Sample records for exponential type orbitals

  1. Molecular integrals for exponential-type orbitals using hyperspherical harmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales


    Exponential-type orbitals are better suited to calculations of molecular electronic structure than are Gaussians, since ETO's can accurately represent the behavior of molecular orbitals near to atomic nuclei, as well as their long-distance exponential decay. Orbitals based on Gaussians fail in both...... these respects. Nevertheless, Gaussian technology continues to dominate computational quantum chemistry, because of the ease with which difficult molecular integrals may be evaluated when Gaussians are used as a basis.In the present chapter, we hope to contribute to a new movement in quantum chemistry, in which......-dimensional hypersphere. Using this projection, Fock was able to show that the Fourier transforms of Coulomb Sturmian basis functions are very simply related to four-dimensional hyperspherical harmonics.With the help of Fock's relationships and the theory of hyperspherical harmonics we are able to evaluate molecular...

  2. Exponential law as a more compatible model to describe orbits of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeedi


    Full Text Available   According to the Titus-Bode law, orbits of planets in the solar system obey a geometric progression. Many investigations have been launched to improve this law. In this paper, we apply square and exponential models to planets of solar system, moons of planets, and some extra solar systems, and compare them with each other.

  3. From Exponential to Polynomial-Time Security Typing via Principal Types (United States)

    Hunt, Sebastian; Sands, David

    Hunt and Sands (POPL'06) studied a flow sensitive type (FST) system for multi-level security, parametric in the choice of lattice of security levels. Choosing the powerset of program variables as the security lattice yields a system which was shown to be equivalent to Amtoft and Banerjee's Hoare-style independence logic (SAS'04). Moreover, using the powerset lattice, it was shown how to derive a principal type from which all other types (for all choices of lattice) can be simply derived.Both of these earlier works gave "algorithmic" formulations of the type system/program logic, but both algorithms are of exponential complexity due to the iterative typing of While loops. Later work by Hunt and Sands (ESOP'08) adapted the FST system to provide an erasure type system which determines whether some input is correctly erased at a designated time. This type system is inherently exponential, requiring a double typing of the erasure-labelled input command. In this paper we start by developing the FST work in two key ways: (1) We specialise the FST system to a form which only derives principal types; the resulting type system has a simple algorithmic reading, yielding principal security types in polynomial time. (2) We show how the FST system can be simply extended to check for various degrees of termination sensitivity (the original FST system is completely termination insensitive, while the erasure type system is fully termination sensitive). We go on to demonstrate the power of these techniques by combining them to develop a type system which is shown to correctly implement erasure typing in polynomial time. Principality is used in an essential way to reduce type derivation size from exponential to linear.

  4. Razumikhin-Type Theorems on Exponential Stability of SDDEs Containing Singularly Perturbed Random Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Hu


    Full Text Available This paper concerns Razumikhin-type theorems on exponential stability of stochastic differential delay equations with Markovian switching, where the modulating Markov chain involves small parameters. The smaller the parameter is, the rapider switching the system will experience. In order to reduce the complexity, we will “replace” the original systems by limit systems with a simple structure. Under Razumikhin-type conditions, we establish theorems that if the limit systems are th-moment exponentially stable; then, the original systems are th-moment exponentially stable in an appropriate sense.

  5. Exponentiated distributions

    CERN Document Server

    AL-Hussaini, Essam K


    This book contains entirely new results, not to be found elsewhere. Furthermore, additional results scattered elsewhere in the literature are clearly presented. Several well-known distributions such as Weibull distributions, exponentiated Burr type XII distributions and exponentiated exponential distributions and their properties are demonstrated. Analysis of real as well as well-simulated data are analyzed. A number of inferences based on a finite mixture of distributions are also presented.

  6. Separation of type and grade in cervical tumours using non-mono-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfield, Jessica M.; Collins, David J.; Morgan, Veronica A.; DeSouza, Nandita M. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, MRI Unit, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); The Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Orton, Matthew R. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Ind, Thomas E.J. [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Gynaecology Unit, London (United Kingdom); Attygalle, Ayoma; Hazell, Steve [The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)


    Assessment of empirical diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) models in cervical tumours to investigate whether fitted parameters distinguish between types and grades of tumours. Forty-two patients (24 squamous cell carcinomas, 14 well/moderately differentiated, 10 poorly differentiated; 15 adenocarcinomas, 13 well/moderately differentiated, two poorly differentiated; three rare types) were imaged at 3 T using nine b-values (0 to 800 s mm{sup -2}). Mono-exponential, stretched exponential, kurtosis, statistical, and bi-exponential models were fitted. Model preference was assessed using Bayesian Information Criterion analysis. Differences in fitted parameters between tumour types/grades and correlation between fitted parameters were assessed using two-way analysis of variance and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, respectively. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred by 83 % of tumours with bi-exponential and stretched exponential models preferred by the largest numbers of tumours. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffusion coefficients from non-mono-exponential models were significantly lower in poorly differentiated tumours than well/moderately differentiated tumours. α (stretched exponential), K (kurtosis), f and D* (bi-exponential) were significantly different between tumour types. Strong correlation was observed between ADC and diffusion coefficients from other models. Non-mono-exponential models were preferred to the mono-exponential model in DW-MRI data from cervical tumours. Parameters of non-mono-exponential models showed significant differences between types and grades of tumours. (orig.)

  7. Exponential ratio-product type estimators under second order approximation in stratified random sampling


    Singh, Rajesh; Sharma, Prayas; Smarandache, Florentin


    Singh et al (20009) introduced a family of exponential ratio and product type estimators in stratified random sampling. Under stratified random sampling without replacement scheme, the expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) of Singh et al (2009) and some other estimators, up to the first- and second-order approximations are derived. Also, the theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example.

  8. Existence of multiple solutions to elliptic problems of Kirchhoff type with critical exponential growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Aouaoui


    Full Text Available In this article, we study elliptic problems of Kirchhoff type in dimension $ N \\geq 2$, whose nonlinear term has a critical exponential growth. Using variational tools, we establish the existence of at least two nontrivial and nonnegative solutions.

  9. Effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials as limit cases of a multiparameter exponential-type potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Ravelo, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Menéndez, A.; García-Martínez, J. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States)


    We show that the effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials can be obtained by taking particular limits of a multiparameter exponential potential that was studied recently. Moreover, we demonstrate that the bound state solutions of the exponential potential reduce correctly to their well-known counterparts associated with the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. As a byproduct, we obtain a new limit relation for the hypergeometric function. - Highlights: • Kratzer and Coulomb potentials are limit cases of an exponential-type potential. • From exact s-waves, approximate solutions for l-waves are obtained. • l-waves of the potential tend to the solutions of the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. • A non-evident identity between hypergeometric functions is demonstrated.

  10. Some possible q-exponential type probability distribution in the non-extensive statistical physics (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang


    In this paper, we present two exponential type probability distributions which are different from Tsallis’s case which we call Type I: one given by pi = 1 Zq[eq(Ei)]-β (Type IIA) and another given by pi = 1 Zq[eq(-β)]Ei (Type IIIA). Starting with the Boltzman-Gibbs entropy, we obtain the different probability distribution by using the Kolmogorov-Nagumo average for the microstate energies. We present the first-order differential equations related to Types I, II and III. For three types of probability distributions, we discuss the quantum harmonic oscillator, two-level problem and the spin-1 2 paramagnet.

  11. Modified Exponential Type Estimator for Population Mean Using Auxiliary Variables in Stratified Random Sampling


    Özel, Gamze


    In this paper, a new exponential type estimator is developed in the stratified random sampling for the population mean using auxiliary variable information. In order to evaluate efficiency of the introduced estimator, we first review some estimators and study the optimum property of the suggested strategy. To judge the merits of the suggested class of estimators over others under the optimal condition, simulation study and real data applications are conducted. The results show that the introduc...

  12. Gaussian-Type Orbitals versus Slater-Type Orbitals: A Comparison (United States)

    Magalha~es, Alexandre L.


    The advantages of Gaussian-type orbitals (GTO) over Slater-type orbitals (STO) in quantum chemistry calculations are clarified here by means of a holistic approach. The popular Microsoft Office Excel program was used to create an interactive application with which students are able to explore the features of GTO, including automatic calculations…

  13. Two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics based on the inverse exponential-type distributions using right censored sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Mohie El-Din


    Full Text Available In this paper, two sample Bayesian prediction intervals for order statistics (OS are obtained. This prediction is based on a certain class of the inverse exponential-type distributions using a right censored sample. A general class of prior density functions is used and the predictive cumulative function is obtained in the two samples case. The class of the inverse exponential-type distributions includes several important distributions such the inverse Weibull distribution, the inverse Burr distribution, the loglogistic distribution, the inverse Pareto distribution and the inverse paralogistic distribution. Special cases of the inverse Weibull model such as the inverse exponential model and the inverse Rayleigh model are considered.

  14. Hermite interpolation and an inequality for entire functions of exponential type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi I. Rahman


    Full Text Available Let c∈[0,1,p>0. It is shown that if f is an entire function of exponential type cmπ and ∑n=∞∞∑μ=0m−1|f(μ(λn|p0 for u≠0, then ∫−∞∞|f(x|pdxexponential type bounded at the points of the above sequence {λn}n∈ℤ .

  15. Novel Robust Exponential Stability of Markovian Jumping Impulsive Delayed Neural Networks of Neutral-Type with Stochastic Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fang


    Full Text Available The robust exponential stability problem for a class of uncertain impulsive stochastic neural networks of neutral-type with Markovian parameters and mixed time-varying delays is investigated. By constructing a proper exponential-type Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen integral inequality, free-weight matrix method, some novel delay-dependent stability criteria that ensure the robust exponential stability in mean square of the trivial solution of the considered networks are established in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. The proposed results do not require the derivatives of discrete and distributed time-varying delays to be 0 or smaller than 1. Moreover, the main contribution of the proposed approach compared with related methods lies in the use of three types of impulses. Finally, two numerical examples are worked out to verify the effectiveness and less conservativeness of our theoretical results over existing literature.

  16. Numerical evaluation of two-center integrals over Slater type orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, S. A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Natural Sciences Institute, Ondokuz Mayıs University, 55139, Samsun (Turkey); Yükçü, N., E-mail: [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Adıyaman University, 02040, Adıyaman (Turkey)


    Slater Type Orbitals (STOs) which one of the types of exponential type orbitals (ETOs) are used usually as basis functions in the multicenter molecular integrals to better understand physical and chemical properties of matter. In this work, we develop algorithms for two-center overlap and two-center two-electron hybrid and Coulomb integrals which are calculated with help of translation method for STOs and some auxiliary functions by V. Magnasco’s group. We use Mathematica programming language to produce algorithms for these calculations. Numerical results for some quantum numbers are presented in the tables. Consequently, we compare our obtained numerical results with the other known literature results and other details of evaluation method are discussed.

  17. Tables Of Gaussian-Type Orbital Basis Functions (United States)

    Partridge, Harry


    NASA technical memorandum contains tables of estimated Hartree-Fock wave functions for atoms lithium through neon and potassium through krypton. Sets contain optimized Gaussian-type orbital exponents and coefficients, and near Hartree-Fock quality. Orbital exponents optimized by minimizing restricted Hartree-Fock energy via scaled Newton-Raphson scheme in which Hessian evaluated numerically by use of analytically determined gradients.

  18. Bayesian and Non–Bayesian Estimation for Two Generalized Exponential Populations Under Joint Type II Censored Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kamel Ashour


    Full Text Available In this paper, Bayesian and non-Bayesian estimators have been obtained for two generalized exponential populations under joint type II censored scheme, which generalize results of Balakrishnan and Rasouli (2008 and Shafay et al. (2013. The maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs of the parameters and Bayes estimators have been developed under squared error loss function as well as under LINEX loss function. Moreover, approximate confidence region are also discussed and compared with two Bootstrap confidence regions. Also the MLE and three confidence intervals for the stress–strength parameter  are explored. A numerical illustration for these new results is given. 

  19. Role of exponential type random invexities for asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming. (United States)

    Verma, Ram U; Seol, Youngsoo


    First a new notion of the random exponential Hanson-Antczak type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity is introduced, which generalizes most of the existing notions in the literature, second a random function [Formula: see text] of the second order is defined, and finally a class of asymptotically sufficient efficiency conditions in semi-infinite multi-objective fractional programming is established. Furthermore, several sets of asymptotic sufficiency results in which various generalized exponential type [Formula: see text]-V-invexity assumptions are imposed on certain vector functions whose components are the individual as well as some combinations of the problem functions are examined and proved. To the best of our knowledge, all the established results on the semi-infinite aspects of the multi-objective fractional programming are new, which is a significantly new emerging field of the interdisciplinary research in nature. We also observed that the investigated results can be modified and applied to several special classes of nonlinear programming problems.

  20. Exponential families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.


    Exponential families of distributions are parametric dominated families in which the logarithm of probability densities take a simple bilinear form (bilinear in the parameter and a statistic). As a consequence of that special form, sampling models in those families admit a finite-dimensional

  1. Molecular integrals for slater type orbitals using coulomb sturmians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales


    The use of Slater type orbitals in molecular calculations is hindered by the slowness of integral evaluation. In the present paper, we introduce a method for overcoming this problem by expanding STO's in terms of Coulomb Sturmians, for which the problem of evaluating molecular integrals rapidly has...

  2. A Simulation Study Comparing Epidemic Dynamics on Exponential Random Graph and Edge-Triangle Configuration Type Contact Network Models (United States)

    Rolls, David A.; Wang, Peng; McBryde, Emma; Pattison, Philippa; Robins, Garry


    We compare two broad types of empirically grounded random network models in terms of their abilities to capture both network features and simulated Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic dynamics. The types of network models are exponential random graph models (ERGMs) and extensions of the configuration model. We use three kinds of empirical contact networks, chosen to provide both variety and realistic patterns of human contact: a highly clustered network, a bipartite network and a snowball sampled network of a “hidden population”. In the case of the snowball sampled network we present a novel method for fitting an edge-triangle model. In our results, ERGMs consistently capture clustering as well or better than configuration-type models, but the latter models better capture the node degree distribution. Despite the additional computational requirements to fit ERGMs to empirical networks, the use of ERGMs provides only a slight improvement in the ability of the models to recreate epidemic features of the empirical network in simulated SIR epidemics. Generally, SIR epidemic results from using configuration-type models fall between those from a random network model (i.e., an Erdős-Rényi model) and an ERGM. The addition of subgraphs of size four to edge-triangle type models does improve agreement with the empirical network for smaller densities in clustered networks. Additional subgraphs do not make a noticeable difference in our example, although we would expect the ability to model cliques to be helpful for contact networks exhibiting household structure. PMID:26555701

  3. Involvement of the eye and orbit in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaonker C


    Full Text Available 11 individuals were diagnosed to have neurofibromatosis type 1 and were examined for evidence of any ophthalmic lesions. Lisch nodules were the commonest manifestation of the disease and were present in 73% of all the patients (88% of those aged 16 years or more. 55% of the cases showed presence of neurofibroma on the lids. Other findings were optic glioma, unilateral sphenoid dysplasia with enlarged orbit, medullated nerve fibers and prominent corneal nerves with an incidence of 9% each.

  4. Large-scale computation of the exponentially expanding universe in a simplified Lorentzian type IIB matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Yuta; Tsuchiya, Asato


    The type IIB matrix model is a conjectured nonperturbative formulation of superstring theory. Recent studies on the Lorentzian version of the model have shown that only three out of nine spatial directions start to expand after some critical time. On the other hand, due to the unbounded action of the Lorentzian model, one has to introduce infrared (IR) cutoffs in order to make the partition function finite. In this work we investigate whether the effects of the IR cutoffs disappear in the infinite volume limit. For that purpose, we study a simplified model with large matrix size up to $N=256$ by Monte Carlo simulation. First we confirm the exponentially expanding behavior of the "universe". Then we generalize the form of the IR cutoffs by one parameter, and find that the results become universal in some region of the parameter. It is suggested that the effects of IR cutoffs disappear in this region, which is confirmed also from the studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations.

  5. Exponentiating Higgs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matone


    Full Text Available We consider two related formulations for mass generation in the U(1 Higgs–Kibble model and in the Standard Model (SM. In the first formulation there are no scalar self-interactions and, in the case of the SM, the formulation is related to the normal subgroup of G=SU(3×SU(2×U(1, generated by (e2πi/3I,−I,eπi/3∈G, that acts trivially on all the fields of the SM. The key step of our construction is to relax the non-negative definiteness condition for the Higgs field due to the polar decomposition. This solves several stringent problems, that we will shortly review, both at the non-perturbative and perturbative level. We will show that the usual polar decomposition of the complex scalar doublet Φ should be done with U∈SU(2/Z2≃SO(3, where Z2 is the group generated by −I, and with the Higgs field ϕ∈R rather than ϕ∈R≥0. As a byproduct, the investigation shows how Elitzur theorem may be avoided in the usual formulation of the SM. It follows that the simplest lagrangian density for the Higgs mechanism has the standard kinetic term in addition to the mass term, with the right sign, and to a linear term in ϕ. The other model concerns the scalar theories with normal ordered exponential interactions. The remarkable property of these theories is that for D>2 the purely scalar sector corresponds to a free theory.

  6. Exponentiating Higgs (United States)

    Matone, Marco


    We consider two related formulations for mass generation in the U (1) Higgs-Kibble model and in the Standard Model (SM). In the first formulation there are no scalar self-interactions and, in the case of the SM, the formulation is related to the normal subgroup of G = SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1), generated by (e 2 πi / 3 I , - I ,e πi / 3) ∈ G, that acts trivially on all the fields of the SM. The key step of our construction is to relax the non-negative definiteness condition for the Higgs field due to the polar decomposition. This solves several stringent problems, that we will shortly review, both at the non-perturbative and perturbative level. We will show that the usual polar decomposition of the complex scalar doublet Φ should be done with U ∈ SU (2) /Z2 ≃ SO (3), where Z2 is the group generated by -I, and with the Higgs field ϕ ∈ R rather than ϕ ∈R≥0. As a byproduct, the investigation shows how Elitzur theorem may be avoided in the usual formulation of the SM. It follows that the simplest lagrangian density for the Higgs mechanism has the standard kinetic term in addition to the mass term, with the right sign, and to a linear term in ϕ. The other model concerns the scalar theories with normal ordered exponential interactions. The remarkable property of these theories is that for D > 2 the purely scalar sector corresponds to a free theory.

  7. Combining Slater-type orbitals and effective core potentials (United States)

    Lesiuk, Michał; Tucholska, Aleksandra M.; Moszynski, Robert


    We present a general methodology to evaluate matrix elements of the effective core potentials (ECPs) within a one-electron basis set of Slater-type orbitals (STOs). The scheme is based on translation of individual STO distributions in the framework of the Barnett-Coulson method. We discuss different types of integrals which naturally appear and reduce them to a few basic quantities which can be calculated recursively or purely numerically. Additionally, we consider evaluation of the STOs matrix elements involving the core polarization potentials and effective spin-orbit potentials. Construction of the STOs basis sets designed specifically for use with ECPs is discussed and differences in comparison with all-electron basis sets are briefly summarized. We verify the validity of the present approach by calculating excitation energies, static dipole polarizabilities, and valence orbital energies for the alkaline-earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba). Finally, we evaluate interaction energies, permanent dipole moments, and ionization energies for barium and strontium hydrides, and compare them with the best available experimental and theoretical data.

  8. Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guochang


    This is the first book of the satellite era which describes orbit theory with analytical solutions of the second order with respect to all possible disturbances. Based on such theory, the algorithms of orbits determination are completely revolutionized.

  9. Surprisingly Rapid Orbital Evolution: A Compendium of Solar Type Binaries (United States)

    Samec, Ronald George


    Solar type binaries are believed to be undergoing steady but slow angular momentum losses due to magnetic braking (Réville et al. 2015, Jiang et al. 2014) as stellar winds leave radially away on semi-rigid (out to the Alfvén radius) bipolar field lines: There is an outward radial flow of ions along the rotating magnetic fields. This is happening simultaneously as the gravitationally locked binary rotates about its center of mass. The stream of ions spiral outward resulting in a resistant torque, causing a decay in the orbital radius along with a period decrease due to Kepler’s laws. My past studies have included more than 25 binaries that appear to be undergoing magnetic braking. I have extended the number of systems to 75+ in this group by perusing the literature of modern precision synthetic light curve studies. Several interesting facts arise including their surprisingly rapid orbital evolution, much faster than would be suggested by the theory. Further results are presented in this study.

  10. Orbital


    Yourshaw, Matthew Stephen


    Orbital is a virtual reality gaming experience designed to explore the use of traditional narrative structure to enhance immersion in virtual reality. The story structure of Orbital was developed based on the developmental steps of 'The Hero's Journey,' a narrative pattern identified by Joseph Campbell. Using this standard narrative pattern, Orbital is capable of immersing the player quickly and completely for the entirety of play time. MFA


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Dubyna


    Full Text Available The norm of morphometric indicators of bone structures of an orbit for population of 96 people at the age of 48,6 ± 3,2 years without pathology of craniofacial area is established by method of a computer tomography. Means, confidence intervals (р = 0,05, correlation and reliability of distinctions in morphometric indicators of a skull and an orbit by groups on types of cranium are defined. In frequency distribution of the studied population by types of cranium brachiocephalic people are 63 %, dolichocephalic – 27% and mesocephalic – 10 %. In groups by types of cranium among linear indicators of an orbit length of a medial wall statistically reliable decreases from dolichocephals to brachiocephals, length of lateral wall, orbital floor and roof and also orbital breadth – from mesocephals to brachiocephals. Orbital height between groups’ types of cranium reliable does not differ. An angle between medial and lateral walls of orbit statistically reliable increases from dolichocephalic persons to brachiocephalic. The interrelation of changes of an angle of orbital entrance inclination and types of cranium is not observed. The number of statistically significant correlations between morphometric indicators of an orbit increases from dolichocephals to brachiocephals at the absence of a reliable difference between them. Average degree correlation is noted only between orbital breadth and lengths of medial wall and orbital floor; orbital depth and lengths of the orbital floor and roof; between lengths of the orbital floor and roof – at brachiocephals, and also between lengths of the orbital floor and roof – at dolichocephals and mesocephals. The conclusion is drawn that when planning reconstructive operations at bone structures of an orbit it is necessary to consider the available distinctions in length of lateral wall, orbital roof and floor, height and breadth and value of an angle between medial and lateral walls by types of cranium.

  12. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbachev, D V; Ivanov, V I [Tula State University, Tula (Russian Federation)


    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  13. Orbital (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.


    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  14. Exponential analysis in physical phenomena (United States)

    Istratov, Andrei A.; Vyvenko, Oleg F.


    Many physical phenomena are described by first-order differential equations whose solution is an exponential decay. Determining the time constants and amplitudes of exponential decays from the experimental data is a common task in semiconductor physics (deep level transient spectroscopy), biophysics (fluorescence decay analysis), nuclear physics and chemistry (radioactive decays, nuclear magnetic resonance), chemistry and electrochemistry (reaction kinetics) and medical imaging. This review article discusses the fundamental mathematical limitations of exponential analysis, outlines the critical aspects of acquisition of exponential transients for subsequent analysis, and gives a comprehensive overview of numerical algorithms used in exponential analysis. In the first part of the article the resolution of exponential analysis as a function of noise in input decays is discussed. It is shown that two exponential decays can be resolved in a transient only if the ratio of their time constants is greater than the resolution limit, which can be explicitly calculated from the signal-to-noise ratio in the transient. Although the signal-to-noise ratio is generally limited by the sensitivity of the equipment, it is shown that digitalization of the decays may be a major source of noise. The requirements for type of analog-to-digital converter, number of digitized data points and duration of digitized transients, which must be met to obtain the theoretical resolution limit and to improve stability of the exponential analysis, are formulated. The second part of the review article gives an overview and comparison of major numerical techniques of exponential analysis, such as the nonlinear least squares fit, the Prony method, the method of modulating functions, the method of moments, the Laplace-Padé approximation, the Tikhonov regularization method, the Gardner transformation, the method of maximum entropy and others.

  15. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima


    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  16. Orbital-type trapping of elastic Lamb waves. (United States)

    Lomonosov, Alexey M; Yan, Shi-Ling; Han, Bing; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Shen, Zhong-Hua


    The interaction of laser-generated Lamb waves propagating in a plate with a sharp-angle conical hole was studied experimentally and numerically. Part of the energy of the incident wave is trapped within the conic area in two ways: the antisymmetric Lamb wave orbiting the center of the hole and the wave localized at the acute edge. Parameters and conditions for optimal conversion of the incident wave into the trapped modes were studied in this work. Experiments were performed using the laser stroboscopic shearography technique, which delivers the time evolution of the acoustic field in the whole area of interest. The effect of trapping can be used for efficient damping, similar to the one-dimensional acoustical black hole effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytic Evaluation of some 2-, 3- and 4- Electron Atomic Integrals Containing Exponentially Correlated Functions of $r_{ij}$

    CERN Document Server

    Padhy, Bholanath


    A simple method is outlined for analytic evaluation of the basic 2-electron atomic integral with integrand containing products of atomic s-type Slater orbitals and exponentially correlated function of the form $r_{ij} exp(-\\lambda_{ij}r_{ij})$, by employing the Fourier representation of $exp(-\\lambda_{ij}r_{ij})/r_{ij}$ without the use of either the spherical harmonic addition theorem or the Feynman technique. This method is applied to obtain closed-form expressions, in a simple manner, for certain other 2-,3- and 4-electron atomic integrals with integrands which are products of exponentially correlated functions and atomic s-type Slater orbitals.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuntz, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019-0059 (United States)


    In the first paper of this series, a comprehensive approach has been provided for the study of S-type and P-type habitable regions in stellar binary systems, which was, however, restricted to circular orbits of the stellar components. Fortunately, a modest modification of the method also allows for the consideration of elliptical orbits, which of course entails a much broader range of applicability. This augmented method is presented here, and numerous applications are conveyed. In alignment with Paper I, the selected approach considers a variety of aspects, which comprise the consideration of a joint constraint including orbital stability and a habitable region for a possible system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ). The devised method is based on a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are deduced for which kinds of systems S-type and P-type habitable zones are realized. If the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of orbital stability, the notation of ST-type and PT-type habitability applies. In comparison to the circular case, it is found that in systems of higher eccentricity, the range of the RHZs is significantly reduced. Moreover, for a considerable number of models, the orbital stability constraint also reduces the range of S-type and P-type habitability. Nonetheless, S-, P-, ST-, and PT-type habitability is identified for a considerable set of system parameters. The method as presented is utilized for BinHab, an online code available at The University of Texas at Arlington.

  19. Method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis (United States)

    Junkin, B. G.


    Two computer programs developed according to two general types of exponential models for conducting nonlinear exponential regression analysis are described. Least squares procedure is used in which the nonlinear problem is linearized by expanding in a Taylor series. Program is written in FORTRAN 5 for the Univac 1108 computer.

  20. Typical Orbits of Quadratic Polynomials with a Neutral Fixed Point: Brjuno Type (United States)

    Cheraghi, Davoud


    We describe the topological behavior of typical orbits of complex quadratic polynomials {P_{α}(z) = e^{2 π α {i}} z + z2}, with α of high return type. Here we prove that for such Brjuno values of α the closure of the critical orbit, which is the measure theoretic attractor of the map, has zero area. Then we show that the limit set of the orbit of a typical point in the Julia set of P α is equal to the closure of the critical orbit. Our method is based on the near parabolic renormalization of Inou-Shishikura, and a uniform optimal estimate on the derivative of the Fatou coordinate that we prove here.

  1. Recurrent orbital adult-type fibrosarcoma in a 3-year-old girl. (United States)

    Hussain, Rehan M; Erickson, Benjamin P; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Dubovy, Sander R; Johnson, Thomas E


    A 3-year-old Filipino girl presented with progressive left-sided ptosis and proptosis after resection of a superomedial orbital tumor 2.5 years ago. She had been followed with serial MRI, which demonstrated interval growth of a recurrent lesion. Repeat resection was undertaken via an eyelid-splitting anterior orbitotomy. The patient's pediatric oncologist and sarcoma specialist did not recommend adjuvant chemotherapy, and the family declined proton radiotherapy. The patient will continue to be monitored with serial imaging. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were most consistent with a diagnosis of adult-type fibrosarcoma. This is the first reported case of adult-type fibrosarcoma presenting in the orbit of a child. Fibrosarcoma is a fibroblast-derived tumor that commonly presents in the extremities, usually in patients in their fourth to sixth decades. It is rarely seen in the orbit, with the largest case series to date only including 5 patients.

  2. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid


    utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  3. Calculation of photoionization differential cross sections using complex Gauss-type orbitals. (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Rei; Yabushita, Satoshi


    Accurate theoretical calculation of photoelectron angular distributions for general molecules is becoming an important tool to image various chemical reactions in real time. We show in this article that not only photoionization total cross sections but also photoelectron angular distributions can be accurately calculated using complex Gauss-type orbital (cGTO) basis functions. Our method can be easily combined with existing quantum chemistry techniques including electron correlation effects, and applied to various molecules. The so-called two-potential formula is applied to represent the transition dipole moment from an initial bound state to a final continuum state in the molecular coordinate frame. The two required continuum functions, the zeroth-order final continuum state and the first-order wave function induced by the photon field, have been variationally obtained using the complex basis function method with a mixture of appropriate cGTOs and conventional real Gauss-type orbitals (GTOs) to represent the continuum orbitals as well as the remaining bound orbitals. The complex orbital exponents of the cGTOs are optimized by fitting to the outgoing Coulomb functions. The efficiency of the current method is demonstrated through the calculations of the asymmetry parameters and molecular-frame photoelectron angular distributions of H2+ and H2 . In the calculations of H2 , the static exchange and random phase approximations are employed, and the dependence of the results on the basis functions is discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Orbital-angular-momentum mixing in type-II second-harmonic generation (United States)

    Pereira, Leonardo J.; Buono, Wagner T.; Tasca, Daniel S.; Dechoum, Kaled; Khoury, Antonio Z.


    We investigate the nonlinear mixing of orbital angular momentum in type-II second-harmonic generation with arbitrary topological charges imprinted on two orthogonally polarized beams. Starting from the basic nonlinear equations for the interacting fields, we derive the selection rules determining the set of paraxial modes taking part in the interaction. Conservation of orbital angular momentum naturally appears as the topological charge selection rule. However, a less intuitive rule applies to the radial orders when modes carrying opposite helicities are combined in the nonlinear crystal, an intriguing feature confirmed by experimental measurements.

  5. Dressed gluon exponentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E


    Perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of differential cross-sections close to a kinematic threshold are studied applying ``dressed gluon exponentiation'' (DGE). The factorization property of soft and collinear gluon radiation is demonstrated using the light-cone axial gauge: it is shown that the singular part of the squared matrix element for the emission of an off-shell gluon off a nearly on-shell quark is universal. We derive a generalized splitting function that describes the emission probability and show how Sudakov logs emerge from the phase-space boundary where the gluon transverse momentum vanishes. Both soft and collinear logs associated with a single dressed gluon are computed through a single integral over the running-coupling to any logarithmic accuracy. The result then serves as the kernel for exponentiation. The divergence of the perturbative series in the exponent indicates specific non-perturbative corrections. We identify two classes of observables according to whether the radiation is fro...

  6. Exponential Series Without Denominators


    Loday, Jean-Louis


    International audience; For a commutative algebra which comes from a Zinbiel algebra the exponential series can be written without denominators. When lifted to dendriform algebras this new series satisfies a functional equation analogous to the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We make it explicit by showing that the obstruction series is the sum of the brace products. In the multilinear case we show that the role the Eulerian idempotent is played by the iterated pre-Lie product.

  7. Dynamics of Flexible MLI-type Debris for Accurate Orbit Prediction (United States)


    piece of space junk (a paint fleck) during the STS-7 mission (Photo: NASA Orbital Debris Program Office...Fig. 2. (a) Hole made by debris in the panel of NASA’s Solar Max experiment. (b) Window of the space shuttle damaged by a tiny piece of space junk ...term propagation of a particular type of space debris, made of multi-layer insulation (MLI) foils, originated from delamination from ageing spacecraft

  8. Chaos and Exponentially Localized Eigenstates in Smooth Hamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Santhanam, M S; Lakshminarayan, A


    We present numerical evidence to show that the wavefunctions of smooth classically chaotic Hamiltonian systems scarred by certain simple periodic orbits are exponentially localized in the space of unperturbed basis states. The degree of localization, as measured by the information entropy, is shown to be correlated with the local phase space structure around the scarring orbit; indicating sharp localization when the orbit undergoes a pitchfork bifurcation and loses stability.

  9. Exponential Cauchy Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Bachir Yallaoui


    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a new class of analytic functions of the unit disc $mathbf{D}$ namely the Exponential Cauchy Transforms $mathbf{{K}_{e}}$ defined by f(z= {displaystyleint_{mathbf{T}}} expleft[ Kleft( xzight ight] dmu(x where $Kleft( zight =left( 1-zight ^{-1}$ is classical Cauchy kernel and $mu(x$ is a complex Borel measures and $x$ belongs to the unit circle $mathbf{T}$ . We use Laguerre polynomials to explore the coefficients of the Taylor expansions of the kernel and Peron's formula to study the asymptotic behavior of the Taylor coefficients. Finally we investigate relationships between our new class $mathbf{{K}_{e}}$, the classical Cauchy space $mathbf{K}$ and the Hardy spaces $H^{p}$.

  10. Exponential beams of electromagnetic radiation


    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo; Bialynicka-Birula, Zofia


    We show that in addition to well known Bessel, Hermite-Gauss, and Laguerre-Gauss beams of electromagnetic radiation, one may also construct exponential beams. These beams are characterized by a fall-off in the transverse direction described by an exponential function of rho. Exponential beams, like Bessel beams, carry definite angular momentum and are periodic along the direction of propagation, but unlike Bessel beams they have a finite energy per unit beam length. The analysis of these beam...

  11. MHD free convection flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshiniski type dusty gas through a semi infinite plate moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time and radiative heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash


    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the study of MHD free convective flow of a visco-elastic (Kuvshinski type dusty gas through a porous medium induced by the motion of a semi-infinite flat plate under the influence of radiative heat transfer moving with velocity decreasing exponentially with time. The expressions for velocity distribution of a dusty gas and dust particles, concentration profile and temperature field are obtained. The effect of Schmidt number (Sc, Magnetic field parameter (M and Radiation parameter (N on velocity distribution of dusty gas and dust particles, concentration and temperature distribution are discussed graphically.

  12. An improved permutation-diffusion type image cipher with a chaotic orbit perturbing mechanism. (United States)

    Chen, Jun-xin; Zhu, Zhi-liang; Fu, Chong; Yu, Hai


    During the past decades, chaos-based permutation-diffusion type image cipher has been widely investigated to meet the increasing demand for real-time secure image transmission over public networks. However, the existing researches almost exclusively focus on the improvements of the permutation and diffusion methods independently, without consideration of cooperation between the two processes. In this paper, an improved permutation-diffusion type image cipher with a chaotic orbit perturbing mechanism is proposed. In the permutation stage, pixels in the plain image are shuffled with a pixel-swapping mechanism, and the pseudorandom locations are generated by chaotic logistic map iteration. Furthermore, a plain pixel related chaotic orbit perturbing mechanism is introduced. As a result, a tiny change in plain image will be spread out during the confusion process, and hence an effective diffusion effect is introduced. By using a reverse direction diffusion method, the introduced diffusion effect will be further diffused to the whole cipher image within one overall encryption round. Simulation results and extensive cryptanalysis justify that the proposed scheme has a satisfactory security with a low computational complexity, which renders it a good candidate for real-time secure image storage and distribution applications.

  13. A method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis (United States)

    Junkin, B. G.


    A computer-oriented technique is presented for performing a nonlinear exponential regression analysis on decay-type experimental data. The technique involves the least squares procedure wherein the nonlinear problem is linearized by expansion in a Taylor series. A linear curve fitting procedure for determining the initial nominal estimates for the unknown exponential model parameters is included as an integral part of the technique. A correction matrix was derived and then applied to the nominal estimate to produce an improved set of model parameters. The solution cycle is repeated until some predetermined criterion is satisfied.

  14. Exponential Data Fitting and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, Victor


    Real and complex exponential data fitting is an important activity in many different areas of science and engineering, ranging from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics to Electrical and Chemical Engineering, Vision and Robotics. The most commonly used norm in the approximation by linear combinations of exponentials is the l2 norm (sum of squares of residuals), in which case one obtains a nonlinear separable least squares problem. A number of different methods have been proposed through the years to solve these types of problems and new applications appear

  15. Deep lateral wall orbital decompression following strabismus surgery in patients with Type II ophthalmic Graves' disease. (United States)

    Ellis, Michael P; Broxterman, Emily C; Hromas, Alan R; Whittaker, Thomas J; Sokol, Jason A


    Surgical management of ophthalmic Graves' disease traditionally involves, in order, orbital decompression, followed by strabismus surgery and eyelid surgery. Nunery et al. previously described two distinct sub-types of patients with ophthalmic Graves' disease; Type I patients exhibit no restrictive myopathy (no diplopia) as opposed to Type II patients who do exhibit restrictive myopathy (diplopia) and are far more likely to develop new-onset worsening diplopia following medial wall and floor decompression. Strabismus surgery involving extra-ocular muscle recession has, in turn, been shown to potentially worsen proptosis. Our experience with Type II patients who have already undergone medial wall and floor decompression and strabismus surgery found, when additional decompression is necessary, deep lateral wall decompression (DLWD) appears to have a low rate of post-operative primary-gaze diplopia. A case series of four Type II ophthalmic Graves' disease patients, all of whom had already undergone decompression and strabismus surgery, and went on to develop worsening proptosis or optic nerve compression necessitating further decompression thereafter. In all cases, patients were treated with DLWD. Institutional Review Board approval was granted by the University of Kansas. None of the four patients treated with this approach developed recurrent primary-gaze diplopia or required strabismus surgery following DLWD. While we still prefer to perform medial wall and floor decompression as the initial treatment for ophthalmic Graves' disease, for proptosis following consecutive strabismus surgery, DLWD appears to be effective with a low rate of recurrent primary-gaze diplopia.

  16. Studies of early-type variable stars. XIV. Spectroscopic orbit and absolute parameters of HU Tauri. (United States)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Hill, G.; Hilditch, R. W.


    We present a new spectroscopic orbit for the Algol-type eclipsing binary system HU Tau (HD 29365, P=2.0563 days α(2000.0) = 04 38 15.80, δ= +20 41 05.3, V=5.87-6.8, B8V + G2). We find : m_1_ sin^3^i=4.17+/-0.09Msun_, m_2_ sin^3^i=1.07+/-0.025Msun_, (a_p_+a_s_)sin i=11.8 +/-0.1Rsun_, m_1_/m_2_=3.90+/-0.07. The spectroscopic orbit includes corrections for non-Keplerian effects derived from the solutions of the BV light curves of Ito (1988). We have been able to derive much improved absolute parameters for this system as follows: M_1_=4.43+/-0.09Msun_, M_2_=1.14+/-0.03Msun_, R _1_=2.57+/-0.03Rsun_, R _2_=4.21+/-0.03Rsun_, log(L_1_/Lsun_)= 2.09+/-0.15, log(L_2_/Lsun_)= 0.92+/-0.05. Comparison of HU Tau with non-conservative case B evolution models of De Greve (1993) suggests that the system evolved from an initial mass ratio <~0.5. However, the orbital period of HU Tau is more than 3 days shorter than any of the model systems, and the observed secondary luminosity of order 10 times less than a model star of the same mass during the slow mass transfer phase.

  17. Function Estimation Employing Exponential Splines (United States)

    Dose, V.; Fischer, R.


    We introduce and discuss the use of the exponential spline family for Bayesian nonparametric function estimation. Exponential splines span the range of shapes between the limiting cases of traditional cubic spline and piecewise linear interpolation. They are therefore particularly suited for problems where both, smooth and rapid function changes occur.

  18. Photometric study and orbital period analysis of the W UMa type contact binary VZ Psc (United States)

    Ma, S.; Li, K.; Li, Q.-C.; Gao, H.-Y.


    VZ Psc is a W-type contact binary system with a short period of 0.26125897 days. B, V, Rc and Ic light curves of the eclipsing binary system were obtained by using the 1.0 m reflecting telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University. By collecting 136 times of minimum light, we studied the orbital period change of VZ Psc. A sinusoidal variation was discovered in the O - C diagram, and the amplitude of 0.d0023 and the period of 17.7 year were obtained. This can be caused by Applegate mechanism or light-time effect. Both the mechanisms are suited according to our investigation, but we prefer the latter that the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body results in the cyclic variation. By using the W-D program, we analyzed the four color light curves. Because of the asymmetric light curves and the possible third body, we used the spot mode of W-D program with and without L3. We found that a hot spot on the primary component with the third light leads to the best result. A very high filling factor of 94.4% ± 2.8% and orbit inclination of 53.2° were obtained.

  19. Orbital period variations of two W UMa-type binaries: UY UMa and EF Boo (United States)

    Yu, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Hu, Ke; Xiang, Fu-Yuan


    The orbital period variations of two W UMa-type contact binaries, UY UMa and EF Boo, are analyzed by using all available times of light minimum. It is detected that the general trends of their (O - C) curves show an upward parabolic variation, which reveals their continuous period increases at the rates of dP / dt = 2.545 ×10-7 days yr-1 and dP / dt = 2.623 ×10-7 days yr-1 , respectively. Meanwhile, UY UMa also shows a cyclic period variation with a small amplitude of A = 0.0026 days superposed on the long-term increase. Due to their contact configurations, the secular period increases are interpreted as a result of mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. The cyclic period variation of UY UMa may be interpreted in terms of either the magnetic activity or the light time effect.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Early-type EBs with intermediate orbital periods (Moe+, 2015) (United States)

    Moe, M.; Di Stefano, R.


    In this study, we select the NB~96000 systems in the OGLE-I catalog (Udalski et al. 2008AcA....58...89U) with mean magnitudes 16.0V-IP) and typical dust reddenings E(V-I)~0.1-0.3 mag toward hot young stars in the LMC (Zaritsky et al. J/AJ/128/1606), these stars have luminosities and surface temperatures that correspond to B-type MS primaries. From this sample, we analyze the 221 systems that were identified as EBs with orbital periods P=20-50 days (Graczyk et al. 2011, J/AcA/61/103). (2 data files).

  1. [Orbital cellulitis]. (United States)

    Mouriaux, F; Rysanek, B; Babin, E; Cattoir, V


    Orbital cellulitis is uncommon in ophthalmologic practice. The majority of cases arise from direct spread of sinus infection or eyelid infection. Clinically, orbital cellulitis is divided into two forms: the preseptal form, anterior to the orbital septum, and the retroseptal form, posterior to the orbital septum. Management and prognosis differ widely between the two types. The retroseptal form or "true" orbital cellulitis is a severe disease with potentially disastrous consequences for vision and survival. Clinical examination and urgent CT scanning are indispensable for correct diagnosis, evaluation of severity, surgical planning and antibiotic selection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. On Geodesic Exponential Kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Lauze, François; Hauberg, Søren


    This extended abstract summarizes work presented at CVPR 2015 [1]. Standard statistics and machine learning tools require input data residing in a Euclidean space. However, many types of data are more faithfully represented in general nonlinear metric spaces or Riemannian manifolds, e.g. shapes......, symmetric positive definite matrices, human poses or graphs. The underlying metric space captures domain specific knowledge, e.g. non-linear constraints, which is available a priori. The intrinsic geodesic metric encodes this knowledge, often leading to improved statistical models....

  3. Accurate and balanced anisotropic Gaussian type orbital basis sets for atoms in strong magnetic fields. (United States)

    Zhu, Wuming; Trickey, S B


    In high magnetic field calculations, anisotropic Gaussian type orbital (AGTO) basis functions are capable of reconciling the competing demands of the spherically symmetric Coulombic interaction and cylindrical magnetic (B field) confinement. However, the best available a priori procedure for composing highly accurate AGTO sets for atoms in a strong B field [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 022504 (2014)] yields very large basis sets. Their size is problematical for use in any calculation with unfavorable computational cost scaling. Here we provide an alternative constructive procedure. It is based upon analysis of the underlying physics of atoms in B fields that allow identification of several principles for the construction of AGTO basis sets. Aided by numerical optimization and parameter fitting, followed by fine tuning of fitting parameters, we devise formulae for generating accurate AGTO basis sets in an arbitrary B field. For the hydrogen iso-electronic sequence, a set depends on B field strength, nuclear charge, and orbital quantum numbers. For multi-electron systems, the basis set formulae also include adjustment to account for orbital occupations. Tests of the new basis sets for atoms H through C (1 ≤ Z ≤ 6) and ions Li + , Be + , and B + , in a wide B field range (0 ≤ B ≤ 2000 a.u.), show an accuracy better than a few μhartree for single-electron systems and a few hundredths to a few mHs for multi-electron atoms. The relative errors are similar for different atoms and ions in a large B field range, from a few to a couple of tens of millionths, thereby confirming rather uniform accuracy across the nuclear charge Z and B field strength values. Residual basis set errors are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the electronic correlation energies in multi-electron atoms, a signal of the usefulness of the new AGTO basis sets in correlated wavefunction or density functional calculations for atomic and molecular systems in an external strong B

  4. Orbital decomposition of CALIFA spiral galaxies (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; van den Bosch, Remco; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Meidt, Sharon E.; Martig, Marie; Shen, Juntai; Li, Zhao-Yu; Yildirim, Akin; Walcher, C. Jakob; Sanchez, Sebastian F.


    Schwarzschild orbit-based dynamical models are widely used to uncover the internal dynamics of early-type galaxies and globular clusters. Here we present for the first time the Schwarzschild models of late-type galaxies: an SBb galaxy NGC 4210 and an S0 galaxy NGC 6278 from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. The mass profiles within 2Re are constrained well with 1σ statistical error of ˜ 10 per cent. The luminous and dark mass can be disentangled with uncertainties of ˜20 and ˜ 50 per cent, respectively. From Re to 2Re, the dark matter fraction increases from 14 ± 10 to 18 ± 10 per cent for NGC 4210 and from 15 ± 10 to 30 ± 20 per cent for NGC 6278. The velocity anisotropy profiles of both σr/σt and σz/σR are well constrained. The inferred internal orbital distributions reveal clear substructures. The orbits are naturally separated into three components: a cold component with near circular orbits; a hot component with near radial orbits and a warm component in between. The photometrically identified exponential discs are predominantly made up of cold orbits only beyond ˜1Re, while they are constructed mainly with the warm orbits inside. Our dynamical hot components are concentrated in the inner regions, similar to the photometrically identified bulges. The reliability of the results, especially the orbit distribution, is verified by applying the model to mock data.

  5. Experimental investigation of spin-orbit coupling in n-type PbTe quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, M. L.; Monteiro, H. S.; Castro, S. de [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Federal University of Itajubá, PB 50, 37500-903 Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Chitta, V. A.; Oliveira, N. F. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, PB 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mengui, U. A.; Rappl, P. H. O.; Abramof, E. [Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, PB 515, 12201-970 São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Maude, D. K. [Grenoble High Magnetic Field Laboratory, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)


    The spin-orbit coupling is studied experimentally in two PbTe quantum wells by means of weak antilocalization effect. Using the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model through a computational global optimization procedure, we extracted the spin-orbit and inelastic scattering times and estimated the strength of the zero field spin-splitting energy Δ{sub so}. The values of Δ{sub so} are linearly dependent on the Fermi wave vector (k{sub F}) confirming theoretical predictions of the existence of large spin-orbit coupling in IV-VI quantum wells originated from pure Rashba effect.

  6. Matrix-exponential distributions in applied probability

    CERN Document Server

    Bladt, Mogens


    This book contains an in-depth treatment of matrix-exponential (ME) distributions and their sub-class of phase-type (PH) distributions. Loosely speaking, an ME distribution is obtained through replacing the intensity parameter in an exponential distribution by a matrix. The ME distributions can also be identified as the class of non-negative distributions with rational Laplace transforms. If the matrix has the structure of a sub-intensity matrix for a Markov jump process we obtain a PH distribution which allows for nice probabilistic interpretations facilitating the derivation of exact solutions and closed form formulas. The full potential of ME and PH unfolds in their use in stochastic modelling. Several chapters on generic applications, like renewal theory, random walks and regenerative processes, are included together with some specific examples from queueing theory and insurance risk. We emphasize our intention towards applications by including an extensive treatment on statistical methods for PH distribu...

  7. Klebsiella pneumoniae orbital cellulitis with extensive vascular occlusions in a patient with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Yang, Sae Jeong; Park, Soo Yeon; Lee, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hee Young; Seo, Ji A; Kim, Sin Gon; Choi, Dong Seop


    A 39-year-old woman visited the emergency room complaining of right eye pain and swelling over the preceding three days. The ophthalmologist's examination revealed orbital cellulitis and diabetic retinopathy in the right eye, although the patient had no prior diagnosis of diabetes. It was therefore suspected that she had diabetes and orbital cellulitis, and she was started on multiple antibiotic therapies initially. She then underwent computed tomography scans of the orbit and neck and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. These studies showed an aggravated orbital cellulitis with abscess formation, associated with venous thrombophlebitis, thrombosis of the internal carotid artery, and mucosal thickening of maxillary sinus with multiple paranasal abscesses. Three days later, initial blood culture grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. She recovered after incision and drainage and antibiotic therapy for 37 days.

  8. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya


    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  9. On commuting operator exponentials, II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 1. On Commuting Operator Exponentials, II. Fotios C Paliogiannis. Volume 123 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 27-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  10. On commuting operator exponentials, II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    p. 268 of. [8]). In the present paper we are concerned with the reverse implication, when A and B are normal operators. Commuting exponentials of bounded normal operators have been studied in [4], [5] and [9]. Here, we extend these results to ...

  11. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...

  12. Partial Generalized Probability Weighted Moments for Exponentiated Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Mohamed El Haroun


    Full Text Available The generalized probability weighted moments are widely used in hydrology for estimating parameters of flood distributions from complete sample. The method of partial generalized probability weighted moments was used to estimate the parameters of distributions from censored sample. This article offers new method called partial generalized probability weighted moments (PGPWMs for the analysis of censored data. The method of PGPWMs is an extended class from partial generalized probability weighted moments. To illustrate the new method, estimation of the unknown parameters from exponentiated exponential distribution based on doubly censored sample is considered. PGPWMs estimators for right and left censored samples are obtained as special cases.   Simulation study is conducted to investigate performance of estimates for exponentiated exponential distribution. Comparison between estimators is made through simulation via their biases and  mean square errors. An illustration with real data is provided. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"جدول عادي"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  13. Homoclinic orbit solutions of a one Dimensional Wilson-Cowan type model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P. Krisner


    Full Text Available We analyze a time independent integral equation defined on a spatially extended domain which arises in the modelling of neuronal networks. In this paper, the coupling function is oscillatory and the firing rate is a smooth "heaviside-like" function. We will derive an associated fourth order ODE and establish that any bounded solution of the ODE is also a solution of the integral equation. We will then apply shooting arguments to prove that the ODE has N-bump homoclinic orbit solutions for any even-valued N>0. homoclinic orbit.

  14. Limit laws for exponential families


    Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.


    For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...

  15. Exponentially Stabilizing Robot Control Laws (United States)

    Wen, John T.; Bayard, David S.


    New class of exponentially stabilizing laws for joint-level control of robotic manipulators introduced. In case of set-point control, approach offers simplicity of proportion/derivative control architecture. In case of tracking control, approach provides several important alternatives to completed-torque method, as far as computational requirements and convergence. New control laws modified in simple fashion to obtain asymptotically stable adaptive control, when robot model and/or payload mass properties unknown.

  16. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    In this article we consider the distributions of non-negative random vectors with a joint rational Laplace transform, i.e., a fraction between two multi-dimensional polynomials. These distributions are in the univariate case known as matrix-exponential distributions, since their densities can be ...... for the multivariate normal distribution. However, the proof is different and involves theory for rational function based on continued fractions and Hankel determinants....

  17. Animal-type malignant melanoma associated with nevus of Ota in the orbit of a Japanese woman: a case report (United States)

    Kashima, Tomoyuki; Mayuzumi, Hideyasu; Akiyama, Hideo; Miyanaga, Tomomi; Hirato, Junko; Kishi, Shoji


    We present a patient with an animal-type malignant melanoma associated with the nevus of Ota in the orbit who showed a good prognosis after a combination of orbital extirpation, chemotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, and gamma knife. A 42-year-old Japanese woman presented with two tumors, one pathologically diagnosed as right-sided intraconal animal-type malignant melanoma and the other intracranially, presumed to be of the same pathogenesis and both were considered to have arisen from the nevus of Ota. She underwent an extirpation of the orbit, chemotherapy (DAV therapy, which is a combination of dacarbazine, nimustine, and vincristine), stereotactic radiotherapy (54 Gy in 27 fractions), and gamma knife (marginal dose was 17 Gy, target volume was 0.2 ml). She has been alive for 33 months since the extirpation, with no sign of local recurrence, new metastasis, nor enlargement of the intracranial tumor. Not just combination therapy but also the low malignancy of animal-type melanoma may have contributed toward the good prognosis. PMID:24686419

  18. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana


    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  19. Orbital metastasis revealing an undifferenciated Carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: a case report. (United States)

    Turki, Senda; Mardassi, Ali; Abouda, Maher; Hachicha, Amani; Ben Jallel, Wady


    The evolution of the undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NPC) is marked by the occurrence of regional or distant metastasis. We report a rare observation of bilateral orbital metastasis of NPC. Clinical symptoms were ocular proptosis, blurred vision and eye redness. Imaging permitted to precise the extensions of the tumor which was classified T4N1M1 after clinical and paraclinical exams. The treatment consisted of concomitant radiochemotherapy. The evolution didn't revealed recurrence of the disease after 18 months.

  20. Cosmology in (R) Exponential Gravity (United States)

    Jaime, Luisa; Salgado, Marcelo; Patiño, Leonardo

    Using an approach that treats the Ricci scalar itself as a degree of freedom, we analyze the cosmological evolution within an f(R) model that has been proposed recently (exponential gravity) and that can be viable for explaining the accelerated expansion and other features of the Universe. This approach differs from the usual scalar-tensor method and, among other things, it spares us from dealing with unnecessary discussions about frames. It also leads to a simple system of equations which is particularly suited for a numerical analysis.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Georgakarakos, Nikolaos, E-mail:, E-mail: [128 V. Olgas str., Thessaloniki 546 45 (Greece)


    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  2. Extended generalized exponential power series distribution (United States)

    Kunjiratanachot, Natcha; Bodhisuwan, Winai


    In this paper, we introduce the Topp-Leone generalized exponential power series class of distributions. It is obtained by compounding the Topp-Leone generalized exponential distribution and the power series family. This new class of distributions can be applied in reliability of parallel system with identical components, where lifetime of each component has the Topp-Leone generalized exponential distribution. The proposed distribution contains several lifetime models such as the Topp-Leone generalized exponential-geometric, Topp-Leone generalized exponential-binomial,Topp-Leone generalized exponential-poisson, and Topp-Leone generalized exponential-logarithmic distributions as special cases. The hazard function of the new distributions can be increasing, decreasing, and v shaped. We obtain several properties of this distributions such as probability density function, quantile and moments. The parameter estimation using maximum likelihood estimation is discussed. Some real datasets are illustrated the flexibility and potentiality of the Topp-Leone generalized exponential power series class of distributions.

  3. On the use of Abelian point group symmetry in density-fitted local MP2 using various types of virtual orbitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Köppl, Christoph; Werner, Hans-Joachim [Institut für Theoretische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    Electron correlation methods based on symmetry-adapted canonical Hartree-Fock orbitals can be speeded up significantly in the well known group theoretical manner, using the fact that integrals vanish unless the integrand is totally symmetric. In contrast to this, local electron correlation methods cannot benefit from such simplifications, since the localized molecular orbitals (LMOs) generally do not transform according to irreducible representations of the underlying point group symmetry. Instead, groups of LMOs become symmetry-equivalent and this can be exploited to accelerate local calculations. We describe an implementation of such a symmetry treatment for density-fitted local Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, using various types of virtual orbitals: Projected atomic orbitals, orbital specific virtuals, and pair natural orbitals. The savings by the symmetry treatment are demonstrated by calculations for several large molecules having different point group symmetries. Benchmarks for the parallel execution efficiency of our method are also presented.

  4. About periodic and quasi-periodic orbits of a new type for twist maps of the torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available We prove that for a large and important class of C¹ twist maps of the torus periodic and quasi-periodic orbits of a new type exist, provided that there are no rotational invariant circles (R.I.C's. These orbits have a non-zero "vertical rotation number'' (V.R.N., in contrast to what happens to Birkhoff periodic orbits and Aubry-Mather sets. The V.R.N. is rational for a periodic orbit and irrational for a quasi-periodic. We also prove that the existence of an orbit with a V.R.N = a > 0, implies the existence of orbits with V.R.N = b, for all 0 Provamos que para uma relevante classe de aplicações C¹ no toro, que desviam a vertical para a direita, existem órbitas periódicas e quase-periódicas de um novo tipo, se e somente se, não existem círculos rotacionais invariantes. Essas órbitas têm um número de rotação vertical não nulo (N.R.V, em contraste com o que ocorre para órbitas periódicas do tipo Birkhoff e para os conjuntos de Aubry-Mather. O número de rotação vertical é racional para uma órbita periódica e irracional para uma quase-periódica. Também provamos que a existência de uma órbita com N.R.V = a implica a existência de órbitas com N.R.V = b, para todo 0 < b < a. Como consequência destes resultados, obtemos que uma aplicação do toro que desvia a vertical e não possui círculos rotacionais invariates, necessariamente tem entropia topológica positiva, que é um resultado clássico. No fim deste trabalho apresentamos aplicações e exemplos, como o Standard map, dos resultados obtidos.

  5. Coarse Grained Exponential Variational Autoencoders

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ke


    Variational autoencoders (VAE) often use Gaussian or category distribution to model the inference process. This puts a limit on variational learning because this simplified assumption does not match the true posterior distribution, which is usually much more sophisticated. To break this limitation and apply arbitrary parametric distribution during inference, this paper derives a \\\\emph{semi-continuous} latent representation, which approximates a continuous density up to a prescribed precision, and is much easier to analyze than its continuous counterpart because it is fundamentally discrete. We showcase the proposition by applying polynomial exponential family distributions as the posterior, which are universal probability density function generators. Our experimental results show consistent improvements over commonly used VAE models.

  6. Biphasic truncated exponential waveform defibrillation. (United States)

    White, R D; Blanton, D M


    This paper presents data from studies that have compared the efficacies of biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) and monophasic damped sine (MDS) waveform defibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in in-hospital defibrillation. When a shock is delivered, rhythms evolve rapidly in a variety of directions and take different courses, even over a short time. When defibrillation is defined as termination of ventricular fibrillation at 5 seconds postshock, whether to an organized rhythm or asystole, low-energy BTE shocks appear to be more effective than high-energy MDS shocks in out-of-hospital arrest. For future research, the terms associated with defibrillation should be standardized and used uniformly by all investi-gators. In particular, there should be an agreed-upon definition of shock efficacy.

  7. Exponential networks and representations of quivers (United States)

    Eager, Richard; Selmani, Sam Alexandre; Walcher, Johannes


    We study the geometric description of BPS states in supersymmetric theories with eight supercharges in terms of geodesic networks on suitable spectral curves. We lift and extend several constructions of Gaiotto-Moore-Neitzke from gauge theory to local Calabi-Yau threefolds and related models. The differential is multi-valued on the covering curve and features a new type of logarithmic singularity in order to account for D0-branes and non-compact D4-branes, respectively. We describe local rules for the three-way junctions of BPS trajectories relative to a particular framing of the curve. We reproduce BPS quivers of local geometries and illustrate the wall-crossing of finite-mass bound states in several new examples. We describe first steps toward understanding the spectrum of framed BPS states in terms of such "exponential networks".

  8. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.


    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip; Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Close, Laird M.; Eisner, Josh A. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Esposito, Simone [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556 (United States); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); and others


    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, K{sub s}-, and L′-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.″09. The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ∼7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0 ± 0.5 primary and K6.5 ± 0.5 secondary are 0.83 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙} and 0.64 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙}, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87 ± 0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ∼500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group, and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits.

  10. A super-jupiter orbiting a late-type star: A refined analysis of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapras, Y.; Street, R. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Choi, J.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Bozza, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica " E. R. Caianiello," Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II n. 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Dominik, M.; Browne, P.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Beaulieu, J.-P. [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Jørgensen, U. G. [Niels Bohr Institute, Astronomical Observatory, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Bramich, D. M.; Kains, N. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Ipatov, S.; Alsubai, K. A. [Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Snodgrass, C. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Steele, I. A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Collaboration: RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; μFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; and others


    We present a detailed analysis of survey and follow-up observations of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406 based on data obtained from 10 different observatories. Intensive coverage of the light curve, especially the perturbation part, allowed us to accurately measure the parallax effect and lens orbital motion. Combining our measurement of the lens parallax with the angular Einstein radius determined from finite-source effects, we estimate the physical parameters of the lens system. We find that the event was caused by a 2.73 ± 0.43 M {sub J} planet orbiting a 0.44 ± 0.07 M {sub ☉} early M-type star. The distance to the lens is 4.97 ± 0.29 kpc and the projected separation between the host star and its planet at the time of the event is 3.45 ± 0.26 AU. We find that the additional coverage provided by follow-up observations, especially during the planetary perturbation, leads to a more accurate determination of the physical parameters of the lens.

  11. The exponential age distribution and the Pareto firm size distribution


    Coad, Alex


    Recent work drawing on data for large and small firms has shown a Pareto distribution of firm size. We mix a Gibrat-type growth process among incumbents with an exponential distribution of firm's age, to obtain the empirical Pareto distribution.

  12. Exponential stability of dynamic equations on time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffoul Youssef N


    Full Text Available We investigate the exponential stability of the zero solution to a system of dynamic equations on time scales. We do this by defining appropriate Lyapunov-type functions and then formulate certain inequalities on these functions. Several examples are given.

  13. Seasonal trends of ACSPO VIIRS SST product characterized by the differences in orbital overlaps for various water types (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ignatov, Alexander; Cayula, Jean François


    The uncertainty of the Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) products from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite is examined using consecutive orbital overlaps in coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The overlapping region on the left and right side of the VIIRS swath at 23-35 degree latitude covers approximately 500 pixels, which occur within 100 minutes and can provide a total of 4 SST products (2 day and 2 night) per day. By assuming the ocean SST should be similar on each side of the swath in this short time period, diel changes are examined and the uncertainty of SST retrieval is determined by comparing with buoy-derived SST. The VIIRS ACSPO product from NOAA STAR was used to determine the difference in SST within the overlapping regions. These SST changes are evaluated between consecutive orbits to validate the accuracy of SST algorithms on each side of the swath at high sensor angles. The SST product differences across the swath can result from surface glint, sensor angular impacts and sensor characteristics such as half angle mirror side (HAM) and calibration. The absolute diurnal SST changes that can occur within 100 minutes are evaluated with the buoy and VIIRS-derived SST. Sensitivity of the SST to water types is evaluated by measuring diurnal differences for open ocean, shelf and coastal waters. The 100 minute VIIRS SST overlap shows the capability to monitor the diurnal ocean heating and cooling which are associated with water mass optical absorption. The seasonal trends of the difference in SST at the overlaps for these water masses were tracked on a monthly basis. The unique capability of using the same VIIRS sensor for self-characterization can provide a method to define the uncertainty of ocean products and characterize the diurnal changes for different water types.

  14. Orbital experiment ``Gravisensor'': phototropic reactions of the moss Physcomitrella patens to different types of LED lighting. (United States)

    Nikitin, Vladimir; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Skripnikov, Alexander; Zyablova, Natalya; Mukhoyan, Makar; Emelianov, Grigory

    The experiment was conducted on Russian Biological Satelite Bion-M #1 19.04-19.05 2013. Five transparent plastic cultural flasks were placed in five light isolated sections of Biocont-B2 cylindrical container with inner diameter of 120 mm and height of 230 mm. In four sections the flasks could be illuminated by top or side LED with wavelength of 458 nm, 630 nm, 730 nm, and white (color temperature 5000º К, peaks 453, 559 nm). Photon flux in each variant was 15 umol/(m2c). In the fifth section the flask with the shoots was in conditions of constant dark. Each section was equipped with its own video camera module. Cameras, video recorder and lighting were managed by micro controller. 12 days before launch, 5 tips of the moss shoots were explanted at each of the five flasks on the agar medium with nutrient components and were cultivated under white fluorescent lamps at 12 hour photo period till the launch. After entering the orbit and during next 14 days of flight top LEDs were turned on above the flasks. Then for the following 14 days of flight the side LEDs of similar wavelength were turned on. The moss gametophores were cultivated at 12-h photoperiod. During the experiment on an hourly basis a video recording of the moss was performed. Similar equipment was used for ground control. After the experiment video files were used to produce separate time-lapse films for each flask using AviSynth program. In flight the shoots demonstrated the maximum growth speed with far red lighting and slower speed with white lighting. With blue and red lighting after switching to side light stimuli the growth of shoots almost stopped. In the dark the shoots continued to grow until the 13 day after launch of the satellite, then their growth stopped. In ground control the relation of growth rate with various LEDs remained basically the same, with the exception of side blue lighting, where the shoots demonstrated considerable vertical growth. In flight the angle of inclination towards

  15. The Matrix exponential, Dynamic Systems and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    The matrix exponential can be found in various connections in analysis and control of dynamic systems. In this short note we are going to list a few examples. The matrix exponential usably pops up in connection to the sampling process, whatever it is in a deterministic or a stochastic setting...

  16. Multivariate Exponential Autoregressive and Autoregressive Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes with multivariate exponential (ME) distribution are presented and discussed. The theory of positive dependence is used to show that in many cases, multivariate exponential autoregressive (MEAR) and multivariate autoregressive moving average ...

  17. Multivariate Marshall and Olkin Exponential Minification Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stationary bivariate minification process with bivariate Marshall-Olkin exponential distribution that was earlier studied by Miroslav et al [15]is in this paper extended to multivariate minification process with multivariate Marshall and Olkin exponential distribution as its stationary marginal distribution. The innovation and the ...

  18. Exponential function method for solving nonlinear ordinary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A new approach, named the exponential function method (EFM) is used to obtain solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients in a semi-infinite domain. The form of the solutions of these problems is considered to be an expansion of exponential functions with unknown coefficients.

  19. V346 Centauri: Early-type eclipsing binary with apsidal motion and abrupt change of orbital period (United States)

    Mayer, Pavel; Harmanec, Petr; Wolf, Marek; Nemravová, Jana; Prša, Andrej; Frémat, Yves; Zejda, Miloslav; Liška, Jiři; Juryšek, Jakub; Hoňková, Kateřina; Mašek, Martin


    New physical elements of the early B-type eclipsing binary V346 Cen are derived using the HARPS spectra downloaded from the ESO archive and also numerous photometric observations from various sources. A model of the observed times of primary and secondary minima that fits them best is a combination of the apsidal motion and an abrupt decrease in the orbital period from 6.^d322123 to 6.^d321843 (shortening by 24 s), which occurred somewhere around JD 2 439 000. Assumption of a secularly decreasing orbital period provides a significantly worse fit. Local times of minima and the final solution of the light curve were obtained with the program PHOEBE. Radial velocities of both binary components, free of line blending, were derived via 2D cross-correlation with a program built on the principles of the program TODCOR. The oxygen lines in the secondary spectra are weaker than those in the model spectra of solar chemical composition. Using the component spectra disentangled with the program KOREL, we find that both components rotate considerably faster than would correspond to the synchronization at periastron. The apside rotation known from earlier studies is confirmed and compared to the theoretical value. Based on observations made with the ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 083.D-0040(A), 085.C-0614(A), and 178.D-0361(B).Tables A.2-A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  20. On the performance of exponential integrators for problems in magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Einkemmer, Lukas; Tokman, Mayya; Loffeld, John


    Exponential integrators have been introduced as an efficient alternative to explicit and implicit methods for integrating large stiff systems of differential equations. Over the past decades these methods have been studied theoretically and their performance was evaluated using a range of test problems. While the results of these investigations showed that exponential integrators can provide significant computational savings, the research on validating this hypothesis for large scale systems and understanding what classes of problems can particularly benefit from the use of the new techniques is in its initial stages. Resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling is widely used in studying large scale behavior of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. In many problems numerical solution of MHD equations is a challenging task due to the temporal stiffness of this system in the parameter regimes of interest. In this paper we evaluate the performance of exponential integrators on large MHD problems and compare them to a state-of-the-art implicit time integrator. Both the variable and constant time step exponential methods of EPIRK-type are used to simulate magnetic reconnection and the Kevin-Helmholtz instability in plasma. Performance of these methods, which are part of the EPIC software package, is compared to the variable time step variable order BDF scheme included in the CVODE (part of SUNDIALS) library. We study performance of the methods on parallel architectures and with respect to magnitudes of important parameters such as Reynolds, Lundquist, and Prandtl numbers. We find that the exponential integrators provide superior or equal performance in most circumstances and conclude that further development of exponential methods for MHD problems is warranted and can lead to significant computational advantages for large scale stiff systems of differential equations such as MHD.

  1. Computing multiple integrals involving matrix exponentials (United States)

    Carbonell, F.; Jimenez, J. C.; Pedroso, L. M.


    In this paper, a generalization of a formula proposed by Van Loan [Computing integrals involving the matrix exponential, IEEE Trans. Automat. Control 23 (1978) 395-404] for the computation of multiple integrals of exponential matrices is introduced. In this way, the numerical evaluation of such integrals is reduced to the use of a conventional algorithm to compute matrix exponentials. The formula is applied for evaluating some kinds of integrals that frequently emerge in a number classical mathematical subjects in the framework of differential equations, numerical methods and control engineering applications.

  2. Comparing exponential and exponentiated models of drug demand in cocaine users. (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W


    Drug purchase tasks provide rapid and efficient measurement of drug demand. Zero values (i.e., prices with zero consumption) present a quantitative challenge when using exponential demand models that exponentiated models may resolve. We aimed to replicate and advance the utility of using an exponentiated model by demonstrating construct validity (i.e., association with real-world drug use) and generalizability across drug commodities. Participants (N = 40 cocaine-using adults) completed Cocaine, Alcohol, and Cigarette Purchase Tasks evaluating hypothetical consumption across changes in price. Exponentiated and exponential models were fit to these data using different treatments of zero consumption values, including retaining zeros or replacing them with 0.1, 0.01, or 0.001. Excellent model fits were observed with the exponentiated model. Means and precision fluctuated with different replacement values when using the exponential model but were consistent for the exponentiated model. The exponentiated model provided the strongest correlation between derived demand intensity (Q0) and self-reported free consumption in all instances (Cocaine r = .88; Alcohol r = .97; Cigarette r = .91). Cocaine demand elasticity was positively correlated with alcohol and cigarette elasticity. Exponentiated parameters were associated with real-world drug use (e.g., weekly cocaine use) whereas these correlations were less consistent for exponential parameters. Our findings show that selection of zero replacement values affects demand parameters and their association with drug-use outcomes when using the exponential model but not the exponentiated model. This work supports the adoption of the exponentiated demand model by replicating improved fit and consistency and demonstrating construct validity and generalizability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekel, Francis C. [Tennessee State University, Center of Excellence in Information Systems, 3500 John A. Merritt Boulevard, Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Wood, Peter R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)


    Employing new infrared radial velocities, we have computed orbits of the cool giants in three southern S-type symbiotic systems. The orbit for V1044 Cen, an M5.5 giant, has a period of 985 days and a modest eccentricity of 0.16. Hen 3-1213 is a K4 giant, yellow symbiotic with an orbital period of 533 days and a similar eccentricity of 0.18. For the M2 giant SS 73-96 the orbital period is 828 days, and this system has a somewhat larger eccentricity of 0.26. Measurement of the H i Paschen δ emission lines, which may at least partially reflect the motion of the secondary in SS 73-96, results in a mass ratio of 2.4 for the M giant relative to the presumed white dwarf. The estimated orbital inclinations of V1044 Cen and Hen 3-1213 are low, about 40°. However, for SS 73-96 the predicted inclination is 90°, and so an ephemeris for eclipses of the secondary or the hot nebula surrounding it is provided. A search of the orbital velocity residuals of V1044 Cen and SS 73-96 for pulsation periods produced no realistic or convincing period for either star.

  4. Algebraic Parameter Estimation of Damped Exponentials


    Neves, Aline; Miranda, Maria; Mboup, M.


    International audience; The parameter estimation of a sum of exponentials or the exponential fitting of data is a well known problem with a rich history. It is a nonlinear problem which presents several difficulties as the ill-conditioning when roots have close values and the order of the estimated parameters, among others. One of the best existing methods is the modified Prony algorithm which suffers in the presence of noise. In this paper we propose an algebraic method for the parameter est...

  5. Histamine induces NF-κB controlled cytokine secretion by orbital fibroblasts via histamine receptor type-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Virakul (Sita); T. Phetsuksiri (Tanachaporn); C. van Holten-Neelen; B. Schrijver (Benjamin); L. van Steensel (Leendert); V.A.S.H. Dalm (Virgil); A.D.A. Paridaens (Dion); W.A. van den Bosch (Willem); P.M. van Hagen (Martin); W.A. Dik (Willem)


    textabstractMast cells and their products are likely to be involved in regulating orbital fibroblast activity in Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Histamine is abundantly present in granules of mast cells and is released upon mast cell activation. However, the effect of histamine on orbital fibroblasts

  6. On the construction of bivariate exponential distributions with an arbitrary correlation coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we use a concept of multivariate phase-type distributions to define a class of bivariate exponential distributions. This class has the following three appealing properties. Firstly, we may construct a pair of exponentially distributed random variables with any feasible correlation...

  7. On the Construction of Bivariate Exponential Distributions with an Arbitrary Correlation Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    In this article we use the concept of multivariate phase-type distributions to define a class of bivariate exponential distributions. This class has the following three appealing properties. Firstly, we may construct a pair of exponentially distributed random variables with any feasible correlation...

  8. Patients with chronic tension-type headache demonstrate increased mechano-sensitivity of the supra-orbital nerve. (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Coppieters, Michel W; Cuadrado, María Luz; Pareja, Juan A


    This study aimed to establish whether increased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli is present in neural tissues in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Muscle hyperalgesia is a common finding in CTTH. No previous studies have investigated the sensitivity of peripheral nerves in patients with CTTH. A blinded controlled study. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain intensity following palpation of the supra-orbital nerve (V1) were compared between 20 patients with CTTH and 20 healthy matched subjects. A pressure algometer and numerical pain rate scale were used to quantify PPT and pain to palpation. A headache diary was kept for 4 weeks to substantiate the diagnosis and record the pain history. The analysis of variance demonstrated significantly lower PPT for patients (0.86+/-0.13 kg/cm2) than controls (1.50+/-0.19 kg/cm2) (Por=0.72; P<.001). These findings reveal that mechanical hypersensitivity is not limited to muscles but also occurs in cranial nerves, and that the level of sensitization, either due to peripheral or central processes, is related to the severity of the primary headache.

  9. On the Least-Squares Fitting of Slater-Type Orbitals with Gaussians: Reproduction of the STO-NG Fits Using Microsoft Excel and Maple (United States)

    Pye, Cory C.; Mercer, Colin J.


    The symbolic algebra program Maple and the spreadsheet Microsoft Excel were used in an attempt to reproduce the Gaussian fits to a Slater-type orbital, required to construct the popular STO-NG basis sets. The successes and pitfalls encountered in such an approach are chronicled. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  10. The circumstellar envelope around the S-type AGB star W Aql. Effects of an eccentric binary orbit. (United States)

    Ramstedt, S; Mohamed, S; Vlemmings, W H T; Danilovich, T; Brunner, M; De Beck, E; Humphreys, E M L; Lindqvist, M; Maercker, M; Olofsson, H; Kerschbaum, F; Quintana-Lacaci, G


    Recent observations at subarcsecond resolution, now possible also at submillimeter wavelengths, have shown intricate circumstellar structures around asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, mostly attributed to binary interaction. The results presented here are part of a larger project aimed at investigating the effects of a binary companion on the morphology of circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of AGB stars. AGB stars are characterized by intense stellar winds that build CSEs around the stars. Here, the CO(J = 3→2) emission from the CSE of the binary S-type AGB star W Aql has been observed at subarcsecond resolution using ALMA. The aim of this paper is to investigate the wind properties of the AGB star and to analyse how the known companion has shaped the CSE. The average mass-loss rate during the creation of the detected CSE is estimated through modelling, using the ALMA brightness distribution and previously published single-dish measurements as observational constraints. The ALMA observations are presented and compared to the results from a 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) binary interaction model with the same properties as the W Aql system and with two different orbital eccentricities. Three-dimensional radiative transfer modelling is performed and the response of the interferometer is modelled and discussed. The estimated average mass-loss rate of W Aql is Ṁ = 3.0×10(-6) M⊙ yr(-1) and agrees with previous results based on single-dish CO line emission observations. The size of the emitting region is consistent with photodissociation models. The inner 10″ of the CSE is asymmetric with arc-like structures at separations of 2-3″ scattered across the denser sections. Further out, weaker spiral structures at greater separations are found, but this is at the limit of the sensitivity and field of view of the ALMA observations. The CO(J = 3→2) emission is dominated by a smooth component overlayed with two weak arc patterns with different separations

  11. High-Affinity DNA Aptamer Generation Targeting von Willebrand Factor A1-Domain by Genetic Alphabet Expansion for Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment Using Two Types of Libraries Composed of Five Different Bases. (United States)

    Matsunaga, Ken-Ichiro; Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro


    The novel evolutionary engineering method ExSELEX (genetic alphabet expansion for systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) provides high-affinity DNA aptamers that specifically bind to target molecules, by introducing an artificial hydrophobic base analogue as a fifth component into DNA aptamers. Here, we present a newer version of ExSELEX, using a library with completely randomized sequences consisting of five components: four natural bases and one unnatural hydrophobic base, 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds). In contrast to the limited number of Ds-containing sequence combinations in our previous library, the increased complexity of the new randomized library could improve the success rates of high-affinity aptamer generation. To this end, we developed a sequencing method for each clone in the enriched library after several rounds of selection. Using the improved library, we generated a Ds-containing DNA aptamer targeting von Willebrand factor A1-domain (vWF) with significantly higher affinity (KD = 75 pM), relative to those generated by the initial version of ExSELEX, as well as that of the known DNA aptamer consisting of only the natural bases. In addition, the Ds-containing DNA aptamer was stabilized by introducing a mini-hairpin DNA resistant to nucleases, without any loss of affinity (KD = 61 pM). This new version is expected to consistently produce high-affinity DNA aptamers.

  12. Histamine induces NF-κB controlled cytokine secretion by orbital fibroblasts via histamine receptor type-1. (United States)

    Virakul, Sita; Phetsuksiri, Tanachaporn; van Holten-Neelen, Conny; Schrijver, Benjamin; van Steensel, Leendert; Dalm, Virgil A S H; Paridaens, Dion; van den Bosch, Willem A; van Hagen, P Martin; Dik, Willem A


    Mast cells and their products are likely to be involved in regulating orbital fibroblast activity in Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO). Histamine is abundantly present in granules of mast cells and is released upon mast cell activation. However, the effect of histamine on orbital fibroblasts has not been examined so far. Orbital tissues from GO patients and controls were analyzed for the presence of mast cells using toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemical detection of CD117 (stem cell factor receptor). Orbital fibroblasts were cultured from GO patients and healthy controls, stimulated with histamine and cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CXCL10 and CXCL11) were measured in culture supernatants. Also hyaluronan levels were measured in culture supernatants and hyaluronan synthase (HAS) and hyaluronidase (HYAL) gene expression levels were determined. In addition, histamine receptor subtype gene expression levels were examined as well as the effect of the histamine receptor-1 (HRH1) antagonist loratadine and NF-κB inhibitor SC-514 on histamine-induced cytokine production. Mast cell numbers were increased in GO orbital tissues. Histamine stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 by orbital fibroblasts, while it had no effect on the production of CCL5, CCL7, CXCL10, CXCL11 and hyaluronan. Orbital fibroblasts expressed HRH1 and loratadine and SC-514 both blocked histamine-induced IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 production by orbital fibroblasts. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that histamine can induce the production of NF-κB controlled-cytokines by orbital fibroblasts, which supports a role for mast cells in GO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Log-Sobolev inequalities and regions with exterior exponential cusps


    Mason, C.


    We begin by studying semigroup estimates that are more singular than those implied by a Sobolev embedding theorem but which are equivalent to certain logarithmic Sobolev inequalities. We then give a method for showing such log--Sobolev inequalities hold for Euclidean regions that satisfy a certain Hardy-type inequality. Our main application is to show that domains with exterior exponential cusps, and hence no Sobolev embedding theorem, satisfy such heat kernel bounds provided the cusp is not ...

  14. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour


    Full Text Available The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested that three revolutions in science and technology consisting genetic and molecular science, nanotechnology, and robotic (artificial intelligence provided an exponential growth rate for medicine. The "exponential medicine" is going to create more disruptive technologies in healthcare industry. The exponential medicine shifts the paradigm of medical philosophy and produces significant impacts on the healthcare system and patient-physician relationship.   


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muhammad zahid rashid


    Full Text Available The exponential distribution is commonly used to model the behavior of units that have a constant failure rate. The two-parameter exponential distribution provides a simple but nevertheless useful model for the analysis of lifetimes, especially when investigating reliability of technical equipment.This paper is concerned with estimation of parameters of the two parameter (location and scale exponential distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS, ridge regression method (RR,  moment estimators (ME, modified moment estimators (MME, maximum likelihood estimators (MLE and modified maximum likelihood estimators (MMLE. We used the mean square error MSE, and total deviation TD, as measurement for the comparison between these methods. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes

  16. When economic growth is less than exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas


    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...... of parameter combinations than in standard growth models. And it avoids the usual oversimplistic dichotomy of either exponential growth or stagnation. Allowing zero population growth in three different growth models (the Jones R&D-based model, a learning-by-doing model, and an embodied technical change model......) serves as illustration that a continuum of "regular" growth processes fill the whole range between exponential growth and complete stagnation....

  17. When Economic Growth is Less than Exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas M.

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...... of parameter combinations than in standard growth models. And it avoids the usual oversimplistic dichotomy of either exponential growth or stagnation. Allowing zero population growth in three different growth models (the Jones R&D-based model, a learning-by-doing model, and an embodied technical change model......) serve as illustrations that a continuum of "regular" growth processes fill the whole range between exponential growth and complete stagnation....

  18. Unification modulo a partial theory of exponentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliath Narendran


    Full Text Available Modular exponentiation is a common mathematical operation in modern cryptography. This, along with modular multiplication at the base and exponent levels (to different moduli plays an important role in a large number of key agreement protocols. In our earlier work, we gave many decidability as well as undecidability results for multiple equational theories, involving various properties of modular exponentiation. Here, we consider a partial subtheory focussing only on exponentiation and multiplication operators. Two main results are proved. The first result is positive, namely, that the unification problem for the above theory (in which no additional property is assumed of the multiplication operators is decidable. The second result is negative: if we assume that the two multiplication operators belong to two different abelian groups, then the unification problem becomes undecidable.

  19. Wavefunction Intensity Statistics from Unstable Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L


    We examine the effect of short unstable periodic orbits on wavefunction statistics in a classically chaotic system, and find that the tail of the wavefunction intensity distribution in phase space is dominated by scarring associated with the least unstable periodic orbits. In an ensemble average over systems with classical orbits of different instabilities, a power law tail is found, in sharp contrast to the exponential prediction of random matrix theory. The calculations are compared with numerical data and quantitative agreement is obtained

  20. On exponential growth [of gas breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson


    The agreement obtained between measured breakdown voltages and predicted breakdown values is frequently used as a means of assessing the validity of the theory/model in question. However, owing to the mathematical nature of exponential growth, it is easy to formulate a criterion that provides acc...... acceptable breakdown values, although the criterion may contain totally unrealistic features. An example from the work of A. Pedersen (1989) showing unrestricted exponential growth in SF 6 is used to highlight the insensitivity of breakdown voltages with respect to modeling...

  1. Galilean invariance in the exponential model of atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Pozo, A.; Riera, A.; Yaez, M.


    Using the X/sup n//sup +/(1s/sup 2/)+He/sup 2+/ colliding systems as specific examples, we study the origin dependence of results in the application of the two-state exponential model, and we show the relevance of polarization effects in that study. Our analysis shows that polarization effects of the He/sup +/(1s) orbital due to interaction with X/sup (//sup n//sup +1)+/ ion in the exit channel yield a very small contribution to the energy difference and render the dynamical coupling so strongly origin dependent that it invalidates the basic premises of the model. Further study, incorporating translation factors in the formalism, is needed.

  2. Steady, Near-exponential Galaxy Disks Produced by Scattering Processes (United States)

    Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Bruce


    Exponential surface brightness profiles are ubiquitous in galaxy disks over a wide range of Hubble types and masses. Radial migration and scattering via bars, waves, clumps and satellites have been discussed as causes, but most of these cannot account for the full range of the phenomenon. Numerical models of clump scattering show that this process can produce near-exponential or core-Sérsic profiles in a variety of circumstances, also suggesting a connection to bulge and elliptical galaxy profiles. Density profile forms do not depend on the specifics of the scattering processes, but stellar kinematics and profile evolution rates do. Analytic models, with a power-law times a Sérsic profile form, can satisfy Jeans equations in cases dominated by either halo potentials (outer disk) or self-gravity (inner disk).

  3. New specifications for exponential random graph models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, Tom A. B.; Pattison, Philippa E.; Robins, Garry L.; Handcock, Mark S.; Stolzenberg, RM


    The most promising class of statistical models for expressing structural properties of social networks observed atone moment in time is the class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), also known as p* models. The strong point of these models is that they can represent a variety of structural

  4. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin glasses, earthquakes, financial markets and the universe. Complex relaxation results from hierarchically constrained dynamics with the strength of the constraints being directly related to the form of the relaxation, which ...

  5. The Langevin function and truncated exponential distributions


    Keady, Grant


    Let K be a random variable following a truncated exponential distribution. Such distributions are described by a single parameter here denoted by $\\gamma$. The determination of $\\gamma$ by Maximum Likelihood methods leads to a transcendental equation. We note that this can be solved in terms of the inverse Langevin function. We develop approximations to this guided by work of Suehrcke and McCormick.

  6. Exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabdallah, A.; Caputo, J. G.; Scott, Alwyn C.


    We introduce an exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator that is tuned by applying a bias current to the larger end of the junction. Numerical and analytical studies show that above a threshold level of bias current the static solution becomes unstable and gives rise to a train of flu...

  7. The exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution | Adeyemi | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we introduce a three-parameter generalized Pareto distribution, the exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution (EGP). We present a comprehensive treatment of the mathematical properties of this new distribution. Key Words: Three-parameter generalized Pareto distribution, moments, hazard rate function.

  8. Deformed Exponentials and Applications to Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Trivellato


    Full Text Available We illustrate some financial applications of the Tsallis and Kaniadakis deformed exponential. The minimization of the corresponding deformed divergence is discussed as a criterion to select a pricing measure in the valuation problems of incomplete markets. Moreover, heavy-tailed models for price processes are proposed, which generalized the well-known Black and Scholes model.

  9. Gamma and Exponential Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time series data encountered in practice depict properties that deviate from those of gaussian processes. The gamma and exponentially distributed processes which are used as basic models for positive time series fall in the class of non-gaussian processes. In this paper, we develop new and simpler representations of the ...

  10. Statistical estimation for truncated exponential families

    CERN Document Server

    Akahira, Masafumi


    This book presents new findings on nonregular statistical estimation. Unlike other books on this topic, its major emphasis is on helping readers understand the meaning and implications of both regularity and irregularity through a certain family of distributions. In particular, it focuses on a truncated exponential family of distributions with a natural parameter and truncation parameter as a typical nonregular family. This focus includes the (truncated) Pareto distribution, which is widely used in various fields such as finance, physics, hydrology, geology, astronomy, and other disciplines. The family is essential in that it links both regular and nonregular distributions, as it becomes a regular exponential family if the truncation parameter is known. The emphasis is on presenting new results on the maximum likelihood estimation of a natural parameter or truncation parameter if one of them is a nuisance parameter. In order to obtain more information on the truncation, the Bayesian approach is also considere...

  11. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen


    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  12. Parameter Uncertainty in Exponential Family Tail Estimation


    Landsman, Z.; Tsanakas, A.


    Actuaries are often faced with the task of estimating tails of loss distributions from just a few observations. Thus estimates of tail probabilities (reinsurance prices) and percentiles (solvency capital requirements) are typically subject to substantial parameter uncertainty. We study the bias and MSE of estimators of tail probabilities and percentiles, with focus on 1-parameter exponential families. Using asymptotic arguments it is shown that tail estimates are subject to significant positi...

  13. On the ranges of discrete exponentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Caragiu


    Full Text Available Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp.

  14. On the ranges of discrete exponentials


    Florin Caragiu; Mihai Caragiu


    Let a>1 be a fixed integer. We prove that there is no first-order formula ϕ(X) in one free variable X, written in the language of rings, such that for any prime p with gcd(a,p)=1 the set of all elements in the finite prime field Fp satisfying ϕ coincides with the range of the discrete exponential function t↦at(modp).

  15. A quantification of the hazards of fitting sums of exponentials to noisy data (United States)

    Bromage, G. E.


    The ill-conditioned nature of sums-of-exponentials analyses is confirmed and quantified, using synthetic noisy data. In particular, the magnification of errors is plotted for various two-exponential models, to illustrate its dependence on the ratio of decay constants, and on the ratios of amplitudes of the contributing terms. On moving from two- to three-exponential models, the condition deteriorates badly. It is also shown that the use of 'direct' Prony-type analyses (rather than general iterative nonlinear optimisation) merely aggravates the condition.

  16. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  17. Photometric, Spectroscopic, and Orbital Period Study of Three Early-type Semi-detached Systems: XZ Aql, UX Her, and AT Peg (United States)

    Zola, S.; Baştürk, Ö.; Liakos, A.; Gazeas, K.; Şenavcı, H. V.; Nelson, R. H.; Özavcı, İ.; Zakrzewski, B.; Yılmaz, M.


    In this paper, we present a combined photometric, spectroscopic, and orbital period study of three early-type eclipsing binary systems: XZ Aql, UX Her, and AT Peg. As a result, we have derived the absolute parameters of their components and, on that basis, we discuss their evolutionary states. Furthermore, we compare their parameters with those of other binary systems and with theoretical models. An analysis of all available up-to-date times of minima indicated that all three systems studied here show cyclic orbital changes; their origin is discussed in detail. Finally, we performed a frequency analysis for possible pulsational behavior, and as a result we suggest that XZ Aql hosts a δ Scuti component.

  18. On the stability of some systems of exponential difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Psarros


    Full Text Available In this paper we prove the stability of the zero equilibria of two systems of difference equations of exponential type, which are some extensions of an one-dimensional biological model. The stability of these systems is investigated in the special case when one of the eigenvalues is equal to -1 and the other eigenvalue has absolute value less than 1, using centre manifold theory. In addition, we study the existence and uniqueness of positive equilibria, the attractivity and the global asymptotic stability of these equilibria of some related systems of difference equations.

  19. The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Grabowski


    Full Text Available This is the second part of paper [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control], where a model of a heavy chain system with a punctual load (tip mass in the form of a system of partial differential equations was interpreted as an abstract semigroup system and then analysed on a Hilbert state space. In particular, in [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control] we have formulated the problem of exponential stabilizability of a heavy chain in a given position. It was also shown that the exponential stability can be achieved by applying a stabilizer of the colocated-type. The proof used the method of Lyapunov functionals. In the present paper, we give other two proofs of the exponential stability, which provides an additional intrinsic insight into the exponential stabilizability mechanism. The first proof makes use of some spectral properties of the system. In the second proof, we employ some relationships between exponential stability and exact observability.

  20. Information and exponential families in statistical theory

    CERN Document Server

    Barndorff-Nielsen, O


    First published by Wiley in 1978, this book is being re-issued with a new Preface by the author. The roots of the book lie in the writings of RA Fisher both as concerns results and the general stance to statistical science, and this stance was the determining factor in the author's selection of topics. His treatise brings together results on aspects of statistical information, notably concerning likelihood functions, plausibility functions, ancillarity, and sufficiency, and on exponential families of probability distributions. 

  1. Progressive Exponential Clustering-Based Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue


    Full Text Available Cluster indexing-based steganography is an important branch of data-hiding techniques. Such schemes normally achieve good balance between high embedding capacity and low embedding distortion. However, most cluster indexing-based steganographic schemes utilise less efficient clustering algorithms for embedding data, which causes redundancy and leaves room for increasing the embedding capacity further. In this paper, a new clustering algorithm, called progressive exponential clustering (PEC, is applied to increase the embedding capacity by avoiding redundancy. Meanwhile, a cluster expansion algorithm is also developed in order to further increase the capacity without sacrificing imperceptibility.

  2. Finite difference computing with exponential decay models

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter


    This text provides a very simple, initial introduction to the complete scientific computing pipeline: models, discretization, algorithms, programming, verification, and visualization. The pedagogical strategy is to use one case study – an ordinary differential equation describing exponential decay processes – to illustrate fundamental concepts in mathematics and computer science. The book is easy to read and only requires a command of one-variable calculus and some very basic knowledge about computer programming. Contrary to similar texts on numerical methods and programming, this text has a much stronger focus on implementation and teaches testing and software engineering in particular. .

  3. Return probability: Exponential versus Gaussian decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izrailev, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Castaneda-Mendoza, A. [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP, Apdo. Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico)


    We analyze, both analytically and numerically, the time-dependence of the return probability in closed systems of interacting particles. Main attention is paid to the interplay between two regimes, one of which is characterized by the Gaussian decay of the return probability, and another one is the well-known regime of the exponential decay. Our analytical estimates are confirmed by the numerical data obtained for two models with random interaction. In view of these results, we also briefly discuss the dynamical model which was recently proposed for the implementation of a quantum computation.

  4. Hyperbolic Cosine–Exponentiated Exponential Lifetime Distribution and its Application in Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Kharazmi


    Full Text Available Recently, Kharazmi and Saadatinik (2016 introduced a new family of lifetime distributions called hyperbolic cosine – F (HCF distribution. In the present paper, it is focused on a special case of HCF family with exponentiated exponential distribution as a baseline distribution (HCEE. Various properties of the proposed distribution including explicit expressions for the moments, quantiles, mode, moment generating function, failure rate function, mean residual lifetime, order statistics and expression of the entropy are derived. Estimating parameters of HCEE distribution are obtained by eight estimation methods: maximum likelihood, Bayesian, maximum product of spacings, parametric bootstrap, non-parametric bootstrap, percentile, least-squares and weighted least-squares. A simulation study is conducted to examine the bias, mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimators. Finally, one real data set has been analyzed for illustrative purposes and it is observed that the proposed model fits better than Weibull, gamma and generalized exponential distributions.

  5. A natural spline interpolation and exponential parameterization (United States)

    Kozera, R.; Wilkołazka, M.


    We consider here a natural spline interpolation based on reduced data and the so-called exponential parameterization (depending on parameter λ ∈ [0, 1]). In particular, the latter is studied in the context of the trajectory approximation in arbitrary euclidean space. The term reduced data refers to an ordered collection of interpolation points without provision of the corresponding knots. The numerical verification of the intrinsic asymptotics α(λ) in γ approximation by natural spline γ^3'N is conducted here for regular and sufficiently smooth curve γ sampled more-or-less uniformly. We select in this paper the substitutes for the missing knots according to the exponential parameterization. The outcomes of the numerical tests manifest sharp linear convergence orders α(λ) = 1, for all λ ∈ [0, 1). In addition, the latter results in unexpected left-hand side dis-continuity at λ = 1, since as shown again here a sharp quadratic order α(1) = 2 prevails. Remarkably, the case of α(1)=2 (derived for reduced data) coincides with the well-known asymptotics established for a natural spline to fit non-reduced data determined by the sequence of interpolation points supplemented with the corresponding knots (see e.g. [1]).

  6. The LEM exponential integrator for advection-diffusion-reaction equations (United States)

    Caliari, Marco; Vianello, Marco; Bergamaschi, Luca


    We implement a second-order exponential integrator for semidiscretized advection-diffusion-reaction equations, obtained by coupling exponential-like Euler and Midpoint integrators, and computing the relevant matrix exponentials by polynomial interpolation at Leja points. Numerical tests on 2D models discretized in space by finite differences or finite elements, show that the Leja-Euler-Midpoint (LEM) exponential integrator can be up to 5 times faster than a classical second-order implicit solver.

  7. Generalized variational formulations for extended exponentially fractional integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Jun Wang


    Full Text Available Recently, the fractional variational principles as well as their applications yield a special attention. For a fractional variational problem based on different types of fractional integral and derivatives operators, corresponding fractional Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation and relevant Euler–Lagrange type equations are already presented by scholars. The formulations of fractional variational principles still can be developed more. We make an attempt to generalize the formulations for fractional variational principles. As a result we obtain generalized and complementary fractional variational formulations for extended exponentially fractional integral for example and corresponding Euler–Lagrange equations. Two illustrative examples are presented. It is observed that the formulations are in exact agreement with the Euler–Lagrange equations.

  8. Nonlinear elliptic systems with exponential nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said El Manouni


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the existence of solutions for {gather*} -mathop{m div}( a(| abla u | ^N| abla u |^{N-2}u = f(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega -mathop{m div}(a(| abla v| ^N| abla v |^{N-2}v = g(x,u,v quad mbox{in } Omega u(x = v(x = 0 quad mbox{on }partial Omega. end{gather*} Where $Omega$ is a bounded domain in ${mathbb{R}}^N$, $Ngeq 2$, $f$ and $g$ are nonlinearities having an exponential growth on $Omega$ and $a$ is a continuous function satisfying some conditions which ensure the existence of solutions.

  9. Multiple Exponential Recombination for Differential Evolution. (United States)

    Xin Qiu; Kay Chen Tan; Jian-Xin Xu


    Differential evolution (DE) is a popular population-based metaheuristic approach for solving numerical optimization problems. In recent years, considerable research has been devoted to the development of new mutation strategies and parameter adaptation mechanisms. However, as one of the basic algorithmic components of DE, the crossover operation has not been sufficiently examined in existing works. Most of the main DE variants solely employ traditional binomial recombination, which has intrinsic limitations in handling dependent subsets of variables. To fill this research niche, we propose a multiple exponential recombination that inherits all the main advantages of existing crossover operators while possessing a stronger ability in managing dependent variables. Multiple segments of the involved solutions will be exchanged during the proposed operator. The properties of the new scheme are examined both theoretically and empirically. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of the proposed operator in solving problems with unknown variable interrelations.

  10. On exponential stabilizability of linear neutral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusser Xavier


    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with linear neutral functional differential systems. Using an extended state space and an extended control operator, we transform the initial neutral system in an infinite dimensional linear system. We give a sufficient condition for admissibility of the control operator B , conditions under which operator B can be acceptable in order to work with controllability and stabilizability. Necessary and sufficient conditions for exact controllability are provided; in terms of a gramian of controllability N ( μ . Assuming admissibility and exact controllability, a feedback control law is defined from the inverse of the operator N ( μ in order to stabilize exponentially the closed loop system. In this case, the semigroup generated by the closed loop system has an arbitrary decay rate.

  11. An exponentiation method for XML element retrieval. (United States)

    Wichaiwong, Tanakorn


    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP.

  12. Exponential estimates of symplectic slow manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall; Wulff, C.


    In this paper we prove the existence of an almost invariant symplectic slow manifold for analytic Hamiltonian slow-fast systems with finitely many slow degrees of freedom for which the error field is exponentially small. We allow for infinitely many fast degrees of freedom. The method we use...... is motivated by a paper of MacKay from 2004. The method does not notice resonances, and therefore we do not pose any restrictions on the motion normal to the slow manifold other than it being fast and analytic. We also present a stability result and obtain a generalization of a result of Gelfreich and Lerman...... on an invariant slow manifold to (finitely) many fast degrees of freedom....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of paranasal sinusitis as a cause of orbital cellulitis and to identify the commonest sinus(es) involved in our setting. Methods: A retrospective review of the case notes of 47 patients with orbital cellulitis admitted into the ophthalmic ward of the University College ...

  14. Orbital velocity


    Modestino, Giuseppina


    The trajectory and the orbital velocity are determined for an object moving in a gravitational system, in terms of fundamental and independent variables. In particular, considering a path on equipotential line, the elliptical orbit is naturally traced, verifying evidently the keplerian laws. The case of the planets of the solar system is presented.

  15. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation (United States)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Lipunova, G. V.


    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.

  16. General formula evaluation of the electron-repulsion integrals and the first and second integral derivatives over Gaussian-type orbitals (United States)

    Ishida, Kazuhiro


    Recurrence relations between auxiliary functions to calculate the electron-repulsion integrals (ERIs) over Cartesian Gaussian-type orbitals (GTOs) can be derived. With the use of the Rys polynomials, this serves as a general formula method for evaluating ERIs and the ERI analytical derivatives. The computer code of the present method is quite general (i.e., it has no limitation for the shell type of GTOs), very compact (i.e., it has no coding difficulty), and extremely rapid (e.g., 2.1 μs per one ERI, 0.51 μs per one ERI first derivative, and 0.40 μs per one ERI second derivative for the [II‖II] shell block). It is found that the present method is especially efficient for evaluating ERIs including g-type or higher GTOs, the first derivatives including f-type or higher GTOs, and the second derivatives including d-type or higher GTOs.

  17. The Hot Orbit: Orbital Cellulitis (United States)

    Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Rashed, Waleed; Arat, Yonca O.


    Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon condition previously associated with severe complications. If untreated, orbital cellulitis can be potentially sight and life threatening. It can affect both adults and children but has a greater tendency to occur in the pediatric age group. The infection most commonly originates from sinuses, eyelids or face, retained foreign bodies, or distant soources by hematogenous spread. It is characterized by eyelid edema, erythema, chemosis, proptosis, blurred vision, fever, headache, and double vision. A history of upper respiratory tract infection prior to the onset is very common especially in children. In the era prior to antibiotics, vision loss from orbital cellulitis was a dreaded complication. Currently, imaging studies for detection of orbital abcess, the use of antibiotics and early drainage have mitigated visual morbidity significantly. The purpose of this review is to describe current investigative strategies and management options in the treatment of orbital cellulitis, establish their effectiveness and possible complications due to late intervention. PMID:22346113

  18. Rotating Dilaton Black Strings Coupled to Exponential Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sheykhi


    Full Text Available We construct a new class of charged rotating black string solutions coupled to dilaton and exponential nonlinear electrodynamic fields with cylindrical or toroidal horizons in the presence of a Liouville-type potential for the dilaton field. Due to the presence of the dilaton field, the asymptotic behaviors of these solutions are neither flat nor (AdS. We analyze the physical properties of the solutions in detail. We compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the solutions and verify the first law of thermodynamics on the black string horizon. When the nonlinear parameter β2 goes to infinity, our results reduce to those of black string solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity.

  19. On the shape and orientation control of an orbiting shallow spherical shell structure. [shape and orientation control of large dish type receivers/reflectors (United States)

    Bainum, P. M.; Reddy, A. S. S. R.


    A proposed method for controlling the shape and orientation of very large shallow dish type receiver/reflectors to be used in communication, radiometry and in electronic orbital based mail systems involves connecting a rigid light weight dumbell with heavy tip masses to the shell at its apex by a spring loaded double gimballed joint with dampling. To completely damp the system transient motion in all of the important lower frequency modes, an active control system is required. A mathematical model is extended to include the effects of point actuators located at preselected positions on the shell surface. The formulation of the uncontrolled dynamics assumes an a priori knowledge of the frequencies of all the elastic modes to be incorporated within the system model. As an example, three rigid body modes and six elastic modes are included in the model and six actuators are assumed, none of which lies on a nodal line or circle.

  20. Unusual presentation of unilateral intra-orbital optic nerve pilocytic astrocytoma of the juvenile type in a geriatric patient. (United States)

    Dua, Sonal; Sharma, Kanika; Juneja, Rakesh; Kalakoti, Piyush; Kamble, Mala; Subramanian, Prem


    Optic nerve gliomas (ONG) are rare and seldom encountered in clinical practice. The pilocytic (astrocytoma) variant of ONG almost always presents during the first two decades of life. In this report, the authors discuss an unusual presentation of pilocytic astrocytoma of the juvenile type in an elderly Indian male. With this unusual presentation, ONG affecting the visual pathway should be considered as a possible differential of visual diminution in the elderly population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. V346 Centauri: early-type eclipsing binary with apsidal motion and abrupt change of orbital period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Nemravová, J.; Prsa, A.; Frémat, Y.; Zejda, M.; Liška, J.; Juryšek, Jakub; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, Martin


    Roč. 591, Jul (2016), 1-9, č. článku A129. E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15014; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : early-type stars * binaries * close stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  2. Orbital stability of standing waves of a class of fractional Schrödinger equations with Hartree-type nonlinearity

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Yonggeun


    This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of a class of nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations with a general Hartree-type integrand. We show the well-posedness of the associated Cauchy problem and prove the existence and stability of standing waves under suitable assumptions on the nonlinearity. Our proofs rely on a contraction argument in mixed functional spaces and the concentration-compactness method. © 2015 World Scientific Publishing Company

  3. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.


    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  4. Human-chimpanzee alignment: ortholog exponentials and paralog power laws. (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Miller, Jonathan


    Genomic subsequences conserved between closely related species such as human and chimpanzee exhibit an exponential length distribution, in contrast to the algebraic length distribution observed for sequences shared between distantly related genomes. We find that the former exponential can be further decomposed into an exponential component primarily composed of orthologous sequences, and a truncated algebraic component primarily composed of paralogous sequences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. On exponentiation and multiplication of n-ary hyperalgebras


    Chaisansuk, Nitima


    In the paper, a new operation of product of n-ary hyperalgebras is intro- duced and studied which lies between their direct product and the direct product of their idempotent hulls. With respect to the product introduced, we give sufficient conditions for the validity of the first exponential law and a weak form of the second exponential law for a natural exponentiation of n-ary hyperalgebras.

  6. Using Differentials to Differentiate Trigonometric and Exponential Functions (United States)

    Dray, Tevian


    Starting from geometric definitions, we show how differentials can be used to differentiate trigonometric and exponential functions without limits, numerical estimates, solutions of differential equations, or integration.

  7. Effects of double-exponential current-voltage characteristics on the performance of solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shousha, A.H.M.


    The effects of double-exponential dark current-voltage characteristics on the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and conversion efficiency of solar cells were investigated with reference to MIS solar cells. The results presented show various types of cell performance depending on the relative contributions of the postulated current transport mechanisms.

  8. Exponentially Small Heteroclinic Breakdown in the Generic Hopf-Zero Singularity


    Baldomá Barraca, Inmaculada; Castejón i Company, Oriol; Martínez-Seara Alonso, M. Teresa


    In this paper we prove the breakdown of a heteroclinic connection in the analytic versal unfoldings of the generic Hopf-zero singularity in an open set of the parameter space. This heteroclinic orbit appears at any order if one performs the normal form around the origin, therefore it is a phenomenon “beyond all orders”. In this paper we provide a formula for the distance between the corresponding stable and unstable one-dimensional manifolds which is given by an exponentially s...

  9. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Couple Stresses on Dynamic Characteristics of Exponential Slider Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Naduvinamani


    Full Text Available The effect of couple stresses on static and dynamic characteristics of exponential slider bearing in the presence of magnetic field considering squeeze action is theoretically analyzed in this paper. The modified magnetohydrodynamic couple stress Reynolds type equation is derived on the basis of Stokes couple stress model and closed form expressions are obtained for static and dynamic character coefficients. Comparing with bearing lubricated with non-conducting Newtonian lubricants, the magnetohydrodynamic couple stress lubrication provides the higher steady load carrying capacity, dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient. The exponential bearing shows higher efficiency for small film thickness at higher value of couple stress parameter and Hartmann number.

  10. Rotating flow of a nanofluid due to an exponentially stretching surface with suction (United States)

    Salleh, Siti Nur Alwani; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md


    An analysis of the rotating nanofluid flow past an exponentially stretched surface with the presence of suction is studied in this work. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely, copper, titania and alumina are considered. The system of ordinary differential equations is computed numerically using a shooting method in Maple software after being transformed from the partial differential equations. This transformation has considered the similarity transformations in exponential form. The physical effect of the rotation, suction and nanoparticle volume fraction parameters on the rotating flow and heat transfer phenomena is investigated and has been described in detail through graphs. The dual solutions are found to appear when the governing parameters reach a certain range.

  11. Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.


    A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data...

  12. $\\kappa$-exponential models from the geometrical viewpoint


    Pistone, Giovanni


    We discuss the use of Kaniadakis' $\\kappa$-exponential in the construction of a statistical manifold modelled on Lebesgue spaces of real random variables. Some algebraic features of the deformed exponential models are considered. A chart is defined for each strictly positive densities; every other strictly positive density in a suitable neighborhood of the reference probability is represented by the centered $\\Kln$ likelihood

  13. Stochastic B-series and order conditions for exponential integrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arara, Alemayehu Adugna; Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne


    We discuss stochastic differential equations with a stiff linear part and their approximation by stochastic exponential integrators. Representing the exact and approximate solutions using B-series and rooted trees, we derive the order conditions for stochastic exponential integrators. The resulti...... general order theory covers both It\\^{o} and Stratonovich integration....

  14. Review of "Going Exponential: Growing the Charter School Sector's Best" (United States)

    Garcia, David


    This Progressive Policy Institute report argues that charter schools should be expanded rapidly and exponentially. Citing exponential growth organizations, such as Starbucks and Apple, as well as the rapid growth of molds, viruses and cancers, the report advocates for similar growth models for charter schools. However, there is no explanation of…

  15. A Learning Cycle on Exponential Growth and the Energy Crises. (United States)

    Dykstra, D. I., Jr.


    Describes nature and logistics of a learning cycle approach to teaching exponential growth and the energy crisis. Used with both science and nonscience majors, the cycle uses no algebra, never mentions the terms exponential or logarithmic, and requires a calculator. Instructions for obtaining student and instructor materials are provided.…

  16. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Grimm, Volker; Hochbruck, Marlis


    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is the lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Suppose the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed.

  17. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.

    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is a lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Assume, the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed. We

  18. The truncated exponential polynomials, the associated Hermite forms and applications


    Dattoli, G.; Migliorati, M.


    We discuss the properties of the truncated exponential polynomials and develop the theory of new form of Hermite polynomials, which can be constructed using the truncated exponential as a generating function. We derive their explicit forms and comment on their usefulness in applications, with particular reference to the theory of flattened beams, used in optics.

  19. Meet and join matrices in the poset of exponential divisors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exponential multiple (LCEM) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this poset in a lattice. As an application we study the GCED and LCEM matrices, analogues of GCD and LCM matrices, which are both special cases of meet and join matrices on lattices. Keywords. Exponential divisor; lattice; meet matrix; join matrix; ...

  20. Preliminary orbit determination (United States)

    Taff, L. G.; Belkin, B.; Schweiter, G.; Sommar, K.

    The problem of intercontinental ballistic missile reentry vehicle orbit determination from incomplete passive (i.e., angles-only) or active (i.e., distance plus angles) information is presented. Launch location and time and impact location and time to complete the computation of an orbital element set are utilized. In addition, it is possible to construct a good estimate of the variance of the key quantity in the angles only case; namely the computed topocentric distance. This type of observation/information situation is enlarged to include a complete discussion of single-point differential correction.

  1. New Orbits for 18 Binaries (United States)

    Cvetković, Z.; Pavlović, R.


    Orbital elements of 18 visual binaries are computed using the measurements collected in the Fourth Catalog of Interferometric Measurements of Binary Stars; 15 orbits are determined for the first time and three orbits are revised. Eleven of the binaries, denoted as HDS, were discovered during the Hipparcos mission. The remaining binaries were discovered a few years earlier or later than 1991. All studied pairs are close, and all measured separations are less than 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 46. The shortest orbital period is 10 years and the longest orbital period is 127 years. Dynamical parallaxes and total masses of systems are derived from the orbital elements. We also give absolute magnitudes, spectral types, and (O-C) residuals in θ and ρ.

  2. Orbital-only models: ordering and excitations (United States)

    van den Brink, Jeroen


    We consider orbital-only models in Mott insulators, where the orbital orbital interactions are either due to Jahn Teller distortions or due to the Kugel Khomskii superexchange. This leads to highly anisotropic and frustrated orbital Hamiltonians. For two-fold degenerate eg systems, both types of orbital interactions lead to the same form of the Hamiltonian—the 120° model. In both cases, the predicted symmetry of the orbital ordering is the same, although different from the one observed experimentally. The orbital operators that appear in the two kinds of orbital-only Hamiltonians are different. In the case of superexchange, the orbital degrees of freedom are represented by quantum pseudo-spin 1/2 operators. But when the interactions are Jahn Teller mediated and the coupling with the lattice is strong, the orbital operators are essentially classical pseudospins. Thus as a function of the relative coupling strengths, a quantum-to-classical crossover is expected. For three-fold degenerate t2g orbitals, the Jahn Teller coupling gives rise to a particular type of orbital compass models. We point out that fluctuations—whether due to quantum effects or finite temperature—are of prime importance for ordering in the 120° and orbital compass models. The fluctuations generally generate a gap in the orbital excitation spectrum. These orbital excitations—orbitons—are hybrid excitations that carry both a lattice Jahn Teller and a magnetic Kugel Khomskii character.

  3. [Secondary orbital lymphoma]. (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D


    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Multi Disk Exponential Gas Distribution vs. Single Disk (United States)

    Rao, Erica; O'Brien, James


    In fitting galactic rotation curves to data, most standard theories make use of a single exponential disk approximation of the gas distribution to account for the HI synthesis data observed at various radio telescope facilities. We take a sample of surface brightness profiles from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS), and apply both single disk exponentials and Multi-Disk exponentials, and use these various models to see how the modelling procedure changes the Newtonian prediction of the mass of the galaxy. Since the missing mass problem has not been fully explained in large spiral galaxies, different modelling procedures could account for some of the missing matter.

  5. Laminar phase flow for an exponentially tapered Josephson oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabdallah, A.; Caputo, J. G.; Scott, Alwyn C.


    the small current instability region and leads to a laminar flow regime where the voltage wave form is periodic giving the oscillator minimal spectral width. Tapering also leads to an increased output power. Since exponential tapering is not expected to increase the difficulty of fabricating a flux flow......Exponential tapering and inhomogeneous current feed were recently proposed as means to improve the performance of a Josephson flux flow oscillator. Extensive numerical results backed up by analysis are presented here that support this claim and demonstrate that exponential tapering reduces...

  6. HATS-50b through HATS-53b: Four Transiting Hot Jupiters Orbiting G-type Stars Discovered by the HATSouth Survey (United States)

    Henning, Th.; Mancini, L.; Sarkis, P.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J. D.; Bayliss, D.; Bento, J.; Bhatti, W.; Brahm, R.; Ciceri, S.; Csubry, Z.; de Val-Borro, M.; Espinoza, N.; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H. T.; Jordán, A.; Marcy, G. W.; Penev, K.; Rabus, M.; Suc, V.; Tan, T. G.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J.; Zhou, G.; Durkan, S.; Lazar, J.; Papp, I.; Sari, P.


    We report the discovery of four close-in transiting exoplanets (HATS-50b through HATS-53b), discovered using the HATSouth three-continent network of homogeneous and automated telescopes. These new exoplanets belong to the class of hot Jupiters and orbit G-type dwarf stars, with brightness in the range V = 12.5–14.0 mag. While HATS-53 has many physical characteristics similar to the Sun, the other three stars appear to be metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]=0.2{--}0.3), larger, and more massive. Three of the new exoplanets, namely HATS-50b, HATS-51b, and HATS-53b, have low density (HATS-50b: 0.39+/- 0.10 {M}{{J}}, 1.130+/- 0.075 {R}{{J}}; HATS-51b: 0.768+/- 0.045 {M}{{J}}, 1.41+/- 0.19 {R}{{J}}; HATS-53b: 0.595+/- 0.089 {M}{{J}}, 1.340+/- 0.056 {R}{{J}}) and similar orbital periods (3.8297 days, 3.3489 days, 3.8538 days, respectively). Instead, HATS-52b is more dense (mass 2.24+/- 0.15 {M}{{J}} and radius 1.382+/- 0.086 {R}{{J}}) and has a shorter orbital period (1.3667 days). It also receives an intensive radiation from its parent star and, consequently, presents a high equilibrium temperature ({T}{eq}=1834+/- 73 K). HATS-50 shows a marginal additional transit feature consistent with an ultra-short-period hot super Neptune (upper mass limit 0.16 {M}{{J}}), which will be able to be confirmed with TESS photometry. The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC). The station at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) of the Carnegie Institute is operated by PU in conjunction with PUC, the station at the High Energy Spectroscopic Survey (H.E.S.S.) site is operated in conjunction with MPIA, and the station at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) is operated jointly with ANU. Based in part on observations made with the ESO 3.6 m, the NTT, the MPG 2.2 m and Euler 1.2 m Telescopes at the ESO Observatory in

  7. Porcine defibrillation thresholds with chopped biphasic truncated exponential waveforms. (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph L; Melnick, Sharon B; Chapman, Fred W; Walcott, Gregory P


    Conventional biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) waveforms have been studied extensively but less is known about "chopping modulated" BTE shocks. Previous studies comparing chopped and unchopped waveforms have found conflicting results. This study compared the defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) of a variety of chopped and unchopped BTE waveforms. Six anesthetized pigs were defibrillated after 15s of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). Three waveform types were studied: unchopped BTE, "short" duration chopped, and "long" duration chopped waveforms. Each type included waveforms generated with 50, 100, and 200 microF capacitances, giving 9 total waveforms. Shocks were delivered in a standard up-down protocol and the order of the waveforms was randomized. Defibrillation thresholds were calculated using a Bayesian logistic regression model. DFTs of the 50, 100, and 200 microF unchopped waveforms were 122+/-22, 124+/-22, and 126+/-22 J. Short chopped DFTs were at least 75+/-23 J higher than unchopped DFTs. Long chopped DFTs averaged 66+/-20 J more than short chopped DFTs. There is a 99.5% probability that the best of the chopped waveforms has a higher DFT than the worst of the unchopped waveforms, and a 95% probability that the difference is at least 37 J. DFT differences between capacitor values were less than 7 J for all waveform types. When treating swine with short-duration VF, chopped waveforms require more energy to defibrillate than unchopped waveforms. More study is required to assess the performance of chopped waveforms when treating cardiac arrest patients.

  8. Kinetically modified non-minimal inflation with exponential frame function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallis, C. [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, Nicosia (Cyprus)


    We consider supersymmetric (SUSY) and non-SUSY models of chaotic inflation based on the φ{sup n} potential with n = 2 or 4. We show that the coexistence of an exponential non-minimal coupling to gravity f{sub R} = e{sup c{sub R}φ{sup p}} with a kinetic mixing of the form f{sub K} = c{sub K}f{sub R}{sup m} can accommodate inflationary observables favored by the Planck and Bicep2/Keck Array results for p = 1 and 2, 1 ≤ m ≤ 15 and 2.6 x 10{sup -3} ≤ r{sub RK} = c{sub R}/c{sub K}{sup p/2} ≤ 1, where the upper limit is not imposed for p = 1. Inflation is of hilltop type and it can be attained for subplanckian inflaton values with the corresponding effective theories retaining the perturbative unitarity up to the Planck scale. The supergravity embedding of these models is achieved employing two chiral gauge singlet supefields, a monomial superpotential and several (semi)logarithmic or semi-polynomial Kaehler potentials. (orig.)

  9. On the role of exponential smoothing in circadian dosimetry. (United States)

    Price, Luke L A


    The effects lighting has on health through modulation of circadian rhythms are becoming increasingly well documented. Data are still needed to show how light exposures are influenced by architecture and lighting design and circadian dosimetry analyses should provide duration, phase and amplitude measures of 24 h exposure profiles. Exponential smoothing is used to derive suitable metrics from 24 h light measurements collected from private dwellings. A further application of these modified exposure time series as physiological models of the light drive is discussed. Unlike previous light drive models, the dose rate persists into periods of darkness following exposures. Comparisons to long duration exposure studies suggest this type of persistent light drive model could be incorporated into contemporary physiological models of the human circadian oscillator. © 2014 Crown copyright. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology. This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland and Public Health England.

  10. Matrix exponential based discriminant locality preserving projections for feature extraction. (United States)

    Lu, Gui-Fu; Wang, Yong; Zou, Jian; Wang, Zhongqun


    Discriminant locality preserving projections (DLPP), which has shown good performances in pattern recognition, is a feature extraction algorithm based on manifold learning. However, DLPP suffers from the well-known small sample size (SSS) problem, where the number of samples is less than the dimension of samples. In this paper, we propose a novel matrix exponential based discriminant locality preserving projections (MEDLPP). The proposed MEDLPP method can address the SSS problem elegantly since the matrix exponential of a symmetric matrix is always positive definite. Nevertheless, the computational complexity of MEDLPP is high since it needs to solve a large matrix exponential eigenproblem. Then, in this paper, we also present an efficient algorithm for solving MEDLPP. Besides, the main idea for solving MEDLPP efficiently is also generalized to other matrix exponential based methods. The experimental results on some data sets demonstrate the proposed algorithm outperforms many state-of-the-art discriminant analysis methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exponential Stability of Stochastic Nonlinear Dynamical Price System with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenli Zhu


    Full Text Available Based on Lyapunov stability theory, Itô formula, stochastic analysis, and matrix theory, we study the exponential stability of the stochastic nonlinear dynamical price system. Using Taylor's theorem, the stochastic nonlinear system with delay is reduced to an n-dimensional semilinear stochastic differential equation with delay. Some sufficient conditions of exponential stability and corollaries for such price system are established by virtue of Lyapunov function. The time delay upper limit is solved by using our theoretical results when the system is exponentially stable. Our theoretical results show that if the classical price Rayleigh equation is exponentially stable, so is its perturbed system with delay provided that both the time delay and the intensity of perturbations are small enough. Two examples are presented to illustrate our results.

  12. Formation of positronium: Multi-exponentials versus blob model (United States)

    Dauwe, C.; Bas, C.; Palacio, C. A.


    Lifetime spectra were obtained for amorphous poly(aryl ether ether ketone) (PEEK), in the temperature range of (-170, +150) °C and were analysed by the standard multi-exponential model, and by the non-exponential blob model. The main results of this analysis are that the electron-ion recombination time in the blob τb≈20 ps, and that the formation of Positronium is a radiochemical process which mainly depends on the positron-electron reaction constant.

  13. Ladder exponentiation for generic large symmetric representation Wilson loops


    Correa, Diego; Massolo, Fidel(Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, La Plata, 1900, Argentina)


    A recent proposal was made for a large representation rank limit for which the expectation values of N = 4 $$ \\mathcal{N}=4 $$ super Yang-Mills Wilson loops are given by the exponential of the 1-loop result. We verify the validity of this exponentiation in the strong coupling limit using the holographic D3-brane description for straight Wilson loops following an arbitrary internal space trajectory.

  14. Fast Modular Exponentiation and Elliptic Curve Group Operation in Maple (United States)

    Yan, S. Y.; James, G.


    The modular exponentiation, y[equivalent to]x[superscript k](mod n) with x,y,k,n integers and n [greater than] 1; is the most fundamental operation in RSA and ElGamal public-key cryptographic systems. Thus the efficiency of RSA and ElGamal depends entirely on the efficiency of the modular exponentiation. The same situation arises also in elliptic…

  15. Exponential bulges and antitruncated disks in lenticular galaxies


    Sil'chenko, Olga K.


    The presence of exponential bulges and anti-truncated disks has been noticed in many lenticular galaxies. In fact, it could be expected because the very formation of S0 galaxies includes various processes of secular evolution. We discuss how to distinguish between a pseudobulge and an anti-truncated disk, and also what particular mechanisms may be responsible for the formation of anti-truncated disks. Some bright examples of lenticular galaxies with the multi-tiers exponential stellar structu...

  16. Meet and join matrices in the poset of exponential divisors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... exponential divisor ( G C E D ) and the least common exponential multiple ( L C E M ) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this poset in a lattice. As an application we study the G C E D and L C E M matrices, analogues of G C D and L C M matrices, which are both special cases of meet and join matrices on lattices.

  17. κ-exponential models from the geometrical viewpoint (United States)

    Pistone, G.


    We discuss the use of Kaniadakis' κ-exponential in the construction of a statistical manifold modelled on Lebesgue spaces of real random variables. Some algebraic features of the deformed exponential models are considered. A chart is defined for each strictly positive densities; every other strictly positive density in a suitable neighborhood of the reference probability is represented by the centered lnκ likelihood.

  18. Robust forecasting with exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing.


    Gelper, SEC Sarah; Fried, R; Croux, C.


    Robust versions of the exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing method for forecasting are presented. They are suitable for forecasting univariate time series in presence of outliers. The robust exponential and Holt-Winters smoothing methods are presented as a recursive updating scheme. Both the update equation and the selection of the smoothing parameters are robustied. This robust method is equivalent to a particular form of the robust Kalman lter in a local linear trend model. A simulation s...

  19. Inflammation of the Orbit (United States)

    ... Glaucoma (Video) Macular Degeneration Additional Content Medical News Inflammation of the Orbit (Inflammatory Orbital Pseudotumor) By James ... Introduction to Eye Socket Disorders Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Inflammation of the Orbit Orbital Cellulitis Preseptal Cellulitis Tumors ...

  20. Exponential growth combined with exponential decline explains lifetime performance evolution in individual and human species. (United States)

    Berthelot, Geoffroy; Len, Stéphane; Hellard, Philippe; Tafflet, Muriel; Guillaume, Marion; Vollmer, Jean-Claude; Gager, Bruno; Quinquis, Laurent; Marc, Andy; Toussaint, Jean-François


    The physiological parameters characterizing human capacities (the ability to move, reproduce or perform tasks) evolve with ageing: performance is limited at birth, increases to a maximum and then decreases back to zero at the day of death. Physical and intellectual skills follow such a pattern. Here, we investigate the development of sport and chess performances during the lifetime at two different scales: the individual athletes' careers and the world record by age class in 25 Olympic sports events and in grandmaster chess players. For all data sets, a biphasic development of growth and decline is described by a simple model that accounts for 91.7% of the variance at the individual level and 98.5% of the variance at the species one. The age of performance peak is computed at 26.1 years old for the events studied (26.0 years old for track and field, 21.0 years old for swimming and 31.4 years old for chess). The two processes (growth and decline) are exponential and start at age zero. Both were previously demonstrated to happen in other human and non-human biological functions that evolve with age. They occur at the individual and species levels with a similar pattern, suggesting a scale invariance property.

  1. An exponential expansion method and its application to the strain wave equation in microstructured solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Hafez


    Full Text Available The modeling of wave propagation in microstructured materials should be able to account for various scales of microstructure. Based on the proposed new exponential expansion method, we obtained the multiple explicit and exact traveling wave solutions of the strain wave equation for describing different types of wave propagation in microstructured solids. The solutions obtained in this paper include the solitary wave solutions of topological kink, singular kink, non-topological bell type solutions, solitons, compacton, cuspon, periodic solutions, and solitary wave solutions of rational functions. It is shown that the new exponential method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides an effective and straightforward mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering.

  2. Bayesian Prediction under a Finite Mixture of Generalized Exponential Lifetime Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohmoud Mohamed


    Full Text Available In this article a heterogeneous population is represented by a mixture of two generalized exponential distributions. Using the two-sample prediction technique, Bayesian prediction bounds for future order statistics are obtained based on type II censored and complete data. A numerical example is given to illustrate the procedures and the accuracy of the prediction intervals is investigated via extensive Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease (IgG4-RD) in the Orbit: Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)-Type Lymphomas (United States)

    Oleś, Krzysztof; Składzień, Jacek; Szczepański, Wojciech; Okoń, Krzysztof; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bojanowska, Emilia; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Mika, Joanna


    Background MALT lymphomas were classified for differential diagnostics of IgG4-dependent disease due to their exceptional predilection to intraorbital localization. Therefore, the goal of our studies was large retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with MALT lymphomas within the orbital tissues, since no such studies have been conducted in Poland. Material/Methods The starting study population consisted of 167 patients with isolated infiltrative tumor diseases within the orbital region treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Medical College Jagiellonian University in Cracow. The immunohistochemical assays using anti-IgG, anti-IgG4 and anti-CD138 antibodies were used to estimate the IgG4+/CD138+ and IgG4+/IgG+ ratios. Results Of all the studied and analyzed patients, a final group of 19 patients with orbital MALT lymphomas was selected to undergo diagnostic examinations for IgG4-related disease. Detailed analysis and diagnostic screening for IgG4-related disease was performed and results meeting the criteria of IgG4-dependent disease were obtained in 10 out of 19 patients with the diagnosis of MALT tumor established on the basis of immunohistochemical assays. Conclusions MALT lymphomas are the most common of all lymphomas occurring within orbital tissues. In this study, results consistent with the criteria of IgG4-related disease were obtained in approximately 50% patients with immunohistochemical diagnosis of orbital MALT lymphoma. PMID:25858500

  4. The Lunar orbit paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Aleksandar S.


    Full Text Available Newton's formula for gravity force gives greather force intensity for atraction of the Moon by the Sun than atraction by the Earth. However, central body in lunar (primary orbit is the Earth. So appeared paradox which were ignored from competent specialist, because the most important problem, determination of lunar orbit, was inmediately solved sufficiently by mathematical ingeniosity - introducing the Sun as dominant body in the three body system by Delaunay, 1860. On this way the lunar orbit paradox were not canceled. Vujičić made a owerview of principles of mechanics in year 1998, in critical consideration. As an example for application of corrected procedure he was obtained gravity law in some different form, which gave possibility to cancel paradox of lunar orbit. The formula of Vujičić, with our small adaptation, content two type of acceleration - related to inertial mass and related to gravity mass. So appears carried information on the origin of the Moon, and paradox cancels.

  5. Fourier Transforms of Pulses Containing Exponential Leading and Trailing Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshaw, S I


    In this monograph we discuss a class of pulse shapes that have exponential rise and fall profiles, and evaluate their Fourier transforms. Such pulses can be used as models for time-varying processes that produce an initial exponential rise and end with the exponential decay of a specified physical quantity. Unipolar examples of such processes include the voltage record of an increasingly rapid charge followed by a damped discharge of a capacitor bank, and the amplitude of an electromagnetic pulse produced by a nuclear explosion. Bipolar examples include acoustic N waves propagating for long distances in the atmosphere that have resulted from explosions in the air, and sonic booms generated by supersonic aircraft. These bipolar pulses have leading and trailing edges that appear to be exponential in character. To the author's knowledge the Fourier transforms of such pulses are not generally well-known or tabulated in Fourier transform compendia, and it is the purpose of this monograph to derive and present these transforms. These Fourier transforms are related to a definite integral of a ratio of exponential functions, whose evaluation we carry out in considerable detail. From this result we derive the Fourier transforms of other related functions. In all Figures showing plots of calculated curves, the actual numbers used for the function parameter values and dependent variables are arbitrary and non-dimensional, and are not identified with any particular physical phenomenon or model.

  6. Deconvolution for DCE-MRI using an exponential approximation basis. (United States)

    Keeling, Stephen L; Kogler, Thomas; Stollberger, Rudolf


    A deconvolution approach for dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using an approximation basis of exponential functions constrained to be non-negative and non-increasing is developed and compared with widely used methods. Monotonicity in an exponential basis is implemented in terms of a newly derived condition which is a considerable generalization over a previous condition that implies complete monotonicity. Since the constraints imply a bound on the total variation, a well known staircasing effect may result with other approximation bases, but an exponential basis is shown to resist staircasing. In addition to the choice of approximation basis, further regularization is implemented in terms of the number of basis functions and the distribution of their parameters. The exponential approach is applied to dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data to determine physiological parameters pixelwise to visualize a cerebral tumor, and the results are compared favorably with those of the standard truncated singular value decomposition approach. In particular, kernels estimated with constrained exponentials are free of oscillations and staircasing, and the images of estimated kernel parameters are sharper than those obtained by truncated singular value decomposition.

  7. Generating realistic synthetic meteoroid orbits (United States)

    Vida, Denis; Brown, Peter G.; Campbell-Brown, Margaret


    Context. Generating a synthetic dataset of meteoroid orbits is a crucial step in analysing the probabilities of random grouping of meteoroid orbits in automated meteor shower surveys. Recent works have shown the importance of choosing a low similarity threshold value of meteoroid orbits, some pointing out that the recent meteor shower surveys produced false positives due to similarity thresholds which were too high. On the other hand, the methods of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation introduce additional biases into the data, thus making the final decision on an appropriate threshold value uncertain. Aims. As a part of the ongoing effort to determine the nature of meteor showers and improve automated methods, it was decided to tackle the problem of synthetic meteoroid orbit generation, the main goal being to reproduce the underlying structure and the statistics of the observed data in the synthetic orbits. Methods. A new method of generating synthetic meteoroid orbits using the Kernel Density Estimation method is presented. Several types of approaches are recommended, depending on whether one strives to preserve the data structure, the data statistics or to have a compromise between the two. Results. The improvements over the existing methods of synthetic orbit generation are demonstrated. The comparison between the previous and newly developed methods are given, as well as the visualization tools one can use to estimate the influence of different input parameters on the final data.

  8. Exponential Sensitivity and its Cost in Quantum Physics. (United States)

    Gilyén, András; Kiss, Tamás; Jex, Igor


    State selective protocols, like entanglement purification, lead to an essentially non-linear quantum evolution, unusual in naturally occurring quantum processes. Sensitivity to initial states in quantum systems, stemming from such non-linear dynamics, is a promising perspective for applications. Here we demonstrate that chaotic behaviour is a rather generic feature in state selective protocols: exponential sensitivity can exist for all initial states in an experimentally realisable optical scheme. Moreover, any complex rational polynomial map, including the example of the Mandelbrot set, can be directly realised. In state selective protocols, one needs an ensemble of initial states, the size of which decreases with each iteration. We prove that exponential sensitivity to initial states in any quantum system has to be related to downsizing the initial ensemble also exponentially. Our results show that magnifying initial differences of quantum states (a Schrödinger microscope) is possible; however, there is a strict bound on the number of copies needed.

  9. Exponential rise of dynamical complexity in quantum computing through projections. (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel Klaus; Facchi, Paolo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya


    The ability of quantum systems to host exponentially complex dynamics has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to developing of protocols for computation, communication and metrology, which exploit this scaling, despite formidable technical difficulties. Here we show that the mere frequent observation of a small part of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into an exponentially complex one, capable of universal quantum computation. After discussing examples, we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics becomes universal once 'observed' as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be 'purified' into a simpler one in larger dimensions. We conclude by demonstrating that even local noise can lead to an exponentially complex dynamics.

  10. Kullback-Leibler divergence and the Pareto-Exponential approximation. (United States)

    Weinberg, G V


    Recent radar research interests in the Pareto distribution as a model for X-band maritime surveillance radar clutter returns have resulted in analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of this clutter model. In particular, it is of interest to understand when the Pareto distribution is well approximated by an Exponential distribution. The justification for this is that under the latter clutter model assumption, simpler radar detection schemes can be applied. An information theory approach is introduced to investigate the Pareto-Exponential approximation. By analysing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the two distributions it is possible to not only assess when the approximation is valid, but to determine, for a given Pareto model, the optimal Exponential approximation.

  11. Contribution of mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched exponential model-based diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis and differentiation of uterine cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Meng; Yu, Xiaoduo; Chen, Yan; Ouyang, Han; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan [GE MR Research China, Beijing (China)


    To investigate the potential of various metrics derived from mono-exponential model (MEM), bi-exponential model (BEM) and stretched exponential model (SEM)-based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing and differentiating the pathological subtypes and grades of uterine cervical carcinoma. 71 newly diagnosed patients with cervical carcinoma (50 cases of squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and 21 cases of adenocarcinoma [AC]) and 32 healthy volunteers received DWI with multiple b values. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure molecular diffusion (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index (alpha), and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were calculated and compared between tumour and normal cervix, among different pathological subtypes and grades. All of the parameters were significantly lower in cervical carcinoma than normal cervical stroma except alpha. SCC showed lower ADC, D, f and DDC values and higher D* value than AC; D and DDC values of SCC and ADC and D values of AC were lower in the poorly differentiated group than those in the well-moderately differentiated group. Compared with MEM, diffusion parameters from BEM and SEM may offer additional information in cervical carcinoma diagnosis, predicting pathological tumour subtypes and grades, while f and D showed promising significance. (orig.)

  12. Stability of the Exponential Functional Equation in Riesz Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Batko


    Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the exponential Cauchy functional equation F(x+y=F(xF(y in the class of functions F:G→L mapping a group (G, + into a Riesz algebra L. The main aim of this paper is to prove that the exponential Cauchy functional equation is stable in the sense of Hyers-Ulam and is not superstable in the sense of Baker. To prove the stability we use the Yosida Spectral Representation Theorem.

  13. Application of exponential homotopy algorithm in the inverter harmonic elimination (United States)

    Zhang, Li


    Eliminating harmonic pollution and improving power factor are the quite important task in the field of power electronics. From the mathematical point of view, harmonic elimination problems can be translated into nonlinear equations. But it is difficult to directly solve the nonlinear equations because of complexity. For this reason, exponential homotopy method is proposed based on homotopy method in this paper. It has focused on built up homotopy equations by modifying the singularities of Jacobian matrix, and on this basis homotopy equations are transformed into the differential initial value problems. Numerical results show that the new exponential homotopy method has higher precision than other algorithms, and the singularity is improved.

  14. The Transmuted Exponentiated Generalized-G Family of Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham M. Yousof


    Full Text Available We introduce a new class of continuous distributions called the transmuted exponentiated generalized-G family which extends the exponentiated generalized-G class introduced by Cordeiro et al. (2013. We provide some special models for the new family. Some of its mathematical properties including explicit expressions for the ordinary and incomplete moments, generating function, Rényi and Shannon entropies, order statistics and probability weighted moments are derived. The estimation of the model parameters is performed by maximum likelihood. The flexibility of the proposed family is illustrated by means of an applications to real dataset.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezsi Eva


    Full Text Available Exchange rates forecasting is, and has been a challenging task in finance. Statistical and econometrical models are widely used in analysis and forecasting of foreign exchange rates. This paper investigates the behavior of daily exchange rates of the Romanian Leu against the Euro, United States Dollar, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Chinese Renminbi and the Russian Ruble. Smoothing techniques are generated and compared with each other. These models include the Simple Exponential Smoothing technique, as the Double Exponential Smoothing technique, the Simple Holt-Winters, the Additive Holt-Winters, namely the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model.

  16. Stretched-exponential Doppler spectra in underwater acoustic communication channels. (United States)

    van Walree, P A; Jenserud, T; Otnes, R


    The theory of underwater sound interacting with the sea surface predicts a Gaussian-spread frequency spectrum in the case of a large Rayleigh parameter. However, recent channel soundings reveal more sharply peaked spectra with heavier tails. The measured Doppler spread increases with the frequency and differs between multipath arrivals. The overall Doppler spectrum of a broadband waveform is the sum of the spectra of all constituent paths and frequencies, and is phenomenologically described by a stretched or compressed exponential. The stretched exponential also fits well to the broadband spectrum of a single propagation path, and narrowband spectra summed over all paths.

  17. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus (United States)

    Rowe, Geoffrey


    An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.

  18. Is exponential gravity a viable description for the whole cosmological history? (United States)

    Odintsov, Sergei D.; Sáez-Chillón Gómez, Diego; Sharov, German S.


    Here we analyse a particular type of F( R) gravity, the so-called exponential gravity which includes an exponential function of the Ricci scalar in the action. Such a term represents a correction to the usual Hilbert-Einstein action. By using Supernovae Ia, Barionic Acoustic Oscillations, Cosmic Microwave Background and H( z) data, the free parameters of the model are well constrained. The results show that such corrections to General Relativity become important at cosmological scales and at late times, providing an alternative to the dark energy problem. In addition, the fits do not determine any significant difference statistically with respect to the Λ CDM model. Finally, such model is extended to include the inflationary epoch in the same gravitational Lagrangian. As shown in the paper, the additional terms can reproduce the inflationary epoch and satisfy the constraints from Planck data.

  19. Blowing-up semilinear wave equation with exponential nonlinearity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 123, No. 3, August 2013, pp. 365–372. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Blowing-up semilinear wave equation with exponential nonlinearity in two space dimensions. T SAANOUNI. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis,. University of Tunis El Manar, El Manar 2092, Tunisia.

  20. Exponential GARCH Modeling with Realized Measures of Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Huang, Zhuo

    We introduce the Realized Exponential GARCH model that can utilize multiple realized volatility measures for the modeling of a return series. The model specifies the dynamic properties of both returns and realized measures, and is characterized by a flexible modeling of the dependence between...

  1. Approximating Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Using Polynomial Interpolation (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Yang, Yajun


    This article takes a closer look at the problem of approximating the exponential and logarithmic functions using polynomials. Either as an alternative to or a precursor to Taylor polynomial approximations at the precalculus level, interpolating polynomials are considered. A measure of error is given and the behaviour of the error function is…

  2. Exponential decay for solutions to semilinear damped wave equation

    KAUST Repository

    Gerbi, Stéphane


    This paper is concerned with decay estimate of solutions to the semilinear wave equation with strong damping in a bounded domain. Intro- ducing an appropriate Lyapunov function, we prove that when the damping is linear, we can find initial data, for which the solution decays exponentially. This result improves an early one in [4].

  3. Progress, Exponential Growth and Post-Growth Education (United States)

    Irwin, Ruth


    Teleological progress is the underlying motif of modern culture, and informs education, innovation, and economic development. Progress includes a gradual increase in consumerism. Since the 1940s, the Keynesian Settlement and its embedded belief in progress is legislated in exponential 2-3% economic growth. Unfortunately, climate change is a direct…

  4. The generalized exponential function and fractional trigonometric identities

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.


    In this work, we recall the generalized exponential function in the fractional-order domain which enables defining generalized cosine and sine functions. We then re-visit some important trigonometric identities and generalize them from the narrow integer-order subset to the more general fractional-order domain. Generalized hyperbolic function relations are also given. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. A fourth order exponentially-fitted multiderivative method for Stiff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fourth order exponentially-fitted multiderivative method for Stiff initial value problems. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... implemented and preliminary numerical results indicate that the approach compares favourably with other existing methods that have solved the same set of stiff problems.

  6. Blowing-up semilinear wave equation with exponential nonlinearity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the initial value problem for some semi-linear wave equation in two space dimensions with exponential nonlinearity growth. Author Affiliations. T Saanouni1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, El Manar 2092, Tunisia. Dates. Manuscript received: 26 April ...

  7. Parameter Estimation and Model Selection for Mixtures of Truncated Exponentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael


    Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) support efficient inference algorithms and provide a flexible way of modeling hybrid domains (domains containing both discrete and continuous variables). On the other hand, estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult...

  8. Clinical efficacy of a truncated exponential decay defibrillator. (United States)

    Tacker, W A; Cole, J S; Geddes, L A


    Trans-chest electrical ventricular defibrillation was attempted in eight adult patients using a 400 watt-second truncated exponential decay waveform defibrillator. All attempts occurred in the immediate post-operative period after heart surgery. Five of the eight subjects were defibrillated (63% success). This success rate is similar to that of 300 watt-second damped sinusoidal waveform defibrillators.

  9. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang


    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  10. Exponential Family Techniques for the Lognormal Left Tail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Rojas-Nandayapa, Leonardo

    [Xe−θX]/L(θ)=x. The asymptotic formulas involve the Lambert W function. The established relations are used to provide two different numerical methods for evaluating the left tail probability of lognormal sum Sn=X1+⋯+Xn: a saddlepoint approximation and an exponential twisting importance sampling estimator. For the latter we...

  11. Exponential inequalities for self-normalized martingales with applications


    Bercu, Bernard; Touati, Abderrahmen


    International audience; We propose several exponential inequalities for self-normalized martingales similar to those established by De la Pena. The keystone is the introduction of a new notion of random variable heavy on left or right. Applications associated with linear regressions, autoregressive and branching processes are also provided.

  12. On Dual Lorentzian Homothetic Exponential Motions with One Parameter


    Güngör, Mehmet Ali; Soyfidan, Tülay; Çelik, Muhsin


    In this study, the concept of dual Lorentzian homotetic exponential motions in is discussed and their velocities, accelerations obtained. Also, some geometric results between velocity and acceleration vectors of a point in a spatial motion are obtained. Finally, the theorems related to acceleration and acceleration centres is given.

  13. Critical Layer Thickness in Exponentially Graded Heteroepitaxial Layers (United States)

    Sidoti, D.; Xhurxhi, S.; Kujofsa, T.; Cheruku, S.; Reed, J.; Bertoli, B.; Rago, P. B.; Suarez, E. N.; Jain, F. C.; Ayers, J. E.


    Exponentially graded semiconductor layers are of interest for use as buffers in heteroepitaxial devices because of their tapered dislocation density and strain profiles. Here we have calculated the critical layer thickness for the onset of lattice relaxation in exponentially graded In x Ga1- x As/GaAs (001) heteroepitaxial layers. Upwardly convex grading with x = x_{infty } left( {1 - e^{ - γ /y} } right) was considered, where y is the distance from the GaAs interface, γ is a grading length constant, and x ∞ is the limiting mole fraction of In. For these structures the critical layer thickness was determined by an energy-minimization approach and also by consideration of force balance on grown-in dislocations. The force balance calculations underestimate the critical layer thickness unless one accounts for the fact that the first misfit dislocations are introduced at a finite distance above the interface. The critical layer thickness determined by energy minimization, or by a detailed force balance model, is approximately h_{{c}} ≈ 0.243μ {m}left( {γ /1μ {m}} right)^{0.5} left( {x_{infty } /0.1} right)^{ -0.54} . Although these results were developed for exponentially graded In x Ga1- x As/GaAs (001), they may be generalized to other material systems for application to the design of exponentially graded buffer layers in metamorphic device structures such as modulation-doped field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes.

  14. How to bend galaxy disc profiles - II. Stars surfing the bar in Type-III discs (United States)

    Herpich, J.; Stinson, G. S.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Dutton, A. A.


    The radial profiles of stars in disc galaxies are observed to be either purely exponential (Type-I), truncated (Type-II) or antitruncated (Type-III) exponentials. Controlled formation simulations of isolated galaxies can reproduce all of these profile types by varying a single parameter, the initial halo spin. In this paper, we examine these simulations in more detail in an effort to identify the physical mechanism that leads to the formation of Type-III profiles. The stars in the antitruncated outskirts of such discs are now on eccentric orbits, but were born on near-circular orbits at much smaller radii. We show that, and explain how, they were driven to the outskirts via non-linear interactions with a strong and long-lived central bar, which greatly boosted their semimajor axis but also their eccentricity. While bars have been known to cause radial heating and outward migration to stellar orbits, we link this effect to the formation of Type-III profiles. This predicts that the antitruncated parts of galaxies have unusual kinematics for disc-like stellar configurations: high radial velocity dispersions and slow net rotation. Whether such discs exist in nature, can be tested by future observations.

  15. Sclerosing Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostri, Christoffer; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik


    PURPOSE: To report three cases of sclerosing Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit and to compare the histopathological morphology with those of other types of sclerosing orbital inflammation. METHODS: We analysed the clinical data along with histopathological specimens from orbital biopsies......, tissue necrosis, vasculitis and widespread dense fibrosis. In certain areas of all specimens the fibrous tissue was arranged in characteristic concentric, onionskin-like whorls of collagen around obliterated small blood vessels. CONCLUSIONS: Wegener's granulomatosis may lead to orbital fibrosis...... and sclerosis. The stromal changes and cellular infiltrate resemble the non-specific orbital inflammation previously termed orbital pseudotumour. We present the first 'onionskin' lesions in association with Wegener's granulomatosis in the orbit. This latter morphology may represent an abnormal fibrotic reaction...

  16. Minimal requirements for exponential growth of Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin


    A minimal growth medium containing glucose, acetate, vitamins, and eight amino acids allowed for growth of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, with a specific growth rate in batch culture of mu = 0.3 h-1. With 19 amino acids added, the growth rate increased to mu = 0.7 h-1 and the exponential growt...... phase proceeded until high cell concentrations were reached. We show that morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS) is a suitable buffer for L. lactis and may be applied in high concentrations.......A minimal growth medium containing glucose, acetate, vitamins, and eight amino acids allowed for growth of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, with a specific growth rate in batch culture of mu = 0.3 h-1. With 19 amino acids added, the growth rate increased to mu = 0.7 h-1 and the exponential growth...

  17. Handbook of exponential and related distributions for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Nabendu; Lim, Wooi K


    The normal distribution is widely known and used by scientists and engineers. However, there are many cases when the normal distribution is not appropriate, due to the data being skewed. Rather than leaving you to search through journal articles, advanced theoretical monographs, or introductory texts for alternative distributions, the Handbook of Exponential and Related Distributions for Engineers and Scientists provides a concise, carefully selected presentation of the properties and principles of selected distributions that are most useful for application in the sciences and engineering.The book begins with all the basic mathematical and statistical background necessary to select the correct distribution to model real-world data sets. This includes inference, decision theory, and computational aspects including the popular Bootstrap method. The authors then examine four skewed distributions in detail: exponential, gamma, Weibull, and extreme value. For each one, they discuss general properties and applicabi...

  18. Noise properties of analog correlators with exponentially weighted average (United States)

    Dmowski, K.; Pióro, Z.


    Detailed calculations of the root-mean-square value of the output noise of correlators with an exponentially weighted average and an arbitrarily chosen weighting function for three commonly used mathematical models of white noise are derived. A comparative analysis has been made of noise properties of correlators with exponentially weighted average and true average based on two figures of merits: the output signal-to-noise ratio and the signal-to-noise improvement ratio. An analysis of noise properties of a boxcar averager for any gate width is performed. Expressions for the output signal-to-noise ratio and the signal-to-noise improvement ratio of a boxcar averager are derived.

  19. Markovian Testing Equivalence and Exponentially Timed Internal Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bernardo


    Full Text Available In the theory of testing for Markovian processes developed so far, exponentially timed internal actions are not admitted within processes. When present, these actions cannot be abstracted away, because their execution takes a nonzero amount of time and hence can be observed. On the other hand, they must be carefully taken into account, in order not to equate processes that are distinguishable from a timing viewpoint. In this paper, we recast the definition of Markovian testing equivalence in the framework of a Markovian process calculus including exponentially timed internal actions. Then, we show that the resulting behavioral equivalence is a congruence, has a sound and complete axiomatization, has a modal logic characterization, and can be decided in polynomial time.

  20. Predicting Escherichia coli's chemotactic drift under exponential gradient (United States)

    Samanta, Sibendu; Layek, Ritwik; Kar, Shantimoy; Raj, M. Kiran; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Suman


    Bacterial species are known to show chemotaxis, i.e., the directed motions in the presence of certain chemicals, whereas the motion is random in the absence of those chemicals. The bacteria modulate their run time to induce chemotactic drift towards the attractant chemicals and away from the repellent chemicals. However, the existing theoretical knowledge does not exhibit a proper match with experimental validation, and hence there is a need for developing alternate models and validating experimentally. In this paper a more robust theoretical model is proposed to investigate chemotactic drift of peritrichous Escherichia coli under an exponential nutrient gradient. An exponential gradient is used to understand the steady state behavior of drift because of the logarithmic functionality of the chemosensory receptors. Our theoretical estimations are validated through the experimentation and simulation results. Thus, the developed model successfully delineates the run time, run trajectory, and drift velocity as measured from the experiments.

  1. A new one-parameter deformation of the exponential function (United States)

    Kaniadakis, G.; Scarfone, A. M.


    Recently, in Kaniadakis (Physica A 296 (2001) 405), a new one-parameter deformation for the exponential function exp{κ}(x)=( 1+κ 2x 2+κx) 1/κ; exp {0}( x)=exp( x), which presents a power-law asymptotic behaviour, has been proposed. The statistical distribution f=Z -1 exp{κ}[-β(E-μ)] , has been obtained both as stable stationary state of a proper nonlinear kinetics and as the state which maximizes a new entropic form. In the present contribution, starting from the κ-algebra and after introducing the κ-analysis, we obtain the κ-exponential exp { κ} ( x) as the eigenstate of the κ-derivative and study its main mathematical properties.

  2. Exponentials and Laplace transforms on nonuniform time scales (United States)

    Ortigueira, Manuel D.; Torres, Delfim F. M.; Trujillo, Juan J.


    We formulate a coherent approach to signals and systems theory on time scales. The two derivatives from the time-scale calculus are used, i.e., nabla (forward) and delta (backward), and the corresponding eigenfunctions, the so-called nabla and delta exponentials, computed. With these exponentials, two generalised discrete-time Laplace transforms are deduced and their properties studied. These transforms are compatible with the standard Laplace and Z transforms. They are used to study discrete-time linear systems defined by difference equations. These equations mimic the usual continuous-time equations that are uniformly approximated when the sampling interval becomes small. Impulse response and transfer function notions are introduced. This implies a unified mathematical framework that allows us to approximate the classic continuous-time case when the sampling rate is high or to obtain the standard discrete-time case, based on difference equations, when the time grid becomes uniform.

  3. Molecular sensing using monolayer floating gate, fully depleted SOI MOSFET acting as an exponential transducer. (United States)

    Takulapalli, Bharath R


    Field-effect transistor-based chemical sensors fall into two broad categories based on the principle of signal transduction-chemiresistor or Schottky-type devices and MOSFET or inversion-type devices. In this paper, we report a new inversion-type device concept-fully depleted exponentially coupled (FDEC) sensor, using molecular monolayer floating gate fully depleted silicon on insulator (SOI) MOSFET. Molecular binding at the chemical-sensitive surface lowers the threshold voltage of the device inversion channel due to a unique capacitive charge-coupling mechanism involving interface defect states, causing an exponential increase in the inversion channel current. This response of the device is in opposite direction when compared to typical MOSFET-type sensors, wherein inversion current decreases in a conventional n-channel sensor device upon addition of negative charge to the chemical-sensitive device surface. The new sensor architecture enables ultrahigh sensitivity along with extraordinary selectivity. We propose the new sensor concept with the aid of analytical equations and present results from our experiments in liquid phase and gas phase to demonstrate the new principle of signal transduction. We present data from numerical simulations to further support our theory.

  4. Resummation and power corrections by Dressed Gluon Exponentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; Gardi, Einan; Rathsman, Johan


    Event-shape distributions in $e^+e^-$ annihilation offer a unique lab oratory for understanding perturbative and non-perturbative aspects of QCD. Dressed Gluon Exponentiation is a resummation method designed to evaluate differ ential cross sections close to a kinematic threshold and provide the basis for parametrization of power corrections. The method and its application in the case of the thrust and the heavy jet mass distributions in the two-jet region are briefly presented.

  5. Exponential Inequalities for Positively Associated Random Variables and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shanchao


    Full Text Available Abstract We establish some exponential inequalities for positively associated random variables without the boundedness assumption. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Oliveira (2005. By one of the inequalities, we obtain the convergence rate for the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, which closes to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under the Hartman-Wintner law of the iterated logarithm and improves the convergence rate derived by Oliveira (2005 for the above case.

  6. Notes on spectrum and exponential decay in nonautonomous evolutionary equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötzsche


    Full Text Available We first determine the dichotomy (Sacker-Sell spectrum for certain nonautonomous linear evolutionary equations induced by a class of parabolic PDE systems. Having this information at hand, we underline the applicability of our second result: If the widths of the gaps in the dichotomy spectrum are bounded away from $0$, then one can rule out the existence of super-exponentially decaying (i.e. slow solutions of semi-linear evolutionary equations.

  7. Evidence for Truncated Exponential Probability Distribution of Earthquake Slip

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.


    Earthquake ruptures comprise spatially varying slip on the fault surface, where slip represents the displacement discontinuity between the two sides of the rupture plane. In this study, we analyze the probability distribution of coseismic slip, which provides important information to better understand earthquake source physics. Although the probability distribution of slip is crucial for generating realistic rupture scenarios for simulation-based seismic and tsunami-hazard analysis, the statistical properties of earthquake slip have received limited attention so far. Here, we use the online database of earthquake source models (SRCMOD) to show that the probability distribution of slip follows the truncated exponential law. This law agrees with rupture-specific physical constraints limiting the maximum possible slip on the fault, similar to physical constraints on maximum earthquake magnitudes.We show the parameters of the best-fitting truncated exponential distribution scale with average coseismic slip. This scaling property reflects the control of the underlying stress distribution and fault strength on the rupture dimensions, which determines the average slip. Thus, the scale-dependent behavior of slip heterogeneity is captured by the probability distribution of slip. We conclude that the truncated exponential law accurately quantifies coseismic slip distribution and therefore allows for more realistic modeling of rupture scenarios. © 2016, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserverd.

  8. The Exponential Decay Law, Bell's Inequality, and Nonlinear Dynamics (United States)

    McHarris, Wm. C.


    What do the exponential decay law and Bell's inequality have in common? And with nonlinear dynamics? Simply that they both are among the puzzles at the heart of quantum mechanics, puzzles which can have parallel explanations in terms of chaos or nonlinear dynamics. The statistical nature of the exponential decay law, which at first glance is incompatible with the quantum mechanical concept of indistinguishabe particles, can be mocked up by the extreme sensitivity of chaotic systems to initial conditions. In accord with Ockham's Razor, iteration of a simple unimodal (e.g., quadratic) map in its chaotic region and keeping track of the number of iterations required for a trajectory starting from a point chosen at random within a small interval to escape into another small small interval reproduces the observed exponential behavior. Similarly, Bell's inequality derived using classical mechanics (with an underlying assumption of classical statistics) places an upper limit on numbers derived from measurements on entangled states, whereas quantum mechanics implies that this upper limit no longer holds. Experiments have shown the inequality to be violated, upholding quantum mechanics. However, nonlinear dynamics, with its correlated statistics, can yield results overlapping with the quantum mechanical predictions. Whether or not the experiments rule out "local realism" is thus a moot point. Nonlinear determinism just might exist within quantum mechanics.

  9. Error analysis in Fourier methods for option pricing for exponential Lévy processes

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian


    We derive an error bound for utilising the discrete Fourier transform method for solving Partial Integro-Differential Equations (PIDE) that describe european option prices for exponential Lévy driven asset prices. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a L? bound that separates the dynamical contribution from that arising from the type of the option n in question. The bound achieved does not rely on information of the asymptotic behaviour of option prices at extreme asset values. In addition, we demonstrate improved numerical performance for select examples of practical relevance when compared to established bounding methods.

  10. Preseptal Cellulitis, Orbital Cellulitis, Orbital Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Altan Yaycıoğlu


    Full Text Available Patients with orbital infections present to our clinic usually with unilateral pain, hyperemia, and edema of the eyelids. The differentiation between preseptal and orbital cellulitis is utmost important in that the second requires hospitalization. Since in orbital cellulitis, the tissues posterior to the orbital septum are involved, signs such as conjunctival chemosis, limited eye movement, decreased vision, as well as afferent pupil defect secondary to optic nerve involvement may also be observed. Prompt intravenous antibiotic treatment should be started, and surgical drainage may be performed if patient shows failure to improve in 48 hours despite optimal management. Without treatment, the clinical course may progress to subperiosteal or orbital abscess, and even to cavernous sinus thrombosis. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 52-6

  11. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. See also 8001372, 8010042, 8010045

  12. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372, 8001383, 8010045

  13. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The small ones, like the one we see here, were inserted into the vacuum chamber of the BLG (long and narrow) bending magnets. Werner Sax contemplates his achievement. See also 8001383, 8010042, 8010045.

  14. AA, closed orbit observation pickup

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic pickups around the circumference of the AA served for the measurement of the closed orbits across the wide momentum range of +- 3% to either side of central orbit. The pickups were of the "shoebox" type, with diagonal cuts, a horizontal and a vertical one mechanically coupled together. They were located where they would not require extra space. The wide ones (very wide indeed: 70 cm), like the one we see here, were placed inside the vacuum chamber of the wide quadrupoles, QFW, at maximum dispersion. See also 8001372,8001383, 8010042

  15. A generalized exponential time series regression model for electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar; Proietti, Tomasso

    We consider the issue of modeling and forecasting daily electricity spot prices on the Nord Pool Elspot power market. We propose a method that can handle seasonal and non-seasonal persistence by modelling the price series as a generalized exponential process. As the presence of spikes can distort...... on the estimated model, the best linear predictor is constructed. Our modeling approach provides good fit within sample and outperforms competing benchmark predictors in terms of forecasting accuracy. We also find that building separate models for each hour of the day and averaging the forecasts is a better...... strategy than forecasting the daily average directly....

  16. A new one parameter deformation of the exponential function


    Kaniadakis, G.; Scarfone, A. M.


    Recently, in the ref. Physica A \\bfm{296} 405 (2001), a new one parameter deformation for the exponential function $\\exp_{_{\\{{\\scriptstyle \\kappa}\\}}}(x)= (\\sqrt{1+\\kappa^2x^2}+\\kappa x)^{1/\\kappa}; \\exp_{_{\\{{\\scriptstyle 0}\\}}}(x)=\\exp (x)$, which presents a power law asymptotic behaviour, has been proposed. The statistical distribution $f=Z^{-1}\\exp_{_{\\{{\\scriptstyle \\kappa}\\}}}[-\\beta(E-\\mu)]$, has been obtained both as stable stationary state of a proper non linear kinetics and as the ...

  17. Exponential reduction of finite volume effects with twisted boundary conditions (United States)

    Cherman, Aleksey; Sen, Srimoyee; Wagman, Michael L.; Yaffe, Laurence G.


    Flavor-twisted boundary conditions can be used for exponential reduction of finite volume artifacts in flavor-averaged observables in lattice QCD calculations with S U (Nf) light quark flavor symmetry. Finite volume artifact reduction arises from destructive interference effects in a manner closely related to the phase averaging which leads to large Nc volume independence. With a particular choice of flavor-twisted boundary conditions, finite volume artifacts for flavor-singlet observables in a hypercubic spacetime volume are reduced to the size of finite volume artifacts in a spacetime volume with periodic boundary conditions that is four times larger.

  18. Polar exponential sensor arrays unify iconic and Hough space representation (United States)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.


    The log-polar coordinate system, inherent in both polar exponential sensor arrays and log-polar remapped video imagery, is identical to the coordinate system of its corresponding Hough transform parameter space. The resulting unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computation for line recognition and eliminates the slope quantization problems inherent in the classical Cartesian Hough transform. The geometric organization of the algorithm is more amenable to massively parallel architectures than that of the Cartesian version. The neural architecture of the human visual cortex meets the geometric requirements to execute 'in-place' log-Hough algorithms of the kind described here.

  19. The exponential laws for emission and decaying of entangled atoms (United States)

    Sancho, Pedro


    The first photon emission and the disentanglement of a pair of identical bosonic atoms in excited entangled states follow an exponential law. We extend the theory to distinguishable and identical fermionic two-atom systems. As a byproduct of the analysis we determine the symmetries of the fermionic wave function. We also derive the emission distributions of excited atoms in product states, which must take into account the presence of simultaneous detections. Comparing both distributions reveals a direct manifestation of the modifications induced by entanglement on the atomic emission properties.

  20. Power exponential velocity distributions in disordered porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Matyka, Maciej; Koza, Zbigniew


    Velocity distribution functions link the micro- and macro-level theories of fluid flow through porous media. Here we study them for the fluid absolute velocity and its longitudinal and lateral components relative to the macroscopic flow direction in a model of a random porous medium. We claim that all distributions follow the power exponential law controlled by an exponent $\\gamma$ and a shift parameter $u_0$ and examine how these parameters depend on the porosity. We find that $\\gamma$ has a universal value $1/2$ at the percolation threshold and grows with the porosity, but never exceeds 2.

  1. Exponential bound in the quest for absolute zero (United States)

    Stefanatos, Dionisis


    In most studies for the quantification of the third law of thermodynamics, the minimum temperature which can be achieved with a long but finite-time process scales as a negative power of the process duration. In this article, we use our recent complete solution for the optimal control problem of the quantum parametric oscillator to show that the minimum temperature which can be obtained in this system scales exponentially with the available time. The present work is expected to motivate further research in the active quest for absolute zero.

  2. KFAS: Exponential Family State Space Models in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni Helske


    Full Text Available State space modeling is an efficient and flexible method for statistical inference of a broad class of time series and other data. This paper describes the R package KFAS for state space modeling with the observations from an exponential family, namely Gaussian, Poisson, binomial, negative binomial and gamma distributions. After introducing the basic theory behind Gaussian and non-Gaussian state space models, an illustrative example of Poisson time series forecasting is provided. Finally, a comparison to alternative R packages suitable for non-Gaussian time series modeling is presented.

  3. Exponential integrators for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Christopher K.


    We provide an algorithm and analysis of a high order projection scheme for time integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE). The method is based on a projection onto the subspace of divergence-free (incompressible) functions interleaved with a Krylov-based exponential time integration (KBEI). These time integration methods provide a high order accurate, stable approach with many of the advantages of explicit methods, and can reduce the computational resources over conventional methods. The method is scalable in the sense that the computational costs grow linearly with problem size. Exponential integrators, used typically to solve systems of ODEs, utilize matrix vector products of the exponential of the Jacobian on a vector. For large systems, this product can be approximated efficiently by Krylov subspace methods. However, in contrast to explicit methods, KBEIs are not restricted by the time step. While implicit methods require a solution of a linear system with the Jacobian, KBEIs only require matrix vector products of the Jacobian. Furthermore, these methods are based on linearization, so there is no non-linear system solve at each time step. Differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) are ordinary differential equations (ODEs) subject to algebraic constraints. The discretized NSE constitute a system of DAEs, where the incompressibility condition is the algebraic constraint. Exponential integrators can be extended to DAEs with linear constraints imposed via a projection onto the constraint manifold. This results in a projected ODE that is integrated by a KBEI. In this approach, the Krylov subspace satisfies the constraint, hence the solution at the advanced time step automatically satisfies the constraint as well. For the NSE, the projection onto the constraint is typically achieved by a projection induced by the L{sup 2} inner product. We examine this L{sup 2} projection and an H{sup 1} projection induced by the H{sup 1} semi-inner product. The H

  4. Exponential Martingales and Changes of Measure for Counting Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard


    We give sufficient criteria for the Doléans-Dade exponential of a stochastic integral with respect to a counting process local martingale to be a true martingale. The criteria are adapted particularly to the case of counting processes and are sufficiently weak to be useful and verifiable, as we i...... illustrate by several examples. In particular, the criteria allow for the construction of for example nonexplosive Hawkes processes, counting processes with stochastic intensities depending on diffusion processes as well as inhomogeneous finite-state Markov processes....

  5. Transneptunian Orbit Computation (United States)

    Virtanen, J.; Tancredi, G.; Bernstein, G. M.; Spahr, T.; Muinonen, K.

    We review the orbit computation problem for the transneptunian population. For these distant objects, the problem is characterized by their short observed orbital arcs, which are known to be coupled with large uncertainties in orbital elements. Currently, the observations of even the best observed objects, such as the first-ever transneptunian object (TNO), Pluto, cover only a fraction of their revolution. Furthermore, of the some 1200 objects discovered since 1992, roughly half have observations from only one opposition. To ensure realistic analyses of the population, e.g., in the derivation of unbiased orbital distributions or correlations between orbital and physical properties, realistic estimation of orbital uncertainties is important. We describe the inverse problem of orbit computation, emphasizing the short-arc problem and its statistical treatment. The complete solution to the problem can be given in terms of the orbital-element probability density function (p.d.f.), which then serves as a starting point for any further analysis, where knowledge of orbital uncertainties is required. We give an overview of the variety of computational techniques developed for TNO orbital uncertainty estimation in the recent years. After presenting the current orbital distribution, we demonstrate their application to several prediction problems, such as classification, ephemeris prediction, and dynamical analysis of objects. We conclude with some future prospects for TNO orbit computation concerning the forthcoming next-generation surveys, including the anticipated evolution of TNO orbital uncertainties over the coming decades.

  6. ASC Champ Orbit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Jørgensen, John Leif


    This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite.......This documents describes a test of the implementation of the ASC orbit model for the Champ satellite....

  7. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  8. Coherent Exclusive Exponentiation for Precision Monte Carlo Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Jadach, Stanislaw; Was, Zbigniew


    In this contribution we give a short overview of the new Coherent Exclusive Exponentiation (CEEX) which is implemented in the new \\KK MC event generator for the process $e^+e^-\\to f\\bar{f} +n\\gamma$, $f=\\mu,\\tau,d,u,s,c,b$ with validity for center of mass energies from $\\tau$ lepton threshold to 1TeV, that is for LEP1, LEP2, SLC, future Linear Colliders, $b,c,\\tau$-factories etc. In CEEX effects due to photon emission from initial beams and outgoing fermions are calculated in QED up to second-order, including all interference effects. Electroweak corrections are included in first-order, at the amplitude level. Beams can be polarized longitudinally and transversely, and all spin correlations are incorporated in an exact manner. We describe briefly the essence of CEEX as compared with older exclusive variants of the exponentiation (EEX) and present samples of the numerical results, concentrating on the question of the technical and physical precision for the total cross section and for the charge asymmetry. New...

  9. Data assimilation on the exponentially accurate slow manifold. (United States)

    Cotter, Colin


    I describe an approach to data assimilation making use of an explicit map that defines a coordinate system on the slow manifold in the semi-geostrophic scaling in Lagrangian coordinates, and apply the approach to a simple toy system that has previously been proposed as a low-dimensional model for the semi-geostrophic scaling. The method can be extended to Lagrangian particle methods such as Hamiltonian particle-mesh and smooth-particle hydrodynamics applied to the rotating shallow-water equations, and many of the properties will remain for more general Eulerian methods. Making use of Hamiltonian normal-form theory, it has previously been shown that, if initial conditions for the system are chosen as image points of the map, then the fast components of the system have exponentially small magnitude for exponentially long times as ε→0, and this property is preserved if one uses a symplectic integrator for the numerical time stepping. The map may then be used to parametrize initial conditions near the slow manifold, allowing data assimilation to be performed without introducing any fast degrees of motion (more generally, the precise amount of fast motion can be selected).

  10. A massively parallel exponential integrator for advection-diffusion models (United States)

    Martínez, A.; Bergamaschi, L.; Caliari, M.; Vianello, M.


    This work considers the Real Leja Points Method (ReLPM), [M. Caliari, M. Vianello, L. Bergamaschi, Interpolating discrete advection-diffusion propagators at spectral Leja sequences, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 172 (2004) 79-99], for the exponential integration of large-scale sparse systems of ODEs, generated by Finite Element or Finite Difference discretizations of 3-D advection-diffusion models. We present an efficient parallel implementation of ReLPM for polynomial interpolation of the matrix exponential propagators and , [phi](z)=(exp(z)-1)/z. A scalability analysis of the most important computational kernel inside the code, the parallel sparse matrix-vector product, has been performed, as well as an experimental study of the communication overhead. As a result of this study an optimized parallel sparse matrix-vector product routine has been implemented. The resulting code shows good scaling behavior even when using more than one thousand processors. The numerical results presented on a number of very large test cases gives experimental evidence that ReLPM is a reliable and efficient tool for the simulation of complex hydrodynamic processes on parallel architectures.

  11. Flow of viscous fluid along an exponentially stretching curved surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Okechi

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the boundary layer analysis of flow induced by rapidly stretching curved surface with exponential velocity. The governing boundary value problem is reduced into self-similar form using a new similarity transformation. The resulting equations are solved numerically using shooting and Runge-Kutta methods. The numerical results depicts that the fluid velocity as well as the skin friction coefficient increases with the surface curvature, similar trend is also observed for the pressure. The dimensionless wall shear stress defined for this problem is greater than that of a linearly stretching curved surface, but becomes comparably less for a surface stretching with a power-law velocity. In addition, the result for the plane surface is a special case of this study when the radius of curvature of the surface is sufficiently large. The numerical investigations presented in terms of the graphs are interpreted with the help of underlying physics of the fluid flow and the consequences arising from the curved geometry. Keywords: Boundary layer flow, Curved surface, Exponential stretching, Curvature

  12. Properties of branching exponential flights in bounded domains (United States)

    Zoia, A.; Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.


    In a series of recent works, important results have been reported concerning the statistical properties of exponential flights evolving in bounded domains, a widely adopted model for finite-speed transport phenomena (Blanco S. and Fournier R., Europhys. Lett., 61 (2003) 168; Mazzolo A., Europhys. Lett., 68 (2004) 350; Bénichou O. et al., Europhys. Lett., 70 (2005) 42). Motivated by physical and biological systems where random spatial displacements are coupled with Galton-Watson birth-death mechanisms, such as neutron multiplication, diffusion of reproducing bacteria or spread of epidemics, in this letter we extend those results in two directions, via a Feynman-Kac formalism. First, we characterize the occupation statistics of exponential flights in the presence of absorption and branching, and give explicit moment formulas for the total length travelled by the walker and the number of performed collisions in a given domain. Then, we show that the survival and escape probability can be derived as well by resorting to a similar approach.

  13. Beneficial fitness effects are not exponential for two viruses. (United States)

    Rokyta, Darin R; Beisel, Craig J; Joyce, Paul; Ferris, Martin T; Burch, Christina L; Wichman, Holly A


    The distribution of fitness effects for beneficial mutations is of paramount importance in determining the outcome of adaptation. It is generally assumed that fitness effects of beneficial mutations follow an exponential distribution, for example, in theoretical treatments of quantitative genetics, clonal interference, experimental evolution, and the adaptation of DNA sequences. This assumption has been justified by the statistical theory of extreme values, because the fitnesses conferred by beneficial mutations should represent samples from the extreme right tail of the fitness distribution. Yet in extreme value theory, there are three different limiting forms for right tails of distributions, and the exponential describes only those of distributions in the Gumbel domain of attraction. Using beneficial mutations from two viruses, we show for the first time that the Gumbel domain can be rejected in favor of a distribution with a right-truncated tail, thus providing evidence for an upper bound on fitness effects. Our data also violate the common assumption that small-effect beneficial mutations greatly outnumber those of large effect, as they are consistent with a uniform distribution of beneficial effects.

  14. Truncated exponential versus damped sinusoidal waveform shocks for transthoracic defibrillation. (United States)

    Behr, J C; Hartley, L L; York, D K; Brown, D D; Kerber, R E


    Currently available transthoracic defibrillators use either a damped sinusoidal or truncated exponential (TE) waveform. Truncated exponential waveforms deliver a long pulse if the transthoracic impedance is high; it has been suggested that such a long pulse may be less effective for defibrillation. Our objective was to compare the ability of damped sinusoidal (DS) waveform shocks versus TE waveform shocks to terminate ventricular fibrillation (VF) and achieve survival from witnessed cardiac arrest. We retrospectively reviewed field-recorded electrocardiograms from 86 patients with witnessed VF, treated by prehospital personnel equipped with DS or TE waveform defibrillators. Forty-four patients received 130 shocks from TE defibrillators; 42 patients received 108 shocks from DS defibrillators. There were no significant differences in time from arrest to first shock (8.0 vs 8.1 minutes), nor were there any differences in the size of the communities involved. The shocks resulted in the following rhythms: organized rhythm: TE: 15 of 130 (12%), DS: 24 of 108 (22%), p = 0.10 (NS); persistent VF: TE: 85 of 130 (65%), DS: 45 of 108 (42%), p <0.01; asystole: TE: 30 of 130 (23%), DS: 39 of 108 (36%), p = NS; and survival to hospital discharge: TE: 5 of 44 (11%), DS: 8 of 42 (19%), p = NS. We conclude that DS waveforms terminated VF more frequently than TE, but there was no significant difference in resumption of an organized rhythm or survival. A prospective comparison of these 2 waveforms is needed.

  15. Truncated γ-exponential models for tidal stellar systems (United States)

    Gomez-Leyton, Y. J.; Velazquez, L.


    We introduce a parametric family of models to characterize the properties of astrophysical systems in a quasi-stationary evolution under the incidence evaporation. We start from an one-particle distribution fγ (q, p|β,ɛs) that considers an appropriate deformation of Maxwell-Boltzmann form with inverse temperature β, in particular, a power-law truncation at the scape energy ɛs with exponent γ > 0. This deformation is implemented using a generalized γ-exponential function obtained from the fractional integration of ordinary exponential. As shown in this work, this proposal generalizes models of tidal stellar systems that predict particles distributions with isothermal cores and polytropic haloes, e.g.: Michie-King models. We perform the analysis of thermodynamic features of these models and their associated distribution profiles. A nontrivial consequence of this study is that profiles with isothermal cores and polytropic haloes are only obtained for low energies whenever deformation parameter γ < γc ≃ 2.13. This study is a first approximation to characterize a self- gravitating system, so we consider equal to all the particles that constitute the system.

  16. Realized Matrix-Exponential Stochastic Volatility with Asymmetry, Long Memory and Spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    markdownabstractThe paper develops a novel realized matrix-exponential stochastic volatility model of multivariate returns and realized covariances that incorporates asymmetry and long memory (hereafter the RMESV-ALM model). The matrix exponential transformation guarantees the

  17. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity (United States)

    Oostra, Benjamin


    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  18. Idiopathic granulomatous orbital inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombaerts, I.; Schlingemann, R. O.; Goldschmeding, R.; Koornneef, L.


    PURPOSE: Granulomatous orbital inflammation may occur as an isolated condition of unknown origin. These idiopathic granulomatous lesions are believed to belong to the orbital pseudotumor group by some authors, whereas others consider them sarcoidosis limited to the orbit. The aim of this study is to

  19. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andres Cartes-Velasquez


    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below, city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34 that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800, a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  20. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues. (United States)

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés


    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden.

  1. Exponential sum-fitting of dwell-time distributions without specifying starting parameters. (United States)

    Landowne, David; Yuan, Bin; Magleby, Karl L


    Fitting dwell-time distributions with sums of exponentials is widely used to characterize histograms of open- and closed-interval durations recorded from single ion channels, as well as for other physical phenomena. However, it can be difficult to identify the contributing exponential components. Here we extend previous methods of exponential sum-fitting to present a maximum-likelihood approach that consistently detects all significant exponentials without the need for user-specified starting parameters. Instead of searching for exponentials, the fitting starts with a very large number of initial exponentials with logarithmically spaced time constants, so that none are missed. Maximum-likelihood fitting then determines the areas of all the initial exponentials keeping the time constants fixed. In an iterative manner, with refitting after each step, the analysis then removes exponentials with negligible area and combines closely spaced adjacent exponentials, until only those exponentials that make significant contributions to the dwell-time distribution remain. There is no limit on the number of significant exponentials and no starting parameters need be specified. We demonstrate fully automated detection for both experimental and simulated data, as well as for classical exponential-sum-fitting problems. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Families of Keplerian orbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butikov, Eugene I [St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Various properties of Keplerian orbits traced by satellites that are launched from one and the same spatial point with different initial velocities are discussed. Two families of elliptical orbits are investigated, namely the sets of orbits produced by a common direction but different magnitudes of the initial velocities, and by a common magnitude but various directions of the initial velocities. For the latter family, the envelope of all the orbits is found, which is the boundary of the spatial region occupied by the orbits.

  3. Families of Keplerian orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Butikov, E I


    Various properties of Keplerian orbits traced by satellites that are launched from one and the same spatial point with different initial velocities are discussed. Two families of elliptical orbits are investigated, namely the sets of orbits produced by a common direction but different magnitudes of the initial velocities, and by a common magnitude but various directions of the initial velocities. For the latter family, the envelope of all the orbits is found, which is the boundary of the spatial region occupied by the orbits.

  4. The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG. XIII. The orbital obliquity of three close-in massive planets hosted by dwarf K-type stars: WASP-43, HAT-P-20 and Qatar-2 (United States)

    Esposito, M.; Covino, E.; Desidera, S.; Mancini, L.; Nascimbeni, V.; Zanmar Sanchez, R.; Biazzo, K.; Lanza, A. F.; Leto, G.; Southworth, J.; Bonomo, A. S.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Boccato, C.; Cosentino, R.; Claudi, R. U.; Gratton, R.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Piotto, G.; Poretti, E.; Smareglia, R.; Sozzetti, A.; Affer, L.; Anderson, D. R.; Andreuzzi, G.; Benatti, S.; Bignamini, A.; Borsa, F.; Borsato, L.; Ciceri, S.; Damasso, M.; di Fabrizio, L.; Giacobbe, P.; Granata, V.; Harutyunyan, A.; Henning, T.; Malavolta, L.; Maldonado, J.; Martinez Fiorenzano, A.; Masiero, S.; Molaro, P.; Molinaro, M.; Pedani, M.; Rainer, M.; Scandariato, G.; Turner, O. D.


    Context. The orbital obliquity of planets with respect to the rotational axis of their host stars is a relevant parameter for the characterization of the global architecture of planetary systems and a key observational constraint to discriminate between different scenarios proposed to explain the existence of close-in giant planets. Aims: In the framework of the GAPS project, we conduct an observational programme aimed at determinating the orbital obliquity of known transiting exoplanets. The targets are selected to probe the obliquity against a wide range of stellar and planetary physical parameters. Methods: We exploit high-precision radial velocity (RV) measurements, delivered by the HARPS-N spectrograph at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, to measure the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect in RV time-series bracketing planet transits, and to refine the orbital parameters determinations with out-of-transit RV data. We also analyse new transit light curves obtained with several 1-2 m class telescopes to better constrain the physical fundamental parameters of the planets and parent stars. Results: We report here on new transit spectroscopic observations for three very massive close-in giant planets: WASP-43 b, HAT-P-20 b and Qatar-2 b (Mp = 2.00, 7.22, 2.62 MJ; a = 0.015, 0.036, 0.022 AU, respectively) orbiting dwarf K-type stars with effective temperature well below 5000 K (Teff = 4500 ± 100, 4595 ± 45, 4640 ± 65 K respectively). These are the coolest stars (except for WASP-80) for which the RM effect has been observed so far. We find λ = 3.5 ± 6.8 deg for WASP-43 b and λ = -8.0 ± 6.9 deg for HAT-P-20 b, while for Qatar-2, our faintest target, the RM effect is only marginally detected, though our best-fit value λ = 15 ± 20 deg is in agreement with a previous determination. In combination with stellar rotational periods derived photometrically, we estimate the true spin-orbit angle, finding that WASP-43 b is aligned while the orbit of HAT-P-20 b

  5. Orbital fractures: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Joseph


    Full Text Available Jeffrey M Joseph, Ioannis P GlavasDivision of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, New York University, New York, NY, USA; Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat Hospital, New York, NY, USAAbstract: This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1 to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2 to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3 to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.Keywords: orbit, trauma, fracture, orbital floor, medial wall, zygomatic, zygomatic complex, zmc fracture, zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures 

  6. Academia-industry collaboration feeds exponential growth curve

    CERN Document Server

    Jones Bey Hassaun, A


    The use of silicon strip detectors in high-energy particle tracking is discussed. The functional strength of silicon for high-energy particle physics as well as astrophysics lies in the ability to detect passage of charged particles with micron-scale spatial resolution. In addition to vertex detection, silicon strip detectors also provide full tracking detection to include momentum determination of particles in the magnetic field. Even if silicon detectors for basic science applications do not continue to grow larger, exponential growth of the technology for terrestrial commercial applications is likely to follow a healthy growth curve, as researchers continue to adapt silicon detector technology for low- dose medical x-ray imaging. (Edited abstract)

  7. Day-Ahead Load Forecasting Using Exponential Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bindiu


    Full Text Available The existence of a liberated market for electricity implies the necessity of using load forecasting in order to optimize and reduce the costs for the electric energy consumption. Different strategies for the purchase of electrical energy require precise load forecasting. The Day Ahead Market makes possible the acquisition of electricity for one day in advance. This reduces the risk of making electrical energy transactions on Balance Market, which means buying at a very high price and selling at a very low price. This paper presents a Day Ahead Load Forecasting approach for an industrial costumer using exponential smoothing method. The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for day ahead load forecasting.

  8. Hyponormal quantization of planar domains exponential transform in dimension two

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Björn


    This book exploits the classification of a class of linear bounded operators with rank-one self-commutators in terms of their spectral parameter, known as the principal function. The resulting dictionary between two dimensional planar shapes with a degree of shade and Hilbert space operators turns out to be illuminating and beneficial for both sides. An exponential transform, essentially a Riesz potential at critical exponent, is at the heart of this novel framework; its best rational approximants unveil a new class of complex orthogonal polynomials whose asymptotic distribution of zeros is thoroughly studied in the text. Connections with areas of potential theory, approximation theory in the complex domain and fluid mechanics are established. The text is addressed, with specific aims, at experts and beginners in a wide range of areas of current interest: potential theory, numerical linear algebra, operator theory, inverse problems, image and signal processing, approximation theory, mathematical physics.

  9. Fitting and Analyzing Randomly Censored Geometric Extreme Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yameen Danish


    Full Text Available The paper presents the Bayesian analysis of two-parameter geometric extreme exponential distribution with randomly censored data. The continuous conjugate prior of the scale and shape parameters of the model does not exist while computing the Bayes estimates, it is assumed that the scale and shape parameters have independent gamma priors. It is seen that the closed-form expressions for the Bayes estimators are not possible; we suggest the Lindley’s approximation to obtain the Bayes estimates. However, the Bayesian credible intervals cannot be constructed while using this method, we propose Gibbs sampling to obtain the Bayes estimates and also to construct the Bayesian credible intervals. Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to observe the behavior of the Bayes estimators and also to compare with the maximum likelihood estimators. One real data analysis is performed for illustration.

  10. Winning Concurrent Reachability Games Requires Doubly-Exponential Patience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Koucký, Michal; Miltersen, Peter Bro


    that are less than (isin2/(1 - isin))2n-2 . Also, even to achieve the value within say 1 - 2-n/2, doubly exponentially small behavior probabilities in the number of positions must be used. This behavior is close to worst case: We show that for any such game and 0 ...We exhibit a deterministic concurrent reachability game PURGATORYn with n non-terminal positions and a binary choice for both players in every position so that any positional strategy for Player 1 achieving the value of the game within given isin ... with all non-zero behavior probabilities being 20(n) at least isin2O(n). As a corollary to our results, we conclude that any (deterministic or nondeterministic) algorithm that given a concurrent reachability game explicitly manipulates isin-optimal strategies for Player 1 represented in several standard...

  11. On Quantified Propositional Logics and the Exponential Time Hierarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miika Hannula


    Full Text Available We study quantified propositional logics from the complexity theoretic point of view. First we introduce alternating dependency quantified boolean formulae (ADQBF which generalize both quantified and dependency quantified boolean formulae. We show that the truth evaluation for ADQBF is AEXPTIME(poly-complete. We also identify fragments for which the problem is complete for the levels of the exponential hierarchy. Second we study propositional team-based logics. We show that DQBF formulae correspond naturally to quantified propositional dependence logic and present a general NEXPTIME upper bound for quantified propositional logic with a large class of generalized dependence atoms. Moreover we show AEXPTIME(poly-completeness for extensions of propositional team logic with generalized dependence atoms.

  12. Exponential and power laws in public procurement markets (United States)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav; Skuhrovec, Jiri


    We analyze for the first time a unique public procurement database, which includes information about a number of bidders for a contract, a final price, an identification of a winner and an identification of a contracting authority for each of more than 40000 public procurements in the Czech Republic between 2006 and 2011, focusing on the distributional properties of the variables of interest. We uncover several scaling laws —the exponential law for the number of bidders, and the power laws for the total revenues and total spendings of the participating companies, which even follows Zipf's law for the 100 most spending institutions. We propose an analogy between extensive and non-extensive systems in physics and the public procurement market situations. Through an entropy maximization, such analogy yields some interesting results and policy implications with respect to the Maxwell-Boltzmann and Pareto distributions in the analyzed quantities.

  13. Auxiliary Parameter MCMC for Exponential Random Graph Models (United States)

    Byshkin, Maksym; Stivala, Alex; Mira, Antonietta; Krause, Rolf; Robins, Garry; Lomi, Alessandro


    Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are a well-established family of statistical models for analyzing social networks. Computational complexity has so far limited the appeal of ERGMs for the analysis of large social networks. Efficient computational methods are highly desirable in order to extend the empirical scope of ERGMs. In this paper we report results of a research project on the development of snowball sampling methods for ERGMs. We propose an auxiliary parameter Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for sampling from the relevant probability distributions. The method is designed to decrease the number of allowed network states without worsening the mixing of the Markov chains, and suggests a new approach for the developments of MCMC samplers for ERGMs. We demonstrate the method on both simulated and actual (empirical) network data and show that it reduces CPU time for parameter estimation by an order of magnitude compared to current MCMC methods.

  14. Twofold PT symmetry in doubly exponential optical lattices (United States)

    Cole, J. T.; Makris, K. G.; Musslimani, Z. H.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Rotter, S.


    We introduce a family of non-Hermitian optical potentials that are given in terms of double-exponential periodic functions. The center of PT symmetry is not around zero and the potential satisfies a shifted PT -symmetry relation at two distinct locations. Motivated by wave transmission through thin phase screens and gratings, we examine these refractive index modulations from the perspective of optical lattices that are homogeneous along the propagation direction. The diffraction dynamics, abrupt phase transitions in the eigenvalue spectrum, and exceptional points in the band structure are examined in detail. In addition, the nonlinear properties of wave propagation in Kerr nonlinearity media are studied. In particular, coherent structures such as lattice solitons are numerically identified by applying the spectral renormalization method. The spatial symmetries of such lattice solitons follow the shifted PT -symmetric relations. Furthermore, such lattice solitons have a power threshold and their linear and nonlinear stabilities are critically dependent on their spatial symmetry point.

  15. Exponential random graph models for networks with community structure. (United States)

    Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Bujok, Maksymilian


    Although the community structure organization is an important characteristic of real-world networks, most of the traditional network models fail to reproduce the feature. Therefore, the models are useless as benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms. They are also inadequate to predict various properties of real networks. With this paper we intend to fill the gap. We develop an exponential random graph approach to networks with community structure. To this end we mainly built upon the idea of blockmodels. We consider both the classical blockmodel and its degree-corrected counterpart and study many of their properties analytically. We show that in the degree-corrected blockmodel, node degrees display an interesting scaling property, which is reminiscent of what is observed in real-world fractal networks. A short description of Monte Carlo simulations of the models is also given in the hope of being useful to others working in the field.

  16. Closed-Form Expressions for the Matrix Exponential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Zela


    Full Text Available We discuss a method to obtain closed-form expressions of f(A, where f is an analytic function and A a square, diagonalizable matrix. The method exploits the Cayley–Hamilton theorem and has been previously reported using tools that are perhaps not sufficiently appealing to physicists. Here, we derive the results on which the method is based by using tools most commonly employed by physicists. We show the advantages of the method in comparison with standard approaches, especially when dealing with the exponential of low-dimensional matrices. In contrast to other approaches that require, e.g., solving differential equations, the present method only requires the construction of the inverse of the Vandermonde matrix. We show the advantages of the method by applying it to different cases, mostly restricting the calculational effort to the handling of two-by-two matrices.

  17. Piecewise exponential survival trees with time-dependent covariates. (United States)

    Huang, X; Chen, S; Soong, S J


    Survival trees methods are nonparametric alternatives to the semiparametric Cox regression in survival analysis. In this paper, a tree-based method for censored survival data with time-dependent covariates is proposed. The proposed method assumes a very general model for the hazard function and is fully nonparametric. The recursive partitioning algorithm uses the likelihood estimation procedure to grow trees under a piecewise exponential structure that handles time-dependent covariates in a parallel way to time-independent covariates. In general, the estimated hazard at a node gives the risk for a group of individuals during a specific time period. Both cross-validation and bootstrap resampling techniques are implemented in the tree selection procedure. The performance of the proposed survival trees method is shown to be good through simulation and application to real data.

  18. Exponential and power-law hierarchies from supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, A A


    We examine how a d-dimensional mass hierarchy can be generated from a d+1-dimensional set up. We consider a d+1--dimensional scalar, the hierarchon, which has a potential as in gauged supergravities. We find that when it is in its minimum, there exist solutions of Horava-Witten topology R^d X S^1/Z^2 with domain walls at the fixed points and anti-de Sitter geometry in the bulk. We show that while standard Poincare supergravity leads to power-law hierarchies, (e.g. a power law dependence of masses on the compactification scale), gauged supergravity produce an exponential hierarchy as recently proposed by Randall and Sundrum.

  19. Towards multi-exponential analysis in optically stimulated luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank; Hansen, Per Christian


    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) data from quartz can follow different mathematical forms depending on the stimulation mode. These data can be described in terms of different multi-exponential models and can be numerically fitted using several well-known methods. Here we make a comparative......, it is found that transformation of OSL decay data to a peak form gives better results than direct measurement of peak-form data by, for example, varying the stimulation light intensity. The comparison of the two numerical methods suggests that the NLS method performs somewhat better than the FIE method......; however, the latter has the advantage that it does not require the user's judgement on the number of components in the data. Testing of the NLS procedure on a measured quartz time-resolved OSL signal transformed into peak form yielded reliable parameter estimates even when the signal intensity...

  20. Exponentially more precise quantum simulation of fermions in the configuration interaction representation (United States)

    Babbush, Ryan; Berry, Dominic W.; Sanders, Yuval R.; Kivlichan, Ian D.; Scherer, Artur; Wei, Annie Y.; Love, Peter J.; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán


    We present a quantum algorithm for the simulation of molecular systems that is asymptotically more efficient than all previous algorithms in the literature in terms of the main problem parameters. As in Babbush et al (2016 New Journal of Physics 18, 033032), we employ a recently developed technique for simulating Hamiltonian evolution using a truncated Taylor series to obtain logarithmic scaling with the inverse of the desired precision. The algorithm of this paper involves simulation under an oracle for the sparse, first-quantized representation of the molecular Hamiltonian known as the configuration interaction (CI) matrix. We construct and query the CI matrix oracle to allow for on-the-fly computation of molecular integrals in a way that is exponentially more efficient than classical numerical methods. Whereas second-quantized representations of the wavefunction require \\widetilde{{ O }}(N) qubits, where N is the number of single-particle spin-orbitals, the CI matrix representation requires \\widetilde{{ O }}(η ) qubits, where η \\ll N is the number of electrons in the molecule of interest. We show that the gate count of our algorithm scales at most as \\widetilde{{ O }}({η }2{N}3t).

  1. Unsteady MHD radiative flow and heat transfer of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially stretching surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sandeep


    Full Text Available We analyzed the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic radiative flow and heat transfer characteristics of a dusty nanofluid over an exponentially permeable stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Cu-water and CuO-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Runge–Kutta based shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters namely magneticfield parameter, mass concentration of dust particles, fluid particle interaction parameter, volume fraction of dust particles, volume fraction of nano particles, unsteadiness parameter, exponential parameter, radiation parameter and suction/injection parameter on velocity profiles for fluid phase, dust phase and temperature profiles are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, friction factor and Nusselt numbers are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately. Comparisons of the present study were made with existing studies under some special assumptions. The present results have an excellent agreement with existing studies. Results indicated that the enhancement in fluid particle interaction increases the heat transfer rate and depreciates the wall friction. Also, radiation parameter has the tendency to increase the temperature profiles of the dusty nanofluid.

  2. From Classical to Discrete Gravity through Exponential Non-Standard Lagrangians in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ahmad El-Nabulsi


    Full Text Available Recently, non-standard Lagrangians have gained a growing importance in theoretical physics and in the theory of non-linear differential equations. However, their formulations and implications in general relativity are still in their infancies despite some advances in contemporary cosmology. The main aim of this paper is to fill the gap. Though non-standard Lagrangians may be defined by a multitude form, in this paper, we considered the exponential type. One basic feature of exponential non-standard Lagrangians concerns the modified Euler-Lagrange equation obtained from the standard variational analysis. Accordingly, when applied to spacetime geometries, one unsurprisingly expects modified geodesic equations. However, when taking into account the time-like paths parameterization constraint, remarkably, it was observed that mutually discrete gravity and discrete spacetime emerge in the theory. Two different independent cases were obtained: A geometrical manifold with new spacetime coordinates augmented by a metric signature change and a geometrical manifold characterized by a discretized spacetime metric. Both cases give raise to Einstein’s field equations yet the gravity is discretized and originated from “spacetime discreteness”. A number of mathematical and physical implications of these results were discussed though this paper and perspectives are given accordingly.

  3. Posttraumatic orbital emphysema: a numerical model. (United States)

    Skorek, Andrzej; Kłosowski, Paweł; Plichta, Lukasz; Raczyńska, Dorota; Zmuda Trzebiatowski, Marcin; Lemski, Paweł


    Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features-thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from 1 · 10(-3) to 1 · 10(-2) second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  4. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skorek


    Full Text Available Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall. The observation was made from 1·10-3 to 1·10-2 second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found.

  5. Histopathological Features of Tumours of the Orbit and Adnexia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: This study was to determine and report the histological types of orbital and adnexal tumours seen in the eye unit in Korle-bu Teaching Hospital METHODS:This was a retrospective study of orbital and adnexal tumours in a referral orbit and oculoplastic clinic in a teaching hospital in Ghana. Biopsy specimen ...

  6. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M Al-Salem


    Full Text Available Orbital complications due to ethmoiditis are rare in neonates. A case of orbital abscess due to acute ethmoiditis in a 28-day-old girl is presented. A Successful outcome was achieved following antimicrobial therapy alone; spontaneous drainage of the abscess occurred from the lower lid without the need for surgery. From this case report, we intend to emphasize on eyelid retraction as a sign of neonatal orbital abscess, and to review all the available literature of similar cases.

  7. Orbital abscess: Management and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Suneetha


    Full Text Available Purpose: To discuss the diagnosis, management and outcome of various types of orbital abscess. Methods: The medical records of 13 patients diagnosed and treated for orbital abscess were reviewed. The sources of infection included: paranasal sinusitis (n = 5, odontogenic origin of infection (n = 4, one each, temporal fossa abscess, palatal abscess, furuncle on the nose, and secondary to retrobulbar injection of steroid. Computed tomographic scans revealed the presence of an abscess in all 13 cases. Associated findings on CT scan included: sinus disease (n = 8, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and subdural empyema (n = 2. All patients were treated with intensive, multiple, intravenous antibiotics and early surgical drainage. Results: Purulent material collected surgically from the orbit cultured Staphylococcus aureus (n = 3, two each Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter species and one each β-haemolytic Streptococci, Citrobacter frundi and Enterobacter. Final visual acuity was good in 6 patients (6/12 - 6/6 and no light perception in 6 others. Visual acuity could not be recorded in the infant. The other complications were intracranial abscess (n = 4, cavernous sinus thrombosis (n = 2 and restricted ocular motility (n = 1. Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is necessary, along with early institution of appropriate diagnostic imaging, and aggressive medical and surgical treatment for a favourable outcome in cases of orbital abscess.

  8. Family of Orbiters (United States)


    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time. All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet. Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  9. Stretched exponential relaxation in molecular and electronic glasses (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.


    Stretched exponential relaxation, 0034-4885/59/9/003/img1, fits many relaxation processes in disordered and quenched electronic and molecular systems, but it is widely believed that this function has no microscopic basis, especially in the case of molecular relaxation. For electronic relaxation the appearance of the stretched exponential is often described in the context of dispersive transport, where 0034-4885/59/9/003/img2 is treated as an adjustable parameter, but in almost all cases it is generally assumed that no microscopic meaning can be assigned to 0034-4885/59/9/003/img3 even at 0034-4885/59/9/003/img4, a glass transition temperature. We show that for molecular relaxation 0034-4885/59/9/003/img5 can be understood, providing that one separates extrinsic and intrinsic effects, and that the intrinsic effects are dominated by two magic numbers, 0034-4885/59/9/003/img6 for short-range forces, and 0034-4885/59/9/003/img7 for long-range Coulomb forces, as originally observed by Kohlrausch for the decay of residual charge on a Leyden jar. Our mathematical model treats relaxation kinetics using the Lifshitz - Kac - Luttinger diffusion to traps depletion model in a configuration space of effective dimensionality, the latter being determined using axiomatic set theory and Phillips - Thorpe constraint theory. The experiments discussed include ns neutron scattering experiments, particularly those based on neutron spin echoes which measure S( Q,t) directly, and the traditional linear response measurements which span the range from 0034-4885/59/9/003/img8 to s, as collected and analysed phenomenologically by Angell, Ngai, Böhmer and others. The electronic materials discussed include a-Si:H, granular 0034-4885/59/9/003/img9, semiconductor nanocrystallites, charge density waves in 0034-4885/59/9/003/img10, spin glasses, and vortex glasses in high-temperature semiconductors. The molecular materials discussed include polymers, network glasses, electrolytes and alcohols, Van

  10. A Time--Independent Born--Oppenheimer Approximation with Exponentially Accurate Error Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, G A


    We consider a simple molecular--type quantum system in which the nuclei have one degree of freedom and the electrons have two levels. The Hamiltonian has the form \\[ H(\\epsilon)\\ =\\ -\\,\\frac{\\epsilon^4}2\\, \\frac{\\partial^2\\phantom{i}}{\\partial y^2}\\ +\\ h(y), \\] where $h(y)$ is a $2\\times 2$ real symmetric matrix. Near a local minimum of an electron level ${\\cal E}(y)$ that is not at a level crossing, we construct quasimodes that are exponentially accurate in the square of the Born--Oppenheimer parameter $\\epsilon$ by optimal truncation of the Rayleigh--Schr\\"odinger series. That is, we construct $E_\\epsilon$ and $\\Psi_\\epsilon$, such that $\\|\\Psi_\\epsilon\\|\\,=\\,O(1)$ and \\[ \\|\\,(H(\\epsilon)\\,-\\,E_\\epsilon))\\,\\Psi_\\epsilon\\,\\|\\ 0. \\

  11. The Parity of Set Systems under Random Restrictions with Applications to Exponential Time Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björklund, Andreas; Dell, Holger; Husfeldt, Thore


    and Husfeldt (FOCS 2013) that computes the parity of the number of Hamiltonian cycles in time 1.619^n. 2. A new result in the framework of Cygan et al. (CCC 2012) for analyzing the complexity of NP-hard problems under the Strong Exponential Time Hypothesis: If the parity of the number of Set Covers can......We reduce the problem of detecting the existence of an object to the problem of computing the parity of the number of objects in question. In particular, when given any non-empty set system, we prove that randomly restricting elements of its ground set makes the size of the restricted set system...... an odd number with significant probability. When compared to previously known reductions of this type, ours excel in their simplicity: For graph problems, restricting elements of the ground set usually corresponds to simple deletion and contraction operations, which can be encoded efficiently in most...

  12. Polymerase Chain Transcription: Exponential Synthesis of RNA and Modified RNA. (United States)

    Chen, Tingjian; Romesberg, Floyd E


    There is increasing demand for RNA and modified RNA oligonucleotides, but in contrast to DNA oligonucleotides, they are typically prohibitively expensive to chemically synthesize, and unlike longer RNAs, they are only inefficiently produced by in vitro transcription, especially when modified. To address these challenges, we previously reported the evolution of a thermostable DNA polymerase, SFM4-3, that more efficiently accepts substrates with 2'-substituents. We now show that SFM4-3 efficiently transcribes RNA or 2'-F-modified RNA and that it also efficiently PCR amplifies oligonucleotides of mixed RNA and DNA composition. In addition, with thermocycling and the use of a novel DNA template, we demonstrate a polymerase chain transcription (PCT) reaction that results in the exponential production of orders of magnitude more RNA or modified RNA than is available by conventional transcription. PCT is more efficient and general than conventional transcription and can produce large amounts of any RNA or modified RNA oligonucleotide at a fraction of the cost of chemical synthesis.

  13. Multivariate Exponential Survival Trees And Their Application to Tooth Prognosis (United States)

    Fan, Juanjuan; Nunn, Martha E.; Su, Xiaogang


    SUMMARY This paper is concerned with developing rules for assignment of tooth prognosis based on actual tooth loss in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study. It is also of interest to rank the relative importance of various clinical factors for tooth loss. A multivariate survival tree procedure is proposed. The procedure is built on a parametric exponential frailty model, which leads to greater computational efficiency. We adopted the goodness-of-split pruning algorithm of LeBlanc and Crowley (1993) to determine the best tree size. In addition, the variable importance method is extended to trees grown by goodness-of-fit using an algorithm similar to the random forest procedure in Breiman (2001). Simulation studies for assessing the proposed tree and variable importance methods are presented. To limit the final number of meaningful prognostic groups, an amalgamation algorithm is employed to merge terminal nodes that are homogenous in tooth survival. The resulting prognosis rules and variable importance rankings seem to offer simple yet clear and insightful interpretations. PMID:21709804

  14. Exponential growth of LBL films with incorporated inorganic sheets. (United States)

    Podsiadlo, Paul; Michel, Marc; Lee, Jungwoo; Verploegen, Eric; Wong Shi Kam, Nadine; Ball, Vincent; Lee, Jaebeom; Qi, Ying; Hart, A John; Hammond, Paula T; Kotov, Nicholas A


    The fastest growth pattern of layer-by-layer (LBL) assembled films is exponential LBL (e-LBL), which has both fundamental and practical importance. It is associated with "in-and-out" diffusion of flexible polymers and thus was considered to be impossible for films containing clay sheets with strong barrier function, preventing diffusion. Here, we demonstrate that e-LBL for inorganic sheets is possible in a complex tricomponent film of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and Na(+)-montmorillonite (MTM). This system displayed clear e-LBL patterns in terms of both initial accumulation of materials and unusually thick individual bilayers later in the deposition process with film thicknesses reaching 200 microm for films composed of 200 pairs of layers. Successful incorporation of MTM layers was observed by scanning electron microscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Surprisingly, the growth rate was found to be nearly identical in films with and without clay layers, which suggests fast permeation/reptation of polyelectrolytes between the nanosheets during the "in-and-out" diffusion of polymer. In considering these findings, e-LBL growth property is expected for a wide array of available inorganic nanoscale components and have a potential to greatly expand the e-LBL field and LBL field altogether. The large thickness and rapid growth of the films affords fast preparation of nanostructured materials which is essential for multiple practical applications ranging from optical devices to ultrastrong composites.

  15. A Study on The Mixture of Exponentiated-Weibull Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Tawfik Elshahat


    Full Text Available Mixtures of measures or distributions occur frequently in the theory and applications of probability and statistics. In the simplest case it may, for example, be reasonable to assume that one is dealing with the mixture in given proportions of a finite number of normal populations with different means or variances. The mixture parameter may also be denumerable infinite, as in the theory of sums of a random number of random variables, or continuous, as in the compound Poisson distribution. The use of finite mixture distributions, to control for unobserved heterogeneity, has become increasingly popular among those estimating dynamic discrete choice models. One of the barriers to using mixture models is that parameters that could previously be estimated in stages must now be estimated jointly: using mixture distributions destroys any additive reparability of the log likelihood function. In this thesis, the maximum likelihood estimators have been obtained for the parameters of the mixture of exponentiated Weibull distribution when sample is available from censoring scheme. The maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters and the asymptotic variance covariance matrix have been also obtained. A numerical illustration for these new results is given.

  16. Signal decomposition and reconstruction using complex exponential models (United States)

    James Hu, Sau-Lon; Yang, Wen-Long; Li, Hua-Jun


    The theme of this paper is signal decomposition and reconstruction, not specific for or limited to system identification. In dealing with aperiodic damped signals, Prony-based techniques — which decompose a signal into real- and/or complex-valued exponential components — are often utilized. In essence, the derivation of Prony's method has been based on a high order homogeneous difference equation. In this paper, an alternative approach that uses a first-order matrix homogenous difference equation (state-space model) to replace the high order homogenous difference equation is advocated. Although the proposed method and Prony's method appear to be theoretically identical, this paper shows that they are drastically different over crucial numerical issues, including conditioning and stability. While Prony's method is very sensitive to sampling rate and round-off error, the proposed method is not. While Prony's method has trouble to deal with noise embedded in the signal, the proposed method can handle noisy signals properly because it has a build-in noise rejection mechanism via the usage of truncated singular value decomposition. While root-finding of a high order polynomial — a classical ill-conditioned problem — is a required step in Prony's method, the proposed method completely avoids it. The proposed method is also applicable to intermittent signals, and can recover the missing parts of intermittent signals nicely through reconstruction.

  17. Characterizing quantum correlations. Entanglement, uncertainty relations and exponential families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niekamp, Soenke


    This thesis is concerned with different characterizations of multi-particle quantum correlations and with entropic uncertainty relations. The effect of statistical errors on the detection of entanglement is investigated. First, general results on the statistical significance of entanglement witnesses are obtained. Then, using an error model for experiments with polarization-entangled photons, it is demonstrated that Bell inequalities with lower violation can have higher significance. The question for the best observables to discriminate between a state and the equivalence class of another state is addressed. Two measures for the discrimination strength of an observable are defined, and optimal families of observables are constructed for several examples. A property of stabilizer bases is shown which is a natural generalization of mutual unbiasedness. For sets of several dichotomic, pairwise anticommuting observables, uncertainty relations using different entropies are constructed in a systematic way. Exponential families provide a classification of states according to their correlations. In this classification scheme, a state is considered as k-correlated if it can be written as thermal state of a k-body Hamiltonian. Witness operators for the detection of higher-order interactions are constructed, and an algorithm for the computation of the nearest k-correlated state is developed.

  18. Constructing Matrix Exponential Distributions by Moments and Behavior around Zero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Angius


    Full Text Available This paper deals with moment matching of matrix exponential (ME distributions used to approximate general probability density functions (pdf. A simple and elegant approach to this problem is applying Padé approximation to the moment generating function of the ME distribution. This approach may, however, fail if the resulting ME function is not a proper probability density function; that is, it assumes negative values. As there is no known, numerically stable method to check the nonnegativity of general ME functions, the applicability of Padé approximation is limited to low-order ME distributions or special cases. In this paper, we show that the Padé approximation can be extended to capture the behavior of the original pdf around zero and this can help to avoid representations with negative values and to have a better approximation of the shape of the original pdf. We show that there exist cases when this extension leads to ME function whose nonnegativity can be verified, while the classical approach results in improper pdf. We apply the ME distributions resulting from the proposed approach in stochastic models and show that they can yield more accurate results.

  19. Exponential fading to white of black holes in quantum gravity (United States)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Garay, Luis J.


    Quantization of the gravitational field may allow the existence of a decay channel of black holes into white holes with an explicit time-reversal symmetry. The definition of a meaningful decay probability for this channel is studied in spherically symmetric situations. As a first nontrivial calculation, we present the functional integration over a set of geometries using a single-variable function to interpolate between black-hole and white-hole geometries in a bounded region of spacetime. This computation gives a finite result which depends only on the Schwarzschild mass and a parameter measuring the width of the interpolating region. The associated probability distribution displays an exponential decay law on the latter parameter, with a mean lifetime inversely proportional to the Schwarzschild mass. In physical terms this would imply that matter collapsing to a black hole from a finite radius bounces back elastically and instantaneously, with negligible time delay as measured by external observers. These results invite to reconsider the ultimate nature of astrophysical black holes, providing a possible mechanism for the formation of black stars instead of proper general relativistic black holes. The existence of both this decay channel and black stars can be tested in future observations of gravitational waves.

  20. Exponential 6 parameterization for the JCZ3-EOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.; Hobbs, M.L.; Baer, M.R.


    A database has been created for use with the Jacobs-Cowperthwaite-Zwisler-3 equation-of-state (JCZ3-EOS) to determine thermochemical equilibrium for detonation and expansion states of energetic materials. The JCZ3-EOS uses the exponential 6 intermolecular potential function to describe interactions between molecules. All product species are characterized by r*, the radius of the minimum pair potential energy, and {var_epsilon}/k, the well depth energy normalized by Boltzmann`s constant. These parameters constitute the JCZS (S for Sandia) EOS database describing 750 gases (including all the gases in the JANNAF tables), and have been obtained by using Lennard-Jones potential parameters, a corresponding states theory, pure liquid shock Hugoniot data, and fit values using an empirical EOS. This database can be used with the CHEETAH 1.40 or CHEETAH 2.0 interface to the TIGER computer program that predicts the equilibrium state of gas- and condensed-phase product species. The large JCZS-EOS database permits intermolecular potential based equilibrium calculations of energetic materials with complex elemental composition.

  1. Asymmetric Bimodal Exponential Power Distribution on the Real Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya


    Full Text Available The asymmetric bimodal exponential power (ABEP distribution is an extension of the generalized gamma distribution to the real line via adding two parameters that fit the shape of peakedness in bimodality on the real line. The special values of peakedness parameters of the distribution are a combination of half Laplace and half normal distributions on the real line. The distribution has two parameters fitting the height of bimodality, so capacity of bimodality is enhanced by using these parameters. Adding a skewness parameter is considered to model asymmetry in data. The location-scale form of this distribution is proposed. The Fisher information matrix of these parameters in ABEP is obtained explicitly. Properties of ABEP are examined. Real data examples are given to illustrate the modelling capacity of ABEP. The replicated artificial data from maximum likelihood estimates of parameters of ABEP and other distributions having an algorithm for artificial data generation procedure are provided to test the similarity with real data. A brief simulation study is presented.

  2. The assessment and application of an approach to noncovalent interactions: the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) in combination with DFT of revised dispersion correction (DFT-D3) with Slater-type orbital (STO) basis set. (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Feng, Huajie; Xuan, Xiaopeng; Chen, Liuping


    An assessment study is presented about energy decomposition analysis (EDA) in combination with DFT including revised dispersion correction (DFT-D3) with Slater-type orbital (STO) basis set. There has been little knowledge about the performance of the EDA + DFT-D3 concerning STOs. In this assessment such an approach was applied to calculate noncovalent interaction energies and their corresponding components. Complexes in S22 set were used to evaluate the performance of EDA in conjunction with four representative types of GGA-functionals of DFT-D3 (BP86-D3, BLYP-D3, PBE-D3 and SSB-D3) with three STO basis sets ranging in complexity from DZP, TZ2P to QZ4P. The results showed that the approach of EDA + BLYP-D3/TZ2P has a better performance not only in terms of calculating noncovalent interaction energy quantitatively but also in analyzing corresponding energy components qualitatively. This approach (EDA + BLYP-D3/TZ2P) was thus applied further to two representative large-system complexes including porphine dimers and fullerene aggregates to gain a better insight into binding characteristics.

  3. Mean Excess Function as a method of identifying sub-exponential tails: Application to extreme daily rainfall (United States)

    Nerantzaki, Sofia; Papalexiou, Simon Michael


    Identifying precisely the distribution tail of a geophysical variable is tough, or, even impossible. First, the tail is the part of the distribution for which we have the less empirical information available; second, a universally accepted definition of tail does not and cannot exist; and third, a tail may change over time due to long-term changes. Unfortunately, the tail is the most important part of the distribution as it dictates the estimates of exceedance probabilities or return periods. Fortunately, based on their tail behavior, probability distributions can be generally categorized into two major families, i.e., sub-exponentials (heavy-tailed) and hyper-exponentials (light-tailed). This study aims to update the Mean Excess Function (MEF), providing a useful tool in order to asses which type of tail better describes empirical data. The MEF is based on the mean value of a variable over a threshold and results in a zero slope regression line when applied for the Exponential distribution. Here, we construct slope confidence intervals for the Exponential distribution as functions of sample size. The validation of the method using Monte Carlo techniques on four theoretical distributions covering major tail cases (Pareto type II, Log-normal, Weibull and Gamma) revealed that it performs well especially for large samples. Finally, the method is used to investigate the behavior of daily rainfall extremes; thousands of rainfall records were examined, from all over the world and with sample size over 100 years, revealing that heavy-tailed distributions can describe more accurately rainfall extremes.

  4. Orbital ordering and frustrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khomskii, D.I.; Mostovoy, M.V.


    Orbital ordering occurs in many transition metal compounds with Jahn–Teller ions (Cu2+, Mn3+, low-spin Ni3+, Ti3+ etc). It plays an important role in these materials. At the same time, exchange interactions in orbitally degenerate systems are inherently frustrated, even in materials with simple


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commenced on topical chloramphenicol therapy. The x-ray showed a left orbital soft tissue mass but no orbital enlargement and the swab showed no growth. ... proliferating neural bundles and some neural bundles lined by pigmented choroidal epithelium. Also seen are abundant fibrous tissues scattered within the.

  6. Exponential model normalization for electrical capacitance tomography with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions (United States)

    Baidillah, Marlin R.; Takei, Masahiro


    A nonlinear normalization model which is called exponential model for electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) with external electrodes under gap permittivity conditions has been developed. The exponential model normalization is proposed based on the inherently nonlinear relationship characteristic between the mixture permittivity and the measured capacitance due to the gap permittivity of inner wall. The parameters of exponential equation are derived by using an exponential fitting curve based on the simulation and a scaling function is added to adjust the experiment system condition. The exponential model normalization was applied to two dimensional low and high contrast dielectric distribution phantoms by using simulation and experimental studies. The proposed normalization model has been compared with other normalization models i.e. Parallel, Series, Maxwell and Böttcher models. Based on the comparison of image reconstruction results, the exponential model is reliable to predict the nonlinear normalization of measured capacitance in term of low and high contrast dielectric distribution.

  7. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo


    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  8. Introduction to orbital flight planning (1) (United States)

    Blackwell, H. E. (Editor); Davis, E. L.; Dell, D. D.


    This workbook is designed for students interested in space flight planning, who after training, may serve as flight planning aides. Routine flight planning activities requiring engineering-type calculations and analysis are covered. Practice exercises and brief instructions are given for the programming and use of the hand calculator as well as the calculation of position and velocity in the orbital plane. Calculation of relative orbital position is also covered with emphasis upon celestial coordinates and time measurement.

  9. Generalized Exponential Distribution in Flood Frequency Analysis for Polish Rivers (United States)

    Markiewicz, Iwona; Strupczewski, Witold G.; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Kochanek, Krzysztof


    Many distributions have been used in flood frequency analysis (FFA) for fitting the flood extremes data. However, as shown in the paper, the scatter of Polish data plotted on the moment ratio diagram shows that there is still room for a new model. In the paper, we study the usefulness of the generalized exponential (GE) distribution in flood frequency analysis for Polish Rivers. We investigate the fit of GE distribution to the Polish data of the maximum flows in comparison with the inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution, which in our previous studies showed the best fitting among several models commonly used in FFA. Since the use of a discrimination procedure without the knowledge of its performance for the considered probability density functions may lead to erroneous conclusions, we compare the probability of correct selection for the GE and IG distributions along with the analysis of the asymptotic model error in respect to the upper quantile values. As an application, both GE and IG distributions are alternatively assumed for describing the annual peak flows for several gauging stations of Polish Rivers. To find the best fitting model, four discrimination procedures are used. In turn, they are based on the maximized logarithm of the likelihood function (K procedure), on the density function of the scale transformation maximal invariant (QK procedure), on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics (KS procedure) and the fourth procedure based on the differences between the ML estimate of 1% quantile and its value assessed by the method of moments and linear moments, in sequence (R procedure). Due to the uncertainty of choosing the best model, the method of aggregation is applied to estimate of the maximum flow quantiles. PMID:26657239

  10. Generalized Exponential Distribution in Flood Frequency Analysis for Polish Rivers. (United States)

    Markiewicz, Iwona; Strupczewski, Witold G; Bogdanowicz, Ewa; Kochanek, Krzysztof


    Many distributions have been used in flood frequency analysis (FFA) for fitting the flood extremes data. However, as shown in the paper, the scatter of Polish data plotted on the moment ratio diagram shows that there is still room for a new model. In the paper, we study the usefulness of the generalized exponential (GE) distribution in flood frequency analysis for Polish Rivers. We investigate the fit of GE distribution to the Polish data of the maximum flows in comparison with the inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution, which in our previous studies showed the best fitting among several models commonly used in FFA. Since the use of a discrimination procedure without the knowledge of its performance for the considered probability density functions may lead to erroneous conclusions, we compare the probability of correct selection for the GE and IG distributions along with the analysis of the asymptotic model error in respect to the upper quantile values. As an application, both GE and IG distributions are alternatively assumed for describing the annual peak flows for several gauging stations of Polish Rivers. To find the best fitting model, four discrimination procedures are used. In turn, they are based on the maximized logarithm of the likelihood function (K procedure), on the density function of the scale transformation maximal invariant (QK procedure), on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics (KS procedure) and the fourth procedure based on the differences between the ML estimate of 1% quantile and its value assessed by the method of moments and linear moments, in sequence (R procedure). Due to the uncertainty of choosing the best model, the method of aggregation is applied to estimate of the maximum flow quantiles.

  11. Exponential growth in the electricity supply industry. [Use of polynomial growth for comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasokat, H. (Stadtwerke Duesseldorf A.G. (Germany, F.R.). Teilbereich Planung und Anlagenbau Stromnetz)


    Since the first publications of the 'Club of Rome' exponential growth has become suspect. Nevertheless, work is still carried out in the electricity supply industry using exponential growth. Can this branch of the economy take the liberty of ignoring Dennis Meadows' index finger which is raised in protest, and still adopt the percent fetish as before. The author follows up the suspicion that exponential growth cannot be proved. The alternative which is of equal value, viz. polynominal growth, avoids the dizzy, high values of the exponential forecasts and explains at the same time the phenomenon of falling rates of growth.

  12. [Application of exponential smoothing method in prediction and warning of epidemic mumps]. (United States)

    Shi, Yun-ping; Ma, Jia-qi


    To analyze the daily data of epidemic Mumps in a province from 2004 to 2008 and set up exponential smoothing model for the prediction. To predict and warn the epidemic mumps in 2008 through calculating 7-day moving summation and removing the effect of weekends to the data of daily reported mumps cases during 2005-2008 and exponential summation to the data from 2005 to 2007. The performance of Holt-Winters exponential smoothing is good. The result of warning sensitivity was 76.92%, specificity was 83.33%, and timely rate was 80%. It is practicable to use exponential smoothing method to warn against epidemic Mumps.

  13. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  14. Orbital cellulitis in children. (United States)

    Nageswaran, Savithri; Woods, Charles R; Benjamin, Daniel K; Givner, Laurence B; Shetty, Avinash K


    To review the epidemiology and management of orbital cellulitis in children. The medical records of children orbital cellulitis and confirmed by computed tomography scan were reviewed. A literature search for additional studies for systematic review was also conducted. Forty-one children with orbital cellulitis were identified. The mean age was 7.5 years (range, 10 months to 16 years), and 30 (73%) were male (male:female ratio = 2.7). All cases of orbital cellulitis were associated with sinusitis; ethmoid sinusitis was present in 40 (98%) patients. Proptosis and/or ophthalmoplegia was documented in 30 (73%), and 34 (83%) had subperiosteal and/or orbital abscesses. Twenty-nine (71%) had surgical drainage and 12 (29%) received antibiotic therapy only. The mean duration of hospitalization was 5.8 days. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 21 days. Orbital cellulitis occurs throughout childhood and in similar frequency among younger and older children. It is twice as common among males as females. Selected cases of orbital cellulitis, including many with subperiosteal abscess, can be treated successfully without surgical drainage.

  15. Trust region minimization of orbital localization functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyvik, Ida-Marie; Jansik, Branislav; Jørgensen, Poul


    The trust region method has been applied to the minimization of localization functions, and it is shown that both local occupied and local virtual Hartree–Fock (HF) orbitals can be obtained. Because step sizes are size extensive in the trust region method, large steps may be required when...... the method is applied to large molecular systems. For an exponential parametrization of the localization function only small steps are allowed, and the standard trust radius update therefore has been replaced by a scheme where the direction of the step is determined using a conservative estimate of the trust...... radius and the length of the step is determined from a line search along the obtained direction. Numerical results for large molecular systems have shown that large steps can then safely be taken, and a robust and nearly monotonic convergence is obtained....

  16. Exponential state transition dynamics in the rest-activity architecture of patients with bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Ortiz, Abigail; Bradler, Kamil; Radu, Luiza; Alda, Martin; Rusak, Benjamin


    Our goal was to model the temporal dynamics of sleep-wake transitions, represented by transitions between rest and activity obtained from actigraphic data, in patients with bipolar disorder using a probabilistic state transition approach. We collected actigraphic data for 14 days from 20 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, who had been characterized clinically, demographically, and with respect to their circadian preferences (chronotype). We processed each activity record to generate a series of transitions in both directions between the states of rest (R) and activity (A) and plotted the estimated transition probabilities (pRA and pAR). Each 24-hour period was also divided into a rest phase consisting of the eight consecutive least active hours in each day and an active phase consisting of the 16 consecutive most active hours in each day. We then calculated separate transition probabilities for each of these phases for each participant. We subsequently modeled the rest phase data to find the best fit for rest-activity transitions using maximum likelihood estimation. We also examined the association of transition probabilities with clinical and demographic variables. The best-fit model for rest-activity transitions during the rest phase was a mixture (bimodal) of exponential functions. Of those patients with rapid cycling, 75% had an evening-type chronotype. Patients with bipolar II disorder taking antidepressants had a lower probability of transitioning back to rest than those not on antidepressants [mean ± SD = 0.050 ± 0.006 versus 0.141 ± 0.058, F(1,15) = 3.40, p bipolar disorder can be accounted for by a mixture (bimodal) of exponential functions. Patients taking antidepressants had a reduced probability of sustaining and returning to sleep. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Orbital cystic neurinoma. (United States)

    Tokugawa, J; Nakao, Y; Mori, K; Maeda, M


    A 64-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of exophthalmus of her right eye. She had no neurological deficit except for the exophthalmus and numbness in the right side of her forehead (frontal nerve territory). Neuro-imaging demonstrated a cystic mass in the right orbit. The tumour was totally removed by microsurgical transcranial surgery. The histological diagnosis was neurinoma. The origin of the tumour was considered to be the frontal nerve. Only two other cases of orbital cystic neurinoma have been reported. This rare clinical entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cystic mass in the orbit.

  18. Quark Orbital Angular Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkardt Matthias


    Full Text Available Definitions of orbital angular momentum based on Wigner distributions are used as a framework to discuss the connection between the Ji definition of the quark orbital angular momentum and that of Jaffe and Manohar. We find that the difference between these two definitions can be interpreted as the change in the quark orbital angular momentum as it leaves the target in a DIS experiment. The mechanism responsible for that change is similar to the mechanism that causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering.

  19. Shewanella oneidensis Hfq promotes exponential phase growth, stationary phase culture density, and cell survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Christopher M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hfq is an RNA chaperone protein that has been broadly implicated in sRNA function in bacteria. Here we describe the construction and characterization of a null allele of the gene that encodes the RNA chaperone Hfq in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, a dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium. Results Loss of hfq in S. oneidensis results in a variety of mutant phenotypes, all of which are fully complemented by addition of a plasmid-borne copy of the wild type hfq gene. Aerobic cultures of the hfq∆ mutant grow more slowly through exponential phase than wild type cultures, and hfq∆ cultures reach a terminal cell density in stationary phase that is ~2/3 of that observed in wild type cultures. We have observed a similar growth phenotype when the hfq∆ mutant is cultured under anaerobic conditions with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor, and we have found that the hfq∆ mutant is defective in Cr(VI reduction. Finally, the hfq∆ mutant exhibits a striking loss of colony forming units in extended stationary phase and is highly sensitive to oxidative stress induced by H2O2 or methyl viologen (paraquat. Conclusions The hfq mutant in S. oneidensis exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes, including a defect in metal reduction. Our results also suggest that hfq mutant phenotypes in S. oneidensis may be at least partially due to increased sensitivity to oxidative stress.

  20. Motion of the two-control airplane in rectilinear flight after initial disturbances with introduction of controls following an exponential law (United States)

    Klemin, Alexander


    An airplane in steady rectilinear flight was assumed to experience an initial disturbance in rolling or yawing velocity. The equations of motion were solved to see if it was possible to hasten recovery of a stable airplane or to secure recovery of an unstable airplane by the application of a single lateral control following an exponential law. The sample computations indicate that, for initial disturbances complex in character, it would be difficult to secure correlation with any type of exponential control. The possibility is visualized that the two-control operation may seriously impair the ability to hasten recovery or counteract instability.

  1. Comparison between Gaussian-type orbitals and plane wave ab initio density functional theory modeling of layer silicates: Talc [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}] as model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulian, Gianfranco; Valdrè, Giovanni, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche e Geologico-Ambientali, Centro di Ricerca Interdisciplinare di Biomineralogia, Cristallografia e Biomateriali, Università di Bologna “Alma Mater Studiorum” Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Tosoni, Sergio [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Química Teòrica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, C/ Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)


    The quantum chemical characterization of solid state systems is conducted with many different approaches, among which the adoption of periodic boundary conditions to deal with three-dimensional infinite condensed systems. This method, coupled to the Density Functional Theory (DFT), has been proved successful in simulating a huge variety of solids. Only in relatively recent years this ab initio quantum-mechanic approach has been used for the investigation of layer silicate structures and minerals. In the present work, a systematic comparison of different DFT functionals (GGA-PBEsol and hybrid B3LYP) and basis sets (plane waves and all-electron Gaussian-type orbitals) on the geometry, energy, and phonon properties of a model layer silicate, talc [Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 4}O{sub 10}(OH){sub 2}], is presented. Long range dispersion is taken into account by DFT+D method. Results are in agreement with experimental data reported in literature, with minimal deviation given by the GTO/B3LYP-D* method regarding both axial lattice parameters and interaction energy and by PW/PBE-D for the unit-cell volume and angular values. All the considered methods adequately describe the experimental talc infrared spectrum.

  2. Congenital orbital teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Aiyub


    Full Text Available We present a case of mature congenital orbital teratoma managed with lid-sparing exenteration and dermis fat graft. This is a case report on the management of congenital orbital teratoma. A full-term baby was born in Fiji with prolapsed right globe which was surrounded by a nonpulsatile, cystic mass. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to limited surgical expertise, the patient was transferred to Adelaide, Australia for further management. The patient underwent a lid-sparing exenteration with frozen section control of the apical margin. A dermis fat graft from the groin was placed beneath the lid skin to provide volume. Histopathology revealed mature tissues from each of the three germ cell layers which confirmed the diagnosis of mature teratoma. We describe the successful use of demis fat graft in socket reconstruction following lid-sparing exenteration for congenital orbital teratoma.

  3. Orbital heat rate package (United States)

    Lovin, J. K.; Spradley, L. W.


    Package consisting of three separate programs used to accurately predict temperature distribution of spacecraft in planetary orbit is invaluable tool for design and analysis of other structures that must function in complex thermal environment.

  4. Neonatal orbital abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Y Gogri


    Full Text Available Orbital abscess generally occurs in older children but it can rarely affect infants and neonates too. We report a case of community acquired methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA neonatal orbital abscess in a 12-day-old term female neonate with no significant past medical history or risk factor for developing the infection. The case highlights the importance of consideration of CA-MRSA as a causative agent of neonatal orbital cellulitis even in a neonate without any obvious predisposing condition. Prompt initiation of appropriate medical therapy against MRSA and surgical drainage of the abscess prevents life threatening complications of orbital cellulitis which more often tend to be fatal in neonates.

  5. Orbital interactions in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, Thomas A; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan


    Explains the underlying structure that unites all disciplines in chemistry Now in its second edition, this book explores organic, organometallic, inorganic, solid state, and materials chemistry, demonstrating how common molecular orbital situations arise throughout the whole chemical spectrum. The authors explore the relationships that enable readers to grasp the theory that underlies and connects traditional fields of study within chemistry, thereby providing a conceptual framework with which to think about chemical structure and reactivity problems. Orbital Interactions

  6. W-transform for exponential stability of second order delay differential equations without damping terms. (United States)

    Domoshnitsky, Alexander; Maghakyan, Abraham; Berezansky, Leonid


    In this paper a method for studying stability of the equation [Formula: see text] not including explicitly the first derivative is proposed. We demonstrate that although the corresponding ordinary differential equation [Formula: see text] is not exponentially stable, the delay equation can be exponentially stable.

  7. Exponential Separations for One-Way Quantum Communication Complexity, with Applications to Cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Gavinsky; J. Kempe; I. Kerenidis; R. Raz; R. M. de Wolf (Ronald); D.S. Johnson; U. Feige


    textabstractWe give an exponential separation between one-way quantum and classical communication protocols for two partial Boolean functions, both of which are variants of the Boolean Hidden Matching Problem of Bar-Yossef et al. Earlier such an exponential separation was known only for a

  8. Estimation method of multivariate exponential probabilities based on a simplex coordinates transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, N.J.; Putten, van B.


    A novel unbiased estimator for estimating the probability mass of a multivariate exponential distribution over a measurable set is introduced and is called the Exponential Simplex (ES) estimator. For any measurable set, the standard error of the ES-estimator is at most the standard error of the well

  9. Estimation method of multivariate exponential probabilities based on a simple coordinates transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olieman, N.J.; Putten, van B.


    A novel unbiased estimator for estimating the probability mass of a multivariate exponential distribution over a measurable set is introduced and is called the exponential simplex (ES) estimator. For any measurable set and given sample size, the statistical efficiency of the ES estimator is higher

  10. Exponential stability of modified truncated EM method for stochastic differential equations


    Lan, Guangqiang; Xia, Fang


    Exponential stability of modified truncated Euler-Maruyama method for stochastic differential equations are investigated in this paper. Sufficient conditions for the $p$-th moment and almost sure exponential stability of the given numerical method are presented. An example is provided to support our conclusions.

  11. On Extended Exponential General Linear Methods PSQ with S>Q ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with the construction and Numerical Analysis of Extended Exponential General Linear Methods. These methods, in contrast to other methods in literatures, consider methods with the step greater than the stage order (S>Q).Numerical experiments in this study, indicate that Extended Exponential ...

  12. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; McCurdy, Greg


    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  13. An exact formulation of the time-ordered exponential using path-sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giscard, P.-L., E-mail: [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Lui, K. [Colby College, 4000 Mayflower Hill Dr., Waterville, Maine 04901 (United States); Thwaite, S. J. [Department of Physics and Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 Munich (Germany); Jaksch, D. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)


    We present the path-sum formulation for the time-ordered exponential of a time-dependent matrix. The path-sum formulation gives the time-ordered exponential as a branched continued fraction of finite depth and breadth. The terms of the path-sum have an elementary interpretation as self-avoiding walks and self-avoiding polygons on a graph. Our result is based on a representation of the time-ordered exponential as the inverse of an operator, the mapping of this inverse to sums of walks on a graphs, and the algebraic structure of sets of walks. We give examples demonstrating our approach. We establish a super-exponential decay bound for the magnitude of the entries of the time-ordered exponential of sparse matrices. We give explicit results for matrices with commonly encountered sparse structures.

  14. Power-law distributions based on exponential distributions: Latent scaling, spurious Zipf's law, and fractal rabbits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang


    The different between the inverse power function and the negative exponential function is significant. The former suggests a complex distribution, while the latter indicates a simple distribution. However, the association of the power-law distribution with the exponential distribution has been seldom researched. Using mathematical derivation and numerical experiments, I reveal that a power-law distribution can be created through averaging an exponential distribution. For the distributions defined in a 1-dimension space, the scaling exponent is 1; while for those defined in a 2-dimension space, the scaling exponent is 2. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the exponential distributions suggest a hidden scaling, but the scaling exponents suggest a Euclidean dimension. Second, special power-law distributions can be derived from exponential distributions, but they differ from the typical power-law distribution. Third, it is the real power-law distribution that can be related with fractal dimension. ...

  15. Waveform inversion with exponential damping using a deconvolution-based objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    The lack of low frequency components in seismic data usually leads full waveform inversion into the local minima of its objective function. An exponential damping of the data, on the other hand, generates artificial low frequencies, which can be used to admit long wavelength updates for waveform inversion. Another feature of exponential damping is that the energy of each trace also exponentially decreases with source-receiver offset, where the leastsquare misfit function does not work well. Thus, we propose a deconvolution-based objective function for waveform inversion with an exponential damping. Since the deconvolution filter includes a division process, it can properly address the unbalanced energy levels of the individual traces of the damped wavefield. Numerical examples demonstrate that our proposed FWI based on the deconvolution filter can generate a convergent long wavelength structure from the artificial low frequency components coming from an exponential damping.

  16. [Orbital complications of sinusitis]. (United States)

    Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J


    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal

  17. Orbital complications of rhinosinusitis. (United States)

    Sijuwola, Oo; Adeyemo, Aa; Adeosun, Aa


    Suppurative extension of rhinosinusitis to the orbit is a complication that often results from delay in diagnosis and, or inadequate treatment. These complications may range from preseptal cellulitis, orbital cellulitis, orbital abscesses, and subperiosteal abscesses to intracranial extension with a threat to both vision and life. This study aims to review the clinical profile, treatment modalities and outcome of orbital complications of rhinosinusitis in Ibadan, Nigeria. A retrospective review of the charts of patients with orbital complications of rhinosinusitis managed in the departments of Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan over a five year period (Feb 2002- Jan 2007) was carried out .The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis was based on history, physical examination, plain x ray and CT scan findings and antral puncture. Demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment were evaluated. A total of 24 patients were reviewed in the study. There were 13males and 11females (M/F, 1:1). The age range was 8months to 75years, 14 (58.3%) patients were children and while 10 (41.7%) patients were adults. 75% of the patients were seen during the dry season (November to February). The duration of symptoms ranged from one day to three weeks. Involvement of one eye occurred in 14 patients (58.3%); right eye (4), left eye (10). Both eyes were involved in 10 patients (41.7%). Non-axial proptosis was seen in 8 patients (33.3%). It was infero-lateral in 6 patients (25%) and infero-nasal in two (8.3%) patients. Orbital cellulitis was seen in 10 (41.7%) patients, 6 (25%) patients had preseptal cellulitis while 8 (33%) patients had orbital abscess. Cavernous sinus thrombosis was seen in 3 (12.5%) patients. The cases with preseptal and orbital cellulitis were effectively managed by intravenous antibiotics. Orbital abscesses were drained surgically with complete resolution. Sinus surgical procedures were done in 10(41.7%) patients. This group of

  18. Higher dimensional dilaton black holes in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sheykhi, A


    We examine the higher dimensional action in which gravity is coupled to the exponential nonlinear electrodynamic and a scalar dilaton field. We construct a new class of $n$-dimensional static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions of this theory in the presence of the dilaton potential with two Liouville-type terms. In the presence of two Liouville-type dilaton potential, the asymptotic behavior of the obtained black holes are neither flat nor (A)dS. Due to the nonlinear nature of electrodynamic field, the electric field has finite value near the origin where $r\\rightarrow0$ and goes to zero as $r\\rightarrow\\infty$. Interestingly enough, we find that in the absence of the dilaton field, the electric field has a finite value at $r=0$, while as soon as the dilaton field is taken into account, the electric field diverges as $r\\rightarrow 0$. This implies that the presence of the dilaton field changes the behaviour of the electric field near the origin. In the limiting case where the nonlinear parameter $...

  19. Spin-Orbital Order Modified by Orbital Dilution in Transition-Metal Oxides: From Spin Defects to Frustrated Spins Polarizing Host Orbitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Brzezicki


    Full Text Available We investigate the changes in spin and orbital patterns induced by magnetic transition-metal ions without an orbital degree of freedom doped in a strongly correlated insulator with spin-orbital order. In this context, we study the 3d ion substitution in 4d transition-metal oxides in the case of 3d^{3} doping at either 3d^{2} or 4d^{4} sites, which realizes orbital dilution in a Mott insulator. Although we concentrate on this doping case as it is known experimentally and more challenging than other oxides due to finite spin-orbit coupling, the conclusions are more general. We derive the effective 3d−4d (or 3d−3d superexchange in a Mott insulator with different ionic valencies, underlining the emerging structure of the spin-orbital coupling between the impurity and the host sites, and demonstrate that it is qualitatively different from that encountered in the host itself. This derivation shows that the interaction between the host and the impurity depends in a crucial way on the type of doubly occupied t_{2g} orbital. One finds that in some cases, due to the quench of the orbital degree of freedom at the 3d impurity, the spin and orbital order within the host is drastically modified by doping. The impurity either acts as a spin defect accompanied by an orbital vacancy in the spin-orbital structure when the host-impurity coupling is weak or favors doubly occupied active orbitals (orbital polarons along the 3d−4d bond leading to antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic spin coupling. This competition between different magnetic couplings leads to quite different ground states. In particular, for the case of a finite and periodic 3d atom substitution, it leads to striped patterns either with alternating ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic domains or with islands of saturated ferromagnetic order. We find that magnetic frustration and spin degeneracy can be lifted by the quantum orbital flips of the host, but they are robust in special regions of the

  20. Calculation of precision satellite orbits with nonsingular elements /VOP formulation/ (United States)

    Velez, C. E.; Cefola, P. J.; Long, A. C.; Nimitz, K. S.


    Review of some results obtained in an effort to develop efficient, high-precision trajectory computation processes for artificial satellites by optimum selection of the form of the equations of motion of the satellite and the numerical integration method. In particular, the matching of a Gaussian variation-of-parameter (VOP) formulation is considered which is expressed in terms of equinoctial orbital elements and partially decouples the motion of the orbital frame from motion within the orbital frame. The performance of the resulting orbit generators is then compared with the popular classical Cowell/Gauss-Jackson formulation/integrator pair for two distinctly different orbit types - namely, the orbit of the ATS satellite at near-geosynchronous conditions and the near-circular orbit of the GEOS-C satellite at 1000 km.

  1. A Tapestry of Orbits (United States)

    King-Hele, D. G.


    Satellites as they cross the night sky look like moving stars, which can be accurately tracked by an observer with binoculars as well as by giant radars and large cameras. These observations help to determine the satellite's orbit, which is sensitive to the drag of the upper atmosphere and to any irregularities in the gravity field of the Earth. Analysis of the orbit can be used to evaluate the density of the upper atmosphere and to define the shape of the Earth. Desmond King-Hele was the pioneer of this technique of orbit analysis, and this book tells us how the research began, before the launch of Sputnik in 1957. For thirty years King-Hele and his colleagues at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, developed and applied the technique to reveal much about the Earth and air at a very modest cost. In the 1960s the upper-atmosphere density was thoroughly mapped out for 100 to 2000 km, revealing immense variation of density with solar activity and between day and night. In the 1970s and 1980s a picture of the upper-atmosphere winds emerged, and the profile of the pear-shaped Earth was accurately charted. The number of satellites now orbiting the earth is over 5000. This book is the story of how this inexpensive research of their orbits developed to yield a rich harvest of knowledge about the Earth and its atmosphere, in a scientific narrative that is enlivened with many personal experiences.

  2. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia (United States)


    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  3. Relative motion of orbiting bodies (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.


    A problem of relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on the example of the free motion of any body ejected from the orbital station that stays in a circular orbit around the earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by a simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on approximate differential equations of the relative orbital motion.

  4. Elliptical Orbit Performance Computer Program (United States)

    Myler, T.


    Elliptical Orbit Performance (ELOPE) computer program for analyzing orbital performance of space boosters uses orbit insertion data obtained from trajectory simulation to generate parametric data on apogee and perigee altitudes as function of payload data. Data used to generate presentation plots that display elliptical orbit performance capability of space booster.

  5. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 1 diabetes is a complex disease requiring insulin administration in conjunction with an individual meal plan that takes into consideration social, economic and logistical factors to achieve optimal diabetes control. Short-term goals are to ensure normal growth and development, while minimising complications such as ...

  6. Turbulent particle transport in streams: can exponential settling be reconciled with fluid mechanics? (United States)

    McNair, James N; Newbold, J Denis


    Most ecological studies of particle transport in streams that focus on fine particulate organic matter or benthic invertebrates use the Exponential Settling Model (ESM) to characterize the longitudinal pattern of particle settling on the bed. The ESM predicts that if particles are released into a stream, the proportion that have not yet settled will decline exponentially with transport time or distance and will be independent of the release elevation above the bed. To date, no credible basis in fluid mechanics has been established for this model, nor has it been rigorously tested against more-mechanistic alternative models. One alternative is the Local Exchange Model (LEM), which is a stochastic advection-diffusion model that includes both longitudinal and vertical spatial dimensions and is based on classical fluid mechanics. The LEM predicts that particle settling will be non-exponential in the near field but will become exponential in the far field, providing a new theoretical justification for far-field exponential settling that is based on plausible fluid mechanics. We review properties of the ESM and LEM and compare these with available empirical evidence. Most evidence supports the prediction of both models that settling will be exponential in the far field but contradicts the ESM's prediction that a single exponential distribution will hold for all transport times and distances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Complex periodic orbits in the rotational spectrum of molecules: The example of SF6 (United States)

    Robbins, Jonathan M.; Creagh, Stephen C.; Littlejohn, Robert G.


    Periodic orbit theory expresses, in a semiclassically approximate way, the trace of the energy-dependent Green's function of a quantum-mechanical system in terms of a sum over periodic orbits of the corresponding classical system. In this paper a periodic orbit sum is carried out for a Hamiltonian describing the rotational dynamics of the SF6 molecule. Following Miller [J. Phys. Chem. 83, 960 (1979)], classically forbidden, or ``tunneling'' orbits are included in the sum. A closed-form expression for the trace of the energy-dependent Green's function is obtained; it depends on the actions and Maslov indices of the classical orbits, as well as the irreducible representatives of the generators of the molecular point group. The expression reproduces the rich structure characteristic of the rotational spectra of symmetric molecules, including the exponentially near degeneracies for large angular momentum, and the periodicities in eigenvalue symmetry assignments. The methods used here complement the extensive studies of Harter and Patterson.

  8. Preseptal Cellulitis Or Orbital Cellulitis? (United States)

    Lim, L T; Miller, D; Ah-Kee, E Y; Ferguson, A


    Preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis can both present with increasing swelling, tenderness and redness around the eye, but their management differs. Preseptal cellulitis is more common and much less aggressive than orbital cellulitis. In contrast, orbital cellulitis is a medical emergency requiring urgent management. In this article, we provide a systematic approach to distinguish between preseptal cellulitis and orbital cellulitis at presentation, as the distinction between the two entities and the prompt recognition of orbital cellulitis can be potentially life-saving.

  9. Geometric Theory of Heat from Souriau Lie Groups Thermodynamics and Koszul Hessian Geometry: Applications in Information Geometry for Exponential Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Barbaresco


    Full Text Available We introduce the symplectic structure of information geometry based on Souriau’s Lie group thermodynamics model, with a covariant definition of Gibbs equilibrium via invariances through co-adjoint action of a group on its moment space, defining physical observables like energy, heat, and moment as pure geometrical objects. Using geometric Planck temperature of Souriau model and symplectic cocycle notion, the Fisher metric is identified as a Souriau geometric heat capacity. The Souriau model is based on affine representation of Lie group and Lie algebra that we compare with Koszul works on G/K homogeneous space and bijective correspondence between the set of G-invariant flat connections on G/K and the set of affine representations of the Lie algebra of G. In the framework of Lie group thermodynamics, an Euler-Poincaré equation is elaborated with respect to thermodynamic variables, and a new variational principal for thermodynamics is built through an invariant Poincaré-Cartan-Souriau integral. The Souriau-Fisher metric is linked to KKS (Kostant–Kirillov–Souriau 2-form that associates a canonical homogeneous symplectic manifold to the co-adjoint orbits. We apply this model in the framework of information geometry for the action of an affine group for exponential families, and provide some illustrations of use cases for multivariate gaussian densities. Information geometry is presented in the context of the seminal work of Fréchet and his Clairaut-Legendre equation. The Souriau model of statistical physics is validated as compatible with the Balian gauge model of thermodynamics. We recall the precursor work of Casalis on affine group invariance for natural exponential families.

  10. Improved exponential convergence result for generalized neural networks including interval time-varying delayed signals. (United States)

    Rajchakit, G; Saravanakumar, R; Ahn, Choon Ki; Karimi, Hamid Reza


    This article examines the exponential stability analysis problem of generalized neural networks (GNNs) including interval time-varying delayed states. A new improved exponential stability criterion is presented by establishing a proper Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) and employing new analysis theory. The improved reciprocally convex combination (RCC) and weighted integral inequality (WII) techniques are utilized to obtain new sufficient conditions to ascertain the exponential stability result of such delayed GNNs. The superiority of the obtained results is clearly demonstrated by numerical examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The dynamics of photoinduced defect creation in amorphous chalcogenides: The origin of the stretched exponential function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R. J. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, National University of Timor Lorosa' e, Av. Cidade de Lisboa, Dili, East Timor (Portugal); Shimakawa, K. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 53002 (Czech Republic); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Wagner, T. [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Pardubice, Pardubice 53002 (Czech Republic)


    The article discusses the dynamics of photoinduced defect creations (PDC) in amorphous chalcogenides, which is described by the stretched exponential function (SEF), while the well known photodarkening (PD) and photoinduced volume expansion (PVE) are governed only by the exponential function. It is shown that the exponential distribution of the thermal activation barrier produces the SEF in PDC, suggesting that thermal energy, as well as photon energy, is incorporated in PDC mechanisms. The differences in dynamics among three major photoinduced effects (PD, PVE, and PDC) in amorphous chalcogenides are now well understood.

  12. Entropy-Based Parameter Estimation for the Four-Parameter Exponential Gamma Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbai Song


    Full Text Available Two methods based on the principle of maximum entropy (POME, the ordinary entropy method (ENT and the parameter space expansion method (PSEM, are developed for estimating the parameters of a four-parameter exponential gamma distribution. Using six data sets for annual precipitation at the Weihe River basin in China, the PSEM was applied for estimating parameters for the four-parameter exponential gamma distribution and was compared to the methods of moments (MOM and of maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. It is shown that PSEM enables the four-parameter exponential distribution to fit the data well, and can further improve the estimation.

  13. A comparison of linear and exponential models for drug expiry estimation. (United States)

    Morris, J W


    While a large portion of pharmaceutical stability data is known to follow an exponential model decay, linear modeling of this data for expiry estimation is the norm. Expiry predictions based on linear and exponential fits to stability data were made to estimate the bias due to the linear fitting. It was found that within the usual expiry limits on drug potency, the difference between the model fits is relatively trivial. In cases of loss of potency greater than 15%, small assay variability, or great disparity between the length of the study and the time of expiry prediction, however, there is a nontrivial difference in the predictions and the exponential model is preferable.

  14. Pediatric Orbital Fractures (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.


    It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

  15. [Orbital complications of rhinosinusitis]. (United States)

    Stojanović, J; Ilić, N; Belić, B; Zivić, L; Stanković, P; Erdevicki, L; Jovanović, S


    Orbital complications were observed in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients; 11.04%, n= 53/480 of hospitalized patients). Complications in the orbit can occur in 3-5% of adults with the inflammatory condition of sinuses, while the percentage in children ranges from 0.5-8%. The objective of our work was to determine the frequency of the occurence of orbital complications of the rhinosinal inflammatory origin in a group of adults and children. The retrospective analysis of patients treated of rhinosinusitis in the period 1992 to 2007, in the Clinical Center in Kragujevac. In the period of 15 years, a total number of 3912 patients were treated for inflamatory conditions of paranasal cavities. Orbital complications were found in 53 patients (1.35%, n=53/3912 of all treated patients). The number of children showing orbital complications caused by rhinosinusitis was 0.79%, while the number of adults was 1,88%. Acute rhinosinusitis in children was manifested as orbital complication in 14 patients (n=14/15, 93.33%), while 33 adults (n=33/38, 86.84%) had the exarcerbation of the chronic rhinosinusitis at the time of diagnosis of orbital complication. 80% of examined children had the maxillary and ethmoid sinus infected (n=12/15), while the adults most often had polysinusitis (n=22/38, 57.89%). In the juvenile age the most frequent complication was the cellulitis of the orbite (n=7/15, 46.66%), while in the adults it was the subperiostal absces (n=14/38, 36.84%). The adults were mostly treated surgically (n=31/38, 81.58%), while the children were treated by using conservative treatment (n=13/15, 86.67%). There were no cases of mortality. The prevention of complications is based on the adequate and timely treatment of acute sinusitis in children, as well as the curative treatment of chronical processes in adults.

  16. Satellite orbit predictor (United States)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  17. On the existence of periodic orbits for the fixed homogeneous circle problem


    Azevêdo, C.; Ontaneda, P.


    We prove the existence of some types of periodic orbits for a particle moving in Euclidean three-space under the influence of the gravitational force induced by a fixed homogeneous circle. These types include periodic orbits very far and very near the homogeneous circle, as well as eight and spiral periodic orbits.

  18. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps. (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Lan, Heng-You; Li, Hao-Ru


    As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D = 20 and D = 40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions.

  19. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Mao


    Full Text Available As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D=20 and D=40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions.

  20. Comparison of Traditional and Open-Access Appointment Scheduling for Exponentially Distributed Service Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongjun Yan


    Full Text Available This paper compares the performance measures of traditional appointment scheduling (AS with those of an open-access appointment scheduling (OA-AS system with exponentially distributed service time. A queueing model is formulated for the traditional AS system with no-show probability. The OA-AS models assume that all patients who call before the session begins will show up for the appointment on time. Two types of OA-AS systems are considered: with a same-session policy and with a same-or-next-session policy. Numerical results indicate that the superiority of OA-AS systems is not as obvious as those under deterministic scenarios. The same-session system has a threshold of relative waiting cost, after which the traditional system always has higher total costs, and the same-or-next-session system is always preferable, except when the no-show probability or the weight of patients’ waiting is low. It is concluded that open-access policies can be viewed as alternative approaches to mitigate the negative effects of no-show patients.

  1. Exponential growth and Gaussian-like fluctuations of solutions of stochastic differential equations with maximum functionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, J A D; Wu, H [Edgeworth Centre for Financial Mathematics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    In this paper we consider functional differential equations subjected to either instantaneous state-dependent noise, or to a white noise perturbation. The drift of the equations depend linearly on the current value and on the maximum of the solution. The functional term always provides positive feedback, while the instantaneous term can be mean-reverting or can exhibit positive feedback. We show in the white noise case that if the instantaneous term is mean reverting and dominates the history term, then solutions are recurrent, and upper bounds on the a.s. growth rate of the partial maxima of the solution can be found. When the instantaneous term is weaker, or is of positive feedback type, we determine necessary and sufficient conditions on the diffusion coefficient which ensure the exact exponential growth of solutions. An application of these results to an inefficient financial market populated by reference traders and speculators is given, in which the difference between the current instantaneous returns and maximum of the returns over the last few time units is used to determine trading strategies.

  2. Myxoma of the orbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambhatla Saptagirish


    Full Text Available Myxomas are rare, benign neoplasms of mesenchymal origin that usually develop in soft tissues. As the clinical manifestations are non-specific, it is difficult to diagnose the tumour without biopsy and histopathological examination. We report a case of orbital myxoma with histopathological correlation.

  3. A Neptune Orbiter Mission (United States)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.


    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  4. Nonlinear Schrodinger elliptic systems involving exponential critical growth in R^2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. B. Albuquerque Albuquerque


    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence and multiplicity of solutions for elliptic systems with weights, and nonlinearities having exponential critical growth. Our approach is based on the Trudinger-Moser inequality and on a minimax theorem.

  5. Exponential power spectra, deterministic chaos and Lorentzian pulses in plasma edge dynamics (United States)

    Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.


    Exponential spectra have been observed in the edges of tokamaks, stellarators, helical devices and linear machines. The observation of exponential power spectra is significant because such a spectral character has been closely associated with the phenomenon of deterministic chaos by the nonlinear dynamics community. The proximate cause of exponential power spectra in both magnetized plasma edges and nonlinear dynamics models is the occurrence of Lorentzian pulses in the time signals of fluctuations. Lorentzian pulses are produced by chaotic behavior in the separatrix regions of plasma E × B flow fields or the limit cycle regions of nonlinear models. Chaotic advection, driven by the potential fields of drift waves in plasmas, results in transport. The observation of exponential power spectra and Lorentzian pulses suggests that fluctuations and transport at the edge of magnetized plasmas arise from deterministic, rather than stochastic, dynamics.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu


    Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda...

  7. Accurate calculation of the complex eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation with an exponential potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal Diaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico)], E-mail:; Fernandez, Francisco M. [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail:


    We show that the Riccati-Pade method is suitable for the calculation of the complex eigenvalues of the Schroedinger equation with a repulsive exponential potential. The accuracy of the results is remarkable for realistic potential parameters.

  8. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Manjón, G., E-mail: [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)


    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ({sup 152}Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis.

  9. A review of the matrix-exponential formalism in radiative transfer (United States)

    Efremenko, Dmitry S.; Molina García, Víctor; Gimeno García, Sebastián; Doicu, Adrian


    This paper outlines the matrix exponential description of radiative transfer. The eigendecomposition method which serves as a basis for computing the matrix exponential and for representing the solution in a discrete ordinate setting is considered. The mathematical equivalence of the discrete ordinate method, the matrix operator method, and the matrix Riccati equations method is proved rigorously by means of the matrix exponential formalism. For optically thin layers, approximate solution methods relying on the Padé and Taylor series approximations to the matrix exponential, as well as on the matrix Riccati equations, are presented. For optically thick layers, the asymptotic theory with higher-order corrections is derived, and parameterizations of the asymptotic functions and constants for a water-cloud model with a Gamma size distribution are obtained.

  10. More efficient approaches to the exponentiated half-logistic distribution based on record values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seo, Jung-In; Kang, Suk-Bok


    ... perspectives if record values have an exponentiated half-logistic distribution. In the frequentist approach, estimation methods based on pivotal quantities are proposed which require no complex computation unlike the maximum likelihood method...

  11. Fractal-Based Exponential Distribution of Urban Density and Self-Affine Fractal Forms of Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang


    Urban population density always follows the exponential distribution and can be described with Clark's model. Because of this, the spatial distribution of urban population used to be regarded as non-fractal pattern. However, Clark's model differs from the exponential function in mathematics because that urban population is distributed on the fractal support of landform and land-use form. By using mathematical transform and empirical evidence, we argue that there are self-affine scaling relations and local power laws behind the exponential distribution of urban density. The scale parameter of Clark's model indicating the characteristic radius of cities is not a real constant, but depends on the urban field we defined. So the exponential model suggests local fractal structure with two kinds of fractal parameters. The parameters can be used to characterize urban space filling, spatial correlation, self-affine properties, and self-organized evolution. The case study of the city of Hangzhou, China, is employed to ...

  12. Uniform exponential stability of linear periodic systems in a Banach space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Cheban


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of linear periodic dynamical systems, possessing the property of uniform exponential stability. It is proved that if the Cauchy operator of these systems possesses a certain compactness property, then the asymptotic stability implies the uniform exponential stability. We also show applications to different classes of linear evolution equations, such as ordinary linear differential equations in the space of Banach, retarded and neutral functional differential equations, some classes of evolution partial differential equations.

  13. On the non-hyperbolicity of a class of exponential polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Mora


    Full Text Available In this paper we have constructed a class of non-hyperbolic exponential polynomials that contains all the partial sums of the Riemann zeta function. An exponential polynomial been also defined to illustrate the complexity of the structure of the set defined by the closure of the real projections of its zeros. The sensitivity of this set, when the vector of delays is perturbed, has been analysed. These results have immediate implications in the theory of the neutral differential equations.

  14. Complete versus incomplete definitions of the deformed logarithmic and exponential functions


    Oikonomou, Thomas; Bagci, G. Baris


    The recent generalizations of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics mathematically relies on the deformed logarithmic and exponential functions defined through some deformation parameters. In the present work, we investigate whether a deformed logarithmic/exponential map is a bijection from $\\mathbb{R}^+/\\mathbb{R}$ (set of positive real numbers/all real numbers) to $\\mathbb{R}/\\mathbb{R}^+$, as their undeformed counterparts. We show that their inverse map exists only in some subsets of the aforemention...

  15. The Logarithmic Potential and an Exponential Mass Function for Elementary Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paasch K.


    Full Text Available The assumption that elementary particles with nonzero rest mass consist of relativistic constituents moving with constant energy, pc, results in a logarithmic potential and exponential expression for particle masses. This approach is put to a test by assigning each elementary particles mass a position on a logarithmic spiral. Particles then accumulate on straight lines. It is discussed if this might be an indication for exponential mass quantization.

  16. Super-Resolution of Complex Exponentials from Modulations with Unknown Waveforms


    Yang, Dehui; Tang, Gongguo; Wakin, Michael B.


    Super-resolution is generally referred to as the task of recovering fine details from coarse information. Motivated by applications such as single-molecule imaging, radar imaging, etc., we consider parameter estimation of complex exponentials from their modulations with unknown waveforms, allowing for non-stationary blind super-resolution. This problem, however, is ill-posed since both the parameters associated with the complex exponentials and the modulating waveforms are unknown. To allevia...

  17. A relative entropy method to measure non-exponential random data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen, E-mail:


    This paper develops a relative entropy method to measure non-exponential random data in conjunction with fractional order moment, logarithmic moment and tail statistics of Mittag–Leffler distribution. The distribution of non-exponential random data follows neither the exponential distribution nor exponential decay. The proposed strategy is validated by analyzing the experiment data, which are generated by Monte Carlo method using Mittag–Leffler distribution. Compared with the traditional Shannon entropy, the relative entropy method is simple to be implemented, and its corresponding relative entropies approximated by the fractional order moment, logarithmic moment and tail statistics can easily and accurately detect the non-exponential random data. - Highlights: • A relative entropy method is developed to measure non-exponential random data. • The fractional order moment, logarithmic moment and tail statistics are employed. • The three strategies of Mittag–Leffler distribution can be accurately established. • Compared with Shannon entropy, the relative entropy method is easy to be implemented.

  18. Power-Law Distributions Based on Exponential Distributions: Latent Scaling, Spurious Zipf's Law, and Fractal Rabbits (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang


    The difference between the inverse power function and the negative exponential function is significant. The former suggests a complex distribution, while the latter indicates a simple distribution. However, the association of the power-law distribution with the exponential distribution has been seldom researched. This paper is devoted to exploring the relationships between exponential laws and power laws from the angle of view of urban geography. Using mathematical derivation and numerical experiments, I reveal that a power-law distribution can be created through a semi-moving average process of an exponential distribution. For the distributions defined in a one-dimension space (e.g. Zipf's law), the power exponent is 1; while for those defined in a two-dimension space (e.g. Clark's law), the power exponent is 2. The findings of this study are as follows. First, the exponential distributions suggest a hidden scaling, but the scaling exponents suggest a Euclidean dimension. Second, special power-law distributions can be derived from exponential distributions, but they differ from the typical power-law distributions. Third, it is the real power-law distributions that can be related with fractal dimension. This study discloses an inherent link between simplicity and complexity. In practice, maybe the result presented in this paper can be employed to distinguish the real power laws from spurious power laws (e.g. the fake Zipf distribution).

  19. A mixture of exponentials distribution for a simple and precise assessment of the volcanic hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Mendoza-Rosas


    Full Text Available The assessment of volcanic hazard is the first step for disaster mitigation. The distribution of repose periods between eruptions provides important information about the probability of new eruptions occurring within given time intervals. The quality of the probability estimate, i.e., of the hazard assessment, depends on the capacity of the chosen statistical model to describe the actual distribution of the repose times. In this work, we use a mixture of exponentials distribution, namely the sum of exponential distributions characterized by the different eruption occurrence rates that may be recognized inspecting the cumulative number of eruptions with time in specific VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index categories. The most striking property of an exponential mixture density is that the shape of the density function is flexible in a way similar to the frequently used Weibull distribution, matching long-tailed distributions and allowing clustering and time dependence of the eruption sequence, with distribution parameters that can be readily obtained from the observed occurrence rates. Thus, the mixture of exponentials turns out to be more precise and much easier to apply than the Weibull distribution. We recommended the use of a mixture of exponentials distribution when regimes with well-defined eruption rates can be identified in the cumulative series of events. As an example, we apply the mixture of exponential distributions to the repose-time sequences between explosive eruptions of the Colima and Popocatépetl volcanoes, México, and compare the results obtained with the Weibull and other distributions.

  20. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Toprak


    Full Text Available Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  1. On-orbit Passive Thermography (United States)

    Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott


    On July 12, 2006, British-born astronaut Piers Sellers became the first person to conduct thermal nondestructive evaluation experiments in space, demonstrating the feasibility of a new tool for detecting damage to the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) structures of the Shuttle. This new tool was an EVA (Extravehicular Activity, or spacewalk) compatible infrared camera developed by NASA engineers. Data was collected both on the wing leading edge of the Orbiter and on pre-damaged samples mounted in the Shuttle s cargo bay. A total of 10 infrared movies were collected during the EVA totaling over 250 megabytes of data. Images were downloaded from the orbiting Shuttle to Johnson Space Center for analysis and processing. Results are shown to be comparable to ground-based thermal inspections performed in the laboratory with the same type of camera and simulated solar heating. The EVA camera system detected flat-bottom holes as small as 2.54cm in diameter with 50% material loss from the back (hidden) surface in RCC during this first test of the EVA IR Camera. Data for the time history of the specimen temperature and the capability of the inspection system for imaging impact damage are presented.

  2. Low Earth Orbit Satellite’s Orbit Propagation and Determination (United States)


    Institute of Technology Email: Abstract This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of Low Eearth Orbit(LEO...Arichandran, S. H. Tan, T. Bretschneider, High – Presicion Onboard Orbit Determination for Small Satellites - the GPS-Based XNS on X-SAT. 6th Symposium on

  3. Local orbitals by minimizing powers of the orbital variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansik, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Kristensen, Kasper


    is obtained. For increasing power exponents, the penalty for delocalized orbitals is increased and smaller maximum orbital spreads are encountered. Calculations on superbenzene, C60, and a fragment of the titin protein show that for a power exponent equal to one, delocalized outlier orbitals may...

  4. Management of Orbital and Periorbital Venous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara A. Benoiton


    Full Text Available BackgroundTo review our management of common venous malformation (VM affecting the orbit and/or periorbital area.MethodsConsecutive patients with orbital and/or periorbital VM were identified from our vascular anomalies database. Demographic details of the patients, anatomic site(s affected, symptoms and signs, presence of a family history of VM, and types of treatment(s were collected, supplemented by chart review.ResultsA total of 24 patients’ age 1–68 (mean, 30 years with orbital and/or periorbital VM presented with cosmetic concerns (n = 17, 71%, distensibility (n = 15, 63%, pain (n = 9, 38%, diplopia (n = 4, 17%, and spontaneous thrombosis (n = 1, 8%. The VM caused globe dystopia (n = 13, 54%, enophthalmos (n = 6, 25%, proptosis (n = 3, 12%, exotropia (n = 3, 12%, and pseudoptosis with visual obstruction (n = 3, 13%. A total of 11 (46% patients were managed conservatively. 13 (54% patients underwent active treatment. Ethanol sclerotherapy (ES was performed in six patients with extensive facial VM associated with orbital/periorbital involvement, resulting in symptomatic improvement in five patients, one of whom developed skin necrosis and another patient developed reduced infraorbital nerve sensation. Surgery was performed for localized lesion (n = 3, 23%, for extensive lesions (n = 4, 31% and as an adjunct to ES (n = 6, 46% resulting in symptomatic improvement in all patients. One patient required correction of lower lid ectropion.ConclusionOrbital and/or periorbital VMs are heterogeneous, and management needs to be individualized. Surgery is used for localized lesions aiming for complete excision, as a debulking procedure for extensive orbital/periorbital VM when ES was not possible, or following ES for extensive facial VM with orbital and/or periorbital involvement.

  5. Plotting Orbital Trajectories For Maneuvers (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.


    Interactive Orbital Trajectory Planning Tool (EIVAN) computer program is forward-looking interactive orbit-trajectory-plotting software tool for use with proximity operations (operations occurring within 1-km sphere of space station) and other maneuvers. Developed to plot resulting trajectories, to provide better comprehension of effects of orbital mechanics, and to help user develop heuristics for planning missions on orbit. Program runs with Microsoft's Excel for execution on MacIntosh computer running MacIntosh OS.

  6. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Akçay


    Full Text Available Preseptal cellulitis (PC is defined as an inflammation of the eyelid and surrounding skin, whereas orbital cellulitis (OC is an inflammation of the posterior septum of the eyelid affecting the orbit and its contents. Periorbital tissues may become infected as a result of trauma (including insect bites or primary bacteremia. Orbital cellulitis generally occurs as a complication of sinusitis. The most commonly isolated organisms are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. epidermidis, Haempphilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and S. pyogenes. The method for the diagnosis of OS and PS is computed tomography. Using effective antibiotics is a mainstay for the treatment of PC and OC. There is an agreement that surgical drainage should be performed in cases of complete ophthalmoplegia or significant visual impairment or large abscesses formation. This infections are also at a greater risk of acute visual loss, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, cerebritis, endophthalmitis, and brain abscess in children. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to control the infection. Diagnosis, treatment, management and complications of PC and OC are summarized in this manuscript. J MicrobiolInfect Dis 2014; 4(3: 123-127

  7. Isolated Orbital Fractures Are Severe Among Geriatric Patients. (United States)

    Toivari, Miika; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Apajalahti, Satu; Lindqvist, Christian; Snäll, Johanna; Thorén, Hanna


    The purpose of the present study was to clarify the reasons for, types of, and degree of involvement of the orbital wall and the severity of orbital fractures in geriatric patients and to compare the differences between geriatric and younger adult patients. A retrospective case-control study of geriatric patients aged at least 65 years (n = 72) and younger controls aged 20 to 50 years (n = 58) with a diagnosis of a unilateral isolated orbital fracture was designed and implemented. The main exposure was age, the primary outcome was the isolated orbital fracture type, and the secondary outcomes were the associated orbital zones, fracture area (cm(2)), degree of dislocation (mm), involvement of anatomic landmarks, diplopia, altered ocular position, restricted eye movement, and ocular injuries. The confounding variables were gender, trauma mechanism, and alcohol abuse. The statistical methods included χ(2) tests and logistic regression analyses. Among the geriatric patients, the great majority of isolated orbital fractures had been caused by falls (66.7%; P Geriatric orbital fractures were significantly more often extensive (2 cm(2) or larger; P = .045) and associated with the middle-posterior orbital third (P = .032). In the logistic regression analyses, the elderly had a 2.2-fold greater risk of fractures of the middle-posterior orbital third and a 2.3-fold greater risk of extensive fractures compared with the younger controls. Ocular injuries were only diagnosed in the geriatric patients (5.6%). Falling is the most common mechanism of elderly orbital fractures. Isolated orbital fractures are extensive and mainly affect the globe supporting the middle and posterior parts of the orbital floor among geriatric patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Insight into the Earthquake Recurrence Studies from the Three-parameter Generalized Exponential Distributions (United States)

    Pasari, S.; Kundu, D.; Dikshit, O.


    Earthquake recurrence interval is one of the important ingredients towards probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) for any location. Exponential, gamma, Weibull and lognormal distributions are quite established probability models in this recurrence interval estimation. However, they have certain shortcomings too. Thus, it is imperative to search for some alternative sophisticated distributions. In this paper, we introduce a three-parameter (location, scale and shape) exponentiated exponential distribution and investigate the scope of this distribution as an alternative of the afore-mentioned distributions in earthquake recurrence studies. This distribution is a particular member of the exponentiated Weibull distribution. Despite of its complicated form, it is widely accepted in medical and biological applications. Furthermore, it shares many physical properties with gamma and Weibull family. Unlike gamma distribution, the hazard function of generalized exponential distribution can be easily computed even if the shape parameter is not an integer. To contemplate the plausibility of this model, a complete and homogeneous earthquake catalogue of 20 events (M ≥ 7.0) spanning for the period 1846 to 1995 from North-East Himalayan region (20-32 deg N and 87-100 deg E) has been used. The model parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) and method of moment estimator (MOME). No geological or geophysical evidences have been considered in this calculation. The estimated conditional probability reaches quite high after about a decade for an elapsed time of 17 years (i.e. 2012). Moreover, this study shows that the generalized exponential distribution fits the above data events more closely compared to the conventional models and hence it is tentatively concluded that generalized exponential distribution can be effectively considered in earthquake recurrence studies.

  9. Theory for Transitions Between Exponential and Stationary Phases: Universal Laws for Lag Time (United States)

    Himeoka, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko


    The quantitative characterization of bacterial growth has attracted substantial attention since Monod's pioneering study. Theoretical and experimental works have uncovered several laws for describing the exponential growth phase, in which the number of cells grows exponentially. However, microorganism growth also exhibits lag, stationary, and death phases under starvation conditions, in which cell growth is highly suppressed, for which quantitative laws or theories are markedly underdeveloped. In fact, the models commonly adopted for the exponential phase that consist of autocatalytic chemical components, including ribosomes, can only show exponential growth or decay in a population; thus, phases that halt growth are not realized. Here, we propose a simple, coarse-grained cell model that includes an extra class of macromolecular components in addition to the autocatalytic active components that facilitate cellular growth. These extra components form a complex with the active components to inhibit the catalytic process. Depending on the nutrient condition, the model exhibits typical transitions among the lag, exponential, stationary, and death phases. Furthermore, the lag time needed for growth recovery after starvation follows the square root of the starvation time and is inversely related to the maximal growth rate. This is in agreement with experimental observations, in which the length of time of cell starvation is memorized in the slow accumulation of molecules. Moreover, the lag time distributed among cells is skewed with a long time tail. If the starvation time is longer, an exponential tail appears, which is also consistent with experimental data. Our theory further predicts a strong dependence of lag time on the speed of substrate depletion, which can be tested experimentally. The present model and theoretical analysis provide universal growth laws beyond the exponential phase, offering insight into how cells halt growth without entering the death phase.

  10. Orbits of four double stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković B.


    Full Text Available We present orbits of four double stars. Orbits of stars WDS 23516+4205 = ADS 17050 and WDS 18239+5848 = ADS 11336 were calculated for the first time. Orbits of double stars WDS 02022+3643 = ADS 1613 and WDS 18443+3940 = ADS 11635 were revised. We have also determined their masses, dynamical parallaxes and ephemerides.

  11. Orbital Cellulitis of Odontogenic Origin. (United States)

    Yan, William; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Choong, Jessica; Hardy, Thomas


    Odontogenic orbital cellulitis, although uncommon, has the potential to cause severe vision loss if unsuspected and untreated. Compared to non-odontogenic bacteriology, odontogenic orbital abscesses typically feature a heavy mixed growth with anaerobic organisms. We review the literature and discuss the case of a 26-year-old male who presented with anaerobic orbital cellulitis for treatment.

  12. The Critical Orbit Structure of Quadratic Polynomials in Zp (United States)

    Mullen, Cara

    In this thesis, we develop a non-Archimedean analog to the Hubbard tree, a well-understood object from classical dynamics studied over the complex numbers. To that end, we explore the critical orbit structure of quadratic polynomials ƒc(z) = z 2 + c with parameters c in the ring of p-adic rational integers, Zp. All such polynomials are post-critically bounded (PCB), and some are post-critically finite (PCF), which means that the forward orbit of the critical point, 0, is finite. If the orbit of 0 is finite, there exist minimal integers m and n such that ƒcm+n(0)=ƒc m(0), and we call (m,n) the critical orbit type of ƒc. All PCF polynomials f defined over the complex numbers have an associated Hubbard tree which illustrates the orbit type of the critical points, and the geometry of those orbits within the filled Julia set of f. In order to define a p-adic analog, we give a description of the exact critical orbit type for PCF polynomials ƒc defined over Z p, and then use the proximity of PCB parameters to PCF points in order to prove statements about the structure of the infinite critical orbit as visualized in the Zp tree.

  13. Post-glitch exponential relaxation of radio pulsars and magnetars in terms of vortex creep across flux tubes (United States)

    Gügercinoğlu, Erbil


    Timing observations of rapidly rotating neutron stars revealed a great number of glitches, observed from both canonical radio pulsars and magnetars. Among them, 76 glitches have shown exponential relaxation(s) with characteristic decay times ranging from several days to a few months, followed by a more gradual recovery. Glitches displaying exponential relaxation with single or multiple decay time constants are analysed in terms of a model based on the interaction of the vortex lines with the toroidal arrangement of flux tubes in the outer core of the neutron star. Model results agree with the observed time-scales in general. Thus, the glitch phenomenon can be used to deduce valuable information about neutron star structure, in particular on the interior magnetic field configuration which is unaccessible from surface observations. One immediate conclusion is that the magnetar glitch data are best explained with a much cooler core and therefore require that direct Urca-type fast-cooling mechanisms should be effective for magnetars.

  14. Nonlocal size dependency in nonlinear instability of axially loaded exponential shear deformable FG-CNT reinforced nanoshells under heat conduction (United States)

    Sahmani, S.; Fattahi, A. M.


    The present study deals with size-dependent nonlinear instability characteristics of functionally graded carbon nanotube (FG-CNT) reinforced composite shells at nanoscale subjected to axial compression combined with through-thickness heat conduction. To take size dependency into account, Eringen's nonlocal continuum elasticity is incorporated to a novel shear deformation shell theory including a refined exponential distribution for transverse shear strain. In addition to the uniform distribution (UD) of CNT reinforcements, three FG patterns are also considered, namely FG-A, FG-V and FG-X. Also, on the basis of polynomial series, the temperature variation due to the through-thickness heat conduction is estimated. Via a perturbation-based boundary layer-type solving procedure, explicit expressions for nonlocal equilibrium curves are proposed relevant to the prebuckling and postbuckling regimes of FG-CNT exponential shear deformable nanoshells with temperature-dependent and temperature-independent material properties. It is observed that by taking the nonlocality size effect into consideration, the influence of the through-thickness heat conduction on the nonlinear axial instability response of FG-CNT reinforced nanoshells becomes more significant.

  15. Retinoblastoma associated orbital cellulitis (United States)

    Mullaney, P.; Karcioglu, Z.; Huaman, A.; Al-Mesfer, S.


    AIM—Preseptal and orbital cellulitis are rare presenting features of intraocular retinoblastoma. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of retinoblastoma associated cellulitis, as well as to review its clinical and histopathological features.
METHODS—The medical records of 292 retinoblastoma patients in the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Those indicating a history of, or presenting with, cellulitis were retrieved and their clinical, radiological, and histopathological variables were assessed. Patients with definite extraocular tumour extension on clinical or radiological examination were excluded.
RESULTS—14 patients were found to have retinoblastoma associated cellulitis (4.8%); nine had bilateral and five had unilateral retinoblastoma. Conjunctival and blood cultures were performed in 10 cases and were negative. 10 children were treated with intravenous steroids, often in conjunction with antibiotics, resulting in a prompt decrease in inflammation. Three other children were treated with antibiotics alone and one received no treatment. Computed tomographic scanning depicted large intraocular tumours occupying between 80% and 100% of the globe in each case. In eight patients, periocular inflammation was radiologically interpreted as possible extraocular extension. In one patient serial computed tomographic scanning showed a reduction in intraocular calcification over time which occurred in the presence of cellulitis. 12 patients underwent enucleation and histopathological examination revealed large necrotic, poorly differentiated tumours associated with uveal involvement and early optic nerve invasion. Focal perilimbal destruction was seen in one patient, and in another peripapillary extrascleral extension was present. 12 patients are alive with a mean follow up of 56.4 months.
CONCLUSIONS—Radiological evaluation of scleral integrity may be hindered by periocular inflammatory

  16. Orbital Cellulitis Following Orbital Blow-out Fracture. (United States)

    Byeon, Je Yeon; Choi, Hwan Jun


    Orbital cellulitis and abscess have been described in the literature as complication that usually occur secondary to infection in the maxillary, ethmoidal, and frontal sinuses. If left untreated, it can lead to blindness, cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, or cerebral abscess. Orbital fractures are a common sequela of blunt orbital trauma, but are only rarely associated with orbital cellulitis. So, the authors present rare orbital cellulitis after orbital blow-out fracture. A 55-year-old Asian complains of severe orbital swelling and pain on the left side. These symptoms had started 2 days earlier and worsened within the 24 hours before hospital admission resulting in visual disturbances such as diplopia and photophobia. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed considerable soft tissue swelling and abscess formation on the left side. Patient was subjected to surgical drainage under general anesthesia in the operation room. In this case, the postoperative period was uneventful and the rapid improvement of symptoms was remarkable. In conclusion, the abscess of the orbit is a surgical emergency in patients whose impairment of vision or ocular symptoms cannot be controlled with medical therapy using antibiotics. In our case, orbital cellulitis can occur after blunt orbital trauma without predisposing sinusitis. Early and prompt diagnosis and surgical drainage before severe loss of visual acuity rescue or recover the vision in case of orbital cellulitis.

  17. Decentralized Feedback Controllers for Robust Stabilization of Periodic Orbits of Hybrid Systems: Application to Bipedal Walking. (United States)

    Hamed, Kaveh Akbari; Gregg, Robert D


    This paper presents a systematic algorithm to design time-invariant decentralized feedback controllers to exponentially and robustly stabilize periodic orbits for hybrid dynamical systems against possible uncertainties in discrete-time phases. The algorithm assumes a family of parameterized and decentralized nonlinear controllers to coordinate interconnected hybrid subsystems based on a common phasing variable. The exponential and [Formula: see text] robust stabilization problems of periodic orbits are translated into an iterative sequence of optimization problems involving bilinear and linear matrix inequalities. By investigating the properties of the Poincaré map, some sufficient conditions for the convergence of the iterative algorithm are presented. The power of the algorithm is finally demonstrated through designing a set of robust stabilizing local nonlinear controllers for walking of an underactuated 3D autonomous bipedal robot with 9 degrees of freedom, impact model uncertainties, and a decentralization scheme motivated by amputee locomotion with a transpelvic prosthetic leg.

  18. Orbit uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis with separated representations (United States)

    Balducci, Marc; Jones, Brandon; Doostan, Alireza


    Most approximations for stochastic differential equations with high-dimensional, non-Gaussian inputs suffer from a rapid (e.g., exponential) increase of computational cost, an issue known as the curse of dimensionality. In astrodynamics, this results in reduced accuracy when propagating an orbit-state probability density function. This paper considers the application of separated representations for orbit uncertainty propagation, where future states are expanded into a sum of products of univariate functions of initial states and other uncertain parameters. An accurate generation of separated representation requires a number of state samples that is linear in the dimension of input uncertainties. The computation cost of a separated representation scales linearly with respect to the sample count, thereby improving tractability when compared to methods that suffer from the curse of dimensionality. In addition to detailed discussions on their construction and use in sensitivity analysis, this paper presents results for three test cases of an Earth orbiting satellite. The first two cases demonstrate that approximation via separated representations produces a tractable solution for propagating the Cartesian orbit-state uncertainty with up to 20 uncertain inputs. The third case, which instead uses Equinoctial elements, reexamines a scenario presented in the literature and employs the proposed method for sensitivity analysis to more thoroughly characterize the relative effects of uncertain inputs on the propagated state.

  19. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Brennan

    Full Text Available The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  20. Comparison of rectilinear biphasic waveform with biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a pediatric defibrillation model. (United States)

    Wang, Jinglan; Tang, Wanchun; Brewer, James E; Freeman, Gary; Chang, Yun-Te; Weil, Max Harry


    To compare the rectilinear biphasic waveform with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform for pediatric defibrillation. Prospective, randomized study. Experimental laboratory of a university-affiliated research institute. Male domestic piglets (4-24 kg). Eleven piglets (4-8 kg), which represented a patient truncated exponential waveforms, comprising five shocks at five energy settings. Each group of five shocks was fixed at a predetermined energy value, depending on the body weight of the animal. Dose-response curves were constructed using logistic regression. Aortic pressure, electrocardiogram, left ventricular pressure, and left ventricular pressure value of 40 mm Hg were continually measured. Dose-response curves determined defibrillation thresholds at 50% (D50) and 90% (D90) probability of success. The rectilinear biphasic waveform defibrillated with truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform also successfully defibrillated with significantly less energy per body weight and per heart weight compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. The rectilinear biphasic waveform has superior defibrillation performance compared with a biphasic truncated exponential waveform in a piglet defibrillation model for young children.

  1. Rank-shaping regularization of exponential spectral analysis for application to functional parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turkheimer, Federico E [Hammersmith Imanet, Cyclotron Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Hinz, Rainer [Hammersmith Imanet, Cyclotron Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Gunn, Roger N [McConnell Brain Imaging Centre, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University St., Montreal H3A 2B4 (Canada); Aston, John A D [Statistical Research Division, US Bureau of the Census, 4700 Silver Hill Road, Washington DC 20233 (United States); Gunn, Steve R [Image, Speech and Intelligent Systems Research Group, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Cunningham, Vincent J [Hammersmith Imanet, Cyclotron Building, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)


    Compartmental models are widely used for the mathematical modelling of dynamic studies acquired with positron emission tomography (PET). The numerical problem involves the estimation of a sum of decaying real exponentials convolved with an input function. In exponential spectral analysis (SA), the nonlinear estimation of the exponential functions is replaced by the linear estimation of the coefficients of a predefined set of exponential basis functions. This set-up guarantees fast estimation and attainment of the global optimum. SA, however, is hampered by high sensitivity to noise and, because of the positivity constraints implemented in the algorithm, cannot be extended to reference region modelling. In this paper, SA limitations are addressed by a new rank-shaping (RS) estimator that defines an appropriate regularization over an unconstrained least-squares solution obtained through singular value decomposition of the exponential base. Shrinkage parameters are conditioned on the expected signal-to-noise ratio. Through application to simulated and real datasets, it is shown that RS ameliorates and extends SA properties in the case of the production of functional parametric maps from PET studies.

  2. Orbital maneuvers and space rendezvous (United States)

    Butikov, Eugene I.


    Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.

  3. The origin of chaos in the orbit of comet 1P/Halley (United States)

    Boekholt, T. C. N.; Pelupessy, F. I.; Heggie, D. C.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.


    According to Muñoz-Gutiérrez et al. the orbit of comet 1P/Halley is chaotic with a surprisingly small Lyapunov time-scale of order its orbital period. In this work we analyse the origin of chaos in Halley's orbit and the growth of perturbations, in order to get a better understanding of this unusually short time-scale. We perform N-body simulations to model Halley's orbit in the Solar system and measure the separation between neighbouring trajectories. To be able to interpret the numerical results, we use a semi-analytical map to demonstrate different growth modes, I.e. linear, oscillatory or exponential, and transitions between these modes. We find the Lyapunov time-scale of Halley's orbit to be of order 300 yr, which is significantly longer than previous estimates in the literature. This discrepancy could be due to the different methods used to measure the Lyapunov time-scale. A surprising result is that next to Jupiter, also encounters with Venus contribute to the exponential growth in the next 3000 yr. Finally, we note an interesting application of the sub-linear, oscillatory growth mode to an ensemble of bodies moving through the Solar system. Whereas in the absence of encounters with a third body the ensemble spreads out linearly in time, the accumulation of weak encounters can increase the lifetime of such systems due to the oscillatory behaviour.

  4. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  5. Orbit Propagation and Determination of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou


    Full Text Available This paper represents orbit propagation and determination of low Earth orbit (LEO satellites. Satellite global positioning system (GPS configured receiver provides position and velocity measures by navigating filter to get the coordinates of the orbit propagation (OP. The main contradictions in real-time orbit which is determined by the problem are orbit positioning accuracy and the amount of calculating two indicators. This paper is dedicated to solving the problem of tradeoffs. To plan to use a nonlinear filtering method for immediate orbit tasks requires more precise satellite orbit state parameters in a short time. Although the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF method is widely used, its linear approximation of the drawbacks in dealing with nonlinear problems was especially evident, without compromising Kalman filter (unscented Kalman Filter, UKF. As a new nonlinear estimation method, it is measured at the estimated measurements on more and more applications. This paper will be the first study on UKF microsatellites in LEO orbit in real time, trying to explore the real-time precision orbit determination techniques. Through the preliminary simulation results, they show that, based on orbit mission requirements and conditions using UKF, they can satisfy the positioning accuracy and compute two indicators.

  6. Exponential time integration for fast finite element solutions of some financial engineering problems (United States)

    Rambeerich, N.; Tangman, D. Y.; Gopaul, A.; Bhuruth, M.


    We consider exponential time integration schemes for fast numerical pricing of European, American, barrier and butterfly options when the stock price follows a dynamics described by a jump-diffusion process. The resulting pricing equation which is in the form of a partial integro-differential equation is approximated in space using finite elements. Our methods require the computation of a single matrix exponential and we demonstrate using a wide range of numerical tests that the combination of exponential integrators and finite element discretisations with quadratic basis functions leads to highly accurate algorithms for cases when the jump magnitude is Gaussian. Comparison with other time-stepping methods are also carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of our methods.

  7. Renormalon resummation and exponentiation of soft and collinear gluon radiation in the thrust distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, E; Gardi, Einan; Rathsman, Johan


    The thrust distribution in e+e- annihilation is calculated exploiting its exponentiation property in the two-jet region t = 1-T << 1. We present a general method (DGE) to calculate a large class of logarithmically enhanced terms, using the dispersive approach in renormalon calculus. Dressed Gluon Exponentiation is based on the fact that the exponentiation kernel is associated primarily with a single gluon emission, and therefore the exponent is naturally represented as an integral over the running coupling. Fixing the definition of Lambda is enough to guarantee consistency with the exact exponent to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. Renormalization scale dependence is avoided by keeping all the logs. Sub-leading logs, that are usually neglected, are factorially enhanced and are therefore important. Renormalization-group invariance as well as infrared renormalon divergence are recovered in the sum of all the logs. The logarithmically enhanced cross-section is evaluated by Borel summation. Renormalon ...

  8. Exponential Stability of Time-Switched Two-Subsystem Nonlinear Systems with Application to Intermittent Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Tingwen


    Full Text Available This paper studies the exponential stability of a class of periodically time-switched nonlinear systems. Three cases of such systems which are composed, respectively, of a pair of unstable subsystems, of both stable and unstable subsystems, and of a pair of stable systems, are considered. For the first case, the proposed result shows that there exists periodically switching rule guaranteeing the exponential stability of the whole system with (sufficient small switching period if there is a Hurwitz linear convex combination of two uncertain linear systems derived from two subsystems by certain linearization. For the second case, we present two general switching criteria by means of multiple and single Lyapunov function, respectively. We also investigate the stability issue of the third case, and the switching criteria of exponential stability are proposed. The present results for the second case are further applied to the periodically intermittent control. Several numerical examples are also given to show the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  9. Geometry of the q-exponential distribution with dependent competing risks and accelerated life testing (United States)

    Zhang, Fode; Shi, Yimin; Wang, Ruibing


    In the information geometry suggested by Amari (1985) and Amari et al. (1987), a parametric statistical model can be regarded as a differentiable manifold with the parameter space as a coordinate system. Note that the q-exponential distribution plays an important role in Tsallis statistics (see Tsallis, 2009), this paper investigates the geometry of the q-exponential distribution with dependent competing risks and accelerated life testing (ALT). A copula function based on the q-exponential function, which can be considered as the generalized Gumbel copula, is discussed to illustrate the structure of the dependent random variable. Employing two iterative algorithms, simulation results are given to compare the performance of estimations and levels of association under different hybrid progressively censoring schemes (HPCSs).

  10. Rapid growth of seed black holes in the early universe by supra-exponential accretion. (United States)

    Alexander, Tal; Natarajan, Priyamvada


    Mass accretion by black holes (BHs) is typically capped at the Eddington rate, when radiation's push balances gravity's pull. However, even exponential growth at the Eddington-limited e-folding time t(E) ~ few × 0.01 billion years is too slow to grow stellar-mass BH seeds into the supermassive luminous quasars that are observed when the universe is 1 billion years old. We propose a dynamical mechanism that can trigger supra-exponential accretion in the early universe, when a BH seed is bound in a star cluster fed by the ubiquitous dense cold gas flows. The high gas opacity traps the accretion radiation, while the low-mass BH's random motions suppress the formation of a slowly draining accretion disk. Supra-exponential growth can thus explain the puzzling emergence of supermassive BHs that power luminous quasars so soon after the Big Bang. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Dynamic disorder can explain non-exponential kinetics of fast protein mechanical unfolding. (United States)

    Costescu, Bogdan I; Sturm, Sebastian; Gräter, Frauke


    Protein unfolding often does not obey a simple two-state behavior. Previous single molecule force spectroscopy studies demonstrated stretched exponential kinetics of protein unfolding under a constant pulling force, the molecular origin of which remains subject to debate. We here set out to extensively sample the mechanical unfolding of ubiquitin and NuG2 by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both proteins show kinetics best fit by stretched exponentials, with stretching exponents similar to those found in experiments, even though static disorder is absent in our short MD simulations. Instead, we can ascribe non-exponential kinetics to dynamic disorder, due to conformational fluctuations on the nanosecond timescale. Our study highlights the general role of dynamic disorder in protein kinetics on a broad range of time scales even including those probed in MD simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exponential decay characteristics of the stochastic integer multiple neural firing patterns. (United States)

    Gu, Huaguang; Jia, Bing; Lu, Qishao


    Integer multiple neural firing patterns exhibit multi-peaks in inter-spike interval (ISI) histogram (ISIH) and exponential decay in amplitude of peaks, which results from their stochastic mechanisms. But in previous experimental observation that the decay in ISIH frequently shows obvious bias from exponential law. This paper studied three typical cases of the decay, by transforming ISI series of the firing to discrete binary chain and calculating the probabilities or frequencies of symbols over the whole chain. The first case is the exponential decay without bias. An example of this case was discovered on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron stimulated by external signal. Probability calculation shows that this decay without bias results from a stochastic renewal process, in which the successive spikes are independent. The second case is the exponential decay with a higher first peak, while the third case is that with a lower first peak. An example of the second case was discovered in experiment on a neural pacemaker. Simulation and calculation of the second and third cases indicate that the dependency in successive spikes of the firing leads to the bias seen in decay of ISIH peaks. The quantitative expression of the decay slope of three cases of firing patterns, as well as the excitatory effect in the second case of firing pattern and the inhibitory effect in the third case of firing pattern are identified. The results clearly reveal the mechanism of the exponential decay in ISIH peaks of a number of important neural firing patterns and provide new understanding for typical bias from the exponential decay law.

  13. Exponential synchronization of the Genesio Tesi chaotic system via a novel feedback control (United States)

    Park, Ju H.


    A novel feedback control scheme is proposed for exponential synchronization of the Genesio-Tesi chaotic system. The feedback controller consists of two parts: a linear dynamic control law and a nonlinear control one. For exponential synchronization between the drive and response Genesio-Tesi systems, the Lyapunov stability analysis is used. Then an existence criterion for the stabilizing controller is presented in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The LMIs can be solved easily by various convex optimization algorithms. Finally, a numerical simulation is illustrated to show the effectiveness of the proposed chaos synchronization scheme.

  14. New Tuning Conditions for Semiglobal Exponential Stability of the Classical PID Regulator for Rigid Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Orrante-Sakanassi


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a novel tuning procedure to ensure semi-global exponential stability for the classical PID control of rigid robots. This tuning procedure is expressed in terms of conditions which are more relaxed than those proposed previously in the literature. This allows us to perform, for the first time, experimental tests with a classical PID controller ensuring semi-global exponential stability. Finally, we show numerically that previous formal tuning procedures in the literature result in very large controller gains which prohibit the performance of any experimental test.

  15. Global adaptive exponential stabilisation for nonlinear systems with multiple unknown control directions (United States)

    Sun, Xifang; Chen, Weisheng; Wu, Jian


    In this paper, we address the global generalised exponential stabilisation problem for a class of lower-triangular systems with multiple unknown directions. Instead of the well-known Nussbaum-gain adaptive rule, a Lyapunov-based adaptive logic switching rule is proposed to seek the correct control directions for such systems. The main advantage of the proposed controller is that it can guarantee the global generalised exponential stability of closed-loop systems. Simulation examples are given to verify the effectiveness of the developed control approach.

  16. Flowshop Scheduling Problems with a Position-Dependent Exponential Learning Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbao Cheng


    Full Text Available We consider a permutation flowshop scheduling problem with a position-dependent exponential learning effect. The objective is to minimize the performance criteria of makespan and the total flow time. For the two-machine flow shop scheduling case, we show that Johnson’s rule is not an optimal algorithm for minimizing the makespan given the exponential learning effect. Furthermore, by using the shortest total processing times first (STPT rule, we construct the worst-case performance ratios for both criteria. Finally, a polynomial-time algorithm is proposed for special cases of the studied problem.

  17. Determining Parameters of Fractional-Exponential Heredity Kernels of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Materials (United States)

    Golub, V. P.; Pavlyuk, Ya. V.; Fernati, P. V.


    The problem of determining the parameters of fractional-exponential heredity kernels of nonlinear viscoelastic materials is solved. The methods for determining the parameters that are used in the cubic theory of viscoelasticity and the nonlinear theories based on the conditions of similarity of primary creep curves and isochronous creep diagrams are analyzed. The parameters of fractional-exponential heredity kernels are determined and experimentally validated for the oriented polypropylene, FM3001 and FM10001 nylon fibers, microplastics, TC 8/3-250 glass-reinforced plastic, SWAM glass-reinforced plastic, and contact molding glass-reinforced plastic.

  18. Rebreathing in the Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems with sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms. (United States)

    Cook, L B


    The degree of rebreathing in Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems for sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms is analysed mathematically. The effects of altering the I:E ratio and of introducing an expiratory pause are investigated. The results for sinusoidal waveforms closely resemble those for a square wave. Exponential flow waveforms produce results similar to triangular flow waveforms. The Mapleson A system is always the most efficient. The Mapleson C system is efficient when the I:E ratio is 1:1, becoming less efficient with longer expiration and very inefficient with an expiratory pause. The Mapleson D system becomes efficient when the expiratory pause is long.

  19. Projective Exponential Synchronization for a Class of Complex PDDE Networks with Multiple Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Yang


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of projective exponential synchronization for a class of complex spatiotemporal networks with multiple time delays satisfying the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions, where the network is modeled by coupled partial differential-difference equations (PDDEs. A distributed proportional-spatial derivative (P-sD controller is designed by employing Lyapunov’s direct method and Kronecker product. The controller ensures the projective exponential synchronization of the PDDE network. The main result of this paper is presented in terms of standard linear matrix inequality (LMI. A numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  20. The mechanism of double-exponential growth in hyper-inflation (United States)

    Mizuno, T.; Takayasu, M.; Takayasu, H.


    Analyzing historical data of price indices, we find an extraordinary growth phenomenon in several examples of hyper-inflation in which, price changes are approximated nicely by double-exponential functions of time. In order to explain such behavior we introduce the general coarse-graining technique in physics, the Monte Carlo renormalization group method, to the price dynamics. Starting from a microscopic stochastic equation describing dealers’ actions in open markets, we obtain a macroscopic noiseless equation of price consistent with the observation. The effect of auto-catalytic shortening of characteristic time caused by mob psychology is shown to be responsible for the double-exponential behavior.

  1. Exponential cluster synchronization in directed community networks via adaptive nonperiodically intermittent pinning control (United States)

    Zhou, Peipei; Cai, Shuiming; Jiang, Shengqin; Liu, Zengrong


    In this paper, the problem of exponential cluster synchronization for a class of directed community networks is investigated via adaptive nonperiodically intermittent pinning control. By constructing a novel piecewise continuous Lyapunov function, some sufficient conditions to guarantee globally exponential cluster synchronization are derived. It is noted that the derived cluster synchronization criteria rely on the control rates, but not the control widths or the control periods, which facilitates the choice of the control periods in practical applications. A numerical example is finally presented to show the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.

  2. Layer-by-Layer Films from Wine: An Investigation of an Exponential Growth Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Gomes


    Full Text Available We report on the preparation and study of layer-by-layer films of wine alternated with bovine serum albumin (BSA. We found that the exponential and/or linear growth of the films is dependent on the deposition time. Atomic force microscopy images were analysed using scale laws and the fractal dimension, and the results suggested that the BSA/wine film growth regime is determined by sub-bilayer or bilayer growth. Exponential growth was associated with a sub-bilayer deposition regime, whereas linear growth was associated with a bilayer deposition in which a constant amount of material is deposited.

  3. Robust Exponential Stability Criteria of LPD Systems with Mixed Time-Varying Delays and Nonlinear Perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanit Mukdasai


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of robust exponential stability for linear parameter-dependent (LPD systems with discrete and distributed time-varying delays and nonlinear perturbations. Parameter dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, Leibniz-Newton formula, and linear matrix inequality are proposed to analyze the stability. On the basis of the estimation and by utilizing free-weighting matrices, new delay-dependent exponential stability criteria are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed methods.

  4. Global Exponential Stability Criteria for Bidirectional Associative Memory Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Thipcha


    Full Text Available The global exponential stability for bidirectional associative memory neural networks with time-varying delays is studied. In our study, the lower and upper bounds of the activation functions are allowed to be either positive, negative, or zero. By constructing new and improved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and introducing free-weighting matrices, a new and improved delay-dependent exponential stability for BAM neural networks with time-varying delays is derived in the form of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate that the derived condition is less conservative than some existing results given in the literature.

  5. Mean-Square Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Complex Dynamical Networks with Switching Topology by Impulsive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Wu


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mean-square exponential synchronization issues of delayed stochastic complex dynamical networks with switching topology and impulsive control. By using the Lyapunov functional method, impulsive control theory, and linear matrix inequality (LMI approaches, some sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee the mean-square exponential synchronization of delay complex dynamical network with switch topology, which are independent of the network size and switch topology. Numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results in the end.

  6. Exponential Synchronization of Stochastic Complex Dynamical Networks with Impulsive Perturbations and Markovian Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuneng Zhou


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the exponential synchronization problem of stochastic complex dynamical networks with impulsive perturbation and Markovian switching. The complex dynamical networks consist of κ modes, and the networks switch from one mode to another according to a Markovian chain with known transition probability. Based on the Lyapunov function method and stochastic analysis, by employing M-matrix approach, some sufficient conditions are presented to ensure the exponential synchronization of stochastic complex dynamical networks with impulsive perturbation and Markovian switching, and the upper bound of impulsive gain is evaluated. At the end of this paper, two numerical examples are included to show the effectiveness of our results.

  7. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix Orbit Determination Example (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.


    is suspect. In its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch estimation algorithms. In the current problem being studied a truth model making use of gravity with spherical, J2 and J4 terms plus a standard exponential type atmosphere with simple diurnal and random walk components is used. The ability of the empirical state error covariance matrix to account for errors is investigated under four scenarios during orbit estimation. These scenarios are: exact modeling under known measurement errors, exact modeling under corrupted measurement errors, inexact modeling under known measurement errors, and inexact modeling under corrupted measurement errors. For this problem a simple analog of a distributed space surveillance network is used. The sensors in this network make only range measurements and with simple normally distributed measurement errors. The sensors are assumed to have full horizon to horizon viewing at any azimuth. For definiteness, an orbit at the approximate altitude and inclination of the International Space Station is used for the study. The comparison analyses of the data involve only total vectors. No investigation of specific orbital elements is undertaken. The total vector analyses will look at the chisquare values of the error in the difference between the estimated state and the true modeled state using both the empirical and theoretical error covariance matrices for each of scenario.

  8. Multi-decadal analysis of root-zone soil moisture applying the exponential filter across CONUS (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth J.; Torres, Roberto; Crow, Wade T.; Bennett, Marvin E.


    This study applied the exponential filter to produce an estimate of root-zone soil moisture (RZSM). Four types of microwave-based, surface satellite soil moisture were used. The core remotely sensed data for this study came from NASA's long-lasting AMSR-E mission. Additionally, three other products were obtained from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (CCI). These datasets were blended based on all available satellite observations (CCI-active, CCI-passive, and CCI-combined). All of these products were 0.25° and taken daily. We applied the filter to produce a soil moisture index (SWI) that others have successfully used to estimate RZSM. The only unknown in this approach was the characteristic time of soil moisture variation (T). We examined five different eras (1997-2002; 2002-2005; 2005-2008; 2008-2011; 2011-2014) that represented periods with different satellite data sensors. SWI values were compared with in situ soil moisture data from the International Soil Moisture Network at a depth ranging from 20 to 25 cm. Selected networks included the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program (25 cm), Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; 20.32 cm), SNOwpack TELemetry (SNOTEL; 20.32 cm), and the US Climate Reference Network (USCRN; 20 cm). We selected in situ stations that had reasonable completeness. These datasets were used to filter out periods with freezing temperatures and rainfall using data from the Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Additionally, we only examined sites where surface and root-zone soil moisture had a reasonably high lagged r value (r > 0. 5). The unknown T value was constrained based on two approaches: optimization of root mean square error (RMSE) and calculation based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) value. Both approaches yielded comparable results; although, as to be expected, the optimization approach generally outperformed NDVI-based estimates

  9. Multi-decadal analysis of root-zone soil moisture applying the exponential filter across CONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Tobin


    Full Text Available This study applied the exponential filter to produce an estimate of root-zone soil moisture (RZSM. Four types of microwave-based, surface satellite soil moisture were used. The core remotely sensed data for this study came from NASA's long-lasting AMSR-E mission. Additionally, three other products were obtained from the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (CCI. These datasets were blended based on all available satellite observations (CCI-active, CCI-passive, and CCI-combined. All of these products were 0.25° and taken daily. We applied the filter to produce a soil moisture index (SWI that others have successfully used to estimate RZSM. The only unknown in this approach was the characteristic time of soil moisture variation (T. We examined five different eras (1997–2002; 2002–2005; 2005–2008; 2008–2011; 2011–2014 that represented periods with different satellite data sensors. SWI values were compared with in situ soil moisture data from the International Soil Moisture Network at a depth ranging from 20 to 25 cm. Selected networks included the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program (25 cm, Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; 20.32 cm, SNOwpack TELemetry (SNOTEL; 20.32 cm, and the US Climate Reference Network (USCRN; 20 cm. We selected in situ stations that had reasonable completeness. These datasets were used to filter out periods with freezing temperatures and rainfall using data from the Parameter elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM. Additionally, we only examined sites where surface and root-zone soil moisture had a reasonably high lagged r value (r > 0. 5. The unknown T value was constrained based on two approaches: optimization of root mean square error (RMSE and calculation based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI value. Both approaches yielded comparable results; although, as to be expected, the optimization approach generally

  10. Geo satellite attitude and orbit control: fixed orbit control thrasters


    Ermoshkin, Yu; V. Raevsky; Urusov, V.


    The paper describes the enhanced application ofhigh-economical electro-jet orbit control thrusters for geostationary satellites; in particular, generation of controlling moments to the benefit of satellite attitude determination and control subsystems in the course of orbit control maneuvers ongoing. The scheme with thrusters fixed on a satellite body is analyzed. Possible orbit control session procedures are proposed on the basis of controlling moments generation. Advantages and disadvantage...

  11. A Typical Presentation of Orbital Pseudotumor Mimicking Orbital Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ayatollahi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Orbital pseudotumor, also known as idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS, is a benign, non- infective inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. The disease may mimics a variety of pathologic conditions. We pre-sent a case of pseudotumor observed in a patient admitted under the name of orbital celluli-ties. Case Report: A 26-year-old woman reffered to our hospital with the history of left ocular pain and headache 2 days before her visit.. Ophthalmological examination of the patient was normal except for the redness and lid edema, mild chemosis and conjunctival injection. Gen-eral assessment was normal but a low grade fever was observed. She was hospitalized as an orbital cellulitis patient. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics. On the third day , sud-denly diplopia, proptosis in her left eye and ocular pain in her right side appeared. MRI re-vealed bilateral enlargement of extraocular muscles. Diagnosis of orbital pseudotumor was made and the patient was treated with oral steroid.She responded promptly to the treatment. Antibiotics were discontinued and steroid was tapered in one month period under close fol-low up. Conclusion: The clinical features of orbital pseudotumor vary widely . Orbital pseudotumor and orbital cellulitis can occasionally demonstrate overlapping features.. Despite complete physical examination and appropriate imaging, sometimes correct diagnosis of the disease would be difficult (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (3:256-259

  12. Optimization of the output of a solar cell per theoretical and experimental study of the models to one and two exponential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyoucef B.


    Full Text Available The production of electricity based on the conversion of the sunlight by photovoltaic cells containing crystalline silicon is the way most used on the technological and industrial level Consequently, the development of the terrestrial applications for the energy production requires high-output cells and low cost.The aim of our work is to present a comparative study between both theoretical and experimental models of a solar cell based silicon type PHYWE (connecting four cells in series of 80 mm diameter to improve photovoltaic performance.This study led to the determination of the parameters of the cell starting from the current-voltage characteristic, the influence of luminous flow on this characteristic as well as the effect of the incidental photons on the solar cell. We justify the interest to use the model with two exponential for the optimization of the output by underlining the insufficiency of the model to one exponential.

  13. AI-2 does not function as a quorum sensing molecule in Campylobacter jejuni during exponential growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winzer Klaus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni contains a homologue of the luxS gene shown to be responsible for the production of the signalling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2 in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae. The aim of this study was to determine whether AI-2 acted as a diffusible quorum sensing signal controlling C. jejuni gene expression when it is produced at high levels during mid exponential growth phase. Results AI-2 activity was produced by the parental strain NCTC 11168 when grown in rich Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB as expected, but interestingly was not present in defined Modified Eagles Medium (MEM-α. Consistent with previous studies, the luxS mutant showed comparable growth rates to the parental strain and exhibited decreased motility halos in both MEM-α and MHB. Microarray analysis of genes differentially expressed in wild type and luxS mutant strains showed that many effects on mRNA transcript abundance were dependent on the growth medium and linked to metabolic functions including methionine metabolism. Addition of exogenously produced AI-2 to the wild type and the luxS mutant, growing exponentially in either MHB or MEM-α did not induce any transcriptional changes as analysed by microarray. Conclusion Taken together these results led us to conclude that there is no evidence for the role of AI-2 in cell-to-cell communication in C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 under the growth conditions used, and that the effects of the luxS mutation on the transcriptome are related to the consequential loss of function in the activated methyl cycle.

  14. The reliability assessment of the electromagnetic valve of high-speed electric multiple units braking system based on two-parameter exponential distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Yang


    Full Text Available In order to solve the reliability assessment of braking system component of high-speed electric multiple units, this article, based on two-parameter exponential distribution, provides the maximum likelihood estimation and Bayes estimation under a type-I life test. First of all, we evaluate the failure probability value according to the classical estimation method and then obtain the maximum likelihood estimation of parameters of two-parameter exponential distribution by performing and using the modified likelihood function. On the other hand, based on Bayesian theory, this article also selects the beta and gamma distributions as the prior distribution, combines with the modified maximum likelihood function, and innovatively applies a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to parameters assessment based on Bayes estimation method for two-parameter exponential distribution, so that two reliability mathematical models of the electromagnetic valve are obtained. Finally, through type-I life test, the failure rates according to maximum likelihood estimation and Bayes estimation method based on Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm are, respectively, 2.650 × 10−5 and 3.037 × 10−5. Compared with the failure rate of a electromagnetic valve 3.005 × 10−5, it proves that the Bayes method can use a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate reliability for two-parameter exponential distribution and Bayes estimation is more closer to the value of electromagnetic valve. So, by fully integrating multi-source, Bayes estimation method can preferably modify and precisely estimate the parameters, which can provide a certain theoretical basis for the safety operation of high-speed electric multiple units.

  15. Spherical photon orbits around a 5D Myers-Perry black hole (United States)

    Bugden, Mark


    We study the motion of bound null geodesics with fixed coordinate radius around a five-dimensional rotating black hole. These spherical photon orbits are not confined to a plane, and can exhibit interesting quasiperiodic behaviour. We provide necessary conditions for the existence of these orbits, and explicitly compute the radii of circular orbits in the equatorial and polar planes. Finally, we plot representative examples of some of the types of possible orbits, commenting on their qualitative features.

  16. Quantifying Mapping Orbit Performance in the Vicinity of Primitive Bodies (United States)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; Lantoine, Gregory


    Predicting and quantifying the capability of mapping orbits in the vicinity of primitive bodies is challenging given the complex orbit geometries that exist and the irregular shape of the bodies themselves. This paper employs various quantitative metrics to characterize the performance and relative effectiveness of various types of mapping orbits including terminator, quasi-terminator, hovering, ping pong, and conic-like trajectories. Metrics of interest include surface area coverage, lighting conditions, and the variety of viewing angles achieved. The metrics discussed in this investigation are intended to enable mission designers and project stakeholders to better characterize candidate mapping orbits during preliminary mission formulation activities. The goal of this investigation is to understand the trade space associated with carrying out remote sensing campaigns at small primitive bodies in the context of a robotic space mission. Specifically, this study seeks to understand the surface viewing geometries, ranges, etc. that are available from several commonly proposed mapping orbits architectures

  17. Analytic robust stability analysis of SVD orbit feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, Jürgen


    Orbit feedback controllers are indispensable for the operation of modern particle accelerators. Many such controllers are based on the decoupling of the inputs and outputs of the system to be controlled with the help of the singular value decomposition (SVD controller). It is crucial to verify the stability of SVD controllers, also in the presence of mismatches between the used accelerator model and the real machine (robust stability problem). In this paper, analytical criteria for guaranteed stability margins of SVD orbit feedback systems for three different types of model mismatches are presented: scaling errors of actuators and BPMs (beam position monitors) and additive errors of the orbit response matrix. For the derivation of these criteria, techniques from robust control theory have been used, e.g the small gain theorem. The obtained criteria can be easily applied directly to other SVD orbit feedback systems. As an example, the criteria were applied to the orbit feedback system of the Compact Linear ...

  18. A transient analysis of polling systems operating under exponential time-limited service disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland; Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    In the present article, we analyze a class of time-limited polling systems. In particular, we will derive a direct relation for the evolution of the joint queue-length during the course of a server visit. This will be done both for the pure and the exhaustive exponential time-limited discipline for

  19. Exponential Reliability Coefficient based Reputation Mechanism for isolating selfish nodes in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sengathir


    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, cooperation among active mobile nodes is considered to play a vital role in reliable transmission of data. But, the selfish mobile nodes present in an ad hoc environment refuse to forward neighbouring nodes’ packet for conserving its own energy. This intentional selfish behaviour drastically reduces the degree of cooperation maintained between the mobile nodes. Hence, a need arises for devising an effective mechanism which incorporates both energy efficiency and reputation into account for mitigating selfish behaviour in MANETs. In this paper, we propose an Exponential Reliability Coefficient based reputation Mechanism (ERCRM which isolates the selfish nodes from the routing path based on Exponential Reliability Coefficient (ExRC. This reliability coefficient manipulated through exponential failure rate based on moving average method highlights the most recent past behaviour of the mobile nodes for quantifying its genuineness. From the simulation results, it is evident that, the proposed ERCRM approach outperforms the existing Packet Conservation Monitoring Algorithm (PCMA and Spilt Half Reliability Coefficient based Mathematical Model (SHRCM in terms of performance evaluation metrics such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, total overhead and control overhead. Further, this ERCRM mechanism has a successful rate of 28% in isolating the selfish nodes from the routing path. Furthermore, it also aids in framing the exponential threshold point of detection as 0.4, where a maximum number of selfish nodes are identified when compared to the existing models available in the literature.

  20. Using exponentially weighted moving average algorithm to defend against DDoS attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, P


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the performance of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) for mining big data and detection of DDoS attacks in Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure. The paper will investigate the tradeoff between...

  1. The cultural divide: exponential growth in classical 2D and metabolic equilibrium in 3D environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Vasco Botelho

    Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analysed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dramatically...

  2. The cultural divide: exponential growth in classical 2D and metabolic equilibrium in 3D environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Borkowski, Kamil


    Cellular metabolism can be considered to have two extremes: one is characterized by exponential growth (in 2D cultures) and the other by a dynamic equilibrium (in 3D cultures). We have analysed the proteome and cellular architecture at these two extremes and found that they are dramatically...

  3. On a Family of Generalized Pascal Triangles Defined by Exponential Riordan Arrays (United States)

    Barry, Paul


    We introduce a family of number triangles defined by exponential Riordan arrays, which generalize Pascal's triangle. We characterize the row sums and central coefficients of these triangles, and define and study a set of generalized Catalan numbers. We establish links to the Hermite, Laguerre and Bessel polynomials, as well as links to the Narayana and Lah numbers.

  4. Existence of solutions for cross critical exponential N-Laplacian systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhi Wang


    Full Text Available In this article we consider cross critical exponential N-Laplacian systems. Using an energy estimate on a bounded set and the Ekeland variational principle, we prove the existence of a nontrivial weak solution, for a parameter large enough.

  5. Exponential modeling of human frequency-following responses to voice pitch. (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Chung, Hsiung-Kwang; Lin, Chia-Der; Dickman, Brenda; Hu, Jiong


    Recent studies have shown that the frequency-following response (FFR) to voice pitch can be a useful method to evaluate the signal-processing mechanisms and neural plasticity in the human brainstem. The purpose of this study was to examine the quantitative properties of the FFR trends with an exponential curve-fitting model. FFR trends obtained with increasing number of sweeps (up to 8000 sweeps) at three stimulus intensities (30, 45, and 60 dB nHL) were fit to an exponential model that consisted of estimates of background noise amplitude, asymptotic response amplitude, and a time constant. Five objective indices (Frequency Error, Slope Error, Tracking Accuracy, Pitch Strength and RMS Ratio) were used to represent different perspectives of pitch processing in the human brainstem. Twenty-three native speakers (16 males; age = 24.7 ± 2.1 years) of Mandarin Chinese were recruited. The results demonstrated that the exponential model provided a good fit (r(2) = 0.89 ± 0.10) to the FFR trends with increasing number of sweeps for the five objective indices. The exponential model, combined with the five objective indices, can be used for difficult-to-test patients and may prove to be useful as an assessment and diagnostic method in both clinical and basic research efforts.

  6. Exponential Growth and the Shifting Global Center of Gravity of Science Production, 1900-2011 (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Powell, Justin J. W.; Baker, David P.


    Long historical trends in scientific discovery led mid-20th century scientometricians to mark the advent of "big science"--extensive science production--and predicted that over the next few decades, the exponential growth would slow, resulting in lower rates of increase in production at the upper limit of a logistic curve. They were…

  7. Mixtures of Distributions, Moment Inequalities and Measures of Exponentiality and Normality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilson, Julian; Sleutel, F.W.


    The central limit theorem and limit theorems for rarity require measures of normality and exponentiality for their implementation. Simple useful measures are exhibited for these in a metric space setting, obtained from inequalities for scale mixtures and power mixtures. It is shown that the Pearson

  8. Optimal control for non-exponentially stabilizable spatially invariant systems with an application to vehicular platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Heiko J.; Firooznia, A; Ploeg, J.; van de Wouw, N.


    This paper considers the optimal control problem for a class of infinite-dimensional systems, namely spatially invariant systems. A common assumption in the scope of such optimal control problem is the exponential stabilizability of the infinite-dimensional plant. We propose sufficient conditions

  9. Exponential stability for a class of singularly perturbed It\\^{o} differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dragan


    Full Text Available The problem of exponential stability in mean square of the zero solution for a class of singularly perturbed system of Itô differential equations is investigated. Estimates of the block components of the fundamental random matrix are provided.

  10. The R{sup 3} exponential x-ray transform inversion in quaternion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, S M Saberi, E-mail: majid.saberi@u-cergy.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France)


    In this paper, we present a new derivation of the inverse of the exponential x-ray transform in the three dimensions, based on quaternion analysis. An explicit formula is obtained using a set of three-dimensional x-ray projection data. The result without attenuation is recovered as a special case.

  11. One kind sixth power mean of the three-term exponential sums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoying


    Full Text Available In this paper, we use the estimate for trigonometric sums and the properties of the congruence equations to study the computational problem of one kind sixth power mean of the three-term exponential sums. As a conclusion, we give an exact computational formula for it.

  12. Improved low energy defibrillation efficacy in man with the use of a biphasic truncated exponential waveform. (United States)

    Winkle, R A; Mead, R H; Ruder, M A; Gaudiani, V; Buch, W S; Pless, B; Sweeney, M; Schmidt, P


    The standard implantable defibrillator waveform is a truncated exponential of approximately 6 msec duration. This study compares the defibrillation efficacy of a standard monophasic truncated exponential to a biphasic 12 msec truncated exponential waveform in 21 patients undergoing automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) surgery. For the biphasic waveform, the polarity was reversed and remaining capacitor voltage was attenuated by 75% after 6 msec. Two hundred thirty episodes of VF were induced with 115 "matched pairs" of monophasic and biphasic waveforms of identical initial capacitor voltages given over a range from 70 to 600 V (0.35 to 25.7 joules). The biphasic waveform was superior to the monophasic waveform (p less than 0.006), especially for "low energy" defibrillation. For initial voltages less than 200 V, the percent successful defibrillation was 28% for the monophasic waveform versus 64% for the biphasic waveform and from 200 to 290 V (energies less than 6.4 joules) it was 45% versus 69%. There was no difference in the two waveforms in time to the first QRS complex or in the blood pressure following defibrillation. This study shows that a 12 msec biphasic truncated exponential is superior to a 6 msec monophasic waveform for defibrillation in man, especially at energies less than 6.4 joules. The waveform can be achieved in an implanted device without any increase in capacitor size or in battery energy consumption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu


    Full Text Available Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda. This fact is feasible by means of the Fourier-Stieltjes sequence (FSS of the random variable.

  14. An Exponential Decay Estimate for the Stationary Perturbation of Poiseuille Flow. (United States)


    Apdo 4311, Carmelitas . Caracas 1010, Venezuela. %* Supported by the U. S. Army Research Office under Contract No. DAAL03-87-K-0028. LI .- ~ .--- w- AN...Poiseuille flow decays exponentially fast in the "Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela-Caracas. Mail address: Apdo 4311, Carmelitas , Caracas

  15. The Exponential Model for the Spectrum of a Time Series: Extensions and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Luati, Alessandra

    to the log-spectrum. We then propose two extensions. The first deals with replacing the logarithmic link with a more general Box-Cox link, which encompasses also the identity and the inverse links: this enables nesting alternative spectral estimation methods (autoregressive, exponential, etc.) under the same...

  16. Some Properties of Entropy for the Exponentiated Pareto Distribution (EPD Based on Order Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Behboodian


    Full Text Available In this paper, we derived the exact form of the entropy for Exponentiated Pareto Distribution (EPD. Some properties of the entropy and mutual information are presented for order statistics of EPD. Also, the bounds are computed for the entropies of the sample minimum and maximum for EPD

  17. The temporal analysis of yeast exponential phase using shotgun proteomics as a fermentation monitoring technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L. [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Orsat, Valerie [McGill University; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Herndon, Elizabeth M [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Lefsrud, Mark G [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec


    System biology and bioprocess technology can be better understood using shotgun proteomics as a monitoring system during the fermentation. We demonstrated a shotgun proteomic method to monitor the temporal yeast proteome in early, middle and late exponential phases. Our study identified a total of 1389 proteins combining all 2D-LC-MS/MS runs. The temporal Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome was enriched with proteolysis, radical detoxification, translation, one-carbon metabolism, glycolysis and TCA cycle. Heat shock proteins and proteins associated with oxidative stress response were found throughout the exponential phase. The most abundant proteins observed were translation elongation factors, ribosomal proteins, chaperones and glycolytic enzymes. The high abundance of the H-protein of the glycine decarboxylase complex (Gcv3p) indicated the availability of glycine in the environment. We observed differentially expressed proteins and the induced proteins at mid-exponential phase were involved in ribosome biogenesis, mitochondria DNA binding/replication and transcriptional activator. Induction of tryptophan synthase (Trp5p) indicated the abundance of tryptophan during the fermentation. As fermentation progressed toward late exponential phase, a decrease in cell proliferation was implied from the repression of ribosomal proteins, transcription coactivators, methionine aminopeptidase and translation-associated proteins.

  18. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle' (United States)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.


    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  19. Orbital Eccrine Hidrocystoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Marangoz


    Full Text Available A 29-year-old female patient presented with a painless mass on her upper eyelid medially. She noticed the mass 4 years earlier and it had increased in size over time. She had no diplopia, eyelid swelling, skin lesion overlying the mass, or visual disturbances. On ocular examination, eye movements and funduscopy were normal. The mass was movable and painless with palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed a 12x8x7 mm well-circumscribed cystic lesion with no contrast dye appearance. Surgical removal was performed delicately and no capsular rupture occured. Pathological examination revealed an eccrine hidrocystoma. Our aim is to underline that eccrine hidrocystoma should be included in differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  20. Lunar flyby transfers between libration point orbits (United States)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie; Qi, Rui


    Lunar flyby or lunar gravity assist is a classical technique to change the energy and trajectory of space vehicle in space mission. In this paper, lunar flyby transfers between Sun-Earth/Moon libration point orbits with different energies are investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem. Distinguished by behaviours before and after lunar flyby, classification of lunar flyby orbits is defined and studied. Research indicates that junction point of special regions of four types of lunar flyby orbits denotes the perilune of lunar flyby transfer between libration point orbits. Based on those special perilunes, retrograde and prograde lunar flyby transfers are discussed in detail, respectively. The mean energy level transition distribution is proposed and applied to analyse the influence of phase angle and eccentricity on lunar flyby transfers. The phase space is divided into normal and chaotic intervals based on the topology pattern of transfers. A continuation strategy of lunar flyby transfer in the bicircular model is presented. Numerical examples show that compared with the single-impulse transfers based on patched invariant manifolds, lunar flyby transfers are more energy efficient. Finally, lunar flyby transfers are further extended to the realistic models.

  1. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B


    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  2. CDDIS_DORIS_products_orbit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precise satellite orbits derived from analysis of Doppler Orbitography by Radiopositioning Integrated on Satellite (DORIS) data. These products are the generated by...

  3. Characteristic reactions and properties of C-apical O-equatorial (O-cis) spirophosphoranes: effect of the sigma(P)(-)(O) orbital in the equatorial plane and isolation of a hexacoordinate oxaphosphetane as an intermediate of the Wittig type reaction of 10-P-5 phosphoranes. (United States)

    Matsukawa, Shiro; Kojima, Satoshi; Kajiyama, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yohsuke; Akiba, Kin-Ya; Re, Suyong; Nagase, Shigeru


    Novel spirophosphoranes (O-cis) that exhibit reversed apicophilicity having an apical carbon-equatorial oxygen array in a five-membered ring showed enhanced reactivity toward nucleophiles such as n-Bu(4)N(+)F(-) or MeLi in comparison with the corresponding stable isomeric spirophosphoranes (O-trans) having an apical oxygen-equatorial carbon configuration. The enhanced reactivity of the O-cis isomer could be explained by the presence of a lower-lying sigma(P)(-)(O(equatorial)) orbital as the reacting orbital in the equatorial plane, whereas the corresponding orbital is a higher-lying sigma(P)(-)(C(equatorial)) in the O-trans isomer. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation on the actual compounds provided theoretical support for this assumption. In addition, we found that the benzylic anion alpha to the phosphorus atom in O-cis benzyl phosphorane is much more stable than that generated from the corresponding O-trans compounds. The experimental results were considered to be due to the n(C) --> sigma(P)(-)(O) interaction in the O-cis anion, and this was confirmed by DFT calculations. Furthermore, the hexacoordinate anionic species derived from the reaction of the benzylic anion from O-cis benzylphosphorane with an aldehyde was also found to be stabilized as compared with analogous species from the corresponding O-trans isomer. The first X-ray structural characterization of a hexacoordinate phosphate intermediate in the Wittig type reaction using pentacoordinate phosphoranes is reported.

  4. Dynamics of Orbits near 3:1 Resonance in the Earth-Moon System (United States)

    Dichmann, Donald J.; Lebois, Ryan; Carrico, John P., Jr.


    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft is currently in a highly elliptical orbit around Earth with a period near 3:1 resonance with the Moon. Its orbit is oriented so that apogee does not approach the Moon. Simulations show this orbit to be remarkably stable over the next twenty years. This article examines the dynamics of such orbits in the Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem (CR3BP). We look at three types of periodic orbits, each exhibiting a type of symmetry of the CR3BP. For each of the orbit types, we assess the local stability using Floquet analysis. Although not all of the periodic solutions are stable in the mathematical sense, any divergence is so slow as to produce practical stability over several decades. We use Poincare maps with twenty-year propagations to assess the nonlinear stability of the orbits, where the perturbation magnitudes are related to the orbit uncertainty for the IBEX mission. Finally we show that these orbits belong to a family of orbits connected in a bifurcation diagram that exhibits exchange of stability. The analysis of these families of period orbits provides a valuable starting point for a mission orbit trade study.

  5. Orbital Evolution and Orbital Phase Resolved Spectroscopy of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tra in the 3–20 keV energy range were fitted with a power law and a high ... acceleration method and also depends on any anisotropy in the stellar wind structure. .... Orbital Evolution and Orbital Phase Resolved Spectroscopy. 415. Figure 3. (a) Pulse arrival time delays measured from the RXTE-PCA observation in 2003,.

  6. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi S Kabra


    Full Text Available While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE. HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far.

  7. GEODYN Orbit Determination of Dawn at Vesta using Image Constraints (United States)

    Centinello, F. J., III; Mazarico, E.; Zuber, M. T.


    The Dawn spacecraft has completed the orbital phase of its mapping mission of the asteroid 4 Vesta. We utilized radiometric measurements and image constraints to compute the spacecraft orbit using the GEODYN II orbit determination software. Image constraints are computed control point vectors which point from the spacecraft to landmarks observed in two images of the same region of Vesta, and are a newly developed measurement type for GEODYN. This capability was added because image constraints can provide supplemental information on the spacecraft trajectory especially in a weak gravity environment. Due to the geometric nature of image constraints, they can reduce the orbital errors in the along- and cross-track directions, which have typically carried higher uncertainty in previous interplanetary missions. Image constraints are also useful during times of absence of radiometric tracking data. Improvements to orbit determination can provide improved gravity field estimation and knowledge of the interior structure of Vesta. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) provides X-band tracking measurements for Dawn. Radiometric and image constraints were processed for the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) I and II, and the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO), from 23 Sept 2011 to 26 July 2012. The spacecraft altitude was roughly 685 km during HAMO and 200 km during LAMO. Doppler and range residual RMS were under 1 mm/s and 10 m, respectively. Improvement in orbital knowledge from image constraints is typically greatest in the cross-track direction and in our analysis these residuals were typically better than 500 m.

  8. Weight-lattice discretization of Weyl-orbit functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrivnák, Jiří, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Břehová 7, CZ-115 19 Prague (Czech Republic); Walton, Mark A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada)


    Weyl-orbit functions have been defined for each simple Lie algebra, and permit Fourier-like analysis on the fundamental region of the corresponding affine Weyl group. They have also been discretized, using a refinement of the coweight lattice, so that digitized data on the fundamental region can be Fourier-analyzed. The discretized orbit function has arguments that are redundant if related by the affine Weyl group, while its labels, the Weyl-orbit representatives, invoke the dual affine Weyl group. Here we discretize the orbit functions in a novel way, by using the weight lattice. A cleaner theory results with symmetry between the arguments and labels of the discretized orbit functions. Orthogonality of the new discretized orbit functions is proved, and leads to the construction of unitary, symmetric matrices with Weyl-orbit-valued elements. For one type of orbit function, the matrix coincides with the Kac-Peterson modular S matrix, important for Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten conformal field theory.

  9. Tight Error Bounds for Fourier Methods for Option Pricing for Exponential Levy Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian


    Prices of European options whose underlying asset is driven by the L´evy process are solutions to partial integrodifferential Equations (PIDEs) that generalise the Black-Scholes equation by incorporating a non-local integral term to account for the discontinuities in the asset price. The Levy -Khintchine formula provides an explicit representation of the characteristic function of a L´evy process (cf, [6]): One can derive an exact expression for the Fourier transform of the solution of the relevant PIDE. The rapid rate of convergence of the trapezoid quadrature and the speedup provide efficient methods for evaluationg option prices, possibly for a range of parameter configurations simultaneously. A couple of works have been devoted to the error analysis and parameter selection for these transform-based methods. In [5] several payoff functions are considered for a rather general set of models, whose characteristic function is assumed to be known. [4] presents the framework and theoretical approach for the error analysis, and establishes polynomial convergence rates for approximations of the option prices. [1] presents FT-related methods with curved integration contour. The classical flat FT-methods have been, on the other hand, extended for option pricing problems beyond the European framework [3]. We present a methodology for studying and bounding the error committed when using FT methods to compute option prices. We also provide a systematic way of choosing the parameters of the numerical method, minimising the error bound and guaranteeing adherence to a pre-described error tolerance. We focus on exponential L´evy processes that may be of either diffusive or pure jump in type. Our contribution is to derive a tight error bound for a Fourier transform method when pricing options under risk-neutral Levy dynamics. We present a simplified bound that separates the contributions of the payoff and of the process in an easily processed and extensible product form that

  10. Prediction of Pig Trade Movements in Different European Production Systems Using Exponential Random Graph Models. (United States)

    Relun, Anne; Grosbois, Vladimir; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Jose M; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Molia, Sophie; Etter, Eric Marcel Charles; Martínez-López, Beatriz


    In most European countries, data regarding movements of live animals are routinely collected and can greatly aid predictive epidemic modeling. However, the use of complete movements' dataset to conduct policy-relevant predictions has been so far limited by the massive amount of data that have to be processed (e.g., in intensive commercial systems) or the restricted availability of timely and updated records on animal movements (e.g., in areas where small-scale or extensive production is predominant). The aim of this study was to use exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to reproduce, understand, and predict pig trade networks in different European production systems. Three trade networks were built by aggregating movements of pig batches among premises (farms and trade operators) over 2011 in Bulgaria, Extremadura (Spain), and Côtes-d'Armor (France), where small-scale, extensive, and intensive pig production are predominant, respectively. Three ERGMs were fitted to each network with various demographic and geographic attributes of the nodes as well as six internal network configurations. Several statistical and graphical diagnostic methods were applied to assess the goodness of fit of the models. For all systems, both exogenous (attribute-based) and endogenous (network-based) processes appeared to govern the structure of pig trade network, and neither alone were capable of capturing all aspects of the network structure. Geographic mixing patterns strongly structured pig trade organization in the small-scale production system, whereas belonging to the same company or keeping pigs in the same housing system appeared to be key drivers of pig trade, in intensive and extensive production systems, respectively. Heterogeneous mixing between types of production also explained a part of network structure, whichever production system considered. Limited information is thus needed to capture most of the global structure of pig trade networks. Such findings will be useful

  11. Stability of orbits around planetary satellites considering a disturbing body in an elliptical orbit: Applications to Europa and Ganymede (United States)

    Cardoso dos Santos, Josué; Carvalho, Jean Paulo; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho

    Europa and Ganymede are two of the four Jupiter’s moons which compose the Galilean satellite. These ones are planetary satellites of greater interest at the present moment among the scientific community. There are some missions being planned to visit them and and the Jovian system. One of them is the cooperation between NASA and ESA for the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). In this mission are planned the insertion of the spacecrafts JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) into Europa and Ganymede’s orbit. Thus, there is a great necessity for having a better comprehension of the dynamics of the orbits around this planetary satellite. This comprehension is essential for the success of this type of mission. In this context, this work aims to perform a search for low-altitude orbits around these planetary satellites. An emphasis is given in polar orbits. These orbits can be useful in the planning of aerospace activities to be conducted around this planetary satellite, with respect to the stability of orbits of artificial satellites. The study considers orbits of an artificial satellite around Europa and Ganymede under the influence of the third-body perturbation (the gravitational attraction of Jupiter) and the polygenic perturbations. These last ones occur due to forces such as the non-uniform distribution of mass (J2 and J3) of the main (central) body. A simplified dynamic model for polygenic perturbations is used. A new model for the third-body disturbance is presented considering it in an elliptical orbit. The Lagrange planetary equations, which compose a system of nonlinear differential equations, are used to describe the orbital motion of the artificial satellite around Ganymede. The equations showed here are developed in closed form to avoid expansions in inclination and eccentricity.

  12. Plasmablastic lymphoma mimicking orbital cellulitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkhuysen, R.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Weijs, W.L.J.; Gerlach, N.L.; Berge, S.J.


    INTRODUCTION: Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon, potentially devastating condition that, when not promptly and adequately treated, can lead to serious sequelae. The presenting clinical signs are proptosis, swelling, ophthalmoplegia, pain and redness of the peri-orbital tissues. A number of cases

  13. Diffractive molecular-orbital tomography (United States)

    Zhai, Chunyang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Wang, Feng; He, Lixin; Shi, Wenjing; Li, Yang; Li, Min; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang


    High-order-harmonic generation in the interaction of femtosecond lasers with atoms and molecules opens the path to molecular-orbital tomography and to probe the electronic dynamics with attosecond-Ångström resolutions. Molecular-orbital tomography requires both the amplitude and phase of the high-order harmonics. Yet the measurement of phases requires sophisticated techniques and represents formidable challenges at present. Here we report a scheme, called diffractive molecular-orbital tomography, to retrieve the molecular orbital solely from the amplitude of high-order harmonics without measuring any phase information. We have applied this method to image the molecular orbitals of N2, CO2, and C2H2 . The retrieved orbital is further improved by taking account the correction of Coulomb potential. The diffractive molecular-orbital tomography scheme, removing the roadblock of phase measurement, significantly simplifies the molecular-orbital tomography procedure and paves an efficient and robust way to the imaging of more complex molecules.

  14. Orbit Modeller - Virtual Astronomical Laboratory (United States)

    Avdyushev, V. A.; Banshchikova, M. A.; Bordovitsyna, T. V.; Chuvashov, I. N.; Ryabova, G. O.


    We present a virtual astronomical laboratory project - "Orbit Modeller" (OM). This should be an interactive web-tool enabling one to simulate numerically the orbital motion of any celestial body within or beyond the solar system. Another function of OM is a repository of old observations and documents.

  15. Endoscopic treatment of orbital tumors. (United States)

    Signorelli, Francesco; Anile, Carmelo; Rigante, Mario; Paludetti, Gaetano; Pompucci, Angelo; Mangiola, Annunziato


    Different orbital and transcranial approaches are performed in order to manage orbital tumors, depending on the location and size of the lesion within the orbit. These approaches provide a satisfactory view of the superior and lateral aspects of the orbit and the optic canal but involve risks associated with their invasiveness because they require significant displacement of orbital structures. In addition, external approaches to intraconal lesions may also require deinsertion of extraocular muscles, with subsequent impact on extraocular mobility. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been proposed as valid alternative to external approaches for selected orbital lesions. Among them, transnasal endoscopic approaches, "pure" or combined with external approaches, have been reported, especially for intraconal lesions located inferiorly and medially to the optic nerve. The avoidance of muscle detachment and the shortness of the surgical intraorbital trajectory makes endoscopic approach less invasive, thus minimizing tissue damage. Endoscopic surgery decreases the recovery time and improves the cosmetic outcome not requiring skin incisions. The purpose of this study is to review and discuss the current surgical techniques for orbital tumors removal, focusing on endoscopic approaches to the orbit and outlining the key anatomic principles to follow for safe tumor resection.

  16. Density-orbital embedding theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, L.; Gritsenko, O.


    In the article density-orbital embedding (DOE) theory is proposed. DOE is based on the concept of density orbital (DO), which is a generalization of the square root of the density for real functions and fractional electron numbers. The basic feature of DOE is the representation of the total

  17. Accelerated orbits in black hole fields: the static case (United States)

    Bini, Donato; de Felice, Fernando; Geralico, Andrea


    We study non-geodesic orbits of test particles endowed with a structure, assuming the Schwarzschild spacetime as background. We develop a formalism which allows one to recognize the geometrical characterization of those orbits in terms of their Frenet-Serret parameters and apply it to explicit cases as those of spatially circular orbits which witness the equilibrium under conflicting types of interactions. In our general analysis, we solve the equations of motion offering a detailed picture of the dynamics having in mind a check with a possible astronomical setup. We focus on certain ambiguities which plague the interpretation of the measurements preventing one from identifying the particular structure carried by the particle.

  18. Measuring Scars of Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L


    The phenomenon of periodic orbit scarring of eigenstates of classically chaotic systems is attracting increasing attention. Scarring is one of the most important ``corrections'' to the ideal random eigenstates suggested by random matrix theory. This paper discusses measures of scars and in so doing also tries to clarify the concepts and effects of eigenfunction scarring. We propose a new, universal scar measure which takes into account an entire periodic orbit and the linearized dynamics in its vicinity. This measure is tuned to pick out those structures which are induced in quantum eigenstates by unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. It gives enhanced scarring strength as measured by eigenstate overlaps and inverse participation ratios, especially for longer orbits. We also discuss off-resonance scars which appear naturally on either side of an unstable periodic orbit.

  19. Plasmablastic lymphoma mimicking orbital cellulitis (United States)

    Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Weijs, Willem L. J.; Gerlach, Niek L.; Bergé, Stefaan J.


    Introduction Orbital cellulitis is an uncommon, potentially devastating condition that, when not promptly and adequately treated, can lead to serious sequelae. The presenting clinical signs are proptosis, swelling, ophthalmoplegia, pain and redness of the peri-orbital tissues. A number of cases have been reported in which these symptoms have been mistakenly interpreted as being secondary to an orbital infection whilst, in fact, other pathology was present. Discussion We add another case in which, on clinical grounds and after radiological assessment and laboratory tests, a working diagnosis of orbital cellulitis of the left eye was made. It was only after histopathological analysis of a soft tissue specimen from the maxillary sinus that a diagnosis of an AIDS-related plasmablastic lymphoma was made. The patient was referred to the department of haematology where chemotherapeutic treatment for the lymphoma and the HIV infection was started. This case report adds another differential diagnosis of orbital cellulitis to the existing literature. PMID:18597126

  20. SEP Mission Design Space for Mars Orbiters (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Nicholas, Austin K.


    The advancement of solar-electric propulsion (SEP) technologies and larger, light-weight solar arrays offer a tremendous advantage to Mars orbiters in terms of both mass and timeline flexibility. These advantages are multiplied for round-trip orbiters (e.g. potential Mars sample return) where a large total Delta V would be required. In this paper we investigate the mission design characteristics of mission concepts utilizing various combinations and types of SEP thrusters, solar arrays, launch vehicles, launch dates, arrival dates, etc. SEP allows for greater than 50% more mass delivered and launch windows of months to years. We also present the SEP analog to the ballistic Porkchop plot - the "Bacon" plot.