effect on the growth and structure of the GDP of Croatia during the past two decades. The starting working assumption (hypothesis is that the volume of total budget expenditure (including the foreign borrowing has not been realizing appropriate effect on GDP growth. In the analysis of these relationships we primarily use the method of vector autoregressions (VAR. The main result of the analysis showed that, in accordance with theoretical assumptions, the structure of expenditures is essential for the effects of budgetary spending on economic growth. We determine the positive effects of investment spending and purchases of goods and services and the negative effects of other categories of current spending. The reduction of capital expenditures during the recession presents a particularly adverse trend, which reduces the rate of growth of the economy in the long and short term. A fundamental conclusion of the research is that the budget expenditures have not adequately affected the GDP growth. Therefore, it is possible to affect the economic growth by changing the structure of budgetary spending, as well as directing public borrowing to investment financing.
Apr 1, 2010 ... Book cover Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism ... Primary Healthcare Spending is an important reference for ... field of health policy and health economics, agencies involved in providing ...
Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Ahn, Jin Sun
This article investigates the potential of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to influence the link between advertising spending and firm performance. Drawing upon the literature of CSR, we hypothesize that CSR positively moderates the relationship between advertising spending and firm perform...
Full Text Available The article endeavors to trace the outset of governance concept, its dominant meanings and discourse, and its implication towards governability. The central role of government in the governing processes has predominantly been adopted. The concept of governance was emerged precisely in the context of the failure of government as key player in regulation, economic redistribution and political participation. Governance is therefore aimed to emphasize pattern of governing which are based both on democratic mechanism and sound development management. However, practices of such good governance concept –which are mainly adopted and promoted by donor states and agencies– tend to degrade state and/or government authority and legitimacy. Traditional function of the state as sole facilitator of equal societal, political and legal membership among citizens has been diminished. The logic of fair competition has been substituted almost completely by the logic of free competition in nearly all sectors of public life. The concept and practices of good governance have resulted in decayed state authority and failed state which in turn created a condition for "ungovernability". By promoting democratic and humane governance, the article accordingly encourages discourse to reinstall and bring the idea of accountable state back in.
Coups d'etat continue to be common around the world, often leading to changes in leaders and institutions. We examine the relationship between military spending and coups and find that (i) successful coups increase military spending by more than failed attempts, and (ii) coups are more likely when military spending as a share of GDP is relatively low. Our identification strategy exploits the conditional independence between a coup's outcome and the change in military spending that follows it....
Full Text Available The article focuses on the amount of military spending in the Slovak Republic. In the first part, the terms of defense expenditure and military spending are defined. The second part focuses on the evolution of military spending in the Slovak Republic so far and the future prospects, as well as on the structure of military spending. The final part covers the amount of defense expenditure in relation to the objectives and tasks of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic.
Total capital and exploration spending by the Canadian petroleum industry is estimated at $6.579 billion in 1993, a drop of 4.7% from estimated 1992 outlays. Last year Canadian capital spending of $6.9 billion represented a drop of 8.9% from 1991 outlays, according to an Oil and Gas Journal survey. All survey related spending estimates in this paper are in U.S. dollars. All individual company spending estimates are in Canadian dollars
Full Text Available The purpose of the analysis presented in the article is to identify various economic, social, political, demographic and cultural factors that could shape the differences in the size of government sector across countries and, with the use of econometric analysis empirically verify the effect of those factors. The analysis focuses only on ”budgetary” government, meaning that the size of government is measured with a certain government spending ratio. The results of the analysis revealed that economic factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of government consumption spending, whereas political, social and cultural factors are more important in explaining the variation in the size of transfer spending. In addition, the results indicate that the relative size of government spending is inversely related to the extent of the regulation of the economy.
Brown, P.; Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.
Focusing on a remote area in rural China, we use a panel census of households in 26 villages to show that socially observable spending has risen sharply in recent years. We demonstrate that such spending by households is highly sensitive to social spending by other villagers. This suggests that
Coskun Can Aktan, PhD
Full Text Available Many empirical studies that examined the government spending concludes that the sizeand scope of government has grown considerably since the beginning of the twentiethcentury in most developed countries. If this is the fact, then we must ask and explore thefollowing questions: Why does government grow? What are the main sources ofgovernment growth? What are the main reasons of the expansion of government? Thisintroductory paper aims to answerthose and other questions regarding governmentgrowth. The paperismostlydependon public choice literature of government growth.
Keohane, Laura M; Gambrel, Robert J; Freed, Salama S; Stevenson, David; Buntin, Melinda B
To analyze the sources of per-beneficiary Medicare spending growth between 2007 and 2014, including the role of demographic characteristics, attributes of Medicare coverage, and chronic conditions. Individual-level Medicare spending and enrollment data. Using an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition model, we analyzed whether changes in price-standardized, per-beneficiary Medicare Part A and B spending reflected changes in the composition of the Medicare population or changes in relative spending levels per person. We identified a 5 percent sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and above from years 2007 to 2014. Mean payment-adjusted Medicare per-beneficiary spending decreased by $180 between the 2007-2010 and 2011-2014 time periods. This decline was almost entirely attributable to lower spending levels for beneficiaries. Notably, declines in marginal spending levels for beneficiaries with chronic conditions were associated with a $175 reduction in per-beneficiary spending. The decline was partially offset by the increasing prevalence of certain chronic diseases. Still, we are unable to attribute a large share of the decline in spending levels to observable beneficiary characteristics or chronic conditions. Declines in spending levels for Medicare beneficiaries with chronic conditions suggest that changing patterns of care use may be moderating spending growth. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Chvalkovská, Jana; Skuhrovec, Jiří
The objective of this paper is to analyze the potential of e-Government tools to enable the general public to oversee spending of public institutions. The paper illustrates the “watchdog” potential of reducing corruption by means of providing information to the public on the example of the Czech Public e-Procurement Information System (further called System). The System is an Internet portal, where public authorities announce their intention to purchase goods and services. Such announcements ...
Sudulich, M.L.; Wall, M.
We present a novel approach to the study of campaign effectiveness using disaggregated spending returns from the 2007 Irish general election. While previous studies have focused on overall levels of expenditure as a predictor of electoral success, we consider the types of activities on which
Allers, Maarten A.; de Greef, J.A.
Local governments can increase size in particular policy fields through cooperation with other local governments. This is often thought to improve efficiency, but there is little empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis. We study the case of the Netherlands, which has been a veritable
Goli, Srinivas; Moradhvaj; Rammohan, Anu; Shruti; Pradhan, Jalandhar
High maternity-related health care spending is often cited as an important barrier in utilizing quality health care during pregnancy and childbirth. This study has two objectives: (i) to measure the levels of expenditure on total maternity care in disaggregated components such as ANCs, PNCs, and Natal care expenditure; (ii) to quantify the extent of catastrophic maternity expenditure (CME) incurred by households and identify the factors responsible for it. Data from the 71st round of the National Sample Survey (2014) was used to estimate maternity expenditure and its predictors. CME was measured as a share of consumption expenditure by different cut-offs. The two-part model was used to identify the factors associated with maternity spending and CME. The findings show that household spending on maternity care (US$ 149 in constant price) is much higher than previous estimates (US$ 50 in constant price). A significant proportion of households in India (51%) are incurring CME. Along with economic and educational status, type of health care and place of residence emerged as significant factors in explaining CME. Findings from this study assume importance in the context of an emerging demand for higher maternity entitlements and government spending on public health care in India. To reduce CME, India needs to improve the availability and accessibility of better-quality public health services and increase maternity entitlements in line with maternity expenditure identified in this study.
The objective of this study was to estimate the dollar amount of nongovernment philanthropic spending on public health activities in the United States. Health expenditure data were derived from the US National Health Expenditures Accounts and the US Census Bureau. Results reveal that spending on public health is not disaggregated from health spending in general. The level of philanthropic spending is estimated as, on average, 7% of overall health spending, or about $150 billion annually according to National Health Expenditures Accounts data tables. When a point estimate of charity care provided by hospitals and office-based physicians is added, the value of nongovernment philanthropic expenditures reaches approximately $203 billion, or about 10% of all health spending annually.
Coskun Can Aktan, PhD
Many empirical studies that examined the government spending concludes that the sizeand scope of government has grown considerably since the beginning of the twentiethcentury in most developed countries. If this is the fact, then we must ask and explore thefollowing questions: Why does government grow? What are the main sources ofgovernment growth? What are the main reasons of the expansion of government? Thisintroductory paper aims to answerthose and other questions regardin...
Leung, G M; Tin, K Y K; Yeung, G M K; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Fung, A Y K; Lo, S V
observed a system-wide trend towards service consolidation at institutions (as opposed to free-standing ambulatory clinics, most of which are staffed by solo practitioner). In 2004/05, public expenditure on health amounted to $35,247 million (53.9% of total current expenditure), which was mostly incurred at hospitals (76.5%), whilst private expenditure ($30,182 million) was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (54.6%). This reflects the mixed health care economy of Hong Kong where public hospitals generally account for about 90% of total bed-days and private doctors (including Western and Chinese medicine practitioners) provide 75% to 80% of out-patient care. While both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (92.9%), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (54.2%) and substantially less on out-patient care (24.5%), especially low-intensity first-contact care. In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (49.6%), whereas medical goods outside the patient care setting (22.6%) and in-patient care (18.8%) comprised the majority of the remaining share. Compared to OECD countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of gross domestic product to health in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding (either general government revenue or social security funds) was also lower than in most comparably developed economies, although commensurate with its public revenue collection base.
Full Text Available Assigning autonomy to regency governments in Indonesia has failed to increase regency’s economies.While it increases regency government role in planning and initiating policies, its impact oneconomic development has been insignificant. This stems from the lack of institution’s capacity inorganizing the bulk funds transfer from the central government which leads to inefficiency in resourceallocation. This paper maps these regencies based on their fiscal dependency. This paperalso applies Data Envelopment Analysis to identify the efficient and non efficient regencies in sucha way that the non efficient regencies might use the efficient ones as the benchmark to increase theirefficiency.Keywords: Autonomy, regency government, efficiencyJEL classification numbers: H21, H53, H71, H72
Recent rapid spending growth for retail drugs has largely arisen from increased use of new drugs, rather than from increasing prices of existing drugs. A sizable shift in the payment from consumers to third parties has also contributed to faster growth. Strategies such as negotiating for rebates and using tiered copayments have sought to slow spending growth but simultaneously have complicated the estimation of spending in the National Health Accounts (NHA). NHA estimates show that retail pharmaceuticals' share of health spending is not much different than it was in 1960, although its share of gross domestic product (GDP) has tripled.
In 1980, oil production in Norway amounted to 1 million barrels per day. Taxes and royalties to the government from this production provides 9 per cent of the GNP. With current estimates of recoverable reserves, the 1980 production rate would last for 100 years. Decisions about oil production rates and oil income spending have tremendous impact on society. Attemps to design an appropriate oil policy are complicated by uncertainty about total reserves, future oil prices and complex economic responses to production and income. This report provides and integrating framework to aid government officials in their evaluation of policy options. A system dynamics model of the Norwegian national economy is developed for the analysis. The model determines endogenously the spending of oil income, GNP, consumption and investments, imports and exports, unemployment and labor migration from exporting industries to service industries; all variables result from exogenous decisions about oil production. Though the model is based on behavioral theory of economic decision making at the microeconomic level, it reproduces well major behavior modes of macroeconomic indicators from the 1970s. The most attractive oil policy has been found to be a dynamic and firm ceiling on spending. Dynamic means that growth in spending should be limited, spending should not increase unless the economy is appropriately buffered against oil price drops by foreign savings and spending should never exceed a maximum ceiling set to ensure a desirabel distribution of benefits and problems over time. Firm means that the ceiling cannot be changed by Parliament within an election period. If a firm ceiling on spending is politically infeasible, oil production should be kept lower than otherwise.
Facchini, François; Melki, Mickael; Pickering, Andrew Christopher
Given inelastic demand for labour-intensive public services, the size of government depends positively on labour costs. OECD data exhibit a strong statistical association between government size and the business-sector labour share of income. When the labour share is instrumented with measures of technological change, institutional variation and predetermined data it continues to positively impact government size. In contrast, transfer spending is unaffected by the labour share. The evidence ...
Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...
Francisco Venegas Martínez
Full Text Available This paper develops a model of endogenous growth where the government acts as a promoting agent to boost technology in agribusiness. In the framework of a monetary economy, the optimal level of government spending to enhance technology in the agricultural industry is characterized. Moreover the impact of such a spending on economic welfare is assessed. Finally, a number of agro-oriented policies to increase growth in the sector are established.
Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...spending in the Navy Operations and Maintenance accounts between fiscal years 2014 and 2016 to help ensure the government is getting the best value for the...Competition. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Department of the Navy, appropriations, spending, contracts, operations and maintenance , fiscal, Anti-Deficiency Act
The aim of this study was to investigate the budgeting and spending habits of university students at a South African university. In addition, the study examined if there is a significant gender difference in the budgeting and spending habits of university students. The study adopted a quantitative research approach with a ...
Diris, R.; Vandenbroucke, F.; Verbist, G.
This study assesses the role of social spending in relation to child poverty in European welfare states. Using macro-level panel data from EU SILC 2005-2012, we analyze the effect of the size of social spending and the effect of how those benefits are targeted. We separately estimate the effect of
Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Couverture du livre Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Auteur(s) : Okore Apia Okorafor. Maison(s) d'édition : UCT Press, CRDI. 1 avril 2010. ISBN : 9781919895215. 200 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504895.
The recession of 2007–2009 has led to renewed interest in forecasting discretionary consumer spending and whether marketing variables contain predictive content. Using the ACSI customer satisfaction index and both linear and nonlinear methods, this note suggests the index fails to enhance our understanding of the temporal evolution of discretionary spending.
Ittersum, van K.; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.
Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly
van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.
Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly
van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.
Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly
Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel
Notwithstanding the unprecedented attention devoted to reducing poverty and fostering human development via scaling up social sector spending, there is surprisingly little rigorous empirical work on the question of whether social spending is effective in achieving these goals. This paper examines...
Easter, Jon C; Thorpe, Kenneth
Chronic diseases increase utilization and avoidable drug-sensitive spending, but little is done to optimize medication use and drive value. Value-based approaches to health care financing should shift focus to drug-sensitive spending to balance patient access and quality improvement with cost containment. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Mohanty, Sanjay K; Agrawal, Nand Kishor; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Choudhury, Dhrupad; Tuladhar, Sabarnee; Holmgren, E Valdemar
not significant. The multidimensionally poor in the poorer regions are more likely to face health shocks and are less likely to afford professional health services. Increasing government spending on health and increasing households' access to health insurance can reduce catastrophic health spending and multidimensional poverty.
Bredenkamp, Caryn; Buisman, Leander R
The objective of this article is to assess the progress of the Philippines health sector in providing financial protection to the population, as measured by estimates of health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket spending, catastrophic payments and impoverishing health expenditures. Data are drawn from eight household surveys between 2000 and 2013, including two Demographic and Health Surveys, one Family Health Survey and five Family Income and Expenditure Surveys. We find that out-of-pocket spending increased by 150% (real) from 2000 to 2012, with the sharpest increases occurring in recent years. The main driver of health spending is medicines, accounting for almost two-thirds of total health spending, and as much as three-quarters among the poor. The incidence of catastrophic payments has tripled since 2000, from 2.5% to 7.7%. The percentage of people impoverished by health spending has also increased and, in 2012, out-of-pocket spending on health added 1.5 percentage points to the poverty rate, pushing more than 1.5 million people into poverty. In light of these findings, recent policies to enhance financial risk protection-such as the expansion of government-subsidized health insurance from the poor to the near-poor, a policy of zero copayments for the poor, a deepening of the benefit package and provider payment reform aimed at cost-containment-are to be commended. Indeed, between 2008 and 2013, self-reported health insurance coverage increased across all quintiles and its distribution became more pro-poor. To speed progress toward financial protection goals, quick wins could include issuing health insurance cards to the poor to increase awareness of coverage and limiting out-of-pocket spending by clearly defining a clear copayment structure for non-poor members. An in-depth analysis of the pharmaceutical sector would help to shed light on why medicines impose such a large financial burden on households. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press
Heijink, R.; Koolman, X.; Westert, G.P.
Healthcare expenditures rise as a share of GDP in most countries, raising questions regarding the value of further spending increases. Against this backdrop, we assessed the value of healthcare spending growth in 14 western countries between 1996 and 2006. We estimated macro-level health production
Full Text Available The issue of the effects of government interventions, explicitly of the taxes and expenditures of local public authorities, has generated substantial debate over time, and still gives rise to numerous controversies in theory and practice. Following the Keynesian path of reasoning, it is, at least theoretically, admitted that it is possible to influence the socio-economic activities and support for economic growth by means of government spending, but different other factors act towards enhancing or, on the contrary, impeding the achievement of the desired effects. From this point of view, the delimitation of competences and public expenditure responsibilities between different levels of government raises the issue of some possible different effects of the central and local governments’ interventions. As the macroeconomic stabilization function is usually associated with central governments, and the contribution of local governments often is of lesser importance, less attention is paid to the effectiveness of local administrative actions. In such a context, the paper aims to empirically evaluate the effects of the economic structure of local public expenditures on the local (territorial economic growth in Romania, over the period 2007 to 2012. The analysis has been conducted at the level of the 42 Romanian counties and on annual data collected from both international and national sources (World Bank, INSSE, The Romanian Ministry of Regional Development and Public Administration.The general method of estimation is the fixed effects estimation technique for panel data models. Our empirical approach is of absolute novelty, especially for Romania, where previous empirical studies have been focusing on the assessment of the overall effects of general government spending. The main findings of our study are that local public expenditures have a negative impact on territorial economic growth, confirmed both for overall expenditures and for various
Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dickerson, Sally S; Madden, Kenneth M
Does spending money on others (prosocial spending) improve the cardiovascular health of community-dwelling older adults diagnosed with high blood pressure? In Study 1, 186 older adults diagnosed with high blood pressure participating in the Midlife in the U.S. Study (MIDUS) were examined. In Study 2, 73 older adults diagnosed with high blood pressure were assigned to spend money on others or to spend money on themselves. In Study 1, the more money people spent on others, the lower their blood pressure was 2 years later. In Study 2, participants who were assigned to spend money on others for 3 consecutive weeks subsequently exhibited lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to participants assigned to spend money on themselves. The magnitude of these effects was comparable to the effects of interventions such as antihypertensive medication or exercise. Together, these findings suggest that spending money on others shapes cardiovascular health, thereby providing a pathway by which prosocial behavior improves physical health among at-risk older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin
The paper examines the issues around mobilization of resources for the 11 countries of the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO), by analysing their macroeconomic situation, health spending, fiscal space and other determinants of health. With the exception of a few, most of these countries have made fair progress on their own Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets of maternal mortality ratio and mortality rate in children aged under 5 years. However, the achieved targets have been very modest - with the exception of Thailand and Sri Lanka - indicating the continued need for additional efforts to improve these indicators. The paper discusses the need for investment, by looking at evidence on economic growth, the availability of fiscal space, and improvements in "macroeconomic-plus" factors like poverty, female literacy, governance and efficiency of the health sector. The analysis indicates that, overall, the countries of the WHO South-East Asia Region are collectively in a position to make the transition from low public spending to moderate or even high health spending, which is required, in turn, for transition from lowcoverage-high out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) to highcoverage-low OOPS. However, explicit prioritization for health within the overall government budget for low spenders would require political will and champions who can argue the case of the health sector. Additional innovative avenues of raising resources, such as earmarked taxes or a health levy can be considered in countries with good macroeconomic fundamentals. With the exception of Thailand, this is applicable for all the countries of the region. However, countries with adverse macroeconomic-plus factors, as well as inefficient health systems, need to be alert to the possibility of overinvesting - and thereby wasting - resources for modest health gains, making the challenge of increasing health sector spending alongside competing demands for spending on other areas of
Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K; Pearce, Jamie R
Common mental disorders are an increasing global public health concern. The least advantaged in society experience a greater burden of mental illness, but inequalities in mental health vary by social, political, and economic contexts. This study investigates whether spending on different types of social protection alters the extent of social inequality in depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2012 cross-sectional waves of the European Social Survey, which included 48,397 individuals from 18 European countries. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 8). Statistical interactions between country-level social protection spending and individuals' education level, employment and family status were explored using multilevel regression models. Higher spending on active labour market programmes was related to narrower inequality in depressive symptoms by education level. Compared to men with high education, the marginal effect of having low education was 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.46-1.87) among men in countries with lower spending and 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.66-1.03) in higher spending countries. Single parents exhibited fewer depressive symptoms, as spending on family policies increased. Little evidence was found for an overall association between spending on unemployment benefits and employment-related inequalities in depressive symptoms, but in 2012, unemployment spending appeared beneficial to mental health among the unemployed. Greater investment in social protection may act to reduce inequalities in depressive symptoms. Reductions in spending levels or increased conditionality may adversely affect the mental health of disadvantaged social groups.
Shmueli, Amir; Israeli, Avi
Compared to OECD countries, Israel has a remarkably low percentage of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, which are not reflected in worse national outcomes. Israel is also characterized by a relatively high share of GDP spent on security expenses and payment of public debt. To determine to what extent differences between Israel and the OECD countries in security expenses and payment of the public debt might account for the gaps in the percentage of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health. We compare the percentages of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health in the OECD countries with the respective percentages when using primary civilian GDP and government expenditures (i.e., when security expenses and interest payment are deducted). We compared Israel with the OECD average and examined the ranking of the OECD countries under the two measures over time. While as a percentage of GDP, the national expenditure on health in Israel was well below the average of the OECD countries, as a percentage of primary civilian GDP it was above the average until 2003 and below the average thereafter. When the OECD countries were ranked according to decreasing percent of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, adjusting for security and debt payment expenditures changed the Israeli rank from 23rd to 17th and from 27th to 25th, respectively. Adjusting for security expenditures and interest payment, Israel's low spending on health as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of government's spending increases and is closer to the OECD average. Further analysis should explore the effect of additional population and macroeconomic differences on the remaining gaps.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to OECD countries, Israel has a remarkably low percentage of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, which are not reflected in worse national outcomes. Israel is also characterized by a relatively high share of GDP spent on security expenses and payment of public debt. Objectives To determine to what extent differences between Israel and the OECD countries in security expenses and payment of the public debt might account for the gaps in the percentage of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health. Methods We compare the percentages of GDP and of government expenditures spent on health in the OECD countries with the respective percentages when using primary civilian GDP and government expenditures (i.e., when security expenses and interest payment are deducted. We compared Israel with the OECD average and examined the ranking of the OECD countries under the two measures over time. Results While as a percentage of GDP, the national expenditure on health in Israel was well below the average of the OECD countries, as a percentage of primary civilian GDP it was above the average until 2003 and below the average thereafter. When the OECD countries were ranked according to decreasing percent of GDP and of government expenditure spent on health, adjusting for security and debt payment expenditures changed the Israeli rank from 23rd to 17th and from 27th to 25th, respectively. Conclusions Adjusting for security expenditures and interest payment, Israel's low spending on health as a percentage of GDP and as a percentage of government's spending increases and is closer to the OECD average. Further analysis should explore the effect of additional population and macroeconomic differences on the remaining gaps.
Full Text Available Franklin Roosevelt publicly stated his devotion to the American South and pledged to help reform the region’s laggard economy. However, Southern states received significantly fewer federal expenditures per capita, both during the New Deal of the 1930s and the military emergency of the 1940s. This article investigates economic, political, and strategic reasons for this result. Additionally, we apply a public goods perspective to New Deal and World War II spending and propose that lower levels of per capita spending in the South do not necessarily translate into a smaller impact of that spending.
Both private and public payers have experienced a persistent rise in health care spending that has exceeded income growth. The issue now transcends the health care system because health care spending growth threatens the fiscal health of the nation. This paper examines the causes and consequences of health care spending growth. It notes that the determinants of spending growth may differ from the determinants of high spending at a point in time. Specifically, the evidence overwhelmingly suggests that the primary driver ofinflation-adjusted, per capita spending growth over the past decades (and thus premium growth) has been the diffusion of new medical technology. The paper argues that while new technology has provided significant clinical benefit, we can no longer afford the persistent gap between health spending and income growth. In simple terms, if the economy is growing 2%, we cannot afford persistent health care spending growth of 4%. Growth in public spending is particularly important. If not abated, high public spending will require either substantially higher taxes or debt, both of which could lead to fiscal Armageddon. Growth in private spending also threatens economic well-being by forcing more resources toward health care and away from other sectors. For example, since the cost of employer-based coverage is always borne by employees (directly or indirectly), salary increases and health care cost increases cannot continue on together. To avoid economic disaster, payers will be forced to have a greater resolve in the future. Specifically, because neither public nor private payers will be able to finance growing health care spending, the coming decade will likely experience significant changes in health care financing. Consumers may be asked to pay more out of pocket when they seek care and both public and private payers will put increasing pressure on payment rates. Furthermore, payment rates to providers are likely to rise more slowly than in the past
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Parliament of Burkina Faso passed a policy to reduce the direct costs of obstetric services and neonatal care in the country’s health centres, aiming to lower the country’s high national maternal mortality and morbidity rates. Implementation was via a “partial exemption” covering 80% of the costs. In 2008 the German NGO HELP launched a pilot project in two health districts to eliminate the remaining 20% of user fees. Regardless of any exemptions, women giving birth in Burkina Faso’s health centres face additional expenses that often represent an additional barrier to accessing health services. We compared the total cost of giving birth in health centres offering partial exemption versus those with full exemption to assess the impact on additional out-of-pocket fees. Methods A case–control study was performed to compare medical expenses. Case subjects were women who gave birth in 12 health centres located in the Dori and Sebba districts, where HELP provided full fee exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Controls were from six health centres in the neighbouring Djibo district where a partial fee exemption was in place. A random sample of approximately 50 women per health centre was selected for a total of 870 women. Results There was an implementation gap regarding the full exemption for obstetric services and neonatal care. Only 1.1% of the sample from Sebba but 17.5% of the group from Dori had excessive spending on birth related costs, indicating that women who delivered in Sebba were much less exposed to excessive medical expenses than women from Dori. Additional out-of-pocket fees in the full exemption health districts took into account household ability to pay, with poorer women generally paying less. Conclusions We found that the elimination of fees for facility-based births benefits especially the poorest households. The existence of excessive spending related to direct costs of
Heijink, Richard; Koolman, Xander; Westert, Gert P
Healthcare expenditures rise as a share of GDP in most countries, raising questions regarding the value of further spending increases. Against this backdrop, we assessed the value of healthcare spending growth in 14 western countries between 1996 and 2006. We estimated macro-level health production functions using avoidable mortality as outcome measure. Avoidable mortality comprises deaths from certain conditions "that should not occur in the presence of timely and effective healthcare". We investigated the relationship between total avoidable mortality and healthcare spending using descriptive analyses and multiple regression models, focussing on within-country variation and growth rates. We aimed to take into account the role of potential confounders and dynamic effects such as time lags. Additionally, we explored a method to estimate macro-level cost-effectiveness. We found an average yearly avoidable mortality decline of 2.6-5.3% across countries. Simultaneously, healthcare spending rose between 1.9 and 5.9% per year. Most countries with above-average spending growth demonstrated above-average reductions in avoidable mortality. The regression models showed a significant association between contemporaneous and lagged healthcare spending and avoidable mortality. The time-trend, representing an exogenous shift of the health production function, reduced the impact of healthcare spending. After controlling for this time-trend and other confounders, i.e. demographic and socioeconomic variables, a statistically significant relationship between healthcare spending and avoidable mortality remained. We tentatively conclude that macro-level healthcare spending increases provided value for money, at least for the disease groups, countries and years included in this study.
There are severe inequalities in health in the world, poor health being concentrated amongst poor people in poor countries. Poor countries spend a much smaller share of national income on health expenditure than do richer countries. What potential lies in political or growth processes that raise this share? This depends upon how effective government health spending in developing countries is. Existing research presents little evidence of an impact on childhood mortality. Using specifications similar to those in the existing literature, this paper finds a similar result for India, which is that state health spending saves no lives. However, upon allowing lagged effects, controlling in a flexible way for trended unobservables and restricting the sample to rural households, a significant effect of health expenditure on infant mortality emerges, the long run elasticity being about -0.24. There are striking differences in the impact by social group. Slicing the data by gender, birth order, religion, maternal and paternal education and maternal age at birth, I find the weakest effects in the most vulnerable groups (with the exception of a large effect for scheduled tribes). Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Local and district (regional governments receive various forms of revenue. The entitlement to and purpose of this income is determined by law. Likewise for companies owned by local government there are revenues with allocated use, which are also associated with the budget of the local unit. The importance of proper recording of the revenue collected, as well as claims for different types of income is significant because it affects the proper presentation of the financial statements. The presented data are the basis for making decisions, which result in opportunities to meet the needs of local communities. When it comes to the disposal of revenue collected, misconduct or even illegal activities might occur. It is crucial to spot them early on, and here the internal control system and the accounting system have a key role, as they examine the financial and other information for management purposes. The aim of the paper was to investigate irregularities in the use of local funds by examining the data obtained by Financial Audits and to show the movement of appropriations (allocated funds at the county level.
In May 2003, a new coalition government of the Christian Democrats and two liberal parties, VVD and D66, took office in the Netherlands. The parties' coalition agreement provides for major cutbacks in public spending, largely targeted on social security expenditure. The trade unions are fiercely
Fisher, Ronald C.; Papke, Leslie E.
Provides a primer for policymakers about the economics of education grants and draws implications for school finance reform. Includes an overview of the types of education grants that states and the federal government have used to aid local spending and summarizes findings from states' experiences with different forms of education finance.…
Evans, M. K.
The economic impact of R and D spending, particularly NASA R and D spending, on the U. S. economy was evaluated. The crux of the methodology and hence the results revolve around the fact that it was necessary to consider both the demand effects of increased spending and the supply effects of a higher rate of technological growth and a larger total productive capacity. The demand effects are primarily short-run in nature, while the supply effects do not begin to have a significant effect on aggregate economic activity until the fifth year after increased expenditures have taken place. The short-term economic impact of alternative levels of NASA expenditures for 1975 was first examined. The long-term economic impact of increased levels of NASA R and D spending over a sustained period was then evaluated.
Lieberthal, Robert D
Long-term health insurance provides consumers with protection against persistent, negative health shocks. While the stochastic rise in medical spending growth may make some health risks harder to insure, financial assets could act as a hedge for medical spending growth risk. The purpose of this research was to determine whether such hedges exist. The results of this study were two-fold. First, the asset classes with the strongest statistical evidence as hedges were bonds, not stocks. Second, any strategy to hedge medical spending growth involved shorting assets i.e. betting against the bond or stock market. Health insurers writing long-term contracts should combine the use of hedges in the bond market with of portfolio diversification, and may benefit from health policies to moderate the uncertainty of medical spending growth.
Dieleman, Joseph L.; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Li, Zhiyin; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alam, Khurshid; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Barac, Aleksandra; Berheto, Tezera Moshago; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Birungi, Charles; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferran; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dharmaratne, Rakhi Dandona Samath D.; Dubey, Manisha; Faro, Andé; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fischer, Florian; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph R.; Foigt, Nataliya; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gupta, Rahul; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon I.; Hendrie, Delia; Horino, Masako; Jürisson, Mikk; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost B.; Karimi, Seyed M.; Khang, Young Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinge, Jonas M.; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G.A.; Leung, Ricky; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molla, Gedefaw; Nangia, Vinay; Olgiati, Stefano; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Patel, Tejas; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pereira, David M.; Perelman, Julian; Polinder, Suzanne; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Savic, Miloje; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Ao, Te Braden J.; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vargas, Veronica; Vasankari, Tommi; Violante, Francesco S.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Xu, Gelin; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Sayed Zaki, El Maysaa; Murray, Christopher J.L.
Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future
-, č. 293 (2006), s. 1-24 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : indeterminacy * absolute instability * productive public spending Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp293.pdf
A recent dramatic slowdown in the rate at which private-sector spending for health insurance increases each year has raised many questions about the meaning of the trend and its implications for the future...
Yong Tan; Vijay S. Mookerjee
This study examines coordination issues that occur in allocating spending between advertising and information technology (IT) in electronic retailing. Electronic retailers run the risk of overspending on advertising to attract customers but underspending on IT, thus resulting in inadequate processing capacity at the firm's website. In this paper, we present a centralized, joint marketing-IT model to optimally allocate spending between advertising and IT, and we discuss an uncoordinated case w...
Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy
Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...
The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public
Analysing the magnitude, composition, evolution and trends in Colombian national spending on health, forming a proposal and making an important contribution towards knowledge re the reality of social health security. The results obtained respond to an ongoing effort to systematise and standardise the adopted methodology and update calculations and estimates for the eleven-year period during which Law 100/1993 was being reformed. Analysing the above led to identifying changes in the flow of resources and establishing objective comparisons according to current/available international standards. The project began in the Colombian Planning Department (lasting 5 years) and was then passed to the Ministry of Social Protection's Health Reform Support Programme where new institutional scope has been applied during the last four years. Perhaps the work's most important contribution consists of producing annual estimates of total public and private spending on health as a time-series, for a relatively significant period. The results confirm fulfilment of the reform's suppositions in terms of the significant amount of resources channelled to the sector, the important substitution of financing private spending for spending on health insurance, greater dynamism and the importance of public funds in financing total spending and the managing of an important segment of such resources by some of the new agents created by the reform. This contrasts with the little importance paid to spending on promotion and prevention and on public health and basic attention programmes.
Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...
Wagstaff, Adam; Flores, Gabriela; Smitz, Marc-François; Hsu, Justine; Chepynoga, Kateryna; Eozenou, Patrick
The goal of universal health coverage (UHC) requires that families who get needed health care do not suffer financial hardship as a result. This can be measured by instances of impoverishment, when a household's consumption including out-of-pocket spending on health is more than the poverty line but its consumption, excluding out-of-pocket spending, is less than the poverty line. This links UHC directly to the policy goal of reducing poverty. We measure the incidence and depth of impoverishment as the difference in the poverty head count and poverty gap with and without out-of-pocket spending included in household total consumption. We use three poverty lines: the US$1·90 per day and $3·10 per day international poverty lines and a relative poverty line of 50% of median consumption per capita. We estimate impoverishment in 122 countries using 516 surveys between 1984 and 2015. We estimate the global incidence of impoverishment due to out-of-pocket payments by aggregating up from each country, using a survey for the year in question when available, and interpolation and model-based estimates otherwise. We do not derive global estimates to measure the depth of impoverishment but focus on the median depth for the 122 countries in our sample, accounting for 90% of the world's population. We find impoverishment due to out-of-pocket spending even in countries where the entire population is officially covered by a health insurance scheme or by national or subnational health services. Incidence is negatively correlated with the share of total health spending channelled through social security funds and other government agencies. Across countries, the population-weighted median annual rate of change of impoverishment is negative at the $1·90 per day poverty line but positive at the $3·10 per day and relative poverty lines. We estimate that at the $1·90 per day poverty line, the worldwide incidence of impoverishment decreased between 2000 and 2010, from 131 million
Matz, Sandra C; Gladstone, Joe J; Stillwell, David
In contrast to decades of research reporting surprisingly weak relationships between consumption and happiness, recent findings suggest that money can indeed increase happiness if it is spent the "right way" (e.g., on experiences or on other people). Drawing on the concept of psychological fit, we extend this research by arguing that individual differences play a central role in determining the "right" type of spending to increase well-being. In a field study using more than 76,000 bank-transaction records, we found that individuals spend more on products that match their personality, and that people whose purchases better match their personality report higher levels of life satisfaction. This effect of psychological fit on happiness was stronger than the effect of individuals' total income or the effect of their total spending. A follow-up study showed a causal effect: Personality-matched spending increased positive affect. In summary, when spending matches the buyer's personality, it appears that money can indeed buy happiness. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available In this study, the rate of Defense Spendings in the GDP, and the growth rate of GDP, and the portion of current accounts in GDP and Annual Inflation Rate are examined with getting the annual data between the 1980-2006 years, and using VAR model for Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Turkey. In course of this examination, the results of Granger Casuality and Impulse-Response Functions and Variance Decomposition were used. The focus point of our study is for the reason of defense spendings are effective on macroeconomic variables that while Egypt and Israel has uni-directional Granger causality from the defense spendings to inflation, for other countries there couldn`t be found any Granger causality. On the other hand when we look at the impulse response functions, in case of a shock of defense spending as a percentage of GNP, while the rate of Israel`s inflation and Current account as a percentage of GNP are affected by the pozitive direction , Turkey`s growth rate is affected negatively. For Egypt and Jordan, the significiant effects on defense spendings according to macroeconomic variables couldn`t be found any significiant effects.
Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...
: Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts About Â» Leadership, Governance Leadership national security and energy challenges. Leadership, Governance Ethics, Accountability Los Alamos National . Director's Office terry wallace in leadership, governance Director Terry C. Wallace, Jr. Terry C. Wallace, Jr
Flak, Leif Skiftenes; Rose, Jeremy
to e-Government. Originally a management theory, stakeholder theory advocates addressing the concerns of all stakeholders in a firm, as opposed to concentration on the interests of senior managers and stockholders. Apart from the original profit focus, there is no serious conceptual mismatch between...... of governance. Finally, the paper makes recommendations for future work in adapting ST to the e-government context....
Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen
Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khan, Muhammad Ehsan
FOUNDATION OF GOVERNANCEGovernanceDefining GovernanceGovernance at Multiple LevelsSummaryReferencesTransaction Cost EconomicsTransactions-Core Elements and Attributes Behavioral Assumptions Governance Structure AttributesHazards of Concern Incomplete Contracting Bilateral Dependency and Fundamental Transformation Adaptation or MaladaptationLinking Governance, Governance Structures, and ContractsThe Impact of Asset Specificity and Behavioral Assumptions on ContractsAp
Mols, Niels Peter; Menard, Claude
Plural governance is a form of governance where a firm both makes and buys similar goods or services. Despite a widespread use of plural governance there are no transaction cost models of how plural governance affects performance. This paper reviews the literature about plural forms and proposes...... a model relating transaction cost and resource-based variables to the cost of the plural form. The model is then used to analyze when the plural form is efficient compared to alternative governance structures. We also use the model to discuss the strength of three plural form synergies....
Henry Antonio Mendoza Tolosa
Full Text Available The impact that public spending and investment have upon economic growth in the departments of Colombia is examined using the results of national accounts for the years 2000-2011. Figures for departmental production by activity, along with change over the period and information for the gross public capital are brought together to create a statistical model to assess effects. A data panel model is chosen to relate the existing differences between departments and compare the impact of spending and investment between departments using the available information. Results indicate that public spending and investment play an important role in departmental economic dynamic and that its effect is greater in larger and wealthier departments.
Shan, Duo; Sun, Jiang-ping; Yakusik, Anna; Chen, Zhong-dan; Yuan, Jian-hua; Li, Tao; Duan, Song; Yang, Xing; Wei, Mei; Michael, Sante; Ye, Run-hua; Xiang, Li-fen; Yang, Yue-cheng; Ren, Da
To calculate the actual expenditures in a county of Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China by using the method of National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA) in 2010. Data were collected through NASA data collection form based on adapted NASA classification in the county of Dehong prefecture from October to December, 2011, and complemented by semi-structured interview with 16 well trained programmatic and financial representatives in 8 spending units. Data were entered in Resource Tracking Software (RTS) V 2009.3.0, and SPSS 13.0 was used for data processing and analysis. The NASA estimations showed that the county spent a total of ¥16 235 954 on HIV/AIDS in 2010. Public funds constituted 96.3% of the total expenditure (¥15 630 937), followed by Global Fund which accounted for 3.0% (¥484 585) and private sources which accounted for 0.7% (¥120 432). Findings based on NASA categories showed that AIDS spendings were mainly on 4 areas, and expenditure on Care & Treatment was ¥12 401 382 (76.4% of total expenditure), followed by Prevention which accounted for 14.3% (¥2 325 707), Program Management & Administration which accounted for 7.8% (¥1 268 523) and human resources which accounted for 1.5% (¥240 342). The most beneficial population group was People Living with HIV (PLHIV), accounting for 84.7% of total expenditure. (¥13 753 428), followed by 4.8% for high risk population, including female sex workers and their partners (¥297 333), injection drug users and their partners (¥293 143), men having sex with men and their partners (¥185 136) and 1.5% (¥241 429) for the general population. The local funds for HIV/AIDS in this county was insufficient. The local government should increase corresponding funds based on central government funding. Care and treatment was the first spending priority in the county and the investment of prevention services needs to be increased. Prevention and treatment and care should be combined to ensure the effectiveness of
Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie
We examined trends in US public health expenditures by analyzing historical and projected National Health Expenditure Accounts data. Per-capita public health spending (inflation-adjusted) rose from $39 in 1960 to $281 in 2008, and has fallen by 9.3% since then. Public health's share of total health expenditures rose from 1.36% in 1960 to 3.18% in 2002, then fell to 2.65% in 2014; it is projected to fall to 2.40% in 2023. Public health spending has declined, potentially undermining prevention and weakening responses to health inequalities and new health threats.
The Senate Appropriations Committee last week approved an energy and water spending bill with $21 billion for the Energy Department, $426 million more than the Bush administration requested, and $1.1 billion more than the agency received in the financial year 2000. The bill would provide increases above the Bush request and current spending across-the-board in DOE's renewable energy, nuclear energy, science, weapons complex cleanup, defense and nonproliferation programs. The only major program that would be funded below the president's request is nuclear waste disposal (1 page).
Shuey, Brandon; Williams, La Vonn A
There is no question that 2009 was a year of change within the pharmacy industry. Several new requirements were implemented, including the need for an Inventory Information Approval System for accepting flexible spending or health reimbursement account cords. Some pharmacies relied on the 90% exemption rule, which is discussed within this article, or an alternative method to avoid the expense of a point of sale. However, with flexible spending or health reimbursement account card participation expected to reach 85% in 2010, now bay be the time for compounding pharmacists to weigh the pros and cons of Inventory Information Approval System certification.
Sharma, Varun; Krishnaswamy, Divya; Mulay, Sanjeevanee
HIV infection poses a serious threat to the economy of a household. Out of pocket (OOP) health spending can be prohibitive and can drag households below poverty level. Based on the data collected from a cross-sectional survey of 401 households with HIV+ members in Pune city, India, this paper examines the consumption levels and patterns among households, and comments on the economic impoverishment resulting from OOP medical spending. Analysis reveals that households with HIV members spend a major portion of their monthly consumption expenditure on food items. Medical expenditure constitutes a large portion of their total consumption spending. Expenditure on children's education constitutes a minor proportion of total monthly spending. A high proportion of medical expenditure has a bearing on the economic condition of households with HIV members. Poverty increases by 20% among the studied HIV households when OOP health spending is adjusted. It increases 18% among male-headed households and 26% among female-headed households. The results reiterate the need of greater support from the government in terms of accessibility and affordability of health care to save households with HIV members from economic catastrophe.
Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Chong, D S Y; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Ma, E S K; Maw, C K C
This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending for financial years 1989/90 to 2011/12, cross-stratified and categorized by financing source, provider, and function. Total expenditure on health (TEH) was HK$101 985 million in financial year 2011/12, which represents an increase of HK$8580 million or 9.2% over the preceding year. TEH grew faster relative to gross domestic product (GDP) leading to a rise in TEH as a percentage of GDP from 5.1% in 2010/11 to 5.2% in 2011/12. During the period 1989/90 to 2011/12, total health spending per capita (at constant 2012 prices) grew at an average annual rate of 4.8%, which was faster than the average annual growth rate of per capita GDP by 1.8 percentage points. In 2011/12, public and private expenditure on health increased by 8.3% and 10.0% when compared with 2010/11, reaching HK$49,262 million and HK$52,723 million respectively. Consequently, public share of total health expenditure dropped slightly from 48.7% to 48.3% over the year. Of private spending, the most important source of health financing was out-of-pocket payments by households (34.9% of TEH), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.5%) and private insurance (7.4%). It is worth noting that private insurance will likely take over employers as the second largest private payer if the insurance market continues to expand at the current rate. Of the HK$101,985 million total health expenditure in 2011/12, current expenditure comprised HK$96,572 million (94.7%), whereas HK$5413 million (5.3%) was for capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Analysed by health care function, services of curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (65.2%), which was made up of ambulatory services (33.6%), in-patient curative care (26.9%), day patient hospital services (4.1%), and home care (0.5%). Notwithstanding its small share, the total spending for day patient hospital services shows an
Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V
devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding (either general government revenue or social security funds) was also lower than in most economies with comparable economic development and public revenue collection base.
Using 1972-2000 data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES), a nationally representative survey of spending conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, this paper investigates changes in the income-based gap in monetary investments in children under the age of six, when most children typically have entered school in the United States. The…
Dunn, Josh; Derthick, Martha
Since the 1970s, proponents of greater spending in disadvantaged school districts have pursued their goal through litigation in state courts. They have brought suits in 45 of the 50 states. These suits began with claims of equity, which sought to redistribute revenues from rich to poor districts. Disappointed with the results, within a decade the…
Niño Philip L. Perculeza
Full Text Available Money, through the years, has been a commodity for everyone. As it is termed in international trade parlance, it is considered to be “sine qua non” or without which, nothing could be done. This study aimed to determine the current status of the spending practices of the teaching personnel in Lyceum of the Philippines University – Batangas; specifically, their profile, spending behavior and their encountered problems related to the forgoing matter. This study is descriptive in nature. It was participated by 161 teaching personnel of LPU-Batangas computed and selected through the G* power series with an effective size of 40 percent and power size of 95 percent. It made use of an adopted and modified questionnaire as its primary data gathering instrument which has three parts. The needed data were encoded, tallied and interpreted using different statistical tools such as frequency distribution, ranking, weighted mean and F-Test; and were further analyzed and interpreted through PASW version 19 using 0.05 alpha levels. From the results, it was concluded that the respondents had an often type of spending on the Basic Necessity. Moreover, overspending is the problem that was most encountered by the respondents. Various recommendations were posted by the researchers including a proposed plan of action that could help improve the spending behavior of the faculty members of LPU Batangas.
Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter
of the large-scale arrival of such risks 'on the ground' does play a key role. Countries that entered the postindustrial society comparatively late record lower NSRS values, as they spend less on programs such as education and family allowances. Institutional differences as captured by welfare regime type...
Hibbert, Kathy; Coulson, Elizabeth
While many high school students confess a desire to develop personal money management skills, statistics tracking the average Canadian's personal debt underscore the need to ensure the youth have the tools they need for financial success. What would it take to motivate teens to learn more about how they spend and manage their money? The authors…
In 2011 and 2012, two Australian university vice chancellors flagged spending cuts at their institutions to overcome financial problems. In both cases, union and staff opposition led to public protests, intense media scrutiny, delays and retreats. This article compares the two cases to see what lessons may be drawn for university leaders faced…
Sunoo, D. H.; Lin, Lynn Y. S.
To assess the relationship between advertising and consumer promotion and to determine the optimal short-term advertising spending level for a product, a research project was undertaken by a major food manufacturer. One thousand homes subscribing to a dual-system cable television service received either no advertising exposure to the product or…
ConnCAN's Spend Smart: "Fix Our Broken School Funding System" was released concurrently with a bill introduced in the Connecticut legislature, based on the principles outlined in the report. However, the report is of negligible value to the policy debate over Connecticut school finance because it provides little or no support for any of…
Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane
The paper presents three studies which deal with the time students spend working at home for school. In addition, the paper focuses on the distribution of time investment over the course of a week and on the relationship between academic achievement and time spent working at home for school. In sum, 824 students with an average age of 15 years…
This scientifically representative poll of 1,200 Floridians finds that public opinion about K-12 public education spending is seriously misinformed. Floridians think public schools need more money, but the main reason is that they are badly mistaken about how much money the public schools actually get. Key findings of the study include: (1) Half…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Belarus has a focused HIV epidemic concentrated among injecting drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. However, until 2008, Belarus had no way of evaluating HIV spending priorities. In 2008, Belarus committed to undertaking a comprehensive National AIDS Spending Assessment (NASA in order to analyze HIV spending priorities. NASA was used to 'follow the money' from the funding sources to agents and providers, and eventually to beneficiary populations. Findings Belarus spent the majority of its funding on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and on securing the blood supply. International donors and NGOs working within Belarus spent the majority of their funding on preventative activities for high risk groups while Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM solely funded antiretroviral treatment. Conclusions The data and experience obtained through conducting NASA will help build capacity for future resource tracking activities for HIV and other health priorities. This experience established the foundation for enhanced and future consistent quality-reporting of National Health Accounts. Monitoring the flow of resources for Belarus' HIV response provides valuable strategic information that can improve operations and planning as well as mobilize greater resources. NASA offers Belarusian policy makers an overview of HIV activities that merit their priority attention. In addition, the findings from Belarus are particularly relevant for the rest of the Commonwealth of Independent States due to their similar epidemiological profiles and centrally planned systems. The Belarusian government faces future challenges, especially in increasing public investments in HIV prevention for female sex workers and their clients, men who have sex with men, and among intravenous drug users.
5. augustil kinnitas Läti Esimene Partei/Läti Tee parlamendivalimiste valimisplatvormi, mille peamine mõte seisneb selles, et raha tuleb teenida, mitte säästa. Zatlersi Reformierakond on samuti oma valimisplatvormi kinnitanud
Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje
Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....
Sabel, C.F.; Zeitlin, J.; Levi-Faur, D.
A secular rise in volatility and uncertainty is overwhelming the capacities of conventional hierarchical governance and ‘command-and-control’ regulation in many settings. One significant response is the emergence of a novel, ‘experimentalist’ form of governance that establishes deliberately
The Policy Governance model's philosophical foundations lie in Rousseau's social contract, Greenleaf's servant-leadership, and modern management theory. Policy Governance stresses primacy of the owner-representative role; full-board authority; superintendents as chief executive officers; authoritative prescription of "ends," bounded…
Klemz, Bruce R; Boshoff, Christo; Mazibuko, Noxolo-Eileen; Asquith, Jo Ann
HIV/AIDS has led to an enormous demand for health care in the developing world and many governments have opted to capitalize on altruistic home-based caregivers. These caregivers are mainly poor older women and their financial survival is critically important to themselves and their families. We found that as the patient's illness progressed: (a) the altruistic cultural norm "ubuntu" led the caregiver to increase spending and (b) the social pressure (sanction) of stigma led to a very dramatic drop in direct interpersonal assistance. The impact on their spending, health care, and the related public policies are discussed.
Gollust, Sarah E; Lantz, Paula M; Ubel, Peter A
Despite the salience of health disparities in media and policy discourse, little previous research has investigated if imagery associating an illness with a certain racial group influences public perceptions. This study evaluated the influence of the media's presentation of the causes of type 2 diabetes and its implicit racial associations on attitudes toward people with diabetes and preferences toward research spending. Survey participants who viewed an article on genetic causation or social determinants of diabetes were more likely to support increased government spending on research than those viewing an article with no causal language, while participants viewing an article on behavioral choices were more likely to attribute negative stereotypes to people with diabetes. Participants who viewed a photo of a black woman accompanying the article were less likely to endorse negative stereotypes than those viewing a photo of a white woman, but those who viewed a photo of a glucose-testing device expressed the lowest negative stereotypes. The effect of social determinants language was significantly different for blacks and whites, lowering stereotypes only among blacks. Emphasizing the behavioral causes of diabetes, as is common in media coverage, may perpetuate negative stereotypes. While drawing attention to the social determinants that shape these behaviors could mitigate stereotypes, this strategy is unlikely to influence the public uniformly.
Bharosa, N; Hulstijn, J; Janssen, MFWHA; Tan, Y; van Wijk, R; de Winne, N; Estevez E. and Janssen, M.
Recent turmoil in financial markets has invoked governments to monitor activities and transactions in the private sector more strictly. At the same time, policy makers strive to cut back on government spending by reducing the size of government agencies. These contradicting developments require
Loos, Gregory P
Globalization's profound influence on social and political institutions need not be negative. Critics of globalization have often referred to the "Impossible Trinity" because decision-making must 1. respect national sovereignty, 2. develop and implement firm regulation, and 3. allow capital markets to be as free as possible. To many, such goals are mutually exclusive because history conditions us to view policy-making and governance in traditional molds. Thus, transnational governance merely appears impossible because current forms of governance were not designed to provide it. The world needs new tools for governing, and its citizens must seize the opportunity to help develop them. The rise of a global society requires a greater level of generality and inclusion than is found in most policy bodies today. Politicians need to re-examine key assumptions about government. States must develop ways to discharge their regulatory responsibilities across borders and collaborate with neighboring jurisdictions, multilateral bodies, and business. Concepts such as multilateralism and tripartism show great promise. Governments must engage civil society in the spirit of shared responsibility and democratic decision-making. Such changes will result in a renewal of the state's purpose and better use of international resources and expertise in governance.
Farag, Marwa; NandaKumar, A K; Wallack, Stanley; Hodgkin, Dominic; Gaumer, Gary; Erbil, Can
To date, international analyses on the strength of the relationship between country-level per capita income and per capita health expenditures have predominantly used developed countries' data. This study expands this work using a panel data set for 173 countries for the 1995-2006 period. We found that health care has an income elasticity that qualifies it as a necessity good, which is consistent with results of the most recent studies. Furthermore, we found that health care spending is least responsive to changes in income in low-income countries and most responsive to in middle-income countries with high-income countries falling in the middle. Finally, we found that 'Voice and Accountability' as an indicator of good governance seems to play a role in mobilizing more funds for health.
Full Text Available Companies spend time and money in order to improve their corporate governance (CG system and also do not forget to inform third parties about their efforts in this field. CG studies the separation of power at an entity level and the segregation of responsibilities between shareholders, management, and board of directors. As a mechanism CG helps to align management’s goals with those of the stakeholders in order to avoid conflict and to sustain and develop a healthy company. The objective of this article is to show how corporate governance is defined, what does it stands for and why it is important or maybe better said why companies give it so much importance.
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.
This chapter reviews and discusses rational-choice approaches to organizational governance. These approaches are found primarily in organizational economics (virtually no rational-choice organizational sociology exists), particularly in transaction cost economics, principal-agent theory...
Oelofse, Suzanna HH
Full Text Available of governance in Africa. The next section focuses on regulation, and the status of the regulatory frameworks in different African countries. Shortcomings in the regulatory framework are highlighted through examples in various countries. Specific policy...
Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow
Smithies, R; Steeves, L
Flexible benefits plans have grown more slowly in Canada than in the United States, largely because of certain legal and regulatory considerations. Health care spending accounts (HCSAs) provide a cost-effective way for Canadian employers to address the health care benefit needs of a diverse workforce. A flexible health care spending account is a versatile and cost-effective instrument that can be used by Canadian employers that wish to provide a full range of health care benefits to employees. The health care alternatives available through an HCSA can provide employees with an opportunity to customize and optimize their benefits program. Regulatory requirements that an HCSA must meet in order to qualify for available tax advantages are discussed, as are the range of health care services that may be covered.
Full Text Available Business development in emerging markets, known as the “base of the pyramid”, is not without financial risk and a key concern in South African communities are the costs associated with HIV/AIDS. Due to the enormous demand for healthcare, many governments have opted for home-based care systems. Caregivers are mainly older women and their financial survival is critically important. We found that as the patient’s illness progressed: 1 the cultural norm ubuntu led the caregiver to increase spending on the patient and a decreased spending on themselves and 2 the social pressure of stigma led to a very dramatic drop in direct interpersonal assistance to the patient and an increase in spending on themselves. Their resulting coping strategies and implications for economic development are discussed. Keywords - Emerging Markets, Cultural, Health Services
Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V
hospital services, there was an increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2008/09, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from inpatient to day patient care. 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43.1% in 2007/08, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure of Hospital Authority. Compared with the preceding year, expenditure on hospitals increased by HK$2935 million in 2008/09, whereas the corresponding increase for providers of ambulatory health care was only HK$919 million. As a result, the hospital share rebounded a little to 44.0% of total health spending, whereas that of providers of ambulatory health care dropped to 29.1%. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$39 301 million (48.4% of total current expenditure) in 2008/09 with the remaining HK$41 885 million made up from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (76.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (48.9%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.8% of total current spending), the patterns of distribution among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (51.8%) and substantially less on out-patient care (25.1%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (42.6%), whereas in-patient care (23.4%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (22.5%) accounted for the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding (either general government revenue or social security funds) in Hong Kong was also lower than that in most economies
The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze and understand the recently introduced form of managementof a company limited by shares. The Law no. 441/2006, which fundamentally amended Company Law,created this form of controlling the company, the corporate governance, but the legislation does not explicitlydefine what it wants to achieve through this instrument. This topic is recent in research as the theme ofgerman-roman commercial law systems (in French corporate governance system was introduced in 1966 andin Romania in 2006 but in terms of Anglo-Saxon law, the topic has been addressed years since 1776 (AdamSmith: The Wealth of Nations The concept of corporate governance would like, as a result, to establish somerules that companies must comply in order to achieve effective governance, transparent and beneficial forboth shareholders and for the minority. Corporate governance is a key element with an aim at improvingefficiency and economic growth in full accordance with the increase of investors’ confidence. Corporategovernance assumes a series of relationship between the company management, leadership, shareholders andthe other people concerned. Also corporate governance provides for that structure by means of which thecompany’s targets are set out and the means to achieve them and also the manner how to monitor such.
Ozisik, A. Pinar; Levine, Brian Neil
The fundamental attack against blockchain systems is the double-spend attack. In this tutorial, we provide a very detailed explanation of just one section of Satoshi Nakamoto's original paper where the attack's probability of success is stated. We show the derivation of the mathematics relied upon by Nakamoto to create a model of the attack. We also validate the model with a Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine which model component is not perfect.
Erniel B. Barrios
A growth model is used in the context of Sala-i-Martin’s definition of conditional convergence to assess the household income dynamics in segmented groups at the provincial level in the Philippines. There is a direct relationship between spending efficiency and income growth convergence across income groups. The lower income convergence rate among low income households can be attributed to their relatively less efficient access to the factors of production. The study provides tools in identif...
child tax credits (which are refundable), the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and Supplemental Security Income. The largest non...child tax credits, and SNAP—have been or will be significantly affected by program changes that unfold over time: B Medicaid spending rose by 35...total outlays in the Part D program). Increases in the number of beneficiaries account for about one- third of that growth; the introduction of new
Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040. We extracted historical data on gross domestic product (GDP) and health spending for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015, and projected annual GDP, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending from 2015 through to 2040 as a reference scenario. These estimates were generated using an ensemble of models that varied key demographic and socioeconomic determinants. We generated better and worse alternative future scenarios based on the global distribution of historic health spending growth rates. Last, we used stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the association between pooled health resources and UHC index, a measure of a country's UHC service coverage. Finally, we estimated future UHC performance and the number of people covered under the three future scenarios. In the reference scenario, global health spending was projected to increase from US$10 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 10 trillion to 10 trillion) in 2015 to $20 trillion (18 trillion to 22 trillion) in 2040. Per capita health spending was projected to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 4·2% (3·4-5·1) per year, followed by lower-middle-income countries (4·0%, 3·6-4·5) and low-income countries (2·2%, 1·7-2·8). Despite global growth, per capita health spending was projected to range from only $40 (24-65) to $413 (263-668) in 2040 in low-income countries, and from $140 (90-200) to $1699 (711-3423) in lower-middle-income countries. Globally, the share of health spending
Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo
Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data–anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer’s age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents’ spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it. PMID:26849218
Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Tachet des Combes, Remi; Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo
Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data-anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer's age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents' spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.
Full Text Available Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data-anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer's age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents' spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.
Ronald D. Kneebone
the last three years of our period of analysis, policy-induced deficits have the province sliding in the wrong direction, adding 2.6 percentage points of GDP to its accumulated operating account deficit. Notably, there appears to be little difference between NDP and PC governments when it comes to policy-induced debt accumulation. The one distinction appears to be that the PCs have tended to begin governing by adding debt, and reducing it later, while the NDP has followed the opposite pattern. The record of P.E.I.’s policy decisions, meanwhile, has been the reverse of Manitoba’s: After managing to keep its debt in check for 20 years, the government since 1999 has added 11 percentage points of GDP to its accumulated operating account deficit almost entirely as the result of policy choices. Particularly worrisome is the recent rapid accumulation of debt between 2009 and 2014. In the meantime, Nova Scotia continues working to undo the risky policies of the “lost decade” from 1984 to 1994, where PC governments increased the debt ratio by nearly a third. In all four provinces the ability to keep debt ratios under control will depend heavily on constraining the growth in health-care spending. Health spending has soared in all provinces since 1999–2000, the most extreme case being in New Brunswick where the share of revenue spent on health has leaped from 25.4 to 35.9 per cent. Even if these provinces cannot change the fact that they are small and exposed, and are stuck with the specific economic risks that entails, they do have the ability to make policy choices that mitigate the length and severity of the effects of exogenous shocks. With three of the provinces (save P.E.I. expected to enjoy faster growth in 2015, the work in better preparing their economies for shocks should begin right away.
Caruso, Raul; Di Domizio, Marco
The aim of this paper is to study the interdependence of military spending between US and a panel of European countries in the period 1988-2013. The empirical estimation is based on a: (i) a unit root tests and a cointegration analysis; (ii) FMOLS and DOLS estimations. General results highlight that military spending of European countries is: (1) positively associated with US military spending and (2) negatively associated with average military spending of other European countries.
Kelly, Elaine; Stoye, George; Vera-Hernández, Marcos
Health spending per capita in England has more than doubled since 1997, yet relatively little is known about how that spending is distributed across the population. This paper uses administrative National Health Service (NHS) hospital records to examine key features of public hospital spending in England. We describe how costs vary across the lifecycle, and the concentration of spending among people and over time. We find that costs per person start to increase after age 50 and escalate after...
Boll, Karen; Brehm Johansen, Mette
to wider international trends within tax administration, especially concerning the development of risk assessments and internal control in the corporations and a greater focus on monitoring of these elements by the tax authorities. Overall, the working paper concludes that Tax Governance as a model......This working paper presents an analysis of the experiences of Cooperative Compliance in Denmark. Cooperative Compliance denotes a specific kind of collaborative program for the regulation of large corporate taxpayers by the tax authorities. Cooperative Compliance programs have been implemented...... in several countries worldwide. In Denmark the program is called Tax Governance. Tax Governance has been studied using qualitative method and the analyses of the working paper build on an extensive base of in-depth interviews – primarily with tax directors from corporations participating in the program...
Wang, Cancan; Medaglia, Rony; Jensen, Tina Blegind
The nature of inter-organizational collaboration between government and other stakeholders is rapidly changing with the introduction of open social media (OSM) platforms. Characterized by a high degree of informality as well as a blurred personal/professional nature, OSM can potentially introduce...... changes and tensions in the well-established routines of the public sector. This paper aims at shedding light on such changes, presenting findings from a study on the use of an OSM platform, WeChat, in an interorganizational collaboration project between government, university, and industry stakeholders...
Keehan, Sean P; Poisal, John A; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Smith, Sheila D; Madison, Andrew J; Stone, Devin A; Wolfe, Christian J; Lizonitz, Joseph M
Health spending growth in the United States for 2015-25 is projected to average 5.8 percent-1.3 percentage points faster than growth in the gross domestic product-and to represent 20.1 percent of the total economy by 2025. As the initial impacts associated with the Affordable Care Act's coverage expansions fade, growth in health spending is expected to be influenced by changes in economic growth, faster growth in medical prices, and population aging. Projected national health spending growth, though faster than observed in the recent history, is slower than in the two decades before the recent Great Recession, in part because of trends such as increasing cost sharing in private health insurance plans and various Medicare payment update provisions. In addition, the share of total health expenditures paid for by federal, state, and local governments is projected to increase to 47 percent by 2025. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Full Text Available The United State of America has been experiencing high debt to GDP ratio of more than 100% and these Public debts are detrimental. The main purpose of this study was to examine the shocks of the variables on others in the USA economy by using quarterly data. The variance decomposition and the Generalised Impulse Response Function techniques were employed to analyse the data. The result revealed that high variation of shocks in real federal debt is explained by their own innovations in the short run, by CPI followed by real federal debt its self. In the long run, this leads to CPI and real government spending. The GIRF reveals that in the short run, real federal debt responds negatively to shocks from CPI, real federal interest payment and real federal government tax receipts and positively to real federal debt and real government spending. In medium term, only real federal government tax receipts are negative while the others are positive. In the long run, the response are all positive to shock from the independent variables. The results lead to the recommendation that the US government should focus on real federal debt in the short run. In the medium term, US government should focus on increasing real government spending and reducing only real federal government tax receipts. In the long run the target should real be federal debt, CPI, real federal interest payment, real government spending and real federal government tax receipts
Laura Ard; Alexander Berg
Principles of good governance have been a major component of international financial standards and are seen as essential to the stability and integrity of financial systems. Over the past 10 years much energy and attention have gone to improving the ability of company boards, managers, and owners to prudently navigate rapidly changing and volatile market conditions. So, how to explain the ...
Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte
, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....
Andy Knight; David Malone; Faith Mitchell. Finance and Audit Committee. Members: Denis Desautels (Chairman); Ahmed Galal;. Frieda Granot; Elizabeth Parr-Johnston; Andrés Rozental;. Gordon Shirley. Governance Committee. Members: The Honourable Barbara McDougall (Chairman);. Claude-Yves Charron; Denis ...
Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann
This paper examines how revenues from a natural resource interact with growth and welfare in an overlapping generations model with altruism. The revenues are allocated between public productive services and direct transfers to members of society by spending policies. We analyze how these policies...... influence the dynamics, and how the dynamics are influenced by the abundance of the revenue. Abundant revenues may harm growth, but growth and welfare can be oppositely affected. We also provide the socially optimal policy. Overall, the analysis suggests that variation in the strength of altruism...
Cogan, John F.; Hubbard, R. Glenn; Kessler, Daniel P.
In this paper, we estimate the effect of the tax preference for health insurance on health care spending using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys from 1996–2005. We use the fact that Social Security taxes are only levied on earnings below a statutory threshold to identify the impact of the tax preference. Because employer-sponsored health insurance premiums are excluded from Social Security payroll taxes, workers who earn just below the Social Security tax threshold receive a larger tax preference for health insurance than workers who earn just above it. We find a significant effect of the tax preference, consistent with previous research. PMID:22500056
Khosravi, Bahman; Soltani, Shahin; Javan-Noughabi, Javad; Faramarzi, Ahmad
Background: In all countries, health expenditures are a main part of government expenditure, and governments try to find policies and strategies to reduce this expenditure. Overall expenditure index has been raised 30 times during the past 20 years in Iran, while in the health sector, the growth in health expenditures index has been 71 times. The present study aimed at examining health care expenditure in the Islamic Republic of Iran versus other high spending countries. Methods: A comparative panel study was conducted in selected countries with the high mean of health expenditure per capita. Data were collected from the WORLD BANK. Out- of- pocket (OOP), health expenditure per capita, public and private health expenditure, and total health expenditure were compared among the selected counties. Results: Iran has the lowest health expenditure per capita compared to other countries and the USA has the highest health expenditures per capita. In Iran, out- of- pocket expenditure, with more than 50%, was the most cost, while in Luxembourg it was the least cost during 2004 to 2014, with less than 12%. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that politicians and health care executives should find a stable source to finance the health system. Stable sources of financing lead to having a steady trend in health expenditure.
Khan, Jahangir; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Jansson, Bjarne
We analyzed the relationship between macroeconomic conditions, measured as unemployment rate and social security spending, from 4 social security schemes and total spending due to sickness and disability. We obtained aggregated panel data from 13 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development member countries for 1980-1996. We used regression analysis and fixed effect models to examine spending on sickness benefits, disability pensions, occupational-injury benefits, survivor's pensions, and total spending. A decline in unemployment increased sickness benefits spending and reduced disability pension spending. These effects reversed direction after 4 years of unemployment. Inclusion of mortality rate as an additional variable in the analysis did not affect the findings. Macroeconomic conditions influence some reimbursements from social security schemes but not total spending.
Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed healthcare provision and health expenditure across six Mediterranean countries that adopt the National Health System (Beveridge model and that form part of the European Union (EU with the main aim being that of analyzing and comparing out-of-pocket health spending in countries with a European Mediterranean connection. To this end, we considered various economic indicators and statistics to derive commonalities and differences across these countries and also compared trends in these indicators to those observed across the rest of the EU. We then analyzed these findings in light of other data related to the quality of healthcare delivery and the infrastructure of the health system and discussed recent developments in healthcare within each country and the main challenges faced by the respective health systems. The results show that on average, Mediterranean countries spend less on total healthcare expenditure (THE than the EU average, both as a proportion of GDP, as well as in per capita terms. This is primarily driven by lower-than-EU-average public funding of healthcare. The 2008/2009 macro-economic and financial crisis had a significant impact on the countries under review, and explains the persistent reductions in public health spending as part of the austerity measures put in force across sectors. On the flipside, Mediterranean countries have a higher presence of private health providers in total funding, thereby explaining the higher Out-of-Pocket (OOPs health expenditures in these countries relative to the EU-average. With regard to the overall health infrastructure in these countries, we observed that although the supply of physicians is largely in line with the rest of the EU, there is under-supply when it comes to hospital beds. This may be symptomatic of lower government funding. Nonetheless, all countries score highly in the evaluation of the quality of health services, as recorded by international rankings
Mols, Niels Peter; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg; Villadsen, Anders Ryom
We suggest that both making and buying the same product or service has several effects on market performance. A model is developed and tested by use of 170 answers gathered from the Danish municipalities. The results support the hypotheses that both making and buying: (1) moderates the negative r...... on how the plurality is measured. The results indicate that internal production may facilitate effective governance of the relationships with suppliers. Implications for research on firm boundaries and for practice are also discussed....
IT governance (control of information technology) is a frequently discussed topic today which represents current needs to take control of IT, judge impacts of all resolutions and lead up investments running to the information technology. It is very important for both small and large organizations to have IT which encourages business strategy and helps to meet objectives of a company. The theoretical part of this paper is focused on characterization of the main areas, benefits, rules and vario...
Waldron, Anthony; Miller, Daniel C.; Redding, Dave; Mooers, Arne; Kuhn, Tyler S.; Nibbelink, Nate; Roberts, J. Timmons; Tobias, Joseph A.; Gittleman, John L.
Halting global biodiversity loss is central to the Convention on Biological Diversity and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, but success to date has been very limited. A critical determinant of success in achieving these goals is the financing that is committed to maintaining biodiversity; however, financing decisions are hindered by considerable uncertainty over the likely impact of any conservation investment. For greater effectiveness, we need an evidence-based model that shows how conservation spending quantitatively reduces the rate of biodiversity loss. Here we demonstrate such a model, and empirically quantify how conservation investment between 1996 and 2008 reduced biodiversity loss in 109 countries (signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goals), by a median average of 29% per country. We also show that biodiversity changes in signatory countries can be predicted with high accuracy, using a dual model that balances the effects of conservation investment against those of economic, agricultural and population growth (human development pressures). Decision-makers can use this model to forecast the improvement that any proposed biodiversity budget would achieve under various scenarios of human development pressure, and then compare these forecasts to any chosen policy target. We find that the impact of spending decreases as human development pressures grow, which implies that funding may need to increase over time. The model offers a flexible tool for balancing the Sustainable Development Goals of human development and maintaining biodiversity, by predicting the dynamic changes in conservation finance that will be needed as human development proceeds.
Waldron, Anthony; Miller, Daniel C; Redding, Dave; Mooers, Arne; Kuhn, Tyler S; Nibbelink, Nate; Roberts, J Timmons; Tobias, Joseph A; Gittleman, John L
Halting global biodiversity loss is central to the Convention on Biological Diversity and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, but success to date has been very limited. A critical determinant of success in achieving these goals is the financing that is committed to maintaining biodiversity; however, financing decisions are hindered by considerable uncertainty over the likely impact of any conservation investment. For greater effectiveness, we need an evidence-based model that shows how conservation spending quantitatively reduces the rate of biodiversity loss. Here we demonstrate such a model, and empirically quantify how conservation investment reduced biodiversity loss in 109 countries (signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goals), by a median average of 29% per country between 1996 and 2008. We also show that biodiversity changes in signatory countries can be predicted with high accuracy, using a dual model that balances the effects of conservation investment against those of economic, agricultural and population growth (human development pressures). Decision-makers can use this model to forecast the improvement that any proposed biodiversity budget would achieve under various scenarios of human development pressure, and then compare these forecasts to any chosen policy target. We find that the impact of spending decreases as human development pressures grow, which implies that funding may need to increase over time. The model offers a flexible tool for balancing the Sustainable Development Goals of human development and maintaining biodiversity, by predicting the dynamic changes in conservation finance that will be needed as human development proceeds.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to identify the determinants of spending by the visitors at Innibos, Vryfees en Kierieklapper arts festivals with special focus on the different locations, using the same questionnaire and methodology. The survey measured the attendance and spending of different arts festivals in different locations in order to determine whether any differences exist and if so what these differences are. The research was conducted by means of a visitor survey at the three arts festivals during the same year with questionnaires administered at Innibos (428, Vryfees (336 and Kierieklapper (202, respectively. A factor analysis, Tukey d test and chi-square test were performed. The results indicate that the location and size of the town is not an important factor regarding the impact an event has on the town and the region. Findings that were meaningful included that small, medium type arts festivals differ from each other and also from larger arts festivals in a number of ways. The travel motives revealed four factors, namely: Family and arts; Meet new people; Productions and uniqueness and Escape. The latter was the most significant travel motive and this information can be used in future marketing exercises of arts festivals in different locations – to escape one’s own province and immediate surroundings.
Miguel Angel Martinez Damian
Full Text Available Turkey meat is a white meat demand in Mexico, however, its consumption is still low. In order to explore the convenience of expanding the market and foresee if the industry should compete in price or expenditure, the aim of this work is to study the demand for turkey meat as part of a protein basket; that consists of beef, chicken, pork and egg. Methodologically an almost ideal demand model was used, in an economic sense, this model allows an optimal assignment representation through budget share equations as a function of prices and real expenditure within the bundle. With statistical information from secondary sources, the results showed that the demand for turkey meat responds inelastically to price, and that the response on spending is almost one. With the estimates of price and expenditure growth rates, in terms of an expansion policy in the turkey market, results conclude that spending is the most relevant factor in demand, followed to a lesser extent by price.
Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert
Full Text Available Adherence is crucial for public health program effectiveness, though the benefits of increasing adherence must ultimately be weighed against the associated costs. We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa.We conducted an observational study of 5,258 CHW home visits made in 2003-4 as part of a community-based screening program. We estimated the functional relationship between spending on these visits and increased appointment attendance (adherence. Increased adherence was noted after each subsequent CHW visit. The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand. The CHW program cost R194,018, with 1,576 additional appointments attended. Adherence increased from 74% to 90%; 55% to 87%; 48% to 77%; and 56% to 80% for 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month appointments. Average per-woman costs increased by R14-R47. The majority of this increase occurred with the first 2 CHW visits (90%, 83%, 74%, and 77%; additional cost: R12-R26.We found that study data can be used for program planning, identifying spending levels that achieve adherence targets given budgetary constraints. The results, derived from a single disease program, are retrospective, and should be prospectively replicated.
Fiscal decentralisation – the devolution of revenue mobilisation and spending powers to lower levels of government – has become a main theme of governance over the past two decades. A sound revenue system for local governments is an essential pre-condition for the success of fiscal decentralisation. In addition to raising revenues, local revenue mobilisation has the potential to foster political and administrative accountability by empowering communities. However, local government financing i...
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of government spending, private investment, and labor on economic growth in Pidie District, Data analyzed from 2000-2016, using multiple linear regression model. The results of research on government spending, private investment and labor both simultaneously and partially have a positive and significant impact on economic growth in Pidie District. Variations of government expenditure variables, private investment and labor are able to explain the variation of economic growth in Pidie District by 48,7 percent and the rest of 51,3 percent influenced by other variables. Labor is the most dominant variable of influence on economic growth in Pidie District. Private investment is the least influence variable to economic growth in Pidie District. The need for a policy that could make private government investment spending, and labor increases simultaneously so it is likely to have a positive impact on improving economic growth in Pidie District.
A sharp cut in spending on pipelines will hold US petroleum industry budgets at about 1993 levels for domestic projects this year. Excluding pipeline outlays, industry spending for capital and exploration items will advance. Oil and Gas Journal's annual budget survey shows US companies plan to spend $31.3 billion on US projects in 1994, down only 0.7% from 1993. Spending last year was down by the same percentage from 1992's $31.7 billion. Total outlays, excluding pipelines, well be $28.9 billion, up 5.8% from 1993. In 1993 spending excluding pipelines was $27.3 billion, down 1.2% from 1992. Industry's total spending hit a high of $83 billion in 1981. It then fell to the recent low of $25.2 billion in 1987. Adjusted for inflation, spending in 1994 will be the lowest since 1987. A sharp drop in drilling lowered upstream outlays during the past several years. At the same time, spending for upgrades, renovation, environmental compliance, marketing, and transportation bolstered downstream budgets. E and P spending in 1994 will increase 6.2% from the 1993 level, moving up to $14.8 billion. Refining capital spending will inch up 0.9% to $5.4 billion for 1994
Lowell, Julia F.; Ondaatje, Elizabeth Heneghan
Even though a majority of Americans claim to support public funding of the arts, state government spending on the arts is minimal--and may be losing ground relative to other types of state expenditures. Moreover, most state arts agencies, or SAAs, have not succeeded in convincing state government leaders that the arts should be integral to their…
Ahrens, Thomas; Filatotchev, Igor; Thomsen, Steen
in our knowledge of corporate governance and is likely to lead of a rethink of central concepts like shareholder value, debt governance, and management incentives (2) what do we know and what do we need to how about the impact of national institutions on corporate governance? (3) What research questions......In this paper we attempt to identify the research frontier in corporate governance using three different approaches: (1) what challenges does the financial crisis 2007–2009 pose for corporate governance research? We show that the financial crisis is a huge natural experiment which has exposed gaps...
Full Text Available Noise pollution has a strong impact on wildlife by disrupting vocal communication or inducing physiological stress. Songbirds are particularly reliant on vocal communication as they use song during territorial and sexual interactions. Birds living in noisy environments have been shown to change the acoustic and temporal parameters of their song presumably to maximize signal transmissibility. Also, research shows that birds advance their dawn chorus in urban environments to avoid the noisiest hours, but little is known on the consequences of these changes in the time they spent singing at dawn. Here we present a comprehensive view of the European blackbird singing behavior living next to a large airport in Madrid, using as a control a population living in a similar but silent forest. Blackbird song is composed of two parts: a series of loud low-frequency whistles (motif and a final flourish (twitter. We found that airport blackbirds were more likely to sing songs without the twitter part. Also, when songs included a twitter part, airport blackbirds used a smaller proportion of song for the twitter than control blackbirds. Interestingly, our results show no differences in song frequency between airport and control populations. However airport blackbirds not only sang earlier but also increased the time they spent singing when chorus and aircraft traffic overlapped on time. This effect disappeared as the season progressed and the chorus and the aircraft traffic schedule were separated on time. We propose that the typical urban upshift in frequency might not be useful under the noise conditions and landscape structure found near airports. We suggest that the modifications in singing behavior induced by aircraft noise may be adaptive and that they are specific to airport acoustic habitat. Moreover, we found that adjustment of singing activity in relation to noise is plastic and possibly optimized to cope with aircraft traffic activity. In a soundscape characterized by intermittent and strong noise bursts, singing for longer could be more advantageous than modifying frequency parameters, although it is likely more costly.
Full Text Available For most of the time, tourism has been the privilege of rich people however, during the last century; it became a mass phenomenon, as its genetic (economic, social and demographic factors have changed considerably. Unlike the developed countries which account for the main international tourist flows, Romania is a state with a much lower number of potential tourists as a result of the lower income of the population, but which witness a revival of the tourist phenomenon at the beginning of the 21st century. Based on statistical data, the present paper focuses on the factors that influence the choice of holiday destinations for the Europeans and for Romanians as well, some aspects regarding vacation spending, types of destinations that Romanians choose and their expenses for holiday trips.
Full Text Available Leisure at agrotourist farm includes all recreational and entertainment activities, offered to its visitors willing of uniqueness and beyond, having as purpose the insurance of a good mood, pleasure and relaxation, along with printing some positive impressions and of a pleasant memory about the visited location. In case of agrotourist farm product, leisure has a very diverse content, depending on the profile of the rural area, of the farm, of the motivation, of the visitation season and of the customer segments. Animation from agrotourist farm should contribute to meeting the requirements of active recreation and meeting physical and mental demands of tourists and generate the necessary frame to pleasantly spend a pleasant and instructive leisure. Leisure services can be organized by the staff from agrotourist farm, by specialized personnel or third parties, in order to meet the functions of relaxation and physical comfort, entertainment and improvingits capabilities, satisfying the needs of consumers of such niche tourism.
Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul
Rifampin is a bactericidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. It is a semisynthetic drug produced from the bacterium Streptomyces mediterranei. Rifampin is commonly manufactured in capsule, tablet, and syrup dosage solutions containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF. The studied samples were compounded into 25-mg/mL suspensions and stored in low-actinic bottles at room temperature and refrigerated conditions. Samples were assayed at each time point out to 60 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The sample remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on data collected, the beyond-use date of the preparation is at least 60 days when refrigerated or stored at room temperature and protected from light.
Arnold, Denis G; Troyer, Jennifer L
The pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for developing and aggressively marketing drugs that do not provide significant health benefits relative to existing drugs but retain the benefits of patent protection. Critics argue that drug marketing increases health care expenditures and provides a disincentive for pioneering drug innovation. However, evidence that marketing expenditures have any relationship to new drug approvals has been anecdotal. We hypothesized that, at publicly traded pharmaceutical firms, increased marketing expenditures will result in a reduced volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative new drugs. We also hypothesized that additional research and development spending will result in an increased volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative drugs. Results confirm our hypotheses. Specific policy recommendations for altering firms' incentives for the development of pioneering drugs are provided. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.
Mirjana Pejić Bach
Full Text Available Credit cards have become one of the major ways for conducting cashless transactions. However, they have a long term impact on the well being of their owner through the debt generated by credit card usage. Credit card issuers approve high credit limits to credit card owners, thereby influencing their credit burden. A system dynamics model has been used to model behavior of a credit card owner in different scenarios according to the size of a credit limit. Experiments with the model demonstrated that a higher credit limit approved on the credit card decreases the budget available for spending in the long run. This is a contribution toward the evaluation of action for credit limit control based on their consequences.
-elderly biased. It then points out that population ageing actually cannot explain very much of this pro-elderly bias variance. For instance, countries such as Denmark, Finland and Sweden are demographically old societies, yet they boast among the lowest pro-elderly spending biases in the OECD world, due...... to their greater commitment to family-friendly policies, active labour market policies and similar pro-young policies. The essay reviews a series of similarly counter-intuitive findings about generational politics and policies as published in Ageing Populations in Post-Industrial Democracies (Vanhuysse and Goerres......, 2012) and makes a plea for institutionally and historically richly informed explanations of the political consequences and the policy feedback effects arising from population ageing....
Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Chui, A W M; Tay, M S M
/90 to 2010/11, which is likely due to shift of policy directives from in-patient to day patient care, and the increasing demand for dialysis and cataract surgery in an ageing population.Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of TEH, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43% to 44%during the period 2005/06 to 2010/11, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of several epidemics (e g avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on the provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of TEH over that period.Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$42 264 million(47.5% of total current expenditure) in 2010/11. The remaining HK$46 723 million was from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.7%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.0%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.4%of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.6%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.5%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.2%),whereas in-patient care (24.5%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) accounted for most of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to healthcare in the last decade. As a share of TEH, public funding(either general government revenue or social
Robinson, James C; Whaley, Christopher M; Brown, Timothy T
Background In the United States, prices for therapeutically similar drugs vary widely, which has prompted efforts by public and private insurers to steer patients toward the lower-priced options. Under reference pricing, the insurer or employer establishes a maximum contribution it will make toward the price of a drug or procedure, and the patient pays the remainder. Methods We used difference-in-differences multivariable regression methods to analyze changes in prescriptions and pricing for 1302 drugs in 78 therapeutic classes in the United States, before and after implementation of reference pricing by an alliance of private employers. We assessed trends for the study group relative to those for an employee group that was not subject to reference pricing. The study included 1,122,741 prescriptions that were reimbursed during the period from 2010 through 2014. Results Implementation of reference pricing was associated with a higher percentage of prescriptions that were filled for the lowest-priced reference drug within its therapeutic class (difference in probability, 7.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0 to 9.9), a lower average price paid per prescription (-13.9%; 95% CI, -23.8 to -2.7), and a higher rate of copayment by patients (5.2%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 10.4) than in the comparison group. During the first 18 months after implementation, spending for employers was $1.34 million lower and the amount of copayments for employees was $0.12 million higher than in the comparison group. Conclusions Implementation of reference pricing was associated with significant changes in drug selection and spending for a population of patients covered by employment-based insurance in the United States. (Funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Genentech Foundation.).
Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...
Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...
Stephens, John R; Steiner, Michael J; DeJong, Neal; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Richardson, Troy; Berry, Jay G
The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of diagnosis and treatment for constipation among children receiving Medicaid and to compare healthcare utilization and spending for constipation among children based on number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs). Retrospective cohort study of 4.9 million children ages 1 to 17 years enrolled in Medicaid from 2009 to 2011 in 10 states in the Truven Marketscan Database. Constipation was identified using International Classification of Disease, 9th revision codes for constipation (564.0x), intestinal impaction (560.3x), or encopresis (307.7). Outpatient and inpatient utilization and spending for constipation were assessed. CCC status was identified using validated methodology. A total of 267,188 children (5.4%) were diagnosed with constipation. Total constipation spending was $79.5 million. Outpatient constipation spending was $66.8 million (84.1%) during 406,814 visits, mean spending $120/visit. Among children with constipation, 1363 (0.5%) received inpatient treatment, accounting for $12.2 million (15.4%) of constipation spending, mean spending $7815/hospitalization. Of children hospitalized for constipation, 552 (40.5%) did not have an outpatient visit for constipation before admission. Approximately 6.8% of children in the study had ≥1 CCC; these children accounted for 33.5% of total constipation spending, 70.3% of inpatient constipation spending, and 19.8% of emergency department constipation spending. Constipation prevalence was 11.0% for children with 1 CCC, 16.6% with 2 CCCs, and 27.1% with ≥3 CCCs. Although the majority of pediatric constipation treatment occurs in the outpatient setting, inpatient care accounts for a sizable percentage of spending. Children with CCCs have a higher prevalence of constipation and account for a disproportionate amount of constipation healthcare utilization and spending.
funding across DoD has occurred at the ime that the number of military personnel er stayed relatively flat or fallen. As a result, spending for each... military personnel and their families, see Congressional Budget Office, Approaches to Reducing Federal Spending on Military Health Care (January...MAINTENANCE BETWEEN 1980 AND 2015 TRENDS IN SPENDING BY ibit 1. D’s Base Budget by Type of Appropriation, 1980 to 2015 ions of 2015 Dollars Military Personnela
Menla Ali, F; Dimitraki, O
This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. This article investigates the impact of military spending changes on economic growth in China over the period 1953 to 2010. Using two-state Markov-switching specifications, the results suggest that the relationship between military spending changes and economic growth is state dependent. Specifically, the results show that military spending changes affect the economic growth negatively during a slower grow...
Kelly, E.; Stoye, G.; Vera-Hernández, M.
© 2016 The Authors. Fiscal Studies published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. on behalf of Institute for Fiscal StudiesHealth spending per capita in England has almost doubled since 1997, yet relatively little is known about how that spending is distributed across the population. This paper uses administrative National Health Service (NHS) hospital records to examine key features of public hospital spending in England. We describe how costs vary across the life cycle, and the concentration of spendi...
Lara B. Aknin; Christopher P. Barrington-Leigh; Elizabeth W. Dunn; John F. Helliwell; Robert Biswas-Diener; Imelda Kemeza; Paul Nyende; Claire E. Ashton-James; Michael I. Norton
This research provides the first support for a possible psychological universal: human beings around the world derive emotional benefits from using their financial resources to help others (prosocial spending). Analyzing survey data from 136 countries, we show that prosocial spending is consistently associated with greater happiness. To test for causality, we conduct experiments within two very different countries (Canada and Uganda) and show that spending money on others has a consistent, ca...
Over the last decade, state governments have experienced two recessions (including the recent Great Recession) which : have resulted in significant disruptions in state budgets and highlighted the volatility of the personal income tax and : gen...
Full Text Available In this paper we present some empirical results about absolute and conditional convergence of real GDP within 121 countries using cross-country data. We assume that there is an inverted U-shaped curve, which describes the relationship between economic growth and government spending. It is mainly because the institutional conditions of productivity do not exist at lower levels of government spending. At higher levels, the government needs to levy higher taxes to finance its expenditures, which hinders growth. So there can be somewhere an optimal government redistribution level that maximizes growth. This optimal level depends on institutional factors that can be grabbed by certain Economic Freedom and Worldwide Governance Indicators. It was not our aim necessarily to determine exactly the level of optimal government redistribution, it would be difficult because of the heterogeneity of the countries, only to make a comparison between free and less free countries, and draw some conclusions about how this level depends on these institutional variables. Summing up we can say that our aim was to compare free and less free, legally “good” and “bad”, as well as corrupt and less corrupt countries from the aspect of government redistribution level. If we divide countries into free and less free countries and assume that both groups have an inverted U-shaped curve, the optimal level of government spending share is larger in the richer countries because of their better institutional system. These results do not contradict those findings that declare positive or negative relationship between government spending and economic growth. One part of the literature presumes that there is only one optimal level of government spending, we point out that there can be at least two optimal levels, and they depend on the institutional quality.
Carter Ashley JR
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.
Elmira Rustamovna Burnasheva
Full Text Available The article investigates the mechanism of implementation of public procurement at the present stage, which is one of the main instruments of state policy of regulation of social and economic development of the country. Described the main stages of the implementation of the procurement of goods, works and services for state and municipal needs, and highlighted the main objectives of inculcation new approaches to the organization of the procurement process in the Russian Federation.The aim of the study was to examine what impact the implementation of the contract system on the effectiveness of budget spending using the health sector in the Ulyanovsk region as an example. In all, the study analyzed the changes in the legislation governing the contract system, identified improvements that should contribute to budget savings and also determined the amount of savings of the budget of the Ulyanovsk region in health care sector on the basis of the procedures performed on the procurement of goods, work and services for state and municipal needs.
Objective Up to 50% of pregnancies are unintended in the United States, and the healthcare costs associated with pregnancy are the most expensive among hospitalized conditions. The current study aims to assess Medicaid spending on various methods of contraception and on pregnancy care including unintended pregnancies. Methods We analyzed Medicaid health claims data from 2004 to 2010. Women 14–49 years of age initiating contraceptive methods and pregnant women were included as separate cohorts. Medicaid spending was summarized using mean all-cause and contraceptive healthcare payments per patient per month (PPPM) over a follow-up period of up to 12 months. Medicaid payments were also estimated in 2008 per female member of childbearing age per month (PFCPM) and per member per month (PMPM). Medicaid payments on unintended pregnancies were also evaluated PFCPM and PMPM in 2008. Results For short-acting reversible contraception (SARC) users, all-cause payments and contraceptive payments PPPM were respectively $365 and $18.3 for oral contraceptive (OC) users, $308 and $19.9 for transdermal users, $215 and $21.6 for vaginal ring users, and $410 and $8.8 for injectable users. For long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) users (follow-up of 9–10 months), corresponding payments were $194 and $36.8 for IUD users, and $237 and $29.9 for implant users. Pregnancy cohort all-cause mean healthcare payments PPPM were $610. Payments PFCPM and PMPM for contraceptives were $1.44 and $0.54, while corresponding costs of pregnancies were estimated at $39.91 and $14.81, respectively. Payments PFCPM and PMPM for contraceptives represented a small fraction at 6.56% ($1.44/$21.95) and 6.63% ($0.54/$8.15), respectively of the estimated payments for unintended pregnancy. Conclusions This study of a large sample of Medicaid beneficiaries demonstrated that, over a follow-up period of 12 months, Medicaid payments for pregnancy were considerably higher than payments for either SARC or
This article analyses the relationship between government spending and the distribution of private income between capital and labour. While most previous research assumes that government spending redistributes in favour of the less wealthy, I distinguish between types of expenditures that enhance the bargaining position of labour - that is, unemployment benefits, public sector employment and investment in new capital - and labour-saving and pro-business types of expenditures - that is, outsourcing to private firms. The results are derived from various panel regression techniques on a panel of 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the period 1985-2010 and show that expenditures on public sector employment and, to a lesser extent, on new capital prevented the private wage share from declining further, even after controlling for labour market institutions, globalisation and technological change. Conversely, expenditures on outsourcing substantially contributed to reducing the private wage share. Unemployment benefits had a non-significant and negative effect on the private wage share because their increase was the consequence of higher levels of unemployment rather than policy. Implications for theory and policy are drawn, including the support for a public employment-led spending policy.
This article analyses the relationship between government spending and the distribution of private income between capital and labour. While most previous research assumes that government spending redistributes in favour of the less wealthy, I distinguish between types of expenditures that enhance the bargaining position of labour – that is, unemployment benefits, public sector employment and investment in new capital – and labour-saving and pro-business types of expenditures – that is, outsourcing to private firms. The results are derived from various panel regression techniques on a panel of 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries in the period 1985–2010 and show that expenditures on public sector employment and, to a lesser extent, on new capital prevented the private wage share from declining further, even after controlling for labour market institutions, globalisation and technological change. Conversely, expenditures on outsourcing substantially contributed to reducing the private wage share. Unemployment benefits had a non-significant and negative effect on the private wage share because their increase was the consequence of higher levels of unemployment rather than policy. Implications for theory and policy are drawn, including the support for a public employment-led spending policy. PMID:28919641
Bekemeier, Betty; Marlowe, Justin; Squires, Linda Sharee; Tebaldi, Jennifer; Park, Seungeun
Our objective was to estimate the gap between the costs for local health jurisdictions (LHJs) to provide foundational public health services (FPHS) and actual spending on FPHS and to examine factors associated with that gap. We employed resource-based cost estimation methods for this observational study and conducted multivariate analyses with measures derived from secondary administrative data. We used primary data collected from LHJ leaders that depicted 2014 spending and perceived need. We also included secondary administrative data depicting annual 2000-2013 expenditures organized into categories containing key elements of FPHS areas. We included primary data from a representative sample of 10 LHJs in Washington State and secondary data for all 35 LHJs in Washington. Participants were public health practice leaders from each sample LHJ. Our main outcome of interest was the gap identified between current spending and the perceived spending needed to provide FPHS in a jurisdiction. Actual FPHS spending was approximately 65% of spending needed to provide overall FPHS for our sample LHJs, but the size of the gap varied substantially by program. Some gaps also varied widely by LHJ, with spending gaps widest among rural and high poverty communities. Percent poverty and the metropolitan nature of a jurisdiction were factors significantly related to FPHS spending in our multivariate analyses. Actual spending lags far behind local officials' estimates of spending needed to provide FPHS and is likely influenced by local conditions. Major apparent gaps between spending and need, particularly in areas such as costly Business Competencies, underscore the need for cross-cutting capabilities to support public health system responsiveness and for attention to be paid to local conditions.
Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard
The purpose of this study was to assess state-level trends in per beneficiary Medicare spending on medical imaging. Medicare part B 5% research identifiable files from 2004 through 2012 were used to compute national and state-by-state annual average per beneficiary spending on imaging. State-to-state geographic variation and temporal trends were analyzed. National average per beneficiary Medicare part B spending on imaging increased 7.8% annually between 2004 ($350.54) and its peak in 2006 ($405.41) then decreased 4.4% annually between 2006 and 2012 ($298.63). In 2012, annual per beneficiary spending was highest in Florida ($367.25) and New York ($355.67) and lowest in Ohio ($67.08) and Vermont ($72.78). Maximum state-to-state geographic variation increased over time, with the ratio of highest-spending state to lowest-spending state increasing from 4.0 in 2004 to 5.5 in 2012. Spending in nearly all states decreased since peaks in 2005 (six states) or 2006 (43 states). The average annual decrease among states was 5.1% ± 1.8% (range, 1.2-12.2%) The largest decrease was in Ohio. In only two states did per beneficiary spending increase (Maryland, 12.5% average annual increase since 2005; Oregon, 4.8% average annual increase since 2008). Medicare part B average per beneficiary spending on medical imaging declined in nearly every state since 2005 and 2006 peaks, abruptly reversing previously reported trends. Spending continued to increase, however, in Maryland and Oregon. Identification of state-level variation may facilitate future investigation of the potential effect of specific and regional changes in spending on patient access and outcomes.
Hamilton, Barton H; Marton, James
Despite the fact that flexible spending accounts (FSAs) are becoming an increasingly popular employer-provided health benefit, there has been very little empirical study of FSA use among employees at the individual level. This study contributes to the literature on FSAs using a unique data set that provides three years of employee-level-matched benefits data. Motivated by the theoretical model of FSA choice presented in Cardon and Showalter (J. Health Econ. 2001; 20(6):935-954), we examine the determinants of FSA participation and contribution levels using cross-sectional and random-effect two-part models. FSA participation and health plan choice are also modeled jointly in each year using conditional logit models. We find that, even after controlling for a number of other demographic characteristics, non-whites are less likely to participate in the FSA program, have lower contributions conditional on participation, and have a lower probability of switching to new lower cost share, higher premium plans when they were introduced. We also find evidence that choosing health plans with more expected out-of-pocket expenses is correlated with participation in the FSA program. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Despite the important role that leisure time plays in individuals' health, wellness and quality of life, the disability studies addressing leisure remain extremely limited. Examine how people with disabilities allocate their time to leisure activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using data at an individual level from the Time Use Survey for Spain in 2002-2003 and the social model of disability as a framework, we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on three aggregate categories (active, passive and social activities) for non-disabled, non-limited disabled and limited disabled individuals. Individuals who are limited in their daily activities are more likely to allocate their time to passive leisure (e.g., reading, television, video, and radio) and less likely to spend their time in social entertainment (e.g., theater, culture, and social events) as compared to non-disabled individuals. In addition, we find significant differences in minutes per day spent on leisure activities by gender, age, marital status and number of children. Accessible facilities and leisure installations as well as actions aimed at combating barriers and discrimination practices are needed to encourage participation in physical activity and social entertainment of people with disabilities. It is necessary to define, adapt and implement specific leisure activities that allow people with disabilities to fully participate in these activities and increase their levels of social integration and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.
Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical
Olumuyiwa Tolulope APANISILE
Full Text Available The study examines the effect of military expenditure on output in Nigeria both in the short-run and in the long-run period. In addition, it verified whether military expenditure is an economically non-contributive activity using ARDL bounds testing approach to co-integration. Results showed that military spending has negative and significant effect on output in the short-run but positive and significant effect in the long-run. Labour and capital have positive and significant effects both in the long-run and short-run. In addition, labour has the highest coefficient (3.0709 in the long-run.The study concludes that government should reduce its expenditure on defense and concentrate more on human capital development, since military spending contributes nothing to output in the short-run.
Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.
There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this framework and provide the balance for all governance domains. (aut.ref.)
Full Text Available Budget deficits and the debate on the sources of deficit finance have been on the agenda of public economics ever since the 1980s. However recently in the post-communist countries fiscal imbalances appear to be an important problem due to prolonged periods of growing poverty resulting from the transition process. Poverty alleviation policies considerably affect the revenue and expenditure decisions of governments, which are subject to hard budget constraints in an open transitional economy and do not have room for departing from sound fiscal policies. The public finance literature provides a vast number of studies analyzing the relationship between public revenues and expenditures. These studies are mostly characterized by efforts to reveal the attitude of the fiscal authority towards maintaining the budget balance. In this respect, budgetary dynamics in which past government revenues have predictive power on the current level of government expenditures are accepted as evidence of the so-called tax-and-spend hypothesis. On the other hand, the revenue-expenditure nexus running from expenditures to revenues is known in the literature as the spend-and-tax hypothesis. The objective of this study is to analyze empirically the relationship between government revenues and expenditures in four of the transitional economies, i.e. Belarus, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic and the Russian Federation. The empirical findings of this study, which are based on Granger causality tests, indicate evidence supporting the tax-and-spend hypothesis in Belarus and the Russian Federation and fiscal synchronization in Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic. The empirical support for the tax-and-spend hypothesis in these economies implies that increasing government revenues may not end up with lower budget deficits due to their stimulating effect on the demand for public goods and services.
Gallet, Craig A; Doucouliagos, Hristos
While numerous studies assess the impact of healthcare spending on health outcomes, typically reporting multiple estimates of the elasticity of health outcomes (most often measured by a mortality rate or life expectancy) with respect to healthcare spending, the extent to which study attributes influence these elasticity estimates is unclear. Accordingly, we utilize a meta-data set (consisting of 65 studies completed over the 1969-2014 period) to examine these elasticity estimates using meta-regression analysis (MRA). Correcting for a number of issues, including publication selection bias, healthcare spending is found to have the greatest impact on the mortality rate compared to life expectancy. Indeed, conditional on several features of the literature, the spending elasticity for mortality is near -0.13, whereas it is near to +0.04 for life expectancy. MRA results reveal that the spending elasticity for the mortality rate is particularly sensitive to data aggregation, the specification of the health production function, and the nature of healthcare spending. The spending elasticity for life expectancy is particularly sensitive to the age at which life expectancy is measured, as well as the decision to control for the endogeneity of spending in the health production function. With such results in hand, we have a better understanding of how modeling choices influence results reported in this literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rose, Sherri; Zaslavsky, Alan M; McWilliams, J Michael
Spending targets (or benchmarks) for accountable care organizations (ACOs) participating in the Medicare Shared Savings Program must be set carefully to encourage program participation while achieving fiscal goals and minimizing unintended consequences, such as penalizing ACOs for serving sicker patients. Recently proposed regulatory changes include measures to make benchmarks more similar for ACOs in the same area with different historical spending levels. We found that ACOs vary widely in how their spending levels compare with those of other local providers after standard case-mix adjustments. Additionally adjusting for survey measures of patient health meaningfully reduced the variation in differences between ACO spending and local average fee-for-service spending, but substantial variation remained, which suggests that differences in care efficiency between ACOs and local non-ACO providers vary widely. Accordingly, measures to equilibrate benchmarks between high- and low-spending ACOs--such as setting benchmarks to risk-adjusted average fee-for-service spending in an area--should be implemented gradually to maintain participation by ACOs with high spending. Use of survey information also could help mitigate perverse incentives for risk selection and upcoding and limit unintended consequences of new benchmarking methodologies for ACOs serving sicker patients. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David
Does high defence spending limit the growth of public health investment? Using comparative data from 31 OECD countries between 1980 and 2010, we find little evidence that defence crowds out public health spending. Whether measured in terms of long-term levels or short-term changes, per capita defence and health spending positively and significantly correlate. To investigate the possibility that countries with high security needs such as Israel exhibit differing patterns, we also compare crowd-out among countries experiencing violent conflicts as well as current high military-spending countries. We observed a greater positive correlation between changes in health and defence spending among conflict-countries (r = 0.65, p military spending countries, Israel's politicians reduced defence spending while increasing health expenditure during its recent recession. These analyses reveal that while Israel's politicians have chronically underinvested in public health, there are modest steps being taken to rectify the country's unique and avoidable crowding out of public health from its high military spending.
Singh, Simone R; Young, Gary J
To investigate whether tax-exempt hospitals' investments in community health are associated with patterns of governmental public health spending focusing specifically on the relationship between hospitals' community benefit expenditures and the spending patterns of local health departments (LHDs). We combined data on tax-exempt hospitals' community benefit spending with data on spending by the corresponding LHD that served the county in which a hospital was located. Data were available for 2 years, 2009 and 2013. Generalized linear regressions were estimated with indicators of hospital community benefit spending as the dependent variable and LHD spending as the key independent variable. Hospital community benefit spending was unrelated to how much local public health agencies spent, per capita, on public health in their communities. Patterns of local public health spending do not appear to impact the investments of tax-exempt hospitals in community health activities. Opportunities may, however, exist for a more active engagement between the public and private sector to ensure that the expenditures of all stakeholders involved in community health improvement efforts complement one another. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can my group spend TAG money? 35.4070 Section 35.4070 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... my group spend TAG money? (a) Your group must use all or most of your funds to procure a technical...
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What if I do not spend all the money? 86.73 Section 86.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM How States Manage Grants § 86.73 What if I do not spend all the money? Funds not...
An analysis of spending trends that is designed to discourage policy makers' focus on finding new revenue rather than reining in spending suggests that the model for financing colleges has reinforced educational inequities and failed to increase the rate at which students graduate. According to the analysis, "serious fault lines" in the current…
Pellegrini, Lawrence C; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Qian, Jing
The healthcare sector was one of the few sectors of the US economy that created new positions in spite of the recent economic downturn. Economic contractions are associated with worsening morbidity and mortality, declining private health insurance coverage, and budgetary pressure on public health programs. This study examines the causes of healthcare employment growth and workforce composition in the US and evaluates the labor market's impact on healthcare spending and health outcomes. Data are collected for 50 states and the District of Columbia from 1999-2009. Labor market and healthcare workforce data are obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Mortality and health status data are collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vital Statistics program and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Healthcare spending data are derived from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Dynamic panel data regression models, with instrumental variables, are used to examine the effect of the labor market on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality. Regression analysis is also performed to model the effects of healthcare spending on the healthcare workforce composition. All statistical tests are based on a two-sided [Formula: see text] significance of [Formula: see text] .05. Analyses are performed with STATA and SAS. The labor force participation rate shows a more robust effect on healthcare spending, morbidity, and mortality than the unemployment rate. Study results also show that declining labor force participation negatively impacts overall health status ([Formula: see text] .01), and mortality for males ([Formula: see text] .05) and females ([Formula: see text] .001), aged 16-64. Further, the Medicaid and Medicare spending share increases as labor force participation declines ([Formula: see text] .001); whereas, the private healthcare spending share decreases ([Formula: see text] .001). Public and private healthcare spending also
Evans, M. K.
An evaluation of the economic impact of NASA research and development programs is made. The methodology and the results revolve around the interrelationships existing between the demand and supply effects of increased research and development spending, in particular, NASA research and development spending. The INFORUM Inter-Industry Forecasing Model is used to measure the short-run economic impact of alternative levels of NASA expenditures for 1975. An aggregate production function approach is used to develop the data series necessary to measure the impact of NASA research and development spending, and other determinants of technological progress, on the rate of growth in productivity of the U. S. economy. The measured relationship between NASA research and development spending and technological progress is simulated in the Chase Macroeconometric Model to measure the immediate, intermediate, and long-run economic impact of increased NASA research and development spending over a sustained period.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park System covers more than 84 million acres and is comprised of more than 401 sites across the Nation. These lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) serve as recreational destinations for visitors from across the Nation and around the world. On vacations or on day trips, NPS visitors spend time and money in the gateway communities surrounding NPS sites. Spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway economies. The NPS has been measuring and reporting visitor spending and economic effects for the past 25 years. The 2012 analysis marked a major revision to the NPS visitor spending effects analyses, with the development of the Visitor Spending Effects model (VSE model) which replaced the previous Money Generation Model (see Cullinane Thomas et al. (2014) for a description of how the VSE model differs from the previous model). This report provides updated VSE estimates associated with 2014 NPS visitation.
Abstract In a great majority of countries throughout the world productive government services have declined as percentage of GDP since the 1970s. In the macroeconomic literature this is often associated with the general productivity growth decline, suggesting an important role for infrastructure
The paper extends empirical studies on the effects of fiscal policy shocks on private consumption to the Nigerian situation. It examines whether government expenditure shocks and tax revenue shocks have Keynesian effects on the economy. Data spanning the period 1980 - 2004 were used to estimate a Vector Error ...
Ronald D. Kneebone
Full Text Available Provincial budgets may normally make for dry reading, but in Alberta’s case, there is plenty of suspense lurking inside the pages — and that’s not necessarily a good thing. Your average family may know certain things about balancing a budget: keeping spending roughly in line with income; not relying on volatile, unpredictable income streams to cover expenses; and not leaving the kids with an inheritance of significant debt. But look at how Alberta has been managing its budget in the last decade, and it is obvious that the provincial government is breaking a lot of the financial management rules that most Albertans are disciplined enough to live by at home. A clear way to get a sense of how the Alberta government has managed its finances is by analyzing how much provincial program spending relies on depleting provincial savings, either in the form of savings funds or non-renewable resource deposits, such as oil and gas. By 2011, Alberta’s “Budget Gap” had grown to almost the same level it was in 1993, when the province was forced to adopt wrenching budget cuts in order to close what had become a yawning gap between revenue and costs amounting to $4,000 in spending for every man, woman and child in the province. This paper suggests there are three key questions that should be posed to our government and to any political party seeking to represent our interests as our government: 1. How tolerant are they of annual deficits? Do they advocate a strategy of relatively lower levels of government spending and/or higher tax rates, so as to avoid deficits no matter the state of the economy? Or will they tolerate deficits during economic slowdowns to enable higher levels of spending and/or lower tax rates? 2. To what extent are they willing to trust the payment of health-care costs and the costs of education and social assistance to oil and gas royalties as opposed to taxation? 3. How, exactly, does one define investments in social
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on deaf students' interests in spending their leisure times. We design a questionnaire and distribute among all deaf students who are enrolled in high schools in two provinces of Iran. The questionnaire consists of three parts, in the first part, we ask female and male deaf students about their interests in various entertainment activities in Likert scale. In terms of gender, we find out that walking inside or outside house is number one favorite exercise for female students while male students mostly prefer to walk on the streets. Although male students prefer to go biking or running activities, female students prefer to go for picnic or similar activities. This could be due to limitations on female for running or biking inside cities. While going to picnic with members of family or friends is the third popular activity for male students, stretching exercises is third most popular activity among female students. Breathing exercise is the fourth most popular activity among both male and female students. The second part of the survey is associated with the barriers for having no exercise among deaf students. According to our survey, while lack of good attention from public and ordinary people on exercising deaf students is believed to be number one barrier among male students, female students blame lack of transportation facilities as the most important barrier. However, both female and male students believe these two items are the most important factors preventing them to exercise. Lack of awareness for exercising deaf students and lack of good recreational facilities are the third most important barriers among male and female students. The last part of the survey attempted to detect important entertainment activities. Watching TV, entertaining with mobile devices, chatting with friends and watching DVD or movies were the most important items influencing deaf students' free times.DOI: 10.5267/j.msl.2012
of them nonprofit, but many not) have arisen to fill the gap. Priva- tization also occurs when a government franchises or contracts out for a service...course, raise fees to levels that local politicians could not justify. And the operations of private franchise holders and contractors are not subject to...the Washington, D. C. subway system (ibid.). A reduction in public-sector career opportunities could have deleterious long-run effects on social
Full Text Available International comparisons show that large cross-country differences exist in the overall macro extent of regulation of the economy. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to investigate, why such differences exist by identifying and empirically verifying the effect of various factors that could potentially shape those differences. Empirical analysis based on the sample of 32 developed and democratic countries revealed that almost 70 % of variation in the macro extent of regulation could be explained with 7 statistically significant explanatory variables. The econometric analysis revealed that the macro extent of regulation decreases with income inequality in society, with the level of economic development, with the sizeof economy, with the share of transfer spending in GDP and with the share of government employment in labour force. On the other hand, the extent of regulation is positively related to government ownership of enterprises and to presidential political regime
Full Text Available This article analyzes the demand for military spending in the 1920s and 1930s, based on variables arising from the international system and the selected countries. The main premise is that the military spending was an impure public good, implying that both public and private benefits drove the demand for this type of expenditure. Threats arising from the autocratic states in the 1930s increased these expenditures, and democracies overall tended to spend less. Moreover, the absence of clear international leadership by the USA or UK destabilized the international system and increased military spending, with alliances failing to produce a public good effect. Military spending resulted in joint products at the level of state and within state, and the level of economic development seemed to exert a downward pressure on the military spending of these states. There were some contradictory spillover effects felt by these states. On the whole, this article suggests that scholars should expand their explanatory models to include impure public good influences in military spending analysis.
Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese
ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.
himself points out, “The Rational Man, like the unicorn , does not exist” (Markowitz, 1959). The various investor assumptions presented above break down...originally envisioned benefits quickly grow (Levine, 2005). As a recent Government Accountability Office report notes, the sheer size of IT spending in the...shows no change in EAC for the first three quarters and a decrease in the fourth quarter- although the SV and CV shrink and grow during the same period
Rodgers, Phillip E.
Abstract Background: Healthcare payment is rapidly evolving to reward value by measuring and paying for quality and spending performance. Rewarding value for the care of seriously ill patients presents unique challenges. Objective: To evaluate the state of current efforts to measure and reward value for the care of seriously ill patients. Design: We performed a PubMed search of articles related to (1) measures of spending for people with serious illness and (2) linking spending and quality measures and rewarding performance for the care of people with serious illness. We limited our search to U.S.-based studies published in English between January 1, 1960, and March 31, 2017. We supplemented this search by identifying public programs and other known initiatives that linked quality and spending for the seriously ill and extracted key program elements. Results: Our search related to linking spending and quality measures and rewarding performance for the care of people with serious illness yielded 277 articles. We identified three current public programs that currently link measures of quality and spending—or are likely to within the next few years—the Oncology Care Model; the Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Model; and Home Health Value-Based Purchasing. Models that link quality and spending consist of four core components: (1) measuring quality, (2) measuring spending, (3) the payment adjustment model, and (4) the linking/incentive model. We found that current efforts to reward value for seriously ill patients are targeted for specific patient populations, do not broadly encourage the use of palliative care, and have not closely aligned quality and spending measures related to palliative care. Conclusions: We develop recommendations for policymakers and stakeholders about how measures of spending and quality can be balanced in value-based payment programs. PMID:29091529
The Heritage Foundation and the Fraser Institute measure economic freedom in nations using indices with ten and five indicators respectively. Eight of the Heritage indicators and four of the Fraser-indicators are about specific types of institutional quality, like rule of law, the protection of property, and the provision of sound money. More of these is considered to denote more economic freedom. Both indices also involve indicators of 'big government', or levels of government activities. More of that is seen to denote less economic freedom. Yet, levels of government spending, consumption, and transfers and subsidies appear to correlate positively with the other indicators related to institutional quality, while this correlation is close to zero for the level of taxation as a percentage of GDP. Using government spending, consumption transfers and subsidies as positive indicators is no alternative, because these levels stand for very different government activities, liberal or less liberal. This means that levels of government activities can better be left out as negative or positive indicators. Thus shortened variants of the indices create a better convergent validity in the measurement of economic freedom, and create higher correlations between economic freedom and alternative types of freedom, and between economic freedom and happiness. The higher correlations indicate a better predictive validity, since they are predictable in view of the findings of previous research and theoretical considerations about the relations between types of freedom, and between freedom and happiness.
Lara B Aknin
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.
Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I
Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.
Ávila, Carlos; Loncar, Dejan; Amico, Peter; De Lay, Paul
Trends and predictors of domestic spending from public sources provide national authorities and international donors with a better understanding of the HIV financing architecture, the fulfillment of governments' commitments and potential for long-term sustainability. We analyzed government financing of HIV using evidence from country reports on domestic spending. Panel data from 2000 to 2010 included information from 647 country-years amongst 125 countries. A random-effects model was used to analyze ten year trends and identify independent predictors of public HIV spending. Low- and middle-income countries spent US$ 2.1 billion from government sources in 2000, growing to US$ 6.6 billion in 2010, a three-fold increase. Per capita spending in 2010 ranged from 5 cents in low-level HIV epidemics in the Middle East to US$ 32 in upper-middle income countries with generalized HIV epidemics in Southern Africa. The average domestic public spending per capita was US$ 2.55. The analysis found that GDP per capita and HIV prevalence are positively associated with increasing levels of HIV-spending from public sources; a 10 percent increase in HIV prevalence is associated with a 2.5 percent increase in domestic funding for HIV. Additionally, a 10 percent increase in GDP per capita is associated with an 11.49 percent increase in public spending for HIV and these associations were highly significant. Domestic resources in low- and middle-income countries showed a threefold increase between 2000 and 2010 and currently support 50 percent of the global response with 41 percent coming from sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic spending in LMICs was associated with increased economic growth and an increased burden of HIV. Sustained increases in funding for HIV from public sources were observed in all regions and emphasize the increasing importance of government financing.
Dieleman, Joseph L; Baral, Ranju; Johnson, Elizabeth; Bulchis, Anne; Birger, Maxwell; Bui, Anthony L; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Gabert, Rose; Hamavid, Hannah; Horst, Cody; Joseph, Jonathan; Lomsadze, Liya; Squires, Ellen; Tobias, Martin
One of the major challenges in estimating health care spending spent on each cause of illness is allocating spending for a health care event to a single cause of illness in the presence of comorbidities. Comorbidities, the secondary diagnoses, are common across many causes of illness and often correlate with worse health outcomes and more expensive health care. In this study, we propose a method for measuring the average spending for each cause of illness with and without comorbidities. Our strategy for measuring cause of illness-specific spending and adjusting for the presence of comorbidities uses a regression-based framework to estimate excess spending due to comorbidities. We consider multiple causes simultaneously, allowing causes of illness to appear as either a primary diagnosis or a comorbidity. Our adjustment method distributes excess spending away from primary diagnoses (outflows), exaggerated due to the presence of comorbidities, and allocates that spending towards causes of illness that appear as comorbidities (inflows). We apply this framework for spending adjustment to the National Inpatient Survey data in the United States for years 1996-2012 to generate comorbidity-adjusted health care spending estimates for 154 causes of illness by age and sex. The primary diagnoses with the greatest number of comorbidities in the NIS dataset were acute renal failure, septicemia, and endocarditis. Hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities across all age groups. After adjusting for comorbidities, chronic kidney diseases, atrial fibrillation and flutter, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased by 74.1%, 40.9%, and 21.0%, respectively, while pancreatitis, lower respiratory infections, and septicemia decreased by 21.3%, 17.2%, and 16.0%. For many diseases, comorbidity adjustments had varying effects on spending for different age groups. Our methodology takes a unified approach to account for excess spending caused
Ormond, M.E.; Mainil, T.
This chapter provides an overview of current government and governance strategies relative to medical tourism development and management around the world. Most studies on medical tourism have privileged national governments as key actors in medical tourism regulation and, in some cases, even
Brand, N.; Beens, B.; Vuuregge, E.; Batenburg, R.
There is a need for a framework that depicts strategic choices within an organisation with regard to potential governance structures. The governance meta framework provides the necessary structure in the current developments of governance. Performance as well as conformance are embedded in this
Van Wyk, Llewellyn V
Full Text Available , corporate governance, ethics, globalisation Introduction One of the characteristics of globalisation is the ease of engaging in business transactions in global financial markets. The exploration of these markets has, however, exposed a high degree.... The search for core values is manifest in the inclusion of social issues like poverty alleviation, job creation, human rights, corporate governance, and ethics and spirituality onto the global agenda. The second struggle – determining a management model...
Full Text Available Personal exemption (PE was one of the remedies of the government to offset the burden of taxation imposed to its sovereignty. In the Philippines, a motion to increase the PE has already been made by lawmakers, and this prompted the researchers to conduct a study on the effect of this disposable income of fixed income earners on their spending pattern on identified goods and services to VAT and other taxes collected by the government. The study made use of descriptive-survey method given to 100 random respondents earning fixed income in the City of Davao, Philippines. The study determined that the respondents’ age, civil status, sex, and number of qualified dependents affects her/his spending pattern. Married people spend more on basic commodities than single people, male spends more alcohol and tobacco than the female, zero dependents spends more on recreation than more dependents and there is a decrease of spending in recreation as people aged. Moreover, the survey revealed that implementing additional PE will decrease direct income tax of the government. However, forty percent of this will return in the form of indirect taxes since respondents have lower marginal propensity to save than their marginal propensity to consume, it results in a positive impact in the economy as a whole. This is done through the use of the concept of the Tax Cut Multiplier (m[tax]= -MPC/MPS effect. Given the prospective increase in PE, consumers spend their additional disposable income on basic commodities, additional clothing, recreation and excises taxed products, among others.
Polackova Brixi, Hana; Valenduc, Christian M.A.; Swift, Zhicheng Li
Recently developing countries have focused attention on the usefulness of tax expenditures' in shaping prudent and transparent fiscal policy. In adopting a market economy, developing countries commonly use tax expenditures as major fiscal policy instruments. However, with limited theoretical understanding of, and ad hoc experience with, applying tax expenditures, developing countries now c...
French, Eric; Aragon, Maria; Mccauley, Jeremy
Although end-of-life medical spending is often viewed as a major component of aggregate medical expenditure, accurate measures of this type of medical spending are scarce. We used detailed health care data for the period 2009–11 from Denmark, England, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Taiw...... but to spending on people with chronic conditions, which are associated with shorter life expectancies....
van der Wusten, H.; Agnew, J.; Mamadouh, V.; Secor, A.J.; Sharp, J.
Federalism and multilevel governance both emphasize polycentricity in governing arrangements. With their different intellectual pedigrees, these concepts are discussed in two separate sections. Fragments are now increasingly mixed up in hybrid forms of governance that also encompass originally
Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...
van der Heijden, J.
Voluntary environmental governance arrangements have focal attention in studies on environmental policy, regulation and governance. The four major debates in the contemporary literature on voluntary environmental governance arrangements are studied. The literature falls short of sufficiently
This paper utilizes the systems generalized method of moments (GMM) [Arellano and Bover (1995) J Econometrics 68:29-51; Blundell and Bond (1998) J Econometrics 87:115-143], and panel Granger causality [Hurlin and Venet (2001) Granger Causality tests in panel data models with fixed coefficients. Mime'o, University Paris IX], to investigate the health care spending and gross domestic product (GDP) relationship for organisation for economic co-operation and development countries over the period 1960-2007. The system GMM estimates confirm that the contribution of real GDP to health spending is significant and positive. The panel Granger causality tests imply that a bi-directional causality exists between health spending and GDP. To this end, policies aimed at raising health spending will eventually improve the well-being of the population in the long run.
Gelman, Michael; Kariv, Shachar; Shapiro, Matthew D; Silverman, Dan; Tadelis, Steven
This paper presents a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure records transactions and account balances, yielding measurements with scope and accuracy that have little precedent in economics. The data are drawn from a diverse population that overrepresents males and younger adults but contains large numbers of underrepresented groups. The data infrastructure permits evaluation of a benchmark theory in economics that predicts that individuals should use a combination of cash management, saving, and borrowing to make the timing of income irrelevant for the timing of spending. As in previous studies and in contrast to the predictions of the theory, there is a response of spending to the arrival of anticipated income. The data also show, however, that this apparent excess sensitivity of spending results largely from the coincident timing of regular income and regular spending. The remaining excess sensitivity is concentrated among individuals with less liquidity. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available This study used panel data regression analysis to evaluate the long-term effects of several measures of U.S. education expenditure on unemployment rates in 50 states and Washington D.C. over 25 years. The data included state-level statistics for fiscal effort, graduation rates, education spending per pupil, gross state product per capita, welfare spending, health spending, political party affiliation, union versus nonunion states, and unemployment rates. Results find that the best way to effectively reduce unemployment is investment in improving the quality of human capital through funding education. Findings specifically conclude that over the long term, investment in human capital through education as defined by per-pupil spending and health services could play a significant role in reducing unemployment rates.
Moore, Nancy Y; Chenoweth, Mary E; Reardon, Elaine; Grammich, Clifford A; Bullock, Arthur M; Mele, Judith D; Kofner, Aaron; Unger, Eric J
.... This analysis of combined individual contracting action report (DD350) and PowerTrack (PT) data indicates that DoD has additional opportunities to leverage transportation spending, particularly where it uses tenders to purchase transportation services...
The purpose of this research was to identify and analyze a select number of unclassified databases that cover defense spending and other defense related criteria for countries in the Asia-Pacific region...
The effect of public health spending on under-five mortality rate in Uganda. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... rate, Neonatal mortality rate, Public health expenditure, Sustainable Development Goals and Health status ...
Full Text Available The most effective way to tackle the Syrian refugee crisis is for neighbouring states to assume a leading role in development spending, infrastructure upgrading and job creation, particularly in the most underdeveloped regions of those countries.
Rosiyadi, Didi; Suryana, Nana; Cahyana, Ade; Nuryani, Nuryani
Makalah ini mengemukakan E-Government Dimension yang merupakan salah satu hasil TahapanPengumpulan Data, dimana tahapan ini adalah bagian dari penelitian kompetitif di Lembaga Ilmu PengetahuanIndonesia 2007 yang sekarang sedang dilakukan. Data E-Government Dimension ini didapatkan dari berbagaisumber yang meliputi E-Government beberapa Negara di dunia, E-Government yang dibangun oleh beberapapenyedia aplikasi E-Government. E-Government Dimension terdiri dari tiga dimensi yaitu DemocraticDimen...
Corps Purchasing and Supply Management Initiatives: Spend Analysis Findings source contracts with providers in them. We also examine contract “ churn ...repair, and rebuilding of equipment; general purpose ADP equipment; ADP and telecommunication ser- vices—are also shown in the previous chart for top...to $469 million in FY 2004. The spend for other ADP and telecommunication services, $264 million in FY 2004, was not even in the top ten in FY 2003
Zhang, Yuting; Caines, Kadin J; Powers, Christopher A
The improvement of medication use is a critical mechanism that accountable care organization (ACO) could use to save overall costs. Currently pharmaceutical spending is not part of the calculation for ACO-shared savings and risks. Thus, ACO providers may have strong incentives to prescribe more medications hoping to avoid expensive downstream medical costs. We designed a quasinatural experiment study to evaluate the effects of Pioneer ACOs on Medicare Part D spending and utilization. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with Part D drug coverage who were aligned to a Pioneer ACO were compared with a random 5% sample of non-ACO beneficiaries. Outcomes included changes in Part D spending, number of prescription fills, percent of brand medications, and total Part A and B medical spending. We utilized a generalized linear model with a difference-in-differences approach to estimate 2011-2012 changes in these outcomes among beneficiaries aligned with Pioneer ACOs, adjusting for all beneficiary-level demographics, income and insurance status, clinical characteristics, and regional fixed effects. Being in an ACO did not significantly affect Part D spending (-$23.52; P=0.19), total prescriptions filled (-0.12; P=0.27), and the percent of claims for brand-name drugs (0.06%; P=0.23). The ACO group was associated with savings in Parts A and B spending of $345 (PPioneer ACOs were not associated with changes in pharmaceutical spending and use, but were associated with savings in Parts A and B spending in 2012.
Trish, Erin; Joyce, Geoffrey; Goldman, Dana P.
Specialty pharmaceuticals include most injectable and biologic agents used to treat complex conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and cancer. We analyzed trends in specialty drug spending among Medicare beneficiaries ages sixty-five and older using 2007–11 pharmacy claims data from a 20 percent sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Annual specialty drug spending per beneficiary who used specialty drugs increased considerably during the study period, from $2,641 to $8,976. H...
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher C.; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the nation's most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.
Canadian Mining Journal's 1977 Capital Expenditure Survey shows a drop of 52% in announced spending intentions compared with the 1976 survey total. Coal is particularly hard hit with announced spending for 1977 at 1,250,000 dollars as compared to 700,770,000 in 1976. This total 1977 amount is reported by Kaiser Resources for installing a Honeywell Model 66/05 large scale computer system to be used for accounting, inventory control, engineering and material procurement applications at Sparwood.
Yumusak, Semih; Dogdu, Erdogan; Kodaz, Halife; Kamilaris, Andreas
In this study, a novel metacrawling method is proposed for discovering and monitoring linked data sources on the Web. We implemented the method in a prototype system, named SPARQL Endpoints Discovery (SpEnD). SpEnD starts with a "search keyword" discovery process for finding relevant keywords for the linked data domain and specifically SPARQL endpoints. Then, these search keywords are utilized to find linked data sources via popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Yandex). By using this ...
Jan Vilasuso; Fredric C. Menz
In this paper, the authors develop and test a model to explain travel expenditures in the United States by Canadians. The model examines a consumer's choice problem where income is allocated between domestic and foreign consumption. Consumers do not know the foreign price level and base their spending in part on expected foreign price. In addition to expected foreign price, domestic price, exchange rates, income, and foreign price uncertainty influence travel spending. Empirically, each deter...
Antal, Miklós; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den
It is well-known that energy conservation can lead to rebound effects that partly offset the original energy savings. One particular rebound mechanism is re-spending of money savings associated with energy savings on energy intensive goods or services. We calculate the average magnitude of this “re-spending rebound” for different fuels and countries, and for both energy and carbon (CO 2 ) emissions. We find that emerging economies, neglected in past studies, typically have larger rebounds than OECD countries. Since such economies play an increasingly important role in the global economy the re-spending rebound is a growing concern. The re-spending effect is generally larger for gasoline than for natural gas and electricity. Paradoxically, stronger financial incentives to conserve energy tend to increase the rebound. This suggests that with climate regulation and peak oil the re-spending rebound may become more important. We discuss the policy implications of our findings. - highlights: • Energy and carbon rebound due to re-spending of money savings is analyzed. • The average magnitude of this rebound is calculated for several countries. • Emerging economies typically have substantially larger rebounds than OECD countries. • The effect is generally stronger for gasoline than for natural gas and electricity. • Policy conclusions are drawn
Mays, Glen P; Mamaril, Cezar B
To examine whether local expenditures for public health activities influence area-level medical spending for Medicare beneficiaries. Six census surveys of the nation's 2,900 local public health agencies were conducted between 1993 and 2013, linked with contemporaneous information on population demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, and area-level Medicare spending estimates from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. Measures derive from agency survey data and aggregated Medicare claims. A longitudinal cohort design follows the geographic areas served by local public health agencies. Multivariate, fixed-effects, and instrumental-variables regression models estimate how area-level Medicare spending changes in response to shifts in local public health spending, controlling for observed and unmeasured confounders. A 10 percent increase in local public health spending per capita was associated with 0.8 percent reduction in adjusted Medicare expenditures per person after 1 year (p health insurance coverage, and health professional shortages. Expanded financing for public health activities may provide an effective way of constraining Medicare spending, particularly in low-resource communities. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
L B Mzini
Full Text Available Globally, there is growing recognition of participatory public expenditure management (PPEM. PPEM is seen as the process whereby citizens and civil society organisations participate in the management of public expenditures. The adoption of PPEM is aimed at ensuring greater transparency, better targeting and tracking of resources, and increased overall responsiveness. The Gauteng Department of Health and Social Development (GDHSD is committed to co-operative governance; this includes working with different spheres of government and civil society or non-profit organisations (NPOs. NPOs are required to have a governing committee to manage funds allocated by GDHSD. The committee has the capacity to hold the NPO management accountable for the resources (financial and material entrusted to it by the GDHSD. The effectiveness of NPOs is challenged by poor attendance of board members at meetings, poor understanding of the board’s mandate and responsibilities and lack of experience amongst members. The paradigm of PPEM is still faced with challenges to ensure that significant flows of revenue are accounted for and used effectively for growth and poverty reduction. This study is divided into three components. The first section focuses on the background, the introduction and the conceptual framework. The second part focuses on the empirical study for deriving a benchmark for the South African NPO sector. The third section highlights good practices as well as governance-related challenges. Finally, for further consideration by the GDHSD, a series of recommendations is provided, focusing on how key domestic stakeholders can better contribute to successful participatory budgeting programmes. Keywords: Participatory public expenditure management, non-profit organisations, pro-poor spending, public finance, public financial management, early childhood development. Disciplines: Public Management and Administration, Public Financial Management
The portfolio of the BMFT (Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) covers under the competence of the Federal Government all activities in the field of nuclear science and engineering for peaceful uses of nuclear energy, reactor safety research, and research on non-nuclear energy sources and technology. The draft budget for 1989 shows a total expenditure of DM 7.65 billions in the section 30, portfolio of the BMFT. This is about 1.2% more than in the draft budget of 1988. Broken down into programmes, DM 1.853 billions are earmarked for energy research and technology (1988: DM 1.854 billions), of these DM 398.5 millions for the promotion of non-nuclear energy research and technology. (orig./UA) [de
Research within positive psychology has shown that spending money on other people (prosocial spending) makes you happier than spending it on yourself (proself spending). The present study tested and extended this idea. Also, how an active or a passive choice in spending affect happiness has been tested. Lastly, this study is the first one to test the effect of nudging on happiness by examining the role of choice, defaults in spending. Three measures of subjective well-being (SWB) was used bef...
The president of the Total petroleum company , during a meeting of Petroleum institute at London, exposed the relations and their evolution in energy area, between national government and petroleum industry. The nationalization or the privatization, the taxation, the differences made between different kind of energy are so many factors which are used to regulate energy policy
Michael Walton; Gladys Lopez-Acevedo
In 2002, half of Mexico's population lived in poverty and one fifth in extreme poverty, slightly lower than before the 1994-1995 crisis. Mexico has made major progress in some poverty dimensions -health, nutrition and education outcomes, access to basic health and education services, electricity, water and (to a lesser extent) sanitation. Large increases in government spending enabled key ...
Capital spending by oil and gas companies in and outside the US will rise in 1998, but that forecast may be jeopardized by the continuing plunge in oil prices. For operations in the US, oil and gas company capital spending is expected to move up in 1998 for the fourth year in a row. If the money is spent, it will be the highest industry investment level since 1985. Strong oil and gas prices and increased volumes have boosted company cash flow and profits the last few years, fueling increased spending. However, the near-term outlook has now been clouded by economic turmoil in a number of Asian countries and the recent collapse of oil prices. The paper discusses oil and gas prices, US upstream spending, US non-exploration and production spending, capital spending in Canada, and spending outside US and Canada
Full Text Available Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization, in effect represent a new development strategy for third world countries. The most basic questions that arise with respect to this situation are what the prospects for this new development model are and whether alternatives should be considered. Keywords: governance, corporate governance, economic globalization, development.
E. K. Botlhale
Full Text Available In an era characterised by fiscal stress in the post-global recession era, clichés such as ‘bang for the buck’ are commonplace. Governments are under increasing pressure to spend limited public resources in efficient and effective ways. Efficient and effective governments are a necessary, though not sufficient, condition for economic development. Hence, governments have adopted performance-improving interventions such as New Public Management. Botswana jumped into the bandwagon of public sector reforms in the 1990s through interventions such as Performance-based Management Systems. The focus was almost entirely on performance enhancement to the neglect of performance measurement through a result-based Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E framework. However, in 2009, the government decided to mainstream M&E into the development planning regime. Since the M&E tool is still in draft form, Botswana is very favourably circumstanced to learn from others. Meanwhile essentials to do are: attitudinal change, shared vision on M&E, stakeholder management and demand and use of M&E information by policy-makers such as Members of Parliament.
Bean, James R
Growth of national healthcare spending is a problem confronting national governments of all industrially advanced countries. Healthcare spending in the U.S. reached 13.9% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2003, compared to only 8% in Japan. In the U.S., health insurance is voluntary, with 15% of the population uninsured. In Japan, health insurance is mandatory and virtually universal, with growth in national health costs about half the rate of growth in the U.S. U.S. healthcare costs are projected to reach 18.4% of GDP 2013. The predicted growth in health care costs is expected to cause strain on the federal budget and a growing inability of employers and employees to pay for private insurance. Different national policies are the reason for different national health care costs in the U.S. and Japan. The U.S. has higher healthcare prices for salaries, equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals as compared to Japan. Higher prices, higher service intensity and volume during hospitalization create higher total cost in the U.S. Price controls in Japan kept medical inflation low at 0.46%/yr from 1980-2000. Market-pricing mechanisms in the U.S. have proven ineffective in controlling national healthcare costs, while Japan's national fee and price control policies have kept national costs among the lowest within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. To guide insurance coverage policy, neurosurgery and other highly technical specialties should better define the comparative health benefit of high price technical services by prospective outcome studies.
Bovaird, A. G; Löffler, Elke
... how the process of governing needs to be fundamentally altered if a government is to retain public trust and make better use of society's resources. Key themes covered include: ■ ■ ■ ■ the challenges and pressures which governments experience in an international context; the changing functions of modern government in the global economy; the 'mixed ec...
The skin and lungs are two tissues that are frequently bombarded with cancer-initiating factors, such as ultraviolet rays from the sun and smoke and pollutants in the air we breathe. Yet breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in Australian women, affecting one in eight before the age of 85. It is more common than skin melanoma and lung cancer. Why, then, does the breast so commonly get cancer when it is not a tissue that is particularly exposed to the environmental agents that increase cancer risk in other major organs? Is there something unique about this tissue that makes it particularly susceptible? The breast undergoes cellular changes over the course of the monthly menstrual cycle, and and these changes affect cancer susceptibility. Rising levels of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone occur immediately after the egg is released from the ovary, and these hormones cause the breast cells to divide and change to accommodate further development if pregnancy occurs. If the woman becomes pregnant, the cells in the breast continue to develop and become the milk-producing structures required to feed a newborn baby. But if pregnancy does not occur there is a drop in progesterone, which triggers the death of the newly developed breast cells. This occurs at the same time women have their period. Then the cycle starts again, and continues every month until menopause, unless the woman becomes pregnant.
UK NIREX, the body with responsibility for finding an acceptable strategy for deposition of radioactive waste has given the impression throughout its recent public consultation that the problem of nuclear waste is one of public and political acceptability, rather than one of a technical nature. However the results of the consultation process show that it has no mandate from the British public to develop a single, national, deep repository for the burial of radioactive waste. There is considerable opposition to this method of managing radioactive waste and suspicion of the claims by NIREX concerning the supposed integrity and safety of this deep burial option. This report gives substance to those suspicions and details the significant areas of uncertainty in the concept of effective geological containment of hazardous radioactive elements, which remain dangerous for tens of thousands of years. Because the science of geology is essentially retrospective rather than predictive, NIREX's plans for a single, national, deep 'repository' depend heavily upon a wide range of assumptions about the geological and hydrogeological regimes in certain areas of the UK. This report demonstrates that these assumptions are based on a limited understanding of UK geology and on unvalidated and simplistic theoretical models of geological processes, the performance of which can never be directly tested over the long time-scales involved. NIREX's proposals offer no guarantees for the safe and effective containment of radioactivity. They are deeply flawed. This report exposes the faults. (author)
Resch, Stephen; Ryckman, Theresa; Hecht, Robert
As the incomes of many AIDS-burdened countries grow and donors' budgets for helping to fight the disease tighten, national governments and external funding partners increasingly face the following question: what is the capacity of countries that are highly affected by AIDS to finance their responses from domestic sources, and how might this affect the level of donor support? In this study, we attempt to answer this question. We propose metrics to estimate domestic AIDS financing, using methods related to national prioritisation of health spending, disease burden, and economic growth. We apply these metrics to 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, generating scenarios of possible future domestic expenditure. We compare the results with total AIDS financing requirements to calculate the size of the resulting funding gaps and implications for donors. Nearly all 12 countries studied fall short of the proposed expenditure benchmarks. If they met these benchmarks fully, domestic spending on AIDS would increase by 2·5 times, from US$2·1 billion to $5·1 billion annually, covering 64% of estimated future funding requirements and leaving a gap of around a third of the total $7·9 billion needed. Although upper-middle-income countries, such as Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, would become financially self-reliant, lower-income countries, such as Mozambique and Ethiopia, would remain heavily dependent on donor funds. The proposed metrics could be useful to stimulate further analysis and discussion around domestic spending on AIDS and corresponding donor contributions, and to structure financial agreements between recipient country governments and donors. Coupled with improved resource tracking, such metrics could enhance transparency and accountability for efficient use of money and maximise the effect of available funding to prevent HIV infections and save lives. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2015 Hecht et
Chien, Alyna T; Song, Zirui; Chernew, Michael E; Landon, Bruce E; McNeil, Barbara J; Safran, Dana G; Schuster, Mark A
To examine the 2-year effect of Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts' global budget arrangement, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), on pediatric quality and spending for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and non-CSHCN. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compared quality and spending trends for 126,975 unique 0- to 21-year-olds receiving care from AQC groups with 415,331 propensity-matched patients receiving care from non-AQC groups; 23% of enrollees were CSHCN. We compared quality and spending pre (2006-2008) and post (2009-2010) AQC implementation, adjusting analyses for age, gender, health risk score, and secular trends. Pediatric outcome measures included 4 preventive and 2 acute care measures tied to pay-for-performance (P4P), 3 asthma and 2 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder quality measures not tied to P4P, and average total annual medical spending. During the first 2 years of the AQC, pediatric care quality tied to P4P increased by +1.8% for CSHCN (P < .001) and +1.2% for non-CSHCN (P < .001) for AQC versus non-AQC groups; quality measures not tied to P4P showed no significant changes. Average total annual medical spending was ~5 times greater for CSHCN than non-CSHCN; there was no significant impact of the AQC on spending trends for children. During the first 2 years of the contract, the AQC had a small but significant positive effect on pediatric preventive care quality tied to P4P; this effect was greater for CSHCN than non-CSHCN. However, it did not significantly influence (positively or negatively) CSHCN measures not tied to P4P or affect per capita spending for either group.
Resnick, Beth A; Fisher, Jessica S; Colrick, Ian P; Leider, Jonathon P
In support of the nation's effort to address rising healthcare costs and improve healthcare outcomes, the National Academy of Medicine called for a minimum package of public health services available in every community to protect and improve population health and identification of the resources needed to make these services universally available. In response, the Foundational Public Health Services (FPHS) framework was developed to outline a basic set of public health programs and capabilities. Although the FPHS is considered a useful public health practice tool, cost estimation for providing the FPHS is in its infancy. This is in part due to inability to estimate total costs of individual public health services and programs. This research begins to address this knowledge gap. FPHS formed the basis of a coding framework used in 2013-2016 to code 1.9 million U.S. Census Bureau State Finance non-hospital expenditure records from 49 states from 2000 to 2013. Results were used to develop estimates of state governmental FPHS spending. FPHS spending constituted 36% of total state governmental non-hospital health spending from 2008 to 2013. The largest proportion of FPHS spending was on maternal/child health and the smallest proportion of spending was on access and linkage to clinical care. This research is an important step in response to the National Academy of Medicine's call for estimating the resources needed to provide the FPHS. Such estimates allow for spending comparisons across states and may inform future research to assess and evaluate FPHS spending impacts. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This master´s thesis discusses concept of implementation for data governance. The theoretical part of this thesis is about data governance. It explains why data are important for company, describes definitoons of data governance, its history, its components, its principles and processes and fitting in company. Theoretical part is amended with examples of data governance failures and banking specifics. The main goal of this thesis is to create a concept for implementing data governance and its...
N. Frantzeskaki (Niki); D.A. Loorbach (Derk)
textabstractThis paper presents a framework for governance in the context of large scale and long term societal change (transitions). We argue that existing theories of governance offer interesting descriptive insights for such a framework, but do not present innovative prescriptive ideas
The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…
Vincent A. Onodugo
Full Text Available The Nigerian economy in the last two decades up until 2013 has been growing at an average of 6% and yet unemployment was equally growing in the region of 20% within the same period. This paradoxical situation has led to a flurry of studies and postulations aimed at providing explanation and solution to the phenomenon. This study making use of a regression model with annual data from 1980 to 2013, empirically determined the impact of public sector expenditures (CEXP and REXP together with private sector investment (PINV on unemployment (UNEMP in Nigeria. Capital expenditure and private sector investment both in the medium to long-run were found to serve as catalyst towards reduction of unemployment, while recurrent expenditure was not statistically strong enough to do same. The R-2 (0.84 showed that greater proportion of the total variations in UNEMP was brought about by variations in the regressors. Further tests like autocorrelation, hetroscedasticity, specification error, and multicollinearity indicated respectively that there is no presence of autocorrelation hence the model produced a parsimonious result; the variance is constant over time; the link test confirmed by Ramsey reset test suggested there was no specification error; and lastly the variance inflation factor (VIF of the variables implies that there is no evidence of multicollinearity. The study recommends, inter alia, that the proportion of capital expenditure in Nigerian budget profile should be systematically increased while the recurrent expenditure should be reduced; and there is need to stimulate competition among investors through removal of structural and institutional rigidities and government should design clear policy incentives to private sector investment.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2016, the National Park System received an estimated 330,971,689 recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated $18.4 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 318 thousand jobs, $12.0 billion in labor income, $19.9 billion in value added, and $34.9 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with $5.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with $3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.
Zhu, Han; Yu, Qingzhao
We propose in this article a Bayesian sequential design using alpha spending functions to control the overall type I error in phase III clinical trials. We provide algorithms to calculate critical values, power, and sample sizes for the proposed design. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to check the effects from different prior distributions, and conservative priors are recommended. We compare the power and actual sample sizes of the proposed Bayesian sequential design with different alpha spending functions through simulations. We also compare the power of the proposed method with frequentist sequential design using the same alpha spending function. Simulations show that, at the same sample size, the proposed method provides larger power than the corresponding frequentist sequential design. It also has larger power than traditional Bayesian sequential design which sets equal critical values for all interim analyses. When compared with other alpha spending functions, O'Brien-Fleming alpha spending function has the largest power and is the most conservative in terms that at the same sample size, the null hypothesis is the least likely to be rejected at early stage of clinical trials. And finally, we show that adding a step of stop for futility in the Bayesian sequential design can reduce the overall type I error and reduce the actual sample sizes.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income.In 2015, the National Park System received over 307.2 million recreation visits. NPS visitors spent \\$16.9 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 295 thousand jobs, \\$11.1 billion in labor income, \\$18.4 billion in value added, and \\$32.0 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.2 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bar sector, with \\$3.4 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally.Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at http://go.nps.gov/vse.
Full Text Available Purpose: Respective European Union member states’ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries’ public fnances, as a result of the global fnancial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia, and by those that introduced them for the frst time (Ireland, Canada, France. However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by signifcant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries’ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to flling two main gaps identifed in the literature review.
Song, Zirui; Safran, Dana Gelb; Landon, Bruce E; Landrum, Mary Beth; He, Yulei; Mechanic, Robert E; Day, Matthew P; Chernew, Michael E
Seven provider organizations in Massachusetts entered the Blue Cross Blue Shield Alternative Quality Contract in 2009, followed by four more organizations in 2010. This contract, based on a global budget and pay-for-performance for achieving certain quality benchmarks, places providers at risk for excessive spending and rewards them for quality, similar to the new Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations in Medicare. We analyzed changes in spending and quality associated with the Alternative Quality Contract and found that the rate of increase in spending slowed compared to control groups, more so in the second year than in the first. Overall, participation in the contract over two years led to savings of 2.8 percent (1.9 percent in year 1 and 3.3 percent in year 2) compared to spending in nonparticipating groups. Savings were accounted for by lower prices achieved through shifting procedures, imaging, and tests to facilities with lower fees, as well as reduced utilization among some groups. Quality of care also improved compared to control organizations, with chronic care management, adult preventive care, and pediatric care within the contracting groups improving more in year 2 than in year 1. These results suggest that global budgets with pay-for-performance can begin to slow underlying growth in medical spending while improving quality of care.
Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Koontz, Lynne; Cornachione, Egan
The National Park Service (NPS) manages the Nation’s most iconic destinations that attract millions of visitors from across the Nation and around the world. Trip-related spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway communities. This economic effects analysis measures how NPS visitor spending cycles through local economies, generating business sales and supporting jobs and income. In 2017, the National Park System received an estimated 331 million recreation visits. Visitors to National Parks spent an estimated \\$18.2 billion in local gateway regions (defined as communities within 60 miles of a park). The contribution of this spending to the national economy was 306 thousand jobs, \\$11.9 billion in labor income, \\$20.3 billion in value added, and \\$35.8 billion in economic output. The lodging sector saw the highest direct contributions with \\$5.5 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. The sector with the next greatest direct contributions was the restaurants and bars sector, with \\$3.7 billion in economic output directly contributed to local gateway economies nationally. Results from the Visitor Spending Effects report series are available online via an interactive tool. Users can view year-by-year trend data and explore current year visitor spending, jobs, labor income, value added, and economic output effects by sector for national, state, and local economies. This interactive tool is available at https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm.
Devine, Joshua W; Trice, Shana; Spridgen, Stacia L; Bacon, Thomas A
Examine trends in U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) outpatient drug spending and utilization between 2002 and 2007. We analyzed pharmacy claims data from the U.S. Military Health System (MHS), using a cross-sectional analysis at the prescription and patient-year level and measuring utilization in 30-day equivalent prescriptions and expenditures in dollars. Pharmaceutical spending more than doubled in DoD, from $3 billion in FY02 to $6.5 billion in FY07. The largest increase occurred in the DoD community pharmacy network, where utilization grew from 6 million 30-day equivalent prescriptions in the first quarter of FY02 to more than 16 million in the last quarter of FY07. The smallest increase in annual spending occurred in FY07 (5.5%), down from a high of 27.5% in FY03. The MHS has experienced rapid growth in pharmaceutical spending since FY02. However, there are signs that growth in pharmaceutical spending may be slowing.
Pollin, Robert; Garrett-Peltier, Heidi
This study focuses on the employment effects of military spending versus alternative domestic spending priorities. The authors begin by introducing the basic input-output modeling technique for considering issues such as these in a systematic way. They then present some simple alternative spending scenarios-namely, devoting $1 billion to the military versus the same amount of money spent for five alternatives: tax cuts that produce increased levels of personal consumption; health care; education; mass transit; and construction targeted at home weatherization and infrastructure repair. The first conclusion in assessing such relative employment effects is straightforward: $1 billion spent on personal consumption, health care, education, mass transit, and construction for home weatherization/infrastructure will all create more jobs in the U.S. economy than would the same $1 billion spent on the military. The authors then examine the pay level of jobs created through these alternative spending priorities and assess the overall welfare effects of the alternative employment outcomes. Combining these alternative domestic spending categories in an effective way can also generate a higher level of compensation for working people in the United States and a better average quality ofjobs.
Full Text Available This article explores the complicated phenomenon of military spending among a sample of eight Western democracies in the interwar period by analyzing especially the possibility of economic and/or military competition between the Western Great Powers and the ensuing impacts on the smaller states included here. The hegemonic paradigm suggested by e.g. Paul Kennedy predicts that the economic leader in a system will increasingly invest on maintaining security; thus eventually bringing economic growth to a halt. The military spending patterns respective of economic growth at first seem to suggest that not only the totalitarian states, as is the traditional view, but also the UK and France stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of American leadership. However, the military expenditures of these nations were too low to warrant the conclusion that they had any impact on their respective economic performance. This result is also verified here by employing Granger non-causality tests between the military spending and economic growth variables. Moreover, regression analysis on the military spending variables for the UK and France points towards competition on the level. The smaller states, respectively, seemed to follow the UK and France fairly closely in their military spending decisions.
McGrady, Meghan E; Peugh, James L; Brown, Gabriella A; Pai, Ahna L H
To examine the relationship between need-based pediatric psychology service use and spending on hospital care among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. Billing data were obtained from 48 AYAs with cancer receiving need-based pediatric psychology services and a comparison cohort of 48 AYAs with cancer not receiving services. A factorial analysis of covariance examined group differences in spending for hospital care. Pending significant findings, a multivariate analysis of covariance was planned to examine the relationship between need-based pediatric psychology service use and spending for inpatient admissions, emergency department (ED) visits, and outpatient visits. Spending for hospital care was higher among AYAs receiving need-based pediatric psychology services than in the comparison cohort (p psychology services. The behavioral and psychosocial difficulties warranting need-based pediatric psychology services may predict higher health care spending. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Netemeyer, Richard G; Heilman, Carrie M; Maxham, James G
Two constructs important to academicians and managers are the degree to which employees and customers identify with an organization, employee organizational identification (employee OI) and customer-company identification (customer identification), respectively. This research examines the effects of these identification constructs and the related construct of customer perceived similarity to employees on customer spending. Via a 1-year multilevel study of 12,047 customers and 1,464 store employees (sales associates) covering 212 stores of a specialty apparel retailer, our study contributes to the literature in 2 critical ways. First, we expand the theoretical network of employee OI and customer identification by examining the related construct of a customer's perceived similarity to store employees. We examine the incremental (not fully mediated) main and interaction effects of customer-perceived similarity to employees and employee OI on customer spending. Second, we examine the effect of customer identification on customer spending relative to the effect of customer satisfaction on customer spending. Thus, our study also contributes by demonstrating a potential complementary route to achieve customer spending (customer identification), a route that may be more readily affected by management than the efforts required for a sustained increase in customer satisfaction. Implications for academics and managers are offered.
Knudsen, Jette Steen; Brown, Dana
Why are national governments increasingly adopting policies on corporate social responsibility (CSR)? Government CSR policies have been explained either as a means of substituting or supporting (mirroring) domestic political-economic institutions and policies, or as a means for government...... to promote international competitiveness of domestic businesses. Both sets of explanations see governments as driving CSR policies to meet particular national government goals. Support is found for the thesis that CSR policies are often related to international competitiveness, yet our findings suggest...... that government goals in this regard are not necessarily pre-defined....
Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk
changes of taxes, government spending components and the retirement age in politico-economic equilibrium. Growth is driven by capital accumulation and productivity increases fueled by public investment. The closed-form solutions of the model predict taxation and the retirement age in OECD economies...... to increase in response to demographic ageing and per-capita growth to accelerate. If the retirement age were held constant, the growth rate in politico-economic equilibrium would essentially remain unchanged, due to a surge of social security transfers and crowding out of public investment.......We analyze the short and long run effects of demographic ageing - increased longevity and reduced fertility - on per-capita growth. The OLG model captures direct effects, working through adjustments in the savings rate, labor supply, and capital deepening, and indirect effects, working through...
Maxim V. Kharkevich
Full Text Available Global governance as a concept defines the meaning of contemporary world politics both as a discipline and as reality. Interdependent and globalized world requires governance, and a global government has not been formed yet. The theoretical possibility of global governance without global government is proved and justified. The purpose of this article is to analytically identify possible forms of global governance. Three such forms of global governance are identified: hierarchical, market and network. In a hierarchy the governance is due to the asymmetry of power between the parties. Market control happens via anonymous pricing mechanism. Network, in contrast to the market is characterized by a closer value link between the actors, but unlike the hierarchical relationship actors are free to leave the network. Global governance takes three forms and is being implemented by different actors. To determine the most efficient form of global governance is impossible. Efficiency depends on the match between a form and an object of government. It should be noted that meta governance is likely to remain a monopoly of institutionally strong states in global governance.
King, Dominic; Greaves, Felix; Vlaev, Ivo; Darzi, Ara
Policies that change the environment or context in which decisions are made and "nudge" people toward particular choices have been relatively ignored in health care. This article examines the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in "nudging" providers and patients in ways that could slow health care spending growth. The basic insight of behavioral economics is that behavior is guided by the very fallible human brain and greatly influenced by the environment or context in which choices are made. In policy arenas such as pensions and personal savings, approaches based on behavioral economics have provided notable results. In health care, such approaches have been used successfully but in limited ways, as in the use of surgical checklists that have increased patient safety and reduced costs. With health care spending climbing at unsustainable rates, we review the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in offering policy makers a potential set of new tools to slow spending growth.
Joyce, Nina R; Huskamp, Haiden A; Hadland, Scott E; Donohue, Julie M; Greenfield, Shelly F; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Barry, Colleen L
In 2009, Blue Cross-Blue Shield of Massachusetts (BCBSMA) implemented the alternative quality contract (AQC), which pays provider organizations a global payment for all services used by enrollees. BCBSMA claims for 2006-2011 were used to compare youths enrolled in provider organizations participating in the AQC (7,407 person-years [PYs]) with those not participating (45,398 PYs). Difference-in-differences models estimated changes in mental health and substance abuse treatment service utilization and spending attributable to the AQC. The AQC was associated with small increases in the probability of any outpatient visits and in the probability and number of medication management visits among children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Spending did not change, and there was no evidence of reductions in service utilization or spending for children with ADHD in the first three years of AQC implementation.
Golec, Joseph; Vernon, John A
EU countries closely regulate pharmaceutical prices, whereas the US does not. This paper shows how price constraints affect the profitability, stock returns and R&D spending of EU and US firms. Compared with EU firms, US firms are more profitable, earn higher stock returns and spend more on R&D. We tested the relationship between price regulation and R&D spending, and estimated the costs of tight EU price regulation. Although results show that EU consumers enjoyed much lower pharmaceutical price inflation, we estimated that price controls cost EU firms 46 fewer new medicines and 1680 fewer research jobs during our 19-year sample period. Had the US used controls similar to those used in the EU, we estimate it would have led to 117 fewer new medicines and 4368 fewer research jobs in the US.
Full Text Available According to theory, educational goods and services have an important impact on a child’s human capital. Although the majority of educational services in Poland are delivered within a public education system, various educational costs are borne by parents. This paper looks at the socio-economic determinants of private spending on education, including fees, private tutoring and courses, educational goods and materials, and the internet. The analysis was performed using the Polish Household Budget Survey for 2009 and 2010. Results from a logit regression suggest that disposable household income per capita and parental level of education, especially mother’s level of education have the greatest impact on spending on educational goods and services. This was true for all analysed categories of expenditure. Regional disparities and community size were an important factor especially with regards to spending on private tutoring and additional courses.
Lee, David W; Duszak, Richard; Hughes, Danny R
The purpose of this study was to assess trends in Medicare spending growth for medical imaging relative to other services and the Deficit Reduction Act (DRA). We calculated per-beneficiary Part B Medicare medical imaging expenditures for three-digit Berenson-Eggers Type of Service (BETOS) categories using Physician Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files for 32 million beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. We adjusted BETOS categories to address changes in coding and payment policy and excluded categories with 2011 aggregate spending less than $500 million. We computed and ranked compound annual growth rates over three periods: pre-DRA (2000-2005), DRA transition period (2005-2007), and post-DRA (2007-2011). Forty-four modified BETOS categories fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Between 2000 and 2006, Medicare outlays for nonimaging services grew by 6.8% versus 12.0% for imaging services. In the ensuing 5 years, annual growth in spending for nonimaging continued at 3.6% versus a decline of 3.5% for imaging. Spending growth for all services during the pre-DRA, DRA, and post-DRA periods were 7.8%, 3.8%, and 2.9 compared with 15.0%, -3.4%, and -2.2% for advanced imaging services. Advanced imaging was among the fastest growing categories of Medicare services in the early 2000s but was in the bottom 2% of spending categories in 2011. Between 2007 and 2011, the fastest growing service categories were evaluation and management services with other specialists (29.1%), nursing home visits (11.2%), anesthesia (9.1%), and other ambulatory procedures (9.0%). Slowing volume growth and massive Medicare payment cuts have left medical imaging near the bottom of all service categories contributing to growth in Medicare spending.
Campbell, John L.
There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies.......There is a vast literature about the relationships between government and business in advanced capitalist societies....
This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T
Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how de...
Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.
Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.
Bălăceanu Cristina; Predonu Andreea – Monica
Corporate governance reforms are occurring in countries around the globe and potentially impacting the population of the entire planet. In developing countries, such reforms occur in a larger context that is primarily defined by previous attempts at promoting “development” and recent processes of economic globalization. In this context, corporate governance reforms (in combination with the liberalising reforms associated with economic globalization), in effect re...
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between defense expentures, income inequality and growth in Turkey for the period of 1970-2008. In the study, the problem of lack of time series data has been overcome by using manufacturing pay inequality index constructed by Theil T Statistic. Although there are numerous studies that examine the different aspects of military spending in Turkey, there are few studies that analyse the impact of military spending on income distribution in Turkey. Considering this lack in the literature, the study, utilizing basic cointegration and VAR model, aims to contribute to the literaure
Full Text Available This paper investigates the nexus between economic growth and defense spending for three adjacent countries, namely Greece, Turkey and Cyprus. Greece and Cyprus, members-countries of European Union spend much more money than other member countries of EU relatively to their GDP. Turkey is in accession negotiations with EU and is among the top 15 countries with the highest military expenditure. These three countries are particularly interesting case studies because of their high military burdens and the bad relations between them (Greece and Cyprus opposite Turkey. The empirical analysis is based on panel data analysis of data over the period 1960 – 2006.
Thomas, Kali S; Keohane, Laura; Mor, Vincent
We used fixed-effect models to examine the relationship between local spending on home- and community-based services (HCBSs) for cash-assisted Medicaid-only disabled (CAMOD) adults and younger adult admissions to nursing homes in the United States during 2001 through 2008, with control for facility and market characteristics and secular trends. We found that increased CAMOD Medicaid HCBS spending at the local level is associated with decreased admissions of younger adults to nursing homes. Our findings suggest that states' efforts to expand HCBS for this population should continue.
Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Poisal, John A; Keehan, Sean P; Smith, Sheila D; Madison, Andrew J; Wolfe, Christian J; Hardesty, James C
Under current law, national health spending is projected to grow 5.5 percent annually on average in 2017-26 and to represent 19.7 percent of the economy in 2026. Projected national health spending and enrollment growth over the next decade is largely driven by fundamental economic and demographic factors: changes in projected income growth, increases in prices for medical goods and services, and enrollment shifts from private health insurance to Medicare that are related to the aging of the population. The recent enactment of tax legislation that eliminated the individual mandate is expected to result in only a small reduction to insurance coverage trends.
James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Solon, Orville; Quimbo, Stella; Hanson, Kara
Physicians' links with pharmacies may create perverse financial incentives to overprescribe, prescribe products with higher profit margins, and direct patients to their pharmacy. Interviews with pharmacy customers in the Philippines show that those who use pharmacies linked to public-sector physicians had 5.4 greater odds of having a prescription from such physicians and spent 49.3 percent more than customers using other pharmacies. For customers purchasing brand-name medicines, switching to generics would reduce drug spending by 58 percent. Controlling out-of-pocket spending on drugs requires policies to control financial links between doctors and pharmacies, as well as tighter regulation of nongeneric prescribing.
Foss, Nicolai J.
with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge......An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...
G. van der Walt
Full Text Available Some form of accountability and power structure binds all organisations. Such structures are typically referred to as the “governance” structure of the organisation. In organisations that have relatively mature project applications and methodologies in place, governance mechanisms are established on more permanent bases. With its focus on performance, results and outcomes, project governance establishes decision-making structures, as well as accountability and responsibility mechanisms in public institutions to oversee projects. As government institutions increasingly place emphasis on project applications for policy implementation and service delivery initiatives, mechanisms or structures should be established to facilitate clear interfaces between the permanent organisation and the temporary project organisation. Such mechanisms or structures should enhance the governance of projects, that is, the strategic alignment of projects, the decentralisation of decision- making powers, rapid resource allocation, and the participation of external stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to explore the concept “project governance”, and to highlight examples of project governance as applied in selected government departments in provincial and national spheres. This would enable the establishment of best practice examples and assist to develop benchmarks for effective project applications for service delivery improvement.
Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...
Competing claims are made about the amount of money that pharmaceutical companies spend on research and development (R&D) versus promotion. This study investigates this question in the Canadian context. Two methods for determining industry-wide figures for spending on promotion were employed. First, total industry spending on detailing and journal advertising for 2013-2016 was abstracted from reports from QuintilesIMS. Second, the mean total promotion spending for the years 2002-2005 was used to estimate total spending for 2013-2016. Total industry spending on R&D came from the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (PMPRB). R&D to promotion spending using each method of determining the amount spent on promotion was compared for 2013-2016 inclusive. Data on the 50 top promoted drugs, the amounts spent, the companies marketing these products and their overall sales were abstracted from the QuintilesIMS reports. Spending on R&D and promotion as a percent of sales was compared for these companies. Industry wide, the ratio of R&D to promotion spending went from 1.43 to 2.18 when promotion was defined as the amount spent on detailing and journal advertising for the 50 most promoted drugs. Calculating total promotion spending from the mean of the 2002-2005 figures the ratio was 0.88 to 1.32 for the 50 most promoted drugs. For individual companies marketing one or more of the 50 most promoted drugs, mean R&D spending ranged from 3.7% of sales to 4.1% compared to mean promotion spending that went from 1.7 to 1.9%. The ratio of spending on R&D to promotion varied from 2.11 to 2.32. Eight to 10 companies per year spent more on promotion than on R&D. Depending on the method used to determine promotion spending, industry-wide the ratio of R&D spending to promotion ranges from 1.45 to 2.18 (sales representatives and journal advertising only) or from 0.88 to 1.32 (total promotion spending estimated based 2003-2005 data.) For the individual companies promoting one or more of the
The Danish government has defined an ambitious e-government strategy aiming to increase both citizen centricity and the efficiency of government service production and delivery. This research uses dynamic capability theory to compare a highly successful and a less successful e-government program...... both aiming at realizing this strategy by reengineering back office processes and implement one-stop shopping. The research contributes to the e-government literature by identifying key differences between the two cases in terms of dynamic capabilities, by identifying the importance...
Carlos E. Quintero Castellanos
Full Text Available The objective of this essay is to propose a way to link the theoretical body that has been weaved around governance and organizational theory. For this, a critical exposition is done about what is the theoretical core of governance, the opportunity areas are identified for the link of this theory with organizational theory. The essay concludes with a proposal for the organizational analysis of administrations in governance. The essay addresses with five sections. The first one is the introduction. In the second one, I present a synthesis of the governance in its current use. In the next one are presented the work lines of the good governance. In the fourth part, I show the organizational and managerial limits in the governance theory. The last part develops the harmonization proposal for the governance and organizational theories.
of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...
Full Text Available The tax reform proposed by the Lula government in 2003, quickly approved by Congress, remained at the limits of the proposals of the previous government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso and his Social Democratic party (PSDB, inspired by neoliberal ideology. The small advances in reducing regressivity, such as exemptions for basic consumer products, have not altered the role of the tax structure in the concentration of wealth, with a predominance of indirect taxes and their regressive effects. Taxation has deserved little attention in the broad debate about social policies in Brazil, which concentrates on the allocation of public expenses and the efficiency of spending, without proper attention to the role of the tax structure in the concentration of income and wealth in the country. The article presents the regressive profile of the Brazilian tax structure, preserved by the reform of 2003 and discusses the neoliberal agenda that guides the initiatives of the Lula government in this field.
Lenzen, Manfred; Dey, Christopher J.
The impacts of selected spending options in the Australian economy are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and a range of economic parameters. Six case studies of one current-practice and one alternative, environmentally motivated spending option are carried out, describing consumer choices, technologies and government outlays. The assessment method is based on input-output theory and, as such, enables both the direct and indirect effects of spending to be quantified. In general, the results indicate that pro-environmental objectives, such as reductions in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, are compatible with broad socio-economic benefits, such as increases in employment and income, and reductions in imports
Tuli, K.; Mukherjee, A.; Dekimpe, M.G.
In response to recent calls to study factors that determine a retailer's stock price, this study draws on signaling theory to examine the impact of two key marketing metrics that are widely disclosed by retailers to investors, advertising spending and growth in same-store sales (COMPS), and
Espírito Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do; Fernando, Virgínia Conceição Nascimento; Bezerra, Adriana Falangola Benjamin
In order to assess the impact of macro-political measures implemented in the latter half of the 1990s on the increase in public spending on health and the possible reduction in allocation inequity, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was carried out involving 184 municipalities in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data from the Public Health Budget Information System was used, with the selected indicator being spending on health per inhabitant under the responsibility of the municipality. The correlations of this variable with the municipal Human Development Index, population size and value of the municipal budget per capita were analyzed. It was seen that, although the mean increase in municipal spending on health is 190.76%, the value per capita has remained relatively low - at around R$183.79 - which is below the national and macro-regional averages. Both spending on health per capita and growth percentages are distributed irregularly among health regions as well as among municipalities within a single region. In conclusion, there is marked allocation inequity among municipalities with regard to the distribution of public resources for health, despite the macro-political measures adopted to reduce this inequity.
... issue to be a refunding issue. (4) De minimis rule. Any failure to satisfy the final spending... to land, such as buildings or other inherently permanent structures, including interests in real.... Except as otherwise provided, construction expenditures means capital expenditures (as defined in § 1.150...
van Ittersum, Koert; Pennings, Joost M. E.; Wansink, Brian
Although almost one in three U.S. households shops on a budget, it remains unclear whether and how shoppers track their in-store spending to stay within those budgets. A field study and two laboratory studies offer four key generalizations about budget shoppers in grocery stores: (1) They
Ittersum, van K.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.
Although almost one in three U.S. households shops on a budget, it remains unclear whether and how shoppers track their in-store spending to stay within those budgets. A field study and two laboratory studies offer four key generalizations about budget shoppers in grocery stores: (1) They
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of refugees who spend down to State... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Medical Assistance Conditions of Eligibility for...
Hudson, Jerry C.; Saathoff, Roger C.
A pilot study examined how newspaper advertising sales managers in five southwestern states spend their time during a typical work day. Of the 360 questionnaires mailed, 176 responses were received. The largest number of responses (93) came from retail sales managers of newspapers in markets with less than 50,000 population. The questionnaire…
Lie, Celia; Hunt, Maree; Peters, Heather L.; Veliu, Bahrie; Harper, David
The "credit card effect" describes a finding where greater value is given to consumer items if credit card logos are present. One explanation for the effect is that credit cards elicit spending behavior through associative learning. If this is true, social, economic and historical contexts should alter this effect. In Experiment 1, Year…
Vandenbroucke, F.; Diris, R.; Cantillon, B.; Vandenbroucke, F.
As a first step stylized facts are presented concerning at-risk-of-poverty rates for the non-elderly population, household employment (a concept introduced in this chapter) and social spending in European welfare states. The chapter provides a first exploration of a central theme of the book, which
Parish, Susan L.; Thomas, Kathleen C.; Rose, Roderick; Kilany, Mona; Shattuck, Paul T.
We examined the association between state Medicaid spending for children with disabilities and the financial burden reported by families of children with autism. Child and family data were from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (n = 2,011 insured children with autism). State characteristics were from public…
Glady, N.; Lemmens, A.; Croux, C.
The customer lifetime value combines into one construct the transaction timing, spending and dropout processes that characterize the purchase behavior of customers. Recently, the potential relationship between these processes, either at the individual customer level (i.e. intra-customer correlation)
Stewart, Susan D.
Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)
Janssen, Heleen J.; Dekovic, Maja; Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.
Although there has been increasing interest in explaining adolescents' crime involvement by the time adolescents spend in criminogenic settings, little is known about its determinants. We examine the extent to which (change in) parenting is related to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings.
Baker, Laurence C; Bundorf, M Kate; Kessler, Daniel P
We examined the consequences of contractual or ownership relationships between hospitals and physician practices, often described as vertical integration. Such integration can reduce health spending and increase the quality of care by improving communication across care settings, but it can also increase providers' market power and facilitate the payment of what are effectively kickbacks for inappropriate referrals. We investigated the impact of vertical integration on hospital prices, volumes (admissions), and spending for privately insured patients. Using hospital claims from Truven Analytics MarketScan for the nonelderly privately insured in the period 2001-07, we constructed county-level indices of prices, volumes, and spending and adjusted them for enrollees' age and sex. We measured hospital-physician integration using information from the American Hospital Association on the types of relationships hospitals have with physicians. We found that an increase in the market share of hospitals with the tightest vertically integrated relationship with physicians--ownership of physician practices--was associated with higher hospital prices and spending. We found that an increase in contractual integration reduced the frequency of hospital admissions, but this effect was relatively small. Taken together, our results provide a mixed, although somewhat negative, picture of vertical integration from the perspective of the privately insured.
Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane
This paper deals with the time students spend working at home for school. In Study 1, we investigated amount and regulation of time. Study 2 serves to validate the results of Study 1 and, in addition, investigates the duration of the time units students used and their relation to scholastic success. In Study 1, the participants were 332 students…
Gijsbrechts, Els; Campo, K.; Vroegrijk, M.J.J.
An increasing number of consumers have come to patronize a hard discounter (HD) to save on their grocery budget. Given the HDs' rock-bottom prices, a complete switch from the traditional supermarket (TS) to the HD format would, indeed, substantially reduce grocery spending. However, consumers
Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger; Chen, Song
To compare pharmaceutical spending and utilization in a consumer driven health plan (CDHP) with a three-tier pharmacy benefit design, and to examine whether the CDHP creates incentives to reduce pharmaceutical spending and utilization for chronically ill patients, generic or brand name drugs, and mail-order drugs. Retrospective insurance claims analysis from a large employer that introduced a CDHP in 2001 in addition to a point of service (POS) plan and a preferred provider organization (PPO), both of which used a three-tier pharmacy benefit. Difference-in-differences regression models were estimated for drug spending and utilization. Control variables included the employee's income, age, and gender, number of covered lives per contract, election of flexible spending account, health status, concurrent health shock, cohort, and time trend. Results. CDHP pharmaceutical expenditures were lower than those in the POS cohort in 1 year without differences in the use of brand name drugs. We find limited evidence of less drug consumption by CDHP enrollees with chronic illnesses, and some evidence of less generic drug use and more mail-order drug use among CDHP members. The CDHP is cost-neutral or cost-saving to both the employer and the employee compared with three-tier benefits with no differences in brand name drug use. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Adkins, Cheryl L.; Premeaux, Sonya F.
Scholars have long assumed that as workers spend more time at work fewer hours are available for their non-work lives leading to negative effects in both domains, and most studies examining the impact of work hours on work and life domains have supported this viewpoint. However, the majority of these studies have used one-dimensional measures of…
Gross, D J; Alecxih, L; Gibson, M J; Corea, J; Caplan, C; Brangan, N
To estimate out-of-pocket health care spending by lower-income Medicare beneficiaries, and to examine spending variations between those who receive Medicaid assistance and those who do not receive such aid. DATA SOURCES AND COLLECTION: 1993 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) Cost and Use files, supplemented with data from the Bureau of the Census (Current Population Survey); the Congressional Budget Office; the Health Care Financing Administration, Office of the Actuary (National Health Accounts); and the Social Security Administration. We analyzed out-of-pocket spending through a Medicare Benefits Simulation model, which projects out-of-pocket health care spending from the 1993 MCBS to 1997. Out-of-pocket health care spending is defined to include Medicare deductibles and coinsurance; premiums for private insurance, Medicare Part B, and Medicare HMOs; payments for non-covered goods and services; and balance billing by physicians. It excludes the costs of home care and nursing facility services, as well as indirect tax payments toward health care financing. Almost 60 percent of beneficiaries with incomes below the poverty level did not receive Medicaid assistance in 1997. We estimate that these beneficiaries spent, on average, about half their income out-of-pocket for health care, whether they were enrolled in a Medicare HMO or in the traditional fee-for-service program. The 75 percent of beneficiaries with incomes between 100 and 125 percent of the poverty level who were not enrolled in Medicaid spent an estimated 30 percent of their income out-of-pocket on health care if they were in the traditional program and about 23 percent of their income if they were enrolled in a Medicare HMO. Average out-of-pocket spending among fee-for-service beneficiaries varied depending on whether beneficiaries had Medigap policies, employer-provided supplemental insurance, or no supplemental coverage. Those without supplemental coverage spent more on health care goods and
To investigate government state and local spending on public goods and income inequality as predictors of the risks of dying. Data on 431,637 adults aged 30-74 and 375,354 adults aged 20-44 in the 48 contiguous US states were used from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study to estimate the impacts of state and local spending and income inequality on individual risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for leading causes of death in younger and middle-aged adults and older adults. To reduce bias, models incorporated state fixed effects and instrumental variables. Each additional $250 per capita per year spent on welfare predicted a 3-percentage point (-0.031, 95% CI: -0.059, -0.0027) lower probability of dying from any cause. Each additional $250 per capita spent on welfare and education predicted 1.6-percentage point (-0.016, 95% CI: -0.031, -0.0011) and 0.8-percentage point (-0.008, 95% CI: -0.0156, -0.00024) lower probabilities of dying from coronary heart disease (CHD), respectively. No associations were found for colon cancer or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; for diabetes, external injury, and suicide, estimates were inverse but modest in magnitude. A 0.1 higher Gini coefficient (higher income inequality) predicted 1-percentage point (0.010, 95% CI: 0.0026, 0.0180) and 0.2-percentage point (0.002, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.002) higher probabilities of dying from CHD and suicide, respectively. Empirical linkages were identified between state-level spending on welfare and education and lower individual risks of dying, particularly from CHD and all causes combined. State-level income inequality predicted higher risks of dying from CHD and suicide. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Luminiţa Maria Crăciun
Full Text Available Governance and governing are two distinct concepts, but they intertwine. “Good governing” exercises good influence on development. “Good governance” supposes first a relationship of power focused on a series of reforms structured at three levels: the political – administrative level, the economic level, and the level of civil society. As this dimension is difficult to measure, the qualitative evaluation of the governing act raised the interest of the World Bank researchers, who elaborated and monitored the dynamics of a set of indicators, which includes six major dimensions of the governing. A retrospective concerning the image of governing in Romania during the period from 1996 to 2005 suggests a modest increase of the score: from -0.138 (1996 to 0.008 (2002; that was partially achieved based on the voice and responsibility index and on the political stability index, not on those that measure more directly the administrative performance or the integrity of the governing act. For a comparative study, we chose seven countries for the purposes of analysis (two new European Union member states: Romania and Bulgaria; two older member countries of the European Union: Slovenia and Latvia; three non-member states: Moldova, Ukraine, and Georgia, which reveal the quality of the governing from a comparative perspective. Corruption control completes the image created by the analyzed indicators. The mere formal accomplishment of commitments made in the pre-accession activity, doubled by recent internal evolutions, bring doubts about the credibility of the anticorruption reforms, as Romania continues to be considered the country with the highest CPI in the European Union. The pessimism of public opinion and the fact that only 34% of the Romanian people consider that the level of corruption will decrease in the following three years constitutes an alarm signal addressed to the governance, in view of the real reformation of the administration system
McWilliams, J Michael; Landon, Bruce E; Chernew, Michael E
In a multipayer system, new payment incentives implemented by one insurer for an accountable care organization (ACO) may also affect spending and quality of care for another insurer's enrollees served by the ACO. Such spillover effects reflect the extent of organizational efforts to reform care delivery and can contribute to the net impact of ACOs. We examined whether the Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) of Massachusetts' Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), an early commercial ACO initiative associated with reduced spending and improved quality for BCBS enrollees, was also associated with changes in spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries, who were not covered by the AQC. Quasi-experimental comparisons from 2007-2010 of elderly fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries in Massachusetts (1,761,325 person-years) served by 11 provider organizations entering the AQC in 2009 or 2010 (intervention group) vs beneficiaries served by other providers (control group). Using a difference-in-differences approach, we estimated changes in spending and quality for the intervention group in the first and second years of exposure to the AQC relative to concurrent changes for the control group. Regression and propensity score methods were used to adjust for differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The primary outcome was total quarterly medical spending per beneficiary. Secondary outcomes included spending by setting and type of service, 5 process measures of quality, potentially avoidable hospitalizations, and 30-day readmissions. Before entering the AQC, total quarterly spending per beneficiary for the intervention group was $150 (95% CI, $25-$274) higher than for the control group and increased at a similar rate. In year 2 of the intervention group's exposure to the AQC, this difference was reduced to $51 (95% CI, -$109 to $210; P = .53), constituting a significant differential change of -$99 (95% CI, -$183 to -$16; P = .02) or a 3.4% savings
Rahman, Farah; Guan, Jun; Glazier, Richard H.; Brown, Adalsteinn; Bierman, Arlene S.; Croxford, Ruth; Stukel, Therese A.
One of the more fundamental health policy questions is the relationship between health care quality and spending. A better understanding of these relationships is needed to inform health systems interventions aimed at increasing quality and efficiency of care. We measured 65 validated quality indicators (QI) across Ontario physician networks. QIs were aggregated into domains representing six dimensions of care: screening and prevention, evidence-based medications, hospital-community transitions (7-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician; 30-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician and specialist), potentially avoidable hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits, potentially avoidable readmissions and unplanned returns to the ED, and poor cancer end of life care. Each domain rate was computed as a weighted average of QI rates, weighting by network population at risk. We also measured overall and sector-specific per capita healthcare network spending. We evaluated the associations between domain rates, and between domain rates and spending using weighted correlations, weighting by network population at risk, using an ecological design. All indicators were measured using Ontario health administrative databases. Large variations were seen in timely hospital-community transitions and potentially avoidable hospitalizations. Networks with timely hospital-community transitions had lower rates of avoidable admissions and readmissions (r = -0.89, -0.58, respectively). Higher physician spending, especially outpatient primary care spending, was associated with lower rates of avoidable hospitalizations (r = -0.83) and higher rates of timely hospital-community transitions (r = 0.81) and moderately associated with lower readmission rates (r = -0.46). Investment in effective primary care services may help reduce burden on the acute care sector and associated expenditures. PMID:29614131
Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.
Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084
Fronstin, Paul; Roebuck, M Christopher
This paper analyzes data from a large employer that enhanced financial incentives to encourage participation in its workplace wellness programs. It examines, first, the effect of financial incentives on wellness program participation, and second, it estimates the impact of wellness program participation on utilization of health care services and spending. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) allows employers to provide financial incentives of as much as 30 percent of the total cost of coverage when tied to participation in a wellness program. Participation in health risk assessments (HRAs) increased by 50 percentage points among members of unions that bargained in the incentive, and increased 22 percentage points among non-union employees. Participation in the biometric screening program increased 55 percentage points when financial incentives were provided. Biometric screenings led to an average increase of 0.31 annual prescription drug fills, with related spending higher by $56 per member per year. Otherwise, no significant effects of participation in HRAs or biometric screenings on utilization of health care services and spending were found. The largest increase in medication utilization as a result of biometric screening was for statins, which are widely used to treat high cholesterol. This therapeutic class accounted for one-sixth of the overall increase in prescription drug utilization. Second were antidepressants, followed by ACE inhibitors (for hypertension), and thyroid hormones (for hypothyroidism). Biometric screening also led to significantly higher utilization of biologic response modifiers and immunosuppressants. These specialty medications are used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, and are relatively expensive compared with non-specialty medications. The added spending associated with the combined increase in fills of 0.02 was $27 per member per year--about one-half of the
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael
The past few decades have been marked by a bold increase in national health spending across the globe. Rather successful health reforms in leading emerging markets such as BRICS reveal a reshaping of their medical care-related expenditures. There is a scarcity of evidence explaining differences in long-term medical spending patterns between top ranked G7 traditional welfare economies and the BRICS nations. A retrospective observational study was conducted on a longitudinal WHO Global Health Expenditure data-set based on the National Health Accounts (NHA) system. Data were presented in a simple descriptive manner, pointing out health expenditure dynamics and differences between the two country groups (BRICS and G7) and individual nations in a 1995-2013 time horizon. Average total per capita health spending still remains substantially higher among G7 (4747 Purchase Power Parity (PPP) $PPP in 2013) compared to the BRICS (1004 $PPP in 2013) nations. The percentage point share of G7 in global health expenditure (million current PPP international $US) has been falling constantly since 1995 (from 65% in 1995 to 53.2% in 2013), while in BRICS nations it grew (from 10.7% in 1995 to 20.2% in 2013). Chinese national level medical spending exceeded significantly that of all G7 members except the US in terms of current $PPP in 2013. Within a limited time horizon of only 19 years it appears that the share of global medical spending by the leading emerging markets has been growing steadily. Simultaneously, the world's richest countries' global share has been falling constantly, although it continues to dominate the landscape. If the contemporary global economic mainstream continues, the BRICS per capita will most likely reach or exceed the OECD average in future decades. Rising out-of-pocket expenses threatening affordability of medical care to poor citizens among the BRICS nations and a too low percentage of GDP in India remain the most notable setbacks of these developments.
Thomas A. Garrett; Russell M. Rhine
Statistics on the size and growth of the U.S. federal government, along with the rhetoric of President Franklin Roosevelt, seem to indicate that the Great Depression was the event that started the dramatic growth in government spending and intervention in the private sector that has continued to the present day. Through a comparison of the economic conditions of the 1890s and the 1930s, we argue that post-1930 government growth in the United States is not the direct result of the Great Depres...
Lewis, Jenny M; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Klijn, Erik Hans
Innovation has become an important focus for governments around the world over the last decade, with greater pressure on governments to do more with less, and expanding community expectations. Some are now calling this ‘social innovation’ – innovation that is related to creating new services...... that have value for stakeholders (such as citizens) in terms of the social and political outcomes they produce. Innovation in City Governments: Structures, Networks, and Leadership establishes an analytical framework of innovation capacity based on three dimensions: Structure - national governance...... project in Copenhagen, Barcelona and Rotterdam. The book provides major new insights on how structures, networks and leadership in city governments shape the social innovation capacity of cities. It provides ground-breaking analyses of how governance structures and local socio-economic challenges...
Joerges, Christian; Sand, Inger-Johanne; Teubner, Gunther
of democratic governance. The book refers to this term as a yardstick to which then contributors feel committed even where they plead for a reconceptualisation of constitutionalism or a discussion of its functional equivalents. 'Transnational governance' is neither public nor private, nor purely international......The term transnational governance designates untraditional types of international and regional collaboration among both public and private actors. These legally-structured or less formal arrangements link economic, scientific and technological spheres with political and legal processes...
Schrøter Joensen, Juanna; Weihe, Guðrið
This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries le...
An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....
This handbook has been written to assist EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish effective EE governance structures for their country. The handbook provides readers with relevant information in an accessible format that will help develop comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. For each of the specific topics dealt with (see Figure 1 in the Handbook), the IEA offers guidelines for addressing issues, or directs readers to examples of how such issues have been dealt with by specific countries.
Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Sørensen, Ditte-Lene
Good governance is a broad concept used by many international organizations to spell out how states or countries should be governed. Definitions vary, but there is a clear core of common public values, such as transparency, accountability, effectiveness, and the rule of law. It is quite likely......, transparency, neutrality, impartiality, effectiveness, accountability, and legality. The normative context of public administration, as expressed in codes, seems to ignore the New Public Management and Reinventing Government reform movements....
Hsu, John; Price, Mary; Vogeli, Christine; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G
Accountable care organizations (ACOs) appear to lower medical spending, but there is little information on how they do so. We examined the impact of patient participation in a Pioneer ACO and its care management program on rates of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations and on Medicare spending. We used data for the period 2009-14, exploiting naturally staggered program entry to create concurrent controls to help isolate the program effects. The care management program (the ACO's primary intervention) targeted beneficiaries with elevated but modifiable risks for future spending. ACO participation had a modest effect on spending, in line with previous estimates. Participation in the care management program was associated with substantial reductions in rates for hospitalizations and both all and nonemergency ED visits, as well as Medicare spending, when compared to preparticipation levels and to rates and spending for a concurrent sample of beneficiaries who were eligible for but had not yet started the program. Rates of ED visits and hospitalizations were reduced by 6 percent and 8 percent, respectively, and Medicare spending was reduced by 6 percent. Targeting beneficiaries with modifiable high risks and shifting care away from the ED represent viable mechanisms for altering spending within ACOs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 2015
The Social Spending Innovation Research (SSIR) proposal seeks to replicate, in social spending, the great success of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in technology development. The SBIR program funds technology development by entrepreneurial small companies. The program has spawned breakthrough technologies in diverse areas…
Bradley, Elizabeth H; Canavan, Maureen; Rogan, Erika; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Ndumele, Chima; Taylor, Lauren; Curry, Leslie A
Although spending rates on health care and social services vary substantially across the states, little is known about the possible association between variation in state-level health outcomes and the allocation of state spending between health care and social services. To estimate that association, we used state-level repeated measures multivariable modeling for the period 2000-09, with region and time fixed effects adjusted for total spending and state demographic and economic characteristics and with one- and two-year lags. We found that states with a higher ratio of social to health spending (calculated as the sum of social service spending and public health spending divided by the sum of Medicare spending and Medicaid spending) had significantly better subsequent health outcomes for the following seven measures: adult obesity; asthma; mentally unhealthy days; days with activity limitations; and mortality rates for lung cancer, acute myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes. Our study suggests that broadening the debate beyond what should be spent on health care to include what should be invested in health-not only in health care but also in social services and public health-is warranted. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Borch, Casey; Wallace, Michael
Using growth curve modeling techniques, this research investigates whether military spending improved or worsened the economic well-being of citizens within the American states during the post-Vietnam War period. We empirically test the military Keynesianism claim that military spending improves the economic conditions of citizens through its use…
Ozturan, P.; Oszomer, A.; Pieters, R.
The authors investigate the role of market orientation in advertising spending during economic contraction. They use the 2001 economic collapse in Turkey as the empirical context in which to test hypotheses regarding why some firms increase their advertising spending in a contraction period while
Ozturan, P.; Ozsomer, A.; Pieters, F.G.M.
The authors investigate the role of market orientation in advertising spending during economic contraction. They use the 2001 economic collapse in Turkey as the empirical context in which to test hypotheses regarding why some firms increase their advertising spending in a contraction period while
French, E.; Klein, Tobias; a., e.
Although end-of-life medical spending is often viewed as a major component of aggregate medical expenditure, accurate measures of this type of medical spending are scarce. We used detailed health care data for the period 2009–11 from Denmark, England, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Taiwan,
Full Text Available El desplazamiento del término moderno de gobierno por el postmoderno de gobernanza, pone de manifiesto un nuevo lenguaje postmoderno en el que se deja entrever que ambas nociones, gobierno y gobernanza, tienden a oponerse. La gobernanza corporativa designa la toma del poder del capitalismo financiero sobre el capitalismo industrial, que no es otra cosa que, por un lado, propender por la rentabilidad máxima para los accionistas, valorizar todo en el mercado sin consideraciones morales, obligar a los actores a la búsqueda de riesgo permanente y flexibilizar las relaciones jerárquicas en la Administración de la empresa; y por el otro, la marginación de la clase obrera. La gobernanza ha llegado a los asuntos políticos convirtiéndose en modelo de gestión pública por excelencia, ella trata que el gobierno reducido a su mínima expresión guie a una sociedad civil que adquiere un papel importante en la creación y seguimiento de las diferentes políticas, es decir, que el gobierno adquiere una forma flexible de regulación, es allá donde la gobernanza política nos conduce, a la supuesta autorregulación de los intereses privados que sumados pasan a configurar el interés general. En realidad se trata de una nueva forma de dominación marcada por un desvanecimiento político, donde la sociedad civil juega en contra del Estado. La gobernanza le está tendiendo una temible trampa a la democracia, en tanto se presenta como una ampliación de la democracia materializada en una mejor participación de la sociedad civil, destruyendo la persona pública que se forma por la unión de todos los otros y convirtiéndola en representante de intereses particulares.The displacement of the modern term of government for the postmodern one of governance, reveals a new postmodern language in which one is left to guess that both notions, government and governance, tend to be opposed. Corporate governance signifies the seizure of power of financial capitalism
Charbit, Claire; Michalun, Varinia
E-government Partnerships across Levels of Government, is an overview of the challenges and approaches to creating a collaborative and cooperative partnership across levels of government for e-government development and implementation.
Weihe, Guri; Joensen, E. Juanna Schröter
This paper examines the role of social capital (trust) vis-à-vis the propensity of a country to be a tax haven. The empirical analysis corroborates that better governed countries have a higher ceteris paribus probability to be tax havens. However, social capital counteracts the effect of governance...... quality. This effect is so strong that the partial effect of governance quality is reversed for countries with the trust index in the top quartile – making these high trust countries less likely to be tax havens – even as governance quality is increased. Thus it is crucial to consider the interaction...
Chen, Christopher T; Li, Ling; Brooks, Gabriel; Hassett, Michael; Schrag, Deborah
To characterize spending patterns for Medicare patients with incident breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer. 2007-2012 data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program linked with Medicare fee-for-service claims. We calculate per-patient monthly and yearly mean and median expenditures, by cancer type, stage at diagnosis, and spending category, over the years of diagnosis and death. Over the year of diagnosis, mean spending was $35,849, $26,295, $55,597, and $63,063 for breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer, respectively. Over the year of death, spending was similar across different cancer types and stage at diagnosis. Characterization of Medicare spending according to clinically meaningful categories may assist development of oncology alternative payment models and cost-effectiveness models. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
There is no doubt that eProcurement technology has turned cumbersome paper-based processes into highly connected online systems. The most basic parameters of eProcurement range from shopping for or sourcing goods, to creating purchase requisitions and getting them approved, to placing orders with suppliers, to receiving invoices--all…
Doran, Christopher M; Shakeshaft, Anthony P; Hall, Wayne; Petrie, Dennis
The purpose of this study was to estimate the revenue gained from consumption of alcohol by adolescents for each beverage type for the year 2005. Secondary analysis of self-reported alcohol use in the 2005 Australian Secondary School Surveys Alcohol and Drug Use. Australia. Over 506,000 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years (29% of all Australian adolescents) consumed approximately 175.69 million standard drinks in 2005. The total revenue generated by the consumption of these beverages was estimated to be $218 million, of which the government received approximately $107 million or 49% in taxation revenue. Total revenue per underage drinker is estimated at $430.84 with revenue increasing with age. Males tend to spend more on spirits and beer while females spend more on pre-mixed spirits. Females aged 12-15 years spend around $121 per year (or 50% of total expenditure) on pre-mixed spirits compared to females aged 16-17 years old that spend around $257 per year (or 62% of total expenditure) on pre-mixed spirits. The Australian government and the alcohol industry receive substantial financial benefit from the sale of alcoholic beverages to under age drinkers.
A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)
textabstract Good governance is not a new concept Ambrogio Lorenzetti made his frescoes on good and bad governance already in the years 1338-1340 They can be viewed in the Palazzo Publicco on one of the most beautiful squares of the world, the Piazza del Campo in Siena, Italy I assume many of you
Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....
Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark.......Three models of cooperation are outlined and their consequences for governance discussed, using case studies of local multisectoral collaboration on labour market related social policy - active social policy - in Denmark....
Denmark has entered global competition by expanding collaboration with European countries, which is profoundly impacting the public sector and school governance. Relations between the state and institutions are transforming from traditional democratic, public-sector models of governance into new forms characterized as corporate and market-driven…
Celik, Tim Holst
on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...
Evert Pommer; Jedid-Jah Jonker
Original title: Profijt van de overheid. Income levels are determined to a considerable extent by the government, which exerts an influence through social security and taxation. The traditional purchasing power tables are a reflection of this. However, the influence of the government goes
In the last half decade, a rising literature has focused on the idea that processes of economic, political and social globalization require analysis in terms of governance at the global level. It is argued in this article that emerging forms of global governance have produced significant challenges to conventional conceptions of international…
Outlines a model process of developing knowledge from within different groups and cultures to allow more equitable participation of all world societies in the definition of global governance. Reviews concepts relevant to education's contributions toward learning and creating democratic global governance. Discusses the educational utility of…
Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil
In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....
Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans
There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national
Provides an overview of Australian Government information resources. Features content from Australian Government agency websites such as the Department of Environment and Energy, Department of Defence, Australian National Maritime Museum, ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, Department of Immigration & Border Protection, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Dept. of Agriculture and Water Resources, Australian Parliament, Australian Treasury, Australian Transport Safety Board, and Australian Parl...
increase transparency and openness. We encourage you to explore other information on our website to learn Defense Search DOD Open Government: Home Open Government @ DoD Transparency Congressional Inquiries IT Dashboard.gov Regulations.gov Challenge.gov Performance.gov ForeignAssistance.gov Transparency
This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation.......This chapter addresses the design and implementation issues of collaborative governance, a public management practice aimed at involving stakeholders in problem-solving and public innovation....
Brobst, Jan; Council, Chip
The discussion in this article is intended to provide an examination of why top management, IT management, and internal auditors should be interested in IT governance. Some aspects of IT management will be described including implementation, auditing, availability, security, and alignment. One governance framework, COBIT, will be utilized as a…
This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...
Deegan, William L.; And Others
The success of student government activities on any campus is significantly affected by the amount of student participation permitted in the institution's decision-making processes. The traditional" model of government--characterized by tokenism--often results in the separate jurisdictions" model-- characterized by fragmentation and interest…
Huitema, Dave; Adger, William Neil; Berkhout, Frans; Massey, Eric; Mazmanian, Daniel; Munaretto, Stefania; Plummer, Ryan; Termeer, Katrien
The governance of climate adaptation involves the collective efforts of multiple societal actors to address problems, or to reap the benefits, associated with impacts of climate change. Governing involves the creation of institutions, rules and organizations, and the selection of normative
du Gay, Paul; Millo, Yuval; Tuck, Penelope
The financialised character of contemporary rationalities of public governance has been the subject of increased attention within a range of disciplinary and interdisciplinary fields. With this paper we propose a particular analytical framework, focused on the notion of 'governance devices', for ...
Fountain, Jane E.
Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agencys readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, manage...
Full Text Available This paper examines the short and long-run relationship between goverment revenues, expenditures, GNP and interest rates for Turkey for the period 1987:1-2003:3, using error correction model (ECM and the augmented vector autoregressive (VAR model developed in Toda-Yamamoto (1995. The results indicate that there is one long-run equilibrium relationship among the four variables, and the causal relationship flows unidirectionally from government revenues to expentitures both in the short and long-run, providing support for the tax-spend theory.The results further reveal that the unidirectional causal impact of revenues on expentitures is significantly negative as hypothesized by Buchanan and Wagner. Thus, higher taxes seem an optimal resolution to the budget deficits in Turkey.
The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.
Full Text Available The public-oriented goals of the open government movement promise increased transparency and accountability of governments, enhanced citizen engagement and participation, improved service delivery, economic development and the stimulation of innovation. In part, these goals are to be achieved by making more and more government information public in reusable formats and under open licences. This paper identifies three broad privacy challenges raised by open government. The first is how to balance privacy with transparency and accountability in the context of “public” personal information. The second challenge flows from the disruption of traditional approaches to privacy based on a collapse of the distinctions between public and private sector actors. The third challenge is that of the potential for open government data—even if anonymized—to contribute to the big data environment in which citizens and their activities are increasingly monitored and profiled.
Riza Noer Arfani
Full Text Available The article explores the notion of understanding governance as part of conflict management, or vice versa, of undustanding conflict management aspects as benefiting from governance concepts and practices. Governance, with its much broader meaning than government, suggests diverse relevant and significant clues, hints and ideas in the context of conflict management endeavors. one of which is the idea to involve larger audiences and stakeholders –beyond the conventional institutions such as governmental bodies– in policy making processes and public discourses. Such comprehension and appreciation of governance concepts and practices is certainly parallel with the conflict management philosophies, concepis and practices which based on and oriented toward integrative, non-formal and non-litigative mechanisms.
Full Text Available The issue of corporate governance has become increasingly important as globalisation has begun to accelerate and the economic and financial turmoil have intensified. Post-crisis context has imposed the need to expand the prospects for analysis over governance and companies, as well as the need to identify new ways of administration and resource management. From this perspective, the author aims to highlight the conditions, factors and events that have generated profound changes within the business environment, while the analysis is focusing on contemporary changes in the systems of corporate governance and economic mutations, especially in terms of the companies. The establishment of new governance rules is demanding a theoretical approach based on new methodological requirements which are needed to reform theoretical foundations and to promote creative and effective shapes and governance systems.
Hernandez Madrigal, Tattiana; Gamboa Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Saenz Roldan, Esteban
An energy audit is realized at the Hotel Punta Leona to determine the solutions in the reducing of the spend in electricity. The energy conservation opportunities are pointed in the rooms of Selvamar, Torremar, Arenas and Chalets. A system that stores, warms and distributes is identified in a optimal area to take advantage the solar energy. A storage system and food refrigeration are designed in the Restaurante Carabelas. Electricity consumption in different areas of the hotel and spend of potency of the household appliances of the rooms selected were measured with high technology equipment. Thermals leakages are analyzed by an infrared camera. The solar incidence taken advantage in the hotel facilities is determined. Topics such as energy audit, heat transfer, the sun and refrigeration systems are developed. Recommendations to reduce the electricity consumption in the areas studied are mentioned. An economic analysis is developed to justify the replacement of some equipment and the project profitability [es
Post, Brady; Buchmueller, Tom; Ryan, Andrew M
Hospital-physician vertical integration is on the rise. While increased efficiencies may be possible, emerging research raises concerns about anticompetitive behavior, spending increases, and uncertain effects on quality. In this review, we bring together several of the key theories of vertical integration that exist in the neoclassical and institutional economics literatures and apply these theories to the hospital-physician relationship. We also conduct a literature review of the effects of vertical integration on prices, spending, and quality in the growing body of evidence ( n = 15) to evaluate which of these frameworks have the strongest empirical support. We find some support for vertical foreclosure as a framework for explaining the observed results. We suggest a conceptual model and identify directions for future research. Based on our analysis, we conclude that vertical integration poses a threat to the affordability of health services and merits special attention from policymakers and antitrust authorities.
Yumusak, Semih; Dogdu, Erdogan; Kodaz, Halife; Kamilaris, Andreas; Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves
In this study, a novel metacrawling method is proposed for discovering and monitoring linked data sources on the Web. We implemented the method in a prototype system, named SPARQL Endpoints Discovery (SpEnD). SpEnD starts with a "search keyword" discovery process for finding relevant keywords for the linked data domain and specifically SPARQL endpoints. Then, these search keywords are utilized to find linked data sources via popular search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Yandex). By using this method, most of the currently listed SPARQL endpoints in existing endpoint repositories, as well as a significant number of new SPARQL endpoints, have been discovered. Finally, we have developed a new SPARQL endpoint crawler (SpEC) for crawling and link analysis.
Dupont, Diane P; Jahan, Nowshin
We examine factors that explain consumer spending on tap water substitutes using information from a national survey undertaken with a representative set of Canadian respondents. We develop a model to predict the percentage of households that undertake such spending for the purpose of reducing perceived health risks from tap water consumption. Using results from the model we estimate the magnitude of defensive expenditures to be over half a billion dollars (2010 US$) per year for Canada, as a whole. This is equivalent to approximately $48 per household per year or about $19 per person per year. Residents of Ontario, the province in which an Escherichia coli incident took place in 2000, have the highest willingness-to-pay of approximately $60 per household per year.
Victalice Ngimanang ACHAMOH
Full Text Available The study adopts the inter-temporal model of Rodríguez (1989 and Edward (1989 extended in Elbadawi and Soto (1997 to empirically examine the effect of public expenditure and trade openness on the real exchange rate using Cameroon data from 1977 to 2010. After exploring some issues on exchange rate and reviewing the relevant literature, the study employs residual based-cointegration technique. All the variables were stationary at level form or first differences. Public spending significantly appreciates the real exchange likewise the trade openness variable in the longrun. The results of the study suggests that appreciation of real exchange rate could be prevented by contracting public spending or adopting restrictive trade measures especially in the long run.
Rucker C. Johnson
Full Text Available Title I funding has been the largest federal program of K–12 education for the past fifty years, the objective being to eliminate the educational disadvantage associated with poverty. I provide new evidence on the long-term effects of school spending from Title I on children's educational and adult economic outcomes. To study effects of Title I, I link school district spending and administrative data on Title I funding to nationally representative data on children born between 1950 and 1977 and followed through 2011. Models include controls for birth cohort and school district fixed effects, childhood family–neighborhood characteristics, and other policies. I find that increases in Title I funding are significantly related to increases in educational attainment, high school graduation rates, higher earnings and work hours, reductions in grade repetition, school suspension or expulsion, incarceration, and reductions in the annual incidence of poverty in adulthood; effects on educational outcomes are more pronounced for poor children.
Baicker, Katherine; Skinner, Jonathan S.
The fraction of GDP devoted to health care in the United States is the highest in the world and rising rapidly. Recent economic studies have highlighted the growing value of health improvements, but less attention has been paid to the efficiency costs of tax-financed spending to pay for such improvements. This paper uses a life cycle model of labor supply, saving, and longevity improvement to measure the balanced-budget impact of continued growth in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The model predicts that top marginal tax rates could rise to 70 percent by 2060, depending on the progressivity of future tax changes. The deadweight loss of the tax system is greater when the financing is more progressive. If the share of taxes paid by high-income taxpayers remains the same, the efficiency cost of raising the revenue needed to finance the additional health spending is $1.48 per dollar of revenue collected, and GDP declines (relative to trend) by 11 percent. A proportional payroll tax has a lower efficiency cost (41 cents per dollar of revenue averaged over all tax hikes, a 5 percent drop in GDP) but more than doubles the share of the tax burden borne by lower income taxpayers. Empirical support for the model comes from analysis of OECD country data showing that countries facing higher tax burdens in 1979 experienced slower health care spending growth in subsequent decades. The rising burden imposed by the public financing of health care expenditures may therefore serve as a brake on health care spending growth. PMID:21608156
continue to benefit politically from large emergency supplemental spending bills for their constituents after a disaster, no incentive to change the...not need to compete for emergency funds as they must do in the regular appropriations process.69 They explain the political benefits of this...reflect true market prices, and was in essence, a subsidy to homeowners living in hazard areas.245 Resulting rate hikes and increased premiums were not
Uriel, M; Gómez-Rincón, C; Marro, D
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the stability of 12 oral liquid formulations frequently compounded in hospital and community settings formulated in a specific vehicle: SyrSpend® SF. The stability of melatonin, glycopyrrolate, ciclosporin, chloral hydrate, flecainide acetate, tiagabine HCl, labetalol HCl, ciprofloxacin HCl, spironolactone/hydrochlorothiazide, hydrocortisone, itraconazole and celecoxib in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) was investigated at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days and stored at both controlled room temperature and refrigerated. Itraconazole samples were also investigated at 15 and 45 days. No change in odor, color or appearance was observed in the formulations during the test period. Based on the results, a beyond-use date of 30 days can be assigned to tiagabine HCl 1.0 mg/ml in SyrSpend SF when stored at controlled room temperature, and 90 days under refrigeration, improving stability data previously published using other vehicles. A beyond-use date of 60 days can be assigned to chloral hydrate 100.0 mg/ml. In this case, stability is not enhanced by refrigeration. With the rest of the formulations, less than 10% API loss occurred over 90 days at either controlled room temperature or under refrigeration. Including for example itraconazole 20.0 mg/ml, thus providing extended stability compared to simple syrup and other oral liquid vehicles. The findings of this study show that SyrSpend SF is an appropriate suspending vehicle to be used for personalized formulations of the APIs studied here.
This paper explores changing patterns in young Maltese people’s attitudes to spending and saving, and how they see their lives and opportunities as being different from those of their parents’ generation. The paper suggests that many of these perceptions have been inflected by the increasingly global and commercialised orientations of the media environments inhabited by today’s youth. It is because these influences are so often unexamined or miscinstructed that more systematic and widespread ...
intentionally left blank. ii DRDC CORA TM 2011-154 Dr aft Co py Executive summary Granger Causality and National Procurement Spending David W...à croire que la chaîne d’approvisionnement sous jacente est optimale - la résistance aux chocs de dépenses peut simplement s’expliquer par des stocks...i Executive summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Sommaire
Sadia Shabbir; Hafiz M. Yasin
For developing countries with budgetary and balance-of-payments gaps to meet, maintaining large stakes of external debt is not free of cost. Highly indebted countries have to set aside a sizeable fraction of their scarce resources to service their debt, which naturally affects their development spending in general and allocations for the social sector in particular. This study examines the behavior of seven developing Asian countries and analyzes the impact of public external debt on social s...