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Sample records for exposed workers asarco

  1. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  2. Ocular disorders among workers exposed to mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabal, M S; Raslan, O A

    1995-01-01

    Mercury vapor exposed workers may show ocular changes, as well as other systems affection. A sample of 84 workers in preparing mercury fulminate were examined for conjunctival corneal and lenticular manifestation of long duration exposure, together with mercury urinary output. Lens changes were found in 50% of the involved workers while keratopathy as recorded in 34.5% of them. No statistically significant association was found between the occurrence of eye lesions and levels of urinary elimination of mercury. These results suggest local absorption of this element is most probably the underlying cause of ocular affection.

  3. Acquired dyschromatopsia among styrene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F; Galassi, C; Imbriani, M; Ghittori, S; Candela, S; Cavalleri, A

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the occurrence of color vision loss in 75 styrene-exposed workers and in 60 referents. Color vision was evaluated by adopting the Lanthony D 15 desaturated panel, a test specifically suited to detect mild acquired dyschromatopsia. The results of the test were expressed as Color Confusion Index. Styrene exposure was evaluated with both environmental and biological monitoring. Airborne levels of the solvent were 3.2 to 549.5 mg/m3. In styrene-exposed workers color vision was significantly impaired when compared with referents matched for age. A significative correlation was found between environmental and urinary levels of styrene and Color Confusion Index excluding the influence of age in multiple regression analysis, indicating the possibility of a dose-effect relationship. The findings suggest that styrene can induce an early appearance of a dose-dependent color vision loss.

  4. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Neurotoxicity of Acrylamide in Exposed Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, Manuela; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Vacante, Marco; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies. PMID:23985770

  6. Medical surveillance of occupationally exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-15

    The guide covers medical surveillance of workers engaged in radiation work and their fitness for this work, protection of the foetus and infant during the worker's pregnancy or breastfeeding, and medical surveillance measures to be taken when the dose limit has been exceeded. The guide also covers recognition of practitioners responsible for medical surveillance of category A workers, medical certificates to be issued to workers, and preservation and transfer of medical records. The medical surveillance requirements specified in this Guide cover the use of radiation and nuclear energy. The guide also applies to exposure to natural radiation in accordance with section 28 of the Finnish Radiation Decree

  7. Porphyrin studies in TCDD-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, D. (Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin der Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Konietzko, J. (Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin der Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Reill-Konietzko, G. (Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin der Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Muttray, A. (Inst. fuer Arbeits- und Sozialmedizin der Univ. Mainz (Germany)); Zimmermann-Hoelz, H.J. (Ciba-Geigy Marienberg GmbH, Lampertheim (Germany)); Doss, M. (Abt. fuer Klinische Biochemie, Fachbereich Humanmedizin, Philippsuniversitaet Marburg (Germany)); Beck, H. (Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)); Edler, L. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Biostatistik (Germany)); Kopp-Schneider, A. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg, Biostatistik (Germany))

    1994-09-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been shown to inhibit uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity resulting in chronic hepatic porphyria. From a cross-sectional study of 170 workers in chemical industry 68 showed elevated coproporphyrin levels, interpreted as secondary coproporphyrinuria. Three persons suffered from chronic hepatic porphyria in subclinical stages. None of the workers showed an overt porphyria cutanea tarda. A low-grade zinc protoporphyrinemia was observed in three persons. Forty-three of the 170 workers were evaluable for investigating the effect of TCDD on porphyrin levels. No significant correlation was found between TCDD concentration in adipose tissue and the level of uroporphyrin and coproporphyrin. The influence of a chloracne history is described. (orig.)

  8. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    OpenAIRE

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L. J.; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P.

    1985-01-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to partic...

  9. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields.

    OpenAIRE

    Milham, S

    1985-01-01

    In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television rep...

  10. Liver function in workers exposed of the cosmetics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.

  11. Immunomodulatory effects of mineral fibres in occupationally exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulinska, Jana; Jahnova, Eva; Dusinska, Maria; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Ilavska, Silvia; Horvathova, Mira; Wsolova, Ladislava; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Collins, Andrew; Harrington, Vikki; Fuortes, Laurence

    2004-09-03

    In the context of a large-scale molecular epidemiology study, the possible immunomodulatory effects of mineral fibres, in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos, rockwool and glass fibres, were examined. In each plant, 61, 98 and 80 exposed workers and 21, 43 or 36 control clerical subjects, respectively, were recruited. In the case of the asbestos-exposed subjects, an additional town-control group of 49 people was included. Evidence of pulmonary fibrosis was found in 42% of the asbestos-exposed workers, while evidence of pleural fibrosis was found in 24%. The asbestos-exposed cohort had significantly decreased forced vital capacity of lungs as well as forced expiratory volume per first second. Our findings indicate that exposure to all three types of fibres examined modulates to different degrees the immune response. Suppression of T-cell immunity and to a lesser extent, B-cell immunity was found in the case of workers from a former asbestos cement plant, while stimulation of T-cell response was observed in rockwool workers, and stimulation of T- and B-cell response was seen in glass fibre workers. Depression of the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulation of CD 16+56 (natural killer cells) in peripheral blood was found in glass fibre workers. Statistical analysis showed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 asbestos; IL-8 all three fibres), expression of adhesion molecule L-selectin on granulocytes and monocytes (asbestos), levels of soluble adhesion molecules (SAMs) in sera (ICAM-1 all three fibres; E-selectin glass fibres), increased levels of immunoglobulin E (asbestos and rockwool) and elevated expression of activation markers on eosinophils (CD66b asbestos, glass fibres; CD69 asbestos). Significant correlations were observed between lymphocyte proliferation and markers of DNA damage and repair. Increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, SAMs, immunoglobulin E and elevated expression of activation markers on eosinophils was found in people

  12. [Color vision impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrejko, Marta; Skoczyńska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Acquired reversible dyschromatopsia has been associated with occupational exposure to mercury vapor. Early-detected impairments in color discrimination precede adverse permanent effects of mercury, so they may help to monitor the health of the exposed workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color discrimination ability in this group of workers, using Lanthony D-15d test. Employed in a chloralkali plant, 27 male workers exposed to mercury vapor and 27 healthy white-collar workers (control group) were qualified for the study. To assess color discrimination, the Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (Lanthony D-15) was used. In order to investigate quantitative and qualitative results, the Lanthony D-15d scoring software was performed. Urinary mercury was determined using flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. In the workers exposed to mercury vapor, urine mercury concentration was 117.4 +/- 62.6 microg/g creatinine on average compared with 0.279 +/- 0.224 mg/g creatinine in the control group (p dyschromatopsia type III. The quantitative analysis of the test findings indicated a significantly higher value of the Color Confusion Index (CCI) in the right eye in the exposed group compared to the control group (p = 0.01), with no significant difference in the CCI in the left eye. In the exposed group, the CCI in the right eye was significantly higher than the CCI in the left eye (p = 0.0005). There was neither correlation between CCI and the level of urinary mercury, nor between CCI and duration of exposure. The results showed that the Lanthony D-15d test is useful in the detection of early toxic effects in the eyesight of the workers exposed to mercury vapor. The observed color vision impairments are borderline corresponding to the early stage of developing dyschromatopsia type III.

  13. Respiratory function in power plant workers exposed to nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, U; Montuori, P; Novi, C; Triassi, M

    2014-12-01

    Power plant workers are potentially exposed to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and may therefore be at higher risk of pulmonary diseases than the general population. To assess the association of NO2 exposure with spirometric abnormalities in power plant workers. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory ratio (FER = FEV1/FVC) were correlated with demographic characteristics, smoking history and environmental exposure to NO2 in power plant workers exposed to environmental NO2 at work and in a control group of administrative employees. Twenty-four hour environmental NO2 concentrations were measured at each workplace. The concentrations of environmental NO2 ranged from 1.21 to 7.82 mg m(-3) with a mean value of 3.91 + 1.51 mg m(-3). The results showed that FEV1 and FVC were significantly lower in 347 power plant workers than in the 349 controls (P < 0.001). The FER was significantly correlated with age, environmental NO2 concentration, smoking and height. Occupational exposure to NO2 emissions in power plants is significantly associated with lung function abnormalities as assessed by spirometry. Spirometric measurements in power plant workers exposed to NO2 emissions may be an effective means of detecting early signs of impaired respiratory health in this group of workers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Fertility of male workers exposed to cadmium, lead, or manganese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennart, J P; Buchet, J P; Roels, H; Ghyselen, P; Ceulemans, E; Lauwerys, R

    1992-06-01

    The effect of exposure to cadmium, lead, or manganese on male reproductive function was examined in 1988-1989 in Belgian blue-collar workers. The workers were exposed to cadmium in two smelters (n = 83; geometric mean urinary cadmium level = 6.94 micrograms/g of creatinine; mean duration of exposure = 24 years), to lead in a battery factory (n = 74; mean blood lead level = 46.3 micrograms/dl; mean duration of exposure = 10.7 years), or to manganese (manganese dioxide) in a dry alkaline battery plant (n = 70; median atmospheric concentration of total manganese dust = 0.71 mg/m3; mean duration of exposure = 6.2 years). Fertility in these workers and in an unexposed population (n = 138) was assessed by examining the birth experiences of their wives through a logistic regression model. The probability of a live birth was not different between the unexposed workers and the cadmium- or manganese-exposed workers before or after the onset of exposure. While the fertility of the lead-exposed workers was somewhat greater than that of the unexposed before the onset of exposure, a significant decrease in fertility was observed during the period of exposure to the metal (odds ratio = 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.43-0.98).

  15. Behavioral evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maizlish, N.A.; Langolf, G.D.; Whitehead, L.W.; Fine, L.J.; Albers, J.W.; Goldberg, J.; Smith, P.

    1985-09-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioral impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioral performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to participate and 240 were selected for study based on restrictions for age, sex, education, and other potentially confounding variables. The subjects tested had been employed on average for six years. Each subject completed an occupational history, underwent a medical examination, and completed a battery of behavioural tests. These included the Fitts law psychomotor task, the Stroop color-word test, the Sternberg short term memory scanning test, the short term memory span test, and the continuous recognition memory test. Solvent exposure for each subject was defined as an exposed or non-exposed category based on a plant industrial hygiene walk-through and the concentration of solvents based on an analysis of full shift personal air samples by gas chromatography. The first definition was used to maintain consistency with Scandinavian studies, but the second was considered to be more accurate. The average full shift solvent concentration was 302 ppm for the printing plant workers and 6-13 ppm for the workers at other plants. Isopropanol and hexane were the major components, compared with toluene in Scandinavian studies.

  16. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  17. Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.R.

    1997-12-31

    This publication resulted from a World Health Organisation initiated project to investigate the harmonisation of definitions, approaches and methodologies for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust. The first part of the book provides definitions of screening and surveillance and describes the main elements of such programmes. The second part discusses the practical aspect of the screening and surveillance of working populations exposed to crystalline silica, coal mine dust and asbestos. Although no single set of guidelines is applicable to the development and implementation of a programme for the screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dust, the recommendations, together with certain caveats, should provide a useful starting point. Annexes provide examples of existing programmes in various countries and environments and discuss the use and interpretation of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography. Overall the book should be of interest to occupational health professionals.

  18. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  19. Effects of parkinsonism on health status in welding exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rachel C; Lundin, Jessica I; Criswell, Susan R; Hobson, Angela; Swisher, Laura M; Evanoff, Bradley A; Checkoway, Harvey; Racette, Brad A

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies suggest that welders frequently display parkinsonian signs, such as bradykinesia and tremor. Demonstrating that these parkinsonian findings are associated with reductions in quality of life (QoL) or health status could have important repercussions for worker safety and performance. Subjects included 394 active workers exposed to welding fumes and evaluated for parkinsonism by movement disorders experts in a worksite-based epidemiology study. Subjects were diagnosed with parkinsonism if the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor subsection part 3 (UPDRS3) score was ≥15. All subjects completed a Parkinson's disease (PD) symptom questionnaire and the PDQ39, a widely used QoL and health status measure for PD. Total PDQ39 score and all subscores were greater in welders with parkinsonism than welders without parkinsonism, with the most significant differences observed for mobility, emotional well-being, and activities of daily living (ADL's). The PDQ39 scores for welding exposed workers with parkinsonism were similar to scores seen in a group of early PD patients. Parkinsonism in active, welding exposed workers is associated with reductions in health status and QoL affecting a broad range of categories and within the range seen in early PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cardiovascular changes in workers exposed to fine particulate dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Epidemiological studies provide evidence that airborne particulate matter may contribute to the increased incidence and mortality rates due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Only some of them address the problem of occupational exposure to particulate air pollution. The aim of our study was to assess cardiovascular reaction and autonomic regulation in workers exposed to fine particles. Materials and Methods: All workers had medical examination, resting ECG with heart rate variability analysis (HRV, 24-h ECG, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM performed. The subjects were 20 male workers (mean age: 32.14.0 year of a ceramic ware factory exposed to the dust and 20 workers who were not exposed (mean age: 39.4±7.8 year. The period of employment under exposure amounted to 5.6±2.1 year. Dust exposure was measured using individual dosimeters. Results: The geometric mean total dust concentration was 44±1.5 mg/m3 and the FPD (fine particulate dust concentration amounted to 11.5±1.6 mg/m3. No abnormalities were noted in the resting ECG in both groups, in 24-h ECG 2 subjects, both from exposed and control groups, had ventricular heart rhythm and repolarization disturbances. Blood pressure in ABPM, both systolic as well as diastolic, was normal and did not differ between the groups. Resting heart rate in the exposed group was significantly lower (p = 0.038 than in the control group. In the exposed group STD R-R from short-term records was significantly higher (p = 0.01. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis showed that the low frequency power spectrum (LF did not differ in the exposed and the control group, while high frequency (HF was significantly higher in the exposed group. LF/HF ratio was significantly lower in the exposed in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: Although we did not reveal significant abnormalities in ECG as well as in ABPM in the exposed group, it seems that neurovegetative disturbances

  1. Health surveillance of workers exposed to laboratory animal allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P J; Mayho, G V; Roomes, D; Swann, A B; Blackburn, B S

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory animal allergy (LAA) remains prevalent among workers exposed to laboratory animals. Pre-placement and health surveillance procedures vary between different employers. To determine evidence-based strategies for pre-placement and periodic health assessments for workers exposed to laboratory animals. Literature was searched systematically using Medline and EMBASE for articles published in all languages up to the end of May 2010. Evidence-based statements and recommendations were graded according to a modified Royal College of General Practitioner's star system. Hundred and nine studies were identified from the literature search; 59 of these were accessed for critical appraisal and 50 contributed to the evidence statements. We recommend that laboratory animal workers should have a baseline health assessment that includes a health questionnaire, face-to-face assessment and spirometry. Identification of specific immunoglobulin E to common aero-allergens and to domestic and laboratory animal allergens may be used to identify workers who would benefit from further advice about managing their exposure, where risk assessment indicates that this might be prudent. Thereafter health surveillance should be performed by administering an appropriate health questionnaire, covering upper and lower respiratory, eye and skin symptoms on exposure, and wheals with animal scratches. The questionnaire should be administered at increased frequency for the first few years, the frequency being determined by a risk assessment. Where a worker develops new symptoms suggestive of LAA or where an asthmatic employee experiences deterioration either in symptoms or in control, they should be assessed further and a multicause multidisciplinary investigation performed.

  2. Cytogenetic study in workers occupationally exposed to mercury fulminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, W A; Gabal, M S

    1991-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytogenetic effects in male workers exposed to mercury fulminate. A total of 29 male workers and 29 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The mean mercury level in urine from the exposed workers was 123.2 +/- 54.1 micrograms/l compared with 39.2 +/- 11.1 micrograms/l in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). Metaphase chromosomes were studied. Micronucleated peripheral blood lymphocytes were also analyzed in cytochalasin B blocked binucleated lymphocytes. The percentage of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the exposed group (6.1 +/- 2.3) compared to the control group (2.8 +/- 0.7). The chromosomal aberrations detected were in the form of gaps, breaks and fragments. A significant increase in the incidence of micronucleated lymphocytes was found among the exposed group (7.1 +/- 4.2) compared to the control group (5.4 +/- 2.2) (P less than 0.01). The detected chromosomal damage correlated neither with the duration of exposure nor with the urinary mercury level.

  3. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, P; Olsen, J H; Jensen, O M

    1992-01-01

    Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride-exposed wor......-exposed workers showed increased incidence of respiratory cancers.......Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity. In humans, occupational fluoride exposure may cause skeletal fluorosis, and our earlier follow-up of fluoride...

  4. Reproductive toxicity in boron exposed workers in Bandirma, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Nurşen; Duydu, Yalçin; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-06-01

    Boric acid and sodium borates have been considered as being "toxic to reproduction and development", following results of animal studies with high doses. However unfavorable effects of boron exposure on reproduction and development have not been proved in epidemiological studies so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproductive toxicity indicators in highly exposed workers employed in a boric acid production plant in Bandırma, Turkey. Two hundred and four workers participated in this study. The mean blood boron concentration of the high exposure group of workers was 223.89 ± 69.49 (152.82-454.02)ng/g. Unfavorable effects of boron exposure on the reproductive toxicity indicators were not observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  6. Fertility of Danish battery workers exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, J P; Kolstad, H

    1997-12-01

    Inorganic lead may impair male fecundity through its action on the germinal epithelium, the endocrine system or both, but information on possible impact on fertility in exposed populations is limited. Fertility was examined in 1349 male battery plant employees and in 9596 reference company employees over a follow-up of 25,949 and 183,414 person years respectively. The cohorts were identified by records in a national pension fund and information on births was obtained from the Danish Population Register. In a subset of the battery worker cohort, the average level of lead in blood was 35.9 micrograms/dl (4639 blood samples on 1654 person years in 400 workers; SD 13.0; range 3-125). The birth rate was analysed by logistic regression on occupational exposure and several extraneous determinants (age, parity, calendar year, and previous children). The birth-rate was not reduced in years at risk from exposure to lead in comparison with years not-at-risk; either in comparison with not-at-risk years within the battery plant cohort (odds ratio [OR] = 0.997, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-1.13), or in comparison with the external reference population (OR = 0.983, 95% CI: 0.87-1.11). Inorganic lead seems not to impair fertility among Danish battery workers. This finding does not rule out that the time taken to achieve a pregnancy is increased among battery workers because most pregnancies in Denmark are planned.

  7. Monitoring of workers exposed to neutrons. Information note; La surveillance des travailleurs exposes aux neutrons. Note d'information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-28

    This document briefly indicates who are the workers exposed to neutrons in nuclear facilities, what is the peculiarity of neutron radiation, what is the evolution of scientific knowledge about neutrons, which are the technical evolutions in neutron dosimetry, which are the regulatory evolutions about neutron dosimetry, and how the monitoring of workers exposed to neutrons has been performed in 2011

  8. P300 brain potential among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente E. Moen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SUMMARYThe P300 component of the auditory event-related brain potential was examined in a group of 11workers exposed to low levels of organic solvents in a paint factory and 11 unexposed controls beforeand after 3 weeks of summer vacation. The P300 latency time was found to be prolonged among theexposed workers compared to the reference group before the summer vacation, and to be significantlylonger before the vacation than after in the exposed group.The P300 component was also examined in a group of 85 seamen from chemical tankers, experiencingpeak exposures to organic solvents. They were compared to a reference group of unexposedseamen. Comparing these two groups, no difference was found in the P300 latency time. No relationshipbetween the P300 latency time and exposure was found in a multiple regression analysis, includingthe variables age, alcohol consumption, smoking and cerebral concussions.The study indicates the occurrence of an acute biological effect in the nervous system related toorganic solvent exposure, expressed by prolonged P300 latency time. This was found at very lowexposure levels and should be studied further.

  9. Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pavel; Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Nerudová, Jana; Lukás, Edgar; Cábelková, Zdena; Cikrt, Miroslav

    2003-08-01

    To study color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) vapor. Twenty-four male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg vapor, aged 42+/-9.8 years, duration of exposure 14.7+/-9.7 years, were examined. The 8h TWA air-borne Hg concentration in workplace was 59 microg/m(3); mean Hg urinary excretion (HgU) was 20.5+/-19.3 microg/g creatinine; mean Hg urinary excretion after the administration of a chelating agent, sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane-sulfonate (DMPS), was 751.9+/-648 microg/48h. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched control subjects were compared. Visual acuity, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and history of diseases or drugs potentially influencing color vision were registered. The Lanthony 15-Hue desaturated test (L-D15-d) was used to assess color vision. The results were expressed quantitatively as Bowman's Color Confusion Index (CCI), and qualitatively according to Verriest's classification of acquired dyschromatopsias. The CCI was significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control (mean CCI 1.15 versus 1.04; P=0.04). The proportion of subjects with errorless performance on the Lanthony test was significantly lower in the Hg exposed group compared to referents (52% versus 73%; P=0.035). The exposed group showed higher frequency of type III dyschromatopsias (blue-yellow confusion axis) in comparison with the control group (12.5% versus 8.3%), however, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Multiple regression did not show any significant relationship between the CCI, and age, alcohol consumption, or measures of exposure. In agreement with previous studies by Cavalleri et al. [Toxicol. Lett. 77 (1995) 351; Environ. Res. Sec. A 77 (1998) 173], the results of this study support the hypothesis that exposure to mercury vapor can induce sub-clinical color vision impairment. This effect was observed at an exposure level below the current biological limit for occupational exposure to mercury. This

  10. Renal function in dry cleaning workers exposed to perchloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solet, D.; Robins, T.G. (School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a widely used dry cleaning and degreasing solvent. Although there is evidence in animals and humans for renal effects at extremely high doses, there are few studies of its potential renal toxicity at typical occupational concentrations. This study reports on the relationship of PCE in breath and estimates of chronic exposure with the urinary ratios of total urinary protein, albumin, and n-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) to creatinine in dry cleaning workers exposed to PCE. Regression models including one or more exposure variables, demographic variables, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and the presence of diseases affecting kidney function were examined. Urine samples, breath samples, exposure histories, and medical histories were obtained from 192 dry cleaning workers. The results failed to demonstrate any consistent relationship between exposure and renal outcome variables. However, protein/creatinine and albumin/creatinine were significantly, although weakly and positively, associated with MAP; NAG/creatinine was weakly but significantly positively associated with age; mean NAG/creatinine was also higher in non-whites. The reasons why an association between exposure and renal outcome was not found are discussed.

  11. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Maria da Costa Brito Lacerda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100. Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction.

  12. Psychophysical Evaluation of Achromatic and Chromatic Vision of Workers Chronically Exposed to Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Eliza Maria da Costa Brito; Lima, Monica Gomes; Rodrigues, Anderson Raiol; Teixeira, Cláudio Eduardo Correa; de Lima, Lauro José Barata; Ventura, Dora Fix; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate achromatic and chromatic vision of workers chronically exposed to organic solvents through psychophysical methods. Thirty-one gas station workers (31.5 ± 8.4 years old) were evaluated. Psychophysical tests were achromatic tests (Snellen chart, spatial and temporal contrast sensitivity, and visual perimetry) and chromatic tests (Ishihara's test, color discrimination ellipses, and Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test—FM100). Spatial contrast sensitivities of exposed workers were lower than the control at spatial frequencies of 20 and 30 cpd whilst the temporal contrast sensitivity was preserved. Visual field losses were found in 10–30 degrees of eccentricity in the solvent exposed workers. The exposed workers group had higher error values of FM100 and wider color discrimination ellipses area compared to the controls. Workers occupationally exposed to organic solvents had abnormal visual functions, mainly color vision losses and visual field constriction. PMID:22220188

  13. Pulmonary nodules in workers exposed to urban stressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sancini, A. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fioravanti, M. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Ciarrocca, M.; Palermo, P.; Fiaschetti, M.; Schifano, M.P. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy); Tomei, G. [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Psychiatric Science and Psychological Medicine, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Tomei, F., E-mail: francesco.tomei@uniroma1.it [University of Rome ' Sapienza' , Department of Occupational Medicine, Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    By multilayer spiral low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) of the chest this study assesses the early detection of lung lesions on a sample of 100 traffic policemen of a big Italian city professionally exposed to urban pollutants and 100 controls non-occupationally exposed to urban pollutants matched by sex, age, length of service and cigarette smoking habit. Exposure to urban pollutants in traffic policemen was characterized using the annual average concentrations of PM{sub 10}, NO{sub 2} and benzene in the period 1998-2008 measured by fixed monitoring stations located in different areas of the city. A significant and increasing number of suspicious lung nodules with diameters between 5 and 10 mm was observed: in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) vs. controls (including smokers and non-smokers); in total smokers (including traffic policemen and controls) vs. total non-smokers (traffic policemen and controls); in smoker traffic policemen vs. smoker controls and vs. non-smoker traffic policemen; in non-smoker traffic policemen vs. non-smoker controls. The RR of finding cases with at least one lung nodule with diameters between 5 and 10 mm in traffic policemen (including smokers and non-smokers) compared to controls (including smokers and non-smokers) is 1.94 (CI 1.13-3.31); in total smokers vs. non-smokers the RR is 1.96 (CI 1.20-3.19). The comparison between the interaction exposure and smoking shows an increase in smoker traffic policemen than in smoker controls (RR=2.14; CI 1.02-4.52). The RR for smoker traffic policemen was higher than in non-smoker traffic policemen (RR=2.09; CI 1.19-3.66). The results of our study show that: (1) while smoker workers have a higher risk for developing solid suspicious lung nodules, the simple routinely exposure to urban pollutants is unable to produce the same kind of increased risk; (2) the interaction of smoking and exposure to urban pollutants greatly increases the risk for the development of solid

  14. Genetic monitoring of aluminum workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heussner, J.C.; Ward, J.B. Jr.; Legator, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    A group of 50 workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) in an aluminum reduction plant and a group of 50 non-exposed workers were selected to evaluate the genotoxic effects of CTPV exposure. A battery of tests was performed on 3 different body fluids; urine, blood and semen. Urine samples were evaluated for mutagenic constituents using the Ames/Salmonella assay. Cultured lymphocytes from blood samples were used to perform cytogenetic analysis. Semen samples were used to measure sperm count, percent abnormal sperm morphology and frequency of sperm carrying double fluorescent bodies (2-F). 14 of 28 (50%) exposed workers and 7 of 36 (19.4%) non-exposed workers had mutagenic urine. This difference was significant (p less than 0.01). Among the non-smokers a significantly higher percentage of workers who were exposed had positive urine (36%) compared to the non-exposed workers (5%) (p less than 0.05). Among the exposed group, more mechanics had mutagenic urine than did other types of workers. Overall chromosome aberration rates were similar in both exposed and non-exposed workers. Among exposed workers a significant inverse correlation (p less than 0.05) between age and chromatid aberration rate was observed. Results of semen analysis failed to detect differences between exposed and non-exposed workers. Results of these tests lend support to a battery approach to genetic monitoring and suggest a link between exposure to CTPV and genotoxic effects. Detection of exposure to mutagens at an early time offers an opportunity for disease prevention by the reduction of exposure.

  15. Artificial stone dust-induced functional and inflammatory abnormalities in exposed workers monitored quantitatively by biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Ophir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of kitchen and bath countertops in Israel is based mainly on artificial stone that contains 93% silica as natural quartz, and ∼3500 workers are involved in cutting and processing it. Artificial stone produces high concentrations of silica dust. Exposure to crystalline silica may cause silicosis, an irreversible lung disease. Our aim was to screen exposed workers by quantitative biometric monitoring of functional and inflammatory parameters. 68 exposed artificial stone workers were compared to 48 nonexposed individuals (controls. Exposed workers filled in questionnaires, and all participants underwent pulmonary function tests and induced sputum analyses. Silica was quantitated by a Niton XL3 X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Pulmonary function test results of exposed workers were significantly lower and induced sputa showed significantly higher neutrophilic inflammation compared to controls; both processes were slowed down by the use of protective measures in the workplace. Particle size distribution in induced sputum samples of exposed workers was similar to that of artificial stone dust, which contained aluminium, zirconium and titanium in addition to silica. In conclusion, the quantitation of biometric parameters is useful for monitoring workers exposed to artificial stone in order to avoid deterioration over time.

  16. Epidemiologic Study of One Million American Workers and Military Veterans Exposed to Ionizing Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boice, John D. [International Epidemiology Inst. Ltd., Rockville, MD (United States)

    2015-02-27

    A pilot study was completed demonstrating the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study assessing cancer and other disease mortality among nearly one million US veterans and workers exposed to ionizing radiation, a population 10 times larger than atomic bomb survivor study with high statistical power to evaluate low dose rate effects. Among the groups enumerated and/or studied were: (1) 194,000 Department of Energy Uranium Workers; (2) 6,700 Rocketdyne Radiation Workers; (3) 7,000 Mound Radiation Workers; (4) 156,000 DOE Plutonium Workers; (5) 212,000 Nuclear Power Plant Workers; (6) 130,000 Industrial Radiography Workers; (7) 1.7 million Medical Workers and (8) 135,000 Atomic Veterans.

  17. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Palacios N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  18. Mercury-induced motor and sensory neurotoxicity: systematic review of workers currently exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl A; Borak, Jonathan; Louis, Elan D

    2017-11-01

    The neurotoxicity of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) is well-recognized, but it is uncertain whether and for how long neurotoxicity persists; among studies that evaluated previously exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure ceased. The aim of this review is to document the type, frequency, and dose-relatedness of objective neurological effects in currently exposed mercury workers and thereby provide first approximations of the effects one would have expected in previously exposed workers evaluated during exposure. We systematically reviewed studies of neurotoxicity in currently exposed mercury workers identified by searching MEDLINE (1950-2015), government reports, textbook chapters, and references cited therein; dental cohorts were not included. Outcomes on physical examination (PE), neurobehavioral (NB) tests, and electrophysiological studies were extracted and evaluated for consistency and dose-relatedness. Forty-five eligible studies were identified, comprising over 3000 workers chronically exposed to a range of Hg 0 concentrations (0.002-1.7 mg/m 3 ). Effects that demonstrated consistency across studies and increased frequency across urine mercury levels (200 μg/L, while NB testing is more appropriate for those with lower U Hg levels. They also provide benchmarks to which findings in workers with historical exposure can be compared.

  19. Circulating immune/inflammation markers in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Tang, Xiaojiang; Hu, Wei; Bassig, Bryan A.; Ji, Zhiying; Shiels, Meredith S.; Kemp, Troy J.; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Reiss, Boris; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Blair, Aaron; Kim, Christopher; Guo, Weihong; Wen, Cuiju; Li, Laiyu; Pinto, Ligia A.; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human myeloid leukemogen. However, the mechanistic basis for this association is still debated. Objectives. We aimed to evaluate whether circulating immune/inflammation markers were altered in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Methods. Using a multiplexed bead-based assay, we measured serum levels of 38 immune/inflammation markers in a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde-exposed and 51 unexposed factory workers in Guangdong, China. Linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to compare marker levels in exposed and unexposed workers. Results. We found significantly lower circulating levels of two markers among exposed factory workers compared with unexposed controls that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders and multiple comparisons using a false discovery rate of 10%, including chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (36.2 pg/ml in exposed versus 48.4 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0008) and thymus and activation regulated chemokine (52.7 pg/ml in exposed versus 75.0 pg/ml in controls, P = 0.0028), suggesting immunosuppression among formaldehyde-exposed workers. Conclusions. Our findings are consistent with recently emerging understanding that immunosuppression might be associated with myeloid diseases. These findings, if replicated in a larger study, may provide insights into the mechanisms by which formaldehyde promotes leukemogenesis. PMID:25908645

  20. Studies on kidney function in workers exposed to uranium contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugueno, M.C.; Suarez, J. (Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago)

    1983-11-01

    The values of some kidney function tests in our workers were studied through the media, range and statistical spread, compared with those used abroad and also in our main hospitals. With that purpose, thirty three persons were selected among those without kidney pathology history of uranium internal contamination as revealed by the permanent control of our clinical and radiotoxicological service. Kidney function was explored through the measurement of uremia, ureic nitrogen, albuminuria, endogenous creatinine clearance and the Addis test. Values determined were normal with respect to those used in the international literature, with the exception of the creatinine clearance test. Also a 6% of our workers were abnormal in at least one or two of the five tests employed.

  1. Impaired colour discrimination among workers exposed to styrene: relevance of a urinary metabolite.

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, T.; Kishi, R.; Harabuchi, I; Yuasa, J; Arata, Y; Katakura, Y; Miyake, H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To survey the loss of colour vision among Japanese workers who have been exposed to styrene concentrations currently considered low (about 20 ppm). Also to assess the effects of styrene by examination of the nature of the relation between disorder of colour vision and age, alcohol consumption, and other variables. METHODS--Colour discrimination was examined in 64 male workers exposed to styrene (mean age; 38.0, mean exposed years; 7.0) and in 69 controls (mean age; 38.0). A standa...

  2. A multicenter study on the audiometric findings of styrene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Starck, Jukka; Pawlas, Krystyna; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Nylen, Per; Toppila, Esko; Krieg, Edward; Pawlas, Natalia; Prasher, Deepak

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate hearing loss among workers exposed to styrene, alone or with noise. This cross-sectional study was conducted as part of NoiseChem, a European Commission 5th Framework Programme research project, by occupational health institutes in Finland, Sweden, and Poland. Participants' ages ranged from 18-72 years (n = 1620 workers). Participants exposed to styrene, alone or with noise, were from reinforced fiberglass products manufacturing plants (n = 862). Comparison groups were comprised of workers noise-exposed (n = 400) or controls (n = 358). Current styrene exposures ranged from 0 to 309 mg/m(3), while mean current noise levels ranged from 70-84 dB(A). Hearing thresholds of styrene-exposed participants were compared with Annexes A and B from ANSI S3.44, 1996. The audiometric thresholds of styrene exposed workers were significantly poorer than those in published standards. Age, gender, and styrene exposure met the significance level criterion in the multiple logistic regression for the binary outcome 'hearing loss' (P = 0.0000). Exposure to noise (risk factor for hearing loss, and styrene-exposed workers should be included in hearing loss prevention programs.

  3. [Expression of protein p53 in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-lin; Xiang, Cui-qin; Zhang, Yun-ying; Qin, Yi-qiu; Liu, Cha-qin; Chen, Ji-gang; Zhang, Sheng-nian

    2005-02-01

    To study expression of mutant p53 protein in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients. Mutant p53 protein in serum from the workers occupationally exposed to benzidine and bladder cancer patients were determined with Immuno-PCR, while exfoliated urothelial cells in the urine samples were classified with Papanicolau grading. Positive rate of mutant p53 protein increased with the exposed intensity index in workers occupationally exposed to benzidine. The positive rate of mutant p53 protein in bladder cancer patients (83.3%) was significantly higher than that in the group 1 of exposed intensity index. The average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the group of bladder cancer patients and group 2 of exposed intensity index were both higher than that in the group 1 significantly. Workers in the groups of different exposed intensity indices were further stratified according to Papanicolau grades. In the group 2 of exposed intensity index, the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band in the stratum of Papanicolau grade II and III were significantly higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I. And in the group 3 of exposed intensity index, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in the strata of Papanicolau grade III was higher than that in the strata of Papanicolau grade I significantly. The increase of exposed intensity may not only result in the positive rate of mutant p53 protein, but also the quantity of mutant p53 protein in serum within the low range of benzidine exposure. Once the exposed intensity was beyond that spectrum, the positive rate of mutant p53 protein in serum and the average scanning integrals of PCR amplified band were no longer enhanced with the increase of exposed intensity. There was tight correlation between Papanicolau grade of exfoliated urothelial cells and the positive rate or the quantity of mutant p53 protein for the higher benzidine exposure intensity.

  4. Study on workers exposed to cadmium in alkaline storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, O.Y.; Tan, K.T.; Kwok, S.F.; Chio, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    The extent of cadmium exposure was studied in a cadmium-nickel battery factory and 8 PVC factories using cadmium stabilisers in the compounding of PVC. A total of 101 cadmium-exposed workers and 21 control subjects matched by sex, age, ethnic group and smoking history was investigated. Blood and urine cadmium levels were considerably elevated in the battery workers but were not raised in the PVC workers. These findings were consistent with the results of cadmium-in-air assessments. Among the female battery workers, urine cadmium excretion increased significantly with employment time. There was good correlation between blood and urine cadmium levels among the female subjects. A significant association between blood cadmium levels and prevalence of chest pain was also noted among the females. No low molecular weight proteinuria was detected, but two female battery workers had slight albuminuria and one male PVC worker had glucosuria but had abnormal GTT results.

  5. Increased leukemia-associated gene expression in benzene-exposed workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Keqiu; Jing, Yaqing; Yang, Caihong; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Yuxia; He, Xiaobo; Li, Fei; Han, Jiayi; Li, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to benzene causes several adverse health effects, including an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia. This study was to identify genetic alternations involved in pathogenesis of leukemia in benzene-exposed workers without clinical symptoms of leukemia. This study included 33 shoe-factory workers exposed to benzene at levels from 1 ppm to 10 ppm. These workers were divided into 3 groups based on the benzene exposure time, 1- benzene exposure history were recruited as controls. Cytogenetic analysis using Affymetrix Cytogenetics Array found copy-number variations (CNVs) in several chromosomes of benzene-exposed workers. Expression of targeted genes in these altered chromosomes, NOTCH1 and BSG, which play roles in leukemia pathogenesis, was further examined using real-time PCR. The NOTCH1 mRNA level was significantly increased in all 3 groups of workers, and the NOTCH1 mRNA level in the 12- benzene-exposed workers. PMID:24993241

  6. Seroprevalence and occupational risk survey for Coxiella burnetii among exposed workers in Sicily, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Gangemi, Silvia; De Luca, Annamaria; Calimeri, Sebastiano; Lo Giudice, Daniela; Pugliese, Michela; Licitra, Francesca; Alibrandi, Angela; Costa, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in subjects at risk of exposure in Sicily, Southern Italy. Prevalence of IgG antibodies to C. burnetii phase II antigens was evaluated by ELISA in a group of 140 workers at risk of exposure (38 veterinarians, 38 slaughterhouse workers, 44 livestock handlers, 20 laboratory and technical personnel) included in a medical surveillance program and in 42 control subjects. Positive samples were classified as suggestive of prior exposure to C. burnetii. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 88 out of 140 (62.9%) exposed workers and in 6 out of 42 (14.3%) subjects of the control group. The variables evaluated did not seem to have a significant effect on seropositivity to Coxiella with the exception of symptoms in the last 6 months preceding the survey. Our study demonstrated a high seroprevalence of C. burnetii in the group of exposed workers in comparison to non-exposed subjects of the control group. Clinical illness appears to be rare; nevertheless, physicians should consider Q fever in patients with compatible symptoms and occupational exposure to animals and their products. As aerosols represent the main route of infection in animals and humans, these workers are strongly advised to wear respiratory masks. In addition, occupational physicians should consider routine serologic evaluation and vaccination of occupationally exposed workers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  7. Acquired dyschromatopsia among petrochemical industry workers exposed to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Eum, Ki Do; Cho, Sung-Il; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Paek, Do Myung

    2007-03-01

    Exposure to organic solvents, which are widely used in industry, can lead to dysfunction of the nervous system. However, controversy continues about the nature of early-stage damage to the nervous system from low-grade chronic exposure to organic solvents. Since loss of color-vision can be a sensitive early marker of neurotoxic damage, the main aim of this study was to investigate the association between low-level chronic exposure to organic solvents, especially benzene, and acquired dyschromatopsia. The study initially comprised 1236 workers who were employed at a large petrochemical distillation factory. After excluding those workers who may have had color-vision impairment due to congenital or acquired eye diseases and those with other medical conditions, 908 males who had worked for at least 6 months were included in the final analysis. Those who worked only in the office were categorized as nonexposed, while those who worked at outside facilities were divided into three groups of approximately equal size according to their estimated cumulative exposure levels to benzene (low, medium, high). Color-vision was assessed using the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel color test. The results showed that the color-confusion index (CCI) was positively related to age. In the qualitative assessment of types of color-vision loss, the prevalence of total dyschromatopsia was significantly higher with increasing cumulative exposure levels in the left eye (pdyschromatopsia was borderline in the left eye (p=0.0571). The relationship between acquired dyschromatopsia and exposure level also showed an increase in the odds ratio in the left eye but not in the right eye. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic low-level exposure to benzene can lead to acquired dyschromatopsia.

  8. Upper respiratory tract diseases in workers exposed to chrysotile-asbestos dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapkovich, E.V.

    A study of morbidity and temporary incapacity to work among workers exposed to chrysotile-asbestos dust combined with examinations of their upper respiratory tract provided the basis for developing scientifically based methods of effective monitoring and treatment for all persons working under dusty conditions. It was found that a 2 mg/m/sup 3/ concentration of chrysotile-asbestos dust causes development of pathologies of the upper respiratory tract in the first years of worker exposure and the pathological processes intensify according to the length of service. The study made it possible to classify workers according to findings from examination of the upper respiratory tract. The classification includes 1 group of workers with low risk of development of upper respiratory pathology from working under dusty conditions and 3 groups which had experienced specific changes in the upper respiratory tract. Group 2 includes persons with catarrhal processes in the upper respiratory tract, chronic tonsillitis and chronic sinusitis; group 3 includes workers with allergic and dystrophic processes in the upper respiratory tract and group 4 includes workers with diffuse hyperplasia (pre-cancerous processes) of the throat. Development of serious changes in the upper respiratory tract of workers exposed to dust must be considered to be an occupational disease, especially in workers with long service. 12 references.

  9. Respiratory, allergy and eye problems in bagasse-exposed sugar cane workers in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascon, Mireia; Kromhout, Hans; Heederik, Dick; Eduard, Wijnand; van Wendel de Joode, Berna

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate bagasse (sugar cane fibres) and microbiological exposure among sugar cane refinery workers in Costa Rica and its relationships with respiratory, allergy and eye problems. Ventilatory lung function and total serum IgE were measured in 104 sugar cane workers in five departments at one refinery before the harvesting season, and repeated for 77 of the workers at the end of the season. Information on the prevalence of respiratory and other symptoms was collected with a standardised questionnaire. During the harvesting season, inhalable dust, endotoxin and mould levels were measured among 74 randomly selected sugar cane workers across departments. During the harvesting season, dust levels were relatively high in some departments, while endotoxin and mould levels were around background levels. Workers' ventilatory lung function differed between departments before, but not during the harvesting season or between seasons. During the harvesting season, the prevalence of wheeze and eye problems almost doubled in workers exposed to bagasse and other types of dust, whereas shortness of breath and rhinitis increased only in bagasse-exposed workers. Reporting wheeze and shortness of breath was positively associated with the number of years working at the refinery, suggesting a long-term health effect. In this refinery, the differences in workers' ventilatory lung function before the harvesting season are unlikely to be explained by bagasse exposure. However, the increase in reported symptoms (wheeze, shortness of breath, eye problems and rhinitis) over the season is likely due to irritation by dust, in particular bagasse, rather than microbiological agents.

  10. Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol.

    OpenAIRE

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Clapp, D E; Halperin, W E; Turner, T. W.; Hornung, R W

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate whether long term exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) may affect semen quality, a cross sectional study was conducted among men exposed to 2EE used as a binder slurry in a metal castings process. Full shift breathing zone exposures to 2EE ranged from non-detectable to 24 ppm (geometric mean 6.6 ppm). Because of the potential for substantial absorption of 2EE through skin exposure, urine measurements of the metabolite of 2EE, 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2EAA) were conducted, showing levels ...

  11. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  12. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  13. Health risk assessment of workers exposed to metals from an aluminium production plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2010-12-01

    Foundry is an industry involved various kinds of metals and chemicals. Workers who work in foundry industry are at risk of exposure to these metals and chemicals. Objective of this study was to conduct quantitative health risk assessment for workers who exposed to metals from an aluminium production industry. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences' four steps of health risk assessment were used to conduct quantitative health risk assessment in this study. This study showed that there were 6 types of metals involved in the aluminium foundry in this study. These metals could cause various health effects but not cancers. Workers were mostly exposed to these metals by inhalation. Calculated reference dose (RfD) for inhalation of aluminium used in this assessment was 0.000015 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of manganese used in this assessment was 0.000002 mg/kg/day. Calculated RfD for inhalation of copper used in this assessment was 0.000028 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of zinc used in this assessment was 0.000083 mg/ kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of magnesium used in this assessment was 0.949833 mg/kg/day. Calculated RID for inhalation of iron used in this assessment was 10.6219 mg/kg/day. Maximum daily doses (MDDs) for workers who exposed to metals measured in this foundry were 0, 0, 0.000463, 0.0000927, 0.000162 and 0 mg/kg/day for manganese, zinc, aluminium, iron, magnesium and copper, respectively. Finally, risk characterization for workers exposed to metals in this aluminium foundry showed that workers in this foundry had 31 times higher risk of developing diseases from aluminium than persons who were not exposed to aluminium. These workers had the same risk of developing diseases from other metals and chemicals as persons who were not exposed to those metals and chemicals. Workers who exposed to aluminium in this aluminium production plant had 31 times risk of developing non-carcinogenic effects from aluminium compared with normal

  14. Alterations in leukocyte telomere length in workers occupationally exposed to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Luoping; Cawthon, Richard M; Smith, Martyn T; Yin, Songnian; Li, Guilan; Hu, Wei; Shen, Min; Rappaport, Stephen; Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Lan, Qing

    2014-10-01

    Exposure to benzene, a known leukemogen and probable lymphomagen, has been demonstrated to result in oxidative stress, which has previously been associated with altered telomere length (TL). TL specifically has been associated with several health outcomes in epidemiologic studies, including cancer risk, and has been demonstrated to be altered following exposure to a variety of chemical agents. To evaluate the association between benzene exposure and TL, we measured TL by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR in 43 workers exposed to high levels of benzene and 43 age and sex-matched unexposed workers in Shanghai, China. Benzene exposure levels were monitored using organic vapor passive dosimetry badges before phlebotomy. The median benzene exposure level in exposed workers was 31 ppm. The mean TL in controls, workers exposed to levels of benzene below the median (≤31 ppm), and above the median (>31 ppm) was 1.26 ± 0.17, 1.25 ± 0.16, and 1.37 ± 0.23, respectively. Mean TL was significantly elevated in workers exposed to >31 ppm of benzene compared with controls (P = 0.03). Our findings provide evidence that high levels of occupational benzene exposure are associated with TL. Environ. Published [2014]. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Effect of Nanoparticles Exposure on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO in Workers Exposed to Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement is a useful diagnostic test of airway inflammation. However, there have been few studies of FENO in workers exposed to nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nanoparticle (NP exposure on FENO and to assess whether the FENO is increased in workers exposed to nanomaterials (NM. In this study, both exposed workers and non-exposed controls were recruited from NM handling plants in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects (exposed group = 241, non-exposed group = 196 completed the FENO and spirometric measurements from 2009–2011. The authors used a control-banding (CB matrix to categorize the risk level of each participant. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, this study found a significant association between risk level 2 of NP exposure and FENO. Furthermore, asthma, allergic rhinitis, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and NF-κB were also significantly associated with FENO. When the multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted for confounders, nano-TiO2 in all of the NM exposed categories had a significantly increased risk in FENO > 35 ppb. This study found associations between the risk level of NP exposure and FENO (particularly noteworthy for Nano-TiO2. Monitoring FENO in the lung could open up a window into the role nitric oxide (NO may play in pathogenesis.

  16. Blood Pressure of Jordanian Workers Chronically Exposed to Noise in Industrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saed Nserat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational studies investigating the association between blood pressure and noise exposure are almost lacking in the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries. Objective: To determine the association between occupational exposure to high level of noise and blood pressure among a group of workers in Jordan. Methods: All workers who had been exposing to noise for at least 3 years in 3 plants in Madaba governorate in Jordan were included in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The occupational noise level was measured with a portable calibrated sound meter. Results: We studied 191 male workers, of whom 145 (75.9% were exposed to a noise level higher than the permissible limit of 85 dBA. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the prevalence of hypertension were significantly higher among those exposed to higher noise level. In multivariate analysis, workers exposed to high level of noise had a significantly higher odds of hypertension compared to those exposed to noise level lower than the permissible limit (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6 to 13.8. The odds of hypertension increased by 17% (95% CI 10% to 30% for each dB increase in noise intensity. Conclusion: Exposure to high level of noise is associated with elevated blood pressure.

  17. Clinical studies of workers exposed to polyvinylchloride dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutar, C A; Gauld, S

    1983-01-01

    A previous study showed that exposure of workers to polyvinylchloride (PVC) dust was associated with the presence of small rounded opacities in the chest radiograph, and also with a small average reduction of the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Studies have now been carried out on selected men to determine the clinical importance of the presence of small rounded opacities and also to identify any clinical or physiological features associated with PVC dust exposure. Among 28 men with small rounded opacities, complaints of persistent bronchial mucous hypersecretion were more common (nine men) than amont 29 men of similar age, smoking habits, and dust exposures (one man, p less than 0.01), and there was a suggestion that the physical sign of late inspiratory crackles was more frequent among men with opacities (seven of 27 men) than the other men (two of 28 men, p less than 0.05). The average lung function of men with opacities was only trivially lower than that of the comparative group and the difference between the groups was not significant. In further studies 13 non-smokers with the highest PVC dust exposure and lowest FEV1 (adjusted for age, height, weight, and dust exposure) were examined. None had an observed FEV1 less than 80% of the predicted value for age and height, and these men did not differ in symptoms, signs, or lung function from non-smokers with low dust exposure and similarly low FEV1. In a similar study of 18 smokers with the highest PVC dust exposures and lowest adjusted FEV1, some men had an observed FEV1 well below 80% of predicted values for non-smokers, but with one exception no clinical or functional differences were found between then and 18 smokers with low dust exposure and similarly low FEV1. The exception was again the presence of end inspiratory crackles on auscultation, which were slightly more frequent among men with the highest dust exposures (seven men) than among those with low exposure (two men, p less than 0.06). We

  18. [Effects of carbon disulfide on cardiovascular system of workers occupationally exposed to carbon disulfide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui-rong; Wang, Si-hua; Wang, Jing; Su, Dong-mei; Gu, Gui-zhen; Cui, Shou-ming; Yu, Shan-fa

    2012-06-01

    To study the effects of long-term exposure to carbon disulfide (SC(2)) on cardiovascular system of workers. The concentrations of CS(2) were detected in the representative workshops with different exposure levels. The indicators related to cardiovascular system were tested in 633 workers occupationally exposed to CS(2), which included blood pressure, electrocardiogram, blood routine (blood RT), cholesterol (TCHO), triglyceride (TG) and so on. The data were analyzed by chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. The exposure concentration of CS(2) for 389 workers was less than or equal to 5 mg/m(3), which for other 244 workers was higher than 5 mg/m(3). The maximum exposure concentration of CS(2) was 15.73 mg/m(3). There were no significant effects of CS(2) on the electrocardiogram, red blood cells, white blood cells, blood platelet, TCHO and TG of workers. However, the positive effects of CS(2) on blood pressure and negative effects of CS(2) on hemoglobin were found. The rates of high TCHO, TG and hypertension in male workers were significantly higher than those in female workers (P 30 years old) (P cardiovascular system of workers.

  19. Refinement of risk assessment of dermally and intermittently exposed pesticide workers : a critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakkert, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory requirements for the registration of pesticides are mainly evolved from concern about dietary exposure and risk, i.e. chronic oral exposure. Pesticide workers, however, are predominantly exposed dermally and intermittently. The present critique provides suggestions for improvement of

  20. The potential DNA toxic changes among workers exposed to antimony trioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shanawany, Safaa; Foda, Nermine; Hashad, Doaa I; Salama, Naglaa; Sobh, Zahraa

    2017-05-01

    Occupational exposure to antimony has gained much interest when specific toxic effects were noticed among workers processing antimony. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential DNA oxidative damage occurring among Egyptian workers occupationally exposed to antimony trioxide. The study was conducted on 25 subjects exposed to antimony trioxide while working in the polymerization process of polyester in Misrayon and Polyester Fiber Company, KafrEldawwar, Beheira, Egypt. Urinary antimony levels were assessed using inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and considered as a biological exposure index. DNA damage and total oxidant capacity (TOC) were assessed using ELISA. DNA damage was detected in the form of increased apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites among antimony trioxide-exposed workers compared to control subjects, but it could not be explained by oxidative mechanisms due to lack of significant correlation between DNA damage and measured TOC. Antimony trioxide might have a genotoxic impact on occupationally exposed workers which could not be attributed to oxidative stress in the studied cases.

  1. Five-year cohort study: emphysematous progression of indium-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki; Uchida, Kazuhiko; Michikawa, Takehiro; Yoshioka, Noriyuki; Hirata, Miyuki; Tanaka, Akiyo

    2014-11-01

    Dose-dependent adverse lung effects due to indium exposure have been reported in a cross-sectional study. This is a 5-year longitudinal cohort study of indium-exposed and unexposed workers, assessing indium exposure levels and its clinical lung effects. From 2008 to 2011, a 5-year follow-up study was conducted on 40 unexposed and 240 workers formerly or currently exposed to indium at 11 factories. Indium exposure was assessed by serum indium (In-S) (μg/L). Lung effects were assessed by subjective symptoms, serum biomarkers, spirometry, and chest high-resolution CT scan. Effect biomarkers used were Krebs von den Lungen and surfactant protein D. Mean values of In-S, Krebs von den Lungen, and surfactant protein D among the workers exposed to indium at baseline declined during the 5-year follow-up by 29.8%, 27.2%, and 27.5%, respectively. Of the exposed subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L, 26.3% experienced emphysematous progression on high-resolution CT scan. Ninety percent (18 of 20) of workers with emphysematous progression during follow-up were current smokers at baseline, and a trend of increasing incidence of emphysematous progression at higher In-S levels was observed among the smokers (P = .005). Emphysematous changes among subjects with In-S levels > 20 μg/L were likely to progress, after adjusting for age, mean duration since initial indium exposure, and smoking history (OR = 10.49, 95% CI = 1.54-71.36). Long-term adverse effects on emphysematous changes were observed. The results suggest workers exposed to indium with In-S levels > 20 μg/L should be immediately removed from exposure.

  2. A study on neurobehavioral performance of workers occupationally exposed to solvent in synthetic resin manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Asim; Tripathi, S R

    2014-01-01

    One major effect of occupational solvent exposure is central nervous system (CNS) impairment, ranging from depression to encephalopathy with cognitive, behavioral changes. Exposures in industries being varied, classification of health outcomes for different exposures is important. This study assessed neurobehavioral performance of synthetic resin manufacturing workers exposed to organic solvent, mainly formalin. This cross-sectional study selected subjects by random selection from all such workers of an Indian city. Questionnaire survey and assessment by a neurobehavioral test battery (NBT) was undertaken. Comparison between actual and allied workers observed significant difference in tweezer dexterity, card sorting and backward memory scores. Significant effect of exposure was observed on tweezer dexterity, card sorting, and hand dynamometer scores. Changes of neurobehavioral performance might occur following solvent exposure and these changes might have a relationship with the quantum of exposure. Periodic examination of workers with NBT is needed for detection of early neurotoxic effects.

  3. Hearing impairment among workers exposed to excessive levels of noise in ginning industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh J Dube

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton ginning workers have a risk of hearing loss due to excessive noise levels at the workplace environment. In this study, estimates of typical sound levels prevailing at the workplace environment and its effects on hearing ability of the exposed workers were made among cotton ginning workers. Data on self-reported health status was collected by a questionnaire survey at 10 cotton ginning industries located at Jalgaon district of Maharashtra state, India. The cotton ginning workers were exposed to continuous noise levels between 89 and 106 dBA. The hearing ability of the subjects was accessed by pure tone audiometry. The results of audiometry show mild, moderate and moderately severe degree of hearing impairment among the cotton ginning workers. The data generated during the study show that hearing loss was significantly associated with period of exposure to the workplace noise (P <0.0001. The prevalence of audiometric hearing impairment defined as a threshold average greater than 25 dB hearing level was 96% for binaural low-frequency average, 97% for binaural mid frequency average and 94% for binaural high-frequency average in the cotton ginning workers. We recommend the compulsory use of personal protective equipment like ear plug by the cotton ginning workers at the workplace environment. A regular maintenance of ginning and pressing machineries will avoid the emission of excessive noise at the workplace environment of cotton gins. A regular periodic medical examination is necessary to measure the impact of workplace noise on the health of cotton ginning workers.

  4. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaITl (8 x 4”), and thyroid one, NaITl (3 x 3”). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that was not exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2010 to December 2014, approximately 4500 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  5. Whole-body measurements of workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Joaquim Carlos S.; Xavier, Marcos, E-mail: jcardoso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The intake of radioactive material by workers can occur in the radiopharmaceuticals production, during the handling of these in the medical fields (nuclear medicine) and in biological and research laboratories. The workers who work in areas where exposures are significant are routinely monitored to demonstrate that the workers are receiving adequate protection from internal contamination. Direct measurements of whole-body and thyroid contents provide an estimate of the activity of these radionuclides in the potentially exposed workers. The whole-body measurements of the workers, trainees and visitors are routinely performed by the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The frequency of measurements is defined by the Radioprotection Service (SRP) and the Dose Calculation Group of IPEN. For this purpose LMIV has two counters, whole body. NaIT1 (8x4″), and thyroid one, NaIT1 (3x3″). The system was calibrated in energy and efficiency, with calibration sources of Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 with gamma emissions between 59.54 and 1408.08 keV, positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. The background measures were obtained of worker's spectrum that wasn't exposed occupationally yet. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. During the period January 2007 to December 2012, approximately 6700 measurements had been carried in workers who develop tasks related to the production and research. The activities of the radionuclides and the workers' tasks relationship had been evaluated. (author)

  6. Prediction models and risk assessment for silicosis using a retrospective cohort study among workers exposed to silica in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tse, Lap Ah; Dai, Juncheng; Chen, Minghui; Liu, Yuewei; Zhang, Hao; Wong, Tze Wai; Leung, Chi Chiu; Kromhout, Hans; Meijer, Evert; Liu, Su; Wang, Feng; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a prognostic risk prediction model for the development of silicosis among workers exposed to silica dust in China. The prediction model was performed by using retrospective cohort of 3,492 workers exposed to silica in an iron ore, with 33 years of follow-up. We developed a

  7. Sperm quality and DNA integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Chao, Mu-Rong; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Zhou, Guodong; Chou, Chon-Kit; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-18

    The objective of this study was to assess sperm quality and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity of coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as compared to control subjects. The coke oven workers (N = 52) and administrative staff (N = 35) of a steel plant served as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Exposure to PAHs was assessed by measuring 1-hydroxypyren. Analysis of sperm quality (concentration, motility, vitality, and morphology) was performed simultaneously with sperm DNA integrity analysis, including DNA fragmentation, denaturation, bulky DNA adducts, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo). A questionnaire was conducted to collect demographic and potential confounding data. The coke oven workers had lower percentages of sperm motility, vitality and normal morphology than the control group, but the difference was not significant. For DNA integrity, the coke oven workers had significantly higher concentrations of bulky DNA adducts and 8-oxo-dGuo than the control subjects (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively). However, DNA fragmentation percentages did not significantly increase as compared to those in the subjects from the control group (p = 0.232). There was no correlation between sperm quality parameters and DNA integrity indicators. Occupational exposure of the coke oven workers to PAHs was associated with decreased sperm DNA integrity. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):915-926.

  8. Comparison of renal function and psychomotor performance in workers exposed to elemental mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roels, H.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Bernard, A.; Barthels, A.; Oversteyns, M.; Gaussin, J.

    1982-04-01

    Renal function and psychomotor performance (eye-hand coordination, arm-hand steadiness) of a group of 43 workers exposed to mercury vapor were examined. Their mean age and average duration of exposure to mercury were 38 and 5 years, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained in a matched group of 47 control workers. Increased proteinuria and albuminuria were found slightly more prevalent in the Hg-exposed group than in the control workers. The scores of the psychomotor tests were less satisfactory in the Hg workers than in the control workers, the arm-hand steadiness test being more discriminative than the eye-hand coordination test. Preclinical changes in psychomotor function can be detected independently of the presence of signs of renal dysfunction. No clear-cut relationships were found between the prevalence of abnormal psychomotor scores and the level of mercury in blood (HgB) or in urine (HgU). Increased prevalences of abnormal psychomotor scores seem however to occur for HgB between 1 and 2 ..mu..g/100 ml and for HgU between 50 and 100 ..mu..g/g creatinine. Therefore, a biologic threshold limit value of 50 ..mu..g/g creatinine is proposed for urinary mercury to prevent the development of preclinical effects on the central nervous system. A similar critical HgU level based on renal dysfunction prevalences has been suggested in a previous study.

  9. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Montserrat García; Castañeda, Rosario; López, Vega García; Vidal, Manuel Martínez; Villanueva, Vicent; Espinosa, Mercedes Elvira

    2012-01-01

    Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA]) with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers) provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. [Health care status of female workers exposed to occupational hazards in Haidian district of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiang-hua; Wang, Zi-yun; Lin, Ying; Cong, Ze; Liu, Yong-quan; Wu, Qi; Wan, Ling; Wang, Xiu-rong; Du, Xiao-ning; Cai, Yuan-yuan; Wang, Hong-bo; Shi, Fu-li; Di, Jiang-li; Li, Li-juan; Tao, Yong-xian

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the health care status of female workers exposed to occupational hazards in Haidian district of Beijing and improve the labor protection of female workers. A questionnaire provided by National Center for Women and Children's Health of Chinese CDC was used in the survey conducted to collect information about health care status of female workers in 141 factories with occupational hazards including chemical poisons and physical factors (noise, libration, microwave, high frequency and low temperature). 141 factories were investigated, including 53 state-owned enterprises, 21 collective enterprises, 46 joint-stock enterprises, and 21 non-public enterprises. 12 251 female workers were surveyed, 10.19% (1249/12 251) of whom were exposed to occupational hazards. Of 141 factories studied, 16.31% (23/141) had no labor protection management organization.27.66% (39/141) did not provide pre-employment physical examination service to female workers.48.94% (69/141) didn't establish labor protection system for female workers in menstrual period. While, 21.28% (30/141) of the studied institutes deducted some salaries in the pregnancy, and 32.62% (46/141) deducted their wages during the puerperal period. 2.13% (3/141) arranged female workers in the posts which are forbidden by law (continuous heavy work load operation).9.93% (14/141) arranged pregnant female workers on the post forbidden by law.31.91% (45/141) and 33.33% (47/141) would deduct the time of prenatal medical examination and lactation from their working hours, respectively.39.01% (55/141) didn't afford the cost of fertility. 68.09% (96/141) had annual gynecological examination.45 factories were collected occupational examination reports, accounted for 31.91% (45/141). No female workers were found suffering from occupational disease. Of the 1865 occupational hazard factor monitoring points in 34 factories, there were 155 monitoring points, which were all noise monitoring points, did not meet the standard

  11. Genotoxicity and oxidative stress in chromium-exposed tannery workers in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambreen, Khushboo; Khan, Faizan Haider; Bhadauria, Smrati; Kumar, Sudhir

    2014-06-01

    Trivalent chromium (Cr) is an environmental contaminant, which is extensively used in tanning industries throughout the world and causes various forms of health hazards in tannery workers. Therefore, a cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate the DNA damage and oxidative stress condition in tannery workers exposed to Cr in North India. The study population comprised 100 male tanners in the exposed group and 100 healthy males (no history of Cr exposure) in the comparable control group. Baseline characteristics including age, smoking, alcohol consumption habits and duration of exposure were recorded via interviewing the subjects. Blood Cr level (measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry), DNA damage (measured by comet assay) and oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were estimated in both the groups. As a result of statistical analysis, exposed group showed significantly higher level of Cr (p  0.05) on DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters in both the groups. In simple and multiple correlation analysis, DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters showed significant correlation with Cr level and duration of exposure in exposed group. The findings of the present study revealed that chronic occupational exposure to trivalent Cr may cause DNA damage and oxidative stress in tannery workers. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  13. Respiratory Abnormalities among Occupationally Exposed, Non-Smoking Brick Kiln Workers from Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Tandon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brick manufacturing industry is one of the oldest and fast-growing industries in India that employs a large section of people. Brick kiln workers are occupationally exposed to air pollutants. Nonetheless, only a few studies have so far been conducted on their respiratory health. Objective: To investigate the extent of respiratory impairment in brick kiln workers and to correlate it with the duration of exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted. Spirometric parameters of 110 non-smoking male brick kiln workers aged 18–35 years in Patiala district, Punjab, India, were compared with an age-matched comparison group of 90 unexposed individuals. Results: Brick kiln workers showed a significant (p8 years of exposure, the mean values of FEV1 (1.92 L, FVC (2.01 L, FEF25-75% (2.19 L/s and PEFR (4.81 L/s were significantly (p<0.05 lower than those recorded in workers with <8 years of exposure in whom the values were 2.01 L, 2.68 L, 2.71 L/s, and 5.76 L/s, respectively. Conclusion: There is a significant association between exposure to workplace pollutants and lung function deterioration among brick kiln workers.

  14. Silicosis in Workers Exposed to Artificial Quartz Conglomerates: Does It Differ From Chronic Simple Silicosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Valentina; Romeo, Riccardo; Sisinni, Antonietta Gerardina; Bartoli, Dusca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Sartorelli, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a number of reports have been published on silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates containing high levels of crystalline silica particles (70-90%) used in the construction of kitchen and bathroom surfaces. Three cases of silicosis in workers exposed to artificial quartz conglomerates are reported. The diagnosis was derived from both the International Labour Office and the International Classification of HRCT for Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) classifications and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In 2 cases, levels of respirable silica greatly in excess of recommended standards were measured in the workplace, and cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid highlighted a prevalence of lymphocytes, meeting criteria for the diagnosis of accelerated silicosis. The prevention of pneumoconiosis caused by the use of innovative materials, such as artificial conglomerates with high crystalline silica content must be addressed. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced pulmonary function and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in nanoscale carbon black-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Dai, Yufei; Zhang, Xiao; Niu, Yong; Meng, Tao; Li, Yuanyuan; Duan, Huawei; Bin, Ping; Ye, Meng; Jia, Xiaowei; Shen, Meili; Yu, Shanfa; Yang, Xiaofa; Gao, Weimin; Zheng, Yuxin

    2014-12-14

    Although major concerns exist regarding the potential consequences of human exposures to nanoscale carbon black (CB) particles, limited human toxicological data is currently available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if nanoscale CB particles could be responsible, at least partially, for the altered lung function and inflammation observed in CB workers exposed to nanoscale CB particles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller were used to characterize CB. Eighty-one CB-exposed male workers and 104 non-exposed male workers were recruited. The pulmonary function test was performed and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. To further assess the deposition and pulmonary damage induced by CB nanoparticles, male BALB/c mice were exposed to CB for 6 hours per day for 7 or 14 days. The deposition of CB and the pathological changes of the lung tissue in mice were evaluated by paraffin sections and TEM. The cytokines levels in serum and lung tissue of mice were evaluated by ELISA and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). SEM and TEM images showed that the CB particles were 30 to 50 nm in size. In the CB workplace, the concentration of CB was 14.90 mg/m³. Among these CB particles, 50.77% were less than 0.523 micrometer, and 99.55% were less than 2.5 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter. The reduction of lung function parameters including FEV1%, FEV/FVC, MMF%, and PEF% in CB workers was observed, and the IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1beta, and TNF- alpha had 2.86-, 6.85-, 1.49-, 3.35-, and 4.87-folds increase in serum of CB workers, respectively. In mice exposed to the aerosol CB, particles were deposited in the lung. The alveolar wall thickened and a large amount of inflammatory cells were observed in lung tissues after CB exposure. IL-6 and IL-8 levels were increased in both serum and lung homogenate. The data strongly suggests that nanoscale CB particles could be responsible for the lung function

  16. Compensation for damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Sobehart, L J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this report is to analyze the possibility to establish a scheme to compensate damage to workers health exposed to ionizing radiation in Argentina for those cases in which it is possible to assume that the exposure to ionizing radiation is the cause of the cancer suffered by the worker. The proposed scheme is based on the recommendations set out in the 'International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection: Protecting Workers against Exposure to Ionization Radiation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, August 26-30, 2002. To this end, the study analyzes the present state of scientific knowledge on cancer causation due to genotoxic factors, and the accepted form of the doses-response curve, for the human beings exposure to ionization radiation at low doses with low doses rates. Finally, the labor laws and regulations related to damage compensation; in particular the present Argentine Labor Law; the National Russian Federal Occupational Radiological Health Impairment and Workmen Compensation, t...

  17. Biological monitoring of aromatic diisocyanates in workers exposed to thermal degradation products of polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Christina; Nikkilä, Kirsi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Peltonen, Kimmo; Engströrm, Kerstin

    2002-10-01

    Exposure to diisocyanates was assessed by biological monitoring among workers exposed to the thermal degradation products of polyurethanes (PURs) in five PUR-processing environments. The processes included grinding and welding in car repair shops, milling and turning of PUR-coated metal cylinders, injection moulding of thermoplastic PUR, welding and cutting of PUR-insulated district heating pipes during installation and joint welding, and heat-flexing of PUR floor covering. Isocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples were analysed as perfluoroacylated derivatives by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the aromatic diamines 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-MDA) were 0.25 nmol l(-1), 0.25 nmol l(-1) and 0.15 nmol l(-1), respectively. The LOQ for the aliphatic diamines hexamethylenediamine (HDA), isophoronediamine (IpDA) and 4,4'-diaminodicyclohexyl methane (4,4'-DDHM) was 5 nmol l(-1). TDA and MDA were detected in urine samples from workers in car repair shops and MDA in samples from workers welding district heating pipes. The 2,4-TDA isomer accounted for about 80% of the total TDA detected. No 2.6-TDA was found in the urine of non-exposed workers. The highest measured urinary TDA and MDA concentrations were 0.79 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine and 3.1 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine, respectively. The concentrations found among non-exposed workers were 0.08 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for TDA and 0.05 nmol mmol(-1) creatinine for MDA (arithmetic means). Exposure to diisocyanates originating from the thermal degradation of PURs are often intermittent and of short duration. Nevertheless, exposure to aromatic diisocyanates can be identified by monitoring diisocyanate-derived amines in acid-hydrolysed urine samples.

  18. Thalamic GABA predicts fine motor performance in manganese-exposed smelter workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyang Long

    Full Text Available Overexposure to manganese (Mn may lead to parkinsonian symptoms including motor deficits. The main inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is known to play a pivotal role in the regulation and performance of movement. Therefore this study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that an alteration of GABA following Mn exposure may be associated with fine motor performance in occupationally exposed workers and may underlie the mechanism of Mn-induced motor deficits. A cohort of nine Mn-exposed male smelter workers from an Mn-iron alloy factory and 23 gender- and age-matched controls were recruited and underwent neurological exams, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS measurements, and Purdue pegboard motor testing. Short-echo-time MRS was used to measure N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA and myo-inositol (mI. GABA was detected with a MEGA-PRESS J-editing MRS sequence. The mean thalamic GABA level was significantly increased in smelter workers compared to controls (p = 0.009. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals (1 a significant association between the increase in GABA level and the duration of exposure (R(2 = 0.660, p = 0.039, and (2 significant inverse associations between GABA levels and all Purdue pegboard test scores (for summation of all scores R(2 = 0.902, p = 0.001 in the smelter workers. In addition, levels of mI were reduced significantly in the thalamus and PCC of smelter workers compared to controls (p = 0.030 and p = 0.009, respectively. In conclusion, our results show clear associations between thalamic GABA levels and fine motor performance. Thus in Mn-exposed subjects, increased thalamic GABA levels may serve as a biomarker for subtle deficits in motor control and may become valuable for early diagnosis of Mn poisoning.

  19. Serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjiang He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study has been to investigate serum activities of liver enzymes in workers exposed to sub-TLV levels of dimethylformamide (DMF. Material and Methods: Seventy-two workers and 72 healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects underwent complete physical examinations and abdominal ultrasound examination. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and c-glutamyl transpeptidase (c-GT were determined by an auto-chemistry analyzer. The data of airborne concentrations of DMF was obtained from the local Center of Disease Control and Prevention. The level of urine N-acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoylcysteine (AMCC was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Time weighted average (TWA concentration of the DMF in workplace was 18.6 (range: 9.8–36.2 mg/m3. The concentration of the AMCC in workers’ urine was 28.32 (range: 1.8–58.6 mg/l and 9 workers’ AMCC exceeded the biological exposure index (40 mg/l. Thirty-one workers reported gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, anorexia and 10 workers reported headache, dizziness and/or palpitation in the exposed group. Serum analysis revealed that both the mean of serum activities of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and c-GT and the percentage of workers with abnormal liver function were significantly higher in the exposed group as compared to the controls. Conclusions: Dimethylformamide can cause liver damage even if air concentration is in the sub-threshold limit value (sub-TLV level. The protection of skin contact against the exposure to the DMF might be a critical issue as far as the occupational health is concerned.

  20. Lung function and IFN-gamma levels in the sera of silica-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatli, Mehmet; Tuna, Handan T; Yenisey, Cigdem; Serter, Mukadder; Cildag, Orhan

    2008-05-01

    Excessive exposure to respirable particles of crystalline silica is an occupational health problem in developing countries and can cause a variety of pulmonary diseases, such as silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and malignancy, in susceptible hosts. In addition to the well-documented role of pulmonary macrophages, lymphocytes occasionally have been suggested to influence the pneumoconiotic process, but their potential role is not clearly understood. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), a lymphocyte cytokine, is recognized as the most important cytokine in converting macrophages from a resting to an activated state. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum IFN-gamma levels and pulmonary function changes in silica-exposed workers and in silicosis. Twenty-seven silica workers (aged 35.6 +/- 8.2 years with 5.11 +/- 2.98 years exposure duration) and 18 unexposed office workers (aged 33.8 +/- 12 years) were included in the study. Mean spirometry parameters and smoking history were comparable to the values of the office workers, but COPD prevalence was higher in the silica-exposed group, and the age-adjusted ratio was more sensitive than fixed quotient criteria for airway obstruction. We found silicosis in 4 silica workers. The mean serum IFN-gamma level was increased in silica-exposed workers (10.22 +/- 22.68 pg/mL) although it was undetectable in all office workers and even in the workers with silicosis. Evaluating pulmonary function tests (PFT) using an age-adjusted quotient may prevent underestimation of airflow limitation, especially in the young population with risk factors. Although serum IFN-gamma may increase initially in response to silica, low levels of IFN-gamma in later stages may be considered a risk factor for silicosis because this cytokine downregulates the fibroblast responses to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and decreases collagen production. Additional research to determine the exact role of this potent

  1. Use of color charts for the diagnosis of finger whiteness in vibration-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Corrado; Rui, Francesca; D'Agostin, Flavia; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2008-04-01

    To assess the usefulness of color charts for the diagnosis of finger whiteness in vibration-exposed workers. A group of 146 forestry and stone workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) were examined twice over 1 year follow up period. The anamnestic diagnosis of finger whiteness was made on the basis of (a) a medical history alone, and (b) the administration color charts which showed changes in the skin color of fingers and hands. The cold response of digital arteries was assessed by measuring the change in finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) after local cooling from 30 to 10 degrees C (FSBP%(10 degrees )). Assuming the administration of color charts as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the medical history alone to diagnose finger whiteness was 88.2 and 93.8%, respectively, at the initial cross-sectional study and 94.4 and 97.7% at the end of the follow-up. Random-intercept linear regression analysis of follow up data showed that after adjustment for several covariates, FSBP%(10 degrees )was significantly associated with finger whiteness assessed by either medical history alone (P cold response of digital arteries. The administration of color charts seems to reduce the proportion of false positive responses for finger whiteness in a population of vibration-exposed workers. The color chart method was a more significant predictor of digital arterial hyperresponsiveness to cold than medical history alone. These findings suggest that the use of color charts in clinical and epidemiological studies may be of help to assist in the diagnosis of finger whiteness in vibration-exposed workers.

  2. Markers of early renal changes induced by industrial pollutants. II. Application to workers exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, A; Roels, H; Bernard, A M; Barbon, R; Buchet, J P; Lauwerys, R R; Roselló, J; Ramis, I; Mutti, A; Franchini, I

    1993-01-01

    The present study has been carried out in the framework of a collaborative research project on the development of new markers of nephrotoxicity. A battery of more than 20 potential indicators of renal changes has been applied to 50 workers exposed to lead (Pb) and 50 control subjects. After application of selection criteria 41 exposed and 41 control workers were eventually retained for the final statistical analysis. The average blood Pb concentration of exposed workers was 480 micrograms/l and their mean duration of exposure was 14 years. The battery of tests included parameters capable of detecting functional deficits (for example, urinary proteins of low or high molecular weight), biochemical alterations (for example, urinary eicosanoids, glycosaminoglycans, sialic acid) or cell damage (for example, urinary tubular antigens or enzymes) at different sites of the nephron or the kidney. The most outstanding effect found in workers exposed to Pb was an interference with the renal synthesis of eicosanoids, resulting in lower urinary excretion of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and an enhanced excretion of thromboxane (TXB2). The health significance of these biochemical alterations, detectable at low exposure to Pb is unknown. As they were not associated with any sign of renal dysfunction, they may represent reversible biochemical effects or only contribute to the degradation of the renal function from the onset of clinical Pb nephropathy. The urinary excretion of some tubular antigens was also positively associated with duration of exposure to Pb. Another effect of Pb that might deserve further study is a significant increase in urinary sialic acid concentration. PMID:8431388

  3. Sensitisation to common allergens and respiratory symptoms in endotoxin exposed workers: a pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basinas, Ioannis; Schlünssen, Vivi; Heederik, Dick

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test the hypotheses that current endotoxin exposure is inversely associated with allergic sensitisation and positively associated with non-allergic respiratory diseases in four occupationally exposed populations using a standardised analytical approach. Methods Data were pooled from....... Heterogeneity was primarily present for biofuel workers. Conclusions Occupational endotoxin exposure has a protective effect on allergic sensitisation and hay fever but increases the risk for organic dust toxic syndrome and chronic bronchitis. Endotoxin's protective effects are most clearly observed among...

  4. Post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed firefighters and emergency medical service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Mayris P; Yip, Jennifer; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Moir, William; Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Hall, Charles B; Jaber, Nadia; Weiden, Michael D; Matteson, Eric L; Prezant, David J

    2017-06-07

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster released a huge quantity and variety of toxicants into the environment. To-date, studies from each of the three major cohorts of WTC-exposed workers have suggested "greater than expected" numbers of post-9/11 cases in some workers. We undertook this study to estimate the incidence of post-9/11 sarcoidosis in ∼13,000 male firefighters and EMS workers enrolled in The Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) WTC Health Program; to compare FDNY incidence to rates from unexposed, demographically similar men in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP); and, to examine rates by level of WTC exposure. We calculated incidence of sarcoidosis diagnosed from 9/12/2001 to 9/11/2015, and generated expected sex- and age-specific rates based on REP rates. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) based on REP rates, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated. Two sensitivity analyses limited cases to those with intra-thoracic symptoms or biopsy confirmation. We identified 68 post-9/11 cases in the FDNY cohort. Overall, FDNY rates were significantly higher than expected rates (SIR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.2, 3.6). Including only symptomatic cases, the SIR decreased (SIR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 3.0), but remained significantly elevated. SIRs ranged from 2.7 (95% CI = 2.0, 3.5) in the lower WTC exposure group to 4.2 (95% CI = 1.9, 8.0) in the most highly exposed. We found excess incident post-9/11 sarcoidosis in WTC-exposed workers. Continued surveillance, particularly of those most highly exposed, is necessary to identify those with sarcoidosis and to follow them for possible adverse effects including functional impairments and organ damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of workers exposed to low levels of styrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordenson, I.; Beckman, L.

    1984-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations were studied in lymphocytes of 15 workers exposed to styrene and 13 controls. The average styrene concentration in the work room air was 24 ppm, and the levels of urinary mandelic acid were below 2 mmol/l. No significant increase in the rates of gaps and breaks was found. However, the rate of micronuclei was significantly increased, which indicates that the mitotic spindle mechanism may be more sensitive to styrene and its metabolites than DNA.

  6. Hemoglobinopatias em trabalhadores expostos à riscos ocupacionais Hemoglobinopathies in workers exposed to occupational hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac L. Silva Filho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobinopathies have been considered the most frequent hereditary disease in Brazilian population, constituting a Public Health problem. This paper reports on screening in workers at FIOCRUZ-RJ., exposed to some hazards factors such as, chemical substances, radiation, excessive cold and heat etc., with the objective of evaluating the impact of these factors in carriers of hemoglobinopathies, mainly in sickle cell trait (AS.

  7. Determination of isocyanate specific albumin-adducts in workers exposed to toluene diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Gabriele; Gu, Qi; Vanimireddy, Lakshiminiranjan Reddy

    2012-03-01

    Toluene diisocyanates (2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI) are important intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main damages after low levels of TDI exposure are lung sensitization and asthma. It is therefore necessary to have sensitive and specific methods to monitor isocyanate exposure of workers. Urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to TDI. However, with these methods it was not possible to determine if the biomarkers result from exposure to TDI or to the corresponding toluene diamines (TDA). This work presents a new procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in albumin present in workers exposed to TDI. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI formed adducts with lysine: N(ϵ)-[({3-amino-4-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, N(ϵ)-[({5-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, and N(ϵ)- [({3-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine. In future studies, this new method can be applied to measure TDI-exposures in workers.

  8. Differential pattern of deposition of nanoparticles in the airways of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fireman, Elizabeth, E-mail: fireman@tlvmc.gov.il [Tel Aviv University, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases (Israel); Edelheit, Rinat [Tel Aviv University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Stark, Moshe [Tel Aviv University, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases (Israel); Shai, Amir Bar [Tel Aviv University, Pulmonology Department, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter <100 nm), UFP are able to deposit deep within the lung after inhalation and evade many mechanisms responsible for the clearance of larger particles. There is a lack of biologically relevant personal exposure metrics for exposure to occupational- and environmental-related micro- and nano-sized PM. The aim of the present study is to assess UFP in induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as possible biomarkers for assessing lung function impairment. Sputum induction and EBC testing were performed by conventional methods. UFP particles were assessed with the NanoSight LM20 (NanoSight Ltd, London, UK). The subjects included 35 exposed and 25 non-exposed workers. There were no group differences in pulmonary function test results and differential cell counts, but 63.6% of the exposed subjects had a higher percentage of neutrophils (OR3.28 p = 0.03) compared to the non-exposed subjects. The exposed subjects had higher percentages of UFP between 10 and 50 nm (69.45 ± 18.70 vs 60.11 ± 17.52 for the non-exposed group, p = 0.004). No differences were found in the IS samples. Years of exposure correlated positively to UFP content (r = 0.342 p = 0.01) and macrophage content (r = −0.327 p = 0.03). The percentage of small fraction of UFP in EBC, but not IS, is higher in exposed workers, and EBC may be a sensitive biomarker to assess exposure to nanoparticles.

  9. [Meta-analysis: cardiovascular effects in workers occupationally exposed to urban pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, A; Caciari, T; Di Famiani, M; Vitarelli, A; Rosati, M V; Samperi, I; Panfili, A; Cialone, P; Tomei, G; Tomei, F

    2010-01-01

    Many studies showed a connection between exposition to high levels of urban pollution (especially to particulate and traffic noise) and the onset of even deadly cardiovascular diseases. Meta-analysis of case-control design. The aim of this study is to estimate the association between cardiovascular effects and occupational exposition to atmospheric pollution in urban environment. Biomedcentral, MEDLINE/ PubMed, MEDLINE/ National Library of Medicine (NLM), MEDLINE Plus, Nioshtic-2, Scopus, TOXNET/Toxline, unpublished studies known by the authors and acts of national and international conferences between 1988 and May 2010 included. There has not been any kind of language or typological restriction. CRITERIA OF ELEGIBILITY: The research on cardiovascular effects includes control cases of workers exposed to urban pollution, compared with non-exposed subjects. The selected studies present outdoor workers exposed to urban pollution (drivers and petrol pump attendants) and a control group of indoor workers (managers, university students and other selected subjects). The evidences (independently token from two different authors) have been grouped in two classes, the first one formed by continuous variables (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and the second one by discontinuous variables (electrocardiographic abnormalities prevalence, hypertension prevalence, hypercholesterolemia prevalence). The studies related to both classes and presenting more than one variable for each class have been included and used, in order to elaborate the results. We calculated heterogeneity in each variable (ES calculation for continuous variables and OR calculation for discontinuous variables). On 378 publications, we have selected and included 16 articles. The variables show statistically irrelevant differences between exposed group and control group, except regarding the triglycerides. The

  10. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  11. [Association of genetic polymorphism of XPD with chromosomal damage in workers exposed to radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xue-Yun; Jin, Yu-Lan; Yao, San-Qiao; Bai, Yu-Ping; Wu, Xu-Mei; Ren, Da-Wei; Pen, Jian

    2007-12-01

    To explore association genetic polymorphism of XPD with chromosomal damage in workers exposed to radiation. 182 workers exposed to radiation for at least one year with chromosomal damage were selected as cases based on a general health examination for all workers exposed to radiation in Tangshan city. The control group without chromosomal damage was matched to case by age (within 5 years), sex, work unit, type of exposed to radiation, cumulate serve length (within 1 year) according to 1:1. The micro whole blood cultivation was used for the chromosome analysis. The chromosome aberration type and rate were observed and counted. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to examine the genotype of three XPD loci (751, 312 and 156). The frequency of XPD 751 AA in cases was higher than that in controls (P 0.05). 156 mutant gene type in case group was higher than that in the control groups. The frequency of 156 A allele in case group were higher than that of the control groups (P < 0.05). The frequency of genotype with both 751AA and 156CA or 751AA and 156AA was higher in cases than that of controls (P < 0.05). XPD 751AA genotype is a possible risk factor for radiation-induced chromosomal damage. XPD 156 mutant gene type is a possible risk factor for radiation-induced chromosomal damage. Individuals with both XPD 751AA and 156 (CA+AA) genotypes are susceptible to radiation-induced chromosomal damage. No association of XPD 312 polymorphism with radiation-induced chromosomal damage is found.

  12. Clinical, cytogenetic and toxicological studies in rural workers exposed to pesticides in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Marcia Bréga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can cause gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in exposed individuals. We have investigated 24 workers exposed to pesticides. Clinical examinations and cytogenetic and toxicological tests were performed. Ten non-exposed individuals were used as controls. Toxicological dosages of copper, zinc and manganese (metals found in some pesticides, hepatic enzyme dosage (GOT, GPT, AR and acetylcholinesterase activity were performed in 16 workers and 8 controls. In the exposed workers, the most relevant clinical symptoms were poor digestion with fullness sensation after meals, irritated eyes, headache and fasciculations. The exposed group showed significantly lower manganese dosage and acetylcholinesterase activity, and significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase. Cytogenetic studies showed significantly higher chromosomal aberrations in the exposed group compared to the control group. Although the workers used protection against the pesticide's fog, the results revealed that the workers were contaminated with the pesticides. Therefore, the cytogenetic, toxicological studies with clinical examination are necessary for monitoring workers who are exposed to pesticides in any situation.

  13. Liver functions in silica-exposed workers in Egypt: possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawilla, Nermin; Taha, Fatma; Ibrahim, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brick manufacturing constitutes an important industrial sector in Egypt with considerable exposure to silica. Objectives: We aimed for evaluating hepatic functions in silica-exposed workers in the clay brick industry, and the possible role of matrix remodeling and immunological factors. Methods: A case–control study, 87 workers as exposed and 45 as control subjects. Questionnaire, clinical examination, and laboratory investigations: liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9, immunoglobulins G and E, and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody. Results: In the exposed workers, mean levels of liver functions, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and IgG and IgE were significantly higher. In the silicotic subgroup the mean level of GGT was almost twice the level in the non-silicotic subjects. Logistic regression showed that abnormal GGT and ALT were associated with production workers. Conclusion: Workers in the clay brick industry showed evidence of liver disease that could be related to matrix remodeling. PMID:24999850

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of formaldehyde in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peteffi, Giovana Piva; da Silva, Luciano Basso; Antunes, Marina Venzon; Wilhelm, Camila; Valandro, Eduarda Trevizani; Glaeser, Jéssica; Kaefer, Djeine; Linden, Rafael

    2016-10-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical widely used in the furniture industry and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occupational exposure of workers to FA at a furniture manufacturing facility and the relationship between environmental concentrations of FA, formic acid concentration in urine, and DNA damage. The sample consisted of 46 workers exposed to FA and a control group of 45 individuals with no history of occupational exposure. Environmental concentrations of FA were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Urinary formic acid concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. DNA damage was evaluated by the micronucleus (MN) test performed in exfoliated buccal cells and comet assay with venous blood. The 8-h time-weighted average of FA environmental concentration ranged from 0.03 ppm to 0.09 ppm at the plant, and the control group was exposed to a mean concentration of 0.012 ppm. Workers exposed to higher environmental FA concentrations had urinary formic acid concentrations significantly different from those of controls (31.85 mg L(-1) vs. 19.35 mg L(-), p ≤ 0.01 Mann-Whitney test). Significant differences were found between control and exposed groups for the following parameters: damage frequency and damage index in the comet assay, frequency of binucleated cells in the MN test, and formic acid concentration in urine. The frequency of micronuclei, nuclear buds, and karyorrhexis did not differ between groups. There was a positive correlation between environmental concentrations of FA and damage frequency (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [r s] = 0.24), damage index (r s = 0.21), binucleated cells (r s = 0.34), and urinary formic acid concentration (r s = 0.63). The results indicate that, although workers in the furniture manufacturing facility were exposed to low environmental levels of FA, this agent contributes to the observed increase in

  15. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  16. Study of hematological indices in tannery workers exposed to chromium in Sheikhupura (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzan, Muhammad; Malik, Muhammad Anwar; Iqbal, Zaheer; Arshad, Najma; Khan, Shafaat Yar; Arshad, Muhammad

    2011-10-01

    Chromium (Cr), being an excellent tanning agent, is widely used in the leather industry and tannery workers (TW) are exposed to it either in the form of inorganic Cr(III) compounds or Cr bound to proteins (leather dust) in the process of leather production. During the present study, the effect of Cr on the hematological indices in TW was evaluated. In this study, hematological indices of 92 male TW aged 20-60 years were compared with 79 control males who hardly had a chance of exposure to chromium. Both groups were subdivided into four age groups with an interval of 10: group A, 20-29 years; group B, 30-39 years; group C, 40-49 years; group D, 50-60 years. Total erythrocyte count (TEC) was significantly lower (p tannery workers and may act as indicators of chromium toxicity.

  17. Occupational toxicology study emphasizing the cytotoxic and mutagenic activity among workers exposed to gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourran Paula Lacerda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed to examine the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of gasoline on exfoliated buccal mucosa cells among gas station attendants. The study was conducted through data survey, application of health questionnaires, and cytogenetic analysis, by applying the micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. The population under study consisted of the Test Group, made up by 20 attendants, exposed to gasoline, in the city of Picos, Piauí, Brazil, and a Control Group, made up by 20 previously selected individuals. The results of this study showed that the frequency of micronuclei and cell death among individuals exposed to gasoline has been statistically significant (p < 0.001 when compared to the non-exposed group. This substance also induced cytotoxicity in the oral epithelium of exposed individuals (p < 0.001, by increasing the frequency of binucleated cells. These results are similar to those reported in the literature, regarding the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of this additive. Furthermore, it was observed that none of the subjects in the Test Group has used personal protective equipment (PPE and they do not know the toxic action of these compounds. Thus, there is a need for providing information to the exposed workers on the mutagenic and cytotoxic action of gasoline, emphasizing the importance of using PPE, in view of the risk posed to health that such exposure can bring.

  18. Occupational toxicology study emphasizing the cytotoxic and mutagenic activity among workers exposed to gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourran Paula Lacerda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p135 This article aimed to examine the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of gasoline on exfoliated buccal mucosa cells among gas station attendants. The study was conducted through data survey, application of health questionnaires, and cytogenetic analysis, by applying the micronucleus test in oral mucosa cells. The population under study consisted of the Test Group, made up by 20 attendants, exposed to gasoline, in the city of Picos, Piauí, Brazil, and a Control Group, made up by 20 previously selected individuals. The results of this study showed that the frequency of micronuclei and cell death among individuals exposed to gasoline has been statistically significant (p < 0.001 when compared to the non-exposed group. This substance also induced cytotoxicity in the oral epithelium of exposed individuals (p < 0.001, by increasing the frequency of binucleated cells. These results are similar to those reported in the literature, regarding the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of this additive. Furthermore, it was observed that none of the subjects in the Test Group has used personal protective equipment (PPE and they do not know the toxic action of these compounds. Thus, there is a need for providing information to the exposed workers on the mutagenic and cytotoxic action of gasoline, emphasizing the importance of using PPE, in view of the risk posed to health that such exposure can bring.

  19. Micronucleus, Nucleoplasmic Bridge, and Nuclear Budding in Peripheral Blood Cells of Workers Exposed to Low Level Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Jamebozorgi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene is one of the important occupational pollutants. There are some reports about the leukemogenic effects related to low-level exposure to benzene. Objective: To study the frequency of micronucleus (MN, nucleoplasmic bridge (NB, and nuclear budding (NBUD in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of petrochemical workers with low level exposure to benzene. Methods: We enrolled 50 workers exposed to low-level benzene and 31 unexposed workers of a petrochemical industry. After exclusion of 3 samples, peripheral blood lymphocytes of the remaining 47 exposed and 31 unexposed workers were analyzed for the frequency of MN, NB, and NBUD by cytochalasin-blocked MN technique. Results: MN was present in 28 (60% exposed and 18 (58% unexposed workers. NB was observed in 6 (13%, and 2 (7% exposed and unexposed workers, respectively; the frequency for NBUD was 20 (43%, and 13 (42%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the observed frequencies of MN, NB, and NBUD in the peripheral blood lymphocytes between the exposed and unexposed group workers. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to low-level benzene does not increase the frequency of MN, NB, and NBUD in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, biomarkers for DNA damage.

  20. ECG changes in factory workers exposed to 27.2  MHz radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingsong; Xu, Guoyong; Lang, Li; Yang, Aichu; Li, Shilin; Yang, Liwen; Li, Chaolin; Huang, Hanlin; Li, Tao

    2013-05-01

    To research the effect of 27.2 MHz radiofrequency radiation on electrocardiograms (ECG), 225 female workers operating radiofrequency machines at a shoe factory were chosen as the exposure group and 100 female workers without exposure from the same factory were selected as the control group. The 6 min electric field strength that the female workers were exposed to was 64.0 ± 25.2 V/m (mean ± SD), which exceeded 61 V/m, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection reference root mean square levels for occupational exposure. A statistical difference was observed between the exposed group and the control group in terms of the rate of sinus bradycardia (χ(2)  = 11.48, P = 0.003). When several known risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered, including smoking, age, alcohol ingestion habit, and so on, the exposure duration was not an effective factor for ECG changes, sinus arrhythmia, or sinus bradycardia according to α = 0.05, while P = 0.052 for sinus arrhythmia was very close to 0.05. We did not find any statistical difference in heart rate, duration of the QRS wave (ventricular depolarization), or corrected QT intervals (between the start of the Q wave and end of the T wave) between the exposed and control groups. Occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation was not found to be a cause of ECG changes after consideration of the confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Occupational risk assessment of oxidative stress and genotoxicity in workers exposed to paints during a working week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassini, Carina; Calloni, Caroline; Bortolini, Giovana; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dornelles, Marco Aurélio; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Salvador, Mirian

    2011-09-01

    Paints are complex mixtures of solvents and metals that can induce health damages in workers exposed to them. The aim of the present work was to evaluate possible oxidative and genotoxic effects in workers exposed to paints. Peripheral blood and buccal cell samples were collected from 33 workers exposed to paints and 29 non-exposed workers (controls) during an ordinary working week (Monday morning and Friday evening). Oxidative markers were assessed using thiobarbituric acid assay, carbonylated proteins, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Hippuric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid were determined as biomarkers of toluene and lead exposure, respectively. Genotoxicity was measured through comet assay and micronucleus (MN) frequencies. The exposed group showed higher hippuric acid and delta-aminolevulinic acid levels (Friday samples) and lower superoxide dismutase activity (Monday samples) in relation to control group. DNA damage index (comet assay) was higher in the exposed group, both in Monday and Friday samples, compared to the control group. No differences were observed in frequency of micronuclei (MN) between the groups, either in lymphocytes or buccal cells. However, the exposed group presented an increase (Monday samples) in nuclear buds frequency in lymphocytes - a marker of gene amplification - as well as an increase in condensed chromatin in the buccal cells (Monday and Friday samples), suggesting induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, a decrease in the nuclear division index (Friday samples) was observed in the exposed group, indicating that paint exposure induces cytostatic effects in lymphocytes. The results suggest that individuals exposed to paints have increased levels of DNA damage.

  2. Systematic approach to training occupationally exposed workers in Ghana and the rest of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadu, Mary; Schandorf, Cyril; Emi-Reynolds, Geoffrey; Faanu, Augustine; Inkoom, Stephen; Gyekye, Prince Kwabena; Mensah, Cynthia Kaikor

    2011-08-01

    The International Basic Safety Standards requires that all personnel on whom protection and safety depends be trained and qualified. The Radiation Protection Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission has adopted a systematic approach to training those occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of their work. In collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency several training courses have been implemented at the national level and in the African region. From 1993 to 2008, more than 400 occupationally exposed workers in Ghana were trained on radiation safety. Several African regional training events on radiation safety have also been executed with a total participation number of 583 individuals. The training events have contributed towards upgrading the safety culture within institutions that have participated.

  3. Smoking, diet, and health behaviors among lead-exposed blue-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, D R; Kristal-Boneh, E; Froom, P; Harari, G; Ribak, J

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare dietary intake by smoking levels in blue-collar Israeli workers occupationally exposed to lead and thus identify additional areas for health-enhancing intervention in addition to smoking cessation. One hundred and eighty-seven male industrial employees who were exposed to lead through their work were screened at the worksite to evaluate health status and dietary intake. Smokers had higher intakes of fat, cholesterol, calcium, riboflavin, and vitamin E per day. They were consuming more meat and high-fat dairy products. Dose-response relationships were shown for fat and energy intake by smoking level. Thus, smoking is associated with other adverse health behaviors. When conducting epidemiologic or occupational studies, analyses should include adjustment for the fact that the lifestyles of smokers may also be unhealthy in other ways.

  4. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) in workers exposed to an established leukemogen, benzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; Lan, Qing; Guo, Weihong; Hubbard, Alan E.; Li, Guilan; Rappaport, Stephen M.; McHale, Cliona M.; Shen, Min; Ji, Zhiying; Vermeulen, Roel; Yin, Songnian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Smith, Martyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that de novo, therapy-related and benzene-induced acute myeloid leukemias (AML) occur via similar cytogenetic and genetic pathways, several of which involve aneuploidy, the loss or gain of chromosomes. Aneuploidy of specific chromosomes has been detected in benzene-related leukemia patients as well as in healthy benzene-exposed workers, suggesting that aneuploidy precedes and may be a potential mechanism underlying benzene-induced leukemia. Here, we analyzed the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 47 exposed workers and 27 unexposed controls using a novel OctoChrome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique that simultaneously detects aneuploidy in all 24 chromosomes. Through this chromosome-wide aneuploidy study (CWAS) approach, we found heterogeneity in the monosomy and trisomy rates of the 22 autosomes when plotted against continuous benzene exposure. In addition, statistically significant, chromosome-specific increases in the rates of monosomy [5, 6, 7, 10, 16 and 19] and trisomy [5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, 16, 21 and 22] were found to be dose dependently associated with benzene exposure. Furthermore, significantly higher rates of monosomy and trisomy were observed in a priori defined ‘susceptible’ chromosome sets compared with all other chromosomes. Together, these findings confirm that benzene exposure is associated with specific chromosomal aneuploidies in hematopoietic cells, which suggests that such aneuploidies may play roles in benzene-induced leukemogenesis. PMID:21216845

  5. Identification of rounded atelectasis in workers exposed to asbestos by contrast helical computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra-Filho, M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao (InCor). Disciplina de Pneumologia]. E-mail: pnemario@incor.usp.br; Kavakama, J. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Radiologia; Bagatin, E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Area de Medicina Ocupacional; Capelozzi, V.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Disciplina de Patologia; Nery, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Disciplina de Pneumologia; Tavares, R. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM). Disciplina de Radiologia

    2003-10-01

    Rounded atelectasis (RA) is a benign and unusual form of sub pleural lung collapse that has been described mostly in asbestos-exposed workers. This form of atelectasis manifests as a lung nodule and can be confused with bronchogenic carcinoma upon conventional radiologic examination. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the variation in contrast uptake in computed tomography for the identification of asbestos-related RA in Brazil. Between January 1998 and December 2000, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed in 1658 asbestos-exposed workers. The diagnosis was made in nine patients based on a history of prior asbestos exposure, the presence of characteristic (HRCT) findings and lesions unchanged in size over 2 years or more. In three of them the diagnosis was confirmed during surgery. The dynamic contrast enhancement study was modified to evaluate nodules and pulmonary masses. All nine patients with R A received iodide contrast according to weight. The average enhancement after iodide contrast was infused, reported as Hounsfield units (HU), increased from 62.5{+-}9.7 to 125.4{+-}20.7 (P < 0.05), with a mean enhancement of 62.5{+-}19.7 (range 40 to 89) and with a uniform dense opacification. In conclusion, in this study all patients with R A showed contrast enhancement with uniform dense opacification. The main clinical implication of this finding is that this procedure does not permit differentiation between RA and malignant pulmonary neoplasm. (author)

  6. Advantages and risks of nanotechnologies in cancer patients and occupationally exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Monica; Zappavigna, Silvia; Sannolo, Nicola; Porto, Stefania; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, different nanotechnology platforms for drug delivery in the area of medical biology have gained remarkable attention. Nanoparticles (NPs) used as drug delivery vehicles consist of different materials such as natural or synthetic polymers, lipids or metals. They have an ultra-small size, large surface area-to-mass ratio and high reactivity. Although there are many data on the advantages in terms of both higher efficacy and less adverse effects of nanodrugs, several recent findings have reported unexpected toxicities giving origin to nanotoxicology. Despite the great promise that NPs show, few studies have examined the human body's reaction due to NP exposure in both patients and workers. To perform this type of evaluation, it is necessary to define an adequate index of exposure, and the measure of this index is representative of what the worker is breathing. The properties of the nanomaterials used for designing NPs, such as in the case of poorly biocompatible materials (carbon nanotubes or heavy metals), and their chemical composition (as in the case of liposomes) largely contribute in determining potential side effects. Awareness of the levels of particles, which can cause health effects, is necessary for the workers and exposed patients.

  7. Increased mortality in COPD among construction workers exposed to inorganic dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, I A; Torén, K; Eriksson, K; Hedlund, U; Nilsson, T; Flodin, R; Järvholm, B

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if occupational exposure to dust, fumes or gases, especially among never-smokers, increased the mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A cohort of 317,629 Swedish male construction workers was followed from 1971 to 1999. Exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), gases and irritants (epoxy resins, isocyanates and organic solvents), fumes (asphalt fumes, diesel exhaust and metal fumes), and wood dust was based on a job-exposure matrix. An internal control group with "unexposed" construction workers was used, and the analyses were adjusted for age and smoking. When all subjects were analysed, there was an increased mortality from COPD among those with any airborne exposure (relative risk 1.12 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.22)). In a Poisson regression model, including smoking, age and the major exposure groups, exposure to inorganic dust was associated with an increased risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.14)), especially among never-smokers (HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.07-4.96)). The fraction of COPD among the exposed attributable to any airborne exposure was estimated as 10.7% overall and 52.6% among never-smokers. In conclusion, occupational exposure among construction workers increases mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, even among never-smokers.

  8. Genotoxic damage in mine workers exposed to diesel exhaust, and the effects of glutathione transferase genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gaskell, M; Martin, E A

    2005-01-01

    . The study confirms an increased level of DNA damage in workers exposed to exhaust from truck-driving in the mine. However, the results of the environmental and biological monitoring of 1-NP did not correlate, suggesting that inhalation exposure to diesel exhaust is not reflected by an increase in 1-NP......This study was performed in an Estonian shale-oil mine with the purpose to develop and apply a number of biomarkers for occupational diesel-exhaust exposure monitoring. Increased breathing-zone exposures to exhaust from operators of diesel-powered trucks in the mine was confirmed...... in the environmental monitoring part of the study, showing a 7.5-fold higher exposure to particle-associated 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) in 50 underground workers compared with 42 surface workers [P.T.J. Scheepers, D. Coggon, L.E. Knudsen, R. Anzion, H. Autrup, S. Bogovski, R.P. Bos, D. Dahmann, P. Farmer, E.A. Martin, V...

  9. Self-reported hearing loss among workers potentially exposed to industrial noise-United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-15

    Noise-induced loss of hearing has been recognized as an occupational health problem since the 18th century. Occupational deafness is an irreversible, sensorineural condition that results from damage to the nerve cells of the inner ear. Recent estimates from surveys indicate that between 7.4 and 10.2 million people work at sites where the level of noise presents an increased risk of hearing loss (85 decibels (dBA) or higher). During the period of 1978-1987, an estimated $835 million was paid in workers' compensation claims for occupationally induced hearing impairment. To assess the prevalence of hearing-loss symptoms among adult workers in the United States, investigators from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recently analyzed data collected during the 1971 and 1977 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). For this study, the prevalence of self-reported hearing loss was obtained for all persons over 17 years of age who were in the labor force at the time of interview. Data from the 1972-1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS) were used to classify worksites by noise level. NOHS was conducted by NIOSH from 1972 to 1974 on a probability sample of approximately 5000 workplaces across the United States. The survey provides information on potential exposures of workers to chemical and physical agents. These data identified industries and occupations in which employees are exposed to continuous noise.

  10. Detection of pleural plaques in workers exposed to inhalation of natural fluoro-edenite fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ricceri, Vincenzo; Arena, Francesco; Musumeci, Andrea; Marconi, Andrea; Fago, Lucrezia; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-05-01

    Fluoro-edenite is a natural mineral species initially isolated in Biancavilla, Sicily. The fibres are similar in size and morphology to certain amphibolic asbestos fibres, the inhalation of which may cause chronic inflammation and cancer. Occupational asbestos exposure is known to be associated with pleural and lung diseases, including pleural plaques. The aim of this study was to report the pleural and lung parenchymal lesions detected by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in a group of construction workers exposed to fluoro-edenite. Information regarding life habits and occupational history was collected from 43 workers enrolled into the study. The participants underwent physical examination, blood analysis, search for uncoated fibres and ferruginous bodies in the sputum, pulmonary function tests, including diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (TLCO), and HRCT chest imaging. A general descriptive outcome analysis was also conducted; a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval and a two-tailed test P-value were calculated for pleural plaques using log-binomial regression, measuring plaque size and thickness, and cumulative exposure index (CEI). The mean values of the functional respiratory tests were within the normal range for all participants. A restrictive ventilatory defect was identified in two (5%) subjects and an obstructive ventilatory defect in three (7%) subjects. TLCO was reduced in two additional participants. Fibres were detected in 19 (44%) of subjects. Pleural involvement was documented in 39 (91%) workers, of whom 31 (72%) had bilateral plaques. Calcifications were detected in 25 (58%) of these participants. PR indicated a progressive increase in the risk of developing pleural lesions with rising CEI, i.e. length of exposure. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of pleural plaques in the lungs of subjects exposed to fluoro-edenite fibres, and not to asbestos, through residing in Biancavilla and through

  11. Rationale, design and baseline results of the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingnan; Zou, Yunfeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Kangcheng; Huang, Damin; Shen, Yuefei; Zhong, Yaoqiu; Liu, Zhihao; Jiang, Bei; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lang; Wang, Fenfen; Xia, Bing; Yang, Li; Yang, Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between biomarkers of exposure, disease and susceptibility, and early health effects and long-term diseases related to occupational manganese (Mn) exposure. Design Baseline survey of a longitudinal cohort study of workers in a ferromanganese refinery. Participants A total of 1888 individuals (1197 men, 691 women; average seniority 15.34 years) were enrolled in the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC) study. Participants were between 18 and 60 years of age (mean 40.31 years), had worked in the ferromanganese refinery for at least 1 year and lived in the local area. Results The GXMEWHC study included a baseline survey. Participants were divided into four groups according to manganese (Mn) cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI) levels: an internal control group (Mn-CEI <1.0 mg/m3 year), a low exposure group (1.0 mg/m3 year≤Mn-CEI<2.0 mg/m3 year), a medium exposure group (2.0 mg/m3 year≤Mn-CEI<5.0 mg/m3 year) and a high exposure group (Mn-CEI≥5.0 mg/m3 year). Genome-wide association studies of quantitative trait loci and binary trait loci in 500 Mn-exposed workers were performed using Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip arrays. Stored plasma, DNA, hair and urine are available for further study. Participants will be followed up every 3 years. Conclusions The GXMEWHC study provides abundant data for exploring the systemic health effects of occupational Mn exposure using biomarkers of exposure, disease and susceptibility. PMID:24993760

  12. Prevalence of rhinitis symptoms among textile industry workers exposed to cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas, Ivan de Picoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The respiratory tract is one of the main points of entry of foreign substances into the body. Because of its location, the respiratory tract is heavily exposed to harmful agents, such as gases, vapors, or aerosols. Aim: Our objective was to evaluate the symptoms of occupational rhinitis in workers exposed to cotton dust. Method: The prospective study population consisted of workers from the "Nova Esperança" Cooperative of Nova Odessa (Sao Paulo, who were studied between September and December 2008. Data were collected through an individually and privately answered questionnaire designed by the author considering the clinical criteria for rhinitis. Results: Using the questionnaire, we evaluated a total of 124 workers. Among these patients, 63.7% complained of nasal obstruction, 57.2% of nasal itching, 46.7% of rhinorrhea, and 66.1% of sneezing. Of the patients considered to have very serious symptoms, 9% had nasal obstruction; 9%, itching; 4%, rhinorrhea; and 6.4%, sneezing. Discussion: Aerosol agents in the environment can clearly aggravate and even initiate rhinitis. From the standpoint of pathogenesis, the mechanisms of classical allergic airway inflammation involving mast cells, IgE, histamine, eosinophils, and lymphocytes may be responsible for the development of rhinitis after exposure to high molecular weight allergens such as proteins derived from animals and plants. This study showed a strong relationship between the occupational exposures associated with work in the cotton textile industry and the symptoms of rhinitis. Conclusion: Analysis of the data clearly showed the occurrence of rhinitis symptoms in these patients, demonstrating that the prevention and treatment of this condition in the workplace is extremely important.

  13. Assessment of Heavy Metals on Occupationally Exposed Workers from Hair Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of human hair as a tool in assessing changes and abnormalities in human bodies has been increasing for last decades since it may reflect the health status or environmental condition of habitation or working place of individuals as well as population groups. Compared to other body tissue or fluids, hair provides an ease of elemental analysis especially in reflecting the long-term exposure. This research was conducted to determine the elemental content especially heavy metals, since they are bioaccumulated in human body organs and impact human health, in hair of workshop workers and traffic services officers as exposed groups and its comparison with control group and references data for assessing of occupational exposure. Thirty-five automotive workshop workers and 32 traffic services officers’ hair specimens were collected in Bandung, while hair specimens of the control group were collected from 43 healthy individuals. The elemental concentrations in hair specimen were analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA for mercury and chromium, and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS for lead and arsenic.  The accuracy of the method was evaluated using GBW 07601 human hair certified reference material (CRM and it was found to give good results in accordance with the certificate values. It was found that chromium, lead, and arsenic hair concentration in exposed groups (0.88, 10.7, and 0.051 mg/kg, respectively were higher than in control group (0.27, 4.52, and 0.045 mg/kg, respectively, while mercury hair concentration of traffic services officers were higher than control group but mercury hair concentration of automotive workshop workers were lower than in control group (1.41 mg/kg. The t-test statistical results shown that mercury concentrations in one exposed group did not differ significantly from the control, but other exposed groups showed otherwise. The level of mercury in hair is strongly attributed not only to environmental

  14. Cytogenetic biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers to ashes from burning of sugar cane in Ahome, Sinaloa, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Rodríguez-Quintana, Ana Rosa; Meza, Enrique; Waliszewski, Stefan M; Amador-Muñóz, Omar; Mora-Romero, Arlene; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Rodríguez-Romero, Isabel; Caba, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Burning the sugar cane field before harvesting has a negative impact on both air and human health, however this issue had not been explored in Mexico. The objective of this work was to determine the chromosomal damage in workers from sugar cane burning fields in Sinaloa, México. To this purpose, we analyzed 1000 cells of buccal exfoliated epithelia from 60 exposed workers and 60 non-exposed controls to determine micronucleus frequencies and other nuclear abnormalities. The results indicated significant higher values of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities such as binucleate cells, pyknosis, karyolysis, chromatin condensation and nuclear buds frequencies in the exposed subjects compared to those that were not exposed. Our data indicates that sugar cane burning, that generates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, represents a genotoxic risk for workers in this important sugar cane producing area in Mexico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Retinal damages in turner workers of a factory exposed to intraocular foreign bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushtarian, S Masoud; Mirdehghan, M S; Valiollahi, P

    2008-12-01

    Damages caused by an intraocular foreign body (IOFB) to the visual system, mainly the retina, mostly occur during certain occupational activities. Turners are among the laborers who are mostly exposed to IOFB. The aim of the present work is to survey the effect of an IOFB on the visual system, mainly the retina. Fifty laborers of a turner factory who were exposed to IOFB were selected. Electroretinography (ERG) was recorded in all the laborers. Beside these workers, 50 laborers with no incidence of IOFB were also selected. They were also tested using ERG. The results obtained in the two groups were compared together to search for the possible changes in the two groups. The ERG patterns of the case groups were found to be changed in comparison to the control group. The changes were observed in the area under the b-wave of the ERG pattern in the early stage of damage and in the late stages, the latency and amplitude of the ERG b-wave were also affected. Finally, from the result of the present study, one can conclude that ERG is a suitable technique to search for the retinal changes in the laborers exposed to IOFB.

  16. Persistence of mercury-induced motor and sensory neurotoxicity: systematic review of workers previously exposed to mercury vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl A; Borak, Jonathan; Louis, Elan D

    2017-11-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg0) is a well-recognized neurotoxicant, but it is uncertain whether and for how long its neurotoxicity persists. Among studies that evaluated previously-exposed workers, only one examined workers during and also years after exposure had ceased. The objective of this review is to create a series of 'synthetic' longitudinal studies to address the question of persistence of Hg0 neurotoxicity in occupationally exposed workers. We systematically reviewed studies describing objective motor and sensory effects in previously-exposed mercury workers. Data from physical examination (PE), neurobehavioral (NB) tests, and electrophysiological studies (EPS) were extracted into structured tables and examined for their consistency and dose-relatedness and then compared with the corresponding results from studies of currently exposed workers. We identified six cohorts that described neurological findings in 1299 workers, examined an average of 4.8-30 years after the cessation of exposure. Historical group mean UHg levels ranged from 23 to >500 μg/L, with UHg levels >6000 μg/L in some individuals. Overall, few findings were significant; most were inconsistent across the previous-exposure studies, and in comparisons between studies of previously and currently exposed workers. The results of this systematic review indicate that Hg0-related neurotoxic effects detectable on PE, NB testing, and EPS are substantially reversed over time. To the extent that such effects do persist, they are reported principally in workers who have had very high-dose exposures. In addition, based on the limited available data, those effects reported to persist have been described as having little or no functional significance.

  17. Color vision loss among styrene-exposed workers neurotoxicological threshold assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, D; Gobba, F; Mergler, D; Moreau, T; Galassi, C; Cavalleri, A; Huel, G

    1996-01-01

    Styrene represents nowadays one of the most used organic solvent. The current exposure limit proposed for this chemical differs significantly from country to country: the Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) is 50 ppm while the German, Finnish and Swedish occupational exposure limit is 20 ppm. Nevertheless, effects on the nervous system were recently reported in workers exposed at TWA styrene levels below the current TLV. Neuro-optic pathways have been shown to be particularly vulnerable to organic solvent exposure. Analysis and measurements of visual functions can provide important information on early neurotoxic effects. Previous studies support the hypothesis that styrene exposure can induce a dose-dependent color vision loss. The aim of this study is to assess a threshold level below which no detectable effect occurs for color vision. We applied a sub-application of the change point problem in two-phase regression considering one phase as a constant line. In accordance with this model the maximum-likelihood technique was used as a method to examine the dose- effect relationship between external styrene exposure and chromatic discrimination. The present article presents a joint analysis of data from two previously published studies, one carried out in Canada and the other in Italy. The age and seniority of the workers from both countries were remarkably similar, as were the process type, the chemicals used and the work-tasks of exposed subjects. The mathematical method presented here shows the existence of a statistically significant threshold. This finding shows that, in fiberglass-reinforced plastics industry, visual color impairment could be significantly detected above 4 ppm (upper limit of the confidence interval at 5% = 26 ppm). The exact clinical meaning of this effect, and also the progress of the impairment in exposed workers, is still to be assessed in

  18. Ethnic Differences in the Metabolism of Toluene: Comparisons between Korean and Foreign Workers Exposed to Toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Young Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the individual characteristics, lifestyle habits, exposure levels, and genetic diversity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes involved in toluene metabolism in Korean and foreign workers exposed to toluene at a manufacturing plant. This study was conducted to determine the effects of culture or ethnicity on toluene metabolism. The results showed that blood and urinary toluene concentrations were dependent on the level of exposure to toluene. We analyzed the correlation between toluene metabolism and genetic diversity in glutathione S-transferase (GST) (M1), GSTT1, and cytochrome p-450 (CYP) 2E1*5 as well as lifestyle habits (smoking, drinking, and exercise habits). The results revealed significant correlations between toluene metabolism and GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic diversity, as well as smoking and exercise.

  19. A comprehensive analysis of plausible genotoxic covariates among workers of a polyvinyl chloride plant exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan Mustaq; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanium; Sankar, Kathannan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations-including chromatid type aberrations (CTAs), chromosomal type aberrations, micronucleus (MN) comet assay, and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism-in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 52 workers and an equal number of controls were recruited into the study to explore the potential cytogenetic risk of occupational exposure to VCM. Questionnaires were administered to obtain details of habitual cigarette-smoking, alcohol-consumption pattern, and occupation, etc. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on age (group I 8 and ≥8 years). CTA, MN, and comet assay frequency were significantly greater in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factory workers (p < 0.05) with long-duration work. CTA, MN, and comet assay values were found to be increased with age in exposed subjects as well as in controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically greater degree. An extensively greater MN frequency was observed in smokers exposed to VCM than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean tail length of exposed subjects was greater compared with controls. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in PVC factory workers showed less significant difference in allele frequency compared with controls. In conclusion, this results of work provides evidence for an apparent genotoxic effect associated with VCM exposure. Our results reinforce the greater sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. Statistics indicate that workers exposed to VCM are at carcinogenic risk and should be monitored for long-term adverse effects from their exposure.

  20. Pulmonary effects in workers exposed to indium metal: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Makiko; Tanaka, Akiyo; Hirata, Miyuki; Iwasawa, Satoko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Indium was added to the list of substances regulated by the Ordinance on Prevention of Hazards due to Specified Chemical Substances (OPHSCS) in 2013. Indium metal (IM), however, is not regulated by the OPHSCS due to insufficient information on pulmonary effects following exposure. From 2011 to 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 141 IM-exposed workers at 11 factories. Subjective symptoms were assessed, including levels of serum biomarkers, spirometry readings and total and diffuse lung capacity. Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) and surfactant protein D (SP-D) were selected as biomarkers of interstitial pneumonia. Indium serum concentration (In-S) and personal air sampling data were used to estimate exposure. Subjects were categorized into 5 groups based on occupation and type of exposure: smelting, soldering, dental technician, bonding and other. The highest level of In-S was 25.4 µg/l, and the mean In-S level was significantly higher in the smelting group than in other groups. In the smelting group, the prevalence of increased In-S levels was 9.1%, while that of abnormal KL-6 was 15.2%. A significant dose-effect relationship was observed between the In-S and KL-6 levels. No marked differences were observed between any of the groups in SP-D values, pulmonary symptoms, or pulmonary function test results. A total of 31% of the subjects worked in an environment with IM levels exceeding 0.3 µg/m(3), which requires a protective mask to be worn. For workers exposed to IM, work environments should be monitored, appropriate protective masks should be worn, and medical monitoring should be conducted according to the OPHSCS.

  1. Analysis of hydroquinone and catechol in peripheral blood of benzene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzic, P J; Liu, W S; Pan, M T; Fu, H; Zhou, Y; Schnatter, A R; Irons, R D

    2010-03-19

    We have developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for analysis of benzene (BZ) metabolites in human urine and blood. Here we describe peripheral blood concentrations of hydroquinone (HQ(1)) and catechol (CAT(2)) in total, protein-bound, and unbound (free) forms obtained from BZ-exposed factory workers and controls. Total and unbound metabolites were directly measured in independent experiments, while bound forms were calculated as [total]-[unbound]. In this subset of a larger study, breathing zone benzene, toluene, and xylene were measured for the duration of a workshift, and end-shift blood samples taken from 143 subjects and controls. Potential lifestyle and environmental influences were assessed by questionnaire and bioassay, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes NQO1, MPO, CYP2E1, and GSTT1 were also analyzed for potential contribution to differences in blood metabolite concentration. Total CAT, bound CAT, total HQ, and bound HQ correlated well with benzene exposure, while unbound CAT and HQ displayed no correlation. Nearly all of the metabolites found in blood were bound to protein (CAT 96-99+%, HQ 78-92+%), and when the ratio of bound to unbound metabolites were compared in subsets of exposed workers, the increase in blood metabolite concentration was nearly all due to an increase in the protein-bound molecule. These findings suggest that a threshold for conjugation does not exist within the exposure spectrum studied (0.01-78.8 mg/m(3)). This method demonstrates the feasibility of analyzing benzene metabolites in human blood, and should allow for further investigation of the health effects of benzene and its metabolites. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: over 50 years of follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M; Slangen, Jos J M; Tsai, Shan P; de Jong, Geert; Kant, Ijmert

    2009-01-01

    Dieldrin and aldrin, pesticides widely used until the 1970s, have been under suspicion of being carcinogenic. In this study, overall and cause-specific mortality was assessed in a cohort of 570 employees occupationally exposed to the pesticides dieldrin and aldrin to investigate the long-term health effects, in particular carcinogenic effects. All of the employees worked in the production plants between January 1954 and January 1970 and were followed for cause-specific mortality until 30 April 2006. Based on dieldrin levels in blood samples taken from 343 workers during the exposure period, the total intake of dieldrin was estimated for each individual subjects in the cohort. The estimated total intake ranged from 11 to 7,755 mg of dieldrin, with an average of 737 mg. Two hundred and twenty-six workers had died before 30 April 2006 compared with an expected number of 327.3, giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 69.0 (95% confidence interval (CI): 60.3-78.7). Overall cancer mortality was also significantly lower than expected (SMR: 76.4, 95% CI: 60.8-94.9). Also, none of the specific cancer sites showed a significant excess mortality and no association between exposure level and cancer mortality was found. The results from this study support findings from other epidemiological and recent animal studies concluding that dieldrin and aldrin are not likely human carcinogens.

  3. Mortality of workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, G; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J

    1997-10-01

    To investigate the occurrence of long term health effects in humans exposed to aldrin and dieldrin, with an update of an earlier retrospective cohort mortality study. A group of 570 workers employed between 1 January 1954 and 1 January 1970 either in a production or formulation plant were followed up for mortality until 1 January 1993. There were extensive industrial hygiene data available and biological monitoring data of aldrin and dieldrin for most of the workers. From these data individual estimates were made of the total intake of dieldrin. A total number of 2539.37 person-years at risk was added to the original study. 118 deaths were observed compared with 156 expected. No increase in mortality from liver cancer was found. However, there was an excess in mortality from rectal cancer. This excess was inversely related to the dose gradient. An analysis by job title did not show any excess cancer in any particular job. The study does not support a carcinogenic effect of dieldrin and aldrin in humans.

  4. A cohort mortality study of lead-exposed workers in the USA, Finland and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Kyle; Barry, Vaughn; Anttila, Ahti; Sallmén, Markku; McElvenny, Damien; Todd, A C; Straif, Kurt

    2017-11-01

    To investigate further whether inorganic lead is a carcinogen among adults, or associated with increased blood pressure and kidney damage, via a large mortality study. We conducted internal analyses via Cox regression of mortality in three cohorts of lead-exposed workers with blood lead (BL) data (USA, Finland, UK), including over 88 000 workers and over 14 000 deaths. Our exposure metric was maximum BL. We also conducted external analyses using country-specific background rates. The combined cohort had a median BL of 26 µg/dL, a mean first-year BL test of 1990 and was 96% male. Fifty per cent had more than one BL test (mean 7). Significant (p40 µg/dL; for bladder, lung and larynx cancer; and for COPD. In a small subsample of the US cohort (n=115) who were interviewed, we found no association between smoking and BL. We found strong positive mortality trends, with increasing BL level, for several outcomes in internal analysis. Many of these outcomes are associated with smoking, for which we had no data. A borderline trend was found for brain cancer, not associated with smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Tritium in saliva measurements used for monitoring of exposed workers; Utilisation des mesures du tritium salvaire dans la surveillance des travailleurs exposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J.P.; Roullet, C. [CEA Valduc, Service de Sante au Travail, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Distinguin, S.; Mangin, P.; Briot, F. [CEA Valduc, Lab. d' Analyses de Biologie Medicale, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2006-10-15

    Simultaneous measurement of tritium in urine and saliva in exposed workers reveals differences in the kinetic fate of this radioelement in these two bodily fluids. During two years, four cases of accidental exposure, affecting seven workers, were used for these bioassays. Since the concentration of tritium increases much faster in saliva than in urine, a ratio estimated at 1 to 30 at about 30 minutes after contamination occurs, it is possible to consider saliva assay as an alternative to urine assay, which is more common practice today. (authors)

  6. EARLY DETECTION OF THYROID DISEASE IN WORKERS PROFESSIONALLY EXPOSED TO NOISE THROUGH PREVENTIVE MEDICAL CHECK-UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Gligorijević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test the influence of noise on the occurrence of thyroid disease. A group of examinees included the noise-exposed workers (300 who work in the production halls and the control group (50 doing administrative jobs in the office. The testing was performed by the service of occupational medicine, within regular control and periodic check-ups of the noise-exposed group and health systematic examinations of the control group. Some laboratory analyses of the thyroid hormone were used for the purpose of this study. The percentage of those with an increased thyroid activity in the control group is 2%, while in the group of workers exposed to noise it equals 6,8%. In the control group, the total number of those with a decreased thyroid function is 0,85% and 4,85% in the noise-exposed group. In the control group, the total number of workers with the changed thyroid function is 2,85%, while in the group exposed to noise, the total number of workers with the changed thyroid function is 11,65%. By comparing the number of workers having disturbances in the thyroid function from the control group to those from the noise-exposed group who have hearing nerve damage, it can be noticed that there is no statistically significant difference. There were 21 examinees that had subjective health complaints with the levels of hormones increased; 15 examinees had subjective health complaints while the levels of hormones were decreased, and 77 examinees had subjective health complaints with the levels of hormones within the normal range. The largest number of workers with a changed thyroid function had between 10 and 20 years of service. After analyzing the results, obtained in both control and noise-exposed groups, the conclusion was that the number of workers having problems with the thyroid activity is larger in the group exposed to noise in relation to the workers from the control group. These values are in correlation with the level of noise

  7. Association between sperm DNA integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant levels in health workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dayanidhi; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Uppangala, Shubhashree; Kumari, Sandhya [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India); Challapalli, Srinivas [Department of Radiotherapy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore (India); Chandraguthi, Shrinidhi Gururajarao [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal (India); Jain, Navya; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa [National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore (India); Kumar, Pratap [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar, E-mail: satish.adiga@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104 (India)

    2014-07-15

    There is a paucity of data regarding the association between occupational radiation exposure and risk to human fertility. Recently, we provided the first evidence on altered sperm functional characteristics, DNA damage and hypermethylation in radiation health workers. However, there is no report elucidating the association between seminal plasma antioxidants and sperm chromatin integrity in occupationally exposed subjects. Here, we assessed the seminal plasma antioxidants and lipid peroxidation level in 83 men who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation and then correlated with the sperm chromatin integrity. Flow cytometry based sperm chromatin integrity assay revealed a significant decline in αt value in the exposed group in comparison to the non-exposed group (P<0.0001). Similarly, both total and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity in the seminal plasma were significantly higher in exposed group than the non-exposed group (P<0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). However, superoxide dismutase level and malondialdehyde level, which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the seminal plasma, did not differ significantly between two groups. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and GSH level exhibited a positive correlation with sperm DNA integrity in exposed subjects. To conclude, this study distinctly shows that altered sperm chromatin integrity in radiation health workers is associated with increase in seminal plasma antioxidant level. Further, the increased seminal plasma GSH and TAC could be an adaptive measure to tackle the oxidative stress to protect genetic and functional sperm deformities in radiation health workers. - Highlights: • Seminal plasma antioxidants were measured in men occupationally exposed to radiation. • Sperm chromatin integrity was significantly affected in the exposed group. • Glutathione and total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in exposed group. • Sperm DNA damage in exposed subjects

  8. Is colour vision impairment associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, F; Semple, S; Soutar, A; Osborne, A; Cherrie, J W; Seaton, A

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether acquired colour vision deficits in solvent exposed individuals are associated with cognitive impairment. A sample of 82 painters and 38 other subjects were studied. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested using the Lanthony D-15-d colour vision test. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and Trail making B tests. Pre-morbid IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test. Solvent exposure in all subjects was estimated using a previously validated, structured subjective assessment methodology. After exclusion of subjects with competing causes of colour vision impairment the final group of men numbered 78. There was a significant association on multiple linear regression between the mean colour confusion index (CCI) and three measures of cognitive impairment, the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and Trail making B tests after adjusting for the effects of age (or IQ as appropriate), alcohol, and smoking. Acquired colour vision loss is associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers. However, given the prevalence of acquired colour vision losses in the adult population, colour vision testing is unlikely to be of value as a screening test.

  9. Sickness absence and ventilatory capacity of workers exposed to sulphuric acid mist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. K.

    1970-01-01

    Williams, M. K. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 61-66. Sickness absence and ventilatory capacity of workers exposed to sulphuric acid mist. The certified sickness absence and ventilatory capacity of men exposed to high concentrations of sulphuric acid mist in the Forming department of an electric accumulator factory, and in control departments, were investigated. The Forming men showed a slight excess of spells of respiratory disease, particularly bronchitis, but not of other disease. The excess of repiratory disease was due to an increased number of spells in men attacked rather than to an increase in the proportion of men attacked. The absence of a marked excess of lower respiratory tract disease might be due to large mist particle size. The forced expiratory volume over one second (F.E.V.1·0) and the forced vital capacity (F.V.C.) were measured in Forming men and in a control group at the beginning and end of the afternoon shifts on a Monday and Friday. Statistically significant decreases of both tests on both days could be attributed to circadian variation. Differences between the Forming and control departments in the mean changes of F.E.V.1·0 and F.V.C. during the shift were not significant. PMID:5418921

  10. Estudo da ototoxicidade em trabalhadores expostos a organofosforados Ototoxicity study in workers exposed to organophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Hiromi Hoshino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A exposição ocupacional e ambiental aos agrotóxicos evidencia-se como um grave problema de Saúde Pública em nosso país. Entre os sintomas apresentados, a tonteira se destaca, em decorrência de uma provável ação tóxica. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo é caracterizar os resultados do exame vestibular de trabalhadores rurais expostos ocupacionalmente e ambientalmente aos agrotóxicos organofosforados. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte com corte transversal em 18 trabalhadores rurais de Teresópolis, RJ. A faixa etária variou de 16 a 59 anos com uma média de 39,6 anos, sendo 5 trabalhadores do sexo masculino e 13 do sexo feminino. Foram utilizados três questionários com perguntas relacionadas à saúde geral e auditiva e perguntas específicas à tonteira e suas relações com o trabalho. Todos os trabalhadores passaram por uma avaliação clínica e realizaram os exames vectoeletronistagmografia e audiometria. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que 16 trabalhadores apresentaram alterações do equilíbrio corporal de tipo periférico irritativo e 7 trabalhadores apresentaram perdas auditivas do tipo neurossensorial, sugerindo que os agrotóxicos induzem alterações do sistema vestibular através de uma intoxicação lenta e silenciosa. CONCLUSÕES: O olhar clínico sobre esta população exposta a substâncias neuro-ototóxicas requer uma abordagem interdisciplinar, assegurando uma intervenção terapêutica e preventiva eficaz.Occupational and environmental exposure to agricultural pesticides represent an important health care problem in our country. Among the symptoms presented, dizziness stands out, because of a probable toxic action. AIM: The goal of our study was to characterize vestibular test results from rural workers occupationally and environmentally exposed to organophosphates used in agricultural pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a cohort cross-sectional study with 18 rural workers

  11. Glycophorin A somatic cell mutation frequencies in Finnish reinforced plastics workers exposed to styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigbee, W L; Grant, S G; Langlois, R G; Jensen, R H; Anttila, A; Pfäffli, P; Pekari, K; Norppa, H

    1996-10-01

    We have used the glycophorin A (GPA) in vivo somatic cell mutation assay to assess the genotoxic potential of styrene exposure in 47 reinforced plastics workers occupationally exposed to styrene and 47 unexposed controls matched for age, gender, and active smoking status. GPA variant erythrocyte frequencies (Vf), reflecting GPA allele loss (phi/N) and allele loss and duplication (N/N) somatic mutations arising in vivo in the erythroid progenitor cells of individuals of GPA M/N heterozygous genotype, were flow cytometrically determined in peripheral blood samples from these subjects. Measurements of styrene exposure of the workers at the time of blood sampling showed a mean 8-h time-weighted average (TWA8-h) styrene concentration of 155 mg/m3 (37 ppm) in the breathing zone. Mean urinary concentrations of the styrene metabolites mandelic acid (MA) and mandelic acid plus phenyl glyoxylic acid (MA+PGA) were 4.4 mmol/liter (after workshift) and 2.1 mmol/liter (next morning), respectively. Multivariate analysis of covariance on log-transformed GPA Vf data with models allowing adjustment for age, gender, smoking status, and styrene exposure showed that N/N Vf were nearly significantly increased among all of the exposed workers (adjusted geometric mean, 6.3 per million versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.058) and were statistically significantly elevated (adjusted geometric mean, 6.8 versus 5.0 in the controls; P = 0.036) among workers classified into a high-exposure group according to personal TWA8-h concentration of styrene in the breathing zone of > or = 85 mg/m3 (20 ppm; Finnish threshold limit value). Women in this high exposure group showed especially elevated N/N Vf (adjusted geometric mean 8.5 versus 5.3 in control women; P = 0.020); this elevation was also significant if urinary MA+PGA of > or = 1.2 mmol/liter was used as the basis of classification (adjusted geometric mean, 8.3; P = 0.030). The occupational exposure could not be shown to influence phi/N Vf

  12. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: cellison@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Crane, Alice L., E-mail: alcrane@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: mrbonner@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Knaak, James B., E-mail: jbknaak@aol.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Browne, Richard W., E-mail: rwbrowne@buffalo.edu [Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Olson, James R., E-mail: jolson@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  13. Blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels in association with smoking and personal hygienic behaviour among lead exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karita, K; Nakao, M; Ohwaki, K; Yamanouchi, Y; Nishikitani, M; Nomura, K; Sato, M; Yano, E

    2005-05-01

    To investigate the effects of smoking and personal hygienic behaviour on blood lead (BPb) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels (FEP) in lead exposed workers. Subjects were 105 lead exposed male workers in a battery recycling plant during the years 2000-03. BPb and FEP were measured as part of the ongoing occupational surveillance. Each worker completed a questionnaire for assessment of smoking and four measures of personal hygienic behaviour (glove and mask use, hand and face washing before meals during working hours). Statistically significant decreases in mean BPb and FEP occurred during the three years. The proportion of BPb reduction in the non-smoking workers was significantly higher (mean 24.3%) than in the smoking workers (15.3%). When the workers were classified into three groups (excellent, good, and poor) based on the four personal hygienic behavioural indicators, the greatest decreases of BPb and FEP were observed in the non-smoking workers of the excellent group. The consistent use of protection devices and cleanliness at work appeared to contribute to the lowering of BPb and FEP. Cessation of smoking in the workplace was also of importance.

  14. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitko, Katia; Bandinelli, Eliane; Henriques, João A.P.; Heuser, Vanina D.; Rohr, Paula; da Silva, Fernanda R.; Schneider, Naye Balzan; Fernandes, Simone; Ancines, Camile; da Silva, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the foot-wear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001) group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05). For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001). We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work. PMID:23413045

  15. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hoet Peter H; Nawrot Tim S; Ould-Kadi Farid; Nemery Benoit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and sp...

  16. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore Anna B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. Methods A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. Results 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%. 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16. This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74. Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Conclusion Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  17. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  18. Tyler asbestos workers: A mortality update in a cohort exposed to amosite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Rouk, Alina; Shepherd, Sara; Hurst, George A; McLarty, Jerry W

    2016-01-01

    The Tyler asbestos plant produced pipe insulation from 1954 to 1972 and exclusively used amosite asbestos. There were 1130 former workers of this plant during the period of operation. A death certificate mortality analysis was published regarding this plant in 1998 for the period through 1993. This study represents an update of the mortality analysis with additional certificates collected for deaths occurring through 2011.Searches of the National Death Index database were conducted in 2004 and again in 2013. At the time of the latter search, only deaths occurring through 2011 were available. In total, 265 distinct additional death certificates were secured and added to 304 available from the original study. After the new certificates were coded (ICD-9), data were analyzed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Table Analysis System (LTAS) and standard mortality ratios (SMR) generated with 95% confidence limits (CL). LTAS constructs cause-specific mortality rates by age, gender, race, and person-time at risk, and compares observed rates with a referent population in order to derive SMR. A significant excess number of deaths due to nonmalignant respiratory disease (asbestosis) and from select malignant neoplasms were identified. There were in total 23 mesothelioma deaths (4% of deaths), with 16 pleural and 7 peritoneal. The SMR for malignant neoplasms of the trachea, bronchus, and lung was 244 (with 95% CL 196, 300), suggesting that exposed workers from this cohort were nearly 2.5-fold (244 %) more likely to die from this cause as the general referent population. The analysis also showed that exposures of short duration (Tyler cohort continues to be followed with great interest, given the exclusivity of exposure to amosite. Data confirm the inherent pathogenicity of this fiber type for nonmalignant disease as well as select cancers, particularly relevant given the importance of this amphibole's use in the United States.

  19. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  20. [Relationship between XRCC3 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-quan; Zhang, Zhong

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between genetic polymorphism of X-ray repair cross-complementing gene 3 (XRCC3) and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers. Peripheral venous blood and morning urine samples were collected from 326 male lead-exposed workers in a storage battery factory in Fuzhou. Blood lead, urine lead, blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood calcium, and blood iron were measured. The genotype of XRCC3 was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The relationship between XRCC3 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to lead poisoning in male lead-exposed workers was analyzed. Genetic polymorphism of XRCC3 was seen in the 326 subjects. The frequency distribution of XRCC3 genotypes, XRCC3-241CC (wild type), XRCC3-241CT (heterozygous mutation), and XRCC3-241TT (homozygous mutation), was in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in urine lead, blood ZPP, blood calcium, and blood iron between the lead-exposed workers with different XRCC3 genotypes (P > 0.05). The workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had a significantly higher mean blood lead level than those with XRCC3-241CC (P lead level of 1.90 µmol/L as the cutoff value, the chi-square test and logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT was significantly higher than that of workers with XRCC3-241CC in the subjects with high blood leads (P lead was significantly higher in the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT than in those with XRCC3-241CC (OR = 2.34, 95%CI = 1.61 ∼ 5.13); the multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT had high blood lead levels (β = 0.116, P lead absorption (β = 0.188, P lead absorption (β = -0.247, P lead levels (β = -0.145, P lead at workplace, the workers with XRCC3-241CT/TT have a significantly higher blood lead level than those with XRCC3-241CC, so the genotype of XRCC3-241CT

  1. The parametars of liver functional status in the wood industry workers exposed to organic solvent volatile compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective-prospective controlled research was conducted in order to determine changes of the liver functionsin the workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, whose concentrations did not exceed limits set for the working environment. One hundred and twenty five workers of the„Krivaja“wood factory were involved in this research, 66 of whom had been exposed during their working hours to a mixture of organic solvents for two years and even longer. Average age of workers was 40 +/-15. Another group comprised 59 workers of the same sex, similar age and anthropomorphic characteristics, but they had not been exposed to the mixture of organic solvents (controlled group. The mixture of acetone, xylene, toluene, butyl acetate and isobutanol was found in the air of the working environment. The workers with existing liver diseases, chronic alcoholics, diabetics and those who had recently been exposed to a trauma or surgery, were excluded from the research. The participants’ blood samples were tested for the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, total proteins and albumins. The Student’s t-test has shown that there was no significant difference between the controlled and exposed groups for albumin, aminotransferase and bilirubin values, but there was a highly significant difference in the total protein concentrations between thet wogroups.Since there is a correlation between blood concentration and duration of exposure to the mixture of organic solvents, it has been found that correlation coefficient of the bilirubin,aminotransferase and albumin was not significant,however,therewasa considerable positive correlation for total proteins of plasma. Based on the results of the research it could be concludedthat there was no indicative cumulative impact of the mixture of organic solvents to the liver functions.

  2. Evaluation of Trans, Trans-Muconic Acid in Urine of Exposed Workers to Benzene in a Cokery Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahiminejad

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Benzene is a light yellow liquid with aromatic odor and has effects to human body. The main and dangerous health effect of chronic exposure to benzene in workplace is hematopoetic system disease or blood cancer that it's primarily clinical figures are anemia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia. The objective of this study was evaluation of benzene exposure by analysis of urinary trans, trans-muconic acid (t,t-ma in post shift of workers.Materials & Methods: A case-control study was conducted. The urine samples were collected from 42 workers exposed to benzene at a cokery plant and it’s by –product refinery site and 40 non exposed villagers from rural areas without nearby factories. The t,t-ma was extracted from urine by solid phase extraction (SPE and analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The urinary creatinine level was measured by Kone – Pro autoanalyzer . Results: The mean urinary t,t – ma level was 3.33 mg/g creatinine for exposed workers and 0.1007 mg/g creatinine for non exposed workers. The urinary levels in exposed group differed among workplaces, and were higher for subjects that worked in cokery plant ( cokery plant, 3.68 mg / g creatinine; its by product refinery site, 0.64 mg / g creatinine.Conclusion: The results showed that the mean level of urinary t,t-ma was about 6 to 7 times more than biological exposure index; thus, there is a high risk of hematopoetic damage and other adverse effects in these workers. We suggest that the company must decrease benzene exposure via engineering and management controls to lower than threshold limit value.

  3. Oxidative stress and genetic damage among workers exposed primarily to organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda-Arce, Rigoberto; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Benitez-Trinidad, Alma; Herrera-Moreno, José Francisco; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia S; Villegas, Germán Pier; Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; Sólis Heredia, María de Jesús; Bernal-Hernández, Yael Y

    2017-06-01

    The indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture and public health campaigns has been associated with an increase of oxidative stress and DNA damage, resulting in health outcomes. Some defense mechanisms against free radical-induced oxidative damage include the antioxidant enzyme systems. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and the relationship of antioxidant enzyme levels with DNA damage among sprayers (workers) occupationally exposed to pesticides. The determinations of MDA and antioxidant enzymes were performed spectrophotometrically. The genotoxic effects were evaluated using the comet assay. The results showed a marginally significant decrease in SOD and CAT activities in the high exposure group compared to the control group. For MDA, statistically significant differences were found among people working long term vs. those working temporarily (P = 0.02) as sprayers. In the moderate exposure group, a positive correlation was observed between MDA levels and GPx activity. In the high exposure group, a negative correlation was observed between GR and CAT activities, and between MDA levels and GPx activities. Furthermore, in the high exposure group, a positive correlation between DNA damage parameters and MDA levels was observed. The results suggest an important role of antioxidant enzymes for the protection of DNA damage caused by occupational exposure to pesticides. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant “Kozloduy”, Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100–200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  5. Effects of physician counseling on the smoking behavior of asbestos-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, V.C.; Kim, Y.J.; Ewart, C.K.; Terry, P.B.; Cuthie, J.C.; Wood, J.; Emmett, E.A.; Permutt, S.

    1984-09-01

    Physician antismoking advice has been shown to increase smoking cessation, particularly among patients who have medical problems or perceive themselves to be at risk. The present study tested three hypotheses: (a) providing 3 to 5 min of behavioral counseling regarding a cessation strategy would be more effective than simply warning the smoker to quit smoking; (b) smokers with abnormal pulmonary function would be more likely to comply with medical advice than would smokers with normal pulmonary function; and (c) that smokers with abnormal pulmonary function who receive behavioral counseling would be the group most likely to achieve prolonged abstinence. Asbestos-exposed smoking men undergoing screening in a mandated program for naval shipyard workers were categorized as having normal or abnormal pulmonary status on the basis of chest X ray and pulmonary function tests (PFT). They were then randomly assigned within PFT categories to receive either a simple warning or 3 to 5 min of behavioral cessation counseling from the physician who gave them the results of their pulmonary tests. Subjects smoking status was evaluated at 3- and 11-month intervals following the physician intervention. Smokers who received behavioral counseling were more likely to quit and remain abstinent over the 11-month period (8.4% abstinent) than were smokers given a minimal warning (3.6% abstinent). Prolonged abstinence rates among abnormal PFT subjects (3.7%) did not differ from those of normals (5.9%). The group with normal PFT who received behavioral counseling achieved the highest level of abstinence (9.5%).

  6. Lead-elevated activity of xanthine oxidase in lead-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kasperczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to explore the connection between lead toxicity and the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO. In addition, we indicated the uric acid (UA and creatinine levels and concentration of erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA to estimate oxidative stress intensity. Materials and Methods: The examined group consisted of 125 healthy male employees of zinc and lead works. The examined group was divided into tertiles according to blood lead levels. In the collected blood samples, concentrations of lead-exposure indices, UA, creatinine, and MDA as well as activity of XO were measured concomitantly. The control group consisted of 32 healthy male administrative workers who were exposed to lead only environmentally. Results: XO activity and MDA level were significantly elevated in all tertiles compared to the control group. Creatinine level was significantly elevated in the medium and high tertiles. However, the level of UA was significantly elevated in the high tertile, while in the low and medium tertile only a tendency toward higher values was observed. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to lead induces activity of XO. This induction may contribute to the observed simultaneously increased oxidative stress, measured as MDA level, and the increased level of UA. Med Pr 2013;64(2:175–180

  7. Carbon nanotubes: Properties, biomedical applications, advantages and risks in patients and occupationally-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, M; Pedata, P; Sannolo, N; Porto, S; De Rosa, A; Caraglia, M

    2015-03-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, carbon-based nanomaterials (CNTs) have been introduced in pharmacy and medicine for drug delivery system in therapeutics. CNTs have proved able to transport a wide range of molecules across membranes and into living cells; therefore, they have attracted great interest in biomedical applications such as advanced imaging, tissue regeneration, and drug or gene delivery. Although there are many data on the advantages in terms of higher efficacy and less adverse effects, several recent findings have reported unexpected toxicities induced by CNTs. The dose, shape, surface chemistry, exposure route, and purity play important roles in these differential toxicities. Mapping these risks as well as understanding their molecular mechanisms is a crucial step in the development of any CNT-containing nanopharmaceuticals. This paper seeks to provide a comprehensive review of all articles published on cellular response to CNTs, underlining their therapeutic applications and possible toxicity in patients and occupationally exposed workers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase activity in red blood cells of lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Waseef, A.

    1982-01-01

    Lead-exposed (n . 26) and control (n . 12) subjects were investigated for their blood lead concentration erythrocyte 5-amino-laevulinic acid dehydratase (5-ALAD) and erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen-I-synthetase (URO-I-S) activity; 5-amino-laevulinic acid (5-ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) were used as substrates in the synthetase assay. In the lead workers erythrocyte 5-ALA dehydratase was grossly inhibited but with PBG as substrate the synthetase activity was not significantly different from the control group. With 5-ALA as substrate the synthetase assay showed marked inhibition. Addition of zinc (0.1 mmol/l) and dithiotheritol (0.5 mmol/l) brought the activities of both the dehydratase and synthetase (using 5-ALA as substrate) back into the ranges seen in the control group. With porphobilinogen as substrate higher concentrations of zinc caused inhibition of the synthetase, whilst reduction of added zinc to 0.01 mmol/l resulted in stimulation of the synthetase. A good correlation (r . 0.87) was obtained in synthetase assay when PBG and 5-aminolaevulinate (with added zinc and dithiothreitol) were used as substrates. With these additions 5-ALA may be used as a substrate in the URO-I-S assay in the investigation of latent cases of acute intermittent porphyria.

  9. Pesquisa auditiva en trabajadores expuestos al ruido industrial Hearing screening in workers exposed to industrial noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Esteban Moreno Rajadel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, en la Empresa de Productos Lácteos “Escambray”, de Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, durante el período de junio a diciembre de 2005, con el objetivo de determinar los niveles de ruidos y evaluar la función auditiva en los 82 trabajadores expuestos a ruidos de intensidad igual o superior a los 85 dB-A. Las variables seleccionadas para el estudio fueron: intensidad de los ruidos, años de exposición, tipo de ruido, información previa sobre el uso de medios de protección y su vía de obtención, así como el uso de los medios de protección y las causas por las cuales no son usados. De las 24 áreas estudiadas, 15 (62,5 % tenían niveles de ruidos igual o superior a 85 dB-A. La información previa sobre el uso de los medios de protección para ruidos fue ínfima, pues el 96,3 % de los trabajadores no los usaban, el 62,2 % llevaba más de 10 años de exposición a ruidos y 24 obreros mostraron pérdidas auditivas, de ellos, 5 (20,8 % sin respuesta a intensidades de 25 dB, 12 (50,0 % a intensidades de 40 dB y 7 (29,2 % no respondieron a estímulos sonoros de 60 dB. A modo de conclusión, consideramos, que la contaminación sonora inherente a la entidad estudiada es elevada, los niveles medidos no cumplen con las recomendaciones que existen a escala internacional ni con los criterios higiénicos industriales, y actúan perjudicialmente sobre la audición, por lo que recomendamos la ejecución de medidas para proteger al personal y atenuar los altos índices de emisiones acústicas contaminantes.A descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken at the "Escambray" Dairies Enterprise of Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, from June to December, 2005, aimed at determining the levels of noise and at evaluating the auditory function among 82 workers exposed to a noise intensity equal to or over 85 dB-A .The variables selected for the study were: noise intensity, years of exposure, type of noise, previous

  10. Susceptibility to DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides, to tannery chemicals and to coal dust during mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Kvitko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our mutagenesis group has been studying with important economic drivers of our state, such as agriculture, the footwear and leather industry and open-cast coal mining. Working conditions in these sectors have potentially harmful to humans. The aim of these studies is to determine the health risk of workers by biomonitoring subjects exposed to genotoxic agents. The main results of our studies with vineyard farmers we observed a high rate of MN and DNA damage in individuals exposed to pesticides (p < 0.001. In addition, some effects of genetic polymorphisms in the modulation of MN results were observed in this group. Tobacco farmers were also evaluated at different crop times. The results showed a significant increase in the Damage index and frequency in tobacco farmers compared to the non-exposed group, for all crop times. The results for footwear and tannery workers showed a significant increase in the mean ID for the solvent-based adhesive (p < 0.001 group in comparison to the water-based adhesive group and control (p < 0.05. For open-cast coal mine workers, the EBCyt indicated a significant increase in nuclear bud frequency and cytokinetic defects in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (p < 0.0001. We were able to associate specific genetic susceptibility with each type of exposure and with the non-use or improper use of personal protection equipment and diet adequacy. These results show how important the continuous education of exposed workers is to minimizing the effect of the occupational exposure and the risk of disease associated with the work.

  11. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  12. Neuropsychological Symptoms among Workers Exposed to Toluene and Xylene in Two Paint Manufacturing Factories in Eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamai Thetkathuek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the exposure factors that may lead to neuropsychological symptoms among 92 workers who were exposed to xylene and toluene and 100 workers who were not exposed to the solvents. The airborne concentration of xylene and toluene was evaluated with personal passive badges. The levels of methyl hippuric acid and hippuric acid in urine were assessed, and interviews were performed to observe the neuropsychological symptoms that may result from exposure to the solvents. The result showed that the average concentration for the exposed group of xylene in the paint company working environment was 2.7 (SD = 2.4 ppm and the average concentration of toluene was 9.5 (SD = 10.4 ppm. The average level of methyl hippuric acid in urine was 78 (SD = 74.7 mg/g creatinine. Factors that affected the neuropsychological symptoms included the following. (1 The impact of age: the risk (adjusted odds ratio for getting psychosomatic symptoms in persons over 40 and exposed to xylene was 9.5 and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 8.3. (2 The impact of not providing personal protective equipment was found to be sleep disturbance; it was found that the aOR of those exposed to xylene was 3.9, and the aOR of those exposed to toluene was 4.4. In summary, periodic examination of workers by occupational physician is needed for detection of early neuropsychological effects, especially psychosomatic symptoms, and sleep disturbances.

  13. Urinary β2 Microglobulin in Workers Exposed to Arc Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Welding is a process in which two or more metals are attached by the use of heat and, in some cases, pressure. Direct exposure and inhalation of welding fumes causes acute and chronic side effects in humans. Kidney damage is one of these important side effects. β2 microglobulin is an 11.8 kilodalton protein and levels increase in the case of some inflammatory and viral diseases, or kidney malfunction and autoimmune diseases. In this study measurements of β2 microglobulin were used as a criterion for assessing effects on the kidneys of workers exposed to welding fumes. The study population were electric arc welders in an industrial plant in Tehran, Iran. For control we selected workers who did not have any exposure to welding fumes. Both groups were selected on the basis of a questionnaire and the consideration of criteria for inclusion and exclusion. In the end 50 cases and 50 controls were chosen. A urine sample was collected from all participants and urinary pH was set to between 6-8 using NaOH (1M. Sample transportation to the laboratory complied with the related standards. The samples were assessed using the ORG 5BM kit. For quantitative assessment of β2 microglobulin we used the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. The ages of the welders ranged from 21 to 48 years (mean=30.5±5.9 yrs and of controls from 23 to 56 years (mean=31.8±5.9 yrs. Mean employment duration was 7.86±5.01years (range 2 to 27 years for welders. Mean β2 microglobulin level was 0.10±0.096 μg/ml in welders and 0.11±0.06 in controls. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.381. In conclusion we don't find that exposure to electric arc welding fumes cause a significant change in urinary β2 microglobulin compared to the control group.

  14. Feasibility of using urinary N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) Guanine as a biomarker for acrylamide exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Fang; Huang, Chih-Chun Jean; Lu, Chensheng Alex; Chen, Mei-Lien; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Chiang, Su-Yin; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2018-02-20

    Acrylamide (AA), a probable human carcinogen, is a widely-used industrial chemical but is also present in tobacco smoke and carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperatures. AA is metabolized to glycidamide (GA) to cause the formation of DNA adducts. N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) guanine (N7-GAG), the most abundant DNA adduct induced by GA, was recently detected in urine of smokers and non-smokers. In this study, we assessed the variability of AA exposure and biomarkers of AA exposure in urine samples repeatedly collected from AA-exposed workers and explored the half-life of N7-GAG. A total of 8 AA-exposed workers and 36 non-exposed workers were recruited. Pre-shift and post-shift urine samples were collected from the exposed group in parallel with personal sampling for eight consecutive days and from the control group on day 1 of the study. Urinary N7-GAG and the mercapturic acids of AA and GA, namely N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-(R,S)-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA) were analyzed using on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry methods. We found that N7-GAG levels in urine were significantly higher in exposed workers than in controls and that N7-GAG level correlated positively with AAMA and GAMA levels. Results from this study showed that AAMA and GAMA possibly remain the more preferred biomarkers of AA exposure and that N7-GAG levels could be elevated by occupational exposures to AA and serve as a biomarker of AA-induced genotoxicity for epidemiological studies.

  15. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra Filho, Mario

    1995-12-31

    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M L; Srivastava, N N; Dutta, S; Shukla, S K; Dutta, A; Verma, S; Devi, M

    2013-12-01

    The detrimental effect of nuclear accidents due to localized or whole body radiation exposure results in severe cellular damage. The current study was carried out to evaluate radiation-mediated variability in blood components of metal scrap workers exposed accidently to cobalt-60 source. Blood samples collected initially from five hospitalized patients, coded P1-P5, were processed for total leukocyte counts (TLC), platelet (PLT) counts, haemoglobin, estimation of DNA double strand breaks by measuring phosphorylated form of H2AX (γ-H2AX) and chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics). Blood cells count (TLC), in all the patients except P2, was found decreased. Dicentrics increased in all the five patients. γ-H2AX was found significantly elevated in patients P2 and P4. After 3 days, 21 subjects working in close vicinity of accident site were evaluated for the above-mentioned markers to confirm their possibility of radiation exposure; however, all the parameters in these subjects were found within normal limits. Blood from patients P1-P5 was collected again after 11 days. Studies revealed exorbitant increase in γ-H2AX in lymphocytes and monocytes of patients P1, P4 and P5. TLC and PLT count in these patients had fallen further. Dicentrics declined with time in all the five patients. Based on the studied blood biomarkers, we conclude that the five subjects showed signs of radiation exposure. Measurement on radiation dose could not be performed in the current study; however, the generated data particularly on dicentrics provide ample evidence of radiation exposure.

  17. Pleural mesothelioma in household members of asbestos-exposed workers in Friuli Venezia Giulia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Agostin, Flavia; de Michieli, Paola; Negro, Corrado

    2017-05-08

    Malignant mesothelioma is closely associated to asbestos exposure. One such exposure may occur through contact with occupationally exposed household members and their belongings. This study examines the features of pleural mesothelioma attributable only to asbestos brought home by another family member. The data sources were 1063 mesothelioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2014, from the Friuli Venezia Giulia Mesothelioma Register. In all cases the diagnosis of mesothelioma was based on the pathology report. Exposure information and demographic data were acquired by an occupational medical standardized questionnaire/interview. Household-exposure mesothelioma cases included 33 women and 2 men. Relationships were: wives (N = 22), daughters (N = 9), sons (N = 2), and mothers (N = 2). Asbestos exposure in the workers predominantly occurred in shipyards. Out of the 35 pleural cases, 19 were epithelial, 9 biphasic, 3 sarcomatoid, and 4 not specified. The mean age at diagnosis was 77 years old. The mean latency was 59 years, with wives having a significant shorter latency than offspring. Latency was not significantly related to morphology and asbestosis. The overall mean survival was 16 months (median 11 months) but treatment was beneficial (mean 16 months vs. 7 months). Biphasic/sarcomatoid histology and presence of asbestosis were associated with a decreased survival, although not with statistical significance. Our data confirms that household exposure increases the risk for pleural mesothelioma amongst women with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. This is an ongoing problem in many countries, as well as in Italy, where the evaluation of a framework for the compensation of these cases is under debate. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):419-431.

  18. Chest HRCT signs predict deaths in long-term follow-up among asbestos exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, Tapio, E-mail: tapio.vehmas@ttl.fi [Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki (Finland); Oksa, Panu, E-mail: panu.oksa@ttl.fi [Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Uimalankatu 1, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Much lung and pleural pathology is found in chest CT studies. • HRCT signs were screened and subsequent mortality followed up. • Several signs were related to all-cause and disease specific deaths. • The HRCT classification system used was able to predict mortality. • Secondary preventive strategies should be developed for patients with such signs. - Abstract: Objectives: To study associations between chest HRCT signs and subsequent deaths in long-term follow-up. Methods: Lung and pleural signs of 633 asbestos exposed workers (age 45–86, mean 65) screened with HRCT were recorded by using the International Classification of Occupational and Environmental Respiratory Diseases (ICOERD) system, which contains detailed instructions for use and reference images. Subsequent mortality was checked from the national register. Cox regression adjusted for covariates (age, sex, BMI, asbestos exposure, pack-years) was used to explore the relations between HRCT signs and all-cause deaths, cardiovascular and benign respiratory deaths, and deaths from neoplasms – all according to the ICD-10 diagnostic system. Results: The follow-up totalled 5271.9 person-years (mean 8.3 y/person, range .04–10.3). 119 deaths were reported. Irregular/linear opacities, honeycombing, emphysema, large opacities, visceral pleural abnormalities and bronchial wall thickening were all significantly related to all-cause deaths. Most of these signs were associated also with deaths from neoplasms and benign respiratory disease. Deaths from cardiovascular disease were predicted by emphysema and visceral pleural abnormalities. Conclusions: Several HRCT signs predicted deaths. Careful attention should be paid on subjects with radiological signs predictive of deaths and new secondary preventive strategies developed. This calls for further focused studies among different populations.

  19. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Asuquo, Asuquo E

    2017-02-21

    The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase) activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), antioxidant enzyme activities, etc.), conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental effects. Int J

  20. Recent advances in occupational and environmental health hazards of workers exposed to gasoline compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Ekpenyong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of health and environmental hazards, associated with the constituents of gasoline, on occupationally exposed workers has been recorded over the past few decades. However, the scientific literature on their pathogenic potential remains incomplete, which could affect the current understanding of the associated health risks. This review provides current information based on recently improved research techniques to evaluate gasoline toxicity profiles for humans. Our current knowledge provides insight into the intricate mechanism of gasoline-induced adverse effects, including the formation of reactive metabolites via bio-activation and subsequent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress, which are involved in multiple mechanisms that are central to the aetiology of gasoline-induced toxicity. These mechanisms include covalent binding to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, leading to oxidative damage, tumor-suppression gene activity, and activation of pro-oncogenes. Furthermore, it results in induction of autoimmunity and local inflammatory responses, disruption of multiple neurotransmitters and immune cell function, derangement of various enzyme activities (e.g., sodiumpotassium adenosine triphosphate (Na+/K+/ATPase activity, cytochrome P450 (CYP450, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, antioxidant enzyme activities, etc., conjugation of bile, and non-specific cell membrane interaction, leading to damage of the membrane lipid bilayer and proteins. Available data suggests that exposure to gasoline or gasoline constituents have the potential to cause different types of illnesses. The data highlights the need to maintain safety measures via suitable research, medical surveillance, regulatory control, life style modification, early detection, and intervention to minimize exposure and manage suspected cases. They also present novel opportunities to design and develop effective therapeutic strategies against gasoline-induced detrimental

  1. The effects of secondhand smoke exposure on HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierikko, Tuula; Järvenpää, Ritva; Uitti, Jukka; Virtema, Pauliina; Oksa, Panu; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Autti, Taina; Vehmas, Tapio

    2008-05-01

    There is evidence suggesting that secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is causally linked to adverse respiratory effects. We examined the relations between the exposure to SHS and radiological signs in chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Asbestos-exposed workers (n=633) were imaged with HRCT, primarily to investigate potential occupational lung disease. After excluding current smokers, the study population included 361 ex- and 141 never-smokers. They answered a questionnaire on occupational exposures, smoking habits and SHS exposure. HRCT images were assessed for emphysema, ground-glass, irregular/linear and rounded opacities, honeycombing and several other signs. Regression analyses were adjusted for asbestos exposure, ex-smoking, age, body mass index and potential reader effect. Due to missing data the multivariate analyses were restricted to 310 participants aged 47.5-87.0 years. Their lifetime SHS exposure ranged between 0 and 193.5 pack-years (mean 23.5), and exposure in the past 12 months 0-30 packs (0.43). Total (B=0.005, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 0.002-0.008, p=0.000) and workplace (B=0.006, 95% CI 0.003-0.009, p=0.001) cumulative SHS exposures were significantly related to ground-glass opacities. Total SHS exposure in the last 12 months (B=0.027, 95% CI 0.000-0.054, p=0.048) and workplace exposure (B=0.027, 95% CI 0.000-0.054, p=0.048) were also significantly related to ground-glass opacities. Positive effects of SHS were also detected on irregular/linear opacities. SHS exposure in the last 12 months and over lifetime significantly increases ground-glass opacity in HRCT, suggesting an early or subclinical desquamative interstitial pneumonia/respiratory bronchiolitis. This study further supports that SHS has adverse effects on the lungs that can be detected by X-ray methods.

  2. [Health protection of workers occupationally exposed to effects of electromagnetic fields in Poland and in the European Union member states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields, one of potentially harmful physical agents present in the work environment in Poland, are under a constant surveillance regulated by the law. Among others, the surveillance involves periodical measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) intensities in the work environment and medical prophylactic examination of workers at the employers' expense. The introduction of new MAC values imposes extra responsibilities on occupational health services, resulting from the need to verify the number of workers exposed to EMF at frequency bands corresponding with protection zones, and the need to set an appropriate range of prophylactic examinations, taking account of the current body of knowledge of biological effects of EMF and their hazards to workers' health. The suggestions how to change the range and frequency of medical prophylactic examinations are presented. The differences in occupational health care between Poland and the European Union members states, as well as changes in legal regulations on occupational diseases are discussed.

  3. Prevalence of Hearing Loss among Noise-Exposed Workers within the Healthcare and Social Assistance Sector, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2017-11-03

    The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers within the Healthcare and Social Assistance (HSA) sector. Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (8,702 within HSA) from 2003-2012 were examined. Prevalences and adjusted risks for hearing loss as compared with a reference industry were estimated for the HSA sector and all industries combined. While the overall HSA sector prevalence for hearing loss was 19%, the prevalences in the Medical Laboratories sub-sector and the Offices of All Other Miscellaneous Health Practitioners sub-sector were 31% and 24%, respectively. The Child Day Care Services sub-sector had a 52% higher risk than the reference industry. High risk industries for hearing loss exist within the HSA sector. Further work is needed to identify the sources of noise exposure and protect worker hearing.

  4. Markers of early renal changes induced by industrial pollutants. I. Application to workers exposed to mercury vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, A; Roels, H; Bernard, A M; Barbon, R; Buchet, J P; Lauwerys, R R; Roselló, J; Hotter, G; Mutti, A; Franchini, I

    1993-01-01

    Several markers of renal changes have been measured in a cohort of 50 workers exposed to elemental mercury (Hg) and in 50 control workers. After application of selection criteria 44 exposed and 49 control workers were retained for the final statistical analysis. Exposed workers excreted on average 22 micrograms Hg/g creatinine and their mean duration of exposure was 11 years. Three types of renal markers were studied--namely, functional markers (creatinine and beta 2-microglobulin in serum, urinary proteins of low or high molecular weight); cytotoxicity markers (tubular antigens and enzymes in urine), and biochemical markers (eicosanoids, thromboxane, fibronectin, kallikrein, sialic acid, glycosaminoglycans in urine, red blood cell membrane negative charges). Several bloodborne indicators of polyclonal activation were also measured to test the hypothesis that an immune mechanism might be involved in the renal toxicity of elemental Hg. The main renal changes associated with exposure to Hg were indicative of tubular cytotoxicity (increased leakage of tubular antigens and enzymes in urine) and biochemical alterations (decreased urinary excretion of some eicosanoids and glycosaminoglycans and lowering of urinary pH). The concentrations of anti-DNA antibodies and total immunoglobulin E in serum were also positively associated with the concentration of Hg in urine and in blood respectively. The renal effects were mainly found in workers excreting more than 50 micrograms Hg/g creatinine, which corroborates our previous estimate of the biological threshold of Hg in urine. As these effects, however, were unrelated to the duration of exposure and not accompanied by functional changes (for example, microproteinuria), they may not necessarily represent clinically significant alterations of renal function. PMID:8431387

  5. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoet Peter H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds. The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure. The mean (SD age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8 years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6 years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01 and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009 than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09–11.6; p = 0.037 for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group. The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects.

  6. Respiratory function and bronchial responsiveness among industrial workers exposed to different classes of occupational agents: a study from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould-Kadi, Farid; Nawrot, Tim S; Hoet, Peter H; Nemery, Benoit

    2007-10-08

    Occupational exposures play a role in the onset of several chronic airway diseases. We investigated, in a cross-sectional study, lung function parameters and bronchial hyper-responsiveness to histamine in workers exposed to different airborne compounds.The study group totalled 546 male subjects of whom 114 were exposed to welding fumes, 106 to solvents, 107 to mineral dust, 97 to organic dust and 123 without known exposure to airway irritants. A questionnaire was administered and spirometry and bronchial responsiveness to histamine were assessed by one observer, in the morning before work to prevent effects of acute exposure.The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.3 (7.8) years, with a mean duration of employment of 13.8 (6.6) years. Both before and after adjustment for smoking status, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, expressed as % predicted) was lower in welders -4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.3 to -1.8; p = 0.01) and workers exposed to solvents -5.6% (CI: -7.9 to -3.3; p = 0.0009) than in control subjects. Furthermore, solvent workers had an odds ratio of 3.43 (95% CI: 1.09-11.6; p = 0.037) for bronchial hyperresponsiveness compared with the reference group.The higher prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in solvent workers adds to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of occupational solvent exposure. These results point to the necessity of preventive measures in solvent workers to avoid these adverse respiratory effects.

  7. Assessment of heart rate response to exercise and recovery during treadmill testing in arsenic-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakulak, Ugur Nadir; Gunduzoz, Meside; Ayturk, Mehmet; Tek Ozturk, Mujgan; Tutkun, Engin; Yilmaz, Omer Hinc

    2017-09-01

    Arsenic exposure is associated with various cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess cardiac autonomic function via heart rate response to exercise and recovery period of treadmill testing in arsenic-exposed workers. Sixty-five (65) occupationally arsenic-exposed workers and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood and urinary arsenic levels were analyzed and symptom limited maximal treadmill exercise test were performed. Chronotropic response to exercise including age-predicted maximal heart rate (APMHR), heart rate reserve (HRreserve ), age-predicted HRreserve (APHRreserve ) and adjusted HRreserve and 1st-, 2nd-and 3rd-min heart rate recovery (HRR) indices were calculated. Baseline clinical and echocardiographic parameters, exercise test duration, resting and maximal heart rate, peak exercise capacity, HRreserve , APMHR, APHRreserve , and adjusted HRreserve were found to be similar between groups. HRR1 (22.0 ± 4.3 vs. 24.3 ± 3.1 bpm, p = .003) and HRR2 (43.2 ± 6.2 vs. 46.7 ± 6.4 bpm, p = .012) were significantly lower in arsenic-exposed workers compared to controls. Blood and urinary arsenic levels negatively correlated with HRR1 (r = -.477, p < .001 and r = -.438, p < .001, respectively) and HRR2 (r = -.507, p < .001 and r = -.412, p < .001 respectively). Arsenic-exposed workers had lower HRR indices than normal subjects but chronotropic response were similar. Cardiac autonomic dysregulation may be one of the cardiovascular consequences of arsenic exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prediction models and risk assessment for silicosis using a retrospective cohort study among workers exposed to silica in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Lap Ah; Dai, Juncheng; Chen, Minghui; Liu, Yuewei; Zhang, Hao; Wong, Tze Wai; Leung, Chi Chiu; Kromhout, Hans; Meijer, Evert; Liu, Su; Wang, Feng; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a prognostic risk prediction model for the development of silicosis among workers exposed to silica dust in China. The prediction model was performed by using retrospective cohort of 3,492 workers exposed to silica in an iron ore, with 33 years of follow-up. We developed a risk score system using a linear combination of the predictors weighted by the LASSO penalized Cox regression coefficients. The model’s predictive accuracy was evaluated using time-dependent ROC curves. Six predictors were selected into the final prediction model (age at entry of the cohort, mean concentration of respirable silica, net years of dust exposure, smoking, illiteracy, and no. of jobs). We classified workers into three risk groups according to the quartile (Q1, Q3) of risk score; 203 (23.28%) incident silicosis cases were derived from the high risk group (risk score ≥ 5.91), whilst only 4 (0.46%) cases were from the low risk group (risk score < 3.97). The score system was regarded as accurate given the range of AUCs (83–96%). This study developed a unique score system with a good internal validity, which provides scientific guidance to the clinicians to identify high-risk workers, thus has important cost efficient implications. PMID:26090590

  9. Risk assessment of silicosis and lung cancer among construction workers exposed to respirable quartz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjoe Nij, E.; Heederik, D.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the magnitude of the silicosis and cancer risk among construction workers. Methods: In 1998, 1335 of 4173 invited construction workers with expected high cumulative exposure to quartz were studied for early signs of silicosis. In 2002 the study was

  10. [Review and perspective of a long-term follow-up of two cohorts of workers heavily exposed to asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    National screening programs for detection of breast, colon and cervical cancers have been set up in France. Occupational cancers are excluded from these programs. Surveillance is left to the initiative of former employees who can initiate post-professional medical monitoring. This study describes an experience of such monitoring organised by the health insurance in collaboration with "victims". The long term follow-up, every two years, of 324 workers directly and heavily exposed to asbestos confirms the high risk of developing lung cancer, mesothelioma or asbestosis, the latter at times rapidly evolving. The early discovery of 3 bronchopulmonary cancers points to the interest of an annual or biannual routine screening. While new imaging techniques reduce by a factor of 8 irradiation, without significantly affecting the diagnostic capacity, the health benefit provided by annual monitoring scanner in heavy smokers favors an early detection program for lung cancers. The population targeted for such a screening (active or former smoker with pleural plaques) should be defined in more detail. The increasingly frequent observation of lung or pleural changes besides the populations at risk should also be considered. Therefore the detecting procedures applied to those workers indirectly or discontinuously exposed should be reassessed (only 1 TDM at 60 y, or on retirement, for the relevant occupations). These data suggest that the recommendation HAS 2010 for post-professional screening of workers occupationally exposed to asbestos should be reconsidered, particularly in case of pleural plaques. An organized screening program needs to be overhauled.

  11. Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers exposed to arsenic levels exceeding hygiene standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Sińczuk-Walczak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The assessment of the neurotoxic effect of arsenic (As and its inorganic compounds is still the subject of interest due to a growing As application in a large array of technologies and the need to constantly verify the principles of prevention and technological parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the status of the nervous system (NS in workers exposed to As at concentrations exceeding hygiene standards (Threshold Limit Values (TLV – 10 μg/m3, Biological Exposure Index (BEI – 35 μg/l and to analyze the relationship between the NS functional state, species of As in urine and As levels in the workplace air. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 21 men (mean age: 47.43±7.59 employed in a copper smelting factory (mean duration of employment: 22.29±11.09. The control group comprised 16 men, matched by age and work shifts. Arsenic levels in the workplace air (As-A ranged from 0.7 to 92.3 μg/m3; (M = 25.18±28.83. The concentration of total arsenic in urine (Astot-U ranged from 17.35 to 434.68 μg/l (M = 86.82±86.6. Results: Syndrome of peripheral nervous system (PNS was manifested by extremity fatigue (28.6%, extremity pain (33.3% and paresthesia in the lower extremities (33.3%, as well as by neuropathy-type mini-symptoms (23.8%. Electroneurographic (ENeG tests of peroneal nerves showed significantly decreased response amplitude with normal values of motor conduction velocity (MCV. Stimulation of sural nerves revealed a significantly slowed sensory conduction velocity (SCV and decreased sensory potential amplitude. Neurophysiological parameters and the results of biological and environmental monitoring showed a relationship between Astot, AsIII (trivalent arsenic, the sum of iAs (AsIII+AsV (pentavalent arsenic+MMA (monomethylarsonic acid concentration in urine and As levels in the air. Conclusions: The results of the study demonstrate that occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic levels exceeding hygiene

  12. Epidemiological study of respiratory disease in workers exposed to polyvinylchloride dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutar, C A; Copland, L H; Thornley, P E; Hurley, J F; Ottery, J; Adams, W G; Bennett, B

    1980-01-01

    The respiratory health of workers exposed to polyvinylchloride (PVC) dust has been investigated in 818 men sampled from the work force of a factory manufacturing PVC. In a cross-sectional survey, the lung function and prevalences of respiratory symptoms and chest radiographic abnormalities were compared with estimates of individual PVC dust exposures based on detailed occupational histories and current measurements of respirable PVC dust. Complaints of slight exertional dyspnoea were associated with PVC dust exposure, though age and smoking effects were much stronger. The forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were inversely related to dust exposure after age, height, and smoking effects had been taken into account. This effect was seen principally in cigarette smokers, and there was suggestive evidence that PVC dust exposure and cigarette smoking interacted in the reduction of FEV1 and FVC. Gas transfer factor was not related to dust exposure. The chest radiographs were read according to the ILO U/C classification by three experienced readers. One reader recorded a low prevalence of small rounded opacities, and these were not related to age or dust exposure. Another reader recorded a higher prevalence of small rounded opacities category 0/1 or more, and these were related to age but not to dust exposure. The third reader recorded the highest prevalence of small rounded opacities (though none greater than category 1/1), and these were independently related both to age and to PVC dust exposure, indicating an effect of PVC dust on the appearance of the chest radiography. These appearances were so slight that only the higher sensitivity of this reader in the interpretation of profusion of small rounded opacities on the ILO U/C scale enabled detection of this effect of PVC dust. In conclusion, exposure to PVC dust is associated with some deterioration of lung function, slight abnormalities of the chest radiograph, and complaints of

  13. A follow up study of vascular disorders in vibration-exposed forestry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenzi, Massimo

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and the cold response of digital arteries in a group of forestry workers, most of whom had used anti-vibration (AV) chain saws solely. One hundred and twenty-eight forestry workers underwent initially a medical examination and a standardized cold test with measurement of the change in finger systolic blood pressure after finger cooling from 30 to 10 degrees C (FSBP%(10 degrees )). They were re-examined two or three times over the calendar period 1990-1999. Seventy-one forestry workers were active over the entire follow up period, while 57 retired after 1-8 years from the initial investigation. The initial prevalence and the cumulative incidence of VWF over the follow up period were 26.6 and 11.7%, respectively. In the retired workers, the new cases of VWF occurred before their retirement, that is when they were still active. There were no significant changes in FSBP%(10 degrees ) in the active forestry workers over the follow up period. A significant increased in FSBP%(10 degrees ) (i.e. improvement) was observed in the retired workers at the end of the follow up. FSBP%(10 degrees ) at the cross-sectional investigation was significantly lower in the forestry workers who developed VWF during the follow up than in those who never experienced finger blanching over the study period. The findings of this follow up study suggest that forestry workers with work experience limited to AV chain saws are still at risk of developing VWF. Cessation of vibration exposure in the retired workers was associated with a beneficial effect on the cold response of digital arteries. Cold-induced digital arterial hyperresponsiveness at the initial investigation was a predictive factor for the onset of VWF over time.

  14. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  15. Markers of lipid oxidative damage among office workers exposed intermittently to air pollutants including nanoTiO2 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Komarc, Martin; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Zikova, Nadezda; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Makes, Otakar; Navratil, Tomas; Zakharov, Sergey; Bello, Dhimiter

    2017-03-01

    Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls. Office workers were observed to get intermittent exposures to nanoTiO2 during their process monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such short-term exposures on the markers of health effects in office workers relative to production workers from the same factory. Twenty-two office employees were examined. They were occupationally exposed to (nano)TiO2 aerosol during their daily visits of the production area for an average of 14±9 min/day. Median particle number concentration in office workers while in the production area was 2.32×104/cm3. About 80% of the particles were office workers and 14 unexposed controls. Nine markers of lipid oxidation were elevated in the EBC of office employees relative to controls (poffice employees reached about 50% of the levels measured in production workers, and the difference between production workers and office employees was highly significant (p<0.001). None of these biomarkers were elevated in urine. The approach presented here seems to be very sensitive and useful for non-invasive monitoring of employees exposed to air pollutants, including gases, organic aerosols, and nanoTiO2, and may prove useful for routine biomonitoring purposes. Among them, aldehydes C6, C8, C9, and C10 appear to be the most sensitive markers of lipid oxidation in similar occupational cohorts. One major challenge with sensitive biomonitoring techniques, however, is their

  16. Increase in DNA damage in lymphocytes and micronucleus frequency in buccal cells in silica-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ajanta; De, Madhusnata

    2012-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied to study the genotoxic properties of silica in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The study was designed to evaluate the DNA damage of lymphocytes and the end points like micronuclei from buccal smears in a group of 45 workers, occupationally exposed to silica, from small mines and stone quarries. The results were compared to 20 sex and age matched normal individuals. There was a statistically significant difference in the damage levels between the exposed group and the control groups. The types of damages (type I -type 1V) were used to measure the DNA damage. The numbers of micronuclei were higher in the silica-exposed population. The present study suggests that the silica exposure can induce lymphocyte DNA damage and produces significant variation of micronuclei in buccal smear.

  17. The influence of β-carotene on homocysteine level and oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers

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    Sławomir Kasperczyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is involved in lead toxicity. This suggests that some antioxidants may play a role in the treatment of lead poisoning. In the light of this, the aim of the study was to determine whether β-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and homocysteine level in workers chronically exposed to lead. Material and Methods: The exposed population included healthy male workers exposed to lead who were randomly divided into 2 groups (mean blood lead level ca. 44 μg/dl. Workers in the 1st group (N = 49, reference group had no antioxidants, drugs, vitamins or dietary supplements administered, while workers in the 2nd group (N = 33 had β-carotene administered in a dose of 10 mg per day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included markers of lead-exposure and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA, an oxidative stress biomarker. We also measured the level of homocysteine (Hcy and thiol groups as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and its isoenzyme EC-SOD in serum. Results: After supplementation, the level of MDA significantly decreased, compared to baseline, by 16%, and to the reference group. When compared to the reference group, Hcy level was also significantly decreased. However, the level of thiol groups was significantly higher after supplementation with β-carotene compared to the reference group. Analogically, the activity of SOD and EC-SOD was significantly higher compared to the baseline and to the reference group. Conclusions: Despite some controversies over antioxidant properties of β-carotene, our results indicate that its antioxidant action could provide some beneficial effects in lead poisoning independent of chelation. Med Pr 2014;65(3:309–316

  18. Liver Damage Risk Assessment Study in Workers Occupationally Exposed to E-waste in Benin City, South-South Nigeria

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    Osaretin God Igaro Igaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available    Large volumes of mostly irreparable electronic waste (e-waste are shipped to Africa on a monthly basis, of which Nigeria receives the largest share. E-waste management practices in Nigeria have remained completely primitive until date; and e-waste workers have little or no occupational safety knowledge and devices. The thousands of chemicals in e-waste have been reported to be toxic to human health in any degree of exposure. The present study has assessed the risk of liver damage in workers occupationally exposed to e-waste in Benin City, South-south Nigeria in 2014. Serum activities of liver enzymes [alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]; and levels albumin (ALB, total bilirubin (T/Bil and conjugated bilirubin (C/Bil were determined using standard colorimetric methods. Serum Alpha fetoprotein (AFP was determined using ELISA in Nigerian e-waste workers (n=63 and in age-matched unexposed participants (n=41 in Benin City. The results showed significantly raised activities of enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT in the e-waste group compared with the unexposed participants. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALB, T/Bil and C/Bil between exposed and unexposed participants. AFP levels in e-waste workers (3.56 ± 0.34 ng/mL were significantly different compared with the unexposed group (2.14 ± 0.80 ng/mL (P< 0.045. The significantly elevated cancer risk biomarker (AFP and the enzymatic biomarkers of liver damage observed in the Nigerian e-waste workers studied may be associated with occupational exposure to known carcinogens and hepatotoxic metals in e-waste. 

  19. Neurologic symptoms and neuropathologic antibodies in poultry workers exposed to Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Lance B; Roess, Amira; Graham, Jay P; Baqar, Shahida; Vailes, Rocio; Sheikh, Kazim A; Silbergeld, Ellen

    2007-07-01

    To examine associations between occupational exposure to live poultry with Campylobacter exposure, Campylobacter-associated neurologic symptoms, and neuropathologic antibodies. Questionnaires, serum samples, and stool specimens were collected from 20 poultry workers and 40 community referents. Campylobacter exposure was evaluated by stool culture and serum antibodies; neurologic symptoms were assessed by questionnaire; and neuropathologic antibodies were measured by serum anti-glycolipid antibody concentrations. Poultry workers had significantly higher anti-Campylobacter immunoglobulin G titers compared with that of referents (P Campylobacter-associated neurologic symptoms; and male poultry workers had a higher point risk estimate for detectable neuropathologic anti-glycolipid immunoglobulin G titers (P = 0.07) compared with male referents. These data suggest that poultry workers are at elevated risk of Campylobacter exposure and may be at elevated risk for Campylobacter-associated neurologic sequelae.

  20. Mortality among chemical plant workers exposed to acrylonitrile: 2011 follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Gary M; Zimmerman, Sarah D

    2015-02-01

    To update a cohort study of chemical workers and reevaluate lung cancer mortality in relation to acrylonitrile (AN) exposure. Subjects were 2096 workers employed during 1955 to 2011. We identified 474 deaths through 2011, and quantitatively estimated worker exposures to AN. Analyses included national and county-based standardized mortality ratios and relative risk regression of internal cohort rates. We found no statistically significant excess mortality risks associated with Lima employment for any cause of death category, including lung cancer and other cancer sites implicated in previous studies. This update provides no evidence that exposure to AN at levels experienced by Lima workers is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer mortality, as suggested in original study. Earlier reported bladder cancer risks decreased to a much lower, not statistically significant level.

  1. Thermographic Evaluation of the Hands of Pig Slaughterhouse Workers Exposed to Cold Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirloni, Adriana Seára; Reis, Diogo Cunha Dos; Ramos, Eliane; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2017-07-26

    Brazil was rated the fourth leading producer and exporter of pork meat in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature of the hands of pig slaughterhouse workers and its relation to the thermal sensation of the hands and the use of a cutting tool. The study included 106 workers in a pig slaughterhouse. An infrared camera FlirThermaCAM E320 (Flir Systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA) was used to collect the images of the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both hands. A numerical scale was used to obtain the thermal sensation. Chi-square test, Pearson correlation and Student's t test or Wilcoxon were used (p ≤ 0.05). The majority of workers felt cold in the hands (66%) and workers who used the knife felt the coldest. There was an association between the thermal sensation and the use of knife (p = 0.001). Workers who used the tool showed correlation between the thermal sensation and the temperatures of the left fingers, with a difference between the temperatures of the right and left hands of those who used the knife (p ≤ 0.05). The hands (left) that manipulated the products presented the lowest temperatures. Findings indicate that employers of pig slaughterhouses should provide gloves with adequate thermal insulation to preserve the health of workers' hands.

  2. [Factors influencing electrocardiogram results in workers exposed to noise in steel-making and steel-rolling workshops of an iron and steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Yu, S F; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Jiao, J

    2016-02-20

    To investigate the factors influencing the electrocardiogram results in the workers exposed to noise in steel-making and steel rolling workshops of an iron and steel plant. From September to December, 2013, cluster sampling was used to select 3 150 workers exposed to noise in the steel-making and steel-rolling workshops of an iron and steel plant, and a questionnaire survey and physical examinations were performed. The number of valid workers was 2 915, consisting of 1 606 workers in the steel-rolling workshop and 1 309 in the steel-making workshop. The electrocardiogram results of the workers in steel-making and steel-rolling workshops were analyzed. The overall abnormal rate of electrocardiogram was 26.35%, and the workers in the steel-making workshop had a significantly higher abnormal rate of electrocardiogram than those in the steel-rolling workshop(32.24% vs 21.54%, Pelectrocardiogram than female workers(27.59% vs 18.61%, Pelectrocardiogram than those who did not drink(28.17% vs 23.75%, Pelectrocardiogram than those who were not exposed to high temperature(29.43% vs 20.14%, Pelectrocardiogram in the workers with cumulative noise exposure levels of electrocardiogram results. High cumulative noise exposure, alcohol consumption, and high temperature may affect the abnormal rate of electrocardiogram in the workers exposed to noise in steel-making and steel-rolling workshops.

  3. Predictive values of some atherogenic risk factors in young workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride and heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Abdel Azim Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional risk factors do not explain all of the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD events. Human susceptibility to atherosclerosis and consequently coronary heart disease is maximally exhibited when the environment is unfavorable, especially in workplace. Thus, the present work was undertaken to study the relation of lipoprotein (a to the other atherogenic risk factors in young workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride or some heavy metals by studying the effect of exposure to these agents on the lipid profiles, immunological parameters and the antioxidant defense enzyme system. The results of this study revealed that, in metalists, the cluster features of dyslipidemia, impairment in antioxidant defense mechanism and high levels of Lp (a, CICs, C3 and C4 represent unfortunate events on their cardiovascular system. In VCW, vinyl chloride metabolites caused severe oxidative stress reflected by impairment in the antioxidant defense accompanied by propagation of lipid peroxidation. Additionally, the elevated levels of Lp (a, CICs, C3 and C4 may point out to their role as atherogenic risk factors in those workers. In conclusion, young workers occupationally exposed to VC may be at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease in spite of having normolipidemia.

  4. Thermographic Evaluation of the Hands of Pig Slaughterhouse Workers Exposed to Cold Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Seára Tirloni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil was rated the fourth leading producer and exporter of pork meat in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temperature of the hands of pig slaughterhouse workers and its relation to the thermal sensation of the hands and the use of a cutting tool. The study included 106 workers in a pig slaughterhouse. An infrared camera FlirThermaCAM E320 (Flir Systems, Wilsonville, OR, USA was used to collect the images of the dorsal and palmar surfaces of both hands. A numerical scale was used to obtain the thermal sensation. Chi-square test, Pearson correlation and Student’s t test or Wilcoxon were used (p ≤ 0.05. The majority of workers felt cold in the hands (66% and workers who used the knife felt the coldest. There was an association between the thermal sensation and the use of knife (p = 0.001. Workers who used the tool showed correlation between the thermal sensation and the temperatures of the left fingers, with a difference between the temperatures of the right and left hands of those who used the knife (p ≤ 0.05. The hands (left that manipulated the products presented the lowest temperatures. Findings indicate that employers of pig slaughterhouses should provide gloves with adequate thermal insulation to preserve the health of workers’ hands.

  5. Elevated Frequencies of Micronuclei and other Nuclear Abnormalities of Chrome Plating Workers Occupationally Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, S; Kripa, S K; Shibily, P; Shyn, J

    2011-01-01

    Biomonitoring provides a useful tool to estimate the genetic risk from exposure to genotoxic agents. The aim of this study was to assess the potential cytogenetic damage associated with occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium by using micronuclei (MN) as a biomarker. This was a cross-sectional study and all participants were males. Both the exposed and control individuals were selected from Coimbatore, Southern India. Exfoliated buccal cells from 44 chrome plating workers and 40 age and sex matched control subjects were examined for MN frequency and nuclear abnormalities (NA) other than micronuclei, such as binucleates, broken eggs, karyorrhexis, karyolysis and pyknosis. Results showed statistically significant difference between chrome plating workers and control groups. MN and NA frequencies in chrome plating workers were significantly higher than those in control groups (p chrome plating workers are under risk of significant cytogenetic damage. Therefore, there is a need to educate those who work with heavy metals about the potential hazard of occupational exposure and the importance of using protective measures.

  6. Carcinogenesis and Inflammatory Effects of Plutonium-Nitrate Retention in an Exposed Nuclear Worker and Beagle Dogs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Xihai [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Robinson, Robert J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brooks, Antone L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lovaglio, Jamie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Patton, Kristin M. [Battelle Toxicology Northwest, Richland, WA (United States); McComish, Stacey [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Tolmachev, Sergei Y. [United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries, Washington State University, College of Pharmacy, Richland, WA (United States); Morgan, William F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The genetic and inflammatory response pathways elicited following plutonium exposure in archival lung tissue of an occupationally exposed human and experimentally exposed beagle dogs were investigated. These pathways include: tissue injury, apoptosis and gene expression modifications related to carcinogenesis and inflammation. In order to determine which pathways are involved, multiple lung samples from a plutonium exposed worker (Case 0269), a human control (Case 0385), and plutonium exposed beagle dogs were examined using histological staining and immunohistochemistry. Examinations were performed to identify target tissues at risk of radiation-induced fibrosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Case 0269 showed interstitial fibrosis in peripheral and subpleural regions of the lung, but no pulmonary tumors. In contrast, the dogs with similar and higher doses showed pulmonary tumors primarily in brochiolo-alveolar, peripheral and subpleural alveolar regions. The TUNEL assay showed slight elevation of apoptosis in tracheal mucosa, tumor cells, and nuclear debris was present in the inflammatory regions of alveoli and lymph nodes of both the human and the dogs. The expression of apoptosis and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes was slightly but not significantly elevated in protein or gene levels compared to that of the control samples. In the beagles, mucous production was increased in the airway epithelial goblet cells and glands of trachea, and a number of chemokine/cytokine genes showed positive immunoreactivity. This analysis of archival tissue from an accidentally exposed worker and in a large animal model provides valuable information on the effects of long-term retention of plutonium in the respiratory tract and the histological evaluation study may impact mechanistic studies of radiation carcinogenesis.

  7. Latent Tuberculosis in Health Care Workers Exposed to Active Tuberculosis in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Faryal; Al-Lawati, Adil; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Naamani, Jaleelah; Al-Harthi, Harith; Al-Jardani, Amina; Al-Harthi, Aliya

    2016-07-01

    Data on the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare workers (HCW) in Oman and the Arabian Gulf is scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (LTB) among HCW exposed to active TB in one of the tertiary care hospitals in Muscat. Exposed HCW were screened for LTB from January to June 2012 using skin tuberculin and serum interferon tests. Candidates were followed-up for a total of nine months. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. A total of 371 exposed HCW were involved in the study. The incidence of LTB in exposed HCW was 33.2% (n = 123). Almost 54% (66/123) of the HCW started treatment and only 42.4% (28/66) completed the full nine-month treatment course. The high prevalence of LTBI in exposed HCW merits further evaluation of the screening and treatment programs in the country. Future countrywide studies are warranted to provide more precise statistics on the prevalence and management of this public health issue.

  8. Measurement of Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in a Glass Wool Company Workers Exposed to Respirable Synthetic Vitreous Fiber and Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Shabnam; Malekzadeh, Mahyar; Nikravan, Ghafour; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    Occupational exposures to respirable synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF) and dust are associated with many lung diseases including lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography is used for screening patients who are highly suspicious of having lung carcinoma. However, it seems not to be cost-effective. Serum biomarkers could be a useful tool for the surveillance of occupational exposure, by providing the possibility of diagnosing lung cancer in its early stages. To determine if serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1 levels in workers exposed more than normal population to respirable SVF and dust may be used as indicators of progression towards lung cancer. An analytic cross-sectional study, including 145 personnel of a glass wool company, along with 25 age-matched healthy individuals, was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to respirable SVFs and dust and serum levels of two lung/pleura serum tumor markers, CEA and CYFRA 21-1, measured by ELISA. Individuals exposed to higher than the recommended levels of respirable SVF had higher serum concentrations of CEA and CYFRA 21-1, compared to controls (p=0.008 and 0.040, respectively), as well as in comparison to those exposed to lower than recommended OSHA levels (p=0.046 and 0.033, respectively). Workers with >9 years work experience, had significantly (p=0.045) higher levels of serum CYFRA 21-1 than those with ≤9 years of experience. It seems that working for >9 years in sites with detectable levels of respirable SVF and dust would increase the levels of known lung cancer serum tumor markers. Transferring these workers to sites with respirable SVF concentrations lower than the limit of detection in the air is recommended.

  9. Measurement of Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in a Glass Wool Company Workers Exposed to Respirable Synthetic Vitreous Fiber and Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Abtahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposures to respirable synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF and dust are associated with many lung diseases including lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography is used for screening patients who are highly suspicious of having lung carcinoma. However, it seems not to be cost-effective. Serum biomarkers could be a useful tool for the surveillance of occupational exposure, by providing the possibility of diagnosing lung cancer in its early stages. Objective: To determine if serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA 21-1 levels in workers exposed more than normal population to respirable SVF and dust may be used as indicators of progression towards lung cancer. Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study, including 145 personnel of a glass wool company, along with 25 age-matched healthy individuals, was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to respirable SVFs and dust and serum levels of two lung/pleura serum tumor markers, CEA and CYFRA 21-1, measured by ELISA. Results: Individuals exposed to higher than the recommended levels of respirable SVF had higher serum concentrations of CEA and CYFRA 21-1, compared to controls (p=0.008 and 0.040, respectively, as well as in comparison to those exposed to lower than recommended OSHA levels (p=0.046 and 0.033, respectively. Workers with >9 years work experience, had significantly (p=0.045 higher levels of serum CYFRA 21-1 than those with ≤9 years of experience. Conclusion: It seems that working for >9 years in sites with detectable levels of respirable SVF and dust would increase the levels of known lung cancer serum tumor markers. Transferring these workers to sites with respirable SVF concentrations lower than the limit of detection in the air is recommended.

  10. Prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis among dairy farm workers exposed to cattle infected by Mycobacterium bovis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torres-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis is a zoonosis presently considered sporadic in developed countries, but remains a poorly studied problem in low and middle resource countries. The disease in humans is mainly attributed to unpasteurized dairy products consumption. However, transmission due to exposure of humans to infected animals has been also recognized. The prevalence of tuberculosis infection and associated risk factors have been insufficiently characterized among dairy farm workers (DFW exposed in settings with poor control of bovine tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin skin test (TST and Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were administered to 311 dairy farm and abattoir workers and their household contacts linked to a dairy production and livestock facility in Mexico. Sputa of individuals with respiratory symptoms and samples from routine cattle necropsies were cultured for M. bovis and resulting spoligotypes were compared. The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI was 76.2% (95% CI, 71.4-80.9% by TST and 58.5% (95% CI, 53.0-64.0% by IGRA. Occupational exposure was associated to TST (OR 2.72; 95% CI, 1.31-5.64 and IGRA (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30 adjusting for relevant variables. Two subjects were diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis, both caused by M. bovis. In one case, the spoligotype was identical to a strain isolated from bovines. CONCLUSIONS: We documented a high prevalence of latent and pulmonary TB among workers exposed to cattle infected with M. bovis, and increased risk among those occupationally exposed in non-ventilated spaces. Interspecies transmission is frequent and represents an occupational hazard in this setting.

  11. CaNa2EDTA chelation attenuates cell damage in workers exposed to lead--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabarkapa, A; Borozan, S; Živković, L; Stojanović, S; Milanović-Čabarkapa, M; Bajić, V; Spremo-Potparević, B

    2015-12-05

    Lead induced oxidative cellular damage and long-term persistence of associated adverse effects increases risk of late-onset diseases. CaNa2EDTA chelation is known to remove contaminating metals and to reduce free radical production. The objective was to investigate the impact of chelation therapy on modulation of lead induced cellular damage, restoration of altered enzyme activities and lipid homeostasis in peripheral blood of workers exposed to lead, by comparing the selected biomarkers obtained prior and after five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation intervention. The group of smelting factory workers diagnosed with lead intoxication and current lead exposure 5.8 ± 1.2 years were administered five-day CaNa2EDTA chelation. Elevated baseline activity of antioxidant enzymes Cu, Zn-SOD and CAT as well as depleted thiols and increased protein degradation products-carbonyl groups and nitrites, pointing to Pb induced oxidative damage, were restored toward normal values following the treatment. Lead showed inhibitor potency on both RBC AChE and BChE in exposed workers, and chelation re-established the activity of BChE, while RBC AChE remained unaffected. Also, genotoxic effect of lead detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly decreased after therapy, exhibiting 18.9% DNA damage reduction. Administration of chelation reversed the depressed activity of serum PON 1 and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation detected by the post-chelation reduction of MDA levels. Lactate dehydrogenase LDH1-5 isoenzymes levels showed evident but no significant trend of restoring toward normal control values following chelation. CaNa2EDTA chelation ameliorates the alterations linked with Pb mediated oxidative stress, indicating possible benefits in reducing health risks associated with increased oxidative damage in lead exposed populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Gastroduodenal system state and levels of gastro-intestinal peptides in workers exposed to fluor compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, A A; Gromov, A S

    2007-01-01

    Studies in 45 cryolite production workers (facing chronic gastritis and gastroduodenitis) demonstrated that the diseases in them have moderate inflammatory activity, atrophy of gastric lining contaminated with Helicobacter pylori, hypergastrine mia, hypopancreozymine mia and hyposecretine mia in half of the examinees.

  13. AIRWAY HYPERRESPONSIVENESS, PREVALENCE OF CHRONIC RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS, AND LUNG-FUNCTION IN WORKERS EXPOSED TO IRRITANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KREMER, AM; PAL, TM; BOLEIJ, JSM; SCHOUTEN, JP; RIJCKEN, B

    The association between occupational exposure to airway irritants and the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of lung function, and whether these associations were modified by airway hyperresponsiveness, smoking, and a history of allergy were studied in 668 workers from synthetic

  14. Biomonitoring of diesel exhaust-exposed workers. DNA and hemoglobin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as markers of exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; Andreassen, Åshild; Farmer, Peter B.

    1996-01-01

    the 32P-postlabelling method with butanol and P1 enrichment procedures. Hydroxyethylvaline (HOEtVal) adducts in hemoglobin were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 1-hydroxypyrene (HPU) in urine determined using HPLC analysis. The exposed workers had significantly higher levels...... correlated with HPU but not with DNA adducts. The levels of HPU in urine were 0.11 micromol/mol creatinine compared to 0.05 in controls. All three assays applied were sensitive enough to evaluate a low level of exposure to environmental pollutants, with postlabelling and GC-MS as the most sensitive assays...

  15. Modeling Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Otoacoustic Emissions in Workers Exposed to Different Industrial Noise Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R.; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provid...

  16. An overview of male reproductive studies of boron with an emphasis on studies of highly exposed Chinese workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Bonde, Jens Peter; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Boron treatment of rats, mice, and dogs has been associated with testicular toxicity, characterized by inhibited spermiation at lower dose levels and a reduction in epididymal sperm count at higher dose levels. The no-adverse-effect level for reproductive effects in male rats is 17.5mg B/kg bw...... for potential confounders. There were no statistically significant differences in semen characteristics between exposure groups, including in the highly exposed subset, except that sperm Y:X ratio was reduced in boron workers. Within exposure groups the Y:X ratio did not correlate with the boron concentration...

  17. Dose reconstruction in workers exposed to two major pyrethroid pesticides and determination of biological reference values using a toxicokinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Jonathan; Bouchard, Michèle

    2017-12-28

    A toxicokinetic model has been optimized to describe the time profiles of common biomarkers of exposure to permethrin and cypermethrin: trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (trans-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). The model then served to reproduce urinary time courses in exposed agricultural workers and predict corresponding absorbed doses. It allowed for the prediction of the main routes of exposure in workers during the study period. Modeling showed that simulating exposure mostly by the oral route, during the 3-day biomonitoring period, provided best-fits to the urinary time courses of most workers. This is compatible with an inadvertent oral exposure during work. According to best-fit scenarios, absorbed doses in workers reconstructed with the model reached a maximum of 2.4 µg/kg bw/day and were below the absorbed dose limits associated with an exposure to the reference dose values established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (0.06 and 0.25 mg/kg bw/day for cypermethrin and permethrin, respectively) and the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level set by the European Commission (0.06 mg/kg bw/day for cypermethrin). Modeling was further used to derive biological reference values for cypermethrin and permethrin exposure. Respective values of 7 and 29 nmol/kg bw/day of trans-DCCA, and 3 and 13 nmol/kg bw/day of 3-PBA were obtained. None of the workers presented values above these biological reference values.

  18. Medical follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: French evidence-based and pragmatic recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Delva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to establish recommendations for the medical follow-up of workers currently or previously exposed to lung carcinogens. Methods A critical synthesis of the literature was conducted. Occupational lung carcinogenic substances were listed and classified according to their level of lung cancer risk. A targeted screening protocol was defined. Results A clinical trial, National Lung Screnning Trial (NLST, showed the efficacy of chest CAT scan (CT screening for populations of smokers aged 55–74 years with over 30 pack-years of exposure who had stopped smoking for less than 15 years. To propose screening in accordance with NLST criteria, and to account for occupational risk factors, screening among smokers and former smokers needs to consider the types of occupational exposure for which the risk level is at least equivalent to the risk of the subjects included in the NLST. The working group proposes an algorithm that estimates the relative risk of each occupational lung carcinogen, taking into account exposure to tobacco, based on available data from the literature. Conclusion Given the lack of data on bronchopulmonary cancer (BPC screening in occupationally exposed workers, the working group proposed implementing a screening experiment for bronchopulmonary cancer in subjects occupationally exposed or having been occupationally exposed to lung carcinogens who are confirmed as having high risk factors for BPC. A specific algorithm is proposed to determine the level of risk of BPC, taking into account the different occupational lung carcinogens and tobacco smoking at the individual level.

  19. A Vinyl Chloride-exposed Worker with an Adrenal Gland Angiosarcoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    CRISCUOLO, Mario; VALERIO, Jacqueline; GIANICOLO, Maria Elena; GIANICOLO, Emilio A.L; PORTALURI, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal epithelioidangiosarcoma (AEA) is a rare neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of sarcomas. Due to its rarity, it can easily be misdiagnosed, both by the clinician and the pathologist. Data on the patient’s occupational history was collected and analyzed. The bibliographic data was found on the PUBMED bibliographic search site after entering the word “extrahepaticangiosarcoma”. We report a case of adrenal epithelioidangiosarcoma (AEA) in a 68 yr-old Caucasian male factory worker expo...

  20. Work-related symptoms among workers exposed to black tea dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea may be classified as unfermented green, semi-fermented oolong and fermented black. All of these types are derived from Camellia sinensis, the Tea Plant, which contains the low molecular weight (LMW agent Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg, probably responsible for allergic reactions. The aim of our study was to asses the work-related allergic symptoms and IgE-mediated sensitivity among black tea packers. Material and Methods: Study groups comprised 26 black tea packers (group 1 and 20 office workers (group 2. A questionnaire, skin prick tests (SPTs to common allergens and black tea, evaluation of specific IgE (asIgE to Camellia sinensis and moulds, pre- and post-work-shift spirometry were performed. Results: At least 1 symptom suggesting allergic disease was reported by 85% of the tea packers and 60% of the office workers. The most frequent positive results of SPTs were obtained with moulds (8%. A small decline in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s after the work shift was observed among tea packers sensitized to moulds. Conclusions: Although specific sensitization to black tea was not observed in our study groups, cough and skin symptoms were significantly more frequently among the tea packers than in office workers. The irritant impact on the airways and the skin of tea dust and/or sensitization to moulds contaminating tea leaves are being suspected. Med Pr 2015;66(1:11–15

  1. Plasma cytokine concentrations in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh eSaberi Hosnijeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesFew epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p dioxin (TCDD on blood cytokine levels. In this study we investigated changes in plasma levels of a large panel of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors among workers from a Dutch historical cohort occupationally exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and contaminants including TCDD.MethodsEighty-five workers who had been exposed to either high (n=47 or low (n=38 TCDD levels more than 30 years before serum collection were included in the current investigation. Plasma level of 16 cytokines, 10 chemokines and 6 growth factors were measured. Current plasma levels of TCDD (TCDDCurrent were determined by high resolution gas chromatography/isotope dilution high resolution mass spectrometry. TCDD blood levels at the time of last exposure (TCDDmax were estimated using a one-compartment first order kinetic model. ResultsBlood levels of most analytes had a negative association with current and estimated past maximum TCDD levels. These decreases reached formal statistical significance for fractalkine, transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 with increasing TCDD levels.ConclusionsOur study showed a general reduction in most analyte levels with the strongest effects for fractalkine, FGF2 and TGF-α. These findings suggest that TCDD exposure could suppress the immune system and that chemokine and growth factor-dependent cellular pathway changes by TCDD may play role in TCDD toxicity and associated health effects.

  2. Sister chromatid exchanges among workers occupationally exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnainmaa, K.

    1983-01-01

    The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was studied in the peripheral lymphocytes of workers spraying foliage in forestry with phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) or their mixtures. In order to follow possible exposure-related changes in the frequencies of SCEs, three successive blood samples were taken from 50 male sprayers during the spraying season of July-October, 1981. In addition, 15 control subjects not working with herbicides were included in the study. The actual exposure levels of the exposed subjects were estimated by measuring the concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA in the urine of the sprayers. Enough cells for the SCE analysis were obtained from 35 herbicide workers and 15 control subjects. The concentrations of 2,4-D and MCPA in the urine samples after exposure varied from 0.00 to 10.99 mg/l. No significant differences in the frequencies of SCEs were observed in samples taken before, during, or after the exposure. Furthermore, the means of SCEs in a nonexposed control group of 15 subjects fell in the same range as those of the exposed subjects. A difference in the means of SCEs was observed between nonsmokers and smokers, smokers having significantly higher mean values than nonsmokers. The results of the present study add support to the earlier data indicating that 2,4-D and MCPA do not act as direct DNA-damaging agents.

  3. Peak expiratory flow rate in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes, in various industries of Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padaki Samata K, Dambal Amrut , Kokiwar Prashant

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: The prevalence of occupational health hazards and mortality has been reported to be unusually high among people of India. Although developed countries are very much careful about the health in occupations it is quite neglected in the developing countries like India. Aims: To record PEFR in asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years and compare the results with age matched unexposed, healthy male controls. Methods and Material: This was a comparative study between 50 asymptomatic male workers exposed to chemical fumes for more than 2 years in various industries located at Jeedimetla Industrial Area and 50 unexposed healthy male individuals from general population. The sampling was done by simple random sampling (lottery method. The data was collected in the Research Laboratory of Physiology. Anthropometry like weight, height, was measured and the PEFR test was performed in the standing position by taking a deep inspiration and then blowing out as hard and as quickly as possible with their nose closed. Data was analyzed by using SPSS package and was expressed in terms of mean ± SD. Results: It was observed that mean PEFR was statistically highly significant in cases (p = 0.0001, and PEFR decreased with increase in duration of exposure. Conclusions: Thus, it can be concluded that apparently healthy individuals may also have abnormal PEFR findings. Hence, a regular check on these parameters will help them in reducing the chances of its manifestation at a future date.

  4. Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Crystalline Silica Dust by SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mahdi; Zare Sakhvidi, Mohammad Javad; Bahrami, Abdulrahman; Berijani, Nima; Mahjub, Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Silicosis is considered an oxidative stress related disease that can lead to the development of lung cancer. In this study, our purpose was to analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dust and compare peak area of these compounds with silicosis patients and healthy volunteers (smokers and nonsmokers) groups. In this cross sectional case-control study, the exhaled breath of 69 subjects including workers exposed to silica (n=20), silicosis patient (n=4), healthy non-smoker (n=20) and healthy smoker (n=25) were analyzed. We collected breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags. The VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Personal exposure intensity was measured according to NIOSH 7601 method. Respiratory parameters were measured using spirometry. Seventy percent and 100% of the exposures to crystalline silica dust exceeded from 8 h TWA ACGIH TLVs in case and positive control groups, respectively. A significant negative correlation was found between dust exposure intensity and FEV1/FVC when exposure and positive control groups were studied in a group (r2=-0.601, Psilica and silicosis patient compared to the healthy smoker and nonsmoker controls. In some cases the difference was significant (Psilica.

  5. Prediction of hearing loss among the noise-exposed workers in a steel factory using artificial intelligence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Farhadian, Maryam; Darvishi, Ebrahim

    2015-08-01

    Prediction of hearing loss in noisy workplaces is considered to be an important aspect of hearing conservation program. Artificial intelligence, as a new approach, can be used to predict the complex phenomenon such as hearing loss. Using artificial neural networks, this study aims to present an empirical model for the prediction of the hearing loss threshold among noise-exposed workers. Two hundred and ten workers employed in a steel factory were chosen, and their occupational exposure histories were collected. To determine the hearing loss threshold, the audiometric test was carried out using a calibrated audiometer. The personal noise exposure was also measured using a noise dosimeter in the workstations of workers. Finally, data obtained five variables, which can influence the hearing loss, were used for the development of the prediction model. Multilayer feed-forward neural networks with different structures were developed using MATLAB software. Neural network structures had one hidden layer with the number of neurons being approximately between 5 and 15 neurons. The best developed neural networks with one hidden layer and ten neurons could accurately predict the hearing loss threshold with RMSE = 2.6 dB and R(2) = 0.89. The results also confirmed that neural networks could provide more accurate predictions than multiple regressions. Since occupational hearing loss is frequently non-curable, results of accurate prediction can be used by occupational health experts to modify and improve noise exposure conditions.

  6. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S K; Satyanarayan, P V V; Ravishankar, D; Tripathi, Sachin

    2009-12-01

    Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP) insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation), reduced glutathione (GSH), and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA), the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(pdifference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

  7. Evaluating levels and health risk of heavy metals in exposed workers from surgical instrument manufacturing industries of Sialkot, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Muhammad; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to monitor heavy metal (chromium, Cr; cadmium, Cd; nickel, Ni; copper, Cu; lead, Pb; iron, Fe; manganese, Mn; and zinc, Zn) footprints in biological matrices (urine, whole blood, saliva, and hair), as well as in indoor industrial dust samples, and their toxic effects on oxidative stress and health risks in exposed workers. Overall, blood, urine, and saliva samples exhibited significantly higher concentrations of toxic metals in exposed workers (Cr; blood 16.30 μg/L, urine 58.15 μg/L, saliva 5.28 μg/L) than the control samples (Cr; blood 5.48 μg/L, urine 4.47 μg/L, saliva 2.46 μg/L). Indoor industrial dust samples also reported to have elevated heavy metal concentrations, as an example, Cr quantified with concentration of 299 mg/kg of dust, i.e., more than twice the level of Cr in household dust (136 mg/kg). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) level presented significant positive correlation (p ≤ 0.01) with Cr, Zn, and Cd (Cr > Zn > Cd) which is an indication of heavy metal's associated raised oxidative stress in exposed workers. Elevated average daily intake (ADI) of heavy metals resulted in cumulative hazard quotient (HQ) range of 2.97-18.88 in workers of different surgical units; this is an alarming situation of health risk implications. Principal component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR)-based pie charts represent that polishing and cutting sections exhibited highest metal inputs to the biological and environmental matrices than other sources. Heavy metal concentrations in biological matrices and dust samples showed a significant positive correlation between Cr in dust, urine, and saliva samples. Current study will help to generate comprehensive base line data of heavy metal status in biomatrices and dust from scientifically ignored industrial sector. Our findings can play vital role for health departments and industrial environmental management system (EMS) authorities in policy making and implementation.

  8. An overview of male reproductive studies of boron with an emphasis on studies of highly exposed Chinese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Bonde, Jens Peter; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Culver, B Dwight; Li, Yanhong; Sullivan, Frank M

    2010-01-01

    Boron treatment of rats, mice, and dogs has been associated with testicular toxicity, characterized by inhibited spermiation at lower dose levels and a reduction in epididymal sperm count at higher dose levels. The no-adverse-effect level for reproductive effects in male rats is 17.5mg B/kg bw/day. Earlier studies in human workers and populations have not identified adverse effects of boron exposure on fertility, but outcome measures in these studies were relatively insensitive, based mainly on family size and did not include an evaluation of semen end points. A recent study of nearly 1000 men working in boron (B) mining or processing in Liaoning province in northeast China has been published in several Chinese and a few English language papers. This study included individual assessment of boron exposure, interview data on reproductive experience and semen analysis. Employed men living in the same community and in a remote community were used as controls. Boron workers (n=75) had a mean daily boron intake of 31.3mg B/day, and a subset of 16 of these men, employed at a plant where there was heavy boron contamination of the water supply, had an estimated mean daily boron intake of 125 mg B/day. Estimates of mean daily boron intake in local community and remote background controls were 4.25mg B/day and 1.40 mg/day, respectively. Reproductive outcomes in the wives of 945 boron workers were not significantly different from outcomes in the wives of 249 background control men after adjustment for potential confounders. There were no statistically significant differences in semen characteristics between exposure groups, including in the highly exposed subset, except that sperm Y:X ratio was reduced in boron workers. Within exposure groups the Y:X ratio did not correlate with the boron concentration in blood, semen and urine. In conclusion, while boron has been shown to adversely affect male reproduction in laboratory animals, there is no clear evidence of male reproductive

  9. Gender and respiratory findings in workers occupationally exposed to organic aerosols: A meta analysis of 12 cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustajbegovic Jadranka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender related differences in respiratory disease have been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate gender related differences in respiratory findings by occupation. We analyzed data from 12 of our previously published studies. Methods Three thousand and eleven (3011 workers employed in "organic dust" industries (1379 female and 1632 male were studied. A control group of 806 workers not exposed to any kind of dust were also investigated (male = 419, female = 387. Acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were measured. The weighted average method and the Mantel-Haentszel method were used to calculate the odds ratios of symptoms. Hedge's unbiased estimations were used to measure lung function differences between men and women. Results There were high prevalences of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms in all the "dusty" studied groups compared to controls. Significantly less chronic cough, chronic phlegm as well as chronic bronchitis were found among women than among men after the adjustments for smoking, age and duration of employment. Upper respiratory tract symptoms by contrast were more frequent in women than in men in these groups. Significant gender related lung function differences occurred in the textile industry but not in the food processing industry or among farmers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that in industries processing organic compounds there are gender differences in respiratory symptoms and lung function in exposed workers. Whether these findings represent true physiologic gender differences, gender specific workplace exposures or other undefined gender variables not defined in this study cannot be determined. These data do not suggest that special limitations for women are warranted for respiratory health reasons in these industries, but the issue of upper respiratory irritation and disease warrants further study.

  10. Risk of bile duct cancer among printing workers exposed to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Utada, Mai; Makiuchi, Takeshi; Ohno, Yuko; Uehara, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Endo, Ginji

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of bile duct cancer among current and former workers in the offset color proof printing department at a printing company in Osaka, Japan. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2012, were estimated for the cumulative years of exposure to two chemicals, dichloromethane (DCM) and 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), using the national incidence level as a reference. In addition, we examined risk patterns by the calendar year in which observation started. Among 106 workers with a total of 1,452.4 person-years of exposure, 17 bile duct cancer cases were observed, resulting in an estimated overall SIR of 1,132.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 659.7-1,813.2). The SIR was 1,319.9 (95% CI: 658.9-2,361.7) for those who were exposed to both DCM and 1,2-DCP, and it was 1,002.8 (95% CI: 368.0-2,182.8) for those exposed to 1,2-DCP only. SIRs tended to increase according to years of exposure to 1,2-DCP but not DCM when a 5-year lag time was assumed. The SIRs were higher for the cohorts in which observation started in 1993-2000, particularly in cohorts in which it started in 1996-1999, compared with those in which it started before or after 1993-2000. We observed an extraordinarily high risk of bile duct cancer among the offset color proof printing workers. Elevated risk may be related to cumulative exposure to 1,2-DCP, but there remains some possibility that a portion of the risk is due to other unidentified substances.

  11. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graça M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ∞, 95% CI = 3.4, ∞). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders. © 2015 UICC.

  12. Innate immune responses in hepatitis C virus-exposed healthcare workers who do not develop acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens Martin; Heller, Theo; Gordon, Ann Marie; Sheets, Arlene; Sherker, Averell H; Kessler, Ellen; Bean, Kathleen S; Stevens, M'Lou; Schmitt, James; Rehermann, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection typically results in chronic disease with HCV outpacing antiviral immune responses. Here we asked whether innate immune responses are induced in healthcare workers who are exposed to small amounts of HCV, but do not develop systemic infection and acute liver disease. Twelve healthcare workers with accidental percutaneous exposure to HCV-infected blood were prospectively studied for up to 6 months for phenotype and function of natural killer T (NKT) and NK cells, kinetics of serum chemokines, and vigor and specificity of HCV-specific T-cell responses. Eleven healthcare workers tested negative for HCV RNA and HCV antibodies. All but one of these aviremic cases displayed NKT cell activation, increased serum chemokines levels, and NK cell responses with increased CD122, NKp44, NKp46, and NKG2A expression, cytotoxicity (as determined by TRAIL and CD107a expression), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production. This multifunctional NK cell response appeared a month earlier than in the one healthcare worker who developed high-level viremia, and it differed from the impaired IFN-γ production, which is typical for NK cells in chronic HCV infection. The magnitude of NKT cell activation and NK cell cytotoxicity correlated with the magnitude of the subsequent HCV-specific T-cell response. T-cell responses targeted nonstructural HCV sequences that require translation of viral RNA, which suggests that transient or locally contained HCV replication occurred without detectable systemic viremia. Exposure to small amounts of HCV induces innate immune responses, which correlate with the subsequent HCV-specific T-cell response and may contribute to antiviral immunity. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Risk of lower extremity arterial disease in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation over a prolonged period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizova, Tamara V.; Bannikova, Maria V.; Grigorieva, Evgenia S.; Bagaeva, Yaroslava P.; Azizova, Elena V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    In this study the incidence risk of lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD; international classification of diseases version 9 code 440.2) was assessed in a cohort of workers occupationally exposed to radiation over a prolonged period. The study cohort includes 22,377 workers of the Mayak Production Association (25 % of whom are females) first employed at one of the main facilities in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. Dose estimates used in the study are provided by Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008. The mean total dose from external gamma-rays is 0.54 Gy for males and 0.44 Gy for females. The mean absorbed liver dose from internal alpha-radiation due to incorporated plutonium is 0.23 Gy in males and 0.44 Gy in females. Relative risks and excess relative risks per unit dose (ERR/Gy) are calculated based on maximum likelihood. A total of 943 cases of LEAD are registered in the study cohort during the follow-up of 512,801 person-years. A significant association of LEAD incidence with total dose from external gamma-rays (based on a linear model) was revealed, and the ERR/Gy is 0.27 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11; 0.48). It turned out that a linear-exponential model provides a better fit of the data (∇AIC = 9.957). Inclusion of an adjustment for internal alpha-radiation dose resulted in the reduction of the ERR/Gy to 0.19 (95 % CI 0.05; 0.39), but the risk remains significant. No association of LEAD incidence with dose from internal alpha-radiation was found in the study worker cohort. It is concluded that this study provides evidence for an association of LEAD incidence with dose from external gamma-rays taking non-radiation factors into account. (orig.)

  14. Metabolic Polymorphisms and Clinical Findings Related to Benzene Poisoning Detected in Exposed Brazilian Gas-Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Benzene is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an important industrial chemical present in both gasoline and motor vehicle emissions. Occupational human exposure to benzene occurs in the petrochemical and petroleum refining industries as well as in gas-station workers, where it can lead to benzene poisoning (BP, but the mechanisms of BP are not completely understood. In Brazil, a significant number of gas-station service workers are employed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate alterations related to BP and metabolic polymorphisms in gas-station service workers exposed to benzene in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Occupational exposure was based on clinical findings related to BP, and metabolic polymorphisms in 114 Brazilian gas-station attendants. These workers were divided into No Clinical Findings (NCF and Clinical Findings (CF groups. Neutrophil and Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV showed a significant difference between the two study groups, and neutrophil has the greatest impact on the alterations suggestive of BP. The clinical findings revealed higher frequencies of symptoms in the CF group, although not all members presented statistical significance. The frequencies of alleles related to risk were higher in the CF group for GSTM1, GSTT1, CYP2E1 7632T > A, but lower for NQO1 and CYP2E1 1053C > T genotypes. Moreover, an association was found between GSTM1 null and alterations related to BP, but we did not observe any effects of other polymorphisms. Variations in benzene metabolizing genes may modify benzene toxicity and should be taken into consideration during risk assessment evaluations.

  15. Increased micronucleus frequencies in surrogate and target cells from workers exposed to crystalline silica-containing dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircigil, Gonca Cakmak; Coskun, Erdem; Vidinli, Nuri; Erbay, Yildiray; Yilmaz, Metin; Cimrin, Arif; Schins, Roel P; Borm, Paul J; Burgaz, Sema

    2010-03-01

    Mining, crushing, grinding, sandblasting and construction are high-risk activities with regard to crystalline silica exposure, especially in developing countries. Respirable crystalline silica (quartz and cristobalite) inhaled from occupational sources has been reclassified as a human carcinogen in 1997 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the biological activity of crystalline silica has been found to be variable among different industries, and this has formed the basis for further in vivo/in vitro mechanistic research and epidemiologic studies. This study was conducted for genotoxicity evaluation in a population of workers (e.g. glass industry workers, sandblasters, and stone grinders) mainly exposed to crystalline silica in four different workplaces in Turkey. The micronucleus (MN) assay was applied both in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) as a surrogate tissue and in nasal epithelial cells (NEC) as a target tissue of the respiratory tract. Our study revealed significantly higher MN frequencies in the workers (n = 50) versus the control group (n = 29) (P crystalline silica levels exceeding limit values and mineralogical/elemental dust composition of the dust of at least 70% SiO(2) were used as markers of crystalline silica exposure in each of the workplaces. Moreover, 24% of the current workers were found to have early radiographical changes (profusion category of 1). In conclusion, although the PBL are not primary target cells for respiratory particulate toxicants, an evident increase in MN frequencies in this surrogate tissue was observed, alongside with a significant increase in NEC and may be an indicator of the accumulated genetic damage associated with crystalline silica exposure.

  16. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to dieldrin and aldrin: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, Gerard M H; de Jong, Geert; Slangen, Jos J M; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M

    2002-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible long-term health effects, in particular carcinogenic effects, of occupational exposure to the organochlorine insecticides dieldrin and aldrin. We updated an earlier cohort mortality study of 570 employees involved in the production of these insecticides. All of the employees had worked in the production plants between 1 January 1954 and 1 January 1970 and were followed for cause-specific mortality until 1 January 2001. Based on dieldrin levels in blood samples taken during the exposure period, available for 343 workers, individual estimates of the total intake of dieldrin were estimated for all individual subjects in the cohort. The estimated total intake ranged from 11 to 7755 mg of dieldrin, with an average of 737 mg. One hundred and seventy-one workers had died before 1 January 2001, compared with an expected number of 226.6, giving a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 75.6 [95% confidence interval (CI): 64.6-87.7]. This deficit in total mortality was mainly attributable to a deficit in cardiovascular disease mortality, but cancer mortality was also lower than expected. The observed number of deaths from rectal cancer was significantly higher than expected (SMR = 300.0; 95% CI: 109.5-649.3), but was most pronounced in the low-intake subgroup and appears to be unrelated to exposure to dieldrin and aldrin. This study reinforces the earlier findings that occupational exposure of workers to significant amounts of dieldrin and aldrin has not led to a higher cancer mortality than would be found in an unexposed population.

  17. Nocturnal 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in female workers exposed to magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juutilainen, J (Kuopio, University of); Stevens, Richard G.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Larry E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hansen, Norman H.(WAVEID); Kilpelainen, M (Kuopio, University of); Kumlin, T (Kuopio, University of); Laitinen, J T.(Kuopio, University of); Sobell, Eugene (Southern California, Univ Of); Wilson, Bary W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether daytime occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) suppresses nocturnal melatonin production. Sixty female volunteers were recruited. Thirty-nine worked in a garment factory, and 21 office workers served as a reference group. Exposure assessment was based on the type of sewing machine used and MF measurements around each type of machine. Eye-level MF flux density was used to classify the operators to higher (> 1 microT) and lower (0.3-1 microT) exposure categories. A third group of factory workers had diverse MF exposures from other sources. The reference group had average exposure of about 0.15 microT. Urine samples were collected on Friday and Monday for three consecutive weeks. Melatonin production was assessed as urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) excretion. The ratio of Friday morning/Monday morning 6-OHMS was used to test the hypothesis that melatonin production is suppressed after 4 days of occupational MF exposure with significant recovery during the weekend. Possible chronic suppression of melatonin production was evaluated by studying exposure-related differences in the Friday values by multivariate regression analysis. The Monday/Friday ratios were close to 1.0, suggesting that there is no increase in melatonin production over the weekend. The average 6-OHMS excretion on Friday was lower among the factory workers than in the reference group, but no monotonous dose-response was observed. Multivariate regression analysis identified MF exposure, smoking, and age as significant explanatory variables associated with decreased 6-OHMS excretion.

  18. No evidence of cardiovascular toxicity in workers exposed below 5 ppm carbon disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domergue, Jérôme; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2), used in the viscose process, is well known for having multiple health effects, including on the cardiovascular system, in workers with long-term exposure higher than 10 ppm. The mechanisms of those effects are, however, not precisely defined, and it remains uncertain whether cardiovascular toxicity may occur at exposure levels lower than 10 ppm. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the health impact of low CS2 exposure levels using an array of preclinical biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Exposure intensity was determined by measuring urinary 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in 117 workers from two plants using the viscose process, sampled in multiples phases (2003, 2006 and 2013). A cumulative exposure index (CEI) and a recent exposure index (REI) were calculated for each worker, and shiftwork was documented to account for potential confounding. Cardiovascular parameters included blood pressure, total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein dosed in serum with high sensitivity (HsCRP), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and albuminuria/creatininuria ratio (UACR). Potential biological confounders were fasting blood glucose and serum creatinine. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to trace relationships between cardiovascular risk biomarkers and other variables, including CEI, REI and shiftwork duration. Median REI and CEI were 0.05 mg TTCA/g creat and 21.5 mg TTCA/g creat*months, respectively. While expected associations, such as between HsCRP and LDL Cholesterol, were found, significant associations between cardiovascular risk markers and CS2 exposure indexes (CEI or REI) were not detected. Shiftwork duration was positively associated with UACR in workers with elevated fasting blood glucose. In practice, when CS2 exposure levels are kept below 5 ppm (TTCA cardiovascular risk (NTproBNP, HsCRP, UACR) investigated in the present study. It appears important to

  19. Health examination and air monitoring evaluation for workers exposed to 2-nitropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G N; Garrison, R P; McFee, D R

    1985-01-01

    Comprehensive employee health examinations along with work-place area and personal monitoring were conducted to evaluate potential exposure to 2-nitropropane. The employee cross section included in the study consisted of nearly all workers at the plant. The entire workforce was represented, including those who did not have contact with 2-nitropropane. No adverse health effects were found which could be connected with work experience. Body systems evaluated included: lungs, liver, kidney, blood, skin and cardiovascular. Work area levels at specific locations sometimes exceeded 25 ppm, but personal time-weighted average levels generally were below 25 ppm.

  20. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Mihaylova Gyuleva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters.

  1. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkova, Kalina Ivanova; Rupova, Ivanka Tankova; Panova, Delyana Yonkova; Djounova, Jana Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP) workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th) 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters. PMID:26740807

  2. [Clinical approach to workers occupationally exposed to negative stress by the occupational health physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassitto, M G

    2009-01-01

    Following the activation of new norms requiring that all occupational risks including psychosocial risks be evaluated and prevention programs activated, the occupational physician is now faced with new tasks and is expected to modify his role and function. Care and monitoring of stressed workers demand a higher participation in and an adaptation to the different ways in which stress shows up and has consequences on workers health and wellbeing. A subjects suffering of a stress-related disorder asks for a prompt solution be it medical or a job reorganization intervention in order to guarantee the prosecution of his job while the burnout affected subject rather points to leave the situation, to move to another responsibility or no responsibility even when this means abandoning a life choice. The subject suffering for a mobbing situation asks for justice, an intervention to stop the devastating mechanism and the recognition of the actors of his suffering. The three situations ask for differentiated interventions on the part of the occupational physician but all three require attention, participation, time and change from only medical assistance to a caring attitude and an active participation lasting in time.

  3. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  4. Correlation between lead in plasma and other indicators of lead exposure among lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M; Yoshida, T; Miyajima, K; Kosaka, H; Tabuchi, T

    1995-01-01

    In order to clarify the bioavailability of lead in plasma (PbP), we performed a study on five workers in a Japanese factory manufacturing lead glass-based paints. Blood and urine samples were obtained over a period of 15 months, during which time the workers took it in turns to perform sifting work (with the highest level of lead exposure) for 1-month periods. A total of 75 sets of blood and urine samples were thus obtained. We determined whole blood lead (PbB), PbP, Urinary coproporphyrin (CPU), urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALAU), urinary lead (PbU) and ALA in plasma (ALAP). In the 15 sets of samples obtained at the end of the period with a high level of lead exposure, PbP correlated significantly with ALAU, CPU, PbU and ALAP, but PbB correlated significantly only with PbU. In the 60 sets of samples obtained following a low level of lead exposure, correlation coefficients between the concentrations of PbP and of ALAU, CPU and PbU exceeded those between the concentrations of PbB and of ALAU, CPU and PbU. These findings indicate that PbP is a better dose indicator of lead biochemically available for heme synthesis and that PbU has a closer correlation with PbP than with PbB.

  5. Symptoms of Nervous System Related Disorders Among Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise and Vibration in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Wanhyung; Roh, Jaehoon; Won, Jong-Uk; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vibration and noise exposure in the workplace and certain nervous system related symptoms (NSRS) among Korean workers. Using data from the fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey, we investigated the influence of vibration and noise with three categories; none, mild, and severe, on sleep disturbance, overall fatigue, and headache/eye strain using logistic regression analysis with stratification by personal protective equipment (PPE) wearing status. Severe noise/vibration exposure was associated in a dose-response fashion with NSRS; the odds ratios (ORs) for sleep disturbance, headache/eyestrain, and overall fatigue were 1.48/1.06, 1.46/1.26, and 1.56/1.28 for severe and mild noise/vibration exposure, respectively, compared with no exposure. Workers who did not wear PPEs were the most affected. Occupational exposures to vibration and noise are associated with NSRS. Additional longitudinal studies and tightened education and safety measures are warranted.

  6. Angiographic study of digital arteries in workers exposed to vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Falappa, P; Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A; Colavita, N

    1982-01-01

    Five patients exposed to vinyl chloride were studied by hand angiography and other non-invasive methods, including photoplethysmography, rheography, and thermography. Raynaud's phenomenon was present in all five subjects, while acro-osteolysis affected only one. Organic vascular lesions, such as narrowing, segmentary occlusions of digital arteries and bridge collaterals, were found in angiographic studies. Only one patient did not show clear segmentary occlusions, but his vessels were crooked...

  7. Assessment of DNA integrity (COMET assay) in sperm cells of boron-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duydu, Yalçin; Başaran, Nurşen; Ustündağ, Aylin; Aydin, Sevtap; Undeğer, Ulkü; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Aydos, Kaan; Düker, Yalçin; Ickstadt, Katja; Waltrup, Britta Schulze; Golka, Klaus; Bolt, Hermann M

    2012-01-01

    An extension of a male reproductive study conducted in a boric acid/borate production zone at Bandırma, Turkey, is presented. The relation between DNA-strand breaks (COMET assay, neutral and alkaline version) in sperm cells and previously described sperm quality parameters was investigated in boron-exposed males. A correlation between blood boron levels and mean DNA-strand breaks in sperm was weak, and DNA-strand breaks in sperm were statistically not different between control and exposed groups. Therefore, increasing boron exposures had no additional contribution in addition to already pre-existing DNA-strand breaks in the sperm cells. Weak but statistically significant correlations between DNA-strand breaks and motility/morphology parameters of sperm samples were observed in the neutral version of the COMET assay, while correlations between the same variables were statistically not significant in the alkaline version. A likely reason for these negative results, even in highly exposed humans, is that experimental exposures that had led to reproductive toxicity in animals were significantly higher than any boron exposures, which may be reached under realistic human conditions.

  8. Urinary mutagenicity and N-acetylation phenotype in textile industry workers exposed to arylamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinues, B.; Perez, J.; Bernal, M.L.; Saenz, M.A.; Lanuza, J.; Bartolome, M. (Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, University of Zaragoza (Spain))

    1992-09-15

    Primary aromatic amines have been identified epidemiologically as human carcinogens. It has been suggested that the target organ affected by aromatic amines is dependent on the rate of metabolic activation. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between low acetyl transferase activity and bladder cancer risk. On this basis, our working hypothesis was that the slow acetylators could follow in a higher extent the metabolic pathway independent of N-acetylation, leading to the excretion of conjugates of electrophyles with glucuronic acid. The instability of these glucuronides could be responsible for the association between arylamine-induced bladder cancer and slow acetylator phenotype. A total of 153 individuals were included in this study: 70 exposed to arylamines (working in textile industry) and 83 nonexposed. The following parameters were determined in urine: mutagenic index in the absence of metabolic activation, S9; mutagenic index in the presence of S9; and the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase. All individuals were phenotyped according to their capacity of N-acetylation by using isoniazid as drug test. The results show that the mutagenic index after incubation of the urine with beta-glucuronidase is statistically higher in exposed subjects when compared with nonexposed individuals (P less than 0.001), this parameter being statistically higher among exposed subjects who were slow acetylators than among rapid metabolizers, independent of the fact that they were smokers or nonsmokers. There were no significant differences between groups for the mutagenicity in urine not incubated with beta-glucuronidase.

  9. Serum protein expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis in workers occupationally exposed to chromium (VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiping; Wang, Tianjing; Liu, Jiaxing; Chen, Zhangjian; Zhong, Lijun; Yu, Shanfa; Zhao, Zuchang; Zhai, Min; Jia, Guang

    2017-08-05

    Cr(VI) is widely-recognized as occupational and environmental contaminant, but the precise underlying mechanisms of Cr(VI) induced carcinogenic toxicity remain to be elucidated. Among kinds of toxic mechanisms, alteration of protein profiling usually elaborate a key mechanism of Cr(VI) induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Large-scale proteins changes can reflect the onset or progression of carcinogenic toxicity, and potential serum protein biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure. To gain an insight into the serum proteins expression profiling in chromate workers and find potential novel serum proteins biomarkers of Cr(VI) exposure, 107 male participants from a chromate production plant were recruited into the study. Questionnaire was applied to collect personal information and occupational history. Chromium concentration in blood (CrB) was measured to evaluate the participants' internal exposure. Serum proteins profiling and bioinformatics analysis were performed to explore differentially expressed proteins, proteins-chemical interaction network, critical proteins nodes related to the signaling pathways among 16 controls and 25 exposure workers in the first stage. ELISA tests were applied to verify the critical interested proteins nodes in the remaining 41 exposure workers and 25 controls. The results showed that the CrB levels in the control group were significantly lower than that in the exposure group (P<0.05). 44 significantly differentially expressed serum proteins formed 16 significant signaling pathways and a complex proteins-chemical interaction network, which associated with the immune system and extracellular matrix organization. C reactive protein (CRP), sonic hedgehog protein (SHH) and calcium located at critical nodes in proteins-chemical interaction network. There was a significant negative correlation between serum CRP level and CrB (P<0.05), and a significant positive correlation between SHH concentrations and CrB (P<0.05), which indicated that CRP and SHH

  10. Longitudinal analysis of respiratory outcomes among bauxite exposed workers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennekamp, Martine; de Klerk, Nicholas Hubert; Reid, Alison; Abramson, Michael John; Cui, Jisheng; Del Monaco, Anthony; Fritschi, Lin; Benke, Geza Paul; Sim, Malcolm Ross; Musk, Arthur William

    2015-08-01

    Occupational exposure to bauxite is common in the aluminium industry but little is known about the associated health effects. This study investigates respiratory health in relation to respirable bauxite dust exposure longitudinally over a 13 year period. An inception cohort study recruited 91 male bauxite miners and 363 male alumina refinery workers. Annual measurements of respiratory symptoms and lung function were made. Cumulative exposure to bauxite was derived from job histories and air monitoring data. Mixed-effects modeling was used. No associations were found between cumulative bauxite exposure and respiratory symptoms or lung function. However, when analysis was restricted to the first three rounds, FEV1 was significantly lower in all exposure groups than in those unexposed but with no significant trend. Increasing exposure to bauxite dust in the aluminum industry was not associated with respiratory symptoms or consistent decrements in lung function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Level of Selenium and Oxidative Stress in Workers Chronically Exposed to Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlas, Natalia; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-03-01

    The possible beneficial role of selenium (Se) on the oxidative stress induced by lead (Pb) is still unclear in humans. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the associations among the Se levels, chronic Pb exposure, oxidative stress parameters, and parameters characterizing the function of the antioxidant defense system in men who are occupationally exposed to Pb. Based on the median serum Se concentrations, the 324 study subjects were divided into two subgroups: a subgroup with a low Se level (L-Se) and a subgroup with a high Se level (H-Se). The levels of lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in the blood and the delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) level in the urine served as indices of Pb exposure. The PbB level was significantly lower in the H-Se group compared to that in the L-Se group by 6 %. The levels of 8-hydroxyguanosine and lipofuscin (LPS) and the activity of superoxide dismutase were significantly lower in the H-Se group compared to that in the L-Se group by 17, 19, and 11 %, respectively. However, the glutathione level (GSH) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were significantly higher by 9, 23, and 3 %. Spearman correlations showed positive associations between the Se level and GPx activity and GSH level. A lower serum Se level in chronically Pb-exposed subjects is associated with higher Pb blood levels and an elevated erythrocyte LPS level, which reflects the intensity of oxidative stress. Besides, in a group of Pb-exposed subjects with lower serum Se level, depleted GSH pool and decreased activity of GPx in erythrocytes were reported. However, the present results are inadequate to recommend Se supplementation for chronic lead exposure at higher doses than would be included in a normal diet except for selenium deficiency.

  12. Mutagenic testing of workers exposed to toluene-diisocyanates during plastics production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan

    2004-05-01

    Toluene diisocyanates (TDIs) are important industrial intermediates used in conjunction with polyester polyols as coreactants in the manufacture of polyurethane foam blocks, paints, etc. It is listed as a potential carcinogen by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and is known to induce chromosomal aberrations. The study involved 26 people, exposed to TDI during the production of plastics. The corresponding control group was comprised of 21 people coming from the same geographic area, who were never exposed to isocyanates. The concentration of TDI ranged between 0.007 mg/m3 and 0.016 mg/m3, which amounts to 0.10-0.23 MDK (extreme value of a single substance) 0.007 mg/m3. Structural chromosome aberrations (SCA) were evaluated in 200 lymphocytes of peripheral blood. The average value was 2.6. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was established in 50 cells, the average being 8.127. Micronucleus (MN) was established in 500 CB, with an average of 12.07. The averages of the control group were 1.89 (SCA), 5.52 (SCE), and 4.38 (MN). The difference between the groups is of statistical significance. The ascertained results accentuate mutagenic activity of isocyanates or their metabolic products. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Analysis of Endogenous Alkanes and Aldehydes in the Exhaled Breath of Workers Exposed to Silica Containing Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Silica is one of the most air pollutant in workplaces which long-term occupational exposure to silica is associated with an increased risk for respiratory diseases such as silicosis. Silicosis is an oxidative stress related disease and can lead to the development of lung cancer. This study aims to analysis of endogenous alkanes and aldehydes in the exhaled breath of workers exposed to silica containing dusts. Methods: In this study, the exhaled breath of 20 workers exposed to silica containing dust (case group, 20 healthy non-smokers and 25 healthy smokers (control group were analyzed. The breath samples using 3-liter Tedlar bags were collected. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs were extracted with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC- MS. Result: Totally, thirty nine VOCs were found in all breath samples (at least once. Aldehydes and alkanes such as acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane, pentadecane, 2-methle propane, 3-methyle pentane and octane were detected in the exhaled breath subjects. Among the these compounds, mean peak area of acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane were higher in the exhaled breath of an case group than control groups (Pvalue<0.05 . Conclusions : The use of exhaled breath analysis as well as new media in the occupational toxicology and exposure biomarker assessment studies. It seems that acetaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, decane and pentadecane can be considered as useful breath biomarkers for exposure assessment of silica containing dust. However, additional studies are needed to confirm thes results.

  14. Evaluation of chromosome aberration and micronucleus frequencies in blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Piero; Maffei, Francesca; Carrieri, Mariella; D'Errico, Maria N; Drago, Ignazio; Hrelia, Patrizia; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Soleo, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) was investigated in the peripheral lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to low or very low concentrations of benzene. The study included 43 exposed workers (all males), namely 19 fuel-tanker drivers and 24 filling-station attendants, and 31 male subjects with no occupational exposure to the toxicant (controls). Benzene exposure was verified by means of environmental monitoring with passive personal samplers (Radiello(®)), and through biological monitoring, i.e. by measurement of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and benzene. The frequency of CA and MN in peripheral lymphocytes was determined according to standard procedures. Exposure to benzene was found to be significantly higher for fuel-tanker drivers (median 246.6 μg/m(3)) than for filling-station attendants (median 19.9 μg/m(3)). Both groups had significantly higher exposure than controls (median 4.3 μg/m(3)). No increased frequency of CA and MN was observed in either fuel-tanker drivers or filling-station attendants compared with controls. In all subjects examined as a single group, the frequency of MN was significantly dependent on age. Only in the fuel-tanker drivers was the frequency of MN found to depend not only on age, but also on exposure to benzene. In conclusion, the frequency of MN, but not of CA, could be influenced by exposure to benzene concentrations of up to one order of magnitude lower than the threshold limit value (time-weighted average). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Respiratory symptoms among industrial workers exposed to water aerosol. A pilot study of process water and air microbial quality

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    Bożena Krogulska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The frequency of respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to water aerosol was evaluated along with the preliminary assessment of microbiological contamination of air and water used in glass processing plants. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted in 131 workers from 9 glass processing plants. Questions focused on working conditions, respiratory symptoms and smoking habits. A pilot study of air and water microbiological contamination in one glass processing plant was performed. Water samples were tested for Legionella in accordance with EN ISO 11731-2:2008 and for total colony count according to PN-EN ISO 6222:2004. Air samples were tested for total numbers of molds and mildews. Results: During the year preceding the survey acute respiratory symptoms occurred in 28.2% of participants, while chronic symptoms were reported by 29% of respondents. Increased risks of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia were found among the respondents working at a distance up to 20 m from the source of water aerosol compared to other workers (OR = 2.7, with no difference in the frequency of other symptoms. A microbiological analysis of water samples from selected glass plant revealed the presence of L. pneumophila, exceeding 1000 cfu/100 ml. The number of bacteria and fungi detected in air samples (above 1000 cfu/m3 suggested that water aerosol at workplaces can be one of the sources of the air microbial contamination. Conclusions: The questionnaire survey revealed an increased risk of cough and acute symptoms suggestive of pneumonia in the group working at a shortest distance form the source of water aerosol. Med Pr 2013;64(1:47–55

  16. Bladder cancer incidence among workers exposed to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Tania; Hein, Misty J; Hanley, Kevin W; Viet, Susan M; Ruder, Avima M

    2015-01-01

    Background An earlier investigation found increased bladder cancer incidence among workers at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant that used o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene. The cohort was expanded to include additional workers (n=1875) and updated through 2007 to assess bladder cancer with improved exposure characterisation. Methods Work histories were updated and exposure categories and ranks were developed for o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene combined. Incident cancers were identified by linkage to six state cancer registries. Residency in time-dependent cancer registry catchment areas was determined. SIR and standardised rate ratios for bladder cancer were calculated by exposure category and cumulative rank quartiles for different lag periods. Cox regression was used to model bladder cancer incidence with estimated cumulative rank, adjusting for confounders. Indirect methods were used to control for smoking. Results Excess bladder cancer was observed compared to the New York State population (SIR=2.87, 95% CI 2.02 to 3.96), with higher elevations among workers definitely exposed (moderate/high) (SIR=3.90, 95% CI 2.57 to 5.68), and in the highest cumulative rank quartile (SIR=6.13, 95% CI 2.80 to 11.6, 10-year lag). Bladder cancer rates increased significantly with estimated cumulative rank (10-year lag). Smoking only accounted for an estimated 8% elevation in bladder cancer incidence. Conclusions Bladder cancer incidence remains elevated in this cohort and significantly associated with estimated cumulative exposure. Results are consistent with earlier findings in this and other cohorts. Despite other concurrent chemical exposures, we consider o-toluidine most likely responsible for the bladder cancer incidence elevation and recommend a re-examination of occupational exposure limits. PMID:24368697

  17. Risk of cancer in workers exposed to styrene at eight British companies making glass-reinforced plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Harris, E Clare; Palmer, Keith T

    2015-03-01

    To provide further information on the risks of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) and other cancers associated with styrene. We extended follow-up to December 2012 for 7970 workers at eight companies in England which used styrene in the manufacture of glass-reinforced plastics. Mortality was compared with that for England and Wales by the person-years method, and summarised by SMRs with 95% CIs. A supplementary nested case-control analysis compared styrene exposures, lagged by 5 years, in 122 incident or fatal cases of LH cancer and 1138 matched controls. A total of 3121 cohort members had died (2022 since the last follow-up). No elevation of mortality was observed for LH cancer, either in the full cohort (62 deaths, SMR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.15), or in those with more than background exposure to styrene (38 deaths, SMR 0.82, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.14). Nor did the case-control analysis suggest any association with LH cancer. In comparison with background exposure, the OR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukaemia in workers with high exposure (estimated 8-h time-weighted average of 40-100 ppm) for ≥1 year was 0.54 (95% CI 0.23 to 1.27). Mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated, and risk increased progressively across exposure categories, with an SMR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.86) in workers highly exposed for ≥1 year. We found no evidence that styrene causes LH cancer. An association with lung cancer is not consistently supported by other studies. It may have been confounded by smoking, but would be worth checking further. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed workers within the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting sector, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2017-11-20

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed US workers within the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (AFFH) sector. Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (17 299 within AFFH) from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Prevalence, and the adjusted risk for hearing loss as compared with the reference industry (Couriers and Messengers), were estimated. The overall AFFH sector prevalence was 15% compared to 19% for all industries combined, but many of the AFFH sub-sectors exceeded the overall prevalence. Forestry sub-sector prevalences were highest with Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Products at 36% and Timber Tract Operations at 22%. The Aquaculture sub-sector had the highest adjusted risk of all AFFH sub-sectors (PR = 1.70; CI = 1.42-2.04). High risk industries within the AFFH sector need continued hearing conservation efforts. Barriers to hearing loss prevention and early detection of hearing loss need to be recognized and addressed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ophthalmological and angiographic findings in workers exposed to carbon disulfide (author's transl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, S.

    1982-01-01

    Microaneurysms are important in the diagnosis of vascular changes caused by carbon disulfide. They can be diagnosed by ophtholmoscopy, angiography or angioscopy. In our opinion even a careful ophthalmoscopic investigation is sufficient for diagnosis, so that angiography is not absolutely necessary for any mass survey. The incidence of microaneurysms correlates with the duration (both daily and total) as well as with the intensity of exposure to carbon disulfide. The quantity correlates closely with the intensity of exposure. The incidence of microaneurysms is not correlated to age; however it was found to be highest in 40-50-year-old men working with staple fibers, whereas in the spinning department it occurred in 50-55-old men. Microaneurysms are found equally frequently in active workers and invalids. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to degenerative changes of the macula. However, the changes found in the eyes of men from the staple fiber department were more pronounced than in those from the spinning department.

  20. Aberrant promoter methylation in genes related to hematopoietic malignancy in workers exposed to a VOC mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Garza, Octavio; Guo, Liqiong; Byun, Hyang-Min; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2018-01-15

    Occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may cause hematopoietic malignancy, either by single exposure to benzene or possibly due to a concomitant exposure to several VOCs. Since oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA repair pathways are closely involved in cancer development, the effect of VOC exposure on expression of proteins involved in these pathways has been studied, but epigenetic changes have not been well described. Here, DNA methylation status following occupational exposure to a VOC mixture was assessed by bisulfite sequencing of the promoter regions of seven genes involved in the mentioned pathways. Peripheral blood samples and individual-level VOC exposure data were obtained from healthy leather shoe factory workers (LS, n=40) and gas station attendants (GS, n=36), as well as a reference group of university employees (C, n=66). Exposure levels for acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl ethyl ketone, n-hexane, toluene and xylene were higher in LS (pVOC mixture. These subcellular modifications may represent the initial mechanism of toxicity leading to hematopoietic malignancy, possibly due to a synergistic, hematotoxic effect of VOC mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels

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    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05. Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038. The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041. The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the

  2. Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri, Parvin; Zare, Sajad; Monazzam, Mohammad R; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE). Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL) and exposure time. This case-control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05). Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30-11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038). The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041). The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the beginning to the end of the shift.

  3. Blood Lead Levels and Cause-Specific Mortality of Inorganic Lead-Exposed Workers in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gi Kim

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the association of blood lead level (BLL with mortality in inorganic lead-exposed workers of South Korea. A cohort was compiled comprising 81,067 inorganic lead exposed workers working between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2004. This cohort was merged with the Korean National Statistical Office to follow-up for mortality between 2000 and 2008. After adjusting for age and other carcinogenic metal exposure, all-cause mortality (Relative risk [RR] 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.79, digestive disease (RR 3.23, 95% CI 1.33-7.86, and intentional self-harm (RR 2.92, 95% CI 1.07-7.81 were statistically significantly higher in males with BLL >20 μg/dl than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl. The RR of males with BLL of 10-20 μg/dl was statistically higher than of those with BLL ≤10μg/dl in infection (RR 3.73. 95% CI, 1.06-13.06. The RRs of females with 10-20 μg/dl BLL was statistically significantly greater than those with BLL <10μg/dl in all-cause mortality (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.16-3.20 and colon and rectal cancer (RR 13.42, 95% CI 1.21-149.4. The RRs of females with BLL 10-20 μg/dl (RR 10.45, 95% CI 1.74-62.93 and BLL ≥20 μg/dl (RR 12.68, 95% CI 1.69-147.86 was statistically significantly increased in bronchus and lung cancer. The increased suicide of males with ≥20 μg/dl BLLs, which might be caused by major depression, might be associated with higher lead exposure. Also, increased bronchus and lung cancer mortality in female workers with higher BLL might be related to lead exposure considering low smoking rate in females. The kinds of BLL-associated mortality differed by gender.

  4. Professional Development for Library Workers: Exposing the Complicated Problems of Equity and Access

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    Christina Neigel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the constant, if not escalating, need for professional development within the library workforce, the discourse of professional development lacks critical and evidence-based considerations. This paper discusses major factors that complicate the notion of professional development including the commodification of education, the rise of contingent labour, and a heightened emphasis on individualism.These difficulties point to a desperate need for a broader discussion and research focus on professional development so that library workers and library leaders can make informed and strategic decisions about the skills and knowledge required for the 21st century. Malgré le besoin constant, et même croissant, de développement professionnel au sein du personnel de la bibliothèque, le discours portant sur le développement professionnel connait un manque de considérations critiques et fondées sur des preuves. Cet article traite des facteurs importants qui compliquent la notion de développement professionnel y compris la marchandisation de l’éducation, la montée du travail contingent et l’importance accrue accordée à l’individualisme. Ces difficultés indiquent l’existence d’un grand besoin pour des discussions et de la recherche ayant une plus grande portée sur le développement professionnel afin que les employés et les dirigeants des bibliothèques puissent prendre des décisions éclairées et stratégiques concernant les habiletés et les connaissances requises au 21e siècle.

  5. Clinical, Toxicological, Biochemical, and Hematologic Parameters in Lead Exposed Workers of a Car Battery Industry

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    Sina Kianoush

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is a toxic element which causes acute, subacute or chronic poisoning through environmental and occupational exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and laboratory abnormalities of chronic lead poisoning among workers of a car battery industry. Methods: Questionnaires and forms were designed and used to record demographic data, past medical histories and clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. Blood samples were taken to determine biochemical (using Auto Analyzer; Model BT3000 and hematologic (using Cell Counter Sysmex; Model KX21N parameters. An atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin-Elmer, Model 3030, USA was used to determine lead concentration in blood and urine by heated graphite atomization technique. Results: A total of 112 men mean age 28.78±5.17 years, who worked in a car battery industry were recruited in the present study. The most common signs/symptoms of lead poisoning included increased excitability 41.9%, arthralgia 41.0%, fatigue 40.1%, dental grey discoloration 44.6%, lead line 24.1%, increased deep tendon reflexes (DTR 22.3%, and decreased DTR (18.7%. Blood lead concentration (BLC was 398.95 µg/L±177.40, which was significantly correlated with duration of work (P=0.044 but not with the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning. However, BLC was significantly correlated with urine lead concentration (83.67 µg/L±49.78; r2=0.711; P<0.001, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (r=-0.280; P=0.011, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (r=-0.304; P=0.006 and fasting blood sugar or FBS (r=-0.258; P=0.010. Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric and skeletal findings were common manifestations of chronic occupational lead poisoning. BLC was significantly correlated with duration of work, urine lead concentration, two hemoglobin indices and FBS.

  6. Individual predictors of increased serum mesothelin in asbestos-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiberti, Rosa; Marroni, Paola; Mencoboni, Manlio; Mortara, Virginia; Caruso, Pietro; Cioè, Alex; Michelazzi, Luigi; Merlo, Domenico F; Bruzzone, Andrea; Bobbio, Barbara; Del Corso, Lisette; Galli, Roberto; Taveggia, Paola; Dini, Guglielmo; Spigno, Fabio

    2013-03-01

    The soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP), a candidate marker for screening of subjects with asbestos exposure, is influenced by some individual and clinical factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the role of age, smoking, weight, presence of diseases and exposure to asbestos on serum SMRP levels in a large series of subjects exposed to asbestos, possible candidates for mesothelioma screening. One thousand seven hundred and four participants underwent clinical examination and were interviewed on medical anamnesis, occupation, smoking and weight. SMRP was measured by an ELISA assay. Overall, median SMRP was 0.4 (IQR 25-75: 0.3-0.7) nmol/l. It was higher in current smokers and in subjects with a cumulative asbestos exposure >50 ff/cc/years than in all the other subjects (p 57 years, current smoking, a positive anamnesis for cancer and for asbestos-related pleural lesions, and BMI < 25. Some clinical and demographic variables are associated with serum SMRP levels. The degree of these associations is low, nevertheless they should be accounted for in the interpretation of SMPR as a candidate marker predictive of mesothelioma. The potential predictive value of serum SMRP in screening/surveillance programs must be validated in prospective studies.

  7. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in workers exposed to esparto grass (Stipa tenacissima) fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, M; Fraj, J; De la Hoz, B; Alcazar, R; Sueiro, A

    1996-11-01

    Esparto grass (Stipa tenacissima), which is commonly found in the Mediterranean countries, has a wide variety of uses. Five stucco makers who had cough, dyspnea, malaise, and fever after exposure to esparto fiber used in their jobs showed a significant decrease in symptoms when they were away from work. Precipitating antibodies against an esparto extract were found in the sera of all patients. Specific IgG antibodies against the esparto extract were also demonstrated in all patient sera, as were IgG antibodies to Aspergillus fumigatus and thermophilic microorganisms (Micropolyspora faeni and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris) by means of an ELISA method. Esparto activity was inhibited in different ranges by the above antigens by inhibition ELISA. Only A. fumigatus could be identified after microbiologic evaluation of the esparto fiber samples. After inhalation challenge tests were performed with esparto extracts, all patients showed significant decreases in forced vital capacity, transfer lung CO, and PaO2 blood gas from baseline values. Fever, chills, malaise, dry cough, tachycardia, tachypnea, and rales on chest auscultation were also observed in all patients. Findings from bronchoalveolar lavage were suggestive of allergic alveolitis. Transbronchial biopsy specimens showed interstitial alveolitis with lymphocyte-macrophage infiltrate and granuloma. Unexposed control subjects did not exhibit reactivity to any of the tests listed above. The dust derived from esparto fibers can cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis in exposed subjects. Organisms such as A. fumigatus and thermophilic actinomyces could be the causative antigens. "Stipatosis" might be an appropriate name for this disorder.

  8. Upper aerodigestive cancer in battery manufacturers and steel workers exposed to mineral acid mists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, D; Pannett, B; Wield, G

    1996-07-01

    To assess the risk of cancer from inhalation of mineral acid mists. A cohort study and nested case-control study of upper aerodigestive tumours were carried out in men employed since 1950 at two battery plants and two steel works in Britain. The cohort was identified from personnel records and included 2678 men with definite exposure to acid mists (mainly sulphuric acid), 367 with possible exposure, and 1356 who were unexposed. Mortality was compared with that in the national population by the person-years method. Cases of upper aerodigestive cancer were identified from death certificates and cancer registrations, and their exposure to acids was compared with that of age matched controls (five per case) from the same plant by conditional logistic regression. In follow up to 31 December 1993, 93% of men were traced, including 1277 who had died. Among the men definitely exposed to acid mists, overall mortality was less than in the national population (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.85-0.98) as was mortality from all cancers (SMR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.05) and specifically from cancer of the larynx (SMR 0.48, 95% CI 0.01-2.70) and lung (SMR 0.98, 95% CI 0.78-1.22). A total of 15 incident or fatal cases of upper aerodigestive cancer were identified during follow up. When these men were compared with controls, risk was moderately increased in those who had worked for at least five years in jobs entailing exposures to sulphuric or hydrochloric acid in excess of 1 mg/m3 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.4-10). These findings are consistent with those from other studies which have indicated a hazard of upper aerodigestive cancer from acid mists. However, they indicate that any risk from exposures to sulphuric and hydrochloric acid below 1 mg/m3 is small.

  9. Circulatory disease in French nuclear fuel cycle workers chronically exposed to uranium: a nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivin, Sergey; Guseva Canu, Irina; Davesne, Estelle; Blanchardon, Eric; Garsi, Jérôme-Philippe; Samson, Eric; Niogret, Christine; Zablotska, Lydia B; Laurier, Dominique

    2017-10-31

    There is growing evidence of an association between low-dose external γ-radiation and circulatory system diseases (CSDs), yet sparse data exist about an association with chronic internal uranium exposure and the role of non-radiation risk factors. We conducted a nested case-control study of French AREVA NC Pierrelatte nuclear workers employed between 1960 and 2005 to estimate CSD risks adjusting for major CSD risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol and glycaemia) and external γ-radiation dose. The study included 102 cases of death from CSD and 416 controls individually matched on age, gender, birth cohort and socio-professional status. Information on CSD risk factors was collected from occupational medical records. Organ-specific absorbed doses were estimated using biomonitoring data, taking into account exposure regime and uranium physicochemical properties. External γ-radiation was measured by individual dosimeter badges. Analysis was conducted with conditional logistic regression. Workers were exposed to very low radiation doses (mean γ-radiation dose 2 and lung uranium dose 1 mGy). A positive but imprecise association was observed (excess OR per mGy 0.2, 95% CI 0.004 to 0.5). Results obtained after adjustment suggest that uranium exposure might be an independent CSD risk factor. Our results suggest that a positive association might exist between internal uranium exposure and CSD mortality, not confounded by CSD risk factors. Future work should focus on numerous uncertainties associated with internal uranium dose estimation and on understanding biological pathway of CSD after protracted low-dose internal radiation exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses in evaluating the hearing thresholds of occupational noise-exposed workers

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    Ruey-Fen Hsu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available An objective, fast, and reasonably accurate assessment test that allows for easy interpretation of the responses of the hearing thresholds at all frequencies of a conventional audiogram is needed to resolve the medicolegal aspects of an occupational hearing injury. This study evaluated the use of dichotic multiple-frequency auditory steady-state responses (Mf-ASSR to predict the hearing thresholds in workers exposed to high levels of noise. The study sample included 34 workers with noise-induced hearing impairment. Thresholds of pure-tone audiometry (PTA and Mf-ASSRs at four frequencies were assessed. The differences and correlations between the thresholds of Mf-ASSRs and PTA were determined. The results showed that, on average, Mf-ASSR curves corresponded well with the thresholds of the PTA contours averaged across subjects. The Mf-ASSRs were 20±8 dB, 16±9 dB, 12±9 dB, and 11±12 dB above the thresholds of the PTA for 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz, 2,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz, respectively. The thresholds of the PTA and the Mf-ASSRs were significantly correlated (r=0.77–0.89. We found that the measurement of Mf-ASSRs is easy and potentially time saving, provides a response at all dichotic multiple frequencies of the conventional audiogram, reduces variability in the interpretation of the responses, and correlates well with the behavioral hearing thresholds in subjects with occupational noise-induced hearing impairment. Mf-ASSR can be a valuable aid in the adjustment of compensation cases.

  11. Discovery of novel biomarkers by microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression in benzene-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Matthew S; Lan, Qing; Hubbard, Alan E; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Zhao, Xin; Li, Guilan; Wu, Yen-Ying; Shen, Min; Yin, Songnian; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Smith, Martyn T

    2005-06-01

    Benzene is an industrial chemical and component of gasoline that is an established cause of leukemia. To better understand the risk benzene poses, we examined the effect of benzene exposure on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression in a population of shoe-factory workers with well-characterized occupational exposures using microarrays and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PBMC RNA was stabilized in the field and analyzed using a comprehensive human array, the U133A/B Affymetrix GeneChip set. A matched analysis of six exposed-control pairs was performed. A combination of robust multiarray analysis and ordering of genes using paired t-statistics, along with bootstrapping to control for a 5% familywise error rate, was used to identify differentially expressed genes in a global analysis. This resulted in a set of 29 known genes being identified that were highly likely to be differentially expressed. We also repeated these analyses on a smaller subset of 508 cytokine probe sets and found that the expression of 19 known cytokine genes was significantly different between the exposed and the control subjects. Six genes were selected for confirmation by real-time PCR, and of these, CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 were the most significantly affected by benzene exposure, a finding that was confirmed in a larger data set from 28 subjects. The altered expression was not caused by changes in the makeup of the PBMC fraction. Thus, microarray analysis along with real-time PCR confirmation reveals that altered expressions of CXCL16, ZNF331, JUN, and PF4 are potential biomarkers of benzene exposure.

  12. Use of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling to simulate the profiles of 3-hydroxybenzo(apyrene in workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Heredia Ortiz

    Full Text Available Biomathematical modeling has become an important tool to assess xenobiotic exposure in humans. In the present study, we have used a human physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK model and an simple compartmental toxicokinetic model of benzo(apyrene (BaP kinetics and its 3-hydroxybenzo(apyrene (3-OHBaP metabolite to reproduce the time-course of this biomarker of exposure in the urine of industrially exposed workers and in turn predict the most plausible exposure scenarios. The models were constructed from in vivo experimental data in rats and then extrapolated from animals to humans after assessing and adjusting the most sensitive model parameters as well as species specific physiological parameters. Repeated urinary voids from workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs have been collected over the course of a typical workweek and during subsequent days off work; urinary concentrations of 3-OHBaP were then determined. Based on the information obtained for each worker (BaP air concentration, daily shift hours, tasks, protective equipment, the time courses of 3-OHBaP in the urine of the different workers have been simulated using the PBPK and toxicokinetic models, considering the various possible exposure routes, oral, dermal and inhalation. Both models were equally able to closely reproduce the observed time course of 3-OHBaP in the urine of workers and predicted similar exposure scenarios. Simulations of various scenarios suggest that the workers under study were exposed mainly by the dermal route. Comparison of measured air concentration levels of BaP with simulated values needed to obtain a good approximation of observed time course further pointed out that inhalation was not the main route of exposure for most of the studied workers. Both kinetic models appear as a useful tool to interpret biomonitoring data of PAH exposure on the basis of 3-OHBaP levels.

  13. Assessment of lipid peroxidation and p53 as a biomarker of carcinogenesis among workers exposed to formaldehyde in the cosmetic industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Dalia; Mansour, Neveen; Taha, Fatma; Seif El Dein, Aisha

    2016-06-01

    Despite the wide use of cosmetic products, they exert a number of health effects on tissues ranging from irritation to cancer. Our study aimed at assessing the effect of formaldehyde on lipid peroxidation and verifying the susceptibility to carcinogenesis using p53 as a biomarker among workers exposed to formaldehyde in cosmetic industry. Our entire exposed group (n = 40) and the controls (n = 20) were subjected to estimation of formate in urine, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), and p53. Also, complete blood picture, liver, and kidney function tests were carried out. The study revealed significant increase in the levels of formate, MDA, and p53 in the exposed group compared with their control group. Our results showed that workers in cosmetic industry had significant exposure to formaldehyde. Furthermore, the study pointed to the negative impact of formaldehyde as a cause of oxidative stress and suspicious carcinogen. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The relationship between reproductive outcome measures in DDT exposed malaria vector control workers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Jonathan E

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The utility of blood reproductive endocrine biomarkers for assessing or estimating semen quality was explored. Methods A cross-sectional study of 47 DDT exposed malaria vector control workers was performed. Tests included blood basal and post gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH, lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, estradiol (E2 and inhibin; a questionnaire (demographics and general medical history; a physical examination and semen analysis. Semen parameters were determined using either/or or both WHO or the strict Tygerberg criteria. Relationships between semen parameters and endocrine measures were adjusted for age, duration of abstinence before sampling, presence of physical abnormalities and fever in the last two months. All relationships between specific endocrine hormones were adjusted for age and basal SHBG. Results Multiple logistic regression showed a consistent positive relationship (prevalence odds ratio (POR = 8.2, CI:1.4–49.2 between low basal inhibin ( POR 50 pg/ml and abnormal morphology (proportion Conclusion The study has demonstrated that low basal inhibin, elevated basal FSH and high basal E2 can serve as markers of impaired semen quality.

  15. Single-strand breaks, chromosome aberrations, sister-chromatid exchanges, and micronuclei in blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to styrene during the production of reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeki-Paakkanen, J.W.; Walles, S.; Osterman-Golkar, S.; Norppa, H. (Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN, cytokinesis-block (CB) method), and sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) were analysed in blood lymphocytes of 17 workers and 17 control subjects. The mean urinary mandelic acid level (average 9.4 mmol/l) and styrene glycol in blood (average 2.5 mumol/l) implied exposure to about 300 mg/m3 of styrene in the plant. The number of CA was significantly higher in non-smoking workers compared with nonsmoking controls. A significant correlation was observed between duration of exposure and individual CA level of all workers. No significant effects were observed in MN or SCE. Single-strand breaks (SSB) in DNA of isolated lymphocytes were studied in nine of the workers and eight of the controls by the DNA-unwinding technique. The results showed an increase in SSB among the exposed workers. The present findings support earlier reports on the increase of structural CA in blood lymphocytes of workers in the reinforced plastic industry, and also show that SSBs are elevated in such workers.

  16. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine as a biomarker of oxidative DNA damage in workers exposed to low-dose benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concettina Fenga

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the relation between exposure to low-dose benzene and the occurrence of oxidative DNA damage in gasoline station workers, as well as the possible role of interfering or confounding factors.Urine levels of 8-OHdG were evaluated by a competitive immunoassay in a group of 80 men, employed in gasoline stations located in East Sicily and compared with a control group (n = 63 of male office employees not occupationally exposed to benzene. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and job-related records were provided through a questionnaire.Significantly higher (p < 0.05 urinary t,t,-MA and 8-OHdG levels were observed in gasoline station attendants compared to subjects not exposed to benzene.Pearson’s test demonstrated a strong correlation (r = 0.377, p < 0.001 between 8-OHdG and benzene exposure level. 8-OHdG significantly correlated also with job seniority, (r = 0.312, p < 0.01, whereas the relation with age resulted weaker (r = 0.242, p < 0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis, performed to exclude a role for confounding factors, showed that variables like gender, smoking habit, alcohol consumption and BMI did not have a significant influence on the measured biomarkers. No subject enrolled in the study presented signs or symptoms of work-related disease or other illness linked to oxidative stress.These results suggest that low-level chronic exposure to benzene among gasoline station attendants can determine oxidative damage on DNA, as indicated by alteration of 8-OHdG which may represent a non-invasive biomarker of early genotoxic damage in exposed subjects. Key-words: Benzene, 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine, t,t-muconic acid, Oxidative stress, Occupational exposure

  17. Elemental bio-imaging of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in tissues from occupationally exposed former nuclear workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dominic; Tolmachev, Sergei; James, Anthony; Bishop, David; Austin, Christine; Fryer, Fred; Doble, Philip

    2010-04-15

    Internal exposure from naturally occurring radionuclides (including the inhaled long-lived actinides (232)Th and (238)U) is a component of the ubiquitous background radiation dose (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Ionizing radiation exposure of the population of the United States; NCRP Report No. 160; NCRP: Bethesda, MD, 2009). It is of interest to compare the concentration distribution of these natural alpha-emitters in the lungs and respiratory lymph nodes with those resulting from occupational exposure, including exposure to anthropogenic plutonium and depleted and enriched uranium. This study examines the application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to quantifying and visualizing the mass distribution of uranium and thorium isotopes from both occupational and natural background exposure in human respiratory tissues and, for the first time, extends this application to the direct imaging of plutonium isotopes. Sections of lymphatic and lung tissues taken from deceased former nuclear workers with a known history of occupational exposure to specific actinide elements (uranium, plutonium, or americium) were analyzed by LA-ICPMS. Using a previously developed LA-ICPMS protocol for elemental bio-imaging of trace elements in human tissue and a new software tool, we generated images of thorium ((232)Th), uranium ((235)U and (238)U), and plutonium ((239)Pu and (240)Pu) mass distributions in sections of tissue. We used a laboratory-produced matrix-matched standard to quantify the (232)Th, (235)U, and (238)U concentrations. The plutonium isotopes (239)Pu and (240)Pu were detected by LA-ICPMS in 65 mum diameter localized regions of both a paratracheal lymph node and a sample of lung tissue from a person who was occupationally exposed to refractory plutonium (plutonium dioxide). The average (overall) (239)Pu concentration in the lymph node was 39.2 ng/g, measured by high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma

  18. Associations between DNA methylation in DNA damage response-related genes and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome index in diesel engine exhaust-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Li, Jie; He, Zhini; Duan, Huawei; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Haisheng; Yu, Shanfa; Chen, Wen; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-08-01

    Recently, diesel engine exhaust (DEE) was reclassified as a known carcinogen to humans. DNA methylation alterations in DNA damage response (DDR)-related genes have the potential to affect DEE exposure-related cancer risk. However, the evidence regarding the association between DEE exposure and methylation alterations in DDR-related genes is limited. In 117 DEE-exposed workers and 112 non-DEE-exposed workers, we measured urinary concentrations of six mono-hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). We also determined the methylation levels of three DDR-related genes (p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT) and LINE-1 by bisulfite-pyrosequencing assay. We found that DEE-exposed workers exhibited significantly lower mean promoter methylation levels of p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT than non-DEE-exposed workers (all p methylation in p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT decreased by 0.36 % [95 % confidential interval (CI): -0.60, -0.11 %], 0.46 % (95 % CI: -0.79, -0.14 %), and 0.55 % (95 % CI: -0.95, -0.15 %), respectively, in association with highest versus lowest quartile of urinary summed OH-PAHs. In addition, p16, RASSF1A, MGMT, and LINE-1 methylation levels showed negative correlations with cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome index which was previously measured in the same workers (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that DEE exposure and increased genetic damage were associated with hypomethylation of p16, RASSF1A, and MGMT. Future studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these associations.

  19. Study of Peak Expiratory Flow Rate as the Assessment of Lung Function in Occupationally Exposed Petrol Pump Workers of Western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Smita V

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fast urbanization trends, rapid industrial growth, globalization, and poor environmental conditions at work places have created a lot of healthrelated issues. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR as the assessment of lung function in occupationally exposed petrol pump workers and also check whether PEFR increases or decreases with duration of exposure. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 male petrol pump workers between age group of 20-40 years who were working as petrol filling attendants for more than one year from western Maharashtra. 50 normal healthy males with same socioeconomic status were chosen as controls to find out the effect of occupational exposure to petroleum product on PEFR as the assessment of lung function tests. Petrol pump workers were divided into three groups based on their duration of exposure i.e. 1- 5 yrs, 6- 10 yrs and more than 11 years. PEFR of petrol pump workers and control was measured by using a Mini Wright peak flow meter which is a portable device for measuring ventilator functions. Comparisons was done using unpaired t-test for 2 groups comparisons and one way ANOVAfor multiple groups of exposures. Results: The PEFR was significantly lower decrease (p=0.001 around petrol pump workers (389.17 as compared to control (534.2. As year of exposure increased mean value of PEFR was significantly decreased from 452.17, 378.00 and 283.64 respectively in petrol pump workers. Conclusion: The results suggested that respiratory functions i.e. PEFR of occupationally exposed petrol pump workers are significantly reduced as compared to controls, also PEFR is significantly reduced with increase in the duration of exposure.

  20. Surveillance of workers exposed to mercury vapor:validation of a previously proposed biological threshold limit value for mercury concentration in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roels, H.; Gennart, J.P.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Malchaire, J.; Bernard, A.

    1985-01-01

    A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out among subjects exposed to mercury (Hg) vapor, ie, a group of 131 male workers (mean age: 30.9 yr; average duration of exposure, 4.8 yr) and a group of 54 female workers (mean age, 29.9 yr; average duration of exposure 7 yr). The results were compared with those obtained in well-matched control groups comprising 114 and 48 male and female workers, respectively. The intensity of current Hg vapor exposure was rather moderate as reflected by the levels of mercury in urine (HgU) (mean and 95th percentile: males 52 and 147 micrograms/g creatinine; females 37 and 63 micrograms/g creatinine) and of mercury in blood (mean and 95th percentile: males 1.4 and 3.7 micrograms/dl; females 0.9 and 1.4 microgram/dl). Several symptoms mainly related to the central nervous system (memory disturbances, depressive feelings, fatigue, irritability) were more prevalent in the Hg-exposed subjects. They were, however, not related to exposure parameters. In both male and female Hg-exposed workers no significant disturbances were found in short-term memory (audioverbal), simple reaction time (visual), critical flicker fusion, and color discrimination ability. Only slight renal tubular effects were detected in Hg-exposed males and females, ie, an increased urinary beta-galactosidase activity and an increased urinary excretion of retinol-binding protein. The prevalence of these preclinical renal effects was more related to the current exposure intensity (HgU) than to the duration of exposure and was detected mainly when HgU exceeds 50 micrograms/g creatinine. Changes in hand tremor spectrum recorded with an accelerometer were found in the Hg-exposed males only.

  1. Regulatory science and radiation protection: A study of dose constraints for members of the public and occupationally-exposed workers at the U.S. nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tae Young

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering a revision of the existing system of radiation protection regulations with respect to ICRP Publication 103. It is expected that there will be a change in the current NRC regulations to require the implementation of concept of dose constraints for members of the public and for occupationally-exposed workers at the U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). Under the paradigm of regulatory science, the use of dose constraints is still highly debatable. This study addressed two objectives. The first objective was determining whether or not dose constraints are necessary for members of the public and occupationally-exposed workers at the U.S. NPPs. The second objective was determining, if dose constraints were needed, the optimal numerical values of dose constraints at the U.S. NPPs. To achieve these objectives, several areas were investigated and analyzed: 1) the establishment of a regulatory-science framework; 2) a system of radiation protection which would incorporate the concept of dose constraints; 3) methodologies and regulations for public and occupational dose assessment; 4) approaches to the establishment of dose constraints; 5) the actual doses for members of the public living around NPPs; and 6) the range of doses for occupationally-exposed workers in NPPs. As a result of analysis of exposure data, the annual median and maximum doses to a maximally-exposed individual (MEI) for members of the public were 10-4 and 10-1 mSv, respectively. The corresponding annual excess risks (ER) for the median and maximum doses were calculated to be on the order of 10-8 and 10-6 , respectively. These excess risks are low and should be considered acceptable. For occupationally-exposed workers, the average and maximum measurable doses were 1.3 mSv and 24.8 mSv, respectively. The annual excess risks for the average and maximum doses were 10-5 and 10-3, respectively. These excess risks are also acceptable from the perspective of

  2. Association of Lead Exposure, Serum Uric Acid and Parameters of Renal Function in Nigerian Lead-Exposed Workers

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    DD Alasia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of hyperuricemia and renal function impairment, especially in the absence of urate stone formation is strongly suggestive of lead nephropathy. The evaluation of this association is essential in areas where lead exposure is still prevalent and uncontrolled. Objective: To determine the relationship between serum uric acid and renal function indices in lead-exposed workers. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 190 adults with occupational lead exposure and 80 adults (comparison group, matched for age and sex was performed in Port Harcourt, South-south Nigeria. Blood lead was used as the biomarker of lead exposure while serum urea, serum creatinine, urine albumin (using urine albumin:creatinine ratio, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR and serum uric acid were the renal function indices measured. Results: Occupationally lead-exposed subjects had a significantly (p = 0.008 higher mean±SD blood lead levels (50.37±24.58 μg/dL than the comparison group (41.40±26.85. The mean±SD serum urea (8.6±2.3 mg/dL, creatinine (1.0±0.2 mg/dL and serum uric acid (4.6±1.2 mg/dL were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in the study subjects than the comparison group (7.6±2.4, 0.9±0.2, and 3.9±1.1 mg/dL, respectively. The mean±SD creatinine clearance was significantly (p = 0.002 lower in the study subjects than the comparison group (98.9±21.3 vs. 108.2±25.2 mL/min/1.72 m2. Serum uric acid level correlated positively with serum creatinine (r = 0.134 and negatively with GFR (r = ‑0.151. Conclusion: People with occupational lead exposure are at risk of developing hyperuricemia and renal impairment.

  3. Radiological surveillance of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers: rates and risk factors of benign changes on chest X-ray and MDCT

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenhawer, Christian; Felten, Michael K.; Tamm, Miriam; Das, Marco; Kraus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of asbestos-related changes on chest X-ray (CXR) and low-dose multidetector-row CT (MDCT) of the thorax in a cohort of formerly asbestos-exposed power industry workers and to assess the importance of common risk factors associated with specific radiological changes. Methods To assess the influence of selected risk factors (age, time since first exposure, exposure duration, cumulative exposure and pack years) on typical asbestos-related radiographic chang...

  4. Synergistic impaired effect between smoking and manganese dust exposure on pulmonary ventilation function in Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenfen Wang

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn dust exposure on lung functions and evaluate the potential synergistic effect between smoking and Mn dust exposure among refinery workers.A retrospective study including 1658 workers in a ferromanganese refinery was conducted, with subjects who were from the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC. Based on the Mn manganese cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI, all subjects were divided into the low exposure group (n = 682 and the high exposure group (n = 976. A pulmonary function test was performed using an electronic spirometer, including the values and percentages of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MMEF, PEFR, MVV, respectively.No significant effect of Mn dust exposure on the pulmonary function was found in the female workers (all p>0.05. However, there was an obvious decrease in the male workers in the high exposure group compared with those in the low exposure group (FVC -60 ml, FEV1 -120 ml, MMEF -260 ml/s, MVV -5.06 L, all p<0.05. In the high exposure group, the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively. In particular, among the exposed subjects smokers had a statistically significant decrease in lung function compared with non-smokers and the reduction in FVC% predicted, MMEF and MMEF% predicted was 1.0%, 210 mL/s, and 4.9%, respectively (p<0.05. Partial correlation analysis showed that there was also negative correlation between Mn-CEI and decreased changes in MMEF (r = -0.159, p = 0.018 and also MMEF% predicted (r = -0.163, p = 0.015.Mn dust can impair the pulmonary ventilation function of male workers but not females, and individual smoking habits and manganese exposure had a synergistic effect on the lung function decrease.

  5. [Considering risk factors of arterial hypertension in workers exposed to occupational hazards, according to results of periodic medical examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kel'man, G P; Nosov, A E; Vlasova, E M; Alekseev, V B; Safonova, M A

    2013-01-01

    The article covers prevalence of risk factors concerning cardiovascular diseases and health disorders in workers due to occupational hazards of textile production, criteria for early diagnosis of arterial hypertension. To prevent arterial hypertension and its progress into severe cardiovascular diseases in the workers, the authors necessitated complex of medical and preventive measures.

  6. [The Relationship of Polymorphisms in Interleukin 17A Gene, Interleukin 17F Gene and the Pulmonary Inflammation Risk in Dust Exposed Workers in a Chinese Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Li; Zhang, Qin; Huang, Cheng-Jun; Lan, Ya-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Xiong, Lin-Sen

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the polymorphisms in interleukin 17A IL-17A) and interleukin 17F (IL-17F) and their relationship with pulmonary inflammation risk of dust exposed workers. A case-control study among 193 subjects, including 67 subjects in case group and 126 in control group was conducted. PCR-RFLP was applied to genotype IL-17A (G-197A) and IL-17F (7488T/C). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the effects of IL-17A (G-197A) and IL-17F (7488T/C) on the lung inflammation risk in dust exposed workers. The genotypes analysis showed that the proportions of IL-17A (G-197A) A/A, A/G and G/G were 42 (21.76%), 95 (49.22%), 56 (29.02%) in 193 cases, respectively, and the IL-17F (7488T/C) T/T, T/C and C/C genotypes were 128 (66.32%), 54 (28.98%), 11 (5.70%), respectively. The frequency distribution of each genotype was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium fixed law. The ratio of IL-17A (G-197A) A/A in the case group was lower than that of control group ( P0.05). Under the same dust concentration, the dust exposed workers carrying IL-17A (G-197A) A/G, G/G genotypes are more susceptible to pulmonary inflammation in the southwest of China.

  7. Increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels in workers exposed to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in a waste plastic recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wang, Li; Chen, Xi; Rao, Kai Min; Lu, Shao You; Ma, Sheng Tao; Jiang, Pu; Zheng, Dan; Xu, Shun Qing; Zheng, Hong Yan; Wang, Jian Shu; Yu, Zhi Qiang; Zhang, Rong; Tao, Yong; Yuan, Jing

    2011-07-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in industrial and diverse consumer products. Animal studies indicate DEHP caused developmental, reproductive, and hepatic toxicities. However, human studies of the potential effects of DEHP are limited. The exposed site with a history of over 20 years of waste plastic recycling was located in Hunan Province, China. The reference site without known DEHP pollution source was about 50 km far away from the exposed site. In this study, 181 workers working in plastic waste recycling and 160 gender-age matched farmers were recruited. DEHP concentrations in water and cultivated soil samples, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei frequency in human capillary blood lymphocytes were analyzed. Mean levels of DEHP were greater in environment at the recycling site than at reference site (industry wastewater for the exposed: 42.43 μg/l; well water: 14.20 vs. 0.79 μg/l, pond water: 135.68 vs. 0.37 μg/l, cultivated soil: 13.07 vs. 0.81 mg/kg, p plastic recycling was an independent risk factor for the increased urinary 8-OHdG levels in the male workers (p < 0.01). The occupational DEHP exposure might contribute to oxidative deoxyribonucleic acid damage in the male workers.

  8. [Effects of carbon disulfide on blood pressure and electrocardiogram for workers exposed to levels below the national maximum allowable concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Li, Yong-Jun; Yang, Wen-Ping

    2009-11-01

    with low exposure, and in the high DBP subgroup with high exposure. Within HEG, high DBP is the only blood pressure-related risk factor found for the incident of left ventricular high voltage (OR = 4.140), as is high SBP for LEG (OR = 4.776). High PP is the only risk factor found for repolarization disturbances within LEG (OR = 20.417). While blood sugar is a risk factor for origin disturbances, it is a protection factor for left ventricular high voltage (OR = 0.633). The damage of CS2 done to the cardiovascular system is a gradual process. Both early and very low level exposures are detrimental to the human circulatory system. Below the National MAC limit, the toxic effect of CS2 to the cardiovascular system increases with time and level of exposure. The effect of CS2 on DBP is more significant than on SBP, which indicates that CS2 may affect peripheral resistant blood vessels more than the artery. The abnormalities of ECG of workers exposed to CS2 are not only the result of high blood pressure on the heart, but also of the direct toxicity of CS2 on heart and blood vessels.

  9. Long-term exposure to electric fields. A cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation of occupationally exposed workers in high-voltage substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knave, B; Gamberale, F; Bergström, S; Birke, E; Iregren, A; Kolmodin-Hedman, B; Wennberg, A

    1979-06-01

    In the present epidemiologic study, 53 workers with a long-term (more than five years) exposure to the electric field of 400 kV substations were examined and compared with a matched reference group of 53 nonexposed workers from the same power companies. Matching variables included age, geographic location and employment time. The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of persistent, chronic health effects in the exposed group as a consequence of exposure. The investigation indluded the nervous system (neurasthenic symptoms, psychological tests, electroencephalography), the cardiovascular system (symptoms, blood pressure, electrocardiography), and the blood (hemoglobin, red blood cells, reticulocytes, white blood cells including differential count, thrombocytes, sedimentation rate). Fertility was also assessed. The results showed no differences between the exposed and reference groups as a consequence of the long-term exposure to the electric fields. The groups differed, however, in that the exposed group had (a) consistently better results on the psychological performance tests, (b) a fewer number of children, especially boys, and (c) somewhat higher education. The differences in test results were due to the higher education among the exposed. The difference in number of children was also thought to be related to factors other than exposure since it was found to be present already 10--15 years before the work in 400 kV substations began.

  10. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  11. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi S; Satyanarayan P.V.V; Ravishankar D; Tripathi Sachin

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP) insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation), reduced glutathione (GSH), an...

  12. [Prevalence and influence factors of hypertension among the workers exposed to noise in steel making and steel rolling workshop of an iron and steel plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Guoshun; Yu, Shanfa

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence and influence factors of hypertension among the workers exposed to noise in steel making and steel rolling workshop of an iron and steel plant. Using cluster sampling method, 3 150 workers exposed to noise participated in this study. According to do questionnaire survey and blood pressure measurement, 2 924 workers were tested, among which 1 313 workers were from steel making workshop and 1 611 workers were from steel rolling workshop. The relationships between different demographic characteristics, different habits, and different cumulative noise exposures of workers exposed to noise and hypertension were analyzed. For the hypertension prevalence rate, the total prevalence rate was 27.43% (802/2 924), the male was higher than the female (29.88 % (753/2 520) vs 12.13% (49/404), χ² = 55.13, P < 0.001), married ones were higher than the unmarried (29.84% (718/2 406) vs 16.22% (84/518), χ² = 39.76, P < 0.001), the smoking subjects were higher than the no smoking (30.31% (438/1 445) vs 24.61% (364/1 479), χ² = 11.93, P = 0.001), drinking ones were higher than the no drinking (31.53% (541/1 716) vs 21.61% (261/1 208), χ² = 35.05, P < 0.001). The hypertension prevalence rates among the subjects with education background in junior high school and below, high school (secondary) and university and above were separately 44.96%(125/278), 29.95%(455/1 519) and 19.70%(222/1 127) (χ² = 81.65, P < 0.001), among cumulative exposure groups 77-89, 90-94, 95-99, 100-104 and 105-113 were separately 8.43% (14/166), 14.48% (53/366), 24.28% (297/1 223), 36.65% (335/914) and 40.39%(103/255) (χ² = 127.58, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that workers who exposed to cumulative noise in 95-99, 100-104 and 105-113 dB(A) ·year had the higher risk of hypertension, the OR (95%CI) were 1.84 (95% CI: 1.35-2.51), 1.74 (95% CI: 1.24-2.45) and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.09-2.58). Drinking (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.32-1.95) and BMI ≥ 24.0 kg

  13. Evaluation of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAEs) among workers at an Industrial Company exposed to different industrial noise levels in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Sajad; Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Pourbakht, Akram; Azam, Kamal; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2015-07-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is usually one of the main problems in industrial settings. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in different DPOAE are caused by exposure to different levels of noise at different time intervals among workers exposed to noise. This case-control study was conducted in the autumn of 2014 on 45 workers at Gol Gohar Mining and Industrial Company, which is located in Sirjan in southeast Iran. The workers were divided into three groups based on their noise exposure, i.e., 1) 15 office workers as a control group with exposure to low levels of noise, 2) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to a medium level of noise, and 3) 15 workers from manufacturing departments who were exposed to high levels of noise. The SNRs at the frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz were measured in both ears at three different time intervals during the shift work. SNRs of 6 or greater were considered as inclusion criterion. Repeated measures, the Spearman rank-order correlation test, and paired t-test analyses were used with α = 0.05 being the level of significance. For all frequencies in the right and left ears, the SNR values were more than 6, thus all SNR values were considered as acceptable responses. The effects of time and sound pressure level (SPL) on SNR were significant for the right and left ears (p = 0.027 and values in the right and left ears for the time intervals 7:30-8:00 A.M. and 13:30-14:00 P.M., which implied that an increase in the duration of exposure led to reduced SNR values (p = 0.024, r = 0.948). The comparison of the SNR values in the right and left ears (for all frequencies and the three different SPLs) indicated that the values decreased during the shift work.

  14. Migration and work in postwar Australia: mortality profile comparisons between Australian and Italian workers exposed to blue asbestos at Wittenoom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Alison; Merler, Enzo; Peters, Susan; Jayasinghe, Nimashi; Bressan, Vittoria; Franklin, Peter; Brims, Fraser; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Musk, Arthur W

    2018-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty thousand Italians arrived in Australia between 1945 and 1966, many on assisted passage schemes where the worker agreed to a 2-year unskilled employment contract. Italians were the largest of 52 migrant groups employed at the Wittenoom blue asbestos mining and milling operation. We compare mortality from asbestos-related diseases among Italian and Australian workers employed at Wittenoom. A cohort of 6500 male workers was established from employment records and followed up at state and national mortality and cancer registries. SMRs were calculated to compare mortality with the Western Australian male population. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of mesothelioma between Australian and Italian workers. 1031 Italians and 3465 Australians worked at Wittenoom between 1943 and 1966. Duration of employment was longer for the Italian workers, although the concentration of exposure was similar. The mesothelioma mortality rate per 100 000 was higher in Italians (184, 95% CI 148 to 229) than Australians (128, 95% CI 111 to 149). The risk of mesothelioma was greater than twofold (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.60) in Italians at the lowest asbestos exposure category (asbestos and subsequently a greater rate of malignant mesothelioma than Australian workers. Poor working conditions and disparities between native and foreign-born workers has had a detrimental and differential impact on the long-term health of the workforce. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Decreased Serum Free Testosterone in Workers Exposed to High Levels of Di-n-butyl Phthalate (DBP) and Di-2-ethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP): A Cross-Sectional Study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guowei Pan; Tomoyuki Hanaoka; Mariko Yoshimura; Shujuan Zhang; Ping Wang; Hiromasa Tsukino; Koichi Inoue; Hiroyuki Nakazawa; Shoichiro Tsugane; Ken Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    ..., follicle-stimulating hormone, free testosterone (fT), and estradiol. Methods: We examined urine and blood samples of 74 male workers at a factory producing unfoamed polyvinyl chloride flooring exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP...

  16. Early recognition of lung cancer in workers occupationally exposed to asbestos; Frueherkennung von Lungenkrebs bei asbestexponierten Arbeitnehmern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann-Preiss, K. [BDT MVZ Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Rehbock, B. [Praxis fuer Diagnostische Radiologie mit pneumologischem Schwerpunkt, Berlin (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Despite the fact that working with asbestos and placing it on the market have been banned in Germany since 1993 according to the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances, asbestos-related diseases of the lungs and pleura are still the leading cause of death in occupational diseases. The maximum industrial usage of asbestos was reached in former West Germany in the late 1970s and in former East Germany the late 1980s. Occupational diseases, mainly mesotheliomas and lung cancer emerging now are thus caused by asbestos exposure which occurred 30-40 years earlier. It is known that the combination of smoking and asbestos exposure results in a superadditive increase in the risk to develop lung cancer. No suitable screening methods for early detection of malignant mesothelioma are currently available and the therapeutic options are still very limited; however, the national lung screening trial (NLST) has shown for the first time that by employing low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in heavy smokers, lung cancer mortality can be significantly reduced. According to current knowledge the resulting survival benefits far outweigh the potential risks involved in the diagnostic work-up of suspicious lesions. These results in association with the recommendations of international medical societies and organizations were pivotal as the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) decided to provide LDCT as a special occupational medical examination for workers previously exposed to asbestos and with a particularly high risk for developing lung cancer. (orig.) [German] Asbestbedingte Erkrankungen von Lunge und Pleura sind in Deutschland noch immer die haeufigsten zum Tode fuehrenden Berufskrankheiten, obwohl die Verarbeitung und das Inverkehrbringen von Asbest gemaess der Gefahrstoffverordnung seit 1993 verboten sind. Das Maximum des Rohasbestverbrauchs in den alten Bundeslaendern war Ende der 70er, in den neuen Bundeslaendern Ende der 80er Jahre erreicht. Heute neu diagnostizierte

  17. Evaluación bioquímica de trabajadores rurales expuestos a pesticidas Biochemical evaluation on rural workers exposed to pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Simoniello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los pesticidas utilizados en agricultura pueden representar un riesgo potencial para la salud de los agricultores expuestos y para el medio ambiente. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar trabajadores frutihortícolas expuestos a plaguicidas, categorizados por: exposición directa (n = 45, exposición indirecta (n = 50 y controles (n = 50 mediante biomarcadores de exposición y efecto: colinesterasa (ChE, acetilcolinesterasa (AChE, catalasa (CAT, peroxidación de lípidos (TBARS, Indice de Daño Ensayo Cometa (IDEC e Indice de Daño Ensayo Reparación (IDER. Los resultados indican: a inhibición significativa de AChE (p Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops but may represent a potential risk to farmers and the environment. The aim of this work was to evaluate horticultural workers exposed to pesticide, categorized by: direct exposure (n = 45, indirect exposure (n = 50 and controls (n = 50 using exposure and effect biomarkers: cholinesterase (ChE, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, catalase (CAT, lipid peroxidation (TBARS, Damage Index Comet Assay (IDEC and Damage Index Repair Assay (IDER. Our results show: a an AChE inhibition in directly and indirectly exposed population (p < 0.001, b significant increase in the levels of TBARS in direct exposure (p < 0.001, c the CAT reduction was significant (p < 0.01, d a significant increase in IDEC and IDER in both exposed groups (p < 0.001. Our results evidence variations in oxidative balance and DNA damage in exposed workers. These findings represent a contribution to the sub-clinical evaluation of subjects exposed to agrochemicals in our country.

  18. Sense of Coherence as a Determinant of Psychological Well-Being Across Professional Groups of Aid Workers Exposed to War Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro

    2015-06-18

    The present study aims to test whether sense of coherence (SOC) acts as a determinant of positive psychological functioning in aid workers directly exposed to warfare. Specifically, we performed multiple regression analyses to compare different groups of aid workers in terms of the effects of SOC and cumulative trauma on their psychological distress. Palestinian helpers, both professional and non-professional (N = 159) completed three self-reported measures: the General Health questionnaire, Sense of Coherence Scale, and Impact of Events Scale. The findings bear out the predictive power of SOC and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to mental health across different professional groups. In particular, volunteers without a specific professional profile, psychiatrists, medical doctors, and less markedly counselors seemed to protect their mental health through a SOC. Clinical implications and recommendations for training and supervision are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Increased incidence of anti-dsDNA autoantibody concentration in sera of workers occupationally exposed to diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuppon, A B; Marczynski, B; Scheer, E; Hartmann, R; Baur, X

    1993-01-01

    Sera of 87 industrial workers with a history of occupational exposition to various diisocyanates, toluene diisocyanate, hexamethylene diisocyanate and methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate were analyzed for antibodies to isocyanate-conjugated human serum albumin and for anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. Ten workers (approx. 11%) were shown to have elevated anti-dsDNA autoantibody concentrations and 13 revealed antibodies to isocyanate-modified human serum albumin. The overlap of both tests being positive was calculated at about 40%. It would seem, therefore, that routine estimation of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies could provide additional useful information for the clinical diagnosis of occupational health impairment due to isocyanate exposure.

  20. Radiation surveillance of exposed workers during activities of moving of the earth area of Montecillo; Vigilancia radiologica de los trabajadores expuestos durante las actividades de movimiento de tierras del area del Montecillo del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, M. T.; Alvarez, A.; Garcia, E.; Diaz, P.; Quinones, J.

    2013-07-01

    One of the objectives of this study was to limit the doses received by exposed workers and the public (in this case the workers of the CIEMATs buildings next to the work) by setting the appropriate criteria of optimization and protection.In addition was a theoretical evaluation of the dose inhalation, workers would have received if ALARA study protection measures has not been established. (Author)

  1. Increased acquired dyschromatopsia among solvent-exposed workers: an epidemiology study on 249 employees of an aluminum-foil printing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M; Velten, M; Cantineau, A

    1998-07-01

    To analyze the effects on color vision of chronic exposure to mixtures of solvents including ethyl acetate, ethanol, and ketones among the workers of a large factory specializing in the manufacture of photoengraved aluminum packaging. We analyzed a group of 129 subjects who had been exposed to solvents for more than 3 years (mean age 40 years, range 25 59 years) and a nonexposed group of 120 subjects (mean age 41 years, range 21-57 years). The two groups had a similar length of service (17 and 19 years on average, respectively). The exposed subjects consumed more tobacco and alcohol than the nonexposed workers. The study involved administration of the Lanthony D-15 desaturated test. The subjects were classified as having or not having dyschromatopsia on the basis of Lanthony's criteria and the chromatic confusion index (CCI) was calculated according to Bowman's method. After observation of the work stations and analysis of an occupational questionnaire the findings were used to construct a cumulative exposure index covering the whole of each subject's working life. Air samples were taken at each work station and in each production sector to determine current exposure. The average cumulative exposure index was 194 (median 174, range 27-513). The average hygienic effect index (according to ACGIH recommendations), regularly used for atmospheres containing mixtures of products, varied between 12% and 27% of the occupational limit values permitted under French legislation. As regards color vision, 23% of the exposed group had dyschromatopsia, as did 13% of the nonexposed group, with the odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age and consumption of tobacco and alcohol being 1.99 (1.02, 3.89). The analysis of the dose-response relationship according to the cumulative exposure index showed an OR of 1.59 for the lowly exposed group (index 174) as compared with the nonexposed group. Subjects with complex color vision loss (n=23) had a significantly higher cumulative exposure index

  2. A cytogenetic study of hospital workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides in Serbia. Premature centromere division as novel biomarker of exposure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajic, Jelena; Rakic, Boban [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Jovicic, Dubravka [Univ. ' ' Singidunum' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Genotoxicology Dept.; Milovanovic, Aleksandar [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Occupational Health Dept.

    2016-04-15

    The health risk of chronic exposure to radionuclides includes changes in the genome (e.g., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) that increase chromosomal instability. There are also other phenomena, which seem to appear more frequently in metaphases of exposed persons (such as premature centromere division). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not there is correlation between incidence of named cytogenetic changes in persons occupationally exposed to radionuclides in comparison with unexposed control group, and if significant correlation is determined, can premature centromere division be consider as a biomarker of radiation exposure? The exposed group comprised 50 individuals occupationally exposed to radionuclides. The reference control group consisted of 40 unexposed individuals. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and premature centromere division were analyzed according to a standard International Atomic Energy Agency protocol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistics.The means for analyzed cytogenetic changes were significantly higher in the exposed group. Positive correlation between them was found in exposed group. Premature centromere division parameter PCD5-10 was selected as particularly suitable for separating groups (exposed/unexposed). Identification of other phenomena related to radionuclide exposure, beside well known, may clarify recent problems in radiobiology concerning the biological response to low doses of ionizing radiation and its consequences.

  3. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations in Workers Exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi Hosnijeh, F.; Boers, D.; Portengen, L.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Few epidemiological studies have studied the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on blood cytokine levels. In this study we investigated changes in plasma levels of a large panel of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors among workers from a Dutch historical cohort

  4. Sintomatología persistente en trabajadores industrialmente expuestos a plaguicidas organofosforados Persistent symptomatology in workers industrially exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Edilia Palacios-Nava

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir los patrones de ocurrencia de sintomatología persistente en trabajadores industrialmente expuestos a plaguicidas organofosforados. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal y observacional. Se aplicó un cuestionario a las autoridades de la empresa y otro a 89 trabajadores a quienes se les determinó el nivel de colinesterasa sanguínea con los métodos Magnotti y Lovibond. Para la descripción de la información se elaboraron tasas, medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión. Para evaluar la diferencia entre grupos se utilizó la prueba ji² y se calculó razón de momios. Resultados. La prevalencia de sintomatología persistente fue de 6.3 por cada 10 trabajadores; 50% tuvo seis síntomas o más. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el riesgo de padecer sintomatología persistente de acuerdo con la edad, antigüedad, área de trabajo y puesto. No obstante, las proporciones más altas de síntomas se encontraron en los trabajadores de 31 a 40 años de edad, con 6 a 13 años de antigüedad en la fábrica, en el área de mantenimiento y en los puestos de obrero general y supervisor. En los 13 trabajadores que tuvieron antecedentes de intoxicación previa, la prevalencia de sintomatología persistente fue de 6.9 contra 6.1 de los que nunca se habían intoxicado. El riesgo de intoxicación aguda previa entre quienes tenían más de 14 años de antigüedad en la empresa fue cuatro veces mayor que el de aquellos con menos de 14 años (pObjective. To describe the patterns of persistent symptomatology in workers industrially exposed to organophosphate pesticides. Material and Methods. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed. A questionnaire was applied to managers of a factory and to 89 workers, whose erythrocytic cholinesterase level was measured with the Magnotti and Lovibond method. Information is described through rates, central tendency

  5. Renal effects and erythrocyte oxidative stress in long-term low-level lead-exposed adolescent workers in auto repair workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oektem, Faruk [Suleyman Demirel University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Medical Faculty, Isparta (Turkey); Arslan, Meltem Koyuncu; Duendar, Bumin; Erguerhan Ilhan, Inci [Suleyman Demirel University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, Isparta (Turkey); Delibas, Namik [Suleyman Demirel University Hospital, Department of Biochemistiry and Clinical Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Isparta (Turkey); Gueltepe, Mustafa [Haydarpasa Hospital, Department of Biochemistry, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-12-01

    Lead poisoning is an old but persistent public health problem in developing countries. The present study investigated blood lead levels and its effects on markers of renal function and parameters of erythrocyte oxidative stress in adolescent male auto repair workers in Turkey. Blood Pb level and the ALAD index (logarithm of activated {delta}-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase/nonactivated {delta}-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase) were measured as indicators of exposure to Pb. Markers of tubular damage urine N-acetyl-{beta}-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}-2 MG), creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), and calcium, markers of glomerular filtration blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum Cr, UA, and parameters of oxidative damage in erythrocyte were studied in 79 Pb-exposed adolescent and 71 healthy control subjects. Blood lead levels and ALAD index were found significantly higher in the study group than that of normal control group. BUN, UA level, and glomerular filtration rates were detected in normal range in the lead-exposed group. Urinary NAG excretion and calciuria were higher in the study group than in controls. Urinary excretion of NAG was positively correlated with the blood lead levels (r=0.427). There was no relationship between blood lead levels and UA or {beta}-2 MG in urine. Malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly elevated in lead-exposed adolescents than controls, but changes in the catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in lead-exposed adolescents did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, chronic low-dose lead exposure seems as a cause of subtle renal impacts in adolescent workers of auto repair workshops. Lead-induced oxidative stress in erythrocytes probably contributes to these subclinical renal effects. (orig.)

  6. Surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionising radiation: Rimed pilot study; Etude Rimed rayonnements ionisants en milieu medical. Etude de faisabilite. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The project so-called RIMED aimed to set up epidemiological surveillance of health care workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of hospital personnel to examine the possibility of identifying exposed subjects in order to analyse mortality patterns according to occupational characteristics such as medical departments or occupations in a historical cohort. Seven hospitals participated in this pilot study. Health-care workers who had worn a dosimeter up to December 2003 were to be included in this cohort. The subjects' identification data were obtained from the SISERI (Systeme d'information de la surveillance de l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants - Ionizing Radiation Exposure Monitoring Information System) database managed by the Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN). The SISERI system was in a 'pilot' phase in 2004. According to SISERI database, a total of 5126 subjects were found to have worn a dosimeter up to December 2003. The subjects' identification data were completed by the administrative services of the hospitals and occupational physicians searched for subjects' occupational data. Information required for the vital status search was satisfactorily completed only for 38% of the cohort subjects. This pilot study showed that obtaining data from SISERI database completed by hospital administrative data in 2004 led to a database of insufficient quality for epidemiological surveillance. The Institut de veille sanitaire (French Institute of Public Health Surveillance) recommends that transmission by the employers of some specific personal or occupational data of the exposed subjects should be made compulsory. In this way, SISERI system should be able to constitute any database with required quality for epidemiological surveillance of ionizing radiation exposed subjects. (authors)

  7. Prevalence of self-reported health complaints among shoe workers of small workshop exposed to organic solvents in Hebron City, West Bank: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijem, K; Kristensen, P; al-Khatib, A; Rabbá, J; Takrori, F; Bjertness, E

    2000-01-01

    The study was conducted to estimate the prevalences of neurological disorders and mucous membrane irritation complaints among workers of shoe workshops in Hebron City, in particular to measure the associations between the occurrence of symptoms indicating polyneuropathy among workers and exposure to organic solvents in the glueing tasks. A group of 103 male workers from 30 workshops, exposed to organic solvents for more than one year were recruited to the study during the years 1996-1997. A validated Swedish neuropsychiatric questionnaire which contained questions on neurological and mucous irritation symptoms was used. Prevalence ratios were used as an indicator for relative risk. The overall prevalence of painful tingling of limbs (used as indicator of polyneuropathy) was high among the workshop workers (40%) and was significantly associated with long term exposure to organic solvents in glueing tasks (PR 2.8: 95% CI 1.0-8.3). Moderate associations were seen in other tasks. Headache and mental irritability did not show any association with organic solvent exposure in the workshop tasks. Breathing difficulty showed a moderate non-significant association with long term exposure to organic solvents (72 months) in cleaning tasks (1.9,0.7-4.8), while sore eyes also showed a moderate non-significant association with exposure to organic solvents for 25-72 months in the glueing tasks. Long term exposure to n-hexane (mainly found in the glues) could be the main cause of polyneuropathy among the workers of Hebron shoe workshops. The absence of effective ventilation systems and personal protective equipment might increase the prevalence of polyneuropathy among these workers. In conclusion, glues containing high concentrations of n-hexane are still in use in many shoe workshops in Hebron City (as well as in other developing countries), and long term exposure to n-hexane in glueing compounds could result in polyneuropathy among the workers. However, in the absence of

  8. Ophthalmological study in workers exposed to PVD's VS. No workers exposed to PVD's; Estudio oftalmologico en trabajadores expuestos a PVD's V.S. trabajadores no expuestos a PVD's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillejo Puertas, F. M.; Brun Jaen, A.

    2013-07-01

    Of images based on GPUs Ophthalmological study of the working population of CA The Cabril-ENRESA, within the framework of the Health Surveillance, one of the instruments used by the Occupational, to control and monitor the impact of working conditions on the health of the working population, this particular study, exposed or not at particular risk factor (PVD's).

  9. Shared Resilience in a Traumatic Reality: A New Concept for Trauma Workers Exposed Personally and Professionally to Collective Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes a new concept, shared resilience in a traumatic reality (SRTR), which refers to trauma workers in shared reality situations. Based on the literature that emphasizes the positive effects of exposure to traumatic events for workers in this field, this article expands the perception of shared traumatic situations and examines the ability of trauma workers to cope, to show resilience, and to grow as a result of the mutual relationship with their clients. The literature review presents a variety of terms referring to the positive effects of working with trauma survivors on therapists as a basis for the new concept proposed here. These terms highlight the importance of empathic mutual aid relationships, which are a basic component for promoting resilience in a shared traumatic reality. The relative nature of shared resilience is discussed, bearing in mind that resilience can be manifested as emotions, behaviors, and conceptions. Various findings relating to shared resilience in traumatic situations are reviewed, and recommendations for research, practice, and policy are offered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Correlation of chromosome damage and promoter methylation status of the DNA repair genes MGMT and hMLH1 in Chinese vinyl chloride monomer (VCM-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the association of the methylation status of MGMT and hMLH1 with chromosome damage induced by vinyl chloride monomer (VCM. Materials and Methods: Methylation of MGMT and hMLH1 was measured in 101 VCM-exposed workers by methylation-specifi c PCR. Chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes was measured by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The subjects were divided into chromosome damaged and non-damaged groups based on the normal reference value of micronuclei frequencies determined for two control groups. Results: MGMT promoter methylation was detectable in 5 out of 49 chromosome damaged subjects, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects; there was a signifi cant difference in MGMT methylation between the two groups (p < 0.05. Conclusions: We detected aberrant promoter methylation of MGMT in a small number of chromosome damaged VCM-exposed workers, but not in the chromosome non-damaged subjects. This preliminary observation warrants further investigation in a larger study.

  11. Risk assessment, and carcinogen mutagen for workers potentially exposed in the research laboratories of “Sapienza” University of Rome for Health Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Sernia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The following work is meant to represent the evaluation of risk factors for the health of exposed workers, arising from the management of carcinogenic and mutagenic substances, through the use of algorithms. In some places of work as a research laboratory, it is more suitable a theoretical and practical methodology (algorithm which allows a "timely" exposure assessment. The methodology developed and used is able to determine the level of risk of exposure due to a single agent and / or to more agents. Results obtained by the algorithm, have shown an higher exposure to 1 for formaldehyde (Lcanc = 1.32, while for acrylamide results obtained shows a lower exposure to 1 (Lcanc = 0.528. Although the overall exposure level of studied workers higher value to 1 (Lcanc= 1.848, the Occupational Medicine Centre of "Sapienza" - University of Rome, in agreement with the position taken by the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene applies health surveillance even in the presence of potential health risk reducing it among the general protection measures the health and safety of workers.

  12. Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with reduced systemic CD8+ T cell responses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected and exposed, uninfected sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Rupert; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L; Gillespie, Geraldine; Kimani, Joshua; Dong, Tao; Kiama, Peter; Simonsen, J Neil; Bwayo, Job J; McMichael, Andrew J; Plummer, Francis A

    2002-05-15

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae cervicitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 frequently coinfect core transmitter populations, such as female sex workers. Gonococcal cervicitis is associated with increased viral shedding and plasma viremia in HIV-1-infected women and increased HIV-1 susceptibility in uninfected women. We studied the influence of gonococcal cervicitis on CD8(+) interferon (IFN)-gamma responses to HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) epitopes in HIV-1-infected and in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) female sex workers. In HIV-1-infected women, gonococcal cervicitis was associated with reduced IFN-gamma responses in bulk CD8(+) lymphocyte populations, and intracellular cytokine staining, combined with class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide tetramer studies, demonstrated reduced IFN-gamma production by HIV-1 epitope-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes. In HEPS sex workers, cervicitis was associated with the transient loss of systemic HIV-1-specific CD8(+) responses and with reduced function of CMV-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes. Impaired function of virus-specific CD8(+) lymphocytes may partly explain the deleterious effects of gonococcal cervicitis on HIV-1 immune control and susceptibility.

  13. Screening for occupational vitiligo in workers exposed to hydroquinone monomethyl ether and to paratertiary-amyl-phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.J.; Stevenson, C.J.

    1981-11-01

    Two men reported previously with vitiligo after occupational exposure to hydroquinone monomethyl ether (HMME) have been reviewed after eight years. Repigmentation of significant degree was found in one man and of limited degree in the other. One hundred and sixty-nine men in the same works have been screened with Wood's light for evidence of vitiligo. No cases were found in the 148 men exposed to HMME (colleagues who screened 100 men exposed to HMME in two other factories also found no case) or in the 129 who had been exposed to paratertiary-amyl-phenol. Loss of light reflection on Wood's light examination was observed in 13 men due to scars or to other skin disorders.

  14. Urine cytology screening of French workers exposed to occupational urinary tract carcinogens: a prospective cohort study over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutheil, Frederic; Rouanet, Lucile; Mulliez, Aurélien; Naughton, Geraldine; Fontana, Luc; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moustafa, Farès; Chamoux, Alain

    2017-09-21

    To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. Prospective cohort study. Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria. Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant. We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1-10 years, 6.2% for 11-20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21-30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11). Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new guidelines with an early screening of urothelial cancer by cytology, starting with beginning of exposure. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. [Analysis of changes in radiographic lung image and lung ventilation disorders in workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile in the past].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwynar, Elżbieta; Świątkowska, Beata; Tomczyk, Jarosław

    2017-03-24

    The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos dust may occur several years after first exposure. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between lesions in the respiratory system and the factors contributing to occupational exposure to asbestos described in the first medical examination as well as to analyze the factors responsible for the progression of these changes in further medical tests. The study group comprised 591 former workers of asbestos processing plant "Gambit" in Lubawka. The results of medical examinations carried out in 2001-2012 were assessed. Statistical inference was performed based on bilateral significance tests at the 0.05 level of significance. A higher risk of interstitial lung changes along with an increase in the cumulative concentration of asbestos was indicated; for the employees with the highest exposure, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-2.71), while for changes with the severity degree qualifying for asbestosis diagnosis, the risk was significantly increased, over fivefold higher, compared to subjects employed in the lowest exposure. The analysis of the relationship between the progression of interstitial changes and the exposure to asbestos dust showed a fourfold higher risk of the progression in workers employed in the highest exposure. Mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity) were significantly lower in the subjects working in a higher asbestos exposure. The effect of tobacco smoking on the occurrence of interstitial lung changes and their progression was also confirmed. The results of prophylactic medical examinations of the health status of workers formerly employed in the plants using chrysotile indicate the importance andthe need for a long-term clinical follow-up and the promotion of anti-smoking prevention in this group of former employees

  16. The dependence between urinary mercury concentration and carotid arterial intima-media thickness in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Poreba, Rafał; Steinmentz-Beck, Aleksandra; Martynowicz, Helena; Affelska-Jercha, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Wojakowska, Anna; Jedrychowska, Iwona

    2009-01-01

    Mechanisms of the mercury effect on arterial vessel walls include increased free radicals generation, decreased nitric oxide synthesis and increased reactivity to vasoconstrictors, leading to accelerated development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between urinary mercury (Hg-U) concentration and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) or intraventricular septum diastolic diameter (IVSDD) to find the best markers of mercury cardiovascular toxicity. The study included 154 workers of a chemical factory using mercury in chlorine production. Urinary mercury concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum lipids were assessed by routine methods using enzymatic assay. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS) was determined by colorimetry. Measurements of IMT and IVSDD were made by ultrasound imaging using MEDISON SA 9900 PRIME system. The mean Hg-U concentration was 1.9+/-2.7 microg/g creatinine in women (n = 29) and 5.6+/-12.2 microg/g creatinine in men (n = 125). In the group of non-smokers (n = 102) there was a positive linear correlation between Hg-U concentration and IMT (r = 0.1728; p lipids in women were normal, but in men the mean triglyceride level was higher than normal. The occupational exposure to mercury vapour remains in a relationship with early, asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis. The dependence between urinary mercury elimination and carotid intima-media thickness is evidenced in non-smoking workers. Defensive anti-atherosclerotic mechanisms in these workers are strongly related with HDL. In smokers, these protective mechanisms are disturbed.

  17. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossowska, Barbara, E-mail: barbara@immchem.am.wroc.pl [Department of Chemistry and Immunochemistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Bujwida 44a, 50-345 Wroclaw (Poland); Dudka, Ilona, E-mail: ilona.dudka@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Bugla-Ploskonska, Gabriela, E-mail: gabriela.bugla-ploskonska@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Szymanska-Chabowska, Anna, E-mail: aszyman@mp.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Doroszkiewicz, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: wlodzimierz.doroszkiewicz@microb.uni.wroc.pl [Department of Microbiology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, University of Wroclaw, Przybyszewskiego 63/77, 51-148 Wroclaw (Poland); Gancarz, Roman, E-mail: roman.gancarz@pwr.wroc.pl [Medicinal Chemistry and Microbiology Group, Department of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Andrzejak, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland); Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta, E-mail: jola@chzaw.am.wroc.pl [Department of Internal and Occupational Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wybrzeze L. Pasteura 4, 50-367 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals.

  18. Proteomic analysis of serum of workers occupationally exposed to arsenic, cadmium, and lead for biomarker research: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Barbara; Dudka, Ilona; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela; Szymańska-Chabowska, Anna; Doroszkiewicz, Włodzimierz; Gancarz, Roman; Andrzejak, Ryszard; Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, Jolanta

    2010-10-15

    The main factor of environmental contamination is the presence of the heavy metals lead, cadmium, and arsenic. The aim of serum protein profile analysis of people chronically exposed to heavy metals is to find protein markers of early pathological changes. The study was conducted in a group of 389 healthy men working in copper foundry and 45 age-matched non-exposed healthy men. Toxicological test samples included whole blood, serum, and urine. Thirty-seven clinical parameters were measured. Based on the parameters values of the healthy volunteers, the centroid in 37-dimensional space was calculated. The individuals in the metal-exposed and control groups were ordered based on the Euclidean distance from the centroid defined by the first component according to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Serum samples of two individuals, one from the control and one from the metal-exposed group, were chosen for proteomic analysis. In optimized conditions of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), two protein maps were obtained representing both groups. Twenty-eight corresponding protein spots from both protein maps were chosen and identified based on PDQuest analysis and the SWISS-2DPAGE database. From a panel of six proteins with differences in expression greater than a factor of two, three potential markers with the highest differences were selected: hemoglobin-spot 26 (pI 7.05, Mw 10.53), unidentified protein-spot 27 (pI 6.73, Mw 10.17), and unidentified protein-spot 25 (pI 5.75, Mw 12.07). Further studies are required to prove so far obtained results. Identified proteins could serve as potential markers of preclinical changes and could be in the future included in biomonitoring of people exposed to heavy metals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver Damage Risk Assessment Study in Workers Occupationally Exposed to E-waste in Benin City, South-South Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Osaretin God Igaro Igaro; John I. Anetor; Oladele O. Osibanjo Osibanjo; Humphrey Benedo Osadolor; Festus A. Idomeh; Wiliams Osazee Igiewe; Ogochukwu Uzoma Kalikwu

    2015-01-01

       Large volumes of mostly irreparable electronic waste (e-waste) are shipped to Africa on a monthly basis, of which Nigeria receives the largest share. E-waste management practices in Nigeria have remained completely primitive until date; and e-waste workers have little or no occupational safety knowledge and devices. The thousands of chemicals in e-waste have been reported to be toxic to human health in any degree of exposure. The present study has assessed the risk of liver damage in worke...

  20. Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in family members of occupationally exposed workers: the importance of dust transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Yan; Wang, Thanh; Liang, Yong; Zhang, Aiqian; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-20

    The exposure pathways of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to humans are still not clear because of the complex living environment, and few studies have simultaneously investigated the bioaccumulative behaviour of different PFAAs in humans. In this study, serum, dust, duplicate diet, and other matrices were collected around a manufacturing plant in China, and homologous series of PFAAs were analysed. PFAA levels in dust and serum of local residents in this area were considerably higher than those in non-polluted area. Although dietary intake was the major exposure pathway in the present study, dust ingestion played an important role in this case. Serum PFAAs in local residents was significantly correlated with dust PFAAs levels in their living or working microenvironment. Serum PFAAs and dust PFAAs were significantly higher in family members of occupational workers (FM) than in ordinary residents (OR) (p < 0.01). After a careful analysis of the PFAAs exposure pathway, a potential pathway in addition to direct dust ingestion was suggested: PFAAs might transferred from occupational worker's clothes to dinners via cooking processes. The bioaccumulative potential of PFHxS and PFOS were higher than other PFAAs, which suggested a substantial difference between the bioaccumulative ability of perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorinated carboxylic acids.

  1. Mortality over an extended follow-up period in coal workers exposed to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; MacCalman, L.; Hutchison, P.A.

    2009-10-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coalworkers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18,000 men from 10 collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios, comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the pits were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease, and specifically chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis, showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. 60 refs.

  2. Analysis of changes in radiographic lung image and lung ventilation disorders in workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile in the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Cwynar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos dust may occur several years after first exposure. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between lesions in the respiratory system and the factors contributing to occupational exposure to asbestos described in the first medical examination as well as to analyze the factors responsible for the progression of these changes in further medical tests. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 591 former workers of asbestos processing plant “Gambit” in Lubawka. The results of medical examinations carried out in 2001–2012 were assessed. Statistical inference was performed based on bilateral significance tests at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: A higher risk of interstitial lung changes along with an increase in the cumulative concentration of asbestos was indicated; for the employees with the highest exposure, the adjusted odds ratio (OR was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99–2.71, while for changes with the severity degree qualifying for asbestosis diagnosis, the risk was significantly increased, over fivefold higher, compared to subjects employed in the lowest exposure. The analysis of the relationship between the progression of interstitial changes and the exposure to asbestos dust showed a fourfold higher risk of the progression in workers employed in the highest exposure. Mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FVC (forced vital capacity, FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity were significantly lower in the subjects working in a higher asbestos exposure. The effect of tobacco smoking on the occurrence of interstitial lung changes and their progression was also confirmed. Conclusions: The results of prophylactic medical examinations of the health status of workers formerly employed in the plants using chrysotile indicate the importance andthe need for a long-term clinical follow

  3. Saúde auditiva de trabalhadores expostos a ruído e inseticidas Hearing health of workers exposed to noise and insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Fernandes Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações auditivas periféricas em um grupo de trabalhadores exposto a inseticidas, organofosforados e piretróides, utilizados em campanhas de controle de vetores. MÉTODOS: Estudo de prevalência de uma população de 98 indivíduos que pulverizavam venenos nas campanhas de prevenção do dengue, da febre amarela e da doença de Chagas. A amostra foi de tipo finalística, considerando o universo dos trabalhadores de um distrito sanitário, em Pernambuco, no ano de 2000. Utilizou-se questionário contendo questões de identificação de riscos ocupacional e não ocupacional, medidas de segurança utilizadas, antecedentes de problemas auditivos e sintomas referidos. Foi investigada a historia pregressa de exposição ao ruído, por ser um fator de confusão para a perda auditiva. Todos os indivíduos foram avaliados pelo teste de audiometria tonal. RESULTADOS: Dos expostos apenas aos inseticidas, 63,8% apresentaram perda auditiva. Para o grupo com exposição concomitantemente aos inseticidas e ao ruído, a perda auditiva foi de 66,7%. O tempo mediano para o desenvolvimento de alterações auditivas nas freqüências médias altas, para as exposições combinadas de inseticidas e ruído, foi de 3,4 anos e para as exposições apenas aos inseticidas foi de 7,3 anos. A perda auditiva para as exposições concomitantes aos dois fatores foi de maior intensidade nessas freqüências, do que o observado na exposição apenas aos inseticidas. CONCLUSÕES: Há evidência de que a exposição aos inseticidas induz dano auditivo periférico e que o ruído é um fator que interage com os inseticidas, potencializando seus efeitos ototóxicos. Faz-se necessário avaliar essa possível associação através de estudos epidemiológicos de caráter analítico.OBJECTIVE: To examine the peripheral auditory disorders in a group of workers exposed to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides, used in vector control campaigns. METHODS: The

  4. Population genetics in the state of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. II. Genetic markers, frequencies and their possible association with chromosome damage in workers exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza-Chapa, R.; Leal-Garza, C.; Sanchez-Anzaldo, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    In order to find out genetic variability and its possible association with chromosomic damage, we studied the ABO, Rh and MN blood groups as well as the ability to taste PTC, ear lobe type and mid-digital hair, in 77 workers exposed to lead oxides. From each person a blood sample was taken for chromosome analysis in cultured lymphocytes and for lead determination. At the same time a urine sample was taken for delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) determinations. No significant association was found between genetic markers and chromosome damage. Association was observed between blood lead levels, and urinary ALA with some genetic markers like ABO and MN blood groups and ear lobe type.

  5. Causality pattern of the blood lead, monoamine oxidase A, and serotonin levels in brass home industry workers chronically exposed to lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Marianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyse the effects of lead (Pb chronic exposure on blood lead levels, Monoamine oxidase A enzyme (MAO A and serotonin levels of brass craftsmen in Pati, Central Java, Indonesia, and to examine the connections among these three variables. The brass home industry area was polluted by lead. Thus, it chronically exposes the workers to lead pollution. Therefore, their blood lead level increased and later raised the level of MAO A and reduced the level of serotonin. Path analysis results show that the path coefficient (ñ of lead effects in decreasing serotonin through MAO A pathway is -0.411. Furthermore, lead effects that directly affect serotonin level without passing through MAO A pathway is -0.391 with residual coefficient (e of 0.572. In conclusion, the increase of blood lead level causes an increase in level of MAO A and drop in the level of serotonin.

  6. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (ppesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (ppesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (ppesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (ppesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were significantly altered (ppesticide sprayers than controls. Conclusion This study shows that the unsafe occupational exposure of OP pesticides

  7. Polyacrylate/nanosilica causes pleural and pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma in rats similar to those observed in exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Cao, Wen; Chang, Bing; Zhang, Linyuan; Qiao, Peihuan; Li, Xue; Si, Lifang; Niu, Yingmei; Song, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials offer great benefit as well as potential damage to humans. Workers exposed to polyacrylate coatings have pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are thought to be related to the high exposure to nanomaterials in the coatings. The study aimed to determine whether polyacrylate/silica nanoparticles cause similar toxicity in rats, as observed in exposed workers. Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups with 18 rats in each group. The groups included the saline control group, another control group of polyacrylate only, and low-, intermediate-, and high-dose groups of polyacrylate/nanosilica with concentrations of 3.125, 6.25, and 12.5 mg/kg. Seventy-five rats for the 1-week study were terminated for scheduled necropsy at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days postintratracheal instillation. The remaining 15 rats (three males/group) had repeated ultrasound and chest computed tomography examinations in a 2-week study to observe the pleural and pericardial effusion and pulmonary toxicity. We found that polyacrylate/nanosilica resulted in pleural and pericardial effusions, where nanosilica was isolated and detected. Effusion occurred on day 3 and day 5 post-administration of nanocomposites in the 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups, it gradually rose to a maximum on days 7-10 and then slowly decreased and disappeared on day 14. With an increase in polyacrylate/nanosilica concentrations, pleural effusion increased, as shown by ultrasonographic qualitative observations. Pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma were also observed in the high-dose polyacrylate/nanosilica group. Our study shows that polyacrylate/nanosilica results in specific toxicity presenting as pleural and pericardial effusion, as well as pulmonary fibrosis and granuloma, which are almost identical to results in reported patients. These results indicate the urgent need and importance of nanosafety and awareness of toxicity of polyacrylate/nanosilica.

  8. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. RESULTS: Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05 the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001 lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet

  9. [Association of etheno-DNA adduct and DNA methylation level among workers exposed to diesel engine exhaust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, M L; He, Z N; Zhang, X; Duan, H W; Niu, Y; Bin, P; Ye, M; Meng, T; Dai, Y F; Yu, S F; Chen, W; Zheng, Y X

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To investigate the association between etheno-DNA adduct and the promoter of DNA methylation levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (P16), Ras association domain family 1 (RASSF1A) and O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in workers with occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). Methods: We recruited 124 diesel engine testing workers as DEE exposure group and 112 water pump operator in the same area as control group in Henan province in 2012 using cluster sampling. The demographic data were obtained by questionnaire survey; urine after work and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. The urinary etheno-DNA adducts were detected using UPLC-MS/MS, including 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N4-etheno-2'-deoxycytidine(εdC). The DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT were evaluated using bisulfite-pyrosequencing assay. The percentage of methylation was expressed as the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) over the sum of cytosines (%5mC). Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were applied to analyze the association between etheno-DNA adducts and DNA methylation of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT. Results: The median (P(25)-P(75)) of urinary εdA level was 230.00 (98.04-470.91) pmol/g creatinine in DEE exposure group, and 102.10 (49.95-194.48) creatinine in control group. The level of εdA was higher in DEE exposure group than control group (P0.05) . Multiple linear regression confirmed the negative correlation between εdA and DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A, and MGMT in non-smoking group (β (95%CI) was -0.068 (-0.132--0.003), -0.082 (-0.159--0.004) and -0.048 (-0.090--0.007), P values were 0.039, 0.039 and 0.024, respectively). Moreover, εdC was negative associated with DNA methylation level of MGMT in non-smoking group (β (95%CI) was -0.094 (-0.179--0.008), P=0.032). Conclusion: DEE exposure could induce the increased of εdA and decreased of DNA methylation levels of P16, RASSF1A and MGMT.

  10. CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV (CD26/DPPIV is highly expressed in peripheral blood of HIV-1 exposed uninfected Female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Adrienne FA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Design of effective vaccines against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 continues to present formidable challenges. However, individuals who are exposed HIV-1 but do not get infected may reveal correlates of protection that may inform on effective vaccine design. A preliminary gene expression analysis of HIV resistant female sex workers (HIV-R suggested a high expression CD26/DPPIV gene. Previous studies have indicated an anti-HIV effect of high CD26/DPPIV expressing cells in vitro. Similarly, high CD26/DPPIV protein levels in vivo have been shown to be a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. We carried out a study to confirm if the high CD26/DPPIV gene expression among the HIV-R were concordant with high blood protein levels and its correlation with clinical type 2 diabetes and other perturbations in the insulin signaling pathway. Results A quantitative CD26/DPPIV plasma analysis from 100 HIV-R, 100 HIV infected (HIV + and 100 HIV negative controls (HIV Neg showed a significantly elevated CD26/DPPIV concentration among the HIV-R group (mean 1315 ng/ml than the HIV Neg (910 ng/ml and HIV + (870 ng/ml, p Conclusion HIV resistant sex workers have a high expression of CD26/DPPIV in tandem with lowered immune activation markers. This may suggest a novel role for CD26/DPPIV in protection against HIV infection in vivo.

  11. The problematic on the cancer development in occupationally exposed workers to ionizing radiations; A problematica do desenvolvimento de canceres em trabalhadores ocupacionalmente expostos as radiacoes ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouailhetas, Y.; Mezrahi, A.; Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Oliveira, S.M.V. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Superintendencia de Licenciamento e Controle

    1996-07-01

    Frequently and in an increasing perspective, the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is inquired on the development of cancer in occupationally exposed workers to ionizing radiation. These workers try to compensate their state of ill health juridically. Taking into account that cancer is a probabilistic effect of radiation, it could be only detected by an increase in cases that normally occur in a particular population. Whether or not the occurrence of the illness is identified as having occupational origin misses scientific consistence. Regarding the probabilistic effect of low level radiation doses, radiation protection is founded on the linear dose-effect without threshold hypothesis. Thus, it could be call into a question: is it possible that the illness, presented by an individual, derives from occupational causes. If the answer is positive, the responsibility can be imputed, at first, to the employer and the link of causality turns out to be fundamented not any more in measurable objective facts but in social, economic, ethic and moral aspects, which arise from the radiological protection quality and measures offered by the employer. (author)

  12. French good practice guidelines for management of the risk of low back pain among workers exposed to manual material handling: Hierarchical strategy of risk assessment of work situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Audrey; Mairiaux, Philippe; Desarmenien, Arnaud; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Roquelaure, Yves

    2016-02-15

    Manual material handling remains a major cause of occupational accidents and diseases in various sectors and occupations. This paper summarizes the main recommendations of the good practice guidelines of the French Society of Occupational Medicine for the risk assessment for back disorders in workers exposed to manual handling of loads. The guidelines were written by a multidisciplinary working group of 24 experts, according to the Clinical Practice Guidelines method proposed by French National Health Authority, and reviewed by a multidisciplinary peer review committee of 50 experts. Recommendations were based on a large systematic review of the international literature carried out from 1990 to March 2012 and classified (Grade A, B, C or expert consensus) according to their level of evidence. The main recommendations are a three-level hierarchical method of risk assessment based on participatory ergonomics and suggested assessment tools that can be used routinely by professionals of occupational health, workers themselves and their supervisors. These French guidelines are intended for professionals of occupational health in charge of the prevention of low back disorders. The recommended methods are applicable to other countries than France.

  13. Improved identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children following a community health worker intervention in Lilongwe, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early identification and entry into care is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in children with HIV. The objective of this report is to describe the impact of the Tingathe programme, which utilizes community health workers (CHWs to improve identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children. Methods: Three programme phases are described. During the first phase, Mentorship Only (MO (March 2007–February 2008 on-site clinical mentorship on paediatric HIV care was provided. In the second phase, Tingathe-Basic (March 2008–February 2009, CHWs provided HIV testing and counselling to improve case finding of HIV-exposed and -infected children. In the final phase, Tingathe-PMTCT (prevention of mother-to-child transmission (March 2009–February 2011, CHWs were also assigned to HIV-positive pregnant women to improve mother-infant retention in care. We reviewed routinely collected programme data from HIV testing registers, patient mastercards and clinic attendance registers from March 2005 to March 2011. Results: During MO, 42 children (38 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-exposed were active in care. During Tingathe-Basic, 238 HIV-infected children (HIC were newly enrolled, a six-fold increase in rate of enrolment from 3.2 to 19.8 per month. The number of HIV-exposed infants (HEI increased from 4 to 118. During Tingathe-PMTCT, 526 HIC were newly enrolled over 24 months, at a rate of 21.9 patients per month. There was also a seven-fold increase in the average number of exposed infants enrolled per month (9.5–70 patients per month, resulting in 1667 enrolled with a younger median age at enrolment (5.2 vs. 2.5 months; p<0.001.During the Tingathe-Basic and Tingathe-PMTCT periods, CHWs conducted 44,388 rapid HIV tests, 7658 (17.3% in children aged 18 months to 15 years; 351 (4.6% tested HIV-positive. Over this time, 1781 HEI were enrolled, with 102 (5.7% found HIV-infected by positive PCR. Additional HIC

  14. Analysis and risk estimates to workers of Brazilian granitic industries and sandblasters exposed to respirable crystalline silica and natural radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estellita, L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Santos, A.M.A. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho, Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal Milton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Yoshimura, E.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velasco, H. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales - IMASL. Universidad Nacional de San Luis / CONICET. Ej. de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); Silva, A.A.R. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05314-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, J.G. [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho, Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, 05499-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica and to radiation emitted by natural radionuclides present both in rocks and sands was studied in the Brazilian extractive process and granite product manufacture. Respirable airborne dust samples were collected in working environments, where workers perform different tasks with distinct commercial granites types, and also in places where sandblasters work with sands from different origins. The free crystalline silica contents were determined using X-ray diffraction of the respirable particulate fraction of each sample. Dust samples from granite cutting and sandblasting ambient had the natural radionuclides concentrations measured by gamma spectrometry. Dust concentrations in the workplaces were quite variable, reaching values up to 10 times higher than the respirable particle mass threshold limit value (TLV) set by the American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists of 3 mg m{sup -3}. Also the free crystalline silica concentrations were high, reaching values up to 48 times the TLV of 0.025 mg m{sup -3}. Additionally, our results suggest that the risk of radiation-induced cancer in the granite or marble industries is negligible. However, the combined exposure to dust, gamma radiation, and radon daughter products could result in the enhancement of lung cancer risks associated to sandblasting activities.

  15. Asbestosis and other pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers: high-resolution CT features with pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Kishimoto, Takumi [Okayama Rosai Hospital, Asbestos Research Center, Okayama (Japan); Ashizawa, Kazuto [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Clinical Oncology, Nagasaki (Japan); Kato, Katsuya [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 2, Okayama (Japan); Okamoto, Kenzo [Hokkaido Chuo Hospital, Department of Pathology, Iwamizawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Honma, Koichi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pathology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Akira, Masanori [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose was to identify distinguishing CT features of pathologically diagnosed asbestosis, and correlate diagnostic confidence with asbestos body burden. Thirty-three workers (mean age at CT: 73 years) with clinical diagnoses of asbestosis, who were autopsied (n = 30) or underwent lobectomy (n = 3), were collected. Two radiologists independently scored high-resolution CT images for various CT findings and the likelihood of asbestosis was scored. Two pathologists reviewed the pathology specimens and scored the confidence of their diagnoses. Asbestos body count was correlated with CT and pathology scores. Pathologically, 15 cases were diagnosed as asbestosis and 18 cases with various lung fibroses other than asbestosis. On CT, only the score of the subpleural curvilinear lines was significantly higher in asbestosis (p = 0.03). Accuracy of CT diagnosis of asbestosis with a high confidence ranged from 0.73 to 0.79. Asbestos body count positively correlated with CT likelihood of asbestosis (r = 0.503, p = 0.003), and with the confidence level of pathological diagnosis (r = 0.637, p < 0.001). Subpleural curvilinear lines were the only clue for the diagnosis of asbestosis. However, this was complicated by other lung fibrosis, especially at low asbestos body burden. (orig.)

  16. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers exposed to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer at a polyvinyl chloride processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, L.; Akesson, B.; Nielsen, J.; Andersson, C.; Linden, K.; Attewell, R.; Moeller, T. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    To study whether exposure to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) causes increased risk for cancer morbidity and death from ischemic heart disease, a cohort study was performed among 2,031 male workers at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) processing plant who had been employed for at least 3 months during the period 1945-1980. An almost significantly increased total mortality (SMR = 116, 95% CI 99-136) was found. Deaths caused by violence or intoxication were significantly increased (SMR = 153, 95% CI 109-213), but not deaths from ischemic heart disease (SMR = 100, 95% CI 73-135). A significant increase in total cancer morbidity was observed (SMR = 128, 95% CI 101-161). Respiratory cancers were significantly increased (SMR = 213, 95% CI 127-346). Furthermore, six brain tumors (vs. 2.6 expected) were observed. This increase, however, was not significant (SMR = 229, 95% CI 84-498). No liver hemangiosarcoma was observed. Applying a latency period of greater than or equal to 10 years from start of employment did not change the risk patterns. There were no significant exposure-response associations between exposure estimates for VCM, asbestos, and plasticizers and cancer morbidity.

  17. Posttraumatic growth is related to subjective well-being of aid workers exposed to cumulative trauma in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Guido; Pepe, Alessandro; Massaiu, Irene; De Mol, Ann-Sophie; Robbins, Ian

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined how stress reactions after traumatic events influence subjective well-being (SWB) via the indirect effect of posttraumatic growth (PTG) in two samples of Palestinian professional helpers from the Gaza Strip and West Bank ( n = 201). Using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as a dependent measure of well-being, and PTGI-10, PANAS-20, WHO-5 BREF, and IES-13 questionnaires as independent variables, structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine whether: (a) cumulative trauma was negatively and directly related to subjective well-being; (b) levels of trauma were positively and directly related to posttraumatic growth; and (c) PTG was positively and directly related to subjective well-being. The findings suggest that posttraumatic growth contributes to mitigating and buffering (on the order of approximately 10%) the effect of trauma on subjective well-being. PTG seems to be a resource that can help aid workers deal with the consequences of stressful life events. Clinical implications and directions for supervision and training are discussed.

  18. Update: cohort mortality study of workers highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the manufacture of electrical capacitors, 1940-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan Elizabeth A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously reported mortality for a cohort of workers considered highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs between 1939 and 1977 at two electrical capacitor manufacturing plants. The current study updated vital status, examined liver and rectal cancer mortality previously reported in excess in this cohort and evaluated mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and cancers of the stomach, intestine, breast, prostate, skin (melanoma and brain reported to be in excess in other cohort and case-control studies of PCB-exposed persons. Methods Mortality was updated through 1998 for 2572 workers. Age-, gender-, race- and calendar year-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using U.S., state and county referent rates. SMRs using U.S. referent rates are reported. Duration of employment was used as a surrogate for exposure. Results Consistent with the previous follow-up, mortality from biliary passage, liver and gall bladder cancer was significantly elevated (11 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 1.05 – 3.77, but mortality from rectal cancer was not (6 deaths, SMR 1.47, CI 0.54 – 3.21. Among women, mortality from intestinal cancer (24 deaths, SMR 1.89, CI 1.21 – 2.82 and from "other diseases of the nervous system and sense organs", which include Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (15 deaths, SMR 2.07, CI 1.16 – 3.42 were elevated. There were four ALS deaths, all women (SMR 4.35, CI 1.19–11.14. Mortality was elevated for myeloma (7 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 0.84 – 4.34, particularly among workers employed 10 years or more (5 deaths, SMR 2.80, CI 0.91 – 6.54. No linear associations between mortality and duration of employment were observed for the cancers of interest. Conclusion This update found that the earlier reported excess in this cohort for biliary, liver and gall bladder cancer persisted with

  19. Microdistribution and Long-Term Retention of 239Pu (NO3)4 in the Respiratory Tracts of an Acutely Exposed Plutonium Worker and Experimental Beagle Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Christopher E.; Wilson, Dulaney A.; Brooks, Antone L.; McCord, Stacey; Dagle, Gerald E.; James, Anthony C.; Tolmachev, Sergei Y.; Thrall, Brian D.; Morgan, William F.

    2012-11-01

    The long-term retention of inhaled soluble forms of plutonium raises concerns as to the potential health effects in persons working in nuclear energy or the nuclear weapons program. The distributions of long-term retained inhaled plutonium-nitrate [239Pu (NO3)4] deposited in the lungs of an accidentally exposed nuclear worker (Human Case 0269) and in the lungs of experimentally exposed beagle dogs with varying initial lung depositions were determined via autoradiographs of selected histological lung, lymph node, trachea, and nasal turbinate tissue sections. These studies showed that both the human and dogs had a non-uniform distribution of plutonium throughout the lung tissue. Fibrotic scar tissue effectively encapsulated a portion of the plutonium and prevented its clearance from the body or translocation to other tissues and diminished dose to organ parenchyma. Alpha radiation activity from deposited plutonium in Human Case 0269 was observed primarily along the sub-pleural regions while no alpha activity was seen in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of this individual. However, relatively high activity levels in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of the beagles indicated the lymphatic system was effective in clearing deposited plutonium from the lung tissues. In both the human case and beagle dogs, the appearance of retained plutonium within the respiratory tract was inconsistent with current biokinetic models of clearance for soluble forms of plutonium. Bound plutonium can have a marked effect on the dose to the lungs and subsequent radiation exposure has the potential increase in cancer risk.

  20. [EVALUATION OF THE CARCINOGENIC RISK OF LEAD IN THE COHORT STUDY OF MALE WORKERS OCCUPATIONALLY EXPOSED TO INORGANIC LEAD IN 27 MOSCOW PRINTING-HOUSES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilychova, S A; Zaridze, D G

    2015-01-01

    As millions of people worldwide are expoed to inorganic lead, both in the workplace and in general environment, its potential carcinogenicity is an important health problem. Although lead has been shown to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals, epidemiological studies have been inconclusive, and the relationship between lead and human cancer is still unclear. There were several limitations that complicated the analysis and evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of lead compounds. In particular, many of the cohort studies of lead and cancer, mostly among heavily lead-exposed workers, have been limited by a failure to identify and control for covariates, especially co-exposures to other metals such as arsenic, cadmium, and chromium, which have been shown to be carcinogenic. Most of the epidemiological studies unfortunately do not have data on dose-response. The scientific merit of our study is the virtual absence of confounding by other known carcinogens. Another advantage of our study is the presence of three occupational sub-cohorts with different levels and routes of lead exposure. Most previous studies have data on dose-response provided only by comparisons of exposed to unexposed persons. In summary, the results of this cohort study suggest that occupational exposure to lead may increase the risk of cancers of the pancreas, kidney and rectum. In conclusion, despite several limitations, the results of our study add to the evidence that carcinogenicity to humans may be an additional adverse health effect of lead.

  1. Use of imaging in the follow-up of workers exposed to lung carcinogens: practices in occupational medicine and its determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Pierre; Cabut, Sandrine; Viau, Alain; Souville, Marc; Pardon, Claire; Charrier, Danielle; De Labrusse, Benoît; Lehucher-Michel, Marie-Pascale; Arnaud, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    We studied occupational physicians' (OPs) practices of referrals for imaging of workers occupationally exposed to lung/pleural carcinogens and the factors associated with them. This cross-sectional telephone survey of 379 OPs practicing in Southeastern France showed that 81% of them referred exposed patients for chest radiographs, 33.5% for computed tomography (CT), and 16.1% for neither. Making no referral was positively associated with believing cancer risks are lower in one's own geographic sector than elsewhere and negatively associated with keeping employee risk records up-to-date. Referrals for CT were positively associated with work at in-house occupational health services (OHS), and completing employee exposure histories often/always. Both the OHS type and factors that may shape OPs' awareness of cancer risks in their sector appear to influence imaging referral practices. Occupational physicians would benefit from guidelines clarifying benefits and risks associated with imaging in such patients. An effort to harmonize regulatory provisions and guidelines also appears necessary.

  2. Mortality and incidence of cancer among oil exposed workers in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Part 2. Mortality and cancer incidence 1953-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønneberg, A; Andersen, A; Skyberg, K

    1988-09-01

    Mortality and incidence of cancer 1953-84 was studied in a cohort of 529 men exposed to mineral oils in a Norwegian cable manufacturing company. Expected numbers of deaths were calculated from national death rates and cases of cancer from regional incidence rates. Among the 195 men who had worked for less than one year, there were statistically significant excesses of deaths from all causes (O/E = 75/39.3) and from malignant neoplasms, ischaemic heart disease, non-malignant respiratory disease, and violence. In a subcohort of all 248 men with known work category and at least one year's employment in oil exposed work statistically significant excesses of deaths from ischaemic heart disease (O/E = 26/16.1) and cases of lung cancer (O/E = 10/3.9) were observed. Nine of the cases of lung cancer had occurred 20 years or more after first employment (2.7 expected; p less than 0.01). In smokers of this subcohort there were 7.06 cases of lung cancer per 1000 person-years compared with 1.30 in smokers of a general population sample. It is concluded that exposure to mineral oils has probably been an important contributing factor in the development of lung cancer among these workers.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence' and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits' and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=-0.188, psymptoms (β=-0.376, p=0.001). However, the effect of positive coping was not significant in men. The results suggest that the aftermath of physical violence contributes to the current prevalence of PTSD. The positive effects of social support on PTSD symptoms suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote psychological health. The healthcare workers' coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting effective coping styles and receiving social support have potential roles in the recovery from trauma after experiencing physical violence.

  4. Post-9/11/2001 lung function trajectories by sex and race in World Trade Center-exposed New York City emergency medical service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossbrinck, Madeline; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Hall, Charles B; Schwartz, Theresa; Moir, William; Webber, Mayris P; Cohen, Hillel W; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D; Christodoulou, Vasilios; Kelly, Kerry J; Aldrich, Thomas K; Prezant, David J

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether lung function trajectories after 9/11/2001 (9/11) differed by sex or race/ethnicity in World Trade Center-exposed Fire Department of the City of New York emergency medical service (EMS) workers. Serial cross-sectional study of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) taken between 9/11 and 9/10/2015. We used data from routine PFTs (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1% predicted), conducted at 12-18 month intervals. FEV1 and FEV1% predicted were assessed over time, stratified by sex, and race/ethnicity. We also assessed FEV1 and FEV1% predicted in current, former and never-smokers. Among 1817 EMS workers, 334 (18.4%) were women, 979 (53.9%) self-identified as white and 939 (51.6%) were never-smokers. The median follow-up was 13.1 years (IQR 10.5-13.6), and the median number of PFTs per person was 11 (IQR 7-13). After large declines associated with 9/11, there was no discernible recovery in lung function. In analyses limited to never-smokers, the trajectory of decline in adjusted FEV1 and FEV1% predicted was relatively parallel for men and women in the 3 racial/ethnic groups. Similarly, small differences in FEV1 annual decline between groups were not clinically meaningful. Analyses including ever-smokers were essentially the same. 14 years after 9/11, most EMS workers continued to demonstrate a lack of lung function recovery. The trajectories of lung function decline, however, were parallel by sex and by race/ethnicity. These findings support the use of routine, serial measures of lung function over time in first responders and demonstrate no sex or racial sensitivity to exposure-related lung function decline. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers: Flowcytometry Measurements of T, B, NK and NKT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuleva, Ilona; Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant "Kozloduy", Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100-200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system.

  6. Is soluble mesothelin-related protein an upfront predictive marker of pleural mesothelioma? A prospective study on Italian workers exposed to asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiberti, Rosa; Marroni, Paola; Spigno, Fabio; Merlo, Domenico F; Mortara, Virginia; Caruso, Pietro; Cioè, Alex; Michelazzi, Luigi; Bruzzone, Andrea; Bobbio, Barbara; Simonassi, Claudio; Del Corso, Lisette; Galli, Roberto; Racchi, Omar; Dini, Guglielmo; Linares, Roberta; Mencoboni, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP) may be useful in the diagnosis and detection of early stage mesothelioma. We investigated the SMRP upfront predictive role for mesothelioma in asbestos-exposed workers. A total of 1,715 subjects underwent a first visit and were invited for a follow-up after 1 and 2 years, with a clinical examination and blood sampling. SMRP was measured by an ELISA assay. Median SMRP at the first visit was 0.45 [interquartile range (IQR) i.e. 25th-75th percentile: 0.30-0.67 nmol/l]. In all, 1,676 subjects (97.8%) were followed up for a median period of 47.1 months. SMRP was measured at the first visit and at both follow-up visits in 1,536 subjects. At follow-up, 3 subjects were diagnosed with an epithelioid mesothelioma. In these cases, SMRP at the first visit ranged from 0.17 to 0.52 nmol/l. Malignant pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed 9-17 months after the last SMRP evaluation. No SMRP variation was observed during the follow-up. Other 61 miscellaneous cancers were diagnosed (median SMRP at first visit: 0.50 nmol/l, IQR: 0.34-0.71 nmol/l). Our results did not support the usefulness of SMRP as an early marker for the detection of the disease for a time interval of 1 year. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. DNA strand breaks in the lymphocytes of workers exposed to diisocyanates: indications of individual differences in susceptibility after low-dose and short-term exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczynski, B; Merget, R; Mensing, T; Rabstein, S; Kappler, M; Bracht, A; Haufs, M G; Käfferlein, H U; Brüning, T

    2005-06-01

    Diisocyanates are chemically reactive and induce asthma, but data on genotoxic effects of diisocyanates in humans are limited. The investigation presented here used short term diisocyanate chamber exposure to study DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of 10 healthy individuals and of 42 workers, with airway symptoms, who had previously been exposed to diisocyanates. The alkaline version of the Comet assay was used to analyse DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes. In addition, blood samples of 10 further control individuals without any exposure to diisocyanates were studied. Substances studied were 4,4'-methylenediphenyldiisocyanate (MDI, n=25), 2,4-toluenediisocynate and 2,6-toluenediisocyanate (TDI, n=5), and 1,6-hexamethylenediisocyanate (HDI, n=12), at concentrations between 5 and 30 ppb for 2 h. Lymphocytes isolated from the subjects before exposure and 30 min and 19 h after were used to evaluate DNA damage. No significant changes in DNA strand-break frequencies were measured, as Olive tail moment (OTM), either between groups or before and after diisocyanate exposure. OTM was similar in subjects with an asthmatic reaction (MDI, n=5; TDI, n=1; HDI, n=1) and in subjects without such a reaction. However, a small and susceptible group (about 10% of the individuals studied) could be identified with higher frequencies of DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes after chamber exposure. The occurrence of DNA damage in this group may be based on indirect mechanisms such as oxidative stress or apoptosis.

  8. Ten-year cancer incidence in rescue/recovery workers and civilians exposed to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M; Liao, Tim S; Qiao, Baozhen; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Hadler, James L; Kahn, Amy R; Konty, Kevin J; Stayner, Leslie T; Stellman, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Cancer incidence in exposed rescue/recovery workers (RRWs) and civilians (non-RRWs) was previously reported through 2008. We studied occurrence of first primary cancer among World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees through 2011 using adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), and the WTC-exposure-cancer association, using Cox proportional hazards models. All-cancer SIR was 1.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.20) in RRWs, and 1.08 (95% CI 1.02-1.15) in non-RRWs. Prostate cancer and skin melanoma were significantly elevated in both populations. Thyroid cancer was significantly elevated only in RRWs while breast cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were significantly elevated only in non-RRWs. There was a significant exposure dose-response for bladder cancer among RRWs, and for skin melanoma among non-RRWs. We observed excesses of total and specific cancers in both populations, although the strength of the evidence for causal relationships to WTC exposures is somewhat limited. Continued monitoring of this population is indicated. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:709-721, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Large-scale label-free proteomics analysis of occupational poisoned patients of 1-bromopropane, workers exposed to 1-bromopropane and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, R; Ding, B; Zhang, Y; Zhao, R; Li, Y; Zhu, B

    2018-01-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is an increasingly used chemical solvent for cleaning metals and gradually replacing spraying adhesives. Workers exposed to 1-BP (WBP) showed nervous system dysfunction and other symptoms. This study focused on the proteomic change between healthy individuals (HIs), WBP and poisoned patients with 1-BP (PBP). Total proteins from serum samples were isolated, and high-abundance proteins were filtered out. Large-scale label-free proteomics platform was utilized for protein identification and quantitative comparison, followed by biological function analysis by bioinformatics tools. Compared to HI, 99 proteins were up-regulated and 55 proteins were down-regulated in WBP; 59 proteins were up-regulated and 94 proteins were down-regulated in PBP. With WBP as control, 63 proteins were up-regulated and 127 proteins were down-regulated in PBP. These differently expressed proteins were mainly involved in the immune response, neuron system regulation, blood coagulation, wound healing, endopeptidase activity, lipid metabolic process and apoptosis. The proteomic profiling change of HI, WBP and PBP provides a comprehensive view on 1-BP poison through immune response, signal transduction, metabolism, coagulation and response to stress. This study expanded our understanding on early development and maintenance and provided more potential protein markers for diagnosis of 1-BP poisoning.

  10. Características do zumbido em trabalhadores expostos a ruído The characteristics of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciara Giacobe Steinmetz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O zumbido é um sintoma auditivo relatado por indivíduos expostos ao ruído. OBJETIVO: Estudar as características do zumbido relatadas por indivíduos expostos ao ruído ocupacional. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Descritivo prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Participaram 52 indivíduos com idade média de 29 anos que faziam parte do programa de prevenção da perda auditiva de um frigorífico. Os indivíduos responderam a uma anamnese e suas audiometrias realizadas em 2005 e 2006 foram utilizadas. RESULTADOS: No presente estudo, 71% dos indivíduos apresentaram audiometria normal. A prevalência do zumbido para o sexo masculino foi de 16% e para o sexo feminino foi de 9% apresentando tempo médio de exposição ao ruído de sete anos a um nível médio de ruído entre 86 e 91 dBA (48%. Verificou-se um predomínio do zumbido bilateral (46%, do tipo chiado (40% de intensidade média (49%, com tempo de instalação do sintoma entre um a cinco anos (67%, sendo sua freqüência semanal (41% e a noite o período que mais perturba (34%. Encontrou-se significância entre a periodicidade do zumbido e o nível de ruído. CONCLUSÃO: Recomenda-se a inclusão do tema zumbido em programas de prevenção da perda auditiva a fim de promover a saúde auditiva dos trabalhadores.Tinnitus is a common auditory complaint among individuals exposed to noise. AIM: this paper aims to study the characteristics of tinnitus in workers exposed to noise. STUDY DESIGN: this is a descriptive prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Fifty-two individuals averaging 29 years of age were enrolled in a hearing loss prevention program at a meat processing plant. The participants were interviewed and had their hearing tested in 2005 and 2006. RESULTS: seventy-one percent of the participants were found to have normal hearing. Tinnitus was present in 16% of the males and in 9% of the females. Mean noise exposure length was 7 years and noise levels ranged from 86 to 91 dBA (48%. Bilateral tinnitus

  11. Study of radiosensitivity and antioxidant-oxidant state in workers exposed to ionizing radiation in the hospital environment; Estudio de la radiosensibilidad y estado antioxidante-oxidante en trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes en el ámbito hospitalario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastià, N.; Rodrigo, R.; Hervás, D.; Olivares-González, L; Óscar Alonso, O.; Marti, L.; Jambrina, E.; Sarrias, A.; Pérez-Calatayud, J.; García, T.; Gras, P.; Villaescusa, J.I.; Soriano, J.M.; León, Z.; Montoro, A.

    2014-07-01

    Prevention and protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation is an objective of particular importance from the occupational health and safety point of view. This study establishes a technique for the evaluation of the individual radiosensibility of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in the Hospital environment using the cytogenetic biomarker known as the G2 –Test. In addition, using various oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant capacity, we evaluate the antioxidant-oxidant state of these workers. Both biomarkers could be established as additional tools in the medical control of workers exposed to ionizing radiation. [Spanish] La prevención y protección de los trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes es un objetivo de gran relevancia desde el punto de vista de seguridad ocupacional y salud. Este estudio consiste en la puesta a punto de una técnica de evaluación de la radiosensibilidad individual de los trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes en el ámbito hospitalario mediante el biomarcador citogenético conocido como Test G2. Además, utilizando diversos biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo y capacidad anti- oxidante, evaluamos el estado antioxidante-oxidante en estos trabajadores. Ambos biomarcadores podrían establecerse como una herramienta más dentro de la vigilancia médica de los trabajadores expuestos a radiación ionizante.

  12. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss – A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Frederiksen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. Materials and Methods: In 2001–2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009–2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%. Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A to 82.8 dB(A, and for workers exposed >85 dB(A, the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (−0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.36; 0.16. The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22. Conclusions: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  13. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyender [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Kumar, Vivek [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Banerjee, Basu Dev, E-mail: banerjeebd@hotmail.com [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Rai, Arvind [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  14. Update: prospective evaluation of health-care workers exposed via the parenteral or mucous-membrane route to blood or body fluids from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome--United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-22

    As of December 31, 1984, 361 health care workers with documented parenteral or mucous membrane exposure to potentially infectious body fluids from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been enrolled in a Centers for Disease Control-initiated surveillance. Each enrolled health care worker is followed for 3 years, with semi-annual interview, physical examination, and blood specimen collection. 143 (40%) of these workers have now been enrolled for 12 months or longer, and none has developed signs or symptoms suggestive of AIDS. 58% of these health care wokers are nurses, 18% are physicians or medical students, 9% are laboratory workers, and 7% are phlebotomists. 85% are white and 78% are female. The majority (81%) of exposures occurred in direct patient care areas, 9% took place in laboratories, and 10% occurred in operating or procedure rooms and morgues. The types of exposure were: needlestick injuries (68%), mucosal exposures (13%), cuts with sharp instruments (10%), and contamination of open skin lesions (9%). 88% of the exposures were to blood or serum, 6% were to saliva, and 2% were to urine. 48% of exposed health care workers received either no specific treatment postexposure or local wound care only, while 35% received immunoglobulin either or in combination with other treatment. Complete expidemiologic data have been collected on 226 of the patients to whom these health care workers were exposed. 92% were definite AIDS patients, while 8% were suspected AIDS cases. Tests for T-cell subsets have been performed on specimens from 269 (75%) of the health care workers. The mean T4:T8 ratio has been 2.2, with a range of 0.4-5.4. At 12-month follow-up, ratios that were initially less than 1.0 fell in the normal range. Investigation of 40 samples collected an average of 10.5 months after injury revealed no incidence of seropositivity for human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection.

  15. Application of different statistical methods to estimate relative risk for self-reported health complaints among shoe factory workers exposed to organic solvents and plastic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Nijem

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives  : Prevalence odds ratio (POR is commonly used as a surrogate for relative risk (RR in crosssectional studies. When prevalences are high, POR may be a poor approximation for RR. Prevalence ratios (PRs are more easily interpretable when evaluating exposure effects. Our objectives were to compare estimates of PRs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs using three different statistical methods on a real data set, furthermore, to report possible practical problems in applying the methods.           Methods: Two statistical methods were compared: log-binomial regression and Cox regression. We examined selected high prevalence symptoms: headache, tingling of limbs, and breathing difficulty, and their association with solvent-exposed work tasks in 164 Hebron shoe factory workers.  Results: The two methods estimated identical crude point PR estimates and quite similar adjusted estimates. CIs were wider in Cox regression than in log-binominal regression, as exemplified by adjusted estimates for the association between participation in cleaning tasks and tingling of limbs in log-binomial regression (PR=1.78; CI=1.25–2.54, Cox regression (PR=1.76; CI=1.01–3.06. When we used Cox regression with robust variance we obtained narrower CIs (PR=1.76; CI=1.19–2.60. In the log-binomial regression analysis we had to exclude a few subjects with a predicted risk exceeding one. Conclusions: Log-binomial regression is appropriate from a theoretical viewpoint. However, some individuals had a predicted risk larger than one, which caused the computation to abort. Cox regression could produce heavy ties when adjusted for confounders and yielded rather wide CIs, however, by using robust variance we will obtain narrow CIs. In conclusion, the two suggested methods have certain limitations and difficulties. However, Cox regression encountered less serious problems than in the other methods, and is also widely available.

  16. Characterization of mortality among workers exposed to ionizing radiation in Cuba, 1988-1998; Caracterizacion de la mortalidad en trabajadores expuestos a radiaciones ionizantes en Cuba, 1988-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frometa Suarez, Ileana; Lopez Pumar, Georgina M. [Instituto Nacional Salud de Trabajadores, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    At the moment in Cuba have not antecedent of the study about mortality and occupational radiation exposure. This paper report results from the study of mortality among personnel exposed only to ionizing radiation sources used in medicine between 1998 and 1998, according to occupational characteristics. A total 60 deaths in 11 causes of deaths, cancer represent about the 31.1%, after cardiovascular diseases and accidents were also noted. Cancer mortality appeared as been as first cause of the death between technicians workers exposed to ray X diagnostic. (author)

  17. Determination of eye lens doses and identification of risk groups among radiation exposed workers. An Austrian pilot study; Bestimmung der Augenlinsen-Dosis und Identifizierung von Risikogruppen bei beruflich strahlenexponierten Personen. Eine Pilotstudie in Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadtmann, H.; Hranitzky, C.; Willer, H. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Protection Dosimetry; Strebl, F.; Ernst, G. [Seibersdorf Labor GmbH, Seibersdorf (Austria). Radiation Safety and Applications; Aspek, W. [Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA), Wien (Austria). Abt. Unfallverhuetung und Berufskrankheitenbekaempfung (HUB)

    2015-07-01

    On European level, in 2014 the dose limit for the lens of the eye of radiation exposed workers has been reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year (2013/59/Euratom). Data about eye lens exposition measured under realistic operational conditions of Austrian radiation exposed workers is sparse and there is no information to verify, if all professional groups identified to be at risk for elevated eye doses will remain below the new annual dose limit. Therefore, financed by the Austrian Workers Compensation Board, AUVA, a pilot study has been initiated to answer this question. Based on published information professional groups of radiation exposed workers and operational tasks with an enhanced risk of elevated eye lens doses have been identified. By dosimetric measurements with volunteers (forehead dose meters and parallel measurements with whole-body TL-dose meters above and under the lead apron) realistic lens doses will be estimated during selected radiation exposed tasks. Comparison of yielded doses will show whether a TLD outside the apron could serve as an alternative to forehead dose meters dedicated to measure eye lens doses. Measurements with leaded protective eyewear based on IEC61331 yield results for lead equivalent in good agreement with manufacturers' information. Results for eye lens doses determined by use of a RANDO head phantom and a standardized phantom simulating a body in a typical exposition situation for interventional radiologists show that wearing of leaded goggles allows for a 90% dose reduction. Under such conditions the eye lens dose is dominated by backscatter and stray radiation from the operator's head and patient body. This has to be considered for the evaluation of protective effectiveness for leaded eye wear.

  18. SU-E-T-365: Estimation of Neutron Ambient Dose Equivalents for Radioprotection Exposed Workers in Radiotherapy Facilities Based On Characterization Patient Risk Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irazola, L; Terron, J; Sanchez-Doblado, F [Departamento de Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Servicio de Radiofisica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo, C; Romero-Exposito, M [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Fuste, M [Health and Safety Department, ALBA Synchrotron Light Source, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Sanchez-Nieto, B [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bedogni, R [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) (Italy)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements with Bonner spheres{sup 1} showed that normalized neutron spectra are equal for the majority of the existing linacs{sup 2}. This information, in addition to thermal neutron fluences obtained in the characterization procedure{sup 3}3, would allow to estimate neutron doses accidentally received by exposed workers, without the need of an extra experimental measurement. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations demonstrated that the thermal neutron fluence distribution inside the bunker is quite uniform, as a consequence of multiple scatter in the walls{sup 4}. Although inverse square law is approximately valid for the fast component, a more precise calculation could be obtained with a generic fast fluence distribution map around the linac, from MC simulations{sup 4}. Thus, measurements of thermal neutron fluences performed during the characterization procedure{sup 3}, together with a generic unitary spectra{sup 2}, would allow to estimate the total neutron fluences and H*(10) at any point{sup 5}. As an example, we compared estimations with Bonner sphere measurements{sup 1}, for two points in five facilities: 3 Siemens (15–23 MV), Elekta (15 MV) and Varian (15 MV). Results: Thermal neutron fluences obtained from characterization, are within (0.2–1.6×10{sup 6}) cm−{sup 2}•Gy{sup −1} for the five studied facilities. This implies ambient equivalent doses ranging from (0.27–2.01) mSv/Gy 50 cm far from the isocenter and (0.03–0.26) mSv/Gy at detector location with an average deviation of ±12.1% respect to Bonner measurements. Conclusion: The good results obtained demonstrate that neutron fluence and H*(10) can be estimated based on: (a) characterization procedure established for patient risk estimation in each facility, (b) generic unitary neutron spectrum and (c) generic MC map distribution of the fast component. [1] Radiat. Meas (2010) 45: 1391 – 1397; [2] Phys. Med. Biol (2012) 5 7:6167–6191; [3] Med. Phys (2015) 42

  19. Risk of Lung Cancer in Workers Exposed to Benzidine and/or Beta-Naphthylamine: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Benzidine (BZ and beta-naphthylamine (BNA have been classified as definite human carcinogens for bladder cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to BZ and/or BNA and lung cancer has been inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the risk for lung cancer among workers exposed to BZ/BNA. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that had reported occupational BZ/BNA exposure and the outcome of interest (lung cancer death and/or incidence. Meta-analyses were performed using random effects models to combine standardized mortality ratios (SMRs or standardized incidence ratios (SIRs. We identified 23 retrospective cohort studies including 1745 cases of lung cancer; only one study reported smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk. A significantly increased lung cancer risk (pooled SMR/SIR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.14–1.43 was observed by combining all studies, with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 64.1%, P < 0.001. Effect estimates were higher for studies with direct BZ/BNA exposure (ie, dyestuff and manufacturing industries (pooled SMR/SIR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.31–1.89, and studies that identified BZ/BNA-associated bladder cancer with SMR/SIR ≥4.7 (pooled SMR/SIR 1.68; 95% CI, 1.35–2.09. Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without concomitant occupational exposure to chromium, asbestos, arsenic, or bis(chloromethyl ether. The cumulative meta-analysis showed that the evidence of association between occupational BZ/BNA exposure and lung cancer has been stable since 1995. Although the results of this meta-analysis have the potential for confounding by smoking and heterogeneity, our findings suggest that a finding of lung cancer following occupational BZ/BNA exposure should be considered to be a potential occupational disease.

  20. Increase in the Th1-Cell-Based Immune Response in Healthy Workers Exposed to Low-Dose Radiation - Immune System Status of Radiology Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radiation is one of the most important sources of free radical (such as reactive oxygen species production, which plays an essential role in the etiology of over hundred diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate some immune parameters and hematological indices in healthy workers of the Radiology Department, University Hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: The study was performed on 50 healthy workers: 30 radiology staff as the case group and 20 laboratory workers as the control group. The radiation dose received by the radiology staff participating in the study was less than the annual maximum permissible level, 50 millisievert. Hematological parameters, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were studied in both groups. Results: Among healthy radiology workers, the hematological indices did not differ statistically; however, their proliferation indices and IFN-γ levels showed significant increases in parallel with decreases in the IL-4 levels as compared

  1. Study protocol: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention to improve use of personal protective equipment among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China, most of migrant workers work in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and are a vulnerable group for occupational health. Migrant workers are at increased risk of occupational health risks due to poor occupational health behaviours such as the low use of personal protective equipment (PPE. However, there is a lack of solid evidence regarding how to improve the use of PPE among migrant workers in SMEs. The current study will assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention designed to promote PPE utilization among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in SMEs. Methods/Design This is a single blind, three-arm cluster randomized trial with 60 SMEs equally randomized to receive a top-down intervention (i.e. general health education and mHealth intervention provided by researchers or a comprehensive intervention (which includes both top-down intervention and peer education or a control condition (participants will not receive the intervention, but study measures will be obtained. Interventions will be conducted at the SMEs level for 6 months and all eligible migrant workers in these SMEs will be enrolled into the trial. The primary outcome is effective use of PPE during the last week. The secondary outcomes are occupational health knowledge and attitude and participation in occupational health check-up. Data will be collected and assessed at baseline; 3 months post baseline and the end of the intervention. Discussion This theory- and evidence based intervention will contribute to the limited evidence of behaviour change intervention in improving PPE utilization of migrant workers in SMEs, and provide timely evidence for the development of basic occupational health services in China and elsewhere with similar industrialization contexts. Trial registration ChiCTR-IOR-15006929 . Registered on 16 August 2015.

  2. Study protocol: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention to improve use of personal protective equipment among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in small and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Li, Tongyang; Zou, Guanyang; Li, Xudong; Shi, Leiyu; Feng, Shanshan; Shi, Jingrong; Zhou, Fangjing; Han, Siqi; Ling, Li

    2016-07-16

    In China, most of migrant workers work in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and are a vulnerable group for occupational health. Migrant workers are at increased risk of occupational health risks due to poor occupational health behaviours such as the low use of personal protective equipment (PPE). However, there is a lack of solid evidence regarding how to improve the use of PPE among migrant workers in SMEs. The current study will assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention designed to promote PPE utilization among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in SMEs. This is a single blind, three-arm cluster randomized trial with 60 SMEs equally randomized to receive a top-down intervention (i.e. general health education and mHealth intervention provided by researchers) or a comprehensive intervention (which includes both top-down intervention and peer education) or a control condition (participants will not receive the intervention, but study measures will be obtained). Interventions will be conducted at the SMEs level for 6 months and all eligible migrant workers in these SMEs will be enrolled into the trial. The primary outcome is effective use of PPE during the last week. The secondary outcomes are occupational health knowledge and attitude and participation in occupational health check-up. Data will be collected and assessed at baseline; 3 months post baseline and the end of the intervention. This theory- and evidence based intervention will contribute to the limited evidence of behaviour change intervention in improving PPE utilization of migrant workers in SMEs, and provide timely evidence for the development of basic occupational health services in China and elsewhere with similar industrialization contexts. ChiCTR-IOR-15006929 . Registered on 16 August 2015.

  3. Anger and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers exposed to the 9/11/01 World Trade Center Disaster: One-year follow-up study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Giosan, Cezar; Evans, Susan; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    While anger is an important feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) it is unclear whether it is simply concomitant or plays a role in maintaining symptoms. A previous study of disaster workers responding to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (Evans et al., 2006) indicated that those with PTSD evidenced more severe anger than those without. The purpose of this study was to conduct a one-year follow-up to assess the role of anger in maintaining PTSD. Workers with PTSD continued to report more severe anger than those without; there were statistically significant associations between changes in anger, PTSD severity, depression, and psychiatric distress. Multiple regression analysis indicated initial anger severity to be a significant predictor of PTSD severity at follow-up, which is consistent with the notion that anger maintains PTSD. One implication is that disaster workers with high anger may benefit from early intervention to prevent chronic PTSD. PMID:19008736

  4. Dioxin intoxication and resulting health impairment - a study of workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Dioxinbelastung und Gesundheitsstoerungen - eine Untersuchung 2,3,7,8-TCDD-exponierter Arbeitnehmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansing, P.J.; Korff, R. (Inst. fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany))

    1992-12-01

    A medical checkup of workers who were exposed to high concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the mid-seventies, showed a dependence between the amount of internal TCDD load and the duration of the chloracne on the one hand and the deviation of some clinical chemical parameters on the other hand. A dose response-relationship was proven for the chloracne - taking the individual susceptibility into account - and for the reduction of gamma globulin and the increases in cholesterol. (orig.).

  5. Evaluation of toxicological biomarkers in secreted proteins of HepG2 cells exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and their expressions in the plasma of rats and incineration workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phark, Sohee; Park, So-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Choi, Seonyoung; Lim, Ji-youn; Kim, Yoonjin; Seo, Jong Bok; Jung, Woon-Won; Sul, Donggeun

    2016-05-01

    Toxicological biomarkers of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) were investigated in proteins secreted by HepG2 cells and their expression levels were determined in the plasma of rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD and in the plasma of incineration workers exposed to dioxins. HepG2 cells were treated with various concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 25 nM) for 24 or 48 h. MTT and Comet assays were performed to determine cytotoxicities and genotoxicities to select exposure concentrations for the proteomic analysis of proteins secreted by 2,3,7,8-TCDD-treated cells. In the proteomic analysis, dose- and time-dependent toxicological biomarkers were evaluated using two pI ranges (4-7 and 6-9) using a large gel 2-DE system. Fifteen secreted proteins were identified by a nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS and nano-ESI on a Q-TOF2 MS and the identities of eight secreted proteins including glyoxalase 1 (GLO 1), homogentisate dioxygenase (HGD), peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX 1), proteasome subunit beta type (PSMB) 5 and 6, UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase (UDP-GlcDH), hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADH) and serotransferrin (STF) were confirmed by western blotting. Of these, PSMB 5 and PRX 1 were also found in the plasma of rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, whereas GLO 1, HGD, PSMB 6 and PRX 1 were found in the plasma of incineration workers exposed to dioxins. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Epinephrine, DNA integrity and oxidative stress in workers exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) at 132 kV substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ravindra; Lakshmi, N K; Bhargava, S C; Ahuja, Y R

    2015-03-01

    There is apprehension about widespread use of electrical and electromagnetic gadgets which are supposed to emit electromagnetic radiations. Reports are controversy. These electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have considerable effect on endocrine system of exposed subjects. This study was focused to assess the possible bioeffects of extremely low-frequency (ELF)-EMFs on epinephrine level, DNA damage and oxidative stress in subjects occupationally exposed to 132 kV high-voltage substations. The blood sample of 142 exposed subjects and 151 non-exposed individuals was analyzed. Plasma epinephrine was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DNA damage was studied by alkaline comet assay along with oxidative stress. Epinephrine levels of sub-groups showed mean concentration of 75.22  ±  1.46, 64.43  ±  8.26 and 48.47  ±  4.97 for high, medium and low exposed groups, respectively. DNA damage ranged between 1.69 µm and 9.91 µm. The oxidative stress levels showed significant increase. The individuals employed in the live-line procedures were found to be vulnerable for EM stress with altered epinephrine concentrations, DNA damage and increased oxidative stress.

  7. Dose evaluation in occupationally exposed workers through dosimeters ring and wrist type with an anthropomorphic phantom; Evaluacion de la dosis en trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a traves de dosimetros tipo anillo y de muneca con un fantoma antropomorfico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, R.; Gastelo, E. [Univesidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Huamachuco, Lambayeque (Peru); Paucar, R.; Tolentino, D.; Herrera, J. [Complejo Hospitalario San Pablo, Lima (Peru); Armas, D., E-mail: fispalma@hotmail.com [Consorcio Proxtronics del Pacifico S. A. C., Cal. Manuela Estacio Mza. D1-2 Lote 13, San Miguel, Lima (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    In the Nuclear Medicine service of the Clinica San Pablo (Peru), the occupationally exposed workers carried out the preparation and administration of radiopharmaceuticals to patients, so it is vital to measure the equivalent dose to the hands during the procedures in order to optimize the exposure to the ionizing radiation and execute the Radiological Safety Regulation (D.S. No. 009-97-Em) and the standard IR 002.2012 of radiation protection and safety in nuclear medicine. In this paper was designed and built a hand anthropomorphic phantom made of paraffin following the description given for the standard man, later were placed dosimeters ring and wrist type UD-807 model, Panasonic brand. Then we proceeded to irradiate using vial containers of Tc-99 and I-131. The obtained results showed the difference between the equivalent dose obtained among the ring and wrist dosimeter also getting a dose of 153 mSv /year when working with {sup 99m}Tc and of 61 mSv /year when working with iodine-131. Was also demonstrated that the ring dosimeter shows the average dose received in the hand with less dispersion. It was found that under the national regulation on Requirements of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety in Medicine article 63, indicates that higher doses of 150 mSv /year the occupationally exposed workers should have hand dosimetry. Finally the individual dose limit of 500 mSv /year in extremities can be overcome if adequate radiation protection standards do not apply. (author)

  8. The micronucleus assay in human exfoliated urothelial cells: application in a genotoxicity study of workers exposed to a mineral jelly containing sodium nitrite and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, L; Lasfargues, G; Ughetto, S; Rogier, S; Masdieu, E; Lafaure, M; Aublet-Cuvelier, B; Catilina, P

    2001-09-01

    Exposure to certain chemical agents in occupational settings has been identified as carcinogenic to the human bladder. Micronucleus (MN) analysis in exfoliated urothelial cells is an interesting method for biomonitoring genetic damage in human populations. However, few studies have been performed in an occupational context. The aim of this study was to examine whether the occupational use of a mineral jelly induced a genotoxic risk for workers employed at a single factory producing bearings using the MN test on exfoliated urothelial cells. The prevalence of micronucleated exfoliated urothelial cells (MNC) was determined in 35 female workers with dermal exposure to the jelly and 41 female controls. The mean percentage of MNC (expressed as percent cells with MN per 1000 cells scored) observed in the exposed worker group was 0.46 +/- 0.11% (range 0-2.8) and in the control group 0.14 +/- 0.03% (range 0-0.8). There is a significant job effect (P = 0.0018, MANCOVA) on the prevalence of MNC, whereas age and smoking habit had no significant effect (P = 0.90 and 0.91, respectively). There is no interaction between job and smoking habit (P = 0.4421). Exposure to the mineral jelly appeared to be the main factor inducing the increased prevalence of MNC. This may be due to the presence of mutagens/carcinogens in the jelly: an aromatic amine, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (CAS no. 90-30-2), which is carcinogenic in mice, or sodium nitrite (CAS no. 7632-00-0), which is genotoxic in human cell systems. In conclusion, these results suggest that use of the mineral jelly could present a genotoxic risk for workers. We think that the MN assay on exfoliated cells could be valuable for biological monitoring purposes in occupational contexts as a marker of significant exposure to bladder mutagenic/carcinogenic agents.

  9. A auto-percepção da saúde auditiva e vestibular de trabalhadores expostos a organofosforados Auto-perception of auditory and vestibular health in workers exposed to organophosphate

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    Ana Cristina Hiromi Hoshino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar os sintomas auditivos e vestibulares de trabalhadores rurais expostos aos agrotóxicos organofosforados. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico descritivo com uma amostra de 50 trabalhadores rurais. A faixa etária variou de 21 a 59 anos, média de 38,3 anos, sendo 20 (40% trabalhadores de sexo masculino e 30 (60% de sexo feminino. Foi utilizado um questionário com perguntas relacionadas à saúde auditiva e dados sobre tempo de exposição ao agrotóxico. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram que 38 trabalhadores (76% referiram ter apresentado pelo menos um episódio de tontura em sua vida e destes, 29 (58% trabalhadores ainda sentem tontura; 27 (54% sentem zumbidos; 23 (46% sentem a orelha abafada; 37 (74% acham que possuem boa acuidade auditiva, porém 35 (70% acham que, sentem dificuldades na compreensão de palavras, sugerindo que os agrotóxicos podem induzir alterações do sistema auditivo e vestibular por meio de uma intoxicação lenta e silenciosa. CONCLUSÃO: a tontura e a perda auditiva aparecem como sintomas subjetivos e constantes da exposição ocupacional podendo ser um sinal precoce da intoxicação, prejudicando a qualidade de vida destes trabalhadores.PURPOSE: to characterize the auditory and vestibular symptoms of rural workers under an environmental exposed of organophosphate pesticides. METHODS: this is a descriptive epidemic study that evaluated 50 workers. The age group varied from 21 to 59 years with a mean age of 38.3 years. There were 20 (40% male and 30 (60% female workers. A questionnaire was used with questions related to the auditory health in addition to some specific questions on time exposure. RESULTS: the results showed that 38 (76% workers showed dizziness and 29 (58% of them continued showing these symptom; 27 (54% related tinnitus; 23 (46% fullness sensation. 37 (74% workers don't have problem with hearing but 35 (70% can't understand very well the spoken words. Data suggest

  10. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plant Workers: Flow Cytometry Measurements of T Lymphocyte Subpopulations and Immunoglobulin Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuleva, Ilona Mihaylova; Penkova, Kalina Ivanova; Rupova, Ivanka Tankova; Panova, Delyana Yonkova; Djounova, Jana Nikolaeva

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year survey of immune status of nuclear power plant (NPP) workers was assessed by cellular and humoral immune parameters. The cumulative doses of NPP workers were in the range of 0.06 to 766.36 mSv. The results did not show significant deviations in the studied parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, but a tendency of elevated values in CD3+4+ helper inducers cells, especially its CD4+62L+ subpopulation, regulatory CD4+25+ cells, CD8+28+ cytotoxic subpopulation, and immunoglobulin M, was established. The observed trend of the above-mentioned parameters could be interpreted by assumption that while the adaptation processes are dominated with low prevalence of T-helper (Th) 1 immune response to cumulative doses less than 100 mSv, a switch to Th-2 response occurred at doses above 100 mSv. The impact of a number of other confounding factors on the immune system does not allow definitive conclusions about the direct radiation-induced changes in immune parameters.

  11. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  12. [Promoting the quality of health surveillance of workers exposed to wood dust, with particular care to NPSC, in the territory of the Health Agency of Florence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristerà, L A; Sgarrella, C; Luongo, F; Faina, P L; Monticelli, L; Bolognesi, R; Pristerà, M; Citroni, A; Nisticò, A R; Castiglia, C; Fiumalbi, C; Porzio, P; Cioni, A; Bacci, P; Buti, A; Mucci, N; Arcangeli, G; Cupelli, V

    2012-01-01

    Wood dust can cause occupational-related naso-sinusal cancer, characterized by a latency period of about 40 years. The Tuscany Cancer Registry estimates that cases of NPSC are from 20-25 per year into the Region (33% related to wood dust). These neoplasms are surgically treatable at early-stage and, for this reason, a rapid endoscopic diagnosis is considered to be reasonably useful for prognostic issues. We used a questionnaire to investigate nasal symptoms and NOSQ and SOLAR questionnaires to highlight respiratory/skins diseases, and a spirometry for each worker. Subjects with a working-age of more than 15 years, and those that were positive to the questionnaire and/or to the medical history were were referred to a specialist in otolaryngology. The prevalence of endoscopic positive findings--detected especially in subjects with a working age of more than 15 years--confirms the significance of the problem.

  13. 3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine adducts of workers exposed to asbestos fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Cellai, Filippo; Munnia, Armelle; Ugolini, Donatella; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Neri, Monica; Milić, Mirta; Bonotti, Alessandra; Giese, Roger W; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-03-15

    Asbestos is the commercial name for a group of silicate minerals naturally occurring in the environment and widely used in the industry. Asbestos exposure has been associated with pulmonary fibrosis, mesothelioma, and malignancies, which may appear after a period of latency of 20-40 years. Mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic effects of asbestos are still not fully elucidated, although the oxidative stress theory suggests that phagocytic cells produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species, due to their inability to digest asbestos fiber. We have conducted a mechanistic study to evaluate the association between 3-(2-deoxy-β-d-erythro-pentafuranosyl)pyrimido[1,2-α]purin-10(3H)-one deoxyguanosine (M 1 dG) adducts, a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and asbestos exposure in the peripheral blood of 327 subjects living in Tuscany and Liguria, Italy, stratified by occupational exposure to asbestos. Adduct frequency was significantly greater into exposed subjects with respect to the controls. M 1 dG per 10 8 normal nucleotides were 4.0±0.5 (SE) in 156 asbestos workers, employed in mechanic, naval, petrochemical, building industries, and in pottery and ceramic plants, versus a value of 2.3±0.1 (SE) in 171 controls (pasbestos workers, mainly employed in building renovation industry (2.9±0.3 (SE)), and in 102 former asbestos workers (4.5±0.7 (SE)), with p-values of 0.033, and asbestos-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Workers exposed to thermal degradation products of TDI- and MDI-based polyurethane: biomonitoring of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in hydrolyzed urine and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalene, M; Skarping, G; Lind, P

    1997-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate biomarkers of exposure to thermal degradation products of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)- and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-based polyurethane and the toxicokinetics of these products. Blood and urine were collected from 15 factory workers exposed to thermal degradation products of MDI-based polyurethane glue and TDI-based flexible foam. Four of these workers were also studied during an exposure-free period. Urine and plasma were analyzed after acidic hydrolysis and the concentrations of the isocyanates' corresponding amines, 2,4-, 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA), and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), were determined as derivatives of pentafluoropropionic anhydride by gas chromatography using chemical ionization mass spectrometry monitoring negative ions. Urinary elimination rates were in the range of TDA per hour, TDA per hour, and TDA per mL, TDA per mL, and TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA in urine varied during and between workdays. The individual variation in plasma concentrations of 2,4-TDA, 2,6-TDA, and 4,4'-MDA with time was small, but between individuals the variation was great.

  15. Biomonitoring of rural workers exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides in the municipalities of Tianguá and Ubajara (Ceará state, Brazil): genotoxic and cytogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jean C G; Cabral, Igor O; Soares, Bruno M; Sombra, Carla M L; Ferreira, José R O; Moraes, Manoel O; Cavalcanti, Bruno C; Pessoa, Cláudia

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the use of pesticides in agriculture has been steadily increasing, and associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and DNA damage and cancer have been reported. Brazil is one of the world leaders in pesticide use; however, studies that evaluate the impact of pesticide exposure on cancer incidence and mortality are very scarce in the Brazilian population. The alkaline comet assay and the chromosome aberration (CA) test were used to evaluate primary DNA damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to a complex mixture of pesticides in two small rural communities in the municipalities of Tianguá and Ubajara, located in the western part of Ceará State (Northeast Brazil), which are among the largest agricultural areas of the state. The comet assay showed that the damage index and damage frequency observed in the exposed groups were significantly higher in relation to the controls (P < 0.05). On the other hand, no differences were detected regarding structural and numerical CAs in the communities evaluated. Additionally, the observed levels of DNA strand breaks and frequencies of CAs, stratified for exposure time, were not statistically different for individuals of either rural community. Our results suggest that the damages caused by pesticides in our study area were not great enough to induce permanent mutations or to interfere with mitotic apparatus formation; minimal pesticide damages could have undergone cellular repair, explaining the absence of structural and numerical CAs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Seroconversion rates among health care workers exposed to hepatitis C virus-contaminated body fluids: The University of Pittsburgh 13-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egro, Francesco M; Nwaiwu, Chibueze A; Smith, Saundra; Harper, Jay D; Spiess, Alexander M

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission to health care personnel (HCP) after exposure to a HCV-positive source has been reported to occur at an average rate of 1.8% (range, 0%-10%). We aimed to determine the seroconversion rate after exposure to HCV-contaminated body fluid in a major U.S. academic medical center. A longitudinal analysis of a prospectively maintained database of reported occupational injuries occurring between 2002 and 2015 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center was performed. Data collected include type of injury and fluid, injured body part, contamination of sharps, resident physicians' involvement, and patients' hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV status. A total of 1,361 cases were included in the study. Most exposures were caused by percutaneous injuries (65.0%), followed by mucocutaneous injuries (33.7%). Most (63.3%) were injuries to the hand, followed by the face and neck (27.6%). Blood exposure accounted for 72.7%, and blood-containing saliva accounted for 3.4%. A total of 6.9% and 3.7% of source patients were coinfected with HIV and HBV, respectively. The HCV seroconversion rate was 0.1% (n = 2) because of blood exposure secondary to percutaneous injuries. This study provides the largest and most recent cohort from a major U.S. academic medical center. The seroconversion rates among HCP exposed to HCV-contaminated body fluids was found to be lower than most of the data found in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesovnik, Tanja; Zorc, Minja; Čitar, Manuela; Božič, Janko; Glavan, Gordana; Narat, Mojca

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were downregulated. PMID

  18. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesovnik, Tanja; Cizelj, Ivanka; Zorc, Minja; Čitar, Manuela; Božič, Janko; Glavan, Gordana; Narat, Mojca

    2017-01-01

    Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were downregulated.

  19. Immune related gene expression in worker honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica pupae exposed to neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and Varroa mites (Varroa destructor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Tesovnik

    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is one of the most common parasites of honey bee colonies and is considered as a possible co-factor for honey bee decline. At the same time, the use of pesticides in intensive agriculture is still the most effective method of pest control. There is limited information about the effects of pesticide exposure on parasitized honey bees. Larval ingestion of certain pesticides could have effects on honey bee immune defense mechanisms, development and metabolic pathways. Europe and America face the disturbing phenomenon of the disappearance of honey bee colonies, termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD. One reason discussed is the possible suppression of honey bee immune system as a consequence of prolonged exposure to chemicals. In this study, the effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, pupae infested with Varroa destructor mites were analyzed at the molecular level. Varroa-infested and non-infested honey bee colonies received protein cakes with or without thiamethoxam. Nurse bees used these cakes as a feed for developing larvae. Samples of white-eyed and brown-eyed pupae were collected. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR. Relative gene expression in samples exposed only to Varroa or to thiamethoxam or simultaneously to both Varroa and thiamethoxam was compared. The impact from the consumption of thiamethoxam during the larval stage on honey bee immune related gene expression in Varroa-infested white-eyed pupae was reflected as down-regulation of spaetzle, AMPs abaecin and defensin-1 and up-regulation of lysozyme-2. In brown-eyed pupae up-regulation of PPOact, spaetzle, hopscotch and basket genes was detected. Moreover, we observed a major difference in immune response to Varroa infestation between white-eyed pupae and brown-eyed pupae. The majority of tested immune-related genes were upregulated only in brown-eyed pupae, while in white-eyed pupae they were

  20. Hipertensão arterial entre trabalhadores de petróleo expostos a ruído Arterial hypertension among oil-drilling workers exposed to noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Souto Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal, com componente retrospectivo, buscando analisar a exposição ocupacional a ruído como possível fator de risco para a hipertensão arterial entre 775 trabalhadores de uma área de perfuração de petróleo. Considerou-se hipertensos os trabalhadores com pressão sangüínea > ou = 140/90mmHg. A exposição ocupacional a ruído foi avaliada através de dois indicadores: (1 exposição à pressão sonora > ou = 85dbA por 10 ou mais anos e (2 perda auditiva induzida pelo ruído (PAIR de moderada a severa. Os efeitos da idade, escolaridade, trabalho de turno e obesidade foram avaliados através de técnicas de estratificação e análise de regressão logística. Associação positiva entre exposição ocupacional a ruído e hipertensão arterial foi evidenciada, usando-se tanto nível/duração de exposição a ruído (RP = 1,8; IC 95%: 1,3-2,4, quanto diagnóstico de PAIR (RP = 1,5; IC 95%: 1,1-2,0 como indicadores de exposição. Considerados os limites do estudo, exposição ocupacional prolongada a ruído parece ser um fator de risco para a hipertensão arterial.A cross-sectional study with a retrospective component was conducted to evaluate occupational noise exposure as a potential risk factor for arterial hypertension among 775 workers from an oil-drilling industry. Hypertension was defined as > or = 140/90mmHg. Occupational noise exposure was measured as: (1 exposure to sound pressure levels > or = 85dbA for 10 years or more and (2 moderate-to-severe noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. The effects of age, education, shift work, and obesity were evaluated by stratification and logistic regression analysis. A positive association between occupational noise exposure and hypertension was found, using both the level/duration of noise exposure (RP = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4 and NIHL (RP = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0 as exposure indicators. Considering the study limits, long-term occupational noise exposure thus appears to

  1. Mortality in chemical workers potentially exposed to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 1945-94: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, C; Beard, K; Cartmill, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To update and add to a previously identified cohort of employees potentially exposed to the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The putative association between 2,4-D and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been debated for more than a decade.
METHODS—Cohort members were male employees of The Dow Chemical Company who manufactured or formulated 2,4-D any time from 1945 to the end of 1994. Their mortality experience was compared with national rates and with more than 40 000 other company employees who worked at the same location.
RESULTS—330 Deaths were observed among 1517 people compared with 365 expected (standardised mortality ratio (SMR)=0.90, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81 to 1.01). There were no significantly increased SMRs for any of the causes of death analyzed. When compared with the United States rates, the SMR for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was 1.00 (95% CI 0.21 to 2.92). The internal comparison with other Dow employees showed a non-significant relative risk of 2.63, (95% CI 0.85 to 8.33). Death was attributed to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) for three cohort members. Compared with the other company employees, the relative risk was 3.45 (95% CI 1.10 to 11.11). The cases were employed in the manufacture or formulation of 2,4-D at different periods (1947-9, 1950-1, and 1968-86), and for varying durations of time (1.3, 1.8, and 12.5 years).
CONCLUSION—There was no evidence of a causal association between exposure to 2,4-D and mortality due to all causes and total malignant neoplasms. No significant risk due to NHL was found. Although not an initial hypothesis, an increased relative risk of ALS was noted. This finding is unsupported by other animal and human studies.


Keywords: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; phenoxy herbicide; occupation; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma PMID:11119631

  2. Performance of biomarkers SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA 21-1 as potential tumor markers for malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gube, M. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Westfaelische Technische Hochschule, Institut fuer Arbeitsmedizin und Sozialmedizin am Universitaetsklinikum Aachen, Rheinisch, Aachen (Germany); Taeger, D.; Weber, D.G.; Pesch, B.; Johnen, G.; Gross, I.M.; Wiethege, T.; Weber, A.; Bruening, T. [Institute of the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (IPA), Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Bochum (Germany); Brand, P.; Mueller-Lux, A.; Kraus, T. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Occupational and Social Medicine, Medical Faculty, Aachen (Germany); Raithel, H.J. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The aim of the study is to examine the cancer-predictive values of SMRP (soluble mesothelin-related peptides), CA125, and CYFRA21-1 as potential tumor markers for lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma in a cohort of workers formerly exposed to asbestos. A voluntary surveillance program has been established for German workers with former asbestos exposure. A subgroup of 626 subjects with a mean age of 63 years (range 53-70 years) at baseline was enrolled in an extended health examination program with high-resolution computer tomography (HRCT) of the chest and blood drawing between 1993 and 1997. Serum concentrations of SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 were measured in archived serum samples in 2005 and 2006. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. So far, 12 cases with lung cancer and 20 cases with malignant mesothelioma have been observed in this cohort. The average time between sample collection and diagnosis was 4.7 years. Analyzed biomarkers showed low sensitivities (5-25%) and positive predictive values (4-30%) for both cancer sites. Marker combinations resulted in sensitivities between 5 and 50% and positive predictive values ranging from 3 to 14%. Even in those cases, where biomarker concentrations were available within 36 months before diagnosis, no trend for increasing biomarker levels was observed. The analyzed tumor markers were characterized by high specificities, but low sensitivities. SMRP, CA125, and CYFRA21-1 alone or in combination were less suitable to serve as predictors for the diagnosis of lung cancer or malignant mesothelioma. However, a prospective study with annual sampling might reveal a better predictive value of these markers. (orig.)

  3. [Guidelines for health surveillance of health care workers exposed to biological risks set up by the Italian Society for Occupational Health and Industrial Hygiene: application in health facilities of the Regional Health Administration--District No. 7, Ancona].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copertaro, A; Barbaresi, Mariella; Bevilacqua, G; Novelli, A M; Aprile, A

    2005-01-01

    Evidence Based Medicine and the need to achieve better management of health budgets call for verification and, if necessary, revision of the criteria used in Occupational Health, in order to ensure appropriate measures as regards protection of health at the workplace. In December 2003, the Marche Region initiated a process of reform of the regional health service, which will be completed in two years, and will provide a new regional health organization that will improve the quality and appropriateness of health services available to the population. The reform also involves the Occupational Health Services responsible for prevention activities for 20,000 health care workers employed in regional public health facilities. The need was strongly felt to set up a network that would meet the health needs of health care workers, by adopting a common language among occupational health physicians, by eliminating reported criticism, which is due not only to lack of communication between different structures and profiles, but also to the different methods of approach, evaluation and management of occupational risks. From a historical point of view, the health sector has the biggest as regards prevention of biological risk. Therefore, with a view to harmonizing actions and approach among occupational health physicians in the evaluation of this risk, the publication by the Italian Society for Occupational of Health and Industrial Hygiene of Guidelines for health surveillance of health care workers exposed to biological risks, produced by the working group under the leadership of Prof. Lorenzo Alessio, was considered to offer an interesting opportunity to verify the reproducibility of methods and the quality of results, as applied to health facilities under the Regional Health Administration in Ancona (District No. 7). The Guidelines fully confirmed the need to plan activities, starting from analysis of epidemiological and occupational data, thus assuring good results both in

  4. Avaliação audiométrica de trabalhadores ocupacionalmente expostos a ruído e cádmio Audiometric evaluation of noise and cadmium occupationally exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio T. de Abreu

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O ruído é caracterizado como o fator mais prevalente na origem de doenças ocupacionais. Também é o agente físico nocivo à saúde mais comum nos ambientes de trabalho, causando perda auditiva. Além do ruído, agentes químicos presentes no meio ocupacional, como solventes e metais pesados, são descritos como causadores de alteração auditiva. Objetivo: Avaliar dois grupos de indivíduos expostos à mesma intensidade de ruído industrial, sendo um desses grupos exposto ao cádmio e outro não, e verificar se a exposição aos dois agentes poluentes é mais prejudicial do que a exposição ao ruído isoladamente. Forma de estudo: Clínico prospectivo. Material e Método: Foi realizado estudo audiométrico de 36 trabalhadores de indústria metalúrgica, expostos a ruído e fumos de cádmio em seu ambiente de trabalho, no período de 1994 a 1998. Os resultados obtidos nesse grupo foram comparados aos de um grupo controle composto de 36 trabalhadores dos mesmos setores da empresa, porém expostos somente ao ruído. Resultados: Observou-se uma perda auditiva concentrada principalmente nas freqüências de 4000 e 6000 Hz, mais acentuada no grupo exposto ao ruído e cádmio. Conclusão: Os dados indicaram uma provável ação ototóxica do metal cádmio quando associado à exposição ao ruído.Introduction: Noise is the most common harmful agent present in industrial environments, leading to hearing loss. Besides noise, chemical agents also present in industries, such as solvents and metals lead to hearing loss. Aim: Evaluation of two groups of workers exposed to industrial noise, one of these groups was exposed to cadmium and the other was not, and verify if the concomitant exposition to cadmium and noise is more harmful than the exposition only to noise. Study design: Clinical prospective. Material and Method: It was realized an audiometric research with 36 employees in a metallurgical industry, who were exposed to noise and

  5. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urine, benzo(a)pyrene diol epoxide-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA, and antibodies to the adducts in sera from coke oven workers exposed to measured amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, A; Becher, G; Benestad, C; Vahakangas, K; Trivers, G E; Newman, M J; Harris, C C

    1986-08-01

    Workers in coke oven plants have a higher incidence of lung cancer than the general population. They are exposed to a variety of chemicals, in particular the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including benzo(a)pyrene. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of PAH exposure, air samples and urine samples were analyzed for PAH by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Since benzo(a)pyrene is activated to 7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-(9 alpha,10 alpha)-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BPDE) and binds to DNA, we have used ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay and synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry to measure BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocyte DNA. The results show that workers were exposed to high concentrations of atmospheric PAH. However, the mean PAH exposure levels are reduced 60% when the workers wore masks during work. When compared to exposure levels, the urinary excretion of PAH was relatively low. Approximately one-third of the workers had detectable putative BPDE-DNA adducts in lymphocytes by ultrasensitive enzymatic radioimmunoassay, and 10% of the samples had emission peaks at 379 nm by synchronous fluorescence spectrophotometry. The four most positive samples were the same in both of the assays. Antibodies to an epitope(s) on BPDE-DNA were found in the sera of approximately one-third of the workers. Detection of DNA adducts and antibodies to these adducts are internal indicators of exposure to benzo(a)pyrene.

  6. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  7. Training and information in Radiation Protection in the Field of X-ray medical applications for exposed workers, non-exposed workers patients and for the public; Formacion e informacion de trabajadores expuestos, no expuestos, pacientes y publico en general, en proteccion radiologica en aplicaciones medicas de los rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M.; Corredoira, E.; Martin, G.; Plaza, R.; Huerga, C. [Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Training and information in the radiation protection subject is a legal mandatory as well as an essential tool for the optimisation and quality of the procedures. Accounting for the relevance of the dose to the population due to medical exposures, it seems obvious the necessity of improving this subject in order to design a feasible and efficient strategy. The importance of learning to communicate and to manage on the one hand an excessive perception of the risk to low doses in comparison with other agents, that could be made extensible for judges, lawyers and media, and on the other hand, the relevant doses due to interventional procedures, to TC studies, etc, is one of the basic commitment of a Radiation Protection Service. This paper summarises: - The contents of international recommendations, the European Directives and Spanish legislation related to this topic. - The strategy of training and information to the levels indicated, from the point of view of a referential Radiation Protection Service for a Teaching Hospital and its area associated os specialized attention and primary attention. We can not forget on-going training for owner workers. - The contents of the informative leaflets. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. [Dyschromatopsia in subjects occupationally exposed to organic solvents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, L; Mergler, D

    1986-01-01

    Chromatic discrimination loss was evaluated with the Lanthony D-15 desaturated Panel among 89 workers professionally exposed to organic solvents and 114 non-exposed workers. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the results reveal the following: among the non-exposed workers, the prevalence of tritanomalies and the mean colour confusion index increase with age; among the exposed workers, the prevalence of dyschromatopsia and the mean colour confusion index increase with age and with exposure level; for 4% of the moderately exposed workers and 26% of the highly exposed workers, protanomaly, deuteranomaly or scotopic loss were observed with the tritanomaly. Chromatic discrimination impairment may be an important indicator of neuro-ophthalmologic changes associated with professional exposure to organic solvents.

  9. Asthma characteristics in cleaning workers, workers in other risk jobs and office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, JP; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Jarvis, D; Toren, K; Anto, JM

    Several studies have demonstrated an excess risk for asthma among cleaning workers. The aim of this analysis was to compare clinical, immunological and functional characteristics associated with asthma in cleaners and other occupational groups. Cleaners, workers exposed to high molecular weight (MW)

  10. Behavior of the Energy Secretary in working matter: the case of workers exposed to nuclear energy (ionizing radiations); Actuacion de la Secretaria de Energia en materia laboral: el caso de los trabajadores expuestos a energia nuclear (radiaciones ionizantes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez J, G

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, dis concentrated organ of the Secretary of Energy, referring brief antecedents of their creation and emphasizing their mission. The generic and specific attributions are analyzed, as well as the approval abilities and policy-inspection and surveillance, imposition of sanctions and application of safety measures that have been conferred it by law, of where it comes off it performance in the labor circles. In the third chapter there are relative purely technical questions to the nuclear energy and to the occupationally exposed by it use hard-workers. By this way topics such as energy and ionizing radiations are studied, their applications, practices and effects; as well as the importance of the radiological protection and their connection with the safety and hygiene in the work for exposure to physical agents. In the fourth chapter an analysis of the different existent normative instruments is made in the national and international juridical mark, beginning, according to the Kelsen pyramid, with the Political Constitution of the Mexican United States for later to revise the Agreement 115 of the Work International Organization and the Regulation Law of the Article 27 Constitutional in Nuclear Matter and to crumble the General Regulation of Radiological Safety and the applicable Mexican Official Standards whose surveillance runs in charge of the Dis concentrated Regulator Organ that has made an appointment. Finally, it is presented, the case analysis in where the intervention can be appreciated, through the imposition of sanctions, of the referred dependence in the labor relationships of certain work centers. (Author)

  11. Study protocol: a cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a multi-pronged behavioural intervention to improve use of personal protective equipment among migrant workers exposed to organic solvents in small and medium-sized enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wen; Li, Tongyang; Zou, Guanyang; Li, Xudong; Shi, Leiyu; Feng, Shanshan; Shi, Jingrong; Zhou, Fangjing; Han, Siqi; Ling, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background In China, most of migrant workers work in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and are a vulnerable group for occupational health. Migrant workers are at increased risk of occupational health risks due to poor occupational health behaviours such as the low use of personal protective equipment (PPE). However, there is a lack of solid evidence regarding how to improve the use of PPE among migrant workers in SMEs. The current study will assess the effectiveness of a multi-pro...

  12. [PAH exposure in asphalt workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Siria; Sarnico, Michela; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Barbieri, P G

    2010-01-01

    There has been interest in evaluating the potential carcinogenicity of bitumen fumes in asphalt workers since the 1960's. The IARC classified air-refined bitumens as possible human carcinogens, while coal-tar fumes were classified as known carcinogens. Occupational/environmental PAH exposure can be measured by several urinary markers. Urinary 1-OHP has become the most commonly used biological marker of PAH exposure in asphalt workers. The aim of this study was to assess asphalt workers' exposure levels by monitoring 1-OHP urinary excretion and compare this data with those of non-occupationally exposed subjects. We investigated three groups of asphalt workers: 100 in summer 2007, 29 in winter 2007, and 148 during summer 2008 and compared 1-OHP urinary concentrations using Kruskall-Wallis test. Median 1-OHP urinary concentrations during the three biomonitoring sampling periods were 0.65, 0.17 and 0.53 microg/g creatinine respectively. There was a significant difference in 1-OHP values between the three groups (p < 0.001). our study showed that PAH exposure of asphalt workers' is higher than that observed in the general population and in workers in urban areas. Our results suggest that PAH exposure in the three groups studied is not sufficiently kept under control by the use of personal protective equipment and that biomonitoring is useful in evaluating PAH exposure and for risk assessment. Regulations need to be enforced for workers exposed to cancer risk, such as the register of workers exposed to carcinogens.

  13. A contribution to the study of urinary cobalt in workers exposed to atmospheric concentrations close to limit values of exposure and to the fixation of new biological indices of exposure. Contribution a l'etude des cobalturies de salaries exposes a des concentrations atmospheriques proches des valeurs limites d'exposition et a la fixation d'index biologiques d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catilina, M.J.; Catilina, P.; Pepin, D.; Alfieri, R.; Chamoux, A.; Gabrillargues, D. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France))

    1994-01-01

    Findings of the studies undertaken to assess biological indices for daily occupational exposure to inhaled micro-particles of metal-cobalt are given. Two groups of workers were studied: - group A exposed to a mean daily concentration of 0.05 mg/m[sup 3] (present) (V.M.E.): - group B exposed to a mean daily concentration of 0.10 mg/m[sup 3] (previous V.M.E.). Cobalt granulometry was found to be constant: 98% particles with a diameter < 5 [mu]m. The urinary cobalt measured at the end of the working day as an index of clearance ([mu]g/g of urinary creatinine) is compared to a local control population's. The biological indices of exposure are given: Exposure to 0.05 mg/m[sup 3] (group A, N = 66), mean: 2.96 - median: 2.95 - D.S.: 1.552. Exposure to 0.10 mg/m[sup 3] (group B, N = 50), mean: 10.89 - median: 11 - D.S.: 2.316. Control population (group T, N = 71), mean: 2.478 - median: 2.5 - D.S.: 1.655. The urinary cobalt measured in group A at the end of the working day is not significantly different from the controls'. But it is significantly different from group B. The ability of urinary cobalt to distinguish between the two types of environment is studied by method of probability. With a urinary cobalt < 5.5 [mu]g/g creat. the worker is most certainly exposed to atmospheric concentrations [<=] 0.05 mg/m[sup 3]. For 5.5 [mu]g/g creat. a 0.05 mg/m[sup 3] exposure is given with 1% risk of error. With a urinary cobalt ranging from 7.5 [mu]g/g creat. to 15 [mu]g/g, the worker is most certainly exposed to a 0.10 mg/m[sup 3] atmospheric concentration. For 7.5 [mu]g/g creat. a 0.10 mg/m[sup 3] exposure is proposed with 1% risk of error. For a 6.5 [mu]g/g creat. urinary cobalt at the end of the working day, the exposure might as well be group A's as the group B's. This case is rarely seen. The concept of limit biological index of exposure is discussed. (authors). 20 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    . A prominent research theme in health care studies is, therefore, to explicate the gap between theory and practice. The question this paper addresses is how a learning environment can be designed to bridge this theory-practice gap, expose the differences in situated interactions and qualify health...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  15. Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)

  16. Respiratory Disorders Among Workers in Slaughterhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Kasaeinasab, Abbasali; Jahangiri, Mehdi; Karimi, Ali; Tabatabaei, Hamid Reza; Safari, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Workers in slaughterhouses are exposed to a wide range of biological contaminants, such as bacteria and fungi, due to their working environment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of respiratory disorders among workers in slaughterhouses. Methods: This study was conducted on 81 workers in slaughterhouses and 81 healthy office workers as a reference group. The American Thoracic Society standard respiratory symptoms questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of res...

  17. Health in relation to occupational exposure to pesticides in the Dutch flower bulb culture : Part 3A : neurobehavioral assessment of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides in the bulb growing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Hooisma, J.; Kullig, B.M.; Brouwer, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on central nervous system (CNS) function. A variety of neurobehavioral functions were assessed in a group of 129 workers in the bulb growing industry with at least ten years occupational

  18. Cohort mortality study of vinyl chloride exposed workers in Porto Marghera during production, polymerization and bagging; Indagine epidemiologica sui lavoratori di Porto Marghera esposti a cloruro di vinile nelle fasi di produzione, polimerizzazione e insacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirastu, R. [Rome, Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Biologia Umana e Animale; Chellini, E. [Centro per lo Studio e la Prevenzione Oncologica, Florence (Italy); Carnevale, F. [Unita` Sanitaria Locale 10, Florence (Italy). Servizio di Prevenzione, Igiene e Sicurezza nei Luoghi di Lavoro; De Santis, M.; Comba, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Bracci, C. [CGIL Lazio, Rome (Italy). Sindacato Pensionati Italiani

    1997-09-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate cause specific mortality among workers employed in vinyl chloride manufacture, polymerization and bagging in Porto Marghera between start of operation and June 30, 1995. The cohort includes 1.658 subjects employed by the companies running the petrochemical plant in Porto Marghera (Montedison and Enichem) and 272 members of three cooperatives of baggers who operated in the plant. The study detected an increased mortality from liver cancer, especially among autoclave workers, and an increase in lung cancer among baggers. In the whole study period, in the Montedison-Enichem cohort, 11 deaths from liver cancer were observed versus 5.7 expected; among autoclave workers 6 deaths were observed versus 0.8 expected. Four further cases were detected by `Best Evidence` procedures. Altogether 5 cases were angiosarcomas, 5 hepato-carcinomas, 3 cases of liver cancer occurred in cirrhotic subjects and in 2 cases histology was not known. The increase in lung cancer risk among baggers is present both in the Montedison-Enichem cohort and among the members of the cooperatives. The results of the present study will soon be supplemented with those concerning the cohorts in the plants located in Ferrara, Ravenna, Rosignano, Terni and Brindisi.

  19. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership......PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  20. Specific IgG to Thermoactynomices vulgaris, Micropolyspora faeni and Aspergillus fumigatus in building workers exposed to esparto grass (plasterers) and in patients with esparto-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, P M; Urbaneja, F; Olaizola, I; Boyra, J A; González, G; Antépara, I; Urrutia, I; Jáuregui, I; Sanz, M L

    2005-01-01

    Esparto is one the most frequent causes of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in Spain. Determination of risk factors in the working environment that could explain the sensitisation process, and assessment of the differences in specific IgG levels to Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula and Thermoactynomices vulgaris in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by esparto, exposed healthy plasterers and control population. Determination of precipitins and specific IgG to Aspergillusfumigatus, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula and Thermoactynomices vulgaris in the three previously mentioned groups. Questionnaire on possible risk occupational and extra-occupational factors. Both healthy and exposed plasterers have higher levels of specific IgG to Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula and Thermoactynomices vulgaris than the healthy controls. The patients had higher levels of IgG than exposed healthy plasterers only to Thermoactynomices vulgaris. Precipitins were detected in only two patients. There were no occupational factors influencing on the sensitisation process. Specific IgG is an occupational exposure marker among plasterers, but it has not been possible to establish a cut off point that differentiates exposed subjects from affected ones. This determination has a greater sensitivity than precipitins. We did not identify occupational or extra-occupational risk factors that facilitate the sensitisation process.

  1. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  2. Foreign workers in Israel : Global perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel

    2009-01-01

    Explores how the entry of migrant workers into Israel raises questions beyond just those of the labor market. Explores how the entry of migrant workers into Israel raises questions beyond just those of the labor market. In this account of a social experiment gone awry, Israel Drori exposes a

  3. Evaluation of the national health surveillance program of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain (2008 Evaluación del programa integral de vigilancia de la salud de los trabajadores que han estado expuestos a amianto en España (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat García Gómez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although asbestos was banned in Spain in 2001, monitoring the health of previously-exposed workers is required. In 2002 the Ministry of Health and the autonomous regions of Spain planned a health surveillance program for workers exposed to asbestos (Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores Expuestos al Amianto [PIVISTEA] with employers' organizations, trade unions and scientific societies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PIVISTEA to improve its effectiveness. Methods: A questionnaire with indicators for the year 2008 was sent to Spain's 17 autonomous regions, as well as to the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla. The results were analyzed by evaluating the compliance of each program with the activities established by the PIVISTEA. Results: In December 2008, a total of 22,158 workers from 14 autonomous regions and 306 companies were included in the program. The program had been started in 88% of the regions but surveillance activities remained scarce in 24%. Fifty-seven percent of the autonomous regions (69% of the total number of workers provided the information requested. Seven autonomous regions provided data on the relationship between the diseases found and asbestos exposure. Only 5% of these diseases entitled affected individuals to receive compensation for occupational diseases. Conclusions: The health surveillance of workers previously exposed to asbestos in Spain, as well as medical-legal recognition of diseases caused by exposure at work, remain in adequate. Although the trend is positive, the effectiveness of many regional programs is limited, and inter-regional inequalities among affected workers have been detected.Objetivos: Después de la prohibición del amianto en España en 2001, resulta necesario vigilar la salud de los trabajadores expuestos en el pasado. En 2002, el Ministerio de Sanidad y las Comunidades Autónomas consensuaron un Programa de Vigilancia de la Salud de los Trabajadores

  4. Childcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ludmilla

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of the career of child-care worker: working conditions, employment possibilities, qualifications and advancement, job outlook, earnings, related occupations, and sources of additional information. (CT)

  5. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function among cotton textile workers at Misr Company for Spinning and Weaving EL-Mahalla, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Awad Tageldin

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Cotton workers are at risk for developing respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms was highest prevalent in worker works at spinning and weaving. Spirometric functions were less in cotton exposed workers as compared to control.

  6. Assessment of Cold Stress and Its Effects on Workers in a Cold-Storage Warehouse

    OpenAIRE

    Farhang Akbar-Khanzadeh; Mohammad–Hossein Sajadi; Keramat Nouri Jelyani; Farideh Golbabaei

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to cold work environment is an occupational health hazard and poses adverse effect on workers health, performance and productivity. This study was performed in a cold food-storage warehouse complex in Tehran-Iran in order to evaluate the workers' exposure to cold stress. Twenty nine exposed workers and 33 non-exposed workers as control subject were included in this study. Climatic factors were measured based on ISO 7996 at the three levels of workers height. Physiological factor...

  7. Bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J; Barrett, M

    2015-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis has been described in mushrooms workers caused by exposure to mushroom or fungal spores in the compost used to grow mushrooms. We describe two mushroom workers who developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to exposure to avian proteins found in poultry manure which was used in producing mushroom compost. Both workers were employed in the compost production area. Both presented with typical features of HP. Both workers had negative serological and precipitin studies to Apergillus fumigatus, Saccarhopolyspora rectivirgula and thermophilic actinomycetes but had positive responses to poultry antibodies. Neither was exposed to mushroom spores. Both workers required initial therapy with corticosteroids. Relocation with avoidance of further exposure resulted in complete cure in one worker and change in work practice with the use of personal protections equipment resulted in the second workerclinical stabilisation. These are the first reported cases of bird fanciers lung in mushroom workers.

  8. Cytogenetic monitoring, radiosensitivity study and adaptive response of workers exposed to low level ionizing radiation; Monitorizacao citogenetica, estudo de radiossensibilidade e resposta adaptativa em profissionais expostos a baixos niveis de radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peitl Junior, Paulo

    1996-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were: To determine the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes from individuals belonging to professionally exposed groups, under normal conditions; to determine the possible differences in radiosensitivity between the lymphocytes of technicians and controls after in vitro irradiation with gamma rays during the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle (radiosensitivity study), and to examine the influence of in vivo and in vitro pre-exposure to low doses of radiation on the frequency of chromosome aberrations induced in vitro by high doses (study of the adaptive response) in a group of technicians (T) compared to controls (C). (author)

  9. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  10. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.

  11. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  12. Psychomotor Effects of Mixed Organic Solvents on Rubber Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Aminian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to organic solvents is common among workers. Objective: To assess neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents among rubber workers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 223 employees of a rubber industry. The participants completed a data collection sheet on their occupational and medical history, and demographic characteristics including age, work experience, education level; they performed 6 psychiatric tests on the neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton, eye-hand coordination (Purdue pegboard, pursuit aiming, and perceptual speed (digit symbol. Results: Workers exposed and not exposed to organic solvents had similar age and education distribution. The mean work experience of the exposed and non-exposed workers was 5.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. The exposed workers had a lower performance compared to non-exposed workers in all psychomotor tests. After controlling for the confounders by logistic regression analysis, it was found that exposure to organic solvents had a significant effect on the results of digit symbols, digit span, Benton, aiming, and simple reaction time tests. No significant effect was observed in pegboard test. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organic solvent can induce subtle neurobehavioral changes among workers exposed to organic solvents; therefore, periodical evaluation of the central nervous system by objective psychomotor tests is recommended among those who are chronically exposed to organic solvents.

  13. Respiratory effects among rubberwood furniture factory workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriproed, Salakjit; Osiri, Pramuk; Sujirarat, Dusit; Chantanakul, Suttinun; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Ong-artborirak, Parichat; Woskie, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function were examined among 89 rubberwood furniture factory workers. Acute and chronic irritant symptoms were assessed, lung function was measured both pre- and post-shift and personal inhalable dust exposure determined. The only symptoms with a significant increase among high dust level-exposed workers (>1 mg/m(3)) were those related to nasal irritation. High dust level-exposed workers had a significant cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) compared with low dust level-exposed workers and increases in inhalable dust concentration levels (mg/m(3)) were significantly associated with decreases in the peak expiratory flow (PEF) across the work shift. For percent predicted pulmonary function levels, a significant decrement in PEF was found for high versus low rubberwood dust level-exposed workers, after controlling for confounders. These findings suggest the need for an occupational standard for rubberwood dust in Thailand.

  14. A Case—Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Olsson; Hans Kromhout; Michela Agostini; Johnni Hansen; Christina Funch Lassen; Christoffer Johansen; Kristina Kjaerheim; Sverre Langård; Isabelle Stücker; Wolfgang Ahrens; Thomas Behrens; Marja-Liisa Lindbohm; Pirjo Heikkilä; Dick Heederik; Lützen Portengen; Judith Shaham; Gilles Ferro; Frank de Vocht; Igor Burstyn; Paolo Boffetta

    2010-01-01

    Background: We conducted a nested case—control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding...

  15. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  16. Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Boechat Coutinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos.PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease

  17. [Occupational exposure and male fertility. Results of an Italian multicenter study in an exposed population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrelli, G; Lauria, L; Figà-Talamanca, I

    2001-01-01

    It was believed that occupational exposure to several toxic agents could negatively affect male fertility. This paper reports the results of a study on the fertility of couples in whom the man was occupationally exposed to three different toxics: metals, solvents and pesticides, having effects on reproduction. Fertility was evaluated during the time that elapsed between attempting and achieving the first pregnancy of the couple (time to pregnancy--TTP). Exposure to occupational risks during the period preceding conception was defined on the basis of data collected from 153 workers of a mint (exposed to metal and solvents), 322 agricultural workers licensed to handle pesticides and 127 greenhouse workers. Comparing the groups exposed during the conception period with comparable non-exposed groups, we found a slight delay in conception among couples with male exposure to metals (OR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.5-3.6), to solvents (OR = 1.7; 95% CI 0.6-4.6) and to pesticides among greenhouse workers (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.8-3.1 for the moderately exposed and OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-5.1 for the heavily exposed). No increase in the risk of conception delay was observed in agricultural workers with generic exposure to pesticides. The results of this study suggest that the workers exposed to metals and solvents and greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides experienced a delay in conception at the time of their wives' first pregnancy.

  18. A produção científica sobre riscos ocupacionais a que estão expostos os trabalhadores de enfermagem La producción científica sobre riesgos ocupacionales a que están expuestos los trabajadores de enfermería The scientific production about occupational risks to which the nursing workers are exposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Ribeiro de Castro

    2008-06-01

    ó reducido énfasis dispensado a la subjetividad del trabajador de enfermería asociada a la temática estudiada, sugiriendo lagunas en esta área de conocimiento. Se hace necesaria la reflexión de estos riesgos en la enfermería, prestando atención para su identificación, detección y control.Study carried out on the Master of the Nursing College Anna Nery, inserted on the Research on Nursing and Worker Health Center of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Object: the scientific production about occupational risks to which the nursing workers are exposed Goals: surveying the scientific production of stricto sensu studies about the occupational risks among the nursing workers, identifying the approach (objective or subjective about these risks and analyze the risks presented. Bibliographical and quantitative study of the 42 abstracts published on the Unit of Nursing Studies and Researches from 1979 until 2004. More expressive risks: biological ones, followed by the chemical, psycho-social ones and, on lesser scale, physical, from accidents and ergonomic ones. A reduced emphasis is given to the subjectivity of the nursing worker associated to the studied subject, which suggests a gap on this domain of knowledge. It is necessary to reflect about these risks on nursing, paying attention to their identification, detection and control.

  19. Differences between day and nonday workers in exposure to physical and psychosocial work factors in the Danish eldercare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2009-01-01

    , and passive smoking. RESULTS: We found that-compared with day workers-fixed nonday workers were more exposed to low job control, low support from leaders, physical and psychological violence, and high physical demands. Nonday workers were, however, less exposed to high demands. These differences remained...

  20. Sanitary risk analysis for farm workers exposed to environmental pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascuzzi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, a large number of agricultural areas are contaminated by organic and inorganic polluting substances. In such areas, the agricultural operators come into contact with the environmental contaminants through inhalation and dermic contact with dusts and vapour, and this exposure can potentially alter the biological equilibrium with consequent poisonings and/or work-related illness. The aim of this paper is to apply a methodological procedure for the numerical evaluation of the health risk for agricultural employees operating in open fields or inside greenhouses located in areas contaminated with organic pollutants. This procedure is in response to the lack of calculation models concerning these types of environment and agricultural activities. As a case study, this methodology has been applied to an agricultural area of southern Italy characterised by the presence of pollutants. The results underline that in this area there is a smaller concentration of pollutants in open field cultivations than inside greenhouses owing to a phenomenon of dispersion into the atmosphere. This numeric analysis will later be verified by measurements carried out in situ in order to evaluate the real situation on the ground.

  1. Neurophysiological findings among workers exposed to organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelaeinen, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    Neurophysiological findings among patients with solvent poisoning and among groups with long-term occupational exposure to various solvents are reviewed. Hydrocarbons with six carbon atoms have been shown to cause peripheral neuropathy, which can be revealed with electroneurography and electromyography. Various mixtures of solvents and carbon disulfide have caused similar types of abnormalities. Abnormal electroencephalograms have been reported for patients with solvent poisoning and also connected to occupational exposure. Visual evoked potentials have rarely been applied to study of solvent effects, latency increases have been reported. Multiple lesions within the central and peripheral nervous system should arouse a thought of possible toxic etiology.

  2. Radiation dose assessment for occupationally exposed workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-31

    Jan 31, 2017 ... Introduction. Diagnostic radiology is the major practice involving ionising radiation in Malawi. The Country became an International. Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) member state in 2006 and developed the Atomic Energy Act and Regulations in 2011 and 2012, respectively.1 However, the regulatory ...

  3. [Myelofibrosis in a benzene-exposed cleaning worker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausà, Roser; Navarro, Lydia; Cortès-Franch, Imma

    Long-term exposure to benzene has been associated with several blood malignancies, including aplastic anemia, myeloproliferative neoplasms, and different leukemias. We present a case of primary myelofibrosis in a 59-year-old woman who worked as a cleaner at a car dealership and automobile mechanic shop. For 25 years, she used gasoline as a degreaser and solvent to clean engine parts, floors and work desks on a daily basis. She was referred by her primary care provider to the Occupational Health Unit of Barcelona to assess whether her illness was work-related. Review of her job history and working conditions revealed chronic exposure to benzene in the absence of adequate preventive measures. An association between benzene exposure and myeloproliferative disease was established, suspicious for an occupational disease. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  4. Radiation dose assessment for occupationally exposed workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-31

    Jan 31, 2017 ... Graduate School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana. 2. Radiation Protection ... Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana. Introduction ..... in Nepal, Journal of Medical Physics; October-December 2012, Vol. 37. Issue 4, p240. 8.

  5. Radiation dose assessment for occupationally exposed workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background The objective of this study was to assess individual doses received by radiographers, and the scattered radiation dose rate reaching the control panel in X-ray departments of three hospitals in Malawi, in-order to compare them against the internationally recommended limits. Methods Themoluminescent ...

  6. Does high involvement management improve worker wellbeing?

    OpenAIRE

    Böckerman, Petri; Bryson, Alex; Ilmakunnas, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Employees exposed to high involvement management (HIM) practices have higher subjective wellbeing, fewer accidents but more short absence spells than "like" employees not exposed to HIM. These results are robust to extensive work, wage and sickness absence history controls. We highlight the possibility of higher short-term absence in the presence of HIM because it is more demanding than standard production and because multi-skilled HIM workers cover for one another's short absences thus reduc...

  7. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P < 0.001). No difference in DNA damage was observed between workers exposed to natural woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers’ exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products. PMID:27398027

  8. A cytogenic monitoring approach of hospital workers occuptionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytogenic monitoring approach of hospital workers occuptionally exposed to ionizing radiations using micronucleus assay. Salma Sultana, Sadia Tabassum, Tayyaba Sultana, K. A. Al-Ghanim, Komal Shah, Tehniat Shahid, Shahid Mahboob ...

  9. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…

  10. Health effects of agrochemicals among farm workers in commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Farm workers are at a very high risk of occupational diseases due to exposure to pesticides resulting from inadequate education, training and safety systems. The farm worker spends a lot of time exposed to these harmful agrochemicals. Numerous acute cases with symptoms typical of agrochemical exposure ...

  11. Perception of environmental health risks among workers in a food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Workplace safety relies partially on workers' ability to recognize hazards that could result in personal injury. This study aimed to determine the perception of industrial workers to the environmental risks that they are exposed to and their practice of self protection through the use of PPE. Methods: It was a ...

  12. Occupational noise-induced hearing loss among workers at Jomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occupational noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) occurs among workers exposed to excessive amounts of noise for long durations. The average level of noise in some locations at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA) was above the safe limit of 85dB hence workers were thought to be at risk. Objective: To ...

  13. Prevalence of needle stick injuries among healthcare workers at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Healthcare workers (HCW) can easily contact infections with blood-borne pathogens such infections are hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), when health workers are exposed to occupational blood diseases through the use of sharp instruments and needle sticks.

  14. Alteraciones hematológicas en trabajadores expuestos ocupacionalmente a mezcla de benceno- tolueno-xileno (BTX en una fábrica de pinturas Blood disorders among workers exposed to a mixture of benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX in a paint factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Haro-García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar las tres series celulares sanguíneas e identificar la presencia de hipocromía, macrocitosis, leucopenia, linfocitopenia y trombocitopenia en un grupo de trabajadores expuestos a la mezcla de benceno-tolueno-xileno (BTX. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal donde se incluyó a 97 trabajadores de una empresa de pinturas de México a los que se les realizó una biometría hemática convencional y les fue estimada la exposición a través de la dosis diaria potencial acumulada para vapores de BTX. Resultados. Del total de trabajadores, 19,6%, mostró macrocitosis, 18,6%, linfocitopenia, 10,3% hipocromía, 7,2% trombocitopenia y 5,2% leucopenia. La asociación cruda de macrocitosis con exposición a dosis alta de mezcla de BTX fue la única significativa (OR:3,6; IC95%: 1,08 - 13,9; p=0,02 y en la que se estructuró un modelo de regresión logística (OR:6,7; IC95%: 1,33 - 13,55; p:0,02 ajustada por edad, consumo de alcohol y tabaquismo. Conclusiones. Todos los componentes citohemáticos analizados mostraron cambios leves; que podrían estar asociados con la exposición a la mezcla de BTX. De ellos, la macrocitosis podría constituirse en una manifestación precoz que merece ser vigilada.Objectives. Evaluate the three blood cell series and identify the presence of hypochromia, macrocytosis, leucopenia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytopenia in a group of workers exposed to the mixture of benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study which included 97 workers from a paint factory in Mexico. The participants underwent conventional blood count and tests for potential cumulative daily dose of BTX fumes, to estimate exposure. Results. From the total of workers, 19.6% showed macrocytosis, 18.6%, lymphopenia, hypochromia 10.3%, 7.2% and 5.2% thrombocytopenia leukopenia. The crude association of macrocytosis with exposure to high doses of BTX mixture was the only with statistical significance (OR: 3.6, 95

  15. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  16. Community Health Worker Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

    An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

  17. Girl domestic workers in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzungu, M

    1999-03-01

    This article exposes the conditions among children who are forced by their poor families to assume domestic work in households in Kenya. It is an accepted practice for parents to place daughters in households to help with housework and baby-sitting. The Sinaga Women and Child Labor Resource Center in Nairobi finds this exploitative and part of a wider practice that institutionalizes violence against women. The Center was established in 1995 to challenge the practice of child domestic labor. The Center's research reveals that child domestic workers tend to come from large, poor, and rural families or from urban slums. Wages are low or exchanged for shoes, clothes, and food. The hours of work are long. Mistreatment may include sexual molestation by male household members, beatings, verbal abuse, and mistrust. There is little recourse. Complaints from child workers or others outside the household can result in further mistreatment. Action against mistreatment is complicated by the prevailing image of activists as frustrated women with vendettas against men. The Center focuses on rehabilitation, literacy training, marketable skill development, and awareness creation. Counseling includes parents, children, and employers. Public awareness campaigns have resulted in employer referrals of youth workers for training. Other groups are joining the effort to improve conditions for child domestic workers.

  18. Occupational allergy in Strawberry Greenhouse workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Patiwael (Jiska); L.G.J. Vullings; N.W. de Jong (Nicolette); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); H. de Groot (Hans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Employees in strawberry greenhouses are highly exposed to several (potential) allergenic agents. However, no occupational allergy in this branch has been described before. First, the presence of work-related allergic symptoms in strawberry workers was explored. Second, we

  19. Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretveld, R.W.; Zielhuis, G.A.; Roeleveld, N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Female greenhouse workers, who constitute a major occupational group exposed to pesticides at childbearing age, were studied to measure the effects of pesticide exposure on time to pregnancy. METHODS: Data were collected through postal questionnaires with detailed questions on time to

  20. Cross-Sectional Study of Respiratory Symptoms, Spirometry, and Immunologic Sensitivity in Epoxy Resin Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Stella E; Barker, Elizabeth A; Robinson, Maura; Knight, Vijaya; Gaitens, Joanna; Sills, Michael; Duvall, Kirby; Rose, Cecile S

    2015-12-01

    An epoxy resin worker developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis requiring lung transplantation and had an abnormal blood lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) to an epoxy hardener. We assessed the prevalence of symptoms, abnormal spirometry, and abnormal epoxy resin LPT results in epoxy resin workers compared to unexposed workers. Participants completed questionnaires and underwent spirometry. We collected blood for epoxy resin LPT and calculated stimulation indices for five epoxy resin products. We compared 38 exposed to 32 unexposed workers. Higher exposed workers were more likely to report cough (OR 10.86, [1.23-infinity], p = 0.030) or wheeze (OR 4.44, [1.00-22.25], p = 0.049) than unexposed workers, even controlling for smoking. Higher exposed workers were more likely to have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers (OR 10.51, [0.86-589.9], p = 0.071), although not statistically significant when adjusted for smoking. There were no differences in proportion of abnormal epoxy resin system LPTs between exposed and unexposed workers. In summary, workers exposed to epoxy resin system chemicals were more likely to report respiratory symptoms and have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers. Use of epoxy resin LPT was not helpful as a biomarker of exposure and sensitization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cross‐Sectional Study of Respiratory Symptoms, Spirometry, and Immunologic Sensitivity in Epoxy Resin Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Elizabeth A.; Robinson, Maura; Knight, Vijaya; Gaitens, Joanna; Sills, Michael; Duvall, Kirby; Rose, Cecile S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives An epoxy resin worker developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis requiring lung transplantation and had an abnormal blood lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) to an epoxy hardener. We assessed the prevalence of symptoms, abnormal spirometry, and abnormal epoxy resin LPT results in epoxy resin workers compared to unexposed workers. Methods Participants completed questionnaires and underwent spirometry. We collected blood for epoxy resin LPT and calculated stimulation indices for five epoxy resin products. Results We compared 38 exposed to 32 unexposed workers. Higher exposed workers were more likely to report cough (OR 10.86, [1.23‐infinity], p = 0.030) or wheeze (OR 4.44, [1.00‐22.25], p = 0.049) than unexposed workers, even controlling for smoking. Higher exposed workers were more likely to have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers (OR 10.51, [0.86‐589.9], p = 0.071), although not statistically significant when adjusted for smoking. There were no differences in proportion of abnormal epoxy resin system LPTs between exposed and unexposed workers. Conclusions In summary, workers exposed to epoxy resin system chemicals were more likely to report respiratory symptoms and have abnormal FEV1 than unexposed workers. Use of epoxy resin LPT was not helpful as a biomarker of exposure and sensitization. PMID:26553118

  2. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  3. Transfer of chlorfenapyr among workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; Joseph E. Mulroonery; Terence L. Wagner

    2006-01-01

    The potential for transfer of chlorfenapyr among subterranean termites was investigated using a donor-recipient (5:95 ratio) experiment. In one experiment, workers of Reticulitermes flavipeS(Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to treated sand at 0,50,100,250, and 500 ppm chlorfenapyr (wt [AI] /wt sand). Exposed workers were allowed to...

  4. Quantification of Reduction in Forced Vital Capacity of Sand Stone Quarry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Purohit

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the reduction in forced vital capacity of lungs of sand stone quarry workers exposed to high respirable suspended particulate concentration. The sand stone quarry workers are engaged in different type of activities like drilling, loading and dressing. These different working places have different concentration of RSPM and these workers are exposed to different concentration of RSPM. It is found that exposure duration and exposure concentrations are main factors responsible to damage respiratory tract of worker. It is also revealed from the study that most of the workers are suffering from silicosis if the exposure duration is more than 15 years.

  5. Respiratory Disorders Among Workers in Slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaeinasab, Abbasali; Jahangiri, Mehdi; Karimi, Ali; Tabatabaei, Hamid Reza; Safari, Sonia

    2017-03-01

    Workers in slaughterhouses are exposed to a wide range of biological contaminants, such as bacteria and fungi, due to their working environment. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of respiratory disorders among workers in slaughterhouses. This study was conducted on 81 workers in slaughterhouses and 81 healthy office workers as a reference group. The American Thoracic Society standard respiratory symptoms questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of respiratory disorders. Besides, lung function tests were conducted using a calibrated spirometer at the beginning (preshift) and at the end (postshift) of the 1st working day. Single-stage Anderson sampler was used to measure the concentration of bioaerosols in different parts of slaughterhouses. The prevalence of respiratory disorders, such as cough, productive cough, breathlessness, phlegm, and wheezing, was 3.17, 4.02, 3.07, 4.66, and 3.94 times, respectively, higher among workers in slaughterhouses compared with the reference group. The prevalence of respiratory disorders was significantly higher among workers in slaughterhouses. Thus, the significant reduction in the percentage predicted lung function among workers in slaughterhouses might be associated with exposure to bioaerosols in their work environment.

  6. Analysis of risk management practices among extension workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All (100%) had postsecondary education qualification and the mean working experience was 13 years. The extension workers were exposed to hazards / risks such as accident on the farm, car/motor/bicycle accident, injury to the leg/hand, encounter with snakes/dangerous animals while on site, exposed to chemicals that ...

  7. DNA Damage among Wood Workers Assessed with the Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschweiler, Evin Danisman; Wild, Pascal; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Danuser, Brigitta; Hopf, Nancy B

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to wood dust, a human carcinogen, is common in wood-related industries, and millions of workers are occupationally exposed to wood dust worldwide. The comet assay is a rapid, simple, and sensitive method for determining DNA damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the DNA damage associated with occupational exposure to wood dust using the comet assay (peripheral blood samples) among nonsmoking wood workers (n = 31, furniture and construction workers) and controls (n = 19). DNA damage was greater in the group exposed to composite wood products compared to the group exposed to natural woods and controls (P woods and controls (P = 0.13). Duration of exposure and current dust concentrations had no effect on DNA damage. In future studies, workers' exposures should include cumulative dust concentrations and exposures originating from the binders used in composite wood products.

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological sequelae among world trade center clean up and recovery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Raz; Neria, Yuval; Tao, Xuguang Grant; Massa, Jennifer; Ashwell, Leslie; Davis, Kathleen; Geyh, Alison

    2006-07-01

    We assessed the health of workers exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) site and of a comparison group of unexposed workers, by means of a mail survey. Exposed workers reported higher frequency of symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and other psychological problems, approximately 20 months after the disaster. PTSD was positively associated with traumatic on-site experiences and with respiratory problems. These findings may have important clinical and public health implications.

  9. Identifying redundancy and exposing provenance in crowdsourced data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Ginosar, Shiry; Steinitz, Avital; Hartmann, Björn; Agrawala, Maneesh

    2013-12-01

    We present a system that lets analysts use paid crowd workers to explore data sets and helps analysts interactively examine and build upon workers' insights. We take advantage of the fact that, for many types of data, independent crowd workers can readily perform basic analysis tasks like examining views and generating explanations for trends and patterns. However, workers operating in parallel can often generate redundant explanations. Moreover, because workers have different competencies and domain knowledge, some responses are likely to be more plausible than others. To efficiently utilize the crowd's work, analysts must be able to quickly identify and consolidate redundant responses and determine which explanations are the most plausible. In this paper, we demonstrate several crowd-assisted techniques to help analysts make better use of crowdsourced explanations: (1) We explore crowd-assisted strategies that utilize multiple workers to detect redundant explanations. We introduce color clustering with representative selection--a strategy in which multiple workers cluster explanations and we automatically select the most-representative result--and show that it generates clusterings that are as good as those produced by experts. (2) We capture explanation provenance by introducing highlighting tasks and capturing workers' browsing behavior via an embedded web browser, and refine that provenance information via source-review tasks. We expose this information in an explanation-management interface that allows analysts to interactively filter and sort responses, select the most plausible explanations, and decide which to explore further.

  10. Prevalência de sintomas auditivos e vestibulares em trabalhadores expostos a ruído ocupacional Prevalencia de síntomas auditivos y vestibulares en trabajadores expuestos al ruido ocupacional Prevalence of auditory and vestibular symptoms among workers exposed to occupational noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Ogido

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi estimar a prevalência de sintomas auditivos e vestibulares em trabalhadores expostos a ruído ocupacional. Foram analisados os prontuários de 175 trabalhadores com perda auditiva induzida por ruído, atendidos em um centro de referência de saúde ocupacional de Campinas, SP, de 1997 a 2003. As variáveis estudadas foram freqüência dos sintomas de hipoacusia, zumbido e vertigem. As associações com idade, tempo de exposição ao ruído e limiares auditivos tonais foram analisadas utilizando-se os testes estatísticos qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher. Foram relatados hipoacusia em 74% dos casos, zumbidos em 81% e vertigem em 13,2 %. Verificou-se associação entre hipoacusia e idade, tempo de exposição ao ruído e limiares auditivos tonais e entre vertigem e tempo de exposição ao ruído, não sendo encontradas outras associações significativas.El objetivo del estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de síntomas auditivos y vestibulares en trabajadores expuestos al ruido ocupacional. Fueron analizados los prontuarios de 175 trabajadores con pérdida auditiva inducida por ruido, atendidos en un centro de referencia de salud ocupacional de Campinas, Sureste de Brasil, de 1997 a 2003. Las variables estudiadas fueron frecuencia de los síntomas de hipoacusia, zumbido y vértigo. Las asociaciones con edad, tiempo de exposición al rudio y límites auditivos tonales fueron analizados utilizándose las pruebas estadísticas chi-cuadrado y exacto de Fisher. Fueron relatados hipoacusia en 74% de los casos, zumbidos en 81% y vértigo en 13,2%. Se verificó asociación entre hipoacusia y edad, tiempo de exposición al ruido y límites auditivos tonales y entre vértigo y tiempo de exposición al ruido, no siendo encontradas otras asociaciones significativas.The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of auditory and vestibular symptoms in workers exposed to occupational noise. There were examined medical records of 175

  11. Study of Antioxidant Status in Morticians Exposed to Formaldehyde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Subacute and subchronic formaldehyde inhalation has been reported to deplete the activities of antioxidant enzymes, stimulate oxidative stress and thus promote genotoxicity, amongst others. AIM: To investigate the toxicity and pathobiology of inhaled chemicals in workers occupationally exposed to ...

  12. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  13. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  14. Skin cancer in rural workers: nursing knowledge and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVETo identify the exposure of rural workers to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; to identify previous cases of skin cancer; and to implement clinical and communicative nursing actions among rural workers with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer.METHODObservational-exploratory study conducted with rural workers exposed to ultraviolet radiation and pesticides in a rural area in the extreme south of Brazil. A clinical judgment and risk communication model properly adapted was used to develop interventions among workers with a previous history of skin cancer.RESULTSA total of 123 (97.7% workers were identified under conditions of exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and pesticides; seven (5.4% were identified with a previous diagnosis of skin cancer; four (57.1% of these presented potential skin cancer lesions.CONCLUSIONThis study's results enabled clarifying the combination of clinical knowledge and risk communication regarding skin cancer to rural workers.

  15. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  16. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  17. Cancer mortality among two different populations of French nuclear workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, Eric; Telle-Lamberton, Maylis; Caer-Lorho, Sylvaine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). DRPH, SRBE, LEPID; and others

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the effect of external photon radiation on the mortality of two populations of French nuclear workers: workers exposed only to external photon radiation and workers potentially exposed also to internal contamination or to neutrons. External photon radiation has been measured through individual dosimeters. Potential exposure to internal contamination or to neutrons has been assessed by experts on the basis of quantitative measurements or of worksite and type of activity. The mortality observed in each population was compared with that expected from national mortality statistics, by computing standardized mortality ratios. Dose-effect relationships were analyzed through trend tests and log-linear Poisson regressions. 14,796 workers were exposed only to external photon radiation; 14,408 workers were also potentially exposed to internal radiation or to neutrons. Between 1968 and 1994, the number of deaths is respectively, 645 and 1,197. The mean external photon dose was respectively, 3.7 and 12.9 mSv. Similar Healthy Worker Effects were observed in the two populations (SMR = 0.59). SMR of 2.41 90% CI [1.39-3.90] was observed for malignant melanoma among workers of the second population. Significant dose-effect relationships were observed: among workers exposed only to external photon radiation for leukemia except CLL and in the other population, for cancers and other diseases related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. Results differed between the two populations. The increase in leukemia risk with dose in the first population will have to be confirmed with extended follow-up. In the other population, results may have been confounded by alpha-emitters inhalation, tobacco, or alcohol consumption.

  18. Thyroid hormones in chronic heat exposed men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertner, A.; Israeli, R.; Lev, A.; Cassuto, Y.

    1983-03-01

    Previous reports have indicated that thyroid gland activity, is depressed in the heat. Total thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) serum levels in 17 workers of the metal work shop at a plant near the Dead Sea and 8 workers in Beer Sheva, Israel were examined. The metal workshop of the plant near the Dead Sea is part of a large chemical plant. The one in Beer Sheva is part of a large construction company. Maintenance work, as well as metal work projects are performed in both workshops. During the work shifts, the workers of the Dead Sea plant were exposed to temperatures ranging from 30 36°C (May Oct.) and 14 21°C (Dec. Feb). In Beer Sheva the range was 25 32°C (June Sept.) and 10 17°C (Dec. Feb.). Total T4 was measured by competitive protein binding and total T3 by radioimmunoassay in blood drawn before work (0700) in July and January. In summer. T4 was higher and T3 was lower for both groups than in winter. The observed summer T3 decrease may result from depressed extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3. We conclude that the regulation of energy metabolism in hot climates may be related to extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3.

  19. Neurobehavioural effects of industrial mixed solvent exposure in Chinese printing and paint workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, T.P.; Ong, S.G.; Lam, W.K.; Jones, G.M. (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore))

    1990-11-01

    Neurobehavioural symptoms and performance tests were evaluated in a group of 78 workers exposed to mixed organic solvents (printers, paint sprayers and paint production workers) and a referent group of 145 unexposed subjects (nonproduction factory workers and volunteer postal workers). Both groups were administered a structured symptoms questionnaire and eight neurobehavioural tests for psycho-motor function, visual and auditory memory. An excess of symptoms of fatigue, irritability, depression, poor memory, sleep disturbances and symptoms suggestive of autonomic dysfunction was found in the exposed group. Neurobehavioural test performance was generally worse, and performance on tests of psycho-motor function (choice reaction test and digit symbol) and auditory memory (digit span and associate learning) was significantly poorer in the exposed group. The findings support the view that apparently healthy and actively employed workers exposed to mixed solvents show neurobehavioural deficits.

  20. Effect of reduced illumination on insomnia in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Miura, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Masaya; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the possible effects of reduced illumination in the workplace on insomnia among office workers. Seventy-two office workers answered the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) in July 2009 (under ordinary illumination, 01 conditions) and July 2010 (under reduced illumination, Rl conditions). The workers were divided into three groups, indoor workers (IWs), semi-outdoor workers (SWs) and outdoor workers (OWs), according to the frequency of working outside of the office because a worker with a high frequency of working outside of the office might rarely be exposed to the lighting condition within an office. The first five items of the AIS (AIS-5) were used to assess sleep difficulties, and the last three items (AIS-3) assessed next-day consequences of sleep or daytime symptoms, which often result from insomnia and/or sleep disorders. Illuminance levels at a height of 1,100 mm from the floor under the Rl conditions (550-490 lux) were significantly lower than under the Ol conditions (750-700 lux). The AIS-5 score of the IWs was significantly increased under the Rl conditions compared with the Ol conditions. There was no difference in AIS-3 scores between conditions for any group. Indoor workers hardly went outside of the office and were exposed only to office light during the daytime. Thus, the underexposure to light could have had an impact on insomnia in those individuals. A novel lighting environment is required to optimize work-related levels of light exposure.

  1. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    CERN Document Server

    Thévenin, J C

    2003-01-01

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

  2. [Occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers of West Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomytkina, T E; Pershin, A N

    2010-01-01

    The high incidence of chronic digestive diseases is recorded in chemical industry workers exposed to the isolated action of noxious substances. The aim of the investigation was to make a hygienic assessment of the risk for occupational digestive diseases in chemical industry workers exposed to a combination of noxious drugs. The working conditions and the prevalence of digestive diseases were studied in 4120 workers engaged in chemical and auxiliary processes. Under the isolated action of noxious substances, the workers had an average of 35% increase in the incidence of digestive diseases than unexposed ones (p 4.0-11.1 and 3.5-10.7 times higher, respectively (p < 0.05) than in the unexposed subjects.

  3. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis among construction workers in India